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Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan  

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Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an emerging pathogen in Europe and Asia. We investigated TBEV in Kyrgyzstan by collecting small mammals and ticks from diverse localities and analyzing them for evidence of TBEV infection. We found TBEV circulating in Kyrgyzstan much farther south and at higher altitudes than previously reported.

Briggs, Benjamin J.; Atkinson, Barry; Czechowski, Donna M.; Larsen, Peter A.; Meeks, Heather N.; Carrera, Juan P.; Duplechin, Ryan M.; Hewson, Roger; Junushov, Asankadyr T.; Gavrilova, Olga N.; Breininger, Irena; Phillips, Carleton J.; Baker, Robert J.; Hay, John

2011-01-01

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Economic Aspects of Defence in Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available This paper provides a country survey of the Kyrgyz defence economy. Kyrgyzstan is small landlocked country situated in Eastern Central Asia. It borders Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and China, with a population of nearly five million people. Although The Kyrgyz Republic introduced the most liberal reforms in Central Asia, its economy remains unstable with low level of economic growth. Moreover, Kyrgyzstan has a weak state structure, a history of ethnic tension, inequality and poverty. Defence burden of economy is 1.3 in 2006. Because of lack of capacity of Kyrgyz armed forces, the country faces Uzbek government military activities in the outside and political instability inside the country. The first part of the paper presents a brief economic background of Kyrgyzstan, its armed forces and its structure. The remains of the paper focus on the macroeconomic impacts of the defence spending in Kyrgyzstan. The study concludes that defence expenditure of Kyrgyzstan is less than optimal and it retards the development of the economy.

Tolga Saruc

2012-08-01

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Radioactive situation in Kyrgyzstan: problems and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the major problems of the environment contamination in Kyrgyzstan is the development of radioactive and toxic pollution caused by nuclear tests, technogene accidents which took place in neighboring countries, and breach of safe storage and destruction of uranium and hazardous waste tailings. Long-term nuclear tests in various areas of the world and the accident at the NPP have caused the origin of stratospheric deposit of artificial radionuclides, the fallout of which have led to radioactive pollution of the biosphere. Maximum fallout have been observed in the latitudinal zone of 40-60 degrees and in the mountainous regions. As a result of many years of research the main sources of radioactive contamination have been established. It is shown that stratospheric or tropospheric and local fallout have permanently exposed the territory of Kyrgyzstan to the pollution by radionuclides. A brief description of radioactive contamination of the environment in Kyrgyzstan from remote external sources and atmospheric mechanisms of its transfer delineated on the basis of long-term observation of geophysical and atmospheric parameters and regular radiation monitoring have been presented. The investigated mechanisms can be used to interpret the sharp increase of the radioactive background and to estimate the risk to the environment and human health. Some methodological questions about the influence of geophysical conditions on the territorial distribution of contamination have bee considered. The tropospheric mechanism of contamination transfer for different seasons of year has been suggested. The uranium tailings located in mountain regions near densely populated areas and and groundwater basins are the internal sources of radioactive contamination in Kyrgyzstan. Waste products of uranium production present a real treat for the environment and public health. The problem of environment security in connection with destruction of uranium tailings has been discussed. Till now there has not been conducted assessment of radioactive contamination consequences to the environment and human health in this region. The impact of ionization radiation on people health has been presented

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HIV-1 genetic variants in Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available Objectives: During the last two decades, HIV-1 has been spreading rapidly in former Soviet Union republics including Kyrgyzstan. The current molecular monitoring of HIV-infection epidemic is carried out in Russia only with no or limited data from the other FSU countries. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic variants circulating in Kyrgyzstan. Methods: Blood collection from the HIV-infected patients was carried out by local specialists with the informed consent and the questionnaire was answered by each of the patients. The total number of samples was 100. The washed cell pellets were transferred to Moscow following with proviral DNA extraction, PCR amplification and gag, pol and env genes sequencing. The phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences using neighbor-joining method was carried out by MEGA 3 program. The preliminary data were obtained in 22 samples isolated from PBMC of HIV-infected patients from Kyrgyzstan. Results: Among the samples studied 6 (27.3% samples belonged to a subtype CRF02_AG, 16 samples - to subtype A (A1. One of the samples belonging to CRF02_AG, probably, is a recombinant between CRF02_AG and A1. There was no major drug resistance mutations in the samples studied. The minor mutations were presented in small proportions: 1 in PR (L10I, 6 in RT (A62V - in 3 samples, V108G, E138A, Y181F, M184I, L210M - on one sample and 1 in IN (L74M. It was impossible to associate the distribution of mutations with HIV-1 genetic variant. The V3 loop (env gene in 17 samples was analyzed for tropism using geno2pheno program; all samples were found to be R5-viruses. Conclusion: The HIV-1 subtype A seems to dominate in Kyrgyzstan like in other FSU countries. The recombinant CRF02_AG epidemiologically linked to Uzbekistan is quite widespread. The rest of Kyrgyzstan collection is under investigation and the data will be refined soon.

V Laga

2012-11-01

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Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Relations: Cooperation in Political and Educational Spheres  

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Full Text Available In 1991, Kyrgyzstan gained its independence, and started establishing direct links with the world beyond the Soviet frontier. To conduct foreign relations Kyrgyzstan opened its embassies and/or consulates in almost 30 countries. Turkey is one of the key partners for Kyrgyzstan and plays an important role in the country’s foreign relations (Note 1. This article aims to look at the development of Kyrgyzstan-Turkey relations from 1991 till 2012 focusing on the aspects of the political and educational cooperation. Cooperation in the political sphere is studied by looking at official statements at all levels and, participation and collaboration in multilateral structures. As for the educational sphere, the focus is mainly on Turkey’s various initiatives such as Turkish schools and universities, as well as student exchange programs that can be seen as one of the ‘soft power’ tools inevitably promoting Turkish culture and values. The paper shows asymmetric relationship in which Kyrgyzstan seeks to pursue multi-vector policy rendering certain limitations in the relationship. Kyrgyzstan is essentially eager to receive Turkish foreign policy initiatives. Turkish presence in Kyrgyzstan has mostly been confined to spheres of education and economy. This reliance on ‘soft power’ is attributed to the fact that Turkey seems to, at least for now, lack resources and willingness to challenge Russia, China and USA in the competition for political and military influence in Central Asia.

Dinara Murzaeva

2014-08-01

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Migration and first-time parenthood: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available This article investigates the reproductive behavior of young women and men in the post-Soviet Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan, focusing on the link between migration and fertility. We employ event-history techniques to retrospective data from the 'Marriage, Fertility, and Migration' survey conducted in Northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to study patterns in first-time parenthood. We demonstrate the extent to which internal migration is related to family formation and to the patterns of becoming a parent after resettlement. We gain deeper insights into demographic behavior by considering information on factors such as the geographical destination of migration and retrospectively stated motives for reported moves. In addition, our study reveals clear ethno-cultural differences in the timing of entry into parenthood in Kyrgyzstan.

Gunnar Andersson

2007-12-01

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New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan  

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Abstract A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae) in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae) is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae) and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae) are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24855435

2014-01-01

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Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan  

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Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where the…

Junisbai, Azamat K.

2010-01-01

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Maternity care and birth preparedness in rural Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.  

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Objective: To assess a baseline level of maternity care knowledge of the population and of care providers in rural areas in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (Central Asia). Methods: Interviews with pregnant women and with men about their knowledge of key danger signs, serious health problems during pregnancy, labour and childbirth, and knowledge of basic infant care. Questionnaires about maternity care knowledge for providers, and checklists about providers’ communication and counselling skills an...

Wiegers, T. A.; Boerma, W. G. W.; Haan, O.

2010-01-01

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Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov (Amaryllidaceae, a new species from Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This species is the second member of A. sect. Spathulata F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch, being different from A. spathulatum F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch in larger, broader, obtuse and more intensely purple-coloured tepals, and in a more robust habit. It is a local endemic of Babash-Ata Mt. Range situated east of Fergana Valley in Kyrgyzstan, recommended for legal protection as Endangered because of the very small population size in its only locality.

Alexander Sennikov

2013-04-01

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Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales  

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Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was...

Nazir Mirzaev; Jusipbek Kazbekov; Andrew Noble; Oyture Anarbekov; Kahramon Jumabaev; Murat Yakubov; Akmal Karimov; Ahmad Alimdjanov

2010-01-01

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Marriage, childbearing, and migration in Kyrgyzstan: Exploring interdependencies  

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Full Text Available In our study we investigate interdependencies between entry into a marital union, childbearing, and migration. We apply event-history techniques to retrospective data on women aged 18-29 from a survey conducted in northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to examine how these events can influence one another, with a special focus on the effects of duration of exposure. In addition we analyze the impact of some individual characteristics on the propensity to get married, to become a mother, and to migrate. In our analysis we account for several duration dependences ('clocks'. The results illustrate that months since marriage formation is the most important duration variable in the first-birth propensities model. Out-of-wedlock conception is associated with increased marriage risks. Migration is often a part of the family building process: high first-birth propensities of recent migrants as well as high migration risks among pregnant women are due to marriage-related migration.

Lesia Nedoluzhko

2010-02-01

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Probabilistic PGA and Arias Intensity maps of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia)  

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New probabilistic seismic hazard and Arias Intensity maps have beendeveloped for the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic and bordering regions.Data were mainly taken from the seismic catalogue of Kyrgyzstan and partlyfrom the world seismic catalogue. On the base of seismicity and activetectonics, seismic zones were outlined over the area. For these,Gutenberg-Richter laws were defined using mainly instrumental data, butregarding also historical events. Attenuation of acceleration inside the targetarea could not be determined experimentally since existing strong motiondata are insufficient. Therefore, empirical laws defined for other territories,principally Europe and China, were applied to the present hazardcomputations. Final maps were calculated with the SEISRISKIII programaccording to EUROCODE8 criteria, i.e. for a period of 50 years with90% probability of non-exceedance. For long-term prediction, 100 yearsmaps with 90% probability of non-exceedance have been developed. Theprocedure used for seismic hazard prediction in terms of PGA (PeakGround Acceleration) was also applied to Arias intensities in order to beable to define regional seismogenic landslide hazard maps.

Abdrakhmatov, K.; Havenith, H.-B.; Delvaux, D.; et al.

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Safe management of wastes from former mining and milling activities in Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

254,4 million cubic meters of mining activity's wastes are accumulated in 92 sites on the territory of Kyrgyzstan. 36 tailings and 25 dumps with total volume of 15,7 million of cubic meters were to responsibility of Ministry of Emergency Situations of Kyrgyzstan Republic by Governmental Decree of Kyrgyzstan Republic after collapse of Soviet Union including: 31 tailings with radioactive wastes and volume of 7,2 million cubic meters; 5 tailings with toxic wastes and volume of 5,2 million cubic meters; 25 mountain dumps of non-conditioned ores and volume of 3,3 million cubic meters. Project proposal are submitted to donor countries and international organizations for consideration of possible technical assistance and grant means issuance for carrying out remediation works of tailings.

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Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales  

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Full Text Available Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was developed using GAMS 2.25 software. Application of the model to the Akbura River basin indicated efficiencies in the proposed institutional rules especially in low water years.

Nazir Mirzaev

2010-08-01

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Environmental Journalism in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan: Reporting Scarce amid Environmental and Media Problems  

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Independence for the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia has not led to press freedom, solutions to pressing environmental problems, or development of effective grassroots nongovernmental organizations. This article examines relations between journalists and environmental nongovernmental organizations, and it…

Freedman, Eric

2011-01-01

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Vegetation history of the walnut forests in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia): natural or anthropogenic origin?  

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Extensive forests of common walnut ( Juglans regia L.) occur in the mountains of the Fergana and the Chatkal Ranges of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia), where they form a rich cultural landscape with a mosaic of natural and planted forest stands, fields, pastures, and drier open areas. These remote forests are likely to be an important genetic resource for J. regia, not only for in situ conservation but also as a resource for tree breeding. Pollen and charcoal analyses of the sediments of four lakes and two peat bogs in the core regions of the walnut forests provide new data to infer the vegetation history of the last 6800 years in the Fergana and Chatkal Ranges in Kyrgyzstan. Our results suggest that the potential natural forests or woods in the modern walnut forest region were dominated by Juniperus together with trees of Betula, Fraxinus, Rosaceae, and possibly Acer. A special focus was put on the vegetation history of J. regia, as it has been suggested that the walnut forests of Kyrgyzstan might be a refuge for this tree. However, our results suggest that the stands of J. regia are at the most 2000 years old, most of them even only about 1000 years old and probably of anthropogenic origin, confirming an old legend that is still orally transmitted in Kyrgyzstan. As with other old and widespread cultivated plants, it is not easy to reconstruct the original distribution and determine the borders of the past natural ranges. A review of paleoecological data points to refugia in southern Europe, Syria, Kyrgyzstan, China, and the Himalaya, where Juglans possibly outlived the last glaciation.

Beer, Ruth; Kaiser, Franziska; Schmidt, Kaspar; Ammann, Brigitta; Carraro, Gabriele; Grisa, Ennio; Tinner, Willy

2008-03-01

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Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)  

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Along the northern foothills of the Turkestan-Alai Range (SW Kyrgyzstan), a 1000 to 1500m thick succession of Mesozoic deposits is exposed recording regional changes of the paleo-landscape during Triassic to Cretaceous times. Detailed litho- and biofacies analyses, conducted by the TU Bergakademie Freiberg since 2006, provided for the first time a nearly complete columnar section of the continental Triassic Madygen Formation of Kyrgyzstan. Organic petrographical and organic geochemical methods (including RockEval pyrolyses, and biomarker analyses) have been applied to a suite of terrestrial sedimentary rocks of Triassic age with the intention to identify the depositional environment. Our investigations suggest that the potential source rocks of the terrestrial pluvial Madygen Formation might generate predominantly gaseous hydrocarbons at higher maturities. (orig.)

Berner, U.; Scheeder, G.; Kus, J. [Section Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, BGR, Hannover (Germany); Voigt, S.; Schneider, J.W. [Geological Inst., TU Bergakademic Freiberg (Germany)

2009-09-15

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Environmental Effects of Possible Landslides in the Areas of Radioactive Waste Storage in Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the problems caused by the location of uranium mine and mill tailings in the mountainous regions of Kyrgyzstan which are subject to potentially disrupting natural events such as landslides and flooding. It describes the modelling analyses which have been carried out to provide an improved predictive capability of potential future events. On the basis of these analyses, strategies have been developed to avoid some of the worst consequences of the natural events. (author)

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The Discourses of Romanticism and Heroism in the Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available After the two so-called ?colored revolutions? of March 24, 2005 and April 7, 2010 in Kyrgyzstan the ideas about the future development produced by political, traditional elite groups and academics are shaped into the certain discourses that reflect socio-cultural and political projects including real events and processes along with imagined reality. Among the inconsistent and incoherent discourses which take place in the social rhetoric of Kyrgyzstan, two dominant discourses – about Kyrgyz nomads and National heroes - have provoked ardent debates for many years. This article describes and analyzes the above mentioned discourses in order to reveal their contents, character and effects. I will present the results of my field research that includes the analysis of publications, political leaders’ speeches, transcript materials from different intellectual group discussions, interviews with academics and participants of April 7 ?revolution?. I will illustrate that these discourses cover both political and socio-cultural issues connected with the imagined reality instead of solving short-term and long-term problems in certain aspects of Kyrgyzstan life. I believe that under the umbrella of political Romanticism they reflect an intention of some elite groups to have much more influence on the political processes and to redistribute symbolical power.

Aijarkyn

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Dog ownership, dog behaviour and transmission of Echinococcus spp. in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan.  

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Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan, and the incidence of human infection has increased substantially since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Domestic dogs are hosts of Echinococcus spp. and play an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The demography, ecology and behaviour of dogs are therefore relevant in studying Echinococcus spp. transmission. Dog demographics, roles of dogs, dog movements and faecal environmental contamination were assessed in four rural communities in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan. Arecoline purge data revealed for the first time that E. granulosus, E. canadensis and E. multilocularis were present in domestic dogs in the Alay Valley. Surveys revealed that many households had dogs and that dogs played various roles in the communities, as pets, guard dogs or sheep dogs. Almost all dogs were free to roam, and GPS data revealed that many moved outside their communities, thus being able to scavenge offal and consume rodents. Faecal environmental contamination was high, presenting a significant infection risk to the local communities. PMID:23985326

Van Kesteren, Freya; Mastin, Alexander; Mytynova, Bermet; Ziadinov, Iskender; Boufana, Belgees; Torgerson, Paul R; Rogan, Michael T; Craig, Philip S

2013-11-01

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Coping with the energy crisis: Impact assessment and potentials of non-traditional renewable energy in rural Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyrgyz energy sector is characterised by a dramatic energy crisis that has deprived a substantial part of the population from access to energy. Non-traditional renewable energy sources have emerged as a promising alternative in providing basic energy services to the rural poor. Based on qualitative interview data from local households and project planners, this study sets out to assess impacts, limitations and barriers of non-traditional renewable energy projects in rural areas in Kyrgyzstan. This study argues that recent renewable energy efforts from multilateral international agencies, the private sector, and nongovernmental organisations exhibit great potential in creating tangible benefits and improving basic energy services, but have so far been inefficient in establishing and replicating sustainable and long-term energy solutions. Existing practices need to be improved by attaching greater importance to the capacities and real needs of the rural poor. The guidance of integrated programmes and policies along with alternative financing schemes and awareness-raising are urgently needed to leverage local success stories and to facilitate a sustainable energy development in rural Kyrgyzstan. - Highlights: ? We examine 11 rural households and 5 project planners in rural Kyrgyzstan. ? We assess impacts of non-traditional renewable energies compared with conventional fuels. ? Renewable energies exhibit a range of tangible benefits for rural users. ? Limitations concern performance, durability, repair, acceptance, finance and policy. ? Renewable energy is a promising alternative for rural households in Kyrgyzstan.

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Childhood exposures to Rn-222 and background gamma radiation in the uranium provinces of south Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project was undertaken in southern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It was speculated that the radiation doses in these areas would be sufficiently high and dispersed to facilitate a case–control study where the radiation doses to leukaemia subjects/their siblings could be compared with those received by control children. As a precursor a pilot project was undertaken to confirm radiation exposures in the region. This was undertaken in association with regional childhood cancer treatment centres. Children from families affected by childhood leukaemia were monitored for 1 month for external ?-radiation dose and for exposure to radon gas. 28 children from families in Kazakhstan and from 31 families in Kyrgyzstan were monitored. The median measured radon in air concentration recorded in Kazakhstan was 123 Bq m?3 and in Kyrgyzstan was 177 Bq m?3. These represent 24-h average indoor/outdoor values. In the case of the ?-doses the mean annual dose was 1.2 mGy for Kazakhstan and 2.1 mGy for Kyrgyzstan. Overall, the results suggest that the populations studied receive similar annual radiation doses to those received by populations living in other areas with enhanced natural radioactivity and that further study of Kazakh and Kyrgyz populations would not facilitate a successful case–control study for childhood leukaemia

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The Accommodation of Children and Young People in Kyrgyzstan by the System of Education, and the Problem of Gender Inequality  

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Kyrgyzstan, like other countries of the former Soviet Union, traditionally occupied a relatively high position in the world from the standpoint of the average level of education of its population. Any gender inequality when it came to obtaining an education was insignificant by international standards. However, the conversion to market relations,…

Tiuliundieva, N.

2006-01-01

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Radioecological and radiobiologeochemical situation in the pool of river Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the end of 20th. century in connection with increased technogenium of biosphere accompanying wide application of mineral fertilizers, cause accumulation in environment wastes of a mining industry, household wastes and other, technogenium biogeochemical provinces and new associations of chemical elements arise. It is known that sharp deficiency or the surplus in environment of biologically active elements results in diseases of animals, plants and men. On the territory of Kyrgyzstan and other countries biogeochemical provinces with deficiency and surplus I, F, Cu, V, Ca, Sr, Se, U and Hg are investigated. The doctrine about biogeochemical provinces finds practical realization in medicine and agriculture (preventive maintenance of endemical diseases, synthesis of medicines, manufacture of micro fertilizers etc.) The ecology of coast ecosystems and river Mailuu-Suu (ground, water, plants) is investigated for the first time in uranium-technogenius area

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Development of a Dynamic Landslide Inventory Information System for Southern Kyrgyzstan  

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Southern Kyrgyzstan is part of the tectonically active mountain ranges of the Tien Shan. The study area is located at the Eastern rim of the Fergana Basin representing a densely populated region where large landslides regularly endanger human lives and infrastructure. Therefore, GIS-based landslide susceptibility and hazard analysis is of great importance requiring detailed assessment of past landslide activity at regional scale. In Kyrgyzstan, information on past landslide activity is less available than in other more developed and researched regions of the world. Although landslide investigations were conducted since the 1950s, they have been drastically reduced since Kyrgyzstan's independence from the former Soviet Union in 1991 accompanied by loss of existing information. During the last years, information on landslides has been made publicly available mostly in form of derivatives, such as landslide hazard maps. All of these investigations have been limited to inhabited areas with known landslide danger. The presented research has the goal to develop a GIS-based approach for establishing a dynamic landslide inventory information system which allows efficient integration of the existing heterogeneous landslide data. They consist of reports prepared by Kyrgyz authorities as a result of field campaigns supported by visual interpretation of aerial photographs. These reports vary greatly in their spatial and temporal reliability as well as the format of the contained landslide data. This information has been complemented by multi-temporal satellite remote sensing data analysis carried out by the GFZ Potsdam aiming at interactive mapping of slopes affected by long-term complex landslide processes as well as developing an automated approach for landslide identification for the last 25 years. The used satellite remote sensing data provide a spatially continuous information base, partially with high temporal resolution, and thus enable creation of a dynamic landslide inventory at a regional scale. The complexity of the landslide processes and the heterogeneous information base require development of customized approaches for data integration and validation in order to establish a reliable and comprehensible digital landslide inventory system. In a first step all existing landslide information was digitized and integrated into a common spatial reference system consisting of the geo-referenced multi-temporal satellite remote sensing database. In combination with results from GPS-based field mapping of landslides, this database has been used for resolving spatial and temporal ambiguities originating from the combination of different information sources as well as for adding new events to the landslide inventory. The goal of establishing a dynamic landslide inventory also requires the development of a GIS-based data structure which is capable of representing spatial and temporal changes in a consistent and reproducible way allowing discrimination between single and multiple slope failures as well as incorporation of spatial information about undated past landslide activity. Besides data structure, determination of appropriate spatial mapping units is of special importance. Present research investigates the suitability of slope units derived from DEM-based watershed delineation. The capabilities of such a dynamic landslide inventory system will be demonstrated in an exemplary way for selected slopes within the study area affected by high landslide activity.

Golovko, Daria; Roessner, Sigrid; Behling, Robert; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Kaufmann, Hermann

2013-04-01

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The Inylchek Glacier in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia: Insight on Surface Kinematics from Optical Remote Sensing Imagery  

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Full Text Available Mountain chains of Central Asia host a large number of glaciated areas that provide critical water supplies to the semi-arid populated foothills and lowlands of this region. Spatio-temporal variations of glacier flows are a key indicator of the impact of climate change on water resources as the glaciers react sensitively to climate. Satellite remote sensing using optical imagery is an efficient method for studying ice-velocity fields on mountain glaciers. In this study, temporal and spatial changes in surface velocity associated with the Inylchek glacier in Kyrgyzstan are investigated. We present a detailed map for the kinematics of the Inylchek glacier obtained by cross-correlation analysis of Landsat images, acquired between 2000 and 2011, and a set of ASTER images covering the time period between 2001 and 2007. Our results indicate a high-velocity region in the elevated part of the glacier, moving up to a rate of about 0.5 m/day. Time series analysis of optical data reveals some annual variations in the mean surface velocity of the Inylchek during 2000–2011. In particular, our findings suggest an opposite trend between periods of the northward glacial flow in Proletarskyi and Zvezdochka glacier, and the rate of westward motion observed for the main stream of the Inylchek.

Mohamad Nobakht

2014-01-01

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Development of Triad approach based system for ecological risk assessment for contaminated areas of Kyrgyzstan  

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This research is aimed to develop a high-effective system of an ecological risk assessment and risk-based decision making for anthropogenic ecosystems, with particular focus on the soils of the Kyrgyz Republic. The study is focused on the integration of Triad data including chemical, biological and ecotoxicological soil markers to estimate the potential risk from soils of highly anthropized areas impacted by deposition of different pollutants from mining operation. We focus on technogenic areas of Kyrgyzstan, the former uranium-producing province. Triad-based ecological risk assessment for technogenic sites are not currently used in Kyrgyzstan. However, the vitality of such research is self-evident. There are about 50 tailing dumps and more than 80 tips of radioactive waste which are formed as a result of uranium and complex ores (mercury, antimony, lead, cadmium and etc) mining around the unfavorable aforementioned places. According to the Mining Wastes' Tailings and Fills Rehabilitation Centre established in 1999 by a special Government's Resolution, one of the most ecologically dangerous uranium tailings resides in Kadzhi-Say. Although uranium processing is no longer practiced in Kadzhi-Say, a large number of open landfills and uranium ore storages still remain abandoned at the vicinity of this settlement. These neglected sites have enormous problems associated with soil erosion known as "technogenic deserts". The upper soil horizons are deprived of humus and vegetation, which favor the formation of low-buffer landscapes in the zones of maximum contamination. As a result, most of these areas are not re-cultivated and remain in critical environmental condition (Bykovchenko, et al., 2005; Tukhvatshin, 2005; Suranova, 2006). Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites will be integrated. The following Triad-based parameters will be employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous substances), 2) ecological parameters (assessing changes in microorganism's community structure and functions, bioindication); and 3) toxicological bioassays (utilizing classical endpoints such as survival and reproduction rates, genotoxicity). The output will be consisted of 3 indexes: 1) Environmental Risk Index, quantifying the level of biological damage at population-community level, 2) Biological Vulnerability Index, assessing the potential threats to biological equilibria, and 3) Genotoxicity Index, screening genotoxic effects. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) will be used to integrate a set of environmental Triad data to be obtained during the project, which will be carried out in order to estimate the potential risk from soil contamination of the highly anthropized areas of Kadzhi-Say, which have been impacted by deposition of heavy metals. The basis of the development under this research is studies with a particular focus concerning the biocenosis mapping of Kyrgyz soils (Mamytova et al., 2003, 2010), investigations on interaction of humic substances with soil contaminants (Jorobekova, Kydralieva, Khudaibergenova, 2004; Khudaibergenova, 2005, 2007), and in addition, technical approach for ecotoxicological assessment of soils (Terekhova, 2007, 2011). Soil ecotoxicological estimation has been studied with a battery of tests using test-organisms of many trophic levels. Currently, bioindication of soils with various humus states is under study (Senesi, Yakimenko 2007; Yakimenko, et al., 2008).

Kydralieva, Kamilia; Uzbekov, Beksultan; Khudaibergenova, Bermet; Terekhova, Vera; Jorobekova, Sharipa

2014-05-01

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Quantitative Biostratigraphic Analysis of Central Asia with Implications for the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan  

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Central Asia lies at a nexus both in terms of geology and evolutionary biogeography. With the convergence of the Indian and Asian plates creating high rates of deformation over broad regions, shortening of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic basement rocks has created a rich history of late Cenozoic sedimentary basins. In fact, Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active country in the world. Additionally, Central Asia is a biogeographic crossroads, facilitating the intercontinental migrations of distant faunas from North American, Europe, Africa, and Southern Asia. With such an active geologic and biological evolution, the usefulness of temporal constraints is apparent. However, the continental collision environment has provided few volcanic rocks suitable for radiometric dating. Therefore, while less precise, the biostratigraphic analysis of Central Asia I present is an ideal method for both establishing ages and correlating between disparate basins. The last several decades provided great advancements in quantitative biostratigraphic methods applied to marine microfossils from drill cores. While these newer methods such as RASC (ranking and scaling), its sister program CASC, and CONOP (constrained optimization) provide a clear improvement over older methods such as graphic correlation, they have yet to be applied to terrestrial vertebrate faunas. Graphic correlation only allows comparison between two stratigraphic columns at a time and is heavily weighted by the initial selection of a type section. Both RASC and CONOP compare all stratigraphic sections simultaneously, eliminating type section bias. Previous vertebrate biostratigraphy methods attempted to predict FADs and LADs with the assumption they are generally minimum estimates. RASC instead establishes average stratigraphic ranges for each taxon and with CASC actually provides confidence intervals for each prediction, reducing the potential error resulting from reworking. CONOP generates maximum stratigraphic ranges observed in all sections, yet also includes error bars for the estimates of each biological event such as an extinction or origination. Used in conjunction, RASC, CASC, and CONOP provide both a solid evaluation of land mammal ages or zones for Central Asia and a predictive composite column for new late Cenozoic fossil localities. With a high degree of endemicity and migration, Central Asia cannot rely on the European Neogene Mammal Zones. This study aims to support and evaluate the emerging Asian biostratigraphic and geochronologic framework. With little fossil material currently collected from Kyrgyzstan, this study also sets a temporal framework for future paleontological work. Material is included from countries with much better constrained biostratigraphic records, preferably associated with existing radiometric dates. Specifically included were sites from Asiatic Russia, Mongolia, Western China, India, and Nepal. This geographic range is selected both to preserve the signal of faunas endemic to the Himalayan and Tibetan highlands, but also to provide a large enough sample to account for the well-known problems with the terrestrial fossil record such as high sampling errors and diachrony.

McLaughlin, W. N.; Hopkins, S. S.

2013-12-01

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Environmental Impact and Remediation of Uranium Tailings and Waste Rock Dumps at Mailuu-Suu in Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the environmental situation in the former uranium mining and milling region of Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan), the approach to environmental remediation of the waste facilities (tailings ponds and waste dumps) and the results achieved so far. It starts with an outline of the history of the environmental remediation project which has received international attention and is seen as a pilot project for further remediation activities of former uranium mining and milling sites in the region. Apart from technical aspects, the paper draws conclusions with respect to the administrative environment, institutional capacity building and the local availability of resources needed to successfully implement a complex remediation project. (author)

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Determinants of neonatal and under-three mortality in Central Asian countries: Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan  

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Full Text Available Objective: Several studies dealt with factors associated with childhood mortality, especially in developing countries, but less is known about former communistic countries. We therefore analyzed the factors affecting mortality rates among children in the Central Asian countries Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. We focused on the impact of living place (rural versus urban and age dependency (neonatal versus under-three mortality on the mortality risk. Methods: We used the Demographic and Health Surveys data (DHS for the three Central Asian countries. The combined data set included information about 2867 children under the age of three, 135 of whom died. We studied three multiple logistic regression models: for the mortality under the age of three, for neonatal mortality (1st month of life and for mortality in 2nd-36th month of life. Results: Under-three mortality was independently associated with living in a rural versus urban area (OR 1.69 (CI 1.11-2.56, birth order and mother not being currently married vs. married (OR 0.52 (CI 0.25-1.08. There was a lower risk of mortality for children living in larger families (six or more household members vs. less than six, OR 0.45 (CI 0.30-0.65. Living in a rural area was more strongly associated with mortality in 2-36 month of life than with neonatal mortality. Differences between countries were greater in neonatal mortality than in mortality between 2nd-36th month of life. Conclusions: This study suggests that urban-rural differences with respect to childhood mortality in these countries persist after adjusting for several socioeconomic factors.

Krämer, Alexander

2006-06-01

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[PCR-RFLP and sequencing studies of malaria vectors (Diptera, Culicidae, Anopheles) in Kyrgyzstan].  

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The results of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, obtained after treatment of PCR-products with restriction endonuclease CfoI, could identify two members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex: An. maculipennis and An. artemievi. Treatment of amplification products with restriction endonuclease BsuI gave rise to fragment lengths of 192 and 218 bp, characteristic of An. artemievi, in the populations of the Talas (settlement of Kizil-Adyr, Kara-Bura District), Dzhelalabad (towns of Tashkumyr and Kara-Kul), and Osh (town of Gulcha, Alai District; village of Langar, Kara-Suisky District) Regions. After treatment of PCR-products with restriction endonuclease BstACI, fragment lengths of 292 and 150 bp, characteristic of An. messeae, were obtained for the mosquitoes of Issyk-Kul (town of Balykchi) and Naryn (settlement of Kochkorka, Kochkor District) Regions. To identify the molecular forms of An. superpictus, the investigators sequenced the amplification products obtained by PCR with 5.8S and 28S rRNA gene-specific primers. Analysis of the primary structure of the second internal transcribed spacer, by using the international databases, has indicated that molecular form X is prevalent in the study districts of Kyrgyzstan. The COI-COII region of the mitochondrial genome of the vector also underwent PCR-RFLP analysis. Three new haplotypes with restriction patterns of about 540, 420, 200, 150, 140 bp, about 540, 360, 280, 150, 140 bp, and about 580, 540, and 150, 140 bp have been identified along with the previously described haplotype X characterized by restriction products of 540, 420, 260, 150, and 140 bp in length. PMID:21476255

Goriacheva, I I; Zvantsov, A B; Gordeev, M I; Bezzhonova, O V; Usenbaev, N T; Ezhov, M N

2011-01-01

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Frequency distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis and other helminths of foxes in Kyrgyzstan.  

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Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A study of the helminth fauna of foxes from Naryn Oblast in central Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the abundance of Echinococcus multilocularis in a district where a high prevalence of this parasite had previously been detected in dogs. A total of 151 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were investigated in a necropsy study. Of these 96 (64%) were infected with E. multilocularis with a mean abundance of 8669 parasites per fox. This indicates that red foxes are a major definitive host of E. multilocularis in this country. This also demonstrates that the abundance and prevalence of E. multilocularis in the natural definitive host are likely to be high in geographical regions where there is a concomitant high prevalence in alternative definitive hosts such as dogs. In addition Mesocestoides spp., Dipylidium caninum, Taenia spp., Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Capillaria and Acanthocephala spp. were found in 99 (66%), 50 (33%), 48 (32%), 46 (30%), 9 (6%), 34 (23%) and 2 (1%) of foxes, respectively. The prevalence but not the abundance of E. multilocularis decreased with age. The abundance of D. caninum also decreased with age. The frequency distribution of E. multilocularis and Mesocestoides spp. followed a zero-inflated negative binomial distribution, whilst all other helminths had a negative binomial distribution. This demonstrates that the frequency distribution of positive counts and not just the frequency of zeros in the data set can determine if a zero-inflated or non-zero-inflated model is more appropriate. This is because the prevalences of E. multolocularis and Mesocestoides spp. were the highest (and hence had fewest zero counts) yet the parasite distribution nevertheless gave a better fit to the zero-inflated models. PMID:20434845

Ziadinov, I; Deplazes, P; Mathis, A; Mutunova, B; Abdykerimov, K; Nurgaziev, R; Torgerson, P R

2010-08-01

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Experience of the multi-parameters electromagnetic monitoring in the area of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)  

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Development of the multi-parameters electromagnetic (EM) monitoring technology in frequency range 0.1 Hz - 1 MHz is carried out in the area of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan). The technology includes registration of such EM earthquake precursors, as apparent resistivity variations, ULF magnetic and electrotelluric anomalies, electromagnetic emission and ionosphere disturbances. Two types of equipment are used for the EM monitoring: the audiomagnetotelluric system ACF-4M (0.1-1000 Hz) and the radiomagnetotelluric system RMT-F (1-1000 kHz). The equipment ensure time series registration of electric and magnetic field components, robust data processing, spectral parameters calculations, apparent resistivity and impedance phase determination. The integrated multi-parameters monitoring of the considered precursors is carried out simultaneously and obtaining of informative parameters is differed by methods of measured time series data processing only. For the apparent resistivity variations monitoring we apply the audiomagnetotelluric sounding method in frequency range 7-300 Hz with the sufficiently large investigation depth for decreasing of seasonal and daily factors influence, temperature changes and other weather conditions. In this frequency range natural EM fields are quite stable for reliable data obtaining in any time of day and season with accuracy 0.3 % for apparent resistivity. For ULF magnetic, electrotelluric and electromagnetic emission anomalies study we use the wide-band registration of time-series of electric and magnetic fields in frequency range from 0.1 Hz up to 1 MHz. Ionosphere disturbances are studied in radio (observations of remote radio transmitter's signals) and audio (Schumann resonances observations) frequency ranges. EM emission anomaly was registered before the earthquake of M=3.3 on 4 April 2013 in the monitoring station at 100 km distance to the West from the earthquake epicenter (Issyk-Kul lake area). In the dynamic spectrum of magnetic field horizontal component the anomaly is seen in intervals 10-25 and 70-100 kHz (Fig. 1). The duration of the anomaly is approximately 2 hours before the earthquake. This work was supported by the RFBR (project 13-05-12091). Fig. 1. An example of anomaly in the dynamic spectrum of magnetic field in radio frequency range 10-100 kHz before the earthquake of M=3.3 on 4 April 2013 in the area of Bishkek

Saraev, A.; Antaschuk, K.; Simakov, A.

2013-12-01

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Holocene climate variability in lake Sonkul sediments (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia) based on vegetation changes  

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Western Central Asia, as a remote intracontinental setting located far from oceanic influences, is a key place for high-resolution paleoclimatic studies because different climate systems interact at different timescales and control the regional climate variability. A multiproxy study (pollen grains, palynofacies, and magnetic susceptibility) was conducted on Holocene sediments from the alpine lake Sonkul (3010 m, 41°48'33N / 75°07'38E; Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan). The combination of sediment core proxies allowed the reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes through lake level variations and vegetation dynamics between 8400 and 2000 cal. BP. A high-resolution age model was built on Holocene sediments, constituting one of the most accurate chronologies available in the Central Tien Shan. A quantitative reconstruction of climatic parameters using the "modern analogue vegetation types" (MAV) method was carried out to establish variations in temperature and precipitation patterns during the Holocene as based on variations in fossil pollen assemblages. Between 8400 and 5900 cal. BP, the climate conditions are cold and wet associated with a very low lake level. The Siberian High Pressure (SHP) and the Pacific Summer Monsoon (PSM) are the main mechanisms controlling climatic conditions during the early to mid-Holocene. Between 5900 and 4300 cal. BP, warm and moist conditions characterized the "Mid Holocene Optimum" interval where the combined influence of the Westerlies and the PSM is recorded. Our results reveal that the "Mid Holocene Optimum" period in Lake Sonkul sediments appears to be of shorter duration than in other lakes from the Tibetan plateau. Finally, between 4300 and 2000 cal. BP, the climate becomes persistently arid and warm, as it is nowadays, with a predominant influence of the Westerlies in summer and the SHP in winter. Our results show, therefore, that the lake Sonkul represents an excellent sedimentary archive in Central Asia for high-resolution climatic studies. It allows deciphering, at a high time resolution, the interactions between different climatic systems on environmental dynamics in Central Asia during the Holocene.

Mathis, M.; Sorrel, P.; Klotz, S.; Oberhänsli, H.

2012-04-01

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Cenozoic magnetostratigraphy and magnetic properties of the southern Issyk-Kul basin, Kyrgyzstan  

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We present paleomagnetic data from the northern flank of the Tianshan range, southeast of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). 613 cores were collected in two parallel sections with a total thickness of 960 m (Chon Kyzylsuu, CK) and 990 m (Jeti Oguz, JO), as well as 48 cores at six sites in a nearby anticline. Rock magnetic analyses identify both magnetite and hematite in the fluvial-lacustrine sediments. The concentration of both minerals, the magnetite:hematite ratio, and the average magnetite grain size increase upward in both sections. Anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization defines a tectonic fabric with sub-horizontal maximum axes that parallel the strike direction together with intermediate and minimum axes that streak out about a great circle orthogonal to the maximum axes suggestive of a tectonic fabric emplaced during folding. Stepwise thermal demagnetization isolates interpretable magnetization components in 284 samples that define 26 polarity chrons in CK and 19 in JO. A positive fold test, dual polarities and systematic changes in rock-magnetic parameters with depth suggest that the high temperature magnetization component was acquired coevally with deposition. An age model based on a visual magnetostratigraphic correlation of both sections with the geomagnetic polarity time scale defines absolute ages from 26.0 to 13.3 Ma, with a fairly constant sedimentation rate of 9-10 cm/ka. A correlation based on a numerical algorithm arrives at a slightly different conclusion, with deposition ages from 25.2 to 11.0 Ma and sedimentation rates from 5 to 8 cm/ka. In comparison with sedimentation rates found at other magnetostratigraphic sections in the Tianshan realm, we infer that the sedimentary record in this part of the Issyk-Kul Basin precedes the more rapid phase of uplift of the Kyrgyz Tianshan. The onset of deposition and concomitant erosion of the adjacent Terskey Range is in good agreement with independent assessments of the exhumation history of this mountain range, with erosion increasing at 25-20 Ma and accelerating after 11-13 Ma.

Wack, Michael R.; Gilder, Stuart A.; Macaulay, Euan A.; Sobel, Edward R.; Charreau, Julien; Mikolaichuk, Alexander

2014-08-01

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CIS as a successor of the Soviet Union: who is financially responsible for the uranium waste storage sites in Kyrgyzstan?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: As the Second World War came to an end and the Cold War just started, the Soviet Union was faced with a problematic necessity of the nuclear weapons' production. Indeed, the Soviet Empire was in the extreme need of such weapons since their possession was viewed as an only guarantee of peaceful relations between USSR and United States. Exactly in that period the Soviet Union started its intensive exploitation of the large radioactive ore deposits (basically, uranium and radium), located on the territory of the present-day Kyrgyzstan. Throughout the post-war cold period and right up to mid-80s Kyrgyzstan had been one of the leading producers of uranium in the Soviet Union. In fact, the first Soviet atomic bomb was produced using Kyrgyz uranium. In the intense arms race with United States there was no time to concern oneself with environmental and demographic protection of the exploited territory, unfortunately. The role of the Kyrgyz ASSR (Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) was to provide raw materials, concurrently being a conveniently remote place to treat foreign radioactive ores (imported from Eastern Germany and Czechoslovakia) and serving as a burial place for their wastes. Creating an enormous amount of the radioactive wastes, the uranium and radium ore deposits were located in immediate proximity to highly populated areas; in the basins of transboundary rivers; and in the seismic-active regions of the Republic. As it could be legitimately assumed, the Soviet Union was not deeply obsessed with the environmental peculiarities of the treated area and did not give a damn to its protection, being solely interested in the maximization of the uranium extraction. In 1991, immediately after the Soviet Union's dissolution, the Russian Federation officially proclaimed itself its successor. Consequently, it was Russia that received the bigger part of a huge military potential (particularly, nuclear one) of its predecessor, including the nuclear weapons' arsenal. Yet, the newly independent Kyrgyz Republic was left alone with an enormous amount of uranium waste, which was extracted on the Kyrgyz territory to produce these nuclear armaments. As a consequence of the Soviet policy, uranium waste storage sites represent a direct danger to the environment of present-day Kyrgyzstan. Therefore, Russia as the official successor of the Soviet Empire should help the Kyrgyz Republic to deal with this costly and extensive problem. These environmental issues serve as a basis for the given work. In turn, research will be primarily concentrated on several the most problematic radioactive waste storage sites, namely, the Mailuu-Suu, Kadji-Say, Kara-Balta, and Ak-Tuz uranium storages. Today, Kyrgyzstan has 50 radioactive waste storage sites, located throughout its territory and contained altogether about 300 million tons of wastes. In general, it could be suggested that the financial responsibility could be delegated to the Kyrgyz government; the Central Asian Community; Russia. It is clear with the first instance, the Kyrgyz government, as it ought to deal with the environmental problems of its country. The situation is more sophisticated and arguable in terms of second and third instance, namely, the Central Asian Community and, particularly, Russia. This paper is designed to prove not only the necessity for their involvement, but rather their responsibility for the present-day situation with the Kyrgyz storage sites. As regards the other Central Asian States, it is in their interests since they are under immediate threat of being affected. Concerning Russia, it is rather a moral right to demand its assistance than a legally legitimate one. All information, related to uranium, its extraction and further utilization was totally classified and only revealed after the Soviet Union's dissolution. Only in 1994 did the Kyrgyz public become acquainted with the truly poor environmental conditions of the newly fledged Republic. Yet, no radically efficient measures had been undertaken during the following 6 years of Kyrgyz independe

38

Hydrochemistry and land cover in the upper Naryn river basin, Kyrgyzstan  

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Economic and social changes at the end of the 20th century affected land use decisions and land management in the Central Asian republics of the former Soviet Union. Amongst others, land tenure changed from mainly collectivized to private land, and in consequence, land management (e.g. soil treatment and fertilization practices) altered. Apart from agricultural pollutants and the impact of irrigation management, water resources are threatened by waste dumps remaining from mining activities. However, recent studies on the effect of land use changes on ecohydrology in Central Asia remain scarce. In a preliminary study, current land use and hydrochemistry in the upper Naryn Valley (Kyrgyzstan) was analyzed in 2008. Climate is semi-arid, and annual precipitation is approximately 300 mm. Precipitation peak occurs in early summer, while the rest of the year is rather dry. Crop and hay production prevail in the valley bottom. Environmental conditions in the mountains support pastoralism with a shift between summer and winter pastures. Agriculture depends on irrigation to a great deal as precipitation is seasonal and the vegetation period usually is the dry period. Today, production is mainly for subsistence purposes or local markets. The Naryn river is the headwater of the of the Syrdarya river which is one of the major sources of irrigation water in the Aral Sea basin. Hence, the ecohydrological condition of the contributing rivers is of major importance for the irrigation management downstream. Nevertheless, information on current ecohydrological conditions and land use which may affect the distribution and chemical composition of the rivers is lacking. In the presented study, basic hydrochemical measurements in the Naryn river and its tributaries were made. In situ measurements comprised electrical conductivity, ammonia and nitrate measurements, among others. While electrical conductivity varies greatly between the Naryn river and its tributaries, ammonia and nitrate concentrations remain below detection limit for the most part. The study shows that tributaries of high electrical conductivity do not affect hydrochemistry of the main river during summer because glacier and snow melt dominates runoff generation. Daily cycles of increased runoff due to snow and ice melt in the afternoon could be observed along the tributaries in the upper parts of the study area. Effects of agricultural production on ecohydrology remain weak as application of fertilizers and pesticides is currently low due to financial constraints. The data will be linked to land use data derived from satellite image products in order to analyse the effect of land cover and land cover changes on ecohydrological processes. Former observation of remote sensing data and related literature showed evidence for a change in land use management in the Naryn Valley. In 2008 training areas of land use classes for a supervised classification of 2008 remote sensing data have been recorded. A land use classification of the Naryn Valley on the base of Landsat ETM+ Data of 2008 and 1993 was done to get information on land use change on a regional scale. The classification uses spectral and spatial data in a hard classifier and object oriented combined approach. Comparing the two datasets with respect to changes in pattern of irrigated area and pasture area, change in cultivated crops and the change of agricultural cell sizes gives further information for hydrological modeling and land use monitoring purposes.

Schneider, K.; Dernedde, Y.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H. G.

2009-04-01

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Assessment of the radiological impact of gamma and radon dose rates at former U mining sites in Kyrgyzstan.  

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An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to gamma radiation, radon and thoron was carried out at the former uranium mining and processing sites in Shekaftar, Minkush and Kadji Sai in Kyrgyzstan. Gamma dose rate measurements were made using various field instruments and radon/thoron measurements were carried out using discriminative radon ((222)Rn)/thoron ((220)Rn) solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time including at least three seasonal periods in a year, in different outdoor and indoor public and residential environments at the selected uranium legacy sites. The results showed that gamma, Rn and Tn doses were in general low, which consequently implies a low/relatively low radiological risk. The major radiation hazard is represented by abandoned radioactive filtration material that was being used as insulation by some Minkush residents for a longer period of time. Annual radiation doses of several hundred mSv could be received as a consequence of using this material in their houses. The radiation doses deriving from external radiation (gamma dose rate), indoor radon and thoron with their short-lived progenies in several cases exceeded national as well as international standards. Current doses of ionizing radiation do not represent any serious hazard to the health of the resident public, but this issue should be adequately addressed to further reduce needless exposure of resident public to ionizing radiation. PMID:23260850

Lespukh, E; Stegnar, P; Usubalieva, A; Solomatina, A; Tolongutov, B; Beishenkulova, R

2013-09-01

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Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1949–1967, a U mine, a coal-fired thermal power plant and a processing plant for the extraction of U from the produced ash were operated at the Kadji Sai U mining site in Tonsk district, Issyk-Kul County, Kyrgyzstan. The Kadji Sai U legacy site represents a source of contamination of the local environment by naturally occurring radionuclides and associated trace elements. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals at the site, field expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2008 by the Joint collaboration between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (JNKKT) project and the NATO SfP RESCA project. In addition to in situ gamma and Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water and sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of radionuclides and trace metals in water from Issyk-Kul Lake were in general low, but surprisingly high for As. Uptake of U and As was also observed in fish from the lake with maximum bioconcentration factors for liver of 1.6 and 75, respectively. The concentrations of U in water within the Kadji Sai area varied from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L, except for downstream from the mining area where U reached a factor of 10 higher, 0.2 mg/L. Uranium concentrations in the drinking water of Kadji Sai village were about the level recommended by the WHO for drinking water. The 234U/238U activity ratio reflected equilibrium conditions in the mining pond, but far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching 2.3 for an artesian well). Uranium, As and Ni were mainly present as low molecular mass (LMM, less than 10 kDa) species in all samples, indicating that these elemental species are mobile and potentially bioavailable. The soils from the mining sites were enriched in U, As and trace metals. Hot spots with elevated radioactivity levels were easily detected in Kadji Sai and radioactive particles were observed. The presence of particles carrying significant amount of radioactivity and toxic trace elements may represent a hazard during strong wind events (wind erosion). Based on sequential extractions, most of the elements were strongly associated with mineral matter, except for U and As having a relatively high remobilization potential. Low Kd was obtained for U (3.5 × 102 L/kg d.w.), intermediate Kds (?3 × 103 L/kg d.w.) were obtained for 226Ra, As and Ni, while a high Kd (2.2 × 105 L/kg d.w.) were obtained for Pb. The accumulation of metals in fish gills reflected the LMM species in the Issyk-Kul water, and did not show any bioaccumulation. The muscle Hg concentrations in all fish species were low and did not represent any health risk even for groups at risk. Total gamma and Rn dose rate to man amounted to about 12 mSv/y, while the highest calculated dose rate for non-human species based on the ERICA Assessment Tool were obtained in terrestrial plants (164 ?Gy/h) due to the Ra exposure. The results obtained showed that radiation doses to resident public at all of the investigated sites in the Kadji Sai area were in general relatively low. Low radiological risk and no detrimental health impact on resident public can be expected at these sites. However, exposure to Rn and Tn in the living environment can be further reduced by implementing simple countermeasures such as ventilation of dwelling cellars. More focus in the Kadji Sai area should probably be put on trace elements, especially the As uptake in fish in Lake Issyk-Kul

 
 
 
 
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A large industrial pollution problem on the Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan border: Soviet production of mercury and stibium for the Soviet military  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soviet industry of mercury and stibium was located in South-East Fergana in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan boarder. Khaidarken combine produced high pure mercury (99.9997 percent) since 1940, it was the second source in the World (after Almadena, Spain). Maximal production was 790 t in 1990, after Transitional Shock about 300 tons a year. Tail was established in 1967. There is special tube 5500 m transporting pulp to tail. The pulp contains about 0,003 mg/liter mercury, 0,005 mg/liter arsenic, 21 mg/liter stibium, etc. Pulp is cleaned by aluminum sulfuric and mortar. After drying and compressing by itself the concentrations rises: mercury 90-250 mg/kg, arsenic 190-400, stibium 800-1700 mg/kg. Environment pollution problem contains three kinds: ground water infiltration; old tube corroding some places (leaking from chink of tube) - both mentioned lead to vegetables cumulating; combine work spreading mercury by air to settlement Khaidarken. Kadamjay enterprise for stibium (mines, combine, purify plant, tails) began work in 1936. Most part of production used in soviet military. Maximal production was 17.000 t clearing ore in 1990, after USSR collapse 1-6 t/year. Tremendous tails and dams (total 150 mln t) remains non re-cultivated until now. The tails contain electrolysis wastage: sodium-sulfides, sulfites, sulfates; stibium; arsenic; cadmium; stibium; etc. Seven deposits (tail-damp really) established 1976, total square 76.1 thousands sq m, total volume 250 thousand cub m. The deposits over-filled, contents filtrating - little saline or lakes generated (one situated 50m near Uzbekistan boarder). River Shakhimardan flow to Uzbekistan (settlement Vuadil, Ferghana town). There are health damage indices in the areas.(author)

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Hydrological changes in western Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) during the Holocene as inferred from a palaeolimnological study in lake Son Kul  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrology of western Central Asia is highly sensitive to climatic perturbations. In order to understand its long-term variability and to infer linkages between precipitation and atmospheric and oceanic systems, we conducted a thorough sedimentary and geochemical study on a composite core retrieved in lake Son Kul (central Kyrgyzstan). A multi-proxy approach was conducted on lake sediments based on grain size analyses, magnetic susceptibility, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and carbon and oxygen isotope analyses on bulk and biogenic materials (ostracoda and molluscs shells) at a resolution equivalent to ca 40 years, aiming to characterise the sequence of palaeolimnological changes in Son Kul. As indicated by ?18O record of bulk carbonates, mainly consisting of aragonite, the Holocene hydrological balance was negative during most of time, suggesting an excess of evaporation (E) over precipitation (P). Limnological conditions fluctuated rapidly before 5000 cal yr BP indicating significant changes in regional hydrology and climate. In particular, the long-term negative hydrological balance was impeded by several short stages with marked increase of precipitation, lasting several decades to a few centuries (e.g., 8300-8200, 6900-6700, 6300-6100, 5500-5400, 5300-5200 and 3100-3000 cal yr BP). Precipitation changes as inferred from ?18O data are also documented by increased minerogenic detritus and higher TOC. We propose that the seasonal pattern of precipitation varied transiently in western Central Asia during the Holocene, although evaporation changes may also account for the rapid changes observed in ?18O data. When the annual water balance was less critical (P ? E), the excess of water might be ascribed to increased precipitation during cold seasons mainly because winter precipitation has more negative ?18O than its summer equivalent. Conversely, when the annual water balance is negative (P ? E), the moisture was mainly delivered during the warm season, as between 5000 and 2000 cal yr BP. Our results thus imply that moisture sources could have changed as well during the Holocene. Moisture was delivered as today mainly during summer from the extended Caspian-Aral Basin and eastern Mediterranean, although Arctic and even North Atlantic seas might be important moisture sources when seasonal precipitation was dominated by winter precipitation. We hypothesise that warming Arctic and North Atlantic seas were important for the North Hemisphere circulation during the cold season.

Huang, Xiangtong; Oberhänsli, Hedi; von Suchodoletz, Hans; Prasad, Sushma; Sorrel, Philippe; Plessen, Birgit; Mathis, Marie; Usubaliev, Raskul

2014-11-01

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Regional vegetation patterns at lake Son Kul reveal Holocene climatic variability in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia)  

Science.gov (United States)

A multiproxy study was conducted on Holocene sediments from the alpine lake Son Kul (3010 m a.s.l, 41°48?33N/75°07?38E) in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan). The combination of high-resolution pollen, palynofacies and magnetic susceptibility data allowed reconstruction of changes in sedimentary and vegetation dynamics regionally at Son Kul between 8350 and ca 2000 cal. BP. Using pollen data to quantify climatic parameters, a quantitative reconstruction of climatic conditions was performed using the "Modern Analogue Vegetation types" (MAV) method and a ranged index of seasonality. The most temperate (e.g. moister) climate conditions occurred between 8350 and 5000-4500 cal. BP when alpine meadow vegetation was enriched in plants requiring moister conditions and trees developed regionally. Conversely, more continental and arid conditions prevailed after 4500 cal. BP with the decline of arboreal vegetation (especially Juniperus) and the extension of an alpine steppe-meadow along with a regional decrease in Poaceae. This climate transition was associated with a change in seasonality as the continentality greatly intensified after 5000-4500 cal. BP. Our results are consistent with other records from the Tien Shan range and the Chinese Province Xinjiang showing that relatively wet conditions prevailed regionally before 5000 cal. BP, whereas reduced moisture conditions were established after that time. From a more global perspective, we highlight that regional rainfall in central Tien Shan and western Central Asia is likely to be predominantly controlled by the Eastern Mediterranean cyclonic system and North Atlantic climate, as based on the close correspondence between climatic archives from western Central Asia, the Levant, the Eastern Mediterranean and Caspian Sea regions. However, the effect of monsoonal dynamics on the regional climatic system in central Tien Shan still remains dubious, since recent modelling studies have shown that no dynamic link exists between humidity in Central Asia and the Indian Summer Monsoon. This study pinpoints the need to explore the effect of remote Eurasian atmospheric circulation patterns on past climate variability in Central Asia.

Mathis, Marie; Sorrel, Philippe; Klotz, Stefan; Huang, Xiangtong; Oberhänsli, Hedi

2014-04-01

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Assessment of radiation exposure and evaluation of remedial measures for the uranium mining and milling area of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of the town of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals in tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. Radioactive substances are stored in 23 tailings and 10 heaps situated along the Mailuu Suu River. The stability of many tailings is at risk. Attention is mostly directed to Tailing 3, because of its important radionuclide inventory and since threatened by the borders of a major landslide. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, a radiological monitoring programme was set up and a radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu Suu, located downstream the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine-waste dump. The actual radiological situation is of no immediate concern for most of the population of Mailuu Suu. The actual external exposure and exposure from radon are, respectively, around 1.2 mSv a-1 and 5 mSv a-1, at both locations. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (?10-30 mSv a-1). Additional dose from irrigation with Mailuu Suu river water is small in actual conditions (-1). However, there is an important possibility that, triggered by an earthquake or a landslide, (part of the) tailing(s) content may be directed to the river Mailuu Suu. In case the content of Tailing 3 is thrust to river, calculated maximum doses are 45 and 77 mSv a-1 for an adult and a child, respectively, for an assumed exposure duration of 2 years. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options were evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilisation and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu Suu River valley were proposed (translocation of other tailings, tunnel to deviate river, partial protection of river from landslide blockage). (authors)

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Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007. Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative financial experiences of pharmacy initiatives to inform future projects and advance access to medicines goals.

Maddix Jason

2010-07-01

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'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV\\/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV\\/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV\\/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector.

Spicer, Neil

2011-07-13

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'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84, service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58 and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86. Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector.

Harmer Andrew

2011-07-01

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Ideal climatic variables for the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, derived from GPS data and energy-mass balance measurements  

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Full Text Available We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007 of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Differential GPS surveys reveal a vertical surface deletion at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the modern state are 289 mm and ?3.85 °C at the glacier summit (4600 m above sea level, a.s.l., respectively. The good agreement between the long-term estimated and observed precipitation at a nearby station in the Tien Shan (292 mm at 3614 m a.s.l. for the period 1930–2002 suggests that the glacier dynamics have been regulated by the long-term average accumulation. The glacier mass-balance, reconstructed based on meteorological data from the Tien Shan station for the past 80 yr, explains the observed fluctuations in glacier extent, particularly the negative mass balance in the 1990s.

K. Fujita

2011-03-01

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Determination of the source time function of seismic event by blind deconvolution of regional coda wavefield: application to December 22, 2009 explosion at Kambarata, Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

At regional distance, recovering the source time function of a seismic event is a rather difficult task as the Green function is unknown due to large scattering of the waves by crust heterogeneities. Contrary to classical methods based on deterministic assessment of the Green function, this work proposes to exploit the stochastic nature of regional coda wavefield in order to extract the seismic source time function of a regional event. Since the work of Aki and Chouet 1975, it is well recognized that regional coda waves can provide stable and robust information on the source of seismic events. Unfortunately, all the proposed techniques are limited to the power spectral density of the seismic source function. A modified version of our two step spectral factorization algorithm [Sèbe et al. 2005] of coda waves has been proposed in order to include higher order statistic (HOS) blind deconvolution techniques. Assuming that the coda excitation time series is a non-Gaussian independent and identically distributed random signal, the higher order statistics, especially the tricorrelation, is able to remove the randomness of coda excitation and extract source properties. In addition, unlike classical second order approach which only provides the power spectral density, the tricorrelation keeps the information on the phase spectrum of the source, allowing the estimation of the source time function. This original blind deconvolution algorithm of coda waves has been applied on the regional records of the December 22, 2009 explosion in Kambara, Kyrgyzstan. Based on statistic analyses of the higher order cumulants, this method has been able to recover the main properties of the source time function of this detonation: two successive explosions have been identified with a time delay of about 1.7 sec and an amplitude ratio of about 2 in favour of second explosion. This successful blind recovering of high resolution source properties is an encouraging result toward the development of new source characterization methods especially when the classical deconvolution techniques are unusable due to the Green's function complexity or unknown.

Sebe, O. G.; Guilbert, J.; Bard, P.

2011-12-01

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The Middle AsiaN Active Source (MANAS) Profile: Preliminary Results From A Deep Seismic Transect in the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and China  

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New near-vertical deep seismic reflection data, acquired during the summer of 2007, constitute an ~350 km lithospheric transect from the northwestern Tarim Basin in China to the central Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan. Recognized as one of the highest, youngest, and most active orogenic systems on Earth, the Tien Shan are situated internal to the Eurasian continent, removed up to 3000 km from the former plate boundary with the Indian subcontinent. Existing geologic constraints imply that up to 200 km of shortening may have occurred in Late Tertiary to Recent time. Additionally, geologic, topographic, and gravimetric data suggest that continental lithosphere of the Tarim basin may presently be subducting beneath the southern margin of the Tien Shan, in the absence of an oceanic slab. While geodetic measurements document that the Tien Shan currently record about half of the shortening between India and Eurasia, geologic data dictate that active faults are restricted to only several of the individual ranges that make up the mountain belt. Passive-source seismological studies have shown the surprising result that the orogenic crust is thickest (65-70 km) at both the southern and northern margins of the Tien Shan, and thins dramatically to ~35 km within the internal part of the orogen. Key targets of the MANAS (Middle AsiaN Active Source) Profile include (1) the top of the Tarim crust as it descends beneath the southern Tien Shan, (2) an inferred crustal-scale frontal ramp, representing where the continental plate may have broken and is now descending into the upper mantle, (3) the geometry of demonstrably active faults below the shallow depths to which they can be inferred from surface geologic constraints, (4) the topography and seismic reflection signature of the Moho, especially given the unexpected variations in crustal thickness across the orogen, and (5) the significance of both crustal and upper mantle conductivity anomalies previously identified through magnetotelluric studies. The experimental design involved roll-along of stand-alone seismometers (Reftek-125A), allowing essentially continuous CMP coverage along the entire ~350-km transect, despite the challenging terrain. These seismic reflection results will be combined with a coincident broadband array (40 stations at ~10 km spacing for two years) and magnetotelluric measurements along the profile route to provide an integrated geophysical fingerprint of the lithospheric structure of intracontinental mountain building.

Knapp, J. H.; Roecker, S. W.; Park, S. K.; Schelochkov, G.; He, R.

2007-12-01

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Influence of the Westerlies in arid Central Asia during the Holocene recorded in sediments from lakes Son Kol and Chatyr Kol, Kyrgyzstan  

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Knowledge about past Asian climate variability and particularly teleconnections between the Westerlies in arid Central Asia and the Monsoon on the Tibetan Plateau is still limited. To reconstruct the Westerlies intensity during the Holocene in arid Central Asia and its effect on vegetation dynamics, we compared the sediment records from alpine lakes Son Kol (273 km2; 13 m depth) and Chatyr Kol (170 km2; 20 m depth), located in the central Tien Shan mountain range (Kyrgyzstan). Both sites differ in the mean annual amount of precipitation received (Son Kol: 550 mm; Chatyr Kol: 260 mm), but show identical recent catchment vegetation (montane grassland). To find out, whether the precipitation primarily causes differences in sedimentary organic matter accumulation, we investigated the distribution of n-alkanes in recent surface sediments from both lakes. The distribution of these biomarkers in Lake Son Kol is dominated by higher input of terrestrial plant material, whereas the one of Lake Chatyr Kol is characterized by mixed input of terrestrial and aquatic material. Additionally, we investigated the n-alkane distributions and compound-specific ?D values of radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from Son Kol (core length: 154 cm), dating back to 6000 years BP, and from Chatyr Kol (core length: 625 cm), which dates back to the early Holocene. The combination of terrestrial and aquatic alkane-specific ?D values can be used to determine changes of relative humidity. A generally stable n-alkane composition and relatively high amounts of terrestrial biomarkers within the sediments of Lake Son Kol display relatively stable climatic conditions for organic matter production during the mid-to late Holocene. Throughout the record, depleted ?D values (-180 ‰) of terrestrial n-alkanes prevail, only periodically interrupted by phases with enriched values (-140 ‰). This suggests a predominance of generally wet conditions due to the influence of the Westerlies with only short-term intercalated dry phases. During the late Holocene, a general trend towards higher n-alkane amounts and more depleted ?D n-C29 values is recognized. We conclude that the regional climate was mainly influenced by westerly air-masses, but intensity fluctuations had only minor effects on organic matter accumulation within both lakes. The general trend towards wetter conditions since the mid-Holocene suggests a strengthened influence of Westerlies, bringing more moisture into this region, which is in contrast to monsoonal Asia where a trend towards dryer climate conditions since the mid-Holocene is recognized. It seems that teleconnections between arid Central Asia and the Tibetan Plateau are characterized by anti-cyclic changes in the intensities of the Westerlies and the Monsoon. Keywords: n-alkanes, hydrogen isotopes, sediment, Central Asia, Westerlies, Son Kol, Chatyr Kol

Witt, R.; Lauterbach, S.; Plessen, B.; Prasad, S.; Maeusbacher, R.; Gleixner, G.

2013-12-01

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Mid- to Late Holocene climate development in Central Asia as revealed from multi-proxy analyses of sediments from Lake Son Kol (Kyrgyzstan)  

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A mid-Holocene shift from predominantly wet to significantly drier climate conditions, attributed to the weakening of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), is documented in numerous palaeoclimate records from the monsoon-influenced parts of Asia, e.g. the Tibetan Plateau and north- and southeastern China. In contrast, Holocene climate development in the arid regions of mid-latitude Central Asia, located north and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, is less well-constrained but supposed to have been influenced by a complex interaction between the mid-latitude Westerlies and the ASM. Hence, well-dated and highly resolved palaeoclimate records from Central Asia might provide important information about spatio-temporal changes in the regional interplay between Westerlies and ASM and thus aid the understanding of global climate teleconnections. As a part of the project CADY (Central Asian Climate Dynamics), aiming at reconstructing past climatic and hydrological variability in Central Asia, several sediment cores were recovered from alpine Lake Son Kol (41° 48'N, 75° 12'E, 3016 m a. s. l.) in the Central Tian Shan of Kyrgyzstan. A radiocarbon-dated sediment sequence of 154.5 cm length, covering approximately the last 6000 years, was investigated by using a multi-proxy approach, including sedimentological, (bio)geochemical, isotopic and micropalaeontological analyses. Preliminary proxy data indicate hydrologically variable but predominantly wet conditions until ca. 5100 cal. a BP, characterized by the deposition of finely laminated organic-carbonatic sediments. In contrast to monsoonal Asia, where a distinct trend towards drier conditions is observed since the mid-Holocene, the hydrologically variable interval at Lake Son Kol was apparently followed by an only short-term dry episode between ca. 5100 and 4200 cal. a BP. This is characterized by a higher ?D of the C29 n-alkanes, probably reflecting increased evapotranspiration. Also pollen, diatom and ostracod data point towards drier climate conditions. Higher ?15N values during this period may also reflect increased evaporation but could also be related to dust input of NOx, being in agreement with high amounts of fine-grained minerogenic material. Further periods of higher ?15N values and contents of fine-grained minerogenic material occurred at 3600-3000 and 2000-1600 cal. a BP. However, as biogeochemical data indicate no further distinct dry episodes since about 4200 cal. a BP, these intervals most probably reflect increased dust deposition. Finally, a trend towards wetter climate conditions can be observed during the last ca. 1500 years, reflected by high ostracod and diatom diversity and (bio)geochemical data. The absence of a pronounced drying trend since the mid-Holocene, as observed in monsoonal Asia, is largely consistent with results from other regional palaeoclimate records and might reflect the predominant influence of the strengthening mid-latitude Westerlies on regional climate since this time.

Lauterbach, Stefan; Dulski, Peter; Gleixner, Gerd; Hettler-Riedel, Sabine; Mingram, Jens; Plessen, Birgit; Prasad, Sushma; Schwalb, Antje; Schwarz, Anja; Stebich, Martina; Witt, Roman

2013-04-01

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The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF occurred at the western (w- Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, and ALOS/AVNIR-2 reveal that the flood reduced the lake area from 0.0422 km2 to 0.0083 km2, discharging 437 000 m3 of water. This glacier lake was not present in a Landsat 7 ETM+ image taken on 26 April 2008. It formed rapidly over just two and half months from early May to the late July, when large amounts of snow and glacier melt water became trapped in a basin in the glacier terminus area, blocked by temporary closure of the drainage channel through the terminal moraine that included much dead-ice. In the same mountain region, most other glacier-lake expansions were not particularly large during the period from 1999–2008. Although events like the w-Zyndan glacier lake outburst occur infrequently in the high Central Asian mountains, such fast developing, short-lived lakes are particularly dangerous and not easy to monitor using satellite data. Appropriate measures to protect against such lake outburst hazards in this region include educating residents on glacier hazards and monitoring techniques, providing frequently updated maps of glacier lakes, and planning and monitoring land-use, including house locations.

C. Narama

2010-04-01

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Bismarck meets Beveridge on the Silk Road: coordinating funding sources to create a universal health financing system in Kyrgyzstan / Quand Bismarck rencontre Beveridge sur la Route de la soie: coordination des sources de financement pour créer un système universel de financement de la santé au Kyrgyzstan / Bismarck y Beveridge en la Ruta de la Seda: coordinación de las fuentes de financiación de un sistema de cobertura sanitaria universal en Kirguistán  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las opciones de reforma de la financiación de la salud se resumen a menudo como un dilema entre los sistemas basados en los impuestos generales (el llamado modelo Beveridge) y el seguro social de enfermedad (conocido como modelo Bismarck). La experiencia de diez años de reforma de la financiación sa [...] nitaria que ha acumulado Kirguistán desde que se implantó el fondo del seguro obligatorio de enfermedad en 1997 brinda un ejemplo excelente para demostrar que la reducción del problema de la financiación de la salud a la mera elección entre el modelo Beveridge y el modelo Bismarck constituye un error. En lugar de fragmentar el sistema considerando la población asegurada y la no asegurada, como han hecho muchos otros países de ingresos bajos y medios, las reformas llevadas a cabo en Kirguistán se guiaron por el objetivo de implantar un solo sistema para toda la población. Entre las iniciativas más importantes de esas reformas cabe citar la función y el desarrollo gradual del fondo de seguro médico obligatorio como el único comprador de servicios de atención sanitaria para toda la población, usando métodos de pago basados en los resultados; la plena reestructuración de los arreglos de mancomunación de los recursos, pasando de la antigua estructura presupuestaria descentralizada a un solo fondo común nacional; y el establecimiento de un paquete de prestaciones bien delimitado. Un aspecto fundamental del proceso fue la transformación de la función de los ingresos generales del presupuesto, principal fuente de financiación pública de la salud, que pasaron de subvencionar directamente el suministro de servicios a subvencionar la compra de servicios en nombre de toda la población a través del fondo del seguro de enfermedad. Replanteándose de ese modo su política de financiación de la salud, en particular la mancomunación de recursos, los reformadores del sistema de salud de Kirguistán han demostrado que es posible crear un sistema unificado y universal usando fondos de distinta procedencia de forma claramente complementaria. Abstract in english Options for health financing reform are often portrayed as a choice between general taxation (known as the Beveridge model) and social health insurance (known as the Bismarck model). Ten years of health financing reform in Kyrgyzstan, since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in [...] 1997, provide an excellent example of why it is wrong to reduce health financing policy to a choice between the Beveridge and Bismarck models. Rather than fragment the system according to the insurance status of the population, as many other low- and middle-income countries have done, the Kyrgyz reforms were guided by the objective of having a single system for the entire population. Key features include the role and gradual development of the compulsory health insurance fund as the single purchaser of health-care services for the entire population using output-based payment methods, the complete restructuring of pooling arrangements from the former decentralized budgetary structure to a single national pool, and the establishment of an explicit benefit package. Central to the process was the transformation of the role of general budget revenues - the main source of public funding for health - from directly subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services on behalf of the entire population by redirecting them into the health insurance fund. Through their approach to health financing policy, and pooling in particular, the Kyrgyz health reformers demonstrated that different sources of funds can be used in an explicitly complementary manner to enable the creation of a unified, universal system

Joseph, Kutzin; Ainura, Ibraimova; Melitta, Jakab; Sheila, O' Dougherty.

2009-07-01

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Trends in traffic collisions and injuries in Kyrgyzstan, 2003-2007 / Tendances des accidents et des blessures de la route au Kirghizistan sur la période 2003-2007 / Tendencias en las colisiones y las lesiones de tráfico en Kirguistán, entre 2003 y 2007  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos sobre las colisiones de vehículos motorizados, las lesiones y las muertes resultantes en Kirguistán para servir de apoyo al desarrollo de una política basada en la evidencia. MÉTODOS: Los datos sobre colisiones de vehículos motorizados y las estadísticas s [...] obre lesiones entre 2003 y 2008 procedieron de fuentes oficiales suministradas por el Departamento de Seguridad Vial y el Centro de Información Médica de la República, perteneciente al Ministerio de Sanidad. Los datos fueron analizados y comparados con los datos procedentes de estudios realizados en otros países de ingresos medios y bajos. RESULTADOS: Se observó una marcada heterogeneidad entre las diversas fuentes de datos. Las colisiones de vehículos motorizados provocadas por los conductores se duplicaron en el periodo comprendido entre 2003 y 2007. Durante dicho periodo, aumentó el parte de colisiones de vehículos motorizados, las muertes y las lesiones resultantes en un 34%, 33% y 47%, respectivamente. Dichos aumentos fueron proporcionalmente mayores que el crecimiento de la población o de los vehículos motorizados registrados. La proporción de lesiones atribuibles a las colisiones de vehículos motorizados aumentó un 14% y la tasa de mortalidad relacionada con este tipo de colisiones aumentó un 39% entre 2003 y 2007. CONCLUSIÓN: En Kirguistán están aumentando las colisiones de vehículos motorizados, al igual que el número de personas lesionadas o fallecidas por este motivo. Revertir esta tendencia implicará una colaboración más estrecha entre las agencias pertinentes y un sistema de vigilancia completo, además de mejoras operativas en la asistencia médica de urgencias, nuevas leyes de seguridad vial que se hagan cumplir de forma estricta y mejoras en la infraestructura de transportes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiological data on motor vehicle collisions, injuries and deaths in Kyrgyzstan to inform evidence-based policy development. METHODS: Data on motor vehicle collision and injury statistics covering 2003-2007 were obtained from official sources provided by the Department o [...] f Traffic Safety and the Ministry of Health's Republican Medical Information Centre.The data were analysed and compared with data derived from studies in other low- and middle-income countries. FINDINGS: Large heterogeneity between data sources was noted. Motor vehicle collisions caused by drivers increased twofold between 2003 and 2007. Reported motor vehicle collisions, deaths and injuries increased by 34%, 33% and 47%, respectively, over that period. Such increases were proportionately greater than the growth in population or in the number of registered motor vehicles.The proportion of injury attributable to motor vehicle collisions increased by 14% and the collision-related mortality rate increased by 39% in 2003-2007. CONCLUSION: In Kyrgyzstan, the number of motor vehicle collisions is rising and so is the number of those who are injured or killed in them. Reversing this trend will call for closer collaboration among relevant agencies and for a comprehensive surveillance system, along with operational improvements in emergency medical care, new and strictly enforced passenger safety laws and improvements to the transportation infrastructure.

Viola, Artikova; Michael E, Thompson; Elena, Platonova; Gerald F, Pyle; Samat, Toimatov.

2011-05-01

56

Trends in traffic collisions and injuries in Kyrgyzstan, 2003-2007 / Tendances des accidents et des blessures de la route au Kirghizistan sur la période 2003-2007 / Tendencias en las colisiones y las lesiones de tráfico en Kirguistán, entre 2003 y 2007  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos sobre las colisiones de vehículos motorizados, las lesiones y las muertes resultantes en Kirguistán para servir de apoyo al desarrollo de una política basada en la evidencia. MÉTODOS: Los datos sobre colisiones de vehículos motorizados y las estadísticas s [...] obre lesiones entre 2003 y 2008 procedieron de fuentes oficiales suministradas por el Departamento de Seguridad Vial y el Centro de Información Médica de la República, perteneciente al Ministerio de Sanidad. Los datos fueron analizados y comparados con los datos procedentes de estudios realizados en otros países de ingresos medios y bajos. RESULTADOS: Se observó una marcada heterogeneidad entre las diversas fuentes de datos. Las colisiones de vehículos motorizados provocadas por los conductores se duplicaron en el periodo comprendido entre 2003 y 2007. Durante dicho periodo, aumentó el parte de colisiones de vehículos motorizados, las muertes y las lesiones resultantes en un 34%, 33% y 47%, respectivamente. Dichos aumentos fueron proporcionalmente mayores que el crecimiento de la población o de los vehículos motorizados registrados. La proporción de lesiones atribuibles a las colisiones de vehículos motorizados aumentó un 14% y la tasa de mortalidad relacionada con este tipo de colisiones aumentó un 39% entre 2003 y 2007. CONCLUSIÓN: En Kirguistán están aumentando las colisiones de vehículos motorizados, al igual que el número de personas lesionadas o fallecidas por este motivo. Revertir esta tendencia implicará una colaboración más estrecha entre las agencias pertinentes y un sistema de vigilancia completo, además de mejoras operativas en la asistencia médica de urgencias, nuevas leyes de seguridad vial que se hagan cumplir de forma estricta y mejoras en la infraestructura de transportes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiological data on motor vehicle collisions, injuries and deaths in Kyrgyzstan to inform evidence-based policy development. METHODS: Data on motor vehicle collision and injury statistics covering 2003-2007 were obtained from official sources provided by the Department o [...] f Traffic Safety and the Ministry of Health's Republican Medical Information Centre.The data were analysed and compared with data derived from studies in other low- and middle-income countries. FINDINGS: Large heterogeneity between data sources was noted. Motor vehicle collisions caused by drivers increased twofold between 2003 and 2007. Reported motor vehicle collisions, deaths and injuries increased by 34%, 33% and 47%, respectively, over that period. Such increases were proportionately greater than the growth in population or in the number of registered motor vehicles.The proportion of injury attributable to motor vehicle collisions increased by 14% and the collision-related mortality rate increased by 39% in 2003-2007. CONCLUSION: In Kyrgyzstan, the number of motor vehicle collisions is rising and so is the number of those who are injured or killed in them. Reversing this trend will call for closer collaboration among relevant agencies and for a comprehensive surveillance system, along with operational improvements in emergency medical care, new and strictly enforced passenger safety laws and improvements to the transportation infrastructure.

Viola, Artikova; Michael E, Thompson; Elena, Platonova; Gerald F, Pyle; Samat, Toimatov.

57

Hydrological regime of Lake Adygine, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Glacier retreat in high mountain areas around the world is considered one of the major geosciences research topics of last decades. This process may result in formation and further development of glacial lakes that are often unstable and pose a threat to downstream valleys. The studied area is situated at the end of a tributary valley on the northern side of Kyrgyz range, about 40 km south of the capital - Bishkek. Glaciers of Central Tien Shan are considered very sensitive indicators of climate change. The studied lake is part of a system of young lakes situated near the front of a retreating glacier therefore it ranks among potentially dangerous ones. The area is closely observed, terrain research including bathymetric, geophysical, geodetic measurements was carried out during last ten years. The lake level and its dependence on the changing climatic conditions in the area have been monitored in detail at this location since August 2007. Data from two meteorological stations are used to explain lake water level fluctuations, especially during ablation season when the lake is drained by a surface channel. The hydrological regime of the lake is compared with a regime of glacial streams, individual factors that affect it are described and possible trends and uncertainties that arise from it are analysed. The lake is also drained by subsurface channels, and as the water level declines over the cold part of a year, their capacity is studied and compared among years. The main aim of the study is to explain any deviations or changes found in the hydrological regime of the lake and to decide whether their cause could mean a decreased stability of the lake dam. Part of the dam is made up of moraine with buried ice and as the lake is drained by subsurface channels, their capacity can be changed due to moraine subsidence when the ice melts. This may lead either to sudden enlargement of channels' capacity or to their blockage, both of which could cause lake outburst.

Falátková, Kristýna; Šobr, Miroslav; Kocum, Jan; Janský, Bohumír

2014-05-01

58

Mountain Atlas of Kyrgyzstan  : six ans de coopération statistique.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adriana Rabinovich [A. R.]  : Ce qui apparaît clairement dans l’ouvrage est un projet plus large dont l’atlas est l’un des produits. Le but en était de donner une vision globale des situations démographiques, économiques, sociales et culturelles dans les régions de montagne de la république du Kirghizstan. Martin Schuler [M. S.]  : C’était en effet le but du projet, intitulé : « la coopération statistique kirghize-suisse », dans sa deuxième phase, entre 1999 et 2004. ...

Adriana Rabinovich

2007-01-01

59

Designing Social Inquiry in Central Asia – A Case Study of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Central Asia offers a potential smorgasbord for researchers engaged in comparative analysis. Common shared characteristics of these states have provided and continue to provide opportunities for advances in our understanding of political and social phenomena of global importance, including state building, democratisation, nationalism and economic development. However, in conducting comparative case study research in Central Asia, researchers should be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of different comparative approaches. This article reviews and critiques one approach to comparative analysis that has become increasingly dominant in social science research, particularly in the US. Comparing events in two Central Asian countries during 2005, a period of heightened risk of colour revolution, the article highlights both strengths and weaknesses of this increasingly dominant approach, arguing instead for a more inclusive and pragmatic approach to comparative analysis both in Central Asia and to case study comparisons more generally as the best way to advance our understanding of important social and political phenomena.

Robert Kevlihan

2013-06-01

60

Three Universities in Georgia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan: The Struggle against Corruption and for Social Cohesion  

Science.gov (United States)

Universities may contribute to a nation's social cohesion through both direct and indirect means. In their syllabi they may include techniques necessary for understanding complex social problems. Faculty may model good behaviour in terms of listening and understanding points of view that may contradict their own. University administrators may…

Heyneman, Stephen P.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Trace fossils from Silurian and Devonian turbidites of the Chauvay area, southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The siliciclastic turbidite successions (Pul’gon and Dzhidala Formations that crop out in the eastern part of the Chauvay River valley, are marked on geological maps as a belt of terrigenous deposits of Silurian–Devonian age. They resemble deposits of overbank areas and depositional lobes of deep sea fans, and display common trace fossils particularly on lower surfaces of sandstone beds. Sixteen ichnotaxa representing four morphological groups have been distinguished. The trace fossil assemblages suggest their affiliation to the Nereites ichnofacies. Various branched, preturbidite forms predominate in both examined units, although the assemblages of individual units differ slightly in composition. In the Pulg’on Formation, small, densely distributed burrows commonly occur on lower surfaces of sandstone beds. Shallow burrowing depth together with relatively low diversity trace fossil assemblages indicate lowered oxygenation of the sea floor.

Micha? WARCHO?

2009-01-01

62

American boots and Russian vodka : external factors in the colour revolutions of Georgia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'Der Beitrag untersucht die Rolle von externem Druck in der Welle der sogenannten 'farbigen Revolutionen'. Durch die Analyse dreier konkreter Fallbeispiele - der Rosenrevolution in Georgien (2003), der orangenen Revolution in der Ukraine (2004) und der Tulpenrevolution in Kirgisistan (2005) - versuchen wir die Wirkungsbedingungen, aber auch die Beschränkungen, aufzuzeigen, denen externe Akteure, vor allem die USA und Russland, innerhalb der Bewegungen unterlagen, die die Massen mobilisierten...

O? Beacha?in, Donnacha; Polese, Abel

2008-01-01

63

75 FR 67013 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

...of August 26, 2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence...section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act...million from the United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund for...

2010-11-01

64

Phased Remediation Approach for Prevention of Risks Linked with Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

rthquake or a landslide, (part of the) tailing(s) content may be directed to the river Mailuu-Suu. Doses to the affected population may increase to multiple ten mSv per annum. Given the actual limited stability of Tailing No 3, the potential of such a disaster to occur is non-negligible. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options are evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilization and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu-Suu River valley are studied (translocation of other tailings, tunnel to deviate river, partial protection of river from landslide blockage). It was proposed to acquire a phased approach in time performing urgent limited stabilization options for Tailing No 3, improve the stability of the Tailing No 3 by COLMIX-columns in the medium-term, while investigating and evaluating further two long term remedial options: the translocation of the tailings and the long-right-bank river diversion tunnel. (author)

65

Oil and gas resources of the Fergana Basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgyzstan)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analysis is part of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA`s) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). This one for the Fergana Basin is an EIA first for republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU). This was a trial study of data availability and methodology, resulting in a reservoir-level assessment of ultimate recovery for both oil and gas. Ultimate recovery, as used here, is the sum of cumulative production and remaining Proved plus Probable reserves as of the end of 1987. Reasonable results were obtained when aggregating reservoir-level values to the basin level, and in determining general but important distributions of across-basin reservoir and fluid parameters. Currently, this report represents the most comprehensive assessment publicly available for oil and gas in the Fergana Basin. This full report provides additional descriptions, discussions and analysis illustrations that are beneficial to those considering oil and gas investments in the Fergana Basin. 57 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

1995-01-01

66

Are the stair case terraces in the Inylchek Valley (Central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan) of neotectonic or sedimentary origin?  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2011 we performed fieldwork at the Global Change Observatory "Gottfried Merzbacher" east of Gribkov Base. High-resolution satellite images show at least six ridges which can be traced on the northern slopes of the Inylchek Valley. These ridges parallel each other and are intersected by smaller erosional valleys. Detailed mapping of outcrops in the tributary valleys revealed intensively folded Paleozoic formations overlain by glacial and fluvioglacial deposits of a thickness of tens of meters. From the sedimentological point of view we differentiate between kame terraces (KT), which are defined as depositional terraces perched on valley sides, deposited by meltwater streams flowing between lateral glacier margins and the adjacent valley wall, and fluvial terraces (FT), deposited above the niveau of the present Inylchek River. In the investigated sector of the Inylchek Valley we mapped FT1 and FT2 above the recent valley floor of the braided Inylchek River. These terraces intersect with the debris fans of the tributary streams. Up the northern hill we mapped at least four higher ridges, which are interpreted as remnants of kame terraces. The first and second of these higher ridges do not differ significantly in altitude and are therefore considered remnants of KT1a & b, followed up by two higher kame terraces KT2 and KT3. Each kame terrace represents one distinct stage of deglaciation of the valley glacier in the Southern Inylchek Valley. When another lower kame terrace was deposited, the higher terrace partly eroded along the valley wall and finally turned into a ridge. The observation that former fluvioglacial terraces today form ridges between incised valleys provides an example for an inverted relief. From the morphology of six ridges on the northern slope of the Inylchek Valley we derive the following succession of glacial and periglacial processes: 1) The highest kame terrace 3 (KT3) was deposited between the glacier margin of the former Inylchek Glacier at 4000 m altitude and the adjacent valley wall. 2) The next lower kame terrace (KT2) at about 3920 m altitude documents the deglaciation of the Southern Inylchek Glacier by 80 metres. 3) The lowest kame terrace (KT1) is preserved at an altitude of 3850 m a.s.l., indicating that the Southern Inylchek Glacier melted down another 70 metres. 4) After the retreat of the Glacier at least two fluvial terraces document proglacial sedimentation in a braided river system of the Inylchek Valley (upper fluvial terrace FT2 and lower terrace FT1). 5) In the studied Gribkov sector the recent Inylchek River eroded FT1 by three meters. Despite the fact that many recent, historical and paleo-earthquakes have been recorded in the Northern and Central Tien Shan, and that many scarps and even terraces may have resulted either from slides or from neotectonic tilting, we do not interpret the set of multiple ridges on the northern slope of Inylchek Valley as of tectonic origin but present arguments for their fluvioglacial evolution.

Häusler, H.; Kopecny, A.; Leber, D.

2012-04-01

67

Threat assessment report. Regulatory aspects of the remediation and rehabilitation of nuclear legacy in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ts do not address the issues regarding safety assessments and safety cases or the implementation of long-term institutional control and monitoring of the abandoned dumps with radioactive wastes (RW) or future RW disposal sites, neither during operation nor after their closure. There is also a need to develop safety criteria (reference levels) and determine measures to be taken for existing exposure situations (past practices). In addition, there is a lack of safety requirements for different types of disposal facilities in accordance with the different categories of radioactive waste. Safety criteria and clearance levels are also not established. The NRPA, with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in the Central Asian countries to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and RW management in the Central Asian countries. Based on threat assessments that have been completed in each Central Asian country during the year 2010, this document focuses on the existing regulatory problems at the legacy sites and projects will address the regulatory documents which should be developed first. It is clear that in order to remove the threat connected with radioactive wastes, both that which has already been accumulated as a result of previous activity and that which is currently being generated in significant amounts and will be produced in the future, it is necessary to at least develop and implement: A National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management, including strategies for disposal of each category of the RW, allocation of responsibilities and financial assurance for these activities; Safety requirements on the design, siting, construction, operation, closure and establishment of the institutional control needed for disposal facilities in accordance with the approved national policy and strategy on radioactive waste management; and New classifications of radioactive waste according to the recently published international recommendations, including identification of corresponding categories; In addition, it is clear that in order to remove the threats connected with extensive territories contaminated by radionuclides, the rehabilitation of these areas is required and, accordingly, it is necessary to develop regulations on: Quantitative criteria defining reference levels for existing exposure situations, considering its justification, optimization and the graded approach; Criteria and hygienic specifications on the rehabilitation of territories contaminated with radioactive materials; The radiation safety of the personnel and the population during the subsequent use of the territory, buildings and constructions after rehabilitation; Reference levels for exposure dose constraints to prevent unreasonable irradiation of the population on the territories with radioactive contamination, and also to develop derived reference levels for the values of radiation parameters which can be directly measured when implementing radiation control; and Updating the exemption and clearance levels with the latest international recommendations. Finally, it is of crucial importance to strengthen the regulatory framework and infrastructure. Only with a strong regulatory body (or well-coordinated regulatory authorities) fulfilling its main responsibilities, namely authorization, inspection and enforcement, would it be possible to implement the remedial actions in a coherent and safe way. In addition, only with a strong regulatory infrastructure in place would it be possible to avoid the repetition of such bad experiences in ongoing practices and facilities or in new coming projects. Equal attention should also be paid to other non uranium mining and milling activities, such as the oil and gas industries. (Author)

68

Threat assessment report. Regulatory aspects of the remediation and rehabilitation of nuclear legacy in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the Soviet period, the uranium mining operations in Central Asia served as one of the main uranium producers for the Soviet Union (SU) military complex. The regulatory standards for exposure and emissions control to all Soviet Republics were administered by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and were the same across the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the former Soviet Republics became independent, but also inherited the legacy in the form of wastes, including those from uranium ore processing and tailings and old Soviet regulatory documents, which are mostly inconsistent with the international standards and guidances and need substantial improvements. Many radioactive waste storage facilities in Central Asia, especially in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, are located in regions of seismic activity, in landslide- and mud flow-prone areas and areas subject to flooding and high ground water levels, and near the banks of the rivers that form the base of the large water basin of the Central Asian region. Many tailings are situated near towns, other populated areas and state borders, and they represent a long-term hazard to health and the environment. In regard to the legal and regulatory framework, it should be noted that none of the Central Asian countries have a National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management developed and approved by the Governments. Existing regulatory documents do not address the issues regarding safety assessments and safety cases or the implementation of long-term institutional control and monitoring of the abandoned dumps with radioactive wastes (RW) or future RW disposal sites, neither during operation nor after their closure. There is also a need to develop safety criteria (reference levels) and determine measures to be taken for existing exposure situations (past practices). In addition, there is a lack of safety requirements for different types of disposal facilities in accordance with the different categories of radioactive waste. Safety criteria and clearance levels are also not established. The NRPA, with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in the Central Asian countries to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and RW management in the Central Asian countries. Based on threat assessments that have been completed in each Central Asian country during the year 2010, this document focuses on the existing regulatory problems at the legacy sites and projects will address the regulatory documents which should be developed first. It is clear that in order to remove the threat connected with radioactive wastes, both that which has already been accumulated as a result of previous activity and that which is currently being generated in significant amounts and will be produced in the future, it is necessary to at least develop and implement: A National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management, including strategies for disposal of each category of the RW, allocation of responsibilities and financial assurance for these activities; Safety requirements on the design, siting, construction, operation, closure and establishment of the institutional control needed for disposal facilities in accordance with the approved national policy and strategy on radioactive waste management; and New classifications of radioactive waste according to the recently published international recommendations, including identification of corresponding categories; In addition, it is clear that in order to remove the threats connected with extensive territories contaminated by radionuclides, the rehabilitation of these areas is required and, accordingly, it is necessary to develop regulations on: Quantitative criteria defining reference levels for existing exposure situations, considering its justification, optimization and

Zhunussova, T.; Sneve, M.; Romanenko, O.; Solomatina, A.; Mirsaidov, I.

2011-06-15

69

Seismogenic Convolutions in Lacustrian Deposits in Issyk-Kul (kyrgyzstan) and Sevan (armenia) Lakes as Indicators of Strong Paleoseismic Events  

Science.gov (United States)

During recent field investigations we found evidence of sediment deformation structures in one of the most tectonically active areas on the globe: the Tien Shan range in Central Asia and Armenian Highland, Caucasus. We are focused on examining the significance of the deformations as indicators of palaeoseismicity. Soft-sediment deformation structures in the form of balls, pillows, pockets, sharp "waves" and pseudo-nodules are exposed in the Issyk-Kul and Sevan Lakes basins, within interfingering beds of shallow lacustrine, beach and fluviatile origin. Additional deformation structures that were encountered include: a complex and chaotic folded structure, giant balls and a ''pillar'' structure which has not been previously reported, where marl intrudes down into coarse pebbley sand and forms pillar morphology. Liquefaction features and bedforms related to storm and breaking waves were not encountered. Neither was there evidence of turbidites. Seven field criteria for relating soft sediment deformation to palaeoseismic triggering provide strong evidence for a seismic origin of the deformation structures. Empirical relationships between magnitude and the maximum distance from an epicenter to liquefaction sites make the active epicentral zone north of Lake Issyk-Kul and east of the Sevan, with its frequent high magnitude events, the most favorable source for the deformation structures. Luminescence dating of the sediments of the Issyk-Kul lake gives a time window of 26F2.1 to 10.5F0.7 ka BP, indicating latest Pleistocene seismic activity. According to relative geological scheme the Sevan seismites are Pleistocene-Holocene age. The field investigation were supported in frame of NATO project "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Respouse" (CauSER) SfP 983284. Seimogenic convolution in lacustrian deposits of Sevan lake (Armenia) Giant sand "Pillow" in Issyk-Kul lake deposits

Avanesyan, M.; Korzhenkov, A.; Karakhanyan, A.

2012-12-01

70

Geological development and Phanerozoic crustal accretion in the western segment of the southern Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tien Shan form a high intracontinental mountain belt, lying north of the main India-Asia collision mountains, and consist of re-activated Paleozoic orogens. The western segment of the southern Tien Shan lies northwest of the Pamir and west of the Talas-Fergana fault. The stratigraphy, lithology, igneous and metamorphic petrology and geochemistry of this segment indicate that it was formed by the assembly of Lower Paleozoic arcs which developed into microcontinents with Upper Paleozoic mature shelf and slope clastic and carbonate sediments. Precambrian continental crust is confined to two small blocks along its southern margin. The bulk of the southern Tien Shan consists of ?Vendian to Silurian oceanic and slope clastic rocks, resting on oceanic lithosphere, and overlain by thick passive margin Devonian to mid-Carboniferous mature shelf clastics and carbonates. These are unconformably overlain by syn- and post-orogenic immature clastic sediments derived from mountains on the north formed by closure of a Carboniferus southern Tajik and a northern Vendian to Carboniferous Turkestan ocean with the southern Tien Shan microcontinent sandwiched between. Associated with these collisions are late Carboniferous to Permian intrusives, which form three south to north (though overlapping) suites; a southern calc-alkaline granodiorite-granite suite, an intermediate gabbro-monzodiorite-granite suite, and a northern alkaline monzodiorite-granite-alaskite suite. The gabbro-monzodiorite-granite suite forms the earliest subduction-related magmatism of the southern Tien Shan: rare earth element patterns are consistent with derivation from a primitive or slightly enriched mantle. The other suites show more crustal contamination. Rb and Sr vary with depth and degree of partial melting and are consistent with progressive involvement of crustal material in partial melts during collision. The gradual change in composition within each complex, lasting in some cases from 295 to 250 Ma (the entire Permian), may be explained by a consecutive shift in the melting sedimentary cover of the subducting plate from oceanic crust through transitional crust to marginal continental crust. Like the Central Asian orogenic belt (the main focus of IGCP 420), the Tien Shan represent a net addition of continental crust during the Phanerozoic. Very little of the belt has any Precambrian precursor.

Brookfield, M. E.

2000-12-01

71

8 CFR 1236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Malta Mauritius Moldova Mongolia Nigeria Philippines Poland Romania Russian...Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,...

2010-01-01

72

8 CFR 236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Malta Mauritius Moldova Mongolia Nigeria Philippines Poland 4 4 Consular...Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,...

2010-01-01

73

Disequilibrium between uranium and its progeny in the Lake Issyk-Kul system (Kyrgyzstan) under a combined effect of natural and manmade processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the lake center for the past century, found from 210Pb, was 0.32 mm yr-1. 238U/226Ra in deep-water sediments was about 3. The activity of uranium adsorbed by sediments from the lake water was estimated by subtraction of the Ra-equilibrium component from the total U activity. Thus, the flux of dissolved U to the bottom sediments was as 2.07 x 10-7 g cm-2 yr-1. The upper section of near-shore deposits was disturbed by currents, with 137Cs and 210Pbatm more or less uniformly distributed in this layer. Peaks of 226Ra and 210Pb occur at different depths from 5 to 20 cm below the sediment surface, with 238U/226Ra ratios 0.28-0.44. The presence of mullite in these sediments indicated that radioactive ash penetrated into the lake in the past. At present, 226Ra in the ash is buried under a non-radioactive cap

74

Assessment of the main natural radionuclides, minor and trace elements in soils and sediments of the Shu valley (near the border of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New data on the concentrations of the main gamma-emitting radionuclides, minor and trace elements, and isotopes of uranium (with Ra-226 as a daughter product of U-238) and thorium in soils and sediments of the Shu valley (from the river Chon-Kemin to the river Kuragatty downstream the river Shu) are presented, determined by high-resolution gamma-spectrometry, k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis and alpha-spectrometry with appropriate radiochemical separations of the samples, respectively. The results obtained showed an aquatic migration pathway of most of the trace elements and radionuclides and predicted water pollution downstream the river Shu. The scandium method showed pollution by As, Br, Ca, Cr, Zr of the Tasotkel dam impoundment and by Ca and Cr of the river Shu below its confluence with the river Kuragatty. According to the disequilibrium isotopic method for uranium (using the isotopic ratio U-234/U-238), areas with accumulation and leaching processes were estimated for soils and sediments of the river Shu and its main inflows. (author)

75

Surface rupture along the Chon Aksu and Aksu (eastern) segments of the 1911 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1911 Ms 8.2 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake is one of the largest intraplate reverse-faulting events to occur historically. It ruptured a 200 km E-W trending zone in the northern Tien Shan. Description of the characteristics of major historic earthquakes, such as the Chon-Kemin event, provide data on the primary deformation and its initial geomorphic degradation, thus informing paleoseismological investigations. Trace geometry and offset distribution are key parameters for the interpretation of the seismotectonic setting and mechanical interaction with other regional structures. The Chon-Kemin earthquake's relationship to other large regional earthquakes, notably the 1887 Ms 7.3 Verny and 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik events, indicates a strong interaction between structures in this portion of the Tien Shan. We reconnoitered most of the Chon-Kemin rupture belt and associated mass movements and conclude that many of the 1911 features are still well preserved. We emphasized mapping and description of the easternmost 50 km of the rupture, along the Aksu (easternmost) and Chon-Aksu segments. Moving from east to west, 1-3 m high fault scarps and warped Holocene terraces discontinuously cut the piedmonts north and northeast of the town of Anan'evo. The rupture closely follows the mountain front and enters the range just below the Anan'evo landslide (formed in the earthquake). Scarp heights are 2-4 m. West of the Tegermenty River, the left-stepping rupture is continuous and consists of sub parallel strands in places. Between the Sutubulak and the Aksu River crossing, some of the tallest scarps are present, with heights of 6 - 10 m. The generally north-dipping fault zone has low south dips in the near surface as the thrust has driven the hanging wall over the south-sloping piedmont. This change in dip is likely responsible for the formation of E-W extensional faults in the hanging wall. Given the shallow fault dips and tall scarps in this area, 1911 displacement is probably > 10 m. The Aksu segment ends in a 5 km wide left step through the Kok Bel Pass into the Chon Asku Valley. Fault scarps are 2-4 m high and a small corral, offset in 1911, shows no evidence for strike-slip displacement. In the Kok Bel Pass, the hanging wall (northwestern) is crossed by numerous clear and straight fault scarps trending mostly NE. The eastern 9 km of the Chon Aksu segment preserves the most spectacular tectonic landforms from the 1911 rupture. Scarps are typically uphill-facing and 6-8 m high in this reach with some domal uplifts deforming Pleistocene fluvial terraces. Two tectonically dammed lakes were formed by the 1911 earthquake. In addition, the Chon Aksu river was offset with the upstream side uplifted about 6 m. In the upper Chon Aksu Valley, the rupture is not well expressed, because of vigourous fluvial, periglacial and glacial activity. Notable fractures on ridgetops on the south side of the valley across from the Kulugan Tash rockfall are well preserved, but their formation as primary ground rupture or shaking induced settling is ambiguous. For 5 km west of the Kulugan Tash, no landforms were unambiguously attributable to ground rupture. Together with 1911 earthquake features in the study area, we also observed scarps and mass movements belonging to paleoseismic catastrophes. They indicate recurrence of major earthquakes along this structure during the Holocene and late Pleistocene.

Arrowsmith, J. R.; Crosby, C. J.; Korjenkov, A. M.; Mamyrov, E.; Povolotskaya, I. E.

2004-12-01

76

Correcting for inclination shallowing of early Carboniferous sedimentary rocks from Kyrgyzstan—indication of stable subtropical position of the North Tianshan Zone in the mid-late Palaeozoic  

Science.gov (United States)

High-quality palaeomagnetic data for the early Carboniferous of Central Asia are scarce and the palaeogeographic evolution of this area prior to final amalgamation of the region east of the Ural mountains is still rather obscure. Here, we present palaeomagnetic data for early Carboniferous deposits from two areas in the Kyrgyz North Tianshan (NTS). Detailed rock-magnetic analysis indicates the presence of magnetite and haematite as magnetic carriers in these red sediments. In the Kazakh basin section (KEL), we identify a high-temperature component (HTC) of magnetization during stepwise thermal demagnetization at temperatures of up to ˜680 °C yielding a site mean direction of D = 176.2°, I = -36.4°, k = 57.4 and ?95 = 8.9° after tilt correction. Two HTCs of magnetization were identified in samples from the Sonkul Basin (DUN) with maximum blocking temperatures of ˜600 °C (magnetite) and ˜680 °C (haematite). The magnetite component was also identified with alternating field demagnetization. The resulting site mean directions for these two components identified in 16 and 14 sites, respectively, are D = 149.3°, I = -50.3°, k = 73.6 and ?95 = 4.3° for the magnetite and D = 139.6°, I = -35.1°, k = 71.6 and ?95 = 4.7° for the haematite component. All three mean directions show a significant increase of the precision parameter k after tilt correction indicating acquisition of the high-temperature magnetization prior to the main folding event in the Jurassic. We explain the difference of the two components of DUN by a process of inclination bias due to compaction to which the platy haematite particles are more susceptible. Applying the elongation-inclination (E/I) method to directional data from over 100 individual samples from location DUN results in a negligible correction for the magnetite component (magnetization was applied, yielding a corrected inclination of -75.2° ± 4°. Assuming comparable degrees of compaction for both study areas and applying the flattening factor obtained in DUN on samples from KEL, however, would result in comparable inclinations. The identification of inclination shallowing at both sections indicates that the age of magnetization is close to the deposition age. Assuming a reversed polarity of the directions from both areas results in palaeolatitudes of ˜30°N for section DUN and ˜60°N for the anisotropy-based correction of section KEL. The large difference, however, is geologically very unlikely. The inclination of the magnetite component of DUN (unaffected by inclination shallowing) favours a palaeoposition of ˜30°N. This is supported by the inclination shallowing corrected haematite component of DUN yielding a comparable inclination. Therefore, our results indicate that the NTS domain was situated at ˜30°N in the early Carboniferous. Furthermore, the NTS zone was probably not connected to Baltica or Siberia prior to the late Palaeozoic.

Kirscher, U.; Bilardello, D.; Mikolaichuk, A.; Bachtadse, V.

2014-08-01

77

Guidelines  

by Armenia Progress report by Azerbaijan Progress report by Georgia Coffee break Progress report by Kazakhstan Progress report by ...MEETING Second round of monitoring of Kyrgyzstan, 1 st reading Coffee break Second round of monitoring of Kyrgyzstan, ...MEETING Second round of monitoring of Kyrgyzstan, 2nd reading Coffee break Combined first and second round of monitoring

78

IDEOLOGICAL APPROACHES OF FOLKLORE STUDIES IN KYRGYZSTAN ON THE SOVIET UNION PERIOD: ERSOLTONOY EPIC EXAMPLE SOVYETLER B?RL??? DÖNEM?NDE KIRGIZ?STAN’DA FOLKLOR ÇALI?MALARINDA ?DEOLOJ?K YAKLA?IMLAR: ER SOLTONOY DESTANI ÖRNE??  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Folklore, emerged in the 19th century with the romance movement as a tool of nationalizm, acted as shield aganist discriminative movements in the countries which weren’t able to achieve political unity. Political movement, which doesn’t consist freedom of expression and based on single party system like socialism, nazism and communism, wanted to take advantage of all communication channels for propaganda purpose. These movements imposed important folklore products which was considered as a means of communication and interaction. One of these is to understand the judgements values and develop policies on this judgements, other is to ensure harmony between the regime and people-more clearly by formatting fort he purpose of regime.Socialism which is of the movements using folklore for the ideological purpose have benefited from folklore to make people of occupied countries for he emperialist purpose compatible. Epic type, decorated with elements of romantics and nationalism, is used to increase nationalism by the Turks tribes where oral culture is dominant during the war period at ordinary times has taken spokemanship of proletariat class. Such work has been tested on the Kyrgyz Turks which were nomadic horseman and interested in the type of epic proceeding from Er Soltonoy’s of Kyrgyz Turks. 19. yüzy?lda ortaya ç?kan romantizm hareketiyle ulusla?man?n bir arac? olarak görülen folklor ürünleri, siyasi birli?ini salayamam?? ülkeler taraf?ndan d??tan gelecek ayr??t?r?c? ak?mlara kar?? kalkan görevini görmü?tür. Nazizm, Sosyalizm ve Komünizm gibi tek parti sistemine dayanan ve ifade özgürlü?ünün olmad??? siyasi ak?mlar ise halka ula?abilecekleri bütün ileti?im kanallar?ndan propaganda amac?yla yararlanmak istemi?ler; bu ak?mlar dönemin ileti?im araçlar?ndan say?lan folklor ürünlerine de bu ba?lamda önemli görevler yüklemi?lerdir. Bu görevlerden biri, halk?n de?er yarg?lar?n? anlamaya ve bu de?er yarg?lar? üzerinde politikalar geli?tirmeye yönelikken, di?eri de geli?tirilen bu politikalarla halk?n de?er yarg?lar? üzerinde oynama yaparak halkla rejim aras?nda uyum sa?lamak, daha aç?k bir ifade ile halk? rejimin amaçlar? do?rultusunda biçimlendirerek ferdin kendisi olmas?n? de?il “rejimin adam?” olmas?n? sa?lamakt?r. Folkloru ideolojik amaçlar do?rultusunda kullanan ak?mlardan biri olan Sosyalizm, emperyalist amaçlarla i?gal etti?i ülke vatanda?lar?n? sistemle uyumlu hale getirmek için folklor ürünlerinden çok s?k yararlanm??t?r. Özellikle sözlü kültürün hâkim oldu?u Türk boylar?nda romantik ve milliyetçi ö?elerle süslü destan türü, sava? döneminde milliyetçili?in dozunu art?rmak için kullan?rken, ola?an dönemlerde proletarya s?n?f?n?n sözcülü?üne büründürülmü?tür. Bu tip çal??malar atl?-göçebe özelliklerini yak?n zamana kadar sürdüren ve destan türüne özel bir ilginin oldu?u K?rg?z Türkleri üzerinde de denenmi?tir. Bu çal??mada K?rg?z Türklerinin Er Soltonoy Destan? örne?inden yola ç?karak destan türü üzerinde yap?lan ideolojik tahrifatlar üzerinde durulacakt?r.

Mehmet ÇER?BA?

2012-01-01

79

7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Allium sativum (garlic) bulbs Algeria, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of...

2010-01-01

80

15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Kenya Korea (Republic of) Kuwait Kyrgyzstan... Luxembourg Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta... Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand The United Arab...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation...Hungary, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Nigeria, Uzbekistan...Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Malta, Moldova, Norway, Uzbekistan,...

2010-10-01

82

7 CFR 319.59-3 - Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia...Moldova, Morocco, Nepal, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Portugal...Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, South Africa, South Korea, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and...

2010-01-01

83

GNF - Lake Issyk-Kul  

...at an altitude of 1,600 m in the high mountain range of Tien-Shan (Heaven’s mountains) in the north of Kyrgyzstan. Issyk-Kul,...Kyrgyzstan, Living Lakes, Tien-Shan, glaciers, syrts, mats, flower-bloom, Brown Bear, Siberian Roe Deer, Lynx, Steppe ...Sheep, Marco-Polo-Sheep, Tien- Shan Squirrel, Pika, Snow Leopard, Markhor, Ibex, Bearded Vulture, Steppe Eagle, Mountain GNF - ...at an altitude of 1,600 m in the high mountain range of Tien-Shan (Heavenrsquo;s mountains) in the north of Kyrgyzstan. ...

84

27 CFR 447.52 - Import restrictions applicable to certain countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

...furtherance of world peace and the security and foreign policy of the United States. Note: Changes in foreign policy may result in additions to and deletions...Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Turkmenistan,...

2010-04-01

85

47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Indonesia and Japan on a primary basis, subject to agreement obtained under No. 9.21, having particular regard to troposcatter systems. 5.387Additional allocation:In Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan,...

2010-10-01

86

The condition and problems of joint using of Toktogul reservoir in Central Asian region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is dedicated to mutual relations between branch water and fuel-energy structures of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan in part of regulation and using water resources of Narin River

87

15 CFR 772.1 - Definitions of terms as used in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Science.gov (United States)

...Cambodia, Cuba, the People's Republic of China, Georgia, Iraq, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan...either in the form of isolated live cultures or as material including living material...deliberately inoculated or contaminated with such cultures. Microprocessor microcircuit . (Cat...

2010-01-01

88

15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).  

Science.gov (United States)

...Uganda, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, Western Sahara, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. (2) Eligible commodities...Kosovo, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Macau, Macedonia (The Former Yugoslav Republic of), Mauritania,...

2010-01-01

89

7 CFR 319.59-3 - Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...writing to Phytosanitary Issues Management, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road, Unit 140, Riverdale, MD 20737-1236. (a) The...Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Libya, Lithuania, Moldova, Morocco, Nepal, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan,...

2010-01-01

90

Environment for Europe process - ARCHIVE: Defra  

Apr 22, 2003 ... The EfE process seeks to improve coordination of national and international ... in \\North America (Canada and America), Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, ... \\Commitment to develop a strategy on education for sustainable ...

91

Uranium Deposits Radioactive Hazards  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Assessment of Radioactive Hazard of Developed Jilskiy (Kyrgyzstan), Adrasman and Taboshar (Tajikistan) Uranium Deposits, Development and Typification of Actions on Rehabilitation of the Areas and Facilities for the Central Asia Region

92

50 CFR 17.40 - Special rules-mammals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Railroad Grade and Reserve Mining Co...Upon receiving from the governments of Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia...capacity to obtain sound data on these populations...Report. Range country governments (Argentina, Bolivia...and (I) Export data for the last...

2010-10-01

93

Electricity in Central Asia: Market and investment opportunity report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.

NONE

2007-09-15

94

Find an ACFAS Physician  

Science.gov (United States)

... Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Dem People's Rep Korea, Rebublic Of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Dem ... Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the SSI Spain Sri ...

95

7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Luxembourg, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malta, Mexico, Republic of Moldova, Morocco, the...Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, New Zealand...free of the BC-1 and BC-2 strains of blueberry scorch carlavirus. (u) Special...

2010-01-01

96

8 CFR 1236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.  

Science.gov (United States)

...notification should be made to the nearest office of the Taiwan Economic and Cultural Representative's Office, the unofficial entity...Hungary Jamaica Kazakhstan Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Malta Mauritius Moldova Mongolia Nigeria...

2010-01-01

97

8 CFR 236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.  

Science.gov (United States)

...informed without delay that the nearest office of the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (“TECRO”), the unofficial...Hungary Jamaica Kazakhstan Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Malta Mauritius Moldova Mongolia Nigeria...

2010-01-01

98

THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE SOCIO-POLITICAL PROCESSES IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article deals with the foreign policy of the Kyrgyz Republic and the influence of geopolitical factors on the political processes in the country. The paper presents a periodization of foreign policy in modern Kyrgyzstan concerning the United States. The author reviewed the draft F. Starr's "Greater Central Asia" and analyzed the "theory of controlled chaos". Big attention is paid to the relationships of Kyrgyzstan and Russia , the USA and China, on the one hand, and with the nearest neighbors in the region, on the other. The paper analyzes the project for the construction of the railway "China - Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan". Russia takes one of the central points in the paper. Much attention is paid to the economic sphere, namely the construction of hydroelectric power. Due to the growing number of labor migrants from Kyrgyzstan to Russia , the article discusses the legislative framework in this area. The author lists the key factors that cause social and political problems between Kyrgyzstan and neighboring countries. This paper discusses in detail issues related to the enclaves and the disputed territories.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-31

?????????? ?????????????? ???????

2013-10-01

99

The Members of the Agency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.58) is Kyrgyzstan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2003. The list shows the dates on which the present 137 Member States became Members

100

LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

 
 
 
 
101

Barriers to Coverage of Transborder Environmental Issues in the Ferghana Valley of Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Three former Soviet republics occupy Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, a region of serious transborder environmental problems, especially ones that involve water and energy. Most news organizations in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan provide little in-depth coverage of these issues. Journalists in one country usually do not seek news…

Freedman, Eric

2014-01-01

102

Understanding Teaching beyond Content and Method: Insights from Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study suggests the need for complex research approaches that provide richer, contested, and nondichotomous portrayals of classrooms, schooling life, and teachers. Drawing from a qualitative study of Tajik teachers' practices and perspectives (Niyozov, 2001) and studies on teaching conducted in Kyrgyzstan (De Young, Reeves, & Valyaeva , 2006;…

Niyozov, Sarfaroz

2009-01-01

103

Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first…

Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.

2007-01-01

104

Regulatory Support Program in Central Asia. Progress and new bilateral project with the State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Republic of Uzbekistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A meeting of the regional regulatory support program in Central Asia (CA) was held in May 25 to 26, 2011 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where parties discussed ongoing bilateral cooperation between the NRPA and the regulatory bodies of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Author)

NONE

2011-07-01

105

Srovnání kulturních zm?n u afghanských Kyrgyz? a Kyrgyz? v Kyrgystánu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Creation of the national state in Kyrgyzstan had significant influence to national awareness of the Kyrgyz. It was aroused here an interest in the history of own nation, there were presented historical constructs to the population about the ancientness and certain exclusivity of the Kyrgyz ethnic group, what many inhabitants adopted. For all Kyrgyz in all investigated areas is common relatively high historical awareness of membership to the Kyrgyz nation – this perception is not bound to the language. All Kyrgyz living beyond the Kyrgyzstan border perceive very similarly the creation of national state. It is a symbol of their national identity for them, to which they are looking up with a certain respect. Also the Afghani Kyrgyz that usually do not know the Kyrgyzstan state symbols express the wishes to visit Kyrgyzstan, a country, where they can feel as at home. More important that the proper area is the own existence of the Kyrgyz state that, already by its name, offers a certain proximity to the Kyrgyz living outside its borders.

Petr Kokaisl

2010-04-01

106

Uranium, radium and radon level on territory of Western Mining-Chemical Combine of Mailuu-Suu town (Kyrgyz Republic)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: During realization of research work on International Cooperative Program in area of trans-boundary monitoring of the rivers between the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and the USA (project 'Navruz') it was established that the possible source of contamination of the Aral Sea basin on territory of Kyrgyzstan can be a waste deposit of the Western Mining-Chemical combine (WMChC, Mailuu-Suu town). In particular, it was shown, that the uranium content in the Mailuu-Suu river near WMChC reaches 3.1·10-6 g/l, and on boundary with Uzbekistan - 1.8·10-6 g/l. It is necessary to note that the uranium content in potable waters of a Chu valley is almost one order higher, than in the river Mailuu-Suu. On territory of Uzbekistan in the Mailuu-Suu river the uranium content is 2·10-5 g/l, as well as in waters of Chu valley in Kyrgyzstan. The reasons of increase of uranium level on territory of Uzbekistan cannot be uniquely connected with the WMChC activity. Is this increase of technogenic or natural origin, is Kyrgyzstan a supplier of radioactive wastes for Uzbekistan or not? The report represents new materials on uranium and radium content in soils washed by waters of the river Mailuu-Suu and on the content of radon in the air around WMChC

107

7 CFR 305.2 - Approved treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...MB&CT T108-a-1 or T108-a-2 or T108-a-3.Lithuania GrapeLobesia botranaMB T101-h-2. Ceratitis...Germany, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Russia, Serbia and...

2010-01-01

108

By Country - OECD  

...Islamic Republic of Iran Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestinian Administered Areas Panama Papua ...Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestinian Administered Areas Panama ...

109

By Country - OECD  

...Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestinian Administered Areas Panama Papua New Guinea ...Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestinian Administered Areas Panama ...

110

The politico-institutional foundation of economic transition in Central Asia: Lessons from China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Central Asia is increasingly the focus of intense international attention because of its geopolitical and economic importance as well as its unsettled transition processes. Central Asian countries, i.e., Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, faced enormous challenges when the Soviet Union disintegrated. Overall, they have made rudimentary progress in opening up to the international community, creating market institutions, and building more inclusive, democratic pol...

Ahrens, Joachim

2009-01-01

111

Communication received from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation to the Agency concerning a statement of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Agency has received a communication dated 30 August 2005 from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation, attaching a statement by the heads of State of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan adopted at the Moscow session of the Collective Security Council of the Collective Security Treaty Organization on 23 June 2005. The communication from the Russian Federation and, as requested therein, its attachment, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

112

OH CHARACTERS OF AMAN SASPAEV STORIES
AMAN SASPAEV’?N ÖYKÜLER?NDE K???LER DÜNYASI
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aman Saspayev who started his writer's life at China and is one of the today's Kyrgyz literature writers, his stories hold a peculiar place in a technical organization and also in terms of expression at Kyrgyz storytelling. First stories of writer published at 1966 with the name of Gülkay?r (Ebegümeci) after he had returned from China to Kyrgyzstan. Aman Saspayev who used a symbolic language, had fronted to status storytelling more than event storytelling. Probably for this reoson people's...

Sasykulova, Chinara

2011-01-01

113

[Detection of Anopheles artemievi Gordeev et al. (Diptera, Culicidae) in Turkmenistan].  

Science.gov (United States)

Anopheles artemievi (a member of An. maculipennis complex species) described from the Transfergana region (South Kyrgyzstan) in 2004 was first found in the Lebap veloyat (Eastern Turkmenistan). A single larva of this species was collected together with An. superpictus in the irrigation channel of a rice field. Species affiliation has been proven by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. This species is to be included into a list of Anopheles species of Turkmenistan. PMID:20873182

Zvantsov, A B; Rozyev, K; Gordeev, M I; Goriacheva, I I; Khemzaev, Kh; Ezhov, M N

2010-01-01

114

Toward a New Policy for Scientific and Technical Communication: the Case of Kyrgyz Republic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this policy paper is to formulate a new policy in the field of scientific and technical information (STI) in Kyrgyz Republic in the light of emergence and rapid development of electronic scientific communication. The major problem with communication in science in the Republic is lack of adequate access to information by scientists. An equally serious problem is poor visibility of research conducted in Kyrgyzstan and, as consequence, negligible research impac...

Djenchuraev, Nurlan

2004-01-01

115

State builders, nation destroyers? Clans and national cohesion in Central Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Contrary to prevailing theories on clans, high levels of national identification, as reported in an AsiaBarometer survey conducted in 2005, indicate that citizens of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan possess a greater proclivity to a civic identity than to any other form of subnational identification. This essay examines the relationship between state and society, in order to understand how high levels of national identification can exist in a political and social arena trapped within the...

Kim, Hyun K.

2009-01-01

116

Central Asia: hotspot in the worldwide HIV epidemic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The HIV epidemic in central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) has accelerated since 2000. This expansion in the epidemic is largely attributable to escalating injection drug use, reflecting central Asia's geographic position along major drug trafficking routes. Although up to 75% of cumulative HIV cases have been among injection drug users (IDUs) so far, HIV infections are increasing in other population groups, including female sex workers and their clien...

Thorne, C.; Ferencic, N.; Malyuta, R.; Mimica, J.; Niemiec, T.

2010-01-01

117

Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flo...

Doolotkeldieva, T. D.

2010-01-01

118

Radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya river (II)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article contains the results obtained during the radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya River, which was conducted within the frames of international collaboration of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and USA. The data on the nature of radionuclide distribution of uranium and thorium rows in bottom and soil is presented. Reasons of formation of the observed dependence of the obtained results on the distance from the source are discussed. (author)

119

Community-Based Associations for Sustainable Tourism Development : Fostering Sustainable Development in Developing Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Community-Based Tourism (CBT) is a bottom-up approach to sustainable developmentused in developing countries to enhance the conservation of natural resources, preservetraditional culture, and generate income at the local level. The study aims to understandthe effectiveness of community associations for CBT development in developingcountries. Ghana is selected as the primary case of this study. Published data on CBTassociations in Namibia, Uganda, Kyrgyzstan and Costa Rica are used as supporti...

Yamashita, Shihomi

2011-01-01

120

Silurian-Devonian active-margin deep-marine systems and palaeogeography, Alai Range, Southern Tien Shan, Central Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of Mid-Palaeozoic successions in the northern part of the Alai Range (Kyrgyzstan and bordering Uzbekistan), Southern Tien Shan, Central Asia, has identified a Silurian-Devonian deep-marine depositional system of basin-slope facies-associations. Here, we document the stratigraphy and sedimentology of a region in Central Asia that, through conflict, has become inaccessible for geological research. The turbidite-dominated Pul'gon Formation (Silurian) accumulated in sea-floor depressions...

Pickering, Kt; Koren, Tn; Lytochkin, Vn; Siveter, Dj

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

International Conference 'Uranium legacy of Soviet Union in Central Asia: problems and way forward' Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of the conference is to discuss safe management of uranium mill tailings, remediation activities foreseen under Eurasian Economic Community in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, existing problems and ways forward. A conference on this topic in Tajikistan with the support of the International Science and Technology Center and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority is relevant and very important taken into account foreseen remediation activities starting from 2013.

122

[Monogenea of the fishes from Chu River basin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of the long-term faunistic study of Monogenea from fishes of the Chu River basin are reported. Fauna of Monogenea in the studied area was found to include 51 species of 11 genera and 5 families. Thirteen parasite species occurred in the mountain part of the basin, and 40 species inhabit the valley zone, including 10 species of the Amur faunistic complex probably introduced to Kyrgyzstan together with acclimatized fishes. PMID:18825925

Karabekova, D U

2008-01-01

123

FARKLILIK S?YASET? ÜZER?NDEN BA?IMSIZ KIRGIZ?STAN’DA ÇOKKÜLTÜRLÜLÜK VE ÇOKD?LL? E??T?M POL?T?KALARI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The troubled relationship between identity and difference as part of describing democratic theory in the light of the politics of difference became the hotly debated topic in the last period. We can approach to this problematic relationship the case of Kyrgyzstan as general in Central Asia, where carried out perspectives of educational language policy and planning. In this study will be available queries related to how to find a right way in macro and micro planes in a democracy, the data obt...

Emine Yavasgel

2013-01-01

124

Switzerland:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD  

...tax,social security, consumption, rates, corporate, tables, vat, gst, CIT, PIT, OECD data, OECD Statistics, average, country information,...6% in 2012, compared with 34.1% in 2011 and 33.8% in 2010. The ratio of tax revenues to GDP rose ...Republic | Denmark | Estonia | Finland | France | Germany | Greece | Hungary | Iceland | Ireland | Israel | Italy | Japan | Korea | Luxembourg | Mexico | ...Iraq Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic ...

125

Netherlands:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD  

...tax,social security, consumption, rates, corporate, tables, vat, gst, CIT, PIT, OECD data, OECD Statistics, average, country information,...6% in 2012, compared with 34.1% in 2011 and 33.8% in 2010. The ratio of tax revenues to GDP rose ...Republic | Denmark | Estonia | Finland | France | Germany | Greece | Hungary | Iceland | Ireland | Israel | Italy | Japan | Korea | Luxembourg | Mexico | ...Iraq Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic ...

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Slovenia:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD  

...tax,social security, consumption, rates, corporate, tables, vat, gst, CIT, PIT, OECD data, OECD Statistics, average, country information,...6% in 2012, compared with 34.1% in 2011 and 33.8% in 2010. The ratio of tax revenues to GDP rose ...Republic | Denmark | Estonia | Finland | France | Germany | Greece | Hungary | Iceland | Ireland | Israel | Italy | Japan | Korea | Luxembourg | Mexico | ...Iraq Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic ...

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Chile:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD  

...tax,social security, consumption, rates, corporate, tables, vat, gst, CIT, PIT, OECD data, OECD Statistics, average, country information,...6% in 2012, compared with 34.1% in 2011 and 33.8% in 2010. The ratio of tax revenues to GDP rose ...Republic | Denmark | Estonia | Finland | France | Germany | Greece | Hungary | Iceland | Ireland | Israel | Italy | Japan | Korea | Luxembourg | Mexico | ...Iraq Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic ...

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Poland:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD  

...tax,social security, consumption, rates, corporate, tables, vat, gst, CIT, PIT, OECD data, OECD Statistics, average, country information,...6% in 2012, compared with 34.1% in 2011 and 33.8% in 2010. The ratio of tax revenues to GDP rose ...Republic | Denmark | Estonia | Finland | France | Germany | Greece | Hungary | Iceland | Ireland | Israel | Italy | Japan | Korea | Luxembourg | Mexico | ...Iraq Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic ...

129

Spain:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD  

...tax,social security, consumption, rates, corporate, tables, vat, gst, CIT, PIT, OECD data, OECD Statistics, average, country information,...6% in 2012, compared with 34.1% in 2011 and 33.8% in 2010. The ratio of tax revenues to GDP rose ...Republic | Denmark | Estonia | Finland | France | Germany | Greece | Hungary | Iceland | Ireland | Israel | Italy | Japan | Korea | Luxembourg | Mexico | ...Iraq Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic ...

130

Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among turkish speaking countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 Nuclear Power Plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non proliferation of nuclear weapons, great affords were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides the co operations with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. The joint activities carried out are given as follows: '1st Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Applications' organized in Turkey on 23-27.10. 2000 by TAEK with co organizers from the related organizations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and sponsored by IAEA and OECD/NEA, '2nd Eurasia Conference' organized at Almaty on 16-19.09.2002 by Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan with the related organizations of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan as co organizers, NATO Workshop on Environmental Protection Against Radioactive Pollution by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan at Almaty on 16-19.09.2002, joint 'Eurasia Nuclear Bulletin' covering activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy in these countries published in August 2002. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (Cabot). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

131

Radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya river  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article contains the results obtained during the radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya River, which was conducted within the frames of international collaboration of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and USA. The data on the nature of salinity of water, alfa- and beta-activity of water, bottom, water plants, and soil was obtained. Dependence of the obtained results on the distance form the source is discussed. The major life-providing arteries for the great region of Central Asia are Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. There are many countries next to the pools of these rivers: Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. There is a great concern caused by the shortage of supply of fresh water, severe epidemiological situation, and radiation conditions along of the pools of these rivers. Such conditions have developed as a result of intensive economic and industrial activities, and also of geological and geochemical features of this region. One of the most serious aspects of this problem is the weak scrutiny level of influence of large deposits of natural uranium and consequences of technological and industrial activities. Since November, 2000 Scientifics of four of the listed countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) have come to an agreement carrying out the teamwork on studying and monitoring the environment in the pools of Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers [1]. Collaborator of these works is Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, USA. During three expeditions each country in 15 control sites on their territory has conducted field researches and has obtained the samples of elements of the environment. Laboratory researches were carried out in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The first results were obtained in (2,3) and later in [4].Currently, the analysis of the data on salinity of water and alpha- and beta- activities of samples along Syr-Darya River is presented

132

Perapion connexum (Schilsky, 1902 (Coleoptera, Apionidae in Central Europe, a case of plant expansion chase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Perapion connexum (Schilsky is recorded for the first time from Hungary and Kyrgyzstan, and new distribution data from Ukraine and Russia are provided. Preliminary placements of this weevil in faunal checklists for Poland and Slovakia are here documented with detailed data. Its occurrence in Austria based on older evidence, is discussed. The neophytic and invasive in Central Europe sorrel Rumex confertus Willd. is confirmed to be its unique host plant in Poland. Morphology of the newcoming weevil is described and illustrated, and the key to all Central European species of Perapion is presented.

Marek Wanat

2012-03-01

133

Preliminary Sustainability Assessment of water resources management in the Ili-Balkhash Basin of Central Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Ili-Balkhash basin (IB basin) is a large freshwater system, covering 413 000 km2 in Kazakhstan, China and Kyrgyzstan. The main part of the watershed is situated in Kazakstan (85%) and a smaller part in northwestern China (15 %). The Kazakhstan's part of the IB basin embraces the territory of the Almaty region and Xinijang region. The water of the western lake Balkhash is slightly salty (1,2 %), while the eastern part has a considerably higher salt contamination (3,9 %). The lake has a sur...

Spitsyna, Anna; Spitsyna, Tatiana

2007-01-01

134

Jamaica:- Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Jamaica - OECD  

...Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Jamaica Aid for Trade,aid-for-trade,Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009,aid-for-tarde,Jamaica aid,development aid Jamaica ... Jamaica:- Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Jamaica - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics ...Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Jamaica › Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Jamaica Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Jamaica ...Indonesia Iraq Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's ...

135

Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement: a case study of a new terrorist organization in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) was designated a terrorist organization by Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, China, the United States, and the United Nations in 2002. However, no systematic studies have been published on the new terrorist organization in Xinjiang, China. Using a case-study approach and interviews, this article attempts to provide information in terms of its historical evaluation, related religious and ethnic issues, organizational agenda, activities, and role in the current international terrorist network. This article argues that better international cooperation and the improvement of social and religious policies will help curtail activities of the ETIM. PMID:14526597

Wang, John Z

2003-10-01

136

Russian Federation - OECD  

...on the Way to the OECD 15 January 2014 Secretary-General of the OECD in Moscow (15-16 January 2014) 14 January 2014 Informal employment in Russia: definitions, incidence, determinants and labour market segmentation 6 December 2013 Despite progress, the OECD remains concerned with Russiarsquo;s compliance with key provisions of the Anti-Bribery Convention 17 ...Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New ...

137

More News - OECD  

... Related Documents Gaidar Forum: Contours of the post-crisis world 6-December-2013 English Informal employment in Russia: definitions, incidence, determinants and labour market segmentation This paper takes stock of informal employment in Russia analysing its incidence and determinants. Using the regular 2003-11 waves and an informality supplement of ...Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New ...

138

Sampling and Surveying Hard-to-Reach Populations for Demographic Research: A Study of Female Labor Migrants in Moscow, Russia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because household-based survey designs are notoriously ineffective in studying hard-to-reach groups such as irregular migrants, these groups, however numerically large they may be, are rarely represented in demographic analyses. In this paper, we report on the application of a workplace-based stratified probability sampling design, response rate, and item-specific refusals in a recent study of irregular female migrants from Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan working in bazaars, eateries, and small retail outlets in Moscow, Russia. We argue that workplace-based survey, while not flawless, provides a uniquely feasible and cost-effective tool for studying irregular migrants and other marginalized groups.

Victor Agadjanian

2012-02-01

139

Preliminary geodetic results from a sparse Central Asian geodetic network  

Science.gov (United States)

A sparse network of six continuous and two campaign sites in western Pakistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and northern Afghanistan establish bounds on the modern strain rate across several large fault systems in the region, including the Chaman, Darvaz-Karakul and Herat faults. Prior estimates of slip rate on these faults from a variety of field and remote techniques range over more than an order of magnitude. Thus, their role in accommodating the western India-Asia collision may be clarified by these and future geodetic observations.

Mohadjer, S.; Ischuk, A.; Schelochkov, G.; Wasy, A.; Kakar, D.; Lodi, S.; Bendick, R.; Bilham, R.

2008-05-01

140

By Date - OECD  

... 23-February-2006 English OECD to work on clarifying VAT/GST application in cross-border trade The OECD is launching a new project aimed at providing guidance for governments on applying Value Added Taxes, or VAT - also called Goods and Services Tax, or GST, in some ...Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar ...

 
 
 
 
141

Slope stability monitoring from microseismic field using polarization methodology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerical simulation of seismoacoustic emission (SAE associated with fracturing in zones of shear stress concentration shows that SAE signals are polarized along the stress direction. The proposed polarization methodology for monitoring of slope stability makes use of three-component recording of the microseismic field on a slope in order to pick the signals of slope processes by filtering and polarization analysis. Slope activity is indicated by rather strong roughly horizontal polarization of the respective portion of the field in the direction of slope dip. The methodology was tested in microseismic observations on a landslide slope in the Northern Tien-Shan (Kyrgyzstan.

Yu. I. Kolesnikov

2003-01-01

142

Communication dated 11 September 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 11 September 2006, from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the IAEA regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006 in Semipalatinsk by the leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the enclosed information regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

143

Kiribati:- Aid at a glance charts - OECD  

... Kiribati:- Aid at a glance charts - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home ... › Kiribati › Aid at a glance charts Aid at a glance charts Send Print Tweet   See charts for individual donors and recipients, ...Republic of) Kazakhstan Panama Uruguay Colombia Kenya Papua New Guinea Uzbekistan Comoros Kiribati Paraguay Vanuatu Congo, Democratic Republic Korea, Democratic Republic Peru ...Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia ...

144

Magnetotelluric Data from the Tien Shan and Pamir Continental Collision Zones, Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

We present magnetotelluric (MT) data obtained within the framework of the multi-disciplinary Tien Shan - Pamir Geodynamic program (TIPAGE). The dynamics of the Tien Shan and Pamir orogenic belts are dominated by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian continental plates. With the geophysical components, we intend to image the deepest active intra-continental subduction zones on Earth (the N-dipping Hindu Kush and the S-dipping Pamir zones) and to establish how the highest strain over the shortest distance that is manifested in the India-Asia collision zone is accommodated. The MT data were recorded in summer 2008 at 80 stations in the Pamir mountain ranges in Tajikistan and in summer 2009 at 98 stations the southern Tien Shan in Kyrgyzstan. The stations form an approximately 340 km long profile from Osh in Kyrgyzstan via Sarytash, the Kyrgyz-Tajik border, Karakul and Murgab to Zorkul in southern Tajikistan. Typical spacing was approximately 2 km between BB-only sites and 14 km for the combined BB+LMT sites. 2D inversion results reveal distinct regions of high electrical conductivity at middle to lower crustal levels. Similar anomalies found in southern Tibet were interpreted as indications for lower crustal flow.

Ritter, O.; Sass, P.; Rybin, A.; Munoz, G.; Batalev, V.

2010-12-01

145

Problem of risk modeling: influence of uranium storage on environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radiological safety on the territory of Kyrgyz republic is caused by natural factors and by activity of the enterprises on extraction and processing of the raw material which contained natural radionuclides. The territory of republic has specific climatic condition with the highest degree of natural hazards. From general area 199 900 km of republic only 20% is concerned to be zone of comfortable residing. After the termination of uranium extraction in the republic there are formed 49 storages and more than 80 piles. After collapse of the USSR the works on maintenance of safety and recultivation of storages practically were not carried out, that significantly increased the risk of people disease who live in the given territories. Increase of level of underground waters, high waters, landslides, high seismicity - are resulted the storage destruction, that present threat on ecology not only of Kyrgyzstan, but also on ecology of Central Asia. The resolution of radiological problems of Kyrgyzstan may be only with the complex approach of all neighboring countries and with attraction of foreign experts from donor countries

146

Robust Automated Image Co-Registration of Optical Multi-Sensor Time Series Data: Database Generation for Multi-Temporal Landslide Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reliable multi-temporal landslide detection over longer periods of time requires multi-sensor time series data characterized by high internal geometric stability, as well as high relative and absolute accuracy. For this purpose, a new methodology for fully automated co-registration has been developed allowing efficient and robust spatial alignment of standard orthorectified data products originating from a multitude of optical satellite remote sensing data of varying spatial resolution. Correlation-based co-registration uses world-wide available terrain corrected Landsat Level 1T time series data as the spatial reference, ensuring global applicability. The developed approach has been applied to a multi-sensor time series of 592 remote sensing datasets covering an approximately 12,000 km2 area in Southern Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia strongly affected by landslides. The database contains images acquired during the last 26 years by Landsat (ETM, ASTER, SPOT and RapidEye sensors. Analysis of the spatial shifts obtained from co-registration has revealed sensor-specific alignments ranging between 5 m and more than 400 m. Overall accuracy assessment of these alignments has resulted in a high relative image-to-image accuracy of 17 m (RMSE and a high absolute accuracy of 23 m (RMSE for the whole co-registered database, making it suitable for multi-temporal landslide detection at a regional scale in Southern Kyrgyzstan.

Robert Behling

2014-03-01

147

A survey of East Palaearctic Hersiliola Thorell, 1870 (Araneae, Hersiliidae, with a description of three new genera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three new genera and eight new species of Hersiliidae are described from the East Palaearctic (Afganistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The genus Hersiliola Thorell, 1870 (Araneae: Hersiliidae is revised, and four new species are described. The genus includes nine species: H. afghanica Roewer, 1960 (Afghanistan; H. esyunini sp. n. (Uzbekistan; H. foordi sp. n. (Iran; H. lindbergi sp. n. (Afghanistan; H. macullulata (Dufour, 1831 (type species; from Spain and Algeria to Israel and Yemen; H. simoni (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872 (from Spain and Morocco to Israel; H. sternbergsi sp. n. (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; H. versicolor (Blackwall, 1865 (Cape Verde; and H. xinjiangenis (Liang & Wang, 1989 (Xinjiang, China. A new genus Duninia gen. n. is described, with two new species, Duninia baehrae sp. n. (type species; Turkmenistan and D. rheimsae sp. n. (Iran. A new genus Deltshevia gen. n. is described, with two new species, Deltshevia danovi sp. n. (type species; Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and D. gromovi sp. n. (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan. The widely ranging Central Asian Hersiliola pallida Kroneberg, 1875 (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan is transferred to a new monotypic genus, Ovtsharenkoia gen. n.

Victor Fet

2009-07-01

148

Climate- vs. Earthquake-induced Rock-Glacier Advances in the Tien Shan: Insights from Lichenometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Rock glaciers have been traditionally used as landform proxies of the distribution of sporadic alpine permafrost. In the northern Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan, most distinct lobes of >200 rock glaciers that we mapped from satellite imagery occur at two major elevation levels. However, a number of particularly low-lying lobes seem difficult to reconcile with palaeoclimatic fluctuations and commensurate changes of permafrost patterns: The minimum elevation of the majority of rock-glacier snouts lies between ~2500 up to ~3700 m a.s.l., but some 10% of rock-glaciers extend down to well below 3000 m a.s.l. We hypothesize that some of the rock glaciers in this area may have formed following strong earthquakes that could have triggered massive supraglacial rock-slope failures, which would have subsequently created sediment-rich rock glaciers from clear-ice glaciers. Our hypothesis is based on the observation that the tectonically active northern Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan was affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and earliest 20th centuries, e.g. in 1885 (Ms 6.9), 1887 (Ms 7.3), 1889 (Ms 8.3), and 1911 (Ms 8.1). All of these earthquakes had triggered numerous landslides in the northern Tien Shan. It is also likely that similarly strong earthquakes had happened before, but their recurrence intervals are long and more palaeoseismological work is in progress. We test whether lichenometry of rock-glacier surfaces together with morphometric analysis are suitable methods to testing our hypothesis. We focus on assessing the possibility of earthquake-triggered rock-glacier advances, and use lichenometry to resolve age patterns of different rock-glacier lobes. We use a dataset of several thousand lichen diameter measurements encompassing seven different species calibrated by gravestones and dated mass-movement deposits. Data on four single and two merging rock glaciers in four selected valleys in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan support the notion that Tien Shan rock glaciers do not record a consistent palaeoclimatic signal. We discuss whether distinct peaks of comparable lichen sizes and associated distributions of surface velocities for a given rock-glacier lobe result from rapid climate-driven advances or high lateral material input provided by seismically-induced slope instability instead. We compare our field data to advance-rate estimates from ground surveys and remote sensing (1 to >10 m/a), and dendrogeomorphic constraints obtained from trees growing on the rock glaciers. We conclude by highlighting a number of constraints that may limit the use of lichenometry for dating rock-glacier advances, and scope for future research on seismic triggers.

Rosenwinkel, Swenja; Landgraf, Angela; Korup, Oliver; Sorg, Annina

2014-05-01

149

Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of cervical cancer in the countries within the two regions. It is hoped that the expanded second edition of the European Guidelines will finally kick-start effective interventions in many of these countries that still lack organised programmes. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24332296

Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

2013-12-31

150

FARKLILIK S?YASET? ÜZER?NDEN BA?IMSIZ KIRGIZ?STAN’DA ÇOKKÜLTÜRLÜLÜK VE ÇOKD?LL? E??T?M POL?T?KALARI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The troubled relationship between identity and difference as part of describing democratic theory in the light of the politics of difference became the hotly debated topic in the last period. We can approach to this problematic relationship the case of Kyrgyzstan as general in Central Asia, where carried out perspectives of educational language policy and planning. In this study will be available queries related to how to find a right way in macro and micro planes in a democracy, the data obtained by querying, presumptions, observations, results and assessments. We must approach to the problem of national identity as a general problem of culture. In order to explain how are reflected common and unique feeling which can be cover all entire nation, why sometimes can be formed a common behavior patterns it’s seen as sine qua non to hit the road with this approach. In fact, there is living more nationality than the states in the world. Therefore, common experiences which created the nation, in other words, the historical experiences are forming some symbols/signs (language which strengthens the belief of unity and integrity. For that, it seems quite challenging to hold multicultural states together and proceeds in a way. In this sense, fieldwork was Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia, as it submitted a multicultural social structure and due to the descriptive statistical procedure, which obtained from the Kyrgyzstan Statistics Committee, there is given a great importance to the phenomenon of cultural democracywhich is able to eliminatethe ethnic conflicts. By the simplest words cultural democracy means freedom of communication. Indeed, all democratic politics based on culture and defends the right that everyone achieves to culture. Every community found a cultural identity as a source of inspiration for the creative assets for themselves. Therefore, should be stored the right and the duty of all peoples to live and maintain their own cultural presence. For this reason, educational policies and planning carries a fairly large importance as a principal transmitter of culture, especially in multinational societies. Therefore, the question of this study suggests its importance with extremely reasonable and valid factors.in this platform.

Emine Yavasgel

2013-04-01

151

Regulatory reform - OECD  

... Research by the supermarket chain Tescos in the UK shows how people actually behave. It shows that indeed sales of ice cream increase as it gets hot. But if in the south of the UK then at 25 degrees Celsius, the sales of ice creams actually plateau. And above this temperature the demand for frozen ice lollies increases. However in Scotland this change in behaviour happens ...Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue ...

152

Radioecological monitoring of transboundary rivers of the Central Asian Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of radioecological investigation of Central Asian rivers are presented. Investigation was done as part of the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the United States. The study of waterborne radionuclides and metals concentrations in Central Asia is of particular interest because of the history of nuclear materials mining, fabrication, transport, and storage there, when it was part of the Soviet Union. This development left a legacy of radionuclides and metals contamination in some Central Asian regions, which poses a clear health hazard to populations who rely heavily upon surface water for agricultural irrigation and direct domestic consumption. (author)

153

Verification of the open package OpenFOAM on dam break problems  

Science.gov (United States)

The work presents the results of mathematical modeling of large-scale flows in areas with a complex topographic relief. The Reynolds-averaged Navier—Stokes equations constitute the basis of the three-dimensional unsteady modelling. The well-known Volume of Fluid method implemented in the solver interFoam of the open package OpenFOAM 1.7.1 is used to track the free-boundary location. The mathematical model adequacy is checked by comparing with experimental data. The efficiency of the applied technology is illustrated by the example of modeling the breakthrough of the dams of the Andijan (Uzbekistan) and Papan (near the Osh town, Kyrgyzstan) reservoirs.

Zhainakov, A. Zh.; Kurbanaliev, A. Y.

2013-12-01

154

HOLY KYRGZS’S CALPACK / KUTSAL KIRGIZ KALPA?I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Calpack, in today’s Kyrgyzstan, is not only defined as a head craftwore in towns which is remembered barely during national and religiousbairams but also it emerged as a concrete sample of Kyrgyz nationalphilosophy, which has been kept alive from mythological era to epic era andfrom epic era to present day by the colors it involved and the motifs itcarried. Irregardless of the social statues, calpacks can be observed on nearlyall Kyrgyz men’s heads and even this particular feature of calpack makes itan important element to analyze not only for Kyrgyz culture but also for thecommon Turkish culture. Our aim is to determine the various values ofcalpack which have been survived from past to present.

Dr. Metin ARIKAN

2008-05-01

155

Analysis of China's Agricultural Exports to Five Central Asian Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper uses the statistical description and the constant market share model to analyze the Chinese agricultural product export to Central Asian countries. It discovered that the establishments the SCO Shanghai cooperation organization and cooperation process promote agricultural exports; agricultural products from China to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan is mainly attributed to the scale factor; in recent years, competition factor becomes the more important one. Owing to the market fluctuating, it restricted the exporting process in a certain degree. We can enhance the process in organization, construction, agricultural technology and marketing research.
Keywords: The five Central Asian Countries; Agricultural products; Export; Scale effect; Competition effect

Buwajian Abula

2012-06-01

156

Environment - OECD  

... More and more waste is being diverted from landfills and incinerators and fed back into the economy through ecycling. Read more. 2. Sectoral trends of environmental significance Energy intensity and mix While OECD countries are still more than 80% reliant on fossil fuels, the shares of solid fuels and oil fell, while those of gas and other energy sources ...Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) France French Guiana Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong, China Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iraq Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives ...

157

Luxembourg:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD  

...tax,social security, consumption, rates, corporate, tables, vat, gst, CIT, PIT, OECD data, OECD Statistics, average, country information, member countries, guidelines, methodology, indicators, publications, working party 2, OECD countries Luxembourg:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Luxembourg › Revenue Statistics 2013 Revenue Statistics ...Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue ...

158

New Zealand:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD  

...tax,social security, consumption, rates, corporate, tables, vat, gst, CIT, PIT, OECD data, OECD Statistics, average, country information, member countries, guidelines, methodology, indicators, publications, working party 2, OECD countries New Zealand:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › New Zealand › Revenue Statistics 2013 ...Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue ...

159

Publishing - OECD  

...Guidelines for Micro Statistics on Household Wealth - page 11 OECD International Direct Investment Statistics 2013 - all part II country tables and page 232 OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Malaysia 2013 - page 12 OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Tanzania 2013 - page 4 OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators Volume 2012/2 ...79, Part III, Detailed OECD Coal Data Consumption Tax Trends 2008 - VAT/GST and Excise Rates, Trends and Administration Issues: pages 79 Creditor Reporting System on Aid Activities 2008: Page 14 DAC Guidelines and Reference Series - Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth - The Economics and ...Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar ...

160

Toward a New Policy for Scientific and Technical Communication: the Case of Kyrgyz Republic  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this policy paper is to formulate a new policy in the field of scientific and technical information (STI) in Kyrgyz Republic in the light of emergence and rapid development of electronic scientific communication. The major problem with communication in science in the Republic is lack of adequate access to information by scientists. An equally serious problem is poor visibility of research conducted in Kyrgyzstan and, as consequence, negligible research impact on academic society globally. The paper proposes an integrated approach to formulation of a new STI policy based on a number of policy components: telecommunication networks, computerization, STI systems, legislation & standards, and education & trainings. Two alternatives were considered: electronic vs. paper-based scientific communication and development of the national STI system vs. cross-national virtual collaboration. The study results in suggesting a number of policy recommendations for identified stakeholders.

Djenchuraev, N

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Economic surveys and country surveillance - OECD  

... The creation of the Bank Asset Management Company to ring-fence impaired assets is welcome, but lack of transparency and potential political interference pose risks. The main results of new stress tests should be disclosed, followed by the recapitalization and privatization of state-owned banks. The corporate sector has a severe debt overhang, which requires an improvement of insolvency procedures, but greater foreign direct investment would ...Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestinian Administered Areas Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Russian ...

162

Application of Global Positioning Measurements to Continental Collision in the Pamir-Tien Shan Region, Central Asia and GPS Survey of the Western Tien Shan  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report, we summarize what we have accomplished with five years of funding from NASA under its DOSE program, and with a comparable level of funding from NSF. We describe the development of a GPS network in the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan of the former Soviet Union, the analysis of data, and the main results. This discussion presents the state of the current network, which has grown significantly since the termination of our DOSE grants, with continued support both from NSF through its continental dynamics program and from NASA's SENH program. Although grants from NASA's DOSE program did not support this growth not directly, it did so indirectly by building the infrastructure that has enabled further expansion in an area where otherwise there would be only a small GPS presence. We note how the network has grown over time, but the emphasis of this discussion is on the quantity and quality of measurements that we have made.

Hamburger, Michael W.; Reilinger, Robert E.; Hager, Bradford H.; Molnar, Peter

1997-01-01

163

Central Asia: hotspot in the worldwide HIV epidemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

The HIV epidemic in central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) has accelerated since 2000. This expansion in the epidemic is largely attributable to escalating injection drug use, reflecting central Asia's geographic position along major drug trafficking routes. Although up to 75% of cumulative HIV cases have been among injection drug users (IDUs) so far, HIV infections are increasing in other population groups, including female sex workers and their clients, prisoners, and migrants. Among IDUs, risky injecting practices are highly prevalent, and the intersecting epidemic of sexually transmitted infections, particularly syphilis, highlights the potential for sexual transmission of HIV to bridging populations. Few HIV cases in children have been reported so far, with most resulting from nosocomial outbreaks in hospital settings. Some recent progress has been made towards scaling-up prevention, treatment, and care services, including harm reduction for IDUs, although key challenges remain. PMID:20610330

Thorne, Claire; Ferencic, Nina; Malyuta, Ruslan; Mimica, Jadranka; Niemiec, Tomasz

2010-07-01

164

Revision of the genus Hemisaprinus Kryzhanovskij, 1976 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The monophyletic genus Hemisaprinus Kryzhanovskij in Kryzhanovskij & Reichardt, 1976 is revised herein. All three species Hemisaprinus subvirescens (Ménétries, 1832), H. lutshniki (Reichardt, 1941) and H. cyprius (Dahlgren, 1981) are found to be correctly assigned to the genus and their monophyly is supported by the synapomorphy of the presence of prosternal foveae. The three species are re-described and supplemented with colour photographs as well as SEM micrographs outlining their differences. Male genitalia drawing of H. subvirescens and H. lutshniki are provided and a key to the species is given. Hemisaprinus subvirescens (Ménétries, 1832) is newly reported from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Jordan, Cyprus and Mongolia. The lectotypes and paralectotypes of the following species are designated herein: Saprinus foveisternus Schmidt, 1884, Saprinus syriacus Marseul, 1855 and Saprinus viridulus Marseul, 1855. PMID:25147473

Lackner, Tomas

2014-01-01

165

Russia Factor in the problem of Aral Lake(Aral’s Sand According to the German Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The water is a kind of food without an alternative. The guaranteed usage of water is a basis for civilization that indicates the importance of water. The Aral Sea in Central Asia was the fourth largest lake of the world; today there is only 10 % of old size. The pollutive characteristics of industry in East Europe and the harmful applications of political decision makers caused ecological problems in the Aral Sea basin. Today the ecological problem in Aral Sea became a political problem among the sharers of that problem, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, and affected the safety of region. Within the framework of Aral Sea ecological problem, at first the strategies developed by EU and Russia caused to enlargement of the problem instead of solving it.The expedience conflict of regional and global powers in Central Asia was appeared and a solution could not be produced till today.

Necati ?yikan

2013-06-01

166

Investment - OECD  

...comparison of the degree of liberalisation achieved by each country in regard to the international transactions covered by the Code, including services related to business, industry and foreign trade, transport, insurance and pensions, banking and finance, cinema and television, and travel and tourism. Dowload the full text (PDF, 1Mb) See also OECD Codes of Liberalisation of Capital Movements and Current Invisible Operations: Users' guide Forty Years' ...Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue ...

167

Discharge capacity of sluiceway channel of water intake structure for diversion power plant in winter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents results of research hydraulic processes at the intake structures of diversion power plants in winter. On the basis of the physical modeling results the flow characteristics of sluiceway channel of water intake on the river Issyk-Ata, Kyrgyzstan were determined. Statistical models of discharges of elements of sluiceway channel with their mutual influence were obtained, using the methods of experimental design and data analysis. The influence of the concentration of brash ice on the sluiceway channel and its elements is described. The comparison of experimental data with data obtained by other authors before is made by comparing flow coefficients. Recommendations for normal operation of ice pass at sluiceway track channel of water intake structure for diversion power plant are given.

N.P. Lavrov

2013-06-01

168

Czech Republic:- Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the Czech Republic and other countries - OECD  

...review of the RIAs in the Czech republicrdquo;, Chairman, RIA Board, Czech Republic Wolf-Michael Catenhusen: 'The Tasks of Nationaler Normenkontrollratldquo;, Deputy Chairman, Normenkontrollrat, Germany Lennart Palm: ldquo;Regelrådet - an independent watchdogldquo;, Deputy Chairman, Regelrådet, Sweden Riccardo Maggi: ldquo;Impact Assessment Board of the European Commissionldquo;, European Commission, Secretariat General, Deputy Head of the Impact Assessment Board Secretariat Michael Gibbons, Chairman, 'The Regulatory Policy Committee', ...Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue ...

169

Facts and Perspectives of Water Reservoirs in Central Asia: A Special Focus on Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The political transformation of the Central Asian region has induced the implosion of the interconnected physical hydraulic infrastructure and its institutional management system. Land-locked Central Asian countries, with their climatic conditions and transboundary water resources, have been striving to meet their food security, to increase agricultural production, to sustain energy sectors, and to protect the environment. The existing water reservoirs are strategic infrastructures for irrigation and hydropower generation. Upstream countries (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan favor the reservoirs’ operation for energy supply, while downstream countries (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan push for irrigation use. This paper provides an overview of the current challenges and perspectives (technical, institutional, and legal regulations and presents recommendations for the sustainable management of man-made water reservoirs in Uzbekistan.

Shavkat Rakhmatullaev

2010-06-01

170

THE PHENOMENON OF CHYNGYZ AITMATOV IN THE CONTEXT OF SOVIET AND WORLD LITERATURES SOVYET VE DÜNYA EDEB?YATI BA?LAMINDA CENG?Z AYTMATOV FENOMEN?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cengiz Aytmatov eserlerinin dünya edebiyat?nda bir güne? gibi do?mas?yla birlikte okuyucular?n gönül dünyas?n? ayd?nlat?p estetik ve sanat duygular?n? harekete geçiren dünya edebiyat?n?n gelmi? geçmi? en büyük yazarlar?ndan biridir. O, Sovyet döneminde yeti?en dünya çap?ndaki yazarlardan biridir. Yazm?? oldu?u eserleri takdir eden Sovyet yetkilileri onun de?erini daima bilmi? ve kitaplar?n? bütün dünyaya tan?tm??t?r. Sovyetler Birli?inin da??lmas? ve K?rg?zistan’?n ba??ms?zl??? kazanmas?yla Cengiz Aytmatov gerek kendi ülkesinde gerekse Türk dünyas?nda “büyük yazar” kimli?iyle en çok okunan ve be?enilen yazar unvan?na sahip olmu?tur. Edebiyat alan?ndaki ba?ar?s?n? ülkesinin sosyal, ekonomik ve toplumsal sorunlar?yla ilgilenerek, gerçekçi çözümler ortaya koyarak devam ettirmi?tir. Enlightening the heart world of readers and stimulating their aesthetic and artistic emotions with the rising of his works like a sun in the world literature, Chyngyz Aitmatov is one of the greatest writers of all time in the world literature. He is one of the worldwide writers trained in the Soviet period. Soviet authorities appreciating the value of his works always knew his value and introduced his books to the world. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union and Kyrgyzstan’s becoming independent, Chyngyz Aitmatov assumed the title of the mostly-read and most favorite writer with his “great writer” identity both in his country and in the Turkic world. His success in the field of literature continued by dealing with the social, economic and societal problems of his country and putting forth realistic solutions to them.

Kamil Veli NER?MANO?LU

2011-09-01

171

Assessment of the radiological impact of gamma and radon dose rates at former U mining sites in Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to gamma radiation, radon and thoron was carried out at selected former uranium mining and processing sites in the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Gamma dose rate measurements were made using various field instruments and radon/thoron measurements were carried out using discriminative radon (222Rn)/thoron (220Rn) solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time, including at least three seasonal periods in a year, in different outdoor and indoor public and residential environments at the selected uranium legacy sites. The results showed that gamma, Rn and Tn doses were in general low, which consequently implies a low/relatively low radiological risk. The major radiation hazard is represented by abandoned radioactive filtration material that was being used as insulation by some Minkush residents (Kyrgyzstan) for a longer period of time. Annual radiation doses of several hundred mSv could be received as a consequence of using this material domestically. In addition, the gamma and Rn/Tn dose rates at Digmai, Tajikistan, could reach values of several 10 mSv/a. The doses of ionizing radiation deriving from external radiation (gamma dose rate), indoor radon and thoron with their short-lived progenies in several cases exceeded the recommended annual effective dose threshold level of 10 mSv. At none of the sites investigated did the individual annual effective doses exceed 30 mSv, the internationally recommended value for considering intervention. Current doses of ionizing radiation do not represent a serious hazard to the health of the resident public, but this issue should be adequately addressed to further reduce needless exposure of the resident public to ionizing radiation

172

Geotechnical and numerical studies of slope instability in loess deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

The mass movements occurred in loess accumulations often cause catastrophic damages to infrastructure and lose to the human lives. The failure in loess deposits can occur in gently terrains as happened in Tajik Republic in 1989. The earthquake with magnitude 5.5 hit the suburb of town. During this event the liquefaction effects developed consequently to lead to the catastrophic landslides. The loess failure related case is Kainama landslide (Fergana Valley, Kyrgyzstan) that killed 33 people. Potential relation between site effects and pore pressure build up causing liquefaction is the main thrust of this research. Methodology of the seismic slope stability investigation included determination of the mechanical strength properties and numerical modelling of a slope failure. In order to simulate the slope it is essential to gather the strength parameters of soil that present the conditions of the material in the nature. The main emphasis has been put to the geotechnical studies. To better understand the slope failure in loess body the two landslide sites in Fergana Valley (Kyrgyzstan) were selected to collect the loess specimens. Mechanism of deformation of loess material determined in terms of standard geotechnical tests. The natural water content in specimens is low, ranging from 12,8 % to 21% . The first investigation site occurred in Tertiary sediments has a low mean of the plasticity index (12% - 16 %). The climate data were analysed in order to correlate with slope failure cases. The development of landslides in investigating areas is truly connected with variation of physical and mechanical properties of loess material that is respectively related to geological and tectonic conditions of an area. To arrange the connection between site effects and pore pressure build up we used the numerical modelling with a finite difference code (FLAC 2D and 3D). These simulations give an opportunity to better clarify site effect impact to the slope and its role to cause liquefaction effects regarding to the slope failure initiation.

Mamyrova, R.; Stahlmann, J.; Bourdeau, C.; Havenith, Hb.

2009-04-01

173

Assessment of the radiological impact of gamma and radon dose rates at former U mining sites in Central Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to gamma radiation, radon and thoron was carried out at selected former uranium mining and processing sites in the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Gamma dose rate measurements were made using various field instruments and radon/thoron measurements were carried out using discriminative radon ((222)Rn)/thoron ((220)Rn) solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time, including at least three seasonal periods in a year, in different outdoor and indoor public and residential environments at the selected uranium legacy sites. The results showed that gamma, Rn and Tn doses were in general low, which consequently implies a low/relatively low radiological risk. The major radiation hazard is represented by abandoned radioactive filtration material that was being used as insulation by some Minkush residents (Kyrgyzstan) for a longer period of time. Annual radiation doses of several hundred mSv could be received as a consequence of using this material domestically. In addition, the gamma and Rn/Tn dose rates at Digmai, Tajikistan, could reach values of several 10 mSv/a. The doses of ionizing radiation deriving from external radiation (gamma dose rate), indoor radon and thoron with their short-lived progenies in several cases exceeded the recommended annual effective dose threshold level of 10 mSv. At none of the sites investigated did the individual annual effective doses exceed 30 mSv, the internationally recommended value for considering intervention. Current doses of ionizing radiation do not represent a serious hazard to the health of the resident public, but this issue should be adequately addressed to further reduce needless exposure of the resident public to ionizing radiation. PMID:23291151

Stegnar, P; Shishkov, I; Burkitbayev, M; Tolongutov, B; Yunusov, M; Radyuk, R; Salbu, B

2013-09-01

174

Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design: Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings: The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context.The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions: The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development cooperation and improved health outcomes; arguably, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have made slower progress in their health and socio-economic indices because of their resistance to open and accountable development relationships.

Anar Ulikpan

2014-09-01

175

Tuberculosis trends in eastern Europe and the former USSR.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to assess trends in tuberculosis morbidity and mortality in the countries of Eastern Europe and the former USSR. Data on morbidity and mortality were obtained from reports of the Ministries of Health, a 1992 WHO questionnaire, national tuberculosis associations, and other sources. The quality of surveillance of tuberculosis cases differs widely between countries. Ranging from 19 to 80 per 100,000 population in 1990-1992, tuberculosis notification rates of most Eastern European and former USSR countries are higher than those of Western European countries. The lowest tuberculosis notification rate is reported in the Czech Republic, while the highest are reported in Romania and Kazakhstan. While in Albania, Croatia and Slovenia notification rates have continued to decline, in the remaining countries of Eastern Europe the declining trend has recently stopped. Nevertheless, countries such as the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic have experienced a distinct rate decrease when the 3-year average rate around 1985 is compared to that around 1990, despite the very recent levelling-off or increase. In Romania, the previous decline in notification rate ended in 1985 and in the period 1986-1992 an average 5.4% annual increase was observed. In this country, two-thirds of all cases still occur among young adults. Among the Baltic countries of the former USSR, the declining trend continues in Estonia, whereas in Latvia and Lithuania notification rates decreased less markedly from 1985 to 1990 than in the first half of the 1980s. Among the other European countries of the former USSR, Russia and Ukraine had a slow decline in the first half of the 1980s and a more pronounced one from 1985 to 1990. During the latter period of time, in Belarus and Moldova the decrease has been steeper. In the Caucasian countries of the former USSR, where underreporting and low case-finding are recognized, case rates have stabilized in Armenia, while in Azerbaijan and Georgia there was a decrease from 1985 to 1990. Among the Asian countries of the former USSR, Kazakhastan and Tajikistan reported a lower decline in case rates from 1985 to 1990 than from 1980 to 1985. Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan reported increases in notification rates from 1985 to 1990: in Turkmenistan an average 5.5% annual increase in rate was observed between 1987 and 1991. Tuberculosis mortality is steadily increasing in Romania, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, and Turkmenistan, while no decline is seen in most of the other countries of Eastern Europe and the former USSR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7718828

Raviglione, M C; Rieder, H L; Styblo, K; Khomenko, A G; Esteves, K; Kochi, A

1994-12-01

176

A temporary seismological network across the Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges  

Science.gov (United States)

We present new seismological data obtained within the framework of the multi-disciplinary Tien Shan - Pamir Geodynamic program (TIPAGE). TIPAGE aims to exploit the Pamir, the western part of the Pamir-Tibet-Himalaya orogenic system, to address key questions in the geodynamics of continental collision and subduction: I.e. does the Earth’s most spectacular active intra-continental subduction zone beneath the Pamir and Hindu-Kush trace a single, partly overturned and distorted slab or two or more separate slabs? Are these slabs composed of continental lithosphere? What is the relationship between these slabs (mantle deformation) and deformation in the crust and at the surface? Why are there intermediate-depth continental subduction zones present beneath the Pamir and not elsewhere in the collision zone, e.g. beneath Tibet and the Himalaya? What is the mechanism of plateau formation in the eastern Pamir? To tackle these issues we deployed a network of 40 temporary seismological stations in summer 2008 across the Tien Shan and Pamir mountain ranges in Kyrgyzstan (10 stations) and Tajikistan (30 stations). 24 of these stations form a north-south profile along the road from Osh in Kyrgyzstan via Sarytash, the Kyrgyz-Tajik border, Karakul and Murghab to Zorkul in southern Tajikistan with approximately 15 km station spacing. The N-S transect will produce a high resolution receiver function image to map the gross crustal and lithospheric structure. The other 16 stations are set up in a network configuration covering most of the Pamir Mountains and allowing location of local seismicity. In summer 2009, we intend to dismantle the profile in order to increase the density of the 2-D seismic network. The new configuration will then cover the entire central Pamir with an average station spacing of approximately 40 km and record for another year. The 2D network will allow high resolution location of local seismicity and 3D tomography of seismic velocity and attenuation. We will present preliminary results on seismicity and receiver functions from the first batch of data recovered in summer 2009.

Schurr, B.; Yuan, X.; Mechie, J.; Sippl, C.; Schneider, F.; Minaev, V.; Abdybachaev, U.

2009-12-01

177

Path dependencies and institutional bricolage in post-Soviet water governance  

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Full Text Available Following their independence, the two Central Asian states of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan decided on similar water governance reforms: transfer of local irrigation management to water user associations, introduction of pricing mechanisms, and establishment of hydrographic management principles. In both states, however, proper implementation is lacking. This paper aims to explain this contradiction and focuses on agricultural water governance reforms at the local level as an interdependent part of a multilevel water governance structure.Based on empirical findings, four variables through which the neopatrimonial context in both countries impacts water governance are identified: the decision-making process, the agricultural sector, the local governance institutions, and internal water-institutional linkages. A historical-institutionalist perspective shows how path dependencies limit reform effectiveness: institutionalised Soviet and pre-Soviet patterns of behaviour still shape actors’ responses to new challenges. Consequently, rules and organisations established formally by the state or international donor organisations are undermined by informal institutions. Yet, informal institutions are not only an obstacle to reform, but can also support it. They are not static but dynamic. This is elucidated with the concept of 'institutional bricolage', which explains how local actors recombine elements of different institutional logics and thereby change their meaning.

Jenniver Sehring

2009-01-01

178

Improved seismic risk assessment based on probabilistic multi-source information integration  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthquakes threat millions of people all over the world. Assessing seismic risk, defined as the probability of occurrence of economical and social losses as consequence of an earthquake, both at regional and at local scale is a challenging, multi-disciplinary task. In order to provide reliable estimates, diverse information must be gathered by seismologists, geologists, engineers and civil authorities and carefully integrated, keeping into account the different uncertainties and the inherent spatio-temporal variability. An efficient and reliable assessment of the assets exposed to seismic hazard and the structural and social components of vulnerability are of particular importance, in order to undertake proper mitigation actions and to promptly and efficiently react to a possibly catastrophic natural event. An original approach is presented to assess seismic vulnerability and risk based on integration of information coming from several heterogeneous sources: remotely-sensed and ground-based panoramic images, manual digitization, already available information and expert knowledge. A Bayesian approach has been introduced to keep into account collected information while preserving priors and subjective judgment. In the broad perspective of GEM (Global Earthquake Model) and more specifically within EMCA (Earthquake Model Central Asia) project, an integrated, sound approach to seismic risk in countries with limited resources is an important but rewarding challenge. Improved vulnerability and risk models for the capital cities of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and their application in earthquake scenarios will be discussed.

Pittore, M.; Wieland, M.; Duisheev, A.; Yasunov, P.

2012-04-01

179

Remediation project planning at the uranium production legacy sites. Lesson learned from the best international practice and challenges for developing countries - 59043  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The former Soviet Union countries such as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine, where uranium production legacy sites are located (such as mines, waste rock piles, pits, chemical and hydrometallurgical plants, tailing dumps, etc.) are currently facing the challenge of making these objects environmentally safe. These countries share a common history of the uranium mining and milling industry, similar regulatory shortcomings and uncertainties regarding the strategy justification for such remediation projects. They also have to deal with scarcity of financial resources for long-term remediation programmes, and lack of experience with planning and management of environmental remediation projects at former uranium production sites. In the recent years, IAEA-supported programmes of international technical co-operation (the projects RER/0986 and RER/3010) were advancing actively, as well as those sponsored by the UNDP, EurAsEC and others, all aiming to assist with the preparedness and performance of future remediation projects. As demonstrated by analysis, effectiveness of the many programmes largely depends on the nations' level of preparedness to carry out remediation projects in accordance with the international standards. This paper presents the lessons learned from analyses of the different type of projects, which were already implemented or which are still in plan dy implemented or which are still in plan in different countries

180

National independence and nonproliferation in the new states of Central Asia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five independent states emerged in Central Asia from the breakup of the USSR. One of these states, Kazakhstan, possesses nuclear weapons. The other four of these states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are not known to possess nuclear weapons, however they occupy a geostrategic position which makes them important to non-proliferation efforts. The present report profiles the capabilities and intentions of these four Central Asian states. The analysis of capabilities suggests that none of these states has the capability to develop a usable nuclear weapon. However, all of these countries-- especially Uzbekistan--have components of the old Soviet nuclear weapons complex which are now orphans. They have no use for these facilities and must either re-profile them, destroy them, or transfer them. The analysis of intentions suggests that the dynamics of national independence have created a situation in which Uzbekistan has hegemonic designs in the region. Implications for retarding nuclear proliferation in the Central Asian region are examined. Opportunities for outside influence are assessed.

Gleason, G.

1993-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Report on business trip to AEI Conference in India; Indo AEI conference shuccho hokoku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper gives an outline of the Asian Energy Institute (AEI) and also presents a report on the current situation of energy production in five Central Asian countries, namely, Kazakhstan (Ka), Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan (Ta) and Kyrgyzstan (Ky). It indicates that a slowdown in economy has been observed in all five countries since the latter half of the 1980s with their GDPs have severely decreased since 1991; that the three countries other than Ta and Ky are blessed with abundant energy resources, but the production in petroleum, natural gas and coal has either remained on the same level or declined since the latter half of the 1980s with the exception of petroleum production in Ka; that the hydroelectric power generation of both Ta and Ky takes 90% or more of their total electric generation; that the power generation from 1991 through 1994 showed no fluctuations in Ta and Ky but declined yearly in the other countries, which was attributable mainly to a decline in thermal power generation, etc. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Matsuura, K.

1995-11-01

182

Sustainable Land Management in the Pamir Alai Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on identifying of possible opportunities for local people, living in Pamir Alai region of Kyrgyzstan, particularly in Kashka Suu and Alaiku, by conducting analysis of such value chains as wool production and collection of berries and medicinal herbs. Identification of key features of these two value chains provides insight into which entities benefit from the value of products, and provides the basis for projecting possible additional income to the populations in the areas. Economic opportunities available for local population in Kashka Suu and Alaiku are very limited. Lack of opportunities linked to harsh terrain and climatic conditions makes livestock, including wool production, and collection of wild resources, are the most available sources of income for local communities. Population, living in Kashka Suu and Alaiku, is unable to produce good quality wool competitive even on domestic market, but investments in wool sector could help to improve livelihoods. Berries also play an important role in generating income, especially in off agricultural season. Income from berries is managed by women, and used for purchasing goods for family. Medicinal and aromatic plants and herbs sub sector is totally undeveloped and plays important role only for subsistence purposes.

Kenesh Shapakov

2011-10-01

183

Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products  

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Full Text Available Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flour, first grade flour and high grade flour. The samples were analyzed using classical mycological and immunoassay methods in order to detect mycotoxins producing fungi species. We isolated overall 27 species belonging to 7 genera. Mycotoxins producing species like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium cyclopium were detected in the stored grains and in mechanically-cleaned grains. The species of Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium genera dominated in roughly-milled flour samples, so this site of flour manufacture still has a risk and danger of contamination with mycotoxins producing fungus. Only the final product i.e. the high grade flour lacked any fungal contamination. We recommend to scrutinize flour samples at the last stages of processing, particularly in the mills like ?1, ?1 and ?4.

T.D. Doolotkeldieva

2010-03-01

184

Seismic triggering of landslides. Part B: Simulation of dynamic failure processes  

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Full Text Available From field observations it is possible to establish correlations between geological conditions and landslide occurrence. However, in general, it is difficult to assess the affect of individual factors on slope instability because of their mutual interaction. In addition, the dynamic effect of propagating seismic waves significantly increases the complexity of the slope stability problem. Wave diffraction, reflection and focusing effects are dependent on local geological conditions and make it difficult to analyse dynamic sliding mechanisms using field observations alone. As a consequence, in order to examine the influence of various geological and seismic factors on slope movements, it is often necessary to produce numerical models. This paper describes the results of such models as applied to two case studies in Kyrgyzstan: the Ananevo rockslide, located in granite, and the Suusamyr debris slump-flow, situated within soft sediments (see Part A: Havenith et al., 2003. Discrete element modelling (UDEC, adapted both to the discontinuous character of fractured rock and to the heterogeneity of layered mediums, was used. This permitted simulation of deformation mechanisms, including seismically induced bending, block tilting, and slip. Particular attention was paid to the interaction between deformation mechanisms, site-specific amplification effects, and subsurface structure.

H.-B. Havenith

2003-01-01

185

[Morphological factors in the prognosis of the treatment results in prostatic cancer].  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigators from the Research Institute of Oncology and Radiology (Kyrgyzstan) from 1988 to 1994 have conducted a randomized trial entering 122 patients with prostatic cancer. 44 patients received radiation treatment (group 1), 43 patients in addition to radiation were given chemotherapy and estrogens (group 2), 35 patients received drugs and estrogens (group 3). A complete response was registered in 80 (65.5%) patients. 84.2% and 69.8% of them survived 3 and 5 years, respectively. Of 30 patients 24.5%) with partial response 3- and 5-year survival was recorded in 82.8 and 57.3%, respectively. Morphological examination of transrectal prostatic biopsies 3-72 months after the treatment stated the existence of tumor pathomorphosis and unchanged tumor in 111(29.7%) and 42(11.2%) samples. It was found that the above morphological changes had developed throughout 72 months. Their intensity was the greatest within the first after-treatment year. Long-term outcomes proved better in those patients who had no residual tumor and in those who had tumor pathomorphosis during aftertreatment year 1. PMID:8659037

Murzaliev, A D; Iiazaliev, K T; Abdyldaev, R A; Sizikov, A I

1996-01-01

186

Global situation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)--a short review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the actual world FMD situation. In 2000, fifty nine countries officially reported outbreaks of FMD. The disease occurred in Europe (Greece), Asia (Russia, Mongolia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Japan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, in Caucasian region--Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan), Africa (Egypt, Kenya, Mauritania, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe) and in South America (Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Venezuela). In 2001, FMD was still spreading throughout the endemic regions and appeared in some of the west European countries--Great Britain, The Netherlands, France and Ireland. In South America, FMD occurred in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Colombia. In Asia the FMD spread in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Mongolia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Yemen, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Iran, Bhutan, Nepal, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan. The FMD situation in Africa was unclear, but probably most countries in West, East and South Africa were affected. The most recent data of the OIE from May 2002 confirmed FMD outbreaks in population of pigs in Republic of Korea. PMID:12512564

Kesy, A

2002-01-01

187

Gazprom: Russia's strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventeen years after the splitting up of the Soviet empire, Russia is looking again for huge international ambitions. Its main advantage in this power search will is its energy resources. Production area, but also transit area between Asia, central Asia, Caucasus and Europe, Russia is an inevitable partner and wishes to take advantage of this strategic position. Gazprom, the hugest gas company in the world, is totally under the control of the government. Therefore, the Kremlin has made gas its main political and diplomatic weapon. Such an energetic imperialisms has strong economical and political consequences on the rest of Europe as illustrated by the recent Ukrainian crisis. The reconstruction of an energy empire similar to the one of the hottest days of the cold war worries also the USA. This study is a collective work carried out by students of the Sciences Po school of Paris in the framework of the 'international organizations' seminar given by by A.M Lizin, president of the Belgium senate and chairwoman of the human rights commission of the organization for European security and cooperation. Content: Gazprom's international strategy, Gazprom: an omnipotent gas company, Gazprom's international strategy at the service of the Russian foreign policy, Gazprom's energy stake and strategies, Gazprom and Armenia, Gazprom and Azerbaijan, Gazprom and Belgium, Gazprom and Bielorussia, Gazprom and Iberia, French position in energy stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's difficulties in Hungary, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in front of Gazprom, Gazprom and the US strategy. (J.S.)

188

Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation in Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium ore is a naturally occurring radioactive material which is often regarded as something separate to NORM due to its place at the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Uranium mining and processing was a significant industry in the Central Asian countries of the former Soviet Union. When the Soviet Union broke up in 1989 these countries gained their independence but the uranium mining industry now had to try and survive in a new economic environment. In Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan this proved too great a challenge. Production stopped and sites were simply abandoned with little or no attention paid to remediation. Skilled personnel departed and both physical and regulatory infrastructure decayed. Consequently, the legacies of the former times remained throughout Central Asia to become an issue of considerable concern to many. The sites were generally uncontrolled and the NORM residues from the mining and processing were a source of environmental contamination which also threatened public health in a number of ways. In recent years there has been considerable activity by a number of international agencies and Governments working towards solutions for these issues. Much of the effort has been undertaken by the IAEA and this paper describes the original situation, the development of remediation strategies and the various remediation related projects, their outcomes to date, and plans for the future in both the political and scientific arenas. (author)entific arenas. (author)

189

New Strains of Streptomyces as Producers of Biofungicides and Biological Stimulators for Protection of the Shoots and Seedlings of Tiang-Shang Spruce Fir (Picea Schrenkiana  

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Full Text Available During this work we detected 5 species of pathogenic fungi that damage seedlings and saplings of the Tiang-Shang spruce fir, which cause a perceptible damage to the coniferous nurseries of Northern Kyrgyzstan and require activities to protect the woods. The biological activity of Streptomyces metabolites for raising the resistance of seedlings to phytopathogenic fungi was tested in laboratory and field conditions during three seasons. In order to evaluate the biological activity of Streptomyces preparations as biological agents, we have soaked the seeds in the suspension of Streptomyces metabolites with the concentrations of 50, 100, 500 mg per liter. In other variant, the seeds were at first processed in the culture of pathogenic fungi as infectious drowning of sprouts (Fusarium, Alternaria, crown rot of sprouts (Sclerotinia graminearum Elen. and grey dew of needles (Hypodermella sulsigena Tub., then they were treated in the suspension of Streptomyces. Also we have used a spraying treatment with the suspension of Streptomyces metabolites of the one-year-old seedlings of Tiang-Shang spruce fir already staggered and dying from infectious drowning. The best results against the Alternaria culture were demonstrated by the use of preparation S. griseogromogenes 2?-8 at the concentration of 500 mgs per liter, which provided the safety of sprouts to 80.2%. Preparations of S. rubrogriseus ??2-5, S. wistariopsis ??3-13 and S. griseogromogenes 2?-8 were effective in protection of sprouts from Fusarium sp. cultures. They provided safety of sprouts to 80% on average.

T. D. Doolotkeldieva

2008-10-01

190

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases  

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Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

T. Schöne

2012-06-01

191

[Variability and phylogenetic relationships of the Cucumis sativus L. species inferred from NBS profiling and RAPD analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic variability of the Cucumis sativus species and its phylogenetic relationsips with other species of the genus were studied on the basis of RAPD marking and analysis of intra- and interspecific polymorphism of the nucleotide sequences of the NBS-LRR gene family in species of the genus Cucumis with the use of the NBS profiling method. According to RAPD analysis, cucumber cultivars from different geographic regions are highly similar, except for accessions k-3835 and k-3833 from Afghanistan. NBS profiling analysis revealed phylogenetically most distinct accessions expected to be characterized by specificity of resistance: k-3845 from Uzbekistan, k-3851 from Kyrgyzstan, line 701, k-3835 and k-3833 from Afghanistan, k-2757 and k-3079 from Netherlands, vr.k. 908 from Canada, k-2926 from Bulgaria, Russian cultivars Monastyrskii, Izyashchnyi, and Lel'. Three essentially different groups of species were distinguished, and the C. sativus species (subgenus Cucumis) was found to be distant from the species belonging to the subgenus Melo. PMID:21954614

Goriunova, S V; Gashkova, I V; Kosareva, G A

2011-08-01

192

Automated Spatiotemporal Landslide Mapping over Large Areas Using RapidEye Time Series Data  

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Full Text Available In the past, different approaches for automated landslide identification based on multispectral satellite remote sensing were developed to focus on the analysis of the spatial distribution of landslide occurrences related to distinct triggering events. However, many regions, including southern Kyrgyzstan, experience ongoing process activity requiring continual multi-temporal analysis. For this purpose, an automated object-oriented landslide mapping approach has been developed based on RapidEye time series data complemented by relief information. The approach builds on analyzing temporal NDVI-trajectories for the separation between landslide-related surface changes and other land cover changes. To accommodate the variety of landslide phenomena occurring in the 7500 km2 study area, a combination of pixel-based multiple thresholds and object-oriented analysis has been implemented including the discrimination of uncertainty-related landslide likelihood classes. Applying the approach to the whole study area for the time period between 2009 and 2013 has resulted in the multi-temporal identification of 471 landslide objects. A quantitative accuracy assessment for two independent validation sites has revealed overall high mapping accuracy (Quality Percentage: 80%, proving the suitability of the developed approach for efficient spatiotemporal landslide mapping over large areas, representing an important prerequisite for objective landslide hazard and risk assessment at the regional scale.

Robert Behling

2014-08-01

193

Circus monkeys or change agents? Civil society advocacy for HIV/AIDS in adverse policy environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the factors enabling and undermining civil society efforts to advocate for policy reforms relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs in three countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. It examines how political contexts and civil society actors' strengths and weaknesses inhibit or enable advocacy for policy change - issues that are not well understood in relation to specific policy areas such as HIV/AIDS, or particular regions of the world where national policies are believed to be major drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The study is based on in-depth interviews with representatives of civil society organizations (CSOs) (n = 49) and national level informants including government and development partners (n = 22). Our policy analysis identified a culture of fear derived from concerns for personal safety but also risk of losing donor largesse. Relations between CSOs and government were often acrimonious rather than synergistic, and while we found some evidence of CSO collective action, competition for external funding - in particular for HIV/AIDS grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was often divisive. Development partners and government tend to construct CSOs as service providers rather than advocates. While some advocacy was tolerated by governments, CSO participation in the policy process was, ultimately, perceived to be tokenistic. This was because there are financial interests in maintaining prohibitionist legislation: efforts to change punitive laws directed at the behaviors of minority groups such as injecting drug users have had limited impact. PMID:22036298

Spicer, Neil; Harmer, Andrew; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

2011-12-01

194

Has global fund support for civil society advocacy in the former Soviet Union established meaningful engagement or 'a lot of jabber about nothing'?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although civil society advocacy for health issues such as HIV transmission through injecting drug use is higher on the global health agenda than previously, its impact on national policy reform has been limited. In this paper we seek to understand why this is the case through an examination of civil society advocacy efforts to reform HIV/AIDS and drugs-related policies and their implementation in three former Soviet Union countries. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine by national researchers with representatives from a sample of 49 civil society organizations (CSOs) and 22 national key informants. We found that Global Fund support resulted in the professionalization of CSOs, which increased confidence from government and increased CSO influence on policies relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs. Interviewees also reported that the amount of funding for advocacy from the Global Fund was insufficient, indirect and often interrupted. CSOs were often in competition for Global Fund support, which caused resentment and limited collective action, further weakening capacity for effective advocacy. PMID:22767433

Harmer, Andrew; Spicer, Neil; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

2013-05-01

195

EFFECT OF LEARNING ANXIETY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE AS TURKISH ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT  

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Full Text Available An anxiety emerges both as one of the individual's existential factors and as one of the concepts used to express the intrapsychic situations as a result of interactions and experiences with physical and social environment. In the related scientific researches, a foreign language learning anxiety was observed to be taken into consideration as separate from the general anxiety conceptualization. According to these studies anxiety is noticed more in psycho-motor production-focused listening and speaking skills, as well as is originated from the fear of communication, exam anxiety and fear of negative grading. According to the these findings, it is assumed to create an ideal teaching environment in classes where individuals will be more motivated free from an anxiety and to adopt a teaching and learning strategies. In this research, anxiety categories that are occurred in learning environment was identified with the help of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS developed by Horwitz and Cope (1986, that is frequently used in the literature. In addition, by the data obtained from exam anxiety scale developed by Sarason (1984, it aimed to study in what extent the exam anxiety effect the academic achievement of Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Manas University Preparatory classes students on Turkish language. According to the interpretation of empirical data obtained by multivariate statistical techniques, it was suggested to reduce the negative effects of anxiety in the learning process.

Kadir YO?URTÇU

2013-01-01

196

The closed Lake Issyk-Kul as an indicator of global warming in Tien-Shan  

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Full Text Available Lake Issyk-Kul is the seventh deepest lake in the world situated inCentral Asiain theTien-ShanMountainsat the elevation of 1607 m above sea level. This area belongs toKyrgyzstan. From 1927 to 1997 the water level decreased by 3.4 m, and increased by 0.93 m from 1997 to 2011. The article analyzes the impact of the global warming on the Lake Issyk-Kul thermal regime and the components of its water balance: river discharge, precipitation, evaporation and lake level variations. It shows that the global warming has entailed the increase of the Lake Issyk-Kul water temperature down to the maximum depths, and river discharge increase due to the glaciers melting and the evaporation from the lake surface. The air temperature increase of 1 ? results in river discharge increas and lake level rise of 44 mm/year and surface evaporation increase of 88 mm/year. TheLakeIssyk-Kullevel increase after 1997, which takes place in the situation of global warming, was caused by the activation of the West air masses transport and increase of precipitation in autumn.

Vladimir V. Romanovsky

2013-05-01

197

Cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasian and Central Asian countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

rical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. The joint activities carried out mainly are given as follows: Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Application - First Conference organized in the year 2000 in Turkey, Second Conference at Almaty? in 2002 and Third Conference at Tashkent in 2004, sponsored by international organizations as IAEA and (OECD/NEA), NATO. Training Course on Industrial Application of Irradiation Technology organized by TAEK and Academy of Science of Azerbaijan and sponsored by IAEA at Baku in 2003. Joint Eurasia Nuclear Bulletincovering activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy in these countries published yearly since 2002. After 2006 Baku Conference the bulletin will be published in two years in parallel with Conference organization. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and have become members to IAEA

198

After dumping agreement: A two-tiered market?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In its largest increase since July 1990, the NUKEM price range for this month ended up at $9.50-$10.50. On October 16th, destined to become a landmark date in uranium industry history, the republics of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine and the Russian Federation signed quantitative restraint agreements with the US Department of Commerce. Predictably, prices jumped significantly as sellers withdrew from the market. With Commerce's initial calculation of a $7.95 market price for determining the level of CIS imports over the next six months, it appears quite certain that prices for non-CIS origins will continue to rise. (CIS imports can only begin when Commerce determines that the market price has hit $13). There is the possibility that a two-tiered market could emerge in the future with lower prices being paid for CIS origins by those utilities not affected by Euratom or Commerce restrictions. However, at this point, most potential buyers falling into this category have opted to maintain a wait-and-see approach

199

Favorable climatic regime for maintaining the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007 of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Relative carrier-phase GPS surveys reveal a vertical lowering at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the current state are 289 mm and ?3.8 °C at the glacier summit (4600 m a.s.l., respectively. The good agreement between dynamically derived precipitation and the long-term observed precipitation at a nearby station in the Tien Shan (296 mm at 3614 m a.s.l. for the period 1930–2002 suggests that the glacier has been in a near steady-state in terms of mass supply. The glacier mass-balance, reconstructed based on meteorological data from the Tien Shan station for the past 80 yr, explains the observed fluctuations in glacier extent, particularly the negative mass balance in the 1990s.

K. Fujita

2011-07-01

200

Seismoacoustic responses to high-power electric pulses from well logging data at the Bishkek geodynamical test area  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of recording seismoacoustic emission (SAE) in the boreholes of the Bishkek geodynamical test area in Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, are presented. The spectral structure of SAE signals and the pattern of variations in SAE intensity during electromagnetic (EM) sounding of the Earth's crust by the highpower ERGU-600-2 generator unit are studied. The statistical methods for SAE data processing are adjusted for the problem of revealing the correlations between SAE responses and pulsed electrical impacts (i.e., energy input into the medium). The response of the medium to EM soundings, which are conducted for monitoring the apparent resistivity of the rocks, is revealed. The response of the medium manifests itself as the increase in SAE intensity (the responses to the electric current pulses generated during the soundings). The SAE responses belong to the same group of the effects (the signs of external forcing of rock destruction) as the variations in seismicity during the runs of the geophysical magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) generators in 1983-1989 or experimental soundings in 2000-2005. The sources of SAE signals are located at shallow depths, near the geophone installation place. This accounts for the difference between the variations in SAE intensity and microseismicity in response to the same impact.

Zakupin, A. S.; Bogomolov, L. M.; Mubassarova, V. A.; Il'ichev, P. V.

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

Combined wind, hydropower and photovoltaic systems for generation of electric power and control of water resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the present day energy consumption and potentialities of utilization of wind- and hydropower resources in some Central and Southern Asian Republics, in particular, in the Republic of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan are presented. The maximum consumption of electric power is observed in winter time when hydropower is the minimum, but wind power is the maximum. At the same time water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those which use water for generation of electric power. It is proposed that the utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy will facilitate the proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia. In the future in Tajikistan, wind power systems with a capacity of 30-100 MW and more will be installed, providing power balance of the country in winter; hence saving water in reservoirs, especially in drought years. This will provide the integration of electricity generated by wind, hydroelectric power and photovoltaic system in the unified energy system of the country. (author)

202

Exposure Estimation from Multi-Resolution Optical Satellite Imagery for Seismic Risk Assessment  

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Full Text Available Given high urbanization rates and increasing spatio-temporal variability in many present-day cities, exposure information is often out-of-date, highly aggregated or spatially fragmented, increasing the uncertainties associated with seismic risk assessments. This work therefore aims at using space-based technologies to estimate, complement and extend exposure data at multiple scales, over large areas and at a comparatively low cost for the case of the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. At a neighborhood scale, an analysis of urban structures using medium-resolution optical satellite images is performed. Applying image classification and change-detection analysis to a time-series of Landsat images, the urban environment can be delineated into areas of relatively homogeneous urban structure types, which can provide a first estimate of an exposed building stock (e.g., approximate age of structures, composition and distribution of predominant building types. At a building-by-building scale, a more detailed analysis of the exposed building stock is carried out using a high-resolution Quickbird image. Furthermore, the multi-resolution datasets are combined with census data to disaggregate population statistics. The tools used within this study are being developed on a free- and open-source basis and aim at being transparent, usable and transferable.

Jochen Zschau

2012-05-01

203

Transition in Central Asia: Growth with Increasingly Greater Inequality?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses the economic evolution of the former Soviet states of Central Asia since their independence, especially in regard to growth and in comparison with growing inequality. The following topics are considered: first of all, the initial conditions in whichthe economic transition of these countries began; secondly, the transformations of widely varying scope (different “routes of transition” that these economies have experienced, from an almost non-reform (Turkmenistan or a gradual or partial reform (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, to a large-scale reform (Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan; and thirdly, the economic performance of the Central Asian states, which, with the exception of Uzbekistan, has been quite poor and has generated what we could call two kinds of “duality”: one which is generated by the expansion of extracting industries (oil, gas and metals, to the detriment of other sectors fundamental to the countries’ development, and another one originating from the growingunequal distribution of income among the population. While the first of these “dualities” cannot be maintained as a long-term development strategy, the second one could culminate in social agitation and instability, even in the medium term, which could contribute to thedestabilisation of the already fragile and volatile region of Central Asia.

Max Spoor

2005-10-01

204

Türkiye’nin Orta Asya ve Kafkasya’daki Bölgesel Politikas?nda Enerji Güvenli?i  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and after Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, which have many common denominators with Turkey in terms of language, religion and culture, gained independence in the Central Asia and the Caucasus; regional policy of Turkey, which was indifferent to the region during the Cold War, changed seriously. In this study, foreign policy Turkey has pursued in theCentral Asia and Caucasus after the end of the Cold War was analyzed within context of energy supply security. Increasing importance of the energy supply security concept in international politics was examined, how the rich oil and natural gas reserves of the Central Asia and Caucasus turned the region into the focus of interest of the regional and global actors was analyzed, andthe “new great game”, which many claim started in the region, was investigated. Pipeline projects such as Baku-Tiflis-Ceyhan and Nabucco that were developed to transport the hydrocarbon reserves of the region to the international markets, regional policies the global and regional actors pursue within the context of energy supply security, and reflections of these policies to the foreign policy Turkey pursues in the region were examined.actors over the routes the oil and natural gas reserves of the region will be transported to the international markets will continue and Turkey will become one of the key countries of the east-west as well as the north-south energy corridor.

Gökhan Özkan

2010-12-01

205

A vertebrate reproductive system involving three ploidy levels: hybrid origin of triploids in a contact zone of diploid and tetraploid palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup).  

Science.gov (United States)

The rise and consequences of polyploidy in vertebrates, whose origin was associated with genome duplications, may be best studied in natural diploid and polyploid populations. In a diploid/tetraploid (2n/4n) geographic contact zone of Palearctic green toads in northern Kyrgyzstan, we examine 4ns and triploids (3n) of unknown genetic composition and origins. Using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence, and nuclear microsatellite markers in 84 individuals, we show that 4n (Bufo pewzowi) are allopolyploids, with a geographically proximate 2n species (B. turanensis) being their maternal ancestor and their paternal ancestor as yet unidentified. Local 3n forms arise through hybridization. Adult 3n mature males (B. turanensis mtDNA) have 2n mothers and 4n fathers, but seem distinguishable by nuclear profiles from partly aneuploid 3n tadpoles (with B. pewzowi mtDNA). These observations suggest multiple pathways to the formation of triploids in the contact zone, involving both reciprocal origins. To explain the phenomena in the system, we favor a hypothesis where 3n males (with B. turanensis mtDNA) backcross with 4n and 2n females. Together with previous studies of a separately evolved, sexually reproducing 3n lineage, these observations reveal complex reproductive interactions among toads of different ploidy levels and multiple pathways to the evolution of polyploid lineages. PMID:19863582

Stöck, Matthias; Ustinova, Jana; Lamatsch, Dunja K; Schartl, Manfred; Perrin, Nicolas; Moritz, Craig

2010-04-01

206

10 points about buying C.I.S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On October 16, 1992, the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) settled the antidumping case against the CIS republics by imposing price and volume quotas on CIS uranium imported into the United States. Bound by a suspension agreement, each of the six uranium-producing CIS republics is responsible for restricting the flow of imports to the US-either directly or indirectly. (As the NUKEM Market Report went to press, the Ukraine government notified the DOC of its intent not to terminate the suspension agreement.) This action is to prevent undercutting price levels in the US domestic uranium markets. What follows are ten points about everything you should know about importing uranium from the uranium-producing CIS republics- Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Newcomers to the CIS scene should follow this simple roadmap and be aware of the issues they face as importers in terms of Commerce/Customs requirements and documentation and where to get them, when to buy the material and how to transport it, how to deal effectively with CIS exporters, and how to avoid unnecessary complications when buying CIS

207

Management of environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sustainable waste management and disposal is a societal challenge in terms of economics, public health and environmental impact. The situation in developing countries, and in particular those subject to extreme natural hazards, results in increased overall risk as governments prioritize investments to issues of perceived higher economic importance. This dissertation investigates environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia. Environmental risk from municipal solid waste landfill sites encompasses a wide range of topics within socio-economics, physical sciences and engineering and therefore necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach. The underlying study is an accumulative result of a three-year collaborative research project (Contract No. INCO-CT-2005-516732) funded within the Eu Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). The international cooperation involved European, Russian and Central Asian research partners forming a multi-disciplinary consortium covering: GIS technologies, geology / hydrogeology geophysics and geotechnical engineering; landfill design and operation and waste management. understanding the relevant socio-economic aspects and legislative frameworks was necessary to prepare results and recommendations to address stakeholders in the Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and uzbekistan. (author)

208

Cooperação e poder: a Organização de Cooperação de Shangai como expressão da política externa chinesa para a Ásia Central  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan established the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. This international organization represents the first Chinese initiative in building an international security organization. This article aims to study the Chinese Foreign Policy for Central Asia from the perspective of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. We seek to answer how this international organization enables the Chinese state to achieve its interests in Central Asia. / No início do século XXI, Cazaquistão, China, Quirguistão, Rússia, Tajiquistão e Uzbequistão criaram a Organização de Cooperação de Shangai. A proeminência dessa organização internacional está no fato de ela representar a primeira iniciativa chinesa na construção de um organismo internacional de segurança. O presente artigo tem por objetivo estudar a Política Externa Chinesa para a Ásia Central sob a ótica da Organização de Cooperação de Shangai. Como problemática, busca- se responder de que maneira essa organização internacional possibilita ao Estado chinês atingir seus interesses na região centro asiática.

Andréa Freire Lucena

2011-01-01

209

United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs): Helping to Ensure the Integration of Nuclear Techniques with other Development Initiatives and Plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

egrated with existing development initiatives and plans, but also assist identifying areas where such techniques might be usefully deployed. In the past two years, 13 UNDAFs have been signed, reflecting the IAEA's focus on optimizing development activities at the country level. Currently the Secretariat is engaged in 22 ongoing UNDAF processes to ensure that the TC programme is aligned with the national development priorities reflected in these frameworks. One outstanding example of the work that is possible within the UNDAF framework is demonstrated in a soil conservation project in Tajikistan (TAD5005) entitled 'Developing Soil Conservation Strategies for Improved Soil Health', part of a technical cooperation effort that began with the assessment of soil erosion and sedimentation for land use. In former years limited capacity to monitor national resources has led to poverty due to widespread soil erosion that has affected agricultural lands. A lack of essential soil redistribution information made it impossible for the nation to assess, monitor and address the processes of accelerated natural resource degradation. The technical cooperation project was developed as a result of Tajikistan's identified need for improved national capacities and facilities to provide the basis for soil erosion modelling and land use planning. The IAEA is providing expert advice in field sampling design, laboratory set-up and data interpretation and training, to contribute to a better understanding of the main factors affecting Tajikistan's soil redistribution. As a result of this assistance, sustainable natural resource management will be possible, based on the identification of cost-effective soil conservation measures. This project has become associated with the project on Sustainable Land Management in the High Pamir and Pamir-Alai Mountains (PALM), an integrated transboundary initiative of the governments of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan and has involved numerous partners: - The Global Environment Facility (GEF), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and other donors who provided financial support to PALM; - The State agencies for environment protection and forestry in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; - Partnerships were established with the University of Bern's Centre for Development and Environment through the National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, and with scientists from Moscow State University; - GEF directed complementary resources to the project through the PALM mechanism; - The United Nations University (UNU) helped to coordinate project activities. These partners are working with the same Tajik counterparts as the IAEA, in particular the Tajik Soil Science Institute and the Tajik Academy of Agricultural Science, to offer complementary services and assistance. Increased awareness of Tajik soil erosion trends and the appropriate mitigation and control options will provide the basis for land use planning and decision making and will promote soil and water conservation techniques for sustainable agriculture development in Tajikistan. The establishment of capacity and facilities for efficient and accurate soil erosion assessment in Tajikistan will support soil erosion surveillance not only within the country, but also in the vast mountainous territories of Central Asia. The collaborative work of this project is an example of how partnerships can optimize land resource use to benefit the socioeconomic development of a country and a region. More information on the PALM project can be found at http://www.ehs.unu.edu/palm/

210

Transregional lineament of Central Asia, its magmatism, metallogeny and seismicity  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of the place and role of such large fault as Central Kyzylkum, North Nurata and South Ferghana, Atbashin, which were regarded earlier as separate independent structures led us to the idea that they are parts of a single global structure. We suggest that it should be called "Transregional lineament of Central Asia". Transregional lineament of Central Asia is multisutured long-term, and in the nodal points of some parts it is complicated by deep fault zones of «Anti Tien-Shan» trend.There are large gold ore deposits (Muruntau, Kokpatas, Kumtor) in the intersection of some of these faults. Within the lineament there are 4 mafite - ultramafite associations of different age, that are presented as isolated or combined blocks, zones and regions. The most ancient is ophiolite one (I association). Best of all it is developed in Sultanuvais and Northern Tamdytau, Uzbekistan. The second, rift association of this belt is picrite-gabbro-diabase-alkali-olivine-basalt is widespread within the belt (northern Bukantau, northern Nuratau, northern slope of the Altay ridge).The third association is peridotite-gabbroic. It is represented by the Tebinbulak intrusive of Sultanuvais. Coverings, small stocks, dikes and explosion tubes formed by potassic mafite-ultramafites ore related to much later inter-plate (P-T) occurrences of mafite-ultramafite magmatism (IY association). On Kyrgyzstan's territory the studied lineament is observed as a system of regional deep faults -Atbashi-Inylchek and Southern Ferghana, with which the ophiolite ultramafite-mafite formation is associated. The rocks have the traces of tectonic movements, which can be the ground to regard them as protrusions. Tectonically, the vast territory of Mongolia is divided into two large blocks: northern and southern. This part of the lineament called Transmongolian. This part is week studied-a special investigation was only carried out in its western part - Bulgan fault. Thus, in the presence of linear-stretched sublatitudinal metallogenic belts within the area of the studied transregional lineament in the Central Asian region, the most prospective ore deposits'assemblages are located in the intersection of these belts as deep faults of meridional, north-eastern and north-western trend. The following deposits are situated in such intersection zones: the largest in Eurasia Muruntau gold deposit, a large deposit Kumtor, Kyrgyzstan; and the gigantic class deposit - Ashi in China.Anomalously increased heat flow density (HFD) values both Muruntau deposit (according to our data- up to 85 mW/m2), and for Kumtor deposit (according to E.A.Ljubimova data - up to 130 mW/m2 ) indicate the deep character of dislocations. Interpretation of seismic observations revealed a transregional zone with the width of up to 80 km in the upper part of Kyzylkums crust. The strip is located in the relief of Moho surface, and is discordant to the general trend of premesozoic structures. Abrupt variations of the Moho boundary with vertical movement of up to 10 km are observed in the eastern end of the Issyk-Kul valley and at the boundary of Northern and Middle Tien Shan, along the Nikolaev line. In conclusion we'd like to note that such structures are well-known in American, Australian and other continents.They are recognized as deep structures and served as channels for the heat energy, magmas and fluids to come out of the core and mantle of the Earth. In this connection, activity of these structures are accompanied by the presence of various magamatic, endogenous as well as gigantic ore deposits.

Sidorova, I.

2004-12-01

211

Episodic Aggradation and Asynchronous Incision of River Terraces in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan  

Science.gov (United States)

Sequences of terraces and alluvial fans with characteristic geomorphic expression lie above or at the mouth of rivers in all of the major basins in the Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan. The similarity of terraces and fans in different drainage basins, despite being bounded by faults of varying activity and style, has been used to argue for synchronous regional climatic variations controlling the timing of aggradation and incision. Our emerging set of radiocarbon dates (currently 24) from terrace deposits and overlying sediments suggest that despite the general regional synchroneity of a late Pleistocene terrace-forming event, deep incision below broad aggradational surfaces may be locally controlled and occurred over time spans up to 30 k.y. The most prominent intra-canyon terrace is known as QIII(2) in the characteristic sequence of Tien Shan terraces. QIII(2) is a fill terrace everywhere except for the hanging walls of the most active thrust faults in the Tien Shan, where it has a strath terrace morphology. In many places the base of the QIII(2) fill is not visible even at the level of the modern river. Five dates in the fill from the Ak-Terek and Tong Rivers in the Issyk-Kul basin and Kajerty River in the Naryn basin are all >40 Ka, and may be beyond the limit of radiocarbon. The Issyk-Kul basin is occupied by a large lake, which provides additional dating possibilities, while potentially complicating the geomorphic system. In Issyk-Kul dates from sediment overlying the QIII(2) gravel in thick colluvial wedges far from the edge of the riser to lower terraces along the Ak-Terek and Tamga rivers show that at least the highest level of the fill was abandoned by 33-30 Ka. However, the downstream reaches of Issyk- Kul rivers' QIII(2) surfaces clearly remained active through a high stand of the lake that persisted from 38 to 20 Ka. Remnants of terraces with steeper gradients that merge upstream with surfaces inset only a few m into the main QIII(2) post-date the high stand and are locally preserved at the mouths of some rivers. To the west of Issyk-Kul, abandonment of the QIII(2) surface appears to have occurred at approximately 13 Ka in three basins of central Kyrgyzstan (Thompson et al., 2002). Taken together, these data show that QIII(2) aggradation was complete before 33 Ka and possibly as early as 40 Ka. Most rivers stayed at the level of the top of the fill with minor aggradation or incision for the next 13 to 25 k.y. Such long-lived stability results in a landscape where late Pleistocene surfaces that are at almost indistinguishable levels may vary in age by a factor >2. Similarly, ages of deposits in such fill terraces may be much older than the surfaces cut into them. While it is not yet clear over what region our results may apply, our observations suggest that the "same" geomorphic surface may be abandoned over a wide range of time and the upper few meters of gravel may be quite different in age than the bulk of the fill that forms the geomorphic feature. How this will affect slip rate estimates in central Asia is yet to be determined, but our observations motivate caution in assuming synchroneity of fills and their incision or synchroneity of similar- looking geomorphic features. Calculating accurate slip rates requires that one understands well the relationship between the feature where it is offset and where it is dated, particularly for relatively young terraces that do not average across many aggradation/incision cycles.

Burgette, R. J.; Weldon, R. J.; Abdkrakhmatov, K. Y.; Ormukov, C.

2006-12-01

212

Shifting mountain snow patterns in a changing climate from remote sensing retrieval.  

Science.gov (United States)

Observed climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on environmental systems and society. In this context, many mountain regions seem to be particularly sensitive to a changing climate, through increases in temperature coupled with changes in precipitation regimes that are often larger than the global average (EEA, 2012). In mid-latitude mountains, these driving factors strongly influence the variability of the mountain snow-pack, through a decrease in seasonal reserves and earlier melting of the snow pack. These in turn impact on hydrological systems in different watersheds and, ultimately, have consequences for water management. Snow monitoring from remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to address the question of snow cover regime changes at the regional scale. This study outlines the results retrieved from the MODIS satellite images over a time period of 10 hydrological years (2000-2010) and applied to two case studies of the EU FP7 ACQWA project, namely the upper Rhone and Po in Europe and the headwaters of the Syr Darya in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia). The satellite data were provided by the MODIS Terra MOD-09 reflectance images (NASA) and MOD-10 snow products (NSIDC). Daily snow maps were retrieved over that decade and the results presented here focus on the temporal and spatial changes in snow cover. This paper highlights the statistical bias observed in some specific regions, expressed by the standard deviation values (STD) of annual snow duration. This bias is linked to the response of snow cover to changes in elevation and can be used as a signal of strong instability in regions sensitive to climate change: with alternations of heavy snowfalls and rapid snow melting processes. The interest of the study is to compare the methodology between the medium scales (Europe) and the large scales (Central Asia) in order to overcome the limits of the applied methodologies and to improve their performances. Results show that the yearly snow cover duration increases by 4-5 days per 100 m elevation during the accumulation period, depending of the watershed, while during the melting season the snow depletion rate is 0.3% per day of surface loss for the upper Rhone catchment, 0.4%/day for the Syr Darya headwater basins, and 0.6%/day for the upper Po, respectively. Then, the annual STD maps of snow cover indicate higher values (more than 45 days difference compared to the mean values) for (i) the Po foothill region at medium elevation (SE orientation) and (ii) the Kyrgyzstan high plateaux (permafrost areas). These observations cover only a time-period of 10 years, but exhibit a signal under current climate that is already consistent with the expected decline in snow in these regions in the course of the 21st century. PMID:24842410

Dedieu, J P; Lessard-Fontaine, A; Ravazzani, G; Cremonese, E; Shalpykova, G; Beniston, M

2014-09-15

213

Discrimination between induced and natural seismicity by means of nonlinear analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of human activity on the Earth's interior often causes activation of seismic processes, i.e., generates induced seismicity. Nowadays, the problem of distinguishing between the natural and induced seismicity have become important. The increasing interest to this problem is caused by the issues which seem to be far from related to seismicity, for examples, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere through the transition to the so-called green energy sources (such as hydrothermal power plants). Some geothermal power plants are located in the seismically active regions, which impedes referring the increase in seismic activity to the induced effects or natural variations. Efficient methods for analyzing the behavior of complex dynamical systems (to which the geophysical systems pertain) were developed in the field of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, these methods allow one to identify the changes in the state of the system, which are caused by external action. If a system exposed to some impact has changed its state, the processes in this system will contain a deterministic component defined by the external factor. The appearance of the deterministic component should decrease the fractal dimension of the attractor in the phase space of the system states (if such attractor is distinguished) and decrease the dimension of the embedding space (the number of the key parameters required for describing the behavior of the system). The Grassberger-Procaccia method is the widest-adopted approach for estimating the dimensions of the attractor and the embedding space. In the presented work, we use this method for analyzing the seismicity in several regions that suffered from technogeneous impacts. In some cases considered, the seismicity was not obviously induced. Four data sets were analyzed: (1) the seismicity in the region of the Romashkino oil field, Russia; (2) the seismic activity before and after the large-scale explosions on Burlykiya and Uch-Terek Rivers in Kyrgyzstan; (3) the seismicity in the region of the Geysers geothermal complex in California, US; (4) the seismicity in the region of Bishkek geophysical test site, Kyrgyzstan, recorded before and after strong electromagnetic discharges. The nonlinear analysis of the data sets on seismicity showed that technogeneous action on the geophysical medium increases the regularity of the seismic regime. It looks like the formation of stable states characterized by a finite fractal dimension of the attractor and reasonable small dimension of the embedding space. The presence of the stable states opens the possibility of forecasting the development of induced seismic activity. We also present the results of nonlinear analysis of the rate-and-state model, which allows us to describe the mechanics of the studied phenomenon. In this context, the model of motion in the fault zones that obey the two-parameters friction law suggests that if the external action causes the critical stresses to decrease e.g. due to the growth of the pore pressure or due to heating of the fault zone, we should expect the deterministic component of the seismic process to increase.

Turuntaev, S. B.; Melchaeva, O. Yu.; Vorohobina, S. V.

2012-04-01

214

Central Asia Active Fault Database  

Science.gov (United States)

The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late Pleistocene landforms observed near the fault trace.

Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

2014-05-01

215

Good Health at Low Cost 25 years on: lessons for the future of health systems strengthening.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1985, the Rockefeller Foundation published Good health at low cost to discuss why some countries or regions achieve better health and social outcomes than do others at a similar level of income and to show the role of political will and socially progressive policies. 25 years on, the Good Health at Low Cost project revisited these places but looked anew at Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Thailand, and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which have all either achieved substantial improvements in health or access to services or implemented innovative health policies relative to their neighbours. A series of comparative case studies (2009-11) looked at how and why each region accomplished these changes. Attributes of success included good governance and political commitment, effective bureaucracies that preserve institutional memory and can learn from experience, and the ability to innovate and adapt to resource limitations. Furthermore, the capacity to respond to population needs and build resilience into health systems in the face of political unrest, economic crises, and natural disasters was important. Transport infrastructure, female empowerment, and education also played a part. Health systems are complex and no simple recipe exists for success. Yet in the countries and regions studied, progress has been assisted by institutional stability, with continuity of reforms despite political and economic turmoil, learning lessons from experience, seizing windows of opportunity, and ensuring sensitivity to context. These experiences show that improvements in health can still be achieved in countries with relatively few resources, though strategic investment is necessary to address new challenges such as complex chronic diseases and growing population expectations. PMID:23574803

Balabanova, Dina; Mills, Anne; Conteh, Lesong; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Banteyerga, Hailom; Dash, Umakant; Gilson, Lucy; Harmer, Andrew; Ibraimova, Ainura; Islam, Ziaul; Kidanu, Aklilu; Koehlmoos, Tracey P; Limwattananon, Supon; Muraleedharan, V R; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Palafox, Benjamin; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; McKee, Martin

2013-06-15

216

An Assessment of Antibiotics Prescribed at the Secondary Health-Care Level in the Kyrgyz Republic  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions in a secondary health care setting in Kyrgyzstan. A retrospective analysis was performed of antibiotic prescriptions in 251 inpatient records of patients admitted to the Sokuluk Territorial Hospital. A total of 19 different antibiotics were prescribed. Penicillin G (24.9%, gentamicin (16.1%, metronidazole (15.6% and cefazolin (14.5% were those most frequently prescribed. The major indications for antibiotics were diseases of the respiratory system (28.0%, injury, poisoning and certain other consequences from external causes (25.5%, and diseases of the digestive system (14.3%. Almost three-quarters of the antibiotics were used parenterally, 252 of which (58.9% were administered intramuscularly and 70 (16.4% intravenously. Forty-five percent of the patients received two antibiotics, and 12.0% received three antibiotics during their stay at the hospital. Antibiotic therapy proved inappropriate for 184 patients (73.3%. The most common reason given for inappropriateness was the unjustified (not indicated use of antibiotics in 143 (48.6% cases. There was a significantly higher inappropriate choice of antibiotics in gynecology (OR=2.70, 95% CI=1.02–7.69 when compared with that in other wards. Although antibiotics were prescribed in all cases post-operatively, noneof those patients were given pre-operative prophylactic antibiotics when indicated. We concluded that antibiotic prescriptions were seriously inappropriate in the Kyrgyz Republic with prescribing patterns failing to strictly adhere to the national guidelines. Adoption of an international standard and locally conformableguidelines of antibiotic use can help correct such problems.

JUNICHI SAKAMOTO

2011-08-01

217

GREAT REBELLION OF 1916 in KYRGYZ: URKÜN 1916 KIRGIZ BÜYÜK ?SYANI: ÜRKÜN  

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Full Text Available The revolution in 1916 was one of the biggest tragedies in the politics of the Russian Empire was to have Kyrgyzstan as its colony. For instance, the best places were given to russians, local people were forced to move to rural area. The main reason was a call for men into Russia’s Central Asian colonies to serve in the Tsarist army fighting in World war I. The first uprising was in Khojent on july 4 th 1916 and the movement spread to other parts of Turkestan. Kyrgyz Turks were killed by the Russian forces and settlers. Kyrgyz population from the North of the country were killed. And another 120.000 fled across the border to China 1916 ?syan? K?rg?z tarihinin en büyük trajedilerinden biridir. Bu olay K?rg?zistan’da Ürkün olarak bilinir. Rus ?mparatorlu?u K?rg?zistan’da koloni politikas? uygulam??t?r. En iyi yerler Ruslara verilmi? yerli halk kendi topra??ndan edilerek k?rsal alanlara göç ettirilmi?tir. Ayaklanman?n temel nedeni ise I. Dünya Sava??nda Çarl???n Rusya’n?n geri hizmetlerinde çal??mak üzere Türkistanl?lar? ça??rmas? olmu?tur. Ayaklanma 4 Temmuz 1916’da Hocent’te ba?lam??t?r daha sonra Türkistan’?n di?er k?s?mlar?na yay?lm??t?r. K?rg?z Türkleri Rus askerleri ve Rus yerle?imciler taraf?ndan öldürülmü?tür. Ülkenin kuzeyindeki ayaklanmac?lar öldürülmü? di?er 120 bini Çine kaçm??t?r.

Füsun KARA

2011-06-01

218

Lithospheric Structure of Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

The active tectonics of Central Asia is the result of ongoing, active continental collision between the Indian and the Eurasian plates. This geologically and tectonically complex area is also one of the most seismically active regions in the world. Previous studies in this region mostly depended on teleseismic data and the local and regional data from the stations located in China. In this study we used the local travel time data from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan to study the lithospheric structure in this region. We selected the events and stations between 32°N-65°E and 45°N-85°E and focused on the areas of Pamir and Tien Shan. In this data set, there are more than 3000 P and S arrivals received at 68 stations from about 220 events. The double difference tomography is applied to relocate events and to invert for seismic structure simultaneously. Our results provide accurate locations of earthquakes and high resolution lithospheric structure in this region. We use both; the local travel times, and also the regional travel times to invert the 3D lithospheric velocity structure in this region. More than 2200 P wave phase picks were used in the inversion. The average grid spacing is 100km and the inverted grids lay on six layers. Then we use the Double Difference Tomography method developed by Zhang and Thurber (2003, 2006) to invert the 3-D P-wave velocity structure. Our tomographic results show highly heterogeneous crust and upper mantle structure for Central Asia. Some crustal low velocity zones are found beneath Tien Shan, the northern Pamir, and the Tajik depression, while high velocity anomalies are found beneath the Kazakh shield, the southern Pamir, and the Tarim basin.

Martin, R. J.; Gulen, L.; Sun, Y.; Toksoz, M. N.

2009-12-01

219

Crust and upper mantle structure beneath western China from P wave travel time tomography  

Science.gov (United States)

Three-dimensional velocity images of the crust and upper mantle beneath western China are obtained through seismic tomography by using P wave arrival times of local/regional and teleseismic events recorded in Chinese and Kyrgyzstan seismic networks. At shallow depths, most mountain belts and tectonically elevated areas are imaged as higher velocities, relative to adjacent sediment-filled basins and foreland depressions with lower velocities. At mid-lower crust depths, the Kyrgyz Tian Shan is underlain by lower velocity material and a distinct low-velocity zone in the south-north direction is observed between the eastern and western parts of the Chinese Tian Shan. The Moho of the southern Tarim basin has a greater depth over 50 km in front of the western Kun Lun, compared to the northern and western Tarim basin. Lateral heterogeneity within the upper mantle is apparent at depths from 71 to 571 km. The uppermost mantle beneath the Kyrgyz Tian Shan, Altay, Qi Lian, and eastern Kun Lun is characterized by low-velocity material that is probably related to the upwelling of hot mantle. The lithospheric thickness varies from 120 to 170 km beneath the Chinese Tian Shan and northern Tibetan Plateau to 200-250 km beneath the Tarim basin. Deep coupling pattern of the Chinese Tian Shan with adjacent provinces can be classified into the embedding, detaching and sinking, and underthrusting of lithospheric roots. In addition, the lithosphere of the northern edge of the Tibetan Plateau seems to be thickened, in contrast to the central part of the northern plateau. North dipping low velocities exist in the upper mantle between the Tibetan Plateau and provinces to its north, which might indicate mantle flow from the Tibetan Plateau toward surrounding areas, but it has been blocked by the thick Tarim lithosphere.

Xu, Yi; Liu, Futian; Liu, Jianhua; Chen, Hui

2002-10-01

220

The use of propagation path corrections to improve seismic event location in western China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to improve ability to locate events in western China using only regional data, the authors have developed propagation path corrections to seismic travel times, and applied such corrections using both traditional location routines as well as a nonlinear grid search method. Thus far, they have concentrated on corrections to observed P arrival times. They have constructed such corrections by using travel time observations available from the USGS Earthquake Data Reports, as well as data reported by the ISC. They have also constructed corrections for six stations that are a part of the International monitoring System. For each station having sufficient data, they produce a map of the travel-time residuals from all located events. Large-amplitude residuals are removed by median filtering, and the resulting data are gridded. For a given source location, the correction at a particular station is then interpolated from the correction grid associated with the station. They have constrained the magnitude of the corrections to be {le} 3 s. They have evaluated the utility of the calculated corrections by applying the corrections to the regional relocation of 10 well-located Chinese nuclear tests, as well as a single, well-located aftershock in nearby Kyrgyzstan. The use of corrections having magnitudes > 2 s is troubling when using traditional location codes, as the corrections amount to a nonlinear perturbation correction, and when large may destabilize the location algorithm. Partly for this reason, the authors have begun using grid search methods to relocate regional events. Such methods are easy to implement and fully nonlinear. Moreover, the misfit function used to locate the event can very easily be changed; they have used L{sub 1}- and L{sub 2}-norm misfit functions, for example. Instances in which multiple local minima occur in a location problem are easily recognized by simply contouring or otherwise displaying the misfit function.

Cogbill, A.H.; Steck, L.K.

1998-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Strain partitioning at the eastern Pamir-Alai revealed through SAR data analysis of the 2008 Nura earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

On 2008 October 5, a magnitude 6.6 earthquake struck the eastern termination of the intermontane Alai valley between the southern Tien Shan and the northern Pamir of Kyrgyzstan. The shallow thrust earthquake occurred in the footwall of the Main Pamir thrust, where the Pamir orogen is colliding with the southern Tien Shan mountains. We measure the coseismic surface displacements using SAR (Synthetic Aperture RADAR) data; the results show clear gradients in the vertical and horizontal directions along a complex pattern of surface ruptures and active faults. To integrate and to interpret these observations in the context of the regional tectonics, we complement the SAR data analysis with seismological data and geological field observations. While the main moment release of the Nura earthquake appears to be on the Pamir Frontal thrust, the main surface displacements and surface rupture occurred in the footwall along the NE-SW striking Irkeshtam fault. With InSAR data from ascending and descending tracks along with pixel offset measurements, we model the Nura earthquake source as a segmented rupture. One fault segment corresponds to high-angle brittle faulting at the Pamir Frontal thrust and two more fault segments show moderate-angle and low-friction thrusting at the Irkeshtam fault. Our integrated analysis of the coseismic deformation argues for rupture segmentation and strain partitioning associated to the earthquake. It possibly activated an orogenic wedge in the easternmost segment of the Pamir-Alai collision zone. Further, the style of the segmentation may be associated with the presence of Palaeogene evaporites.

Teshebaeva, Kanayim; Sudhaus, Henriette; Echtler, Helmut; Schurr, Bernd; Roessner, Sigrid

2014-06-01

222

Micro-analytical characterisation of radioactive heterogeneities in samples from Central Asian TENORM sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work focuses on the use of micro-analytical techniques to demonstrate the heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides and metals in soils collected at Former Soviet Union mining sites in Central Asia. Based on digital autoradiography, radionuclides were heterogeneously distributed in soil samples collected at the abandoned uranium mining sites Kurday, Kazakhstan, Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan and Taboshar, Tajikistan. Using electron microscopy interfaced with X-ray microanalysis submicron – mm-sized radioactive particles and rock fragments with U, As, Se and toxic metals on the surfaces were identified in Kurday and Kadji Sai samples. Employing scanning and tomographic (3D) synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-SRXRF) and synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray diffraction (?-SRXRD) allowed us to observe the inner structure of the particles without physical sectioning. The distribution of elements in virtual crosssections demonstrated that U and a series of toxic elements were rather heterogeneously distributed also within individual radioactive TENORM particles. Compared to archived data, U in Kadji Sai particles was present as uraninite (U4O9+y or UO2+x) or Na-zippeite ((Na4(UO2)6[(OH)10(SO4)3]·4H2O), i.e. U minerals with very low solubility. The results suggested that TENORM particles can carry substantial amount of radioactivity, which can be subject to re-suspension, atmospheric transport and water transport. Thus, the potential radioecological and radioanalytical impact of radioactive particles at NORM and TENORM sites worldwide should be taken into account. The present work also demonstrates that radioecological studies should benefit from the use of advanced methods such as synchrotron radiation based techniques

223

Marriage formation as a process intermediary between migration and childbearing  

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Full Text Available In studies of differences in fertility between migrants and non-migrants, marriage interferes because migration can be motivated by an impending marriage or can entail entry into a marriage market with new opportunities. One would therefore expect elevated fertility after migration, although a competing theory states that on the contrary fertility ought to be reduced in the time around the move because migration temporarily disturbs the life of the migrant. In any case marriage appears as a process that is intermediary between migration and childbearing. To handle such issues it pays to have a technique that allows the analyst to separate any disruptive effects of migration from any boosting effects of marriage in studies of childbearing. The purposes of the present paper are (i to remind us that such a technique is available, in fact is straightforward, and (ii to apply the technique to further analyze a set of data on migration and first-time parenthood in Kyrgyzstan recently used by the second author and Gunnar Andersson. The technique has the neat feature that it allows us to operate with several "clocks" at the same time. In the analysis of first births we keep track of time since migration (for migrants and time since marriage formation (for the married beside the respondent's age (for women at childbearing ages; in other connections there may be more clocks. For such analyses we make use of a flexible graphical housekeeping device that allows the analyst to keep track of a feature like whether migration occurs before or after marriage, or at the same time. This is a half-century-old flow chart of statuses and transitions and is not much more complex than the famous Lexis diagram, which originated with Gustav Zeuner, as we now know. These reflexions were first presented at a symposium dedicated to Professor Zeuner.

Lesia Nedoluzhko

2008-06-01

224

Exhumation of Basement-cored Uplifts: Example of the Kyrgyz Range Quantified with Apatite Fission-track Thermochronology  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kyrgyz Range, the northernmost portion of the Kyrgyzstan Tien Shan, displays topographic evidence for lateral propagation of surface uplift and exhumation. The highest and most deeply dissected segment lies in the center of the range. To the east, topography and relief decrease, and preserved remnants of a Cretaceous regional erosion surface imply minimal amounts of bedrock exhumation. The timing of exhumation of range segments defines the lateral propagation rate of the range-bounding reverse fault and quantifies the time and erosion depth needed to transform a mountain range from a juvenile to a mature morphology. New apatite fission-track (AFT) data from three transects from the eastern Kyrgyz Range, combined with published AFT data, demonstrate that the range has propagated over 110 km eastwards over the last 7-11 Myr. Based on the thermal and topographic evolutionary history, we present a model for a time-varying exhumation rate driven by rock uplift and changes in erodability and the time scale of geomorphic adjustment to surface uplift. Easily eroded, Cenozoic sedimentary rocks overlying resistant basement control early, rapid exhumation and slow surface upliftrates. As increasing amounts of resistant basement are exposed, exhumation rates decrease while surface uplift rates are sustained or increase, thereby growing topography. As the range becomes high enough to cause ice accumulation and develop steep river valleys, fluvial and glacial erosion become more powerful and exhumation rates once again increase. Independently determined range-noma1 shortening rates have also varied over time, suggesting a feedback between erosional efficiency and shortening rate.

Sobel, Edward R.; Oskin, Michael; Burbank, Douglas; Mikolaichuk, Alexander

2005-01-01

225

Radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya river (II)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The article contains the results obtained during the radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya River, which was conducted within the frames of international collaboration of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and USA. The data on the radionuclides of water, bottom, water plants and soil was obtained. Dependence of the obtained results on distance form the source is discussed. The results of investigations of radio-ecological situation in river Syr-Darya have been presented. Total 15 control points have been chosen in each of the 4 countries of Central Asia. Sampling of soil, bottom sediment, water and vegetation was made during expeditions. Radionuclide of all environmental objects have been studied. The quantity of the radionuclides Ra-226, K-40, Th-232, and U-238 in all samples was investigated. The amount of radionuclides changes for K-40: from 90 to 920 Bq/kg; Ra-226: from 30 to 150 Bq/kg; Th-232 from 7 to 70 Bq/kg; and U-238: from 5 to 180 Bq/kg. Uranium mines influence the process of formation of natural radioactivity in these rivers. Note that the amount of natural radionuclides uranium and thorium, decay products is highest in stations near uranium mines. We had an opportunity to get only few samples from each site, that's why we had to analyze just average seasonal values. A few samples determined great average deviations. These circumstances did not allow us to determine seasonal changes of characteristics of the investigated samples and trace technological and industrial activities by radionuclides. We saw results of general character and suggested formation models of these changes. However, these results, in our opinion, are interesting and give a general idea about radiation background along Syr-Darya and Narin Rivers. Detailed changes of background (because of seasons and technological changes) can be obtained with systematic and longer monitoring

226

Genotyping of Capreolus pygargus Fossil DNA from Denisova Cave Reveals Phylogenetic Relationships between Ancient and Modern Populations  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The extant roe deer (Capreolus Gray, 1821) includes two species: the European roe deer (C. capreolus) and the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) that are distinguished by morphological and karyotypical differences. The Siberian roe deer occupies a vast area of Asia and is considerably less studied than the European roe deer. Modern systematics of the Siberian roe deer remain controversial with 4 morphological subspecies. Roe deer fossilized bones are quite abundant in Denisova cave (Altai Mountains, South Siberia), where dozens of both extant and extinct mammalian species from modern Holocene to Middle Pleistocene have been retrieved. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed a 629 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region from ancient bones of 10 Holocene and four Pleistocene Siberian roe deer from Denisova cave as well as 37 modern specimen belonging to populations from Altai, Tian Shan (Kyrgyzstan), Yakutia, Novosibirsk region and the Russian Far East. Genealogical reconstructions indicated that most Holocene haplotypes were probably ancestral for modern roe deer populations of Western Siberia and Tian Shan. One of the Pleistocene haplotypes was possibly ancestral for modern Yakutian populations, and two extinct Pleistocene haplotypes were close to modern roe deer from Tian Shan and Yakutia. Most modern geographical populations (except for West Siberian Plains) are heterogeneous and there is some tentative evidence for structure. However, we did not find any distinct phylogenetic signal characterizing particular subspecies in either modern or ancient samples. Conclusion/Significance Analysis of mitochondrial DNA from both ancient and modern samples of Siberian roe deer shed new light on understanding the evolutionary history of roe deer. Our data indicate that during the last 50,000 years multiple replacements of populations of the Siberian roe deer took place in the Altai Mountains correlating with climatic changes. The Siberian roe deer represent a complex and heterogeneous species with high migration rates and without evident subspecies structure. Low genetic diversity of the West Siberian Plain population indicates a recent bottleneck or founder effect. PMID:21897868

Vorobieva, Nadezhda V.; Sherbakov, Dmitry Y.; Druzhkova, Anna S.; Stanyon, Roscoe; Tsybankov, Alexander A.; Vasil'ev, Sergey K.; Shunkov, Mikhail V.; Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.

2011-01-01

227

Research and monitoring of radiation and ecological situation in Syrdarya river basin at the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Syrdarya River is the main life supporting fresh water artery of the South Kazakhstan. Alarming epidemiological situation in this area: almost all medical indicators of the health state of the inhabitants, including children, are much lower than averages for the republic. One of the main reasons of a high level of sickness in the South Kazakhstan is critical condition of ecological and radio-ecological situation in Syrdarya river basin [1-4]. One of the mechanism leading to this is intensive agricultural activity with use of mineral (phosphor, potassium, nitric) fertilizers. The most important and least studied peculiarity for this region is the presence of considerable reserves (more than 15% of the world reserves) of natural uranium (Karatau ridge and its spurs) and intensive industrial activity on its mining and processing. Many of these reserves have deposits of carbonaceous- siliceous schist characterized by very high 'hurricane' contents of rare and scattered elements. Such dangerous elements as V, Cr, Co, As, Se, Hg, Th and U are easily leached from these rocks by startle water and migrate in large quantities to the main water artery polluting it with radionuclides, heavy metals and toxic elements. Industrial activity connected with uranium mining (especially using the method of underground leaching) favors this process [2, 3]. It is necessary to note that these circumstances about the basins of main water arteries - Syrdarya and Amudarya - relate to both the South Kazakhstan and other countries of the Central Asia. It became the base for investigation of level and character of contamination of these river basins on the territories of four countries of the Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. In this connection beginning from November 2000. International Project 'Navruz' is carried out. Its main goal is radio-ecological investigation and monitoring of these rivers and their inflows. The project is planned for 2 years, to be finished in September 2002, with the collaboration of Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, USA

228

Development and evaluation of a water level proportional water sampler  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed and adapted a new type of sampler for time-integrated, water level proportional water quality sampling (e.g. nutrients, contaminants and stable isotopes). Our samplers are designed for sampling small to mid-size streams based on the law of Hagen-Poiseuille, where a capillary (or a valve) limits the sampling aliquot by reducing the air flux out of a submersed plastic (HDPE) sampling container. They are good alternatives to battery-operated automated water samplers when working in remote areas, or at streams that are characterized by pronounced daily discharge variations such as glacier streams. We evaluated our samplers against standard automated water samplers (ISCO 2900 and ISCO 6712) during the snowmelt in the Black Forest and the Alps and tested them in remote glacial catchments in Iceland, Switzerland and Kyrgyzstan. The results clearly showed that our samplers are an adequate tool for time-integrated, water level proportional water sampling at remote test sites, as they do not need batteries, are relatively inexpensive, lightweight, and compact. They are well suited for headwater streams - especially when sampling for stable isotopes - as the sampled water is perfectly protected against evaporation. Moreover, our samplers have a reduced risk of icing in cold environments, as they are installed submersed in water, whereas automated samplers (typically installed outside the stream) may get clogged due to icing of hoses. Based on this study, we find these samplers to be an adequate replacement for automated samplers when time-integrated sampling or solute load estimates are the main monitoring tasks.

Schneider, P.; Lange, A.; Doppler, T.

2013-12-01

229

Multi-method chronometric constraints on the evolution of the Northern Kyrgyz Tien Shan granitoids (Central Asian Orogenic Belt): From emplacement to exhumation  

Science.gov (United States)

Multichronological data reveal the thermotectonic history of the northern Kyrgyz Tien Shan granitoids (Kyrgyzstan) from emplacement to exhumation. Zircon SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U/Pb concordia ages suggest a Middle to Late Ordovician crystallization age (440-470 Ma) for the most voluminous; Caledonian intrusion phase, which is associated with the evolution and closure of the Early Palaeozoic Terskey Ocean. The presence of some additional Early Ordovician - Cambrian U/Pb ages point towards a prolonged production of granitoids during the entire Early Palaeozoic. A sampled younger granitoid (292 ± 5 Ma) was formed during the final closure of the Turkestan Ocean when Tarim eventually collided with the Kazakhstan plate during Hercynian orogeny. 40Ar/ 39Ar step-wise heating plateau-ages (biotite Ar/Ar: 400-440 Ma; K-feldspar Ar/Ar: 235-375 Ma) bear witness to rapid Silurian - Early Devonian post-magmatic cooling of the Caledonian intrusives, followed by a more modest rate of cooling during the Late Devonian until the Late Triassic. Low-temperature techniques such as apatite fission track (AFT) and Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) thermochronology, give Late Jurassic - Cretaceous ages (90-160 Ma) with some Cenozoic outliers. Thermal history modelling allows us to distinguish two marked cooling phases: (1) Mesozoic cooling occurred as the result of denudation and exhumation of the Tien Shan basement during a pulse of tectonic reactivation, associated with the Cimmerian orogeny. (2) Late Cenozoic cooling (˜10-3 Ma) reflects a far-field effect of the India-Eurasia collision. Some samples also experienced a Late Oligocene - Miocene reheating event, which could be the result of burial due to sediment load stripped from the adjacent, eroding mountain ranges.

Glorie, S.; De Grave, J.; Buslov, M. M.; Elburg, M. A.; Stockli, D. F.; Gerdes, A.; Van den haute, P.

2010-04-01

230

Understanding the Linkages between Climate, Land Use, and Land Degradation in Central Asia (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Vulnerability of terrestrial ecosystems and their services, especially provision of food and water, in a changing climate are becoming the most pressing problems of the 21st century. These problems are especially severe in the drylands that cover over 40% of the Earth's land surface, and are home to more than a third of the world's population. The talk will concentrate on drylands of Central Asia which is one of the world';s most vulnerable regions to natural and anthropogenic stressors. This region has experienced dramatic climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic changes in the past century. They include warming climate, frequent droughts, significant changes in land cover and land use (LCLU), desiccation of the Aral Sea and increase in dust storms, massive water management projects, formation and then disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the subsequent formation of the five independent countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan). These changes have regional and global implications via the climate and socioeconomic systems. The talk will present results of an integrated analysis aimed at synthesis of changes that have occurred in drylands of Central Asia in the context of socioeconomic transformations and climate variability and change since the 1950s. The analysis uses historical LCLU records, multiple US Earth-observing satellite products, climatological and socioeconomic data, crop production data, and results of climate and wind erosion modeling. The aim is to characterize and understand how drylands have been changed by human activities and by climate, with an emphasis on managed ecosystems related to agricultural activities and food production. The extent and dynamics of land degradation 'hot spots' are identified and examined to ascertain the contribution from natural and anthropogenic stressors. The interconnections among systems and the linkages between global- and local-scale processes, and between short and long timescales are explored to aid in process-level understanding within the Earth system modeling framework.

Sokolik, I. N.; Xi, X.; Tatarskii, V.; Ozdes, M.; Shemyakina, O.; Shiklomanov, A. I.; Shkolnik, I.

2013-12-01

231

Evolution of mitochondrial relationships and biogeography of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) with insights in their genomic plasticity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taxa involving three bisexually reproducing ploidy levels make green toads a unique amphibian system. We put a cytogenetic dataset from Central Asia in a molecular framework and apply phylogenetic and demographic methods to data from the entire Palearctic range. We study the mitochondrial relationships of diploids to infer their phylogeography and the maternal ancestry of polyploids. Control regions (and tRNAs between ND1 and ND2 in representatives) characterize a deeply branched assemblage of twelve haplotype groups, diverged since the Lower Miocene. Polyploidy has evolved several times: Central Asian tetraploids (B. oblongus, B. pewzowi) have at least two maternal origins. Intriguingly, the mitochondrial ancestor of morphologically distinctive, sexually reproducing triploid taxa (B. pseudoraddei) from Karakoram and Hindukush represents a different lineage. We report another potential case of bisexual triploid toads (B. zugmayeri). Identical d-loops in diploids and tetraploids from Iran and Turkmenistan, which differ in morphology, karyotypes and calls, suggest multiple origins and retained polymorphism and/or hybridization. A similar system involves diploids, triploids and tetraploids from Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan where green toads exemplify vertebrate genomic plasticity. A new form from Sicily and its African sister species (B. boulengeri) allow internal calibration and divergence time estimates for major clades. The subgroup may have originated in Eurasia rather than Africa since the earliest diverged lineages (B. latastii, B. surdus) and earliest fossils occur in Asia. We delineate ranges, contact and hybrid zones. Phylogeography, including one of the first non-avian datasets from Central Asian high mountains, reflects Quaternary climate and glaciation. PMID:16919484

Stöck, Matthias; Moritz, Craig; Hickerson, Michael; Frynta, Daniel; Dujsebayeva, Tatjana; Eremchenko, Valery; Macey, J Robert; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Wake, David B

2006-12-01

232

Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polonium-210 in water and 210Pb and 210Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of 210Pb and 210Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of 210Po was higher than for 210Pb, and the accumulation of 210Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg?1 ww). Although the average activity concentration of 210Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25–327 Bq kg?1 ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported 210Po into the liver, and that the distributions of 210Po and 210Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for 210Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 105, >2.5 × 104 and >1.4 × 104, respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log 210Po in liver and ?15N could indicate biomagnification of 210Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for 210Po, the concentration of 210Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake

233

Rate and Time Trend of Perinatal, Infant, Maternal Mortality, Natality and Natural Population Growth in Kosovo  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: The aim of work has been the presentation of the rate and time trends of some indicators of the heath condition of mothers and children in Kosovo: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. Methods: The data were taken from: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. Results: The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Conclusion: Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a continuous decrease. Infant mortality considerably decreased (from 164‰ in 1950 to 20.5‰ in 2010). The causes of infant mortality have still been tightly related with the causes of the developing countries. Next to this, natality and the natural population growth have experienced a considerably decrease in Kosovo. Even though there have been some improvements within the health care in Kosovo, there is still a lot to be done with the aim of constant improvement of health care in order to promote the health care for mothers and children. PMID:23678327

Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

2012-01-01

234

Establishing a collaborative effort to assess the role of glaciers and seasonal snow cover in the hydrology of the mountains of High Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the individual contributions from seasonal snow and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the Himalaya, Karakoram, Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges, referred to here as High Asia. While it is generally accepted that the melt from glacier ice and seasonal snow is a significant component of High Asian water resources, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains generally unknown. To improve our understanding of the High Asia regional water resources, a cross-boundary effort is required. In order to achieve this goal, University of Colorado scientists are working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located across High Asia (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes joint research activities, including cooperative field research, as well as capacity building (technical training, graduate student support) that will enhance the scientific understanding of the regional hydrology among our Asian partners. To accomplish basic project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to a temperature-index melt model. The melt model estimates runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt model is driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. Validation efforts for the regional scale results will involve comparison with measured discharge data as well as with local process-scale melt model output. In addition, we will evaluate and augment the melt models using innovative isotopic and geochemical tracers to identify and quantify the sources of water (ice melt, snow melt, rainfall and ground water) flowing into selected rivers that represent the major hydro-climates of the study area. We present examples of the various data inputs and methodologies to achieve overall project goals along with preliminary results for the Upper Indus Basin for the period 2000-2011.

Armstrong, R. L.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M.; Khalsa, S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Williams, M. W.

2012-12-01

235

Establishing a Collaborative Effort to Assess The Contribution to High Asian Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The improved understanding of the regional water resources of High Asia is a cross-boundary exercise and in order to achieve this goal, University of Colorado scientists are working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located across High Asia (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes both joint research and capacity building that will enhance the scientific understanding of the regional hydrology through augmented field programs and technical training. The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the separate contributions from seasonal snow melt and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the Himalaya, Karakoram, Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges. While it is generally accepted that the melt from glacier ice and seasonal snow is a significant component of High Asian water resources, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains uncertain. To accomplish project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to temperature-index melt models to estimate runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt models are driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. We are comparing the melt volume time series generated from temperature-index models with measured river discharge volumes and comparing the regional scale results with local sub-basin studies based on energy balance modeling approaches. We are also evaluating the accuracy of the melt model results using isotopic and geochemical tracers to identify and quantify the sources of water (ice melt, snow melt, rainfall and ground water) flowing into selected rivers representing the major hydro-climates of the study area. With our Asian partners, we are assessing the performance of the various melt models. Examples of the various tasks and methodologies to achieve the overall project goals are summarized and preliminary results are presented for the Upper Indus Basin for the period 2000-2012.

Armstrong, Richard; Barrett, Andrew; Brodzik, Mary Jo; Fetterer, Florence; Horodyskyj, Ulyana; Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Racoviteanu, Adina; Rasmussen, Al; Raup, Bruce; Williams, Mark; Wilson, Alana

2013-04-01

236

Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS, countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. Methods Using 2005–2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, we examined associations between individual and community socioeconomic status with current modern contraceptive use (MCU among N?=?55,204 women aged 15–49 married or in a union. Individual socioeconomic status was measured using quintiles of wealth index and education level (higher than secondary school, secondary school or less. Community socioeconomic status was measured as the percentage of households in the poorest quintile of the nationals household wealth index (0%, 0–25%, or greater than 25%. We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate associations adjusted for age, number of children, urban/rural, and socioeconomic variables. Results MCU varied by country from 14% (in Azerbaijan to 62% (in Belarus. Overall, women living in the poorest communities were less likely than those in the richest to use modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval?=?0.76, 0.89. Similarly, there was an increasing odds of MCU with increasing individual-level wealth. Women with a lower level of education also had lower odds of MCU than those with a higher level of education (aOR?=?.75, 95%CI?=?0.71, 0.79. In country-specific analyses, community-level socioeconomic inequalities were apparent in 4 of 10 countries; in contrast, inequalities by individual-level wealth were apparent in 7 countries and by education in 8 countries. All countries in which community-level socioeconomic status was associated with MCU were in Central Asia, whereas at the individual-level inequalities of the largest magnitude were found in the Caucasus. There were no distinct patterns found in Eastern European countries. Conclusions Community-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in Central Asian countries, whereas individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in the Caucasus. It is important to consider multilevel contextual determinants of modern contraceptive use in the development of reproductive health and family planning programs.

Janevic Teresa

2012-11-01

237

Central Asia Water (CAWa) - A visualization platform for hydro-meteorological sensor data  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is an indispensable necessity of life for people in the whole world. In central Asia, water is the key factor for economic development, but is already a narrow resource in this region. In fact of climate change, the water problem handling will be a big challenge for the future. The regional research Network "Central Asia Water" (CAWa) aims at providing a scientific basis for transnational water resources management for the five Central Asia States Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. CAWa is part of the Central Asia Water Initiative (also known as the Berlin Process) which was launched by the Federal Foreign Office on 1 April 2008 at the "Water Unites" conference in Berlin. To produce future scenarios and strategies for sustainable water management, data on water reserves and the use of water in Central Asia must therefore be collected consistently across the region. Hydro-meteorological stations equipped with sophisticated sensors are installed in Central Asia and send their data via real-time satellite communication to the operation centre of the monitoring network and to the participating National Hydro-meteorological Services.[1] The challenge for CAWa is to integrate the whole aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations in a proper design of a monitoring infrastructure. The use of standardized interfaces to support data transfer and interoperability is essential in CAWa. An uniform treatment of sensor data can be realized by the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) , which makes a number of standards and interface definitions available: Observation & Measurement (O&M) model for the description of observations and measurements, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) for the description of sensor systems, Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for obtaining sensor observations, Sensor Planning Service (SPS) for tasking sensors, Web Notification Service (WNS) for asynchronous dialogues and Sensor Alert Service (SAS) for sending alerts. An OpenSource web-platform bundles the data, provided by the SWE web services of the hydro-meteorological stations, and provides tools for data visualization and data access. The visualization tool was implemented by using OpenSource tools like GeoExt/ExtJS and OpenLayers. Using the application the user can query the relevant sensor data, select parameter and time period, visualize and finally download the data. [1] http://www.cawa-project.net

Stender, Vivien; Schroeder, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

2014-05-01

238

Cenozoic Right-slip Faulting Along the East Flank of the Pamirs, NW China: Implications for the Kinematic Evolution of a Major Salient in the Northern Margin of the Himalayan-Tibetan Orogen  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pamir salient defines the western end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen in China, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan. The leading edge of this salient has overthrust the Tarim-Tajik basin to the north by ~300 km along a late Cenozoic, south-dipping intracontinental subduction zone beneath the North Pamir. Its eastern flank trends NW- SE, and lies between north-directed thrust belts in the North Pamir, to the west, and the Western Kunlun Shan, to the east. New 1:100,000-scale geological mapping, detailed structural measurements, and analysis of mesoscale structures along a 40 km-long transect along the east-flowing Yarkand River document the tectonic evolution of the this flank of the Pamir salient. The study area is cut by a set of four, NW-striking, steeply dipping, brittle faults with right-lateral slip, as indicated by brittle microstructures and asymmetric, outcrop- to map-scale folds. Panels of Phanerozoic strata that lie between these faults are deformed by en échelon folds with axes that trend more westerly than the adjacent faults, consistent with dextral transpression. Synthesis of these new results with previous regional geologic mapping suggests that the fault system described here extends for a total of ~350 km along strike, forming a structural system that defines the eastern flank of the Pamir salient and is here called the Kashgar-Yecheng transfer system. Transpressional right-slip along the Kashgar-Yecheng transfer system appears to have accommodated late Cenozoic separation of the North Pamir from the Western Kunlun Shan during south-directed intracontinental subduction beneath the leading edge of the Pamir salient. Correlation of major faults suggests total slip along the Kashgar-Yecheng transfer system of up to ~280 km. When combined with previous sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and thermochronologic data indicating deformation along the east flank of the Pamir started between the Late Eocene to Early Miocene, this offset estimate implies long term slip rates of 7-15 mm/yr along the Kashgar-Yecheng transfer system. Our results imply that the first- order structures on the western and eastern flanks of the Pamir are strongly asymmetric: in contrast to the transpressional right-slip transfer faulting we find on the east side, previous work has shown that deformation in the west was accommodated by northwest-directed radial thrusting and associated anti-clockwise vertical axis rotation of the Pamir over the eastern margin of the Tajik basin.

Cowgill, E.

2007-12-01

239

La jama?at al Tabligh en Asie centrale : réactivation des liens islamiques avec le sous continent indien et insertion dans un islam mondialisé The Jama?at al Tabligh in Central Asia : revival of Islamic links with the Indian subcontinent and integration with a globalized Islam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Très fortes jusqu’à l’arrivée de la Russie en Asie centrale au XIXe siècle, notamment sous la dynastie moghole originaire d’Asie centrale, les relations islamiques entre l’Inde et l’Asie centrale ont été considérablement amoindries pendant la période russe et soviétique où l’islam centrasiatique était particulièrement coupé du monde musulman. Toutefois, à la faveur des indépendances en 1991, un important processus de recréation de liens voire d’intégration, permet à l’islam d’Asie centrale de se mettre en réseau avec l’islam du monde entier, turc, arabe, mais aussi indien. Ce dernier, sans doute le moins étudié par la communauté des chercheurs sur l’Asie centrale, s’implante en force dans toute la région, mais plus particulièrement au Kirghizstan et au Kazakhstan, grâce au dynamisme d’une organisation islamique, née dans l’Inde britannique des années 1920, la Jama?at al Tabligh. Non radical et apolitique, prêchant un « islam minimal » qui insiste sur les vertus de la foi et de la pratique, l’islam de cette mouvance semble bénéficier du soutien tacite des autorités politiques en place, qui trouvent dans la Jama?at al Tabligh un allié dans leur lutte contre l’islam contestataire de l’ordre établi.After two centuries of close relationships, especially under the Mughals, Islamic ties between India and Central Asia were considerably weakened after the Tsarist colonization and the subsequent Soviet religious repression and ideological isolation. However, when Central Asian post-Soviet republics became independent in 1991, they renewed all kinds of links with the Indian subcontinent. And the revival of Central Asian Islam benefited from international sources of Islamic inspiration from Turkey, the Arab countries as well as from India. The last one drew less attention from analysts than the other sources of influence, although it has gained ground through the past years all over the region with a particular highlight in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, where the India-based Jama?at al Tabligh has met with a significant success. This Islamic organization established in British India in the 1920s defines itself as a non-radical and non-political movement, promoting a "basic" Islamic faith and practice. So far, the Jama?at al Tabligh has been, in fact, tacitly supported by local authorities who would rather use them as a shield against more radical Islamic groups who openly oppose the established regime.

Bayram Balci

2012-02-01

240

Modelling the coupling of flood discharge and glacier flow during jökulhlaups  

Science.gov (United States)

In Nye's (1976) theory of jökulhlaups, lake water drains through a subglacial channel whose size evolves to govern the outburst hydrograph. His theory ignores the impact of the flood on glacier motion that could arise from a dependence of basal sliding on subglacial water pressure. Such coupling between flood and ice-flow dynamics is worthy of study because ice-motion events of various kinds have been observed before or during jökulhlaups in real systems, and because water exchange between the channel and a distributed subglacial drainage system can affect flood initiation and the flood hydrograph. Here we develop a mathematical model that couples these components (channel thermo-mechanical evolution, lake continuity, distributed cavity drainage, basal sliding and channel-cavity water transfer) along a subglacial flood path. Numerical solution of the model equations reveals that a reverse hydraulic gradient near the lake and spatial variability in channel discharge allows a migrating subglacial water divide to form near the lake between floods. This allows the model to reach repeating limit cycles, simulating multiple flood cycles. The channel injects water into and draws water from the cavities at different stages of the flood cycle, modulating the cavity water pressure and the basal sliding. At flood initiation, a wave of high sliding velocity propagates down-glacier due to the arrival of the water divide at the lake and the high lake level. This is followed by deceleration as the channel begins to remove more water from the cavities resulting in ice velocities that are lower than between floods. This begins near the time of peak channel discharge and is due to the enlargement of the channel and the reduction in lake level during the flood. Experiments demonstrate that the flood peak discharge and initiation threshold both depend on the background water supply to the cavities, and that the velocity wave manifests itself differently in glacier and ice-sheet settings. We present simulations of jökulhlaups from several systems: Gornersee, Switzerland; Grimsvötn, Iceland; and Hidden Creek Lake, Alaska. We find that the model captures key aspects of the hydrological and dynamical changes in these systems when the cavity water supply is assumed to be low. We also simulate jökulhlaups from Merzbacher Lake, Kyrgyzstan, to predict its observable glacier-flow response. Our modelling extends recent interest in the interactions between ice flow and subglacial hydrology by studying the extreme discharge scenario of jökulhlaups from marginal or subglacial lakes.

Kingslake, J.; Ng, F.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Underground gas storage in the World - 2013 (fifth Edition)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. 'Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013' builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. The Survey includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries surveyed, 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned. The document includes 70 tables, 72 charts and figures, 44 country maps. The countries surveyed are: Europe : Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom. North America: Canada, USA. CIS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Asia/Oceania: Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Korea, Taiwan. Rest of the World: Argentina, Mexico, Iran

242

Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A series of wildfires broke out in western Russia starting in late July of 2010. Harmful particulates and gases released into the local Russian atmosphere have been reported, as have possible negative consequences for the global atmosphere. In this study, an extremely hazy area and its transport trajectory on Russian wildfires were analysed using aerosol optical depth (AOD images retrieved via the synergy method from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. In addition, we used trace gases (NO2 and SO2 and CO2 products measured using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI data, vertical distribution of AOD data retrieved from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO data, the mass trajectory analyses, synoptic maps from a HYSPLIT model simulation and ground-based data, including AERONET (both AOD and Ångström exponent data and PM2.5. First, an Optimal Smoothing (OS scheme was used to develop more precise and reliable AOD data based on multiple competing predictions made using several AOD retrieval models; then, integrated AOD and PM2.5 data were related using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, and the integrated AOD and visibility data were related using a 6S model. The results show that the PM2.5 concentration is 3–5 times the normal amount based on both satellite data and in situ values with peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 500 ?g m?3. Also, the visibility of many parts of Russia, even Moscow, was less than 100 m; in some areas, the visibility was less than 50 m. Additionally, the possible impact on neighbouring countries due to the long-transport effect was also analysed during 31 July and 15 August 2010. A comparison of the satellite aerosol products and ground observations from the neighbouring countries suggests that wildfires in western Russian have had little impact on most European and Asian countries, the exceptions being Finland, Estonia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. However, a possible impact on the Arctic region was also identified; such an effect would have a serious influence on the polar atmospheric environment and on animals such as polar bears.

L. Mei

2011-08-01

243

Calibration of Envisat radar altimeter over Lake Issykkul  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents the results of calibration/validation (C/V) of Envisat satellite radar altimeter over Lake Issykkul located in Kyrgyzstan, which was chosen as a dedicated radar altimetry C/V site in 2004. The objectives are to estimate the absolute altimeter bias of Envisat and its orbit based on cross-over analysis with TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P), Jason-1 and Jason-2 over the ocean. We have used a new method of GPS data processing in a kinematic mode, developed at the Groupe de Recherche de Geodesie Spatiale (GRGS), which allows us to calculate the position of the GPS antenna without needing a GPS reference station. The C/V is conducted using various equipments: a local GPS network, a moving GPS antenna along the satellites tracks over Lake Issykkul, In Situ level gauges and weather stations. The absolute bias obtained for Envisat from field campaigns conducted in 2009 and 2010 is between 62.1 and 63.4 ± 3.7 cm, using the Ice-1 retracking algorithm, and between 46.9 and 51.2 cm with the ocean retracking algorithm. These results differ by about 10 cm from previous studies, principally due to improvement of the C/V procedure. Apart from the new algorithm for GPS data processing and the orbit error reduction, more attention has been paid to the GPS antenna height calculation, and we have reduced the errors induced by seiche over Lake Issykkul. This has been assured using cruise data along the Envisat satellite track at the exact date of the pass of the satellite for the two campaigns. The calculation of the Envisat radar altimeter bias with respect to the GPS levelling is essential to allow the continuity of multi-mission data on the same orbit, with the expected launch of SARAL/Altika mission in 2012. Implications for hydrology in particular, will be to produce long term homogeneous and reliable time series of lake levels worldwide.

Crétaux, J.-F.; Bergé-Nguyen, M.; Calmant, S.; Romanovski, V. V.; Meyssignac, B.; Perosanz, F.; Tashbaeva, S.; Arsen, A.; Fund, F.; Martignago, N.; Bonnefond, P.; Laurain, O.; Morrow, R.; Maisongrande, P.

2013-04-01

244

Radioisotopic parameters of the Syr-Darya river basin water at the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the framework of the International Cooperation Program in the sphere of the transboundary monitoring of the rivers between the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, and the United States of America (Navruz, ISTC KR-850 Project), in addition, in the Kyrgyz Republic, the isotopic content (isotopic ratio of 234U/ 238U=? ), and the uranium content (CU) in the waters was measured. The isotopic ratio 234U/ 238U=? of the waters of the rivers Naryn and Kara-Daria basins has no anomalous values of 234U/ 238U, which indicates the absence of the man-caused uranium in these rivers. The results of determination of the activity ratio of 234U/ 238U and uranium content in the Mailuu-Suu river basin are of great interest. In the upper reaches of the Mailuu-Suu river the uranium content is 0.4 10-6 g/l (0.8 10-6 g/l in the flood period), in Mailuu-Suu town (after the tailing dump) - (3 †4) 10-6 g/l, i.e. this value is an order of magnitude higher, and at the border with Uzbekistan - 1.8 ·10-6 g/l (3.2 ·10-6 g/l in the period of flooding), which is lower as compared with the town. Correspondently, there are changes in the activity ratio from 1.39 (in the upper reaches of the river) to 1.05 (in the town), and 1.32 (1.12 during the flood period) at the border with Uzbekistan. This situation indicates, first, the enrichment of the waters of the rivers with the man-caused uranium ( ?=1), and its subsequent sorption along the river stream. The obtained results indicate the absence of the man-caused uranium in the whole stream of the Naryn and Kara-Daria rivers on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic, and lack of noticeable contamination of the waters of the Mailuu-Suu river with the man-caused uranium from the tailing dumps of the Western Mining-Chemical Plant (WMCP, Mailuu-Suu). It also should be noted that the share of the man-caused uranium, transported to Uzbekistan by the Mailuu-Suu river does not exceed 20-30%, and the total uranium content in these waters is much lower then MPC, and lower then that in the drinking water of the Chui valley of the Kyrgyz Republic. (author)

245

Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well defined vaccination policies are needed. This article forms part of a Regional Report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24332297

Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

2013-12-31

246

Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Turkic Republics and Turkey: Economic and Business Dimensions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An ever-increasing globalization in last century is enforcing many countries to come together and create organizations to take advantage of a greater power in the global stage both in political and economic issues. Regional organizations are one form of such organizations. In addition to many of such groups, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO is an intergovernmental mutual-security organization which was founded in 2001 by the leaders of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In a short period of time since then SCO has proved itself to be a powerful organization promising to be an authority in Central Asian region. The research at hand is formed to investigate the development of this organization along with its effect on Turkey as well as the member countries. This effect is also analyzed in two dimensions. The place of SCO in region is analyzed not only in terms of economic side but also the business side. The fact that business and economics are difficult to isolate from each other, makes it a necessity to use this approach, thus, making this study a valuable source. Key words: Shanghai Cooperation Organization; Turkic Republics; Central Asia; Transitional EconomiesRésumé: Une mondialisation en constante croissance dans le siècle dernier oblige de nombreux pays de se réunir et de créer des organisations afin de profiter d'un plus grand pouvoir dans les événements politiques et économiques au niveau international. Les organisations régionales sont une forme de ces organisations. A part de ces groupes, l’Organisation de coopération de Shanghai (OCS est une organisation intergouvernementale de sécurité mutuelle, fondée en 2001 par les dirigeants de la Chine, la Russie, le Kazakhstan, le Kirghizistan, le Tadjikistan et l'Ouzbékistan. Dans un court laps de temps depuis lors, OCS s'est avérée être une organisation puissante promettant d'être une autorité en Asie centrale.La présente recherche est ménée pour enquêter sur le développement de cette organisation ainsi que son effet sur la Turquie et les pays membres. Cet effet est également analysé en deux dimensions. Le statut de l'OCS dans la région est analysé non seulement du point de vue économique mais aussi commercial. Le fait que le commerce et l'économie sont difficiles à isoler l’un de l’autre exige une nécessité d'utiliser cette approche, ce qui rend cette étude une source précieuse. Mots clés: Organisation de coopération de Shanghai; Républiques turques; Asie central; Économies transitionnelles

Lutfu Sagbansua

2011-04-01

247

Projected impacts of climate change on hydrology, water resource use and adaptation needs for the Chu and Talas cross-border rivers basin, Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

The observed long-term trends, variability and projections of future climate and hydrology of the Chu and Talas transboundary rivers basin were analysed using a common approach for Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan parts of the basin. Historical, current and forecasted demands and main uses of water in the basin were elaborated by the joint effort of both countries. Such cooperative approach combining scientific data, water practitioners' outlook with decision making needs allowed the first time to produce a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on water resources in the Chu-Talas transboundary rivers basin, identify future needs and develop the initial set of adaptation measures and recommendations. This work was carried out under the project "Promoting Cooperation to Adapt to Climate Change in the Chu and Talas Transboundary Basin", supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Climate change projections, including air temperatures and rainfall in the 21st century were determined with a spatial resolution 0.5 degrees based on the integration of 15 climate change model outputs (derived from IPCC's 4th Assessment Report, and partially 5th Assessment Report) combined with locally-designed hydrology and glacier models. A significant increase in surface air temperatures by 3-6°C may be expected in the basin area, especially in summer and autumn. This change is likely to be accompanied by rainfall increase during the cold season and a decrease in the warm half of the year. As a result, a deterioration of moisture conditions during the summer-autumn period is possible. Furthermore, milder winters and hotter summers can be expected. Mountains will likely receive more liquid precipitation, than snow, while the area and volume of glaciers may significantly reduce. Projected changes in climate and glaciers have implications for river hydrology and different sectors of the economy dependent on water use. Assessment of agricultural sector vulnerability, which is the key water user in the basin, led to identification of the potential adaptation measures and discussion with relevant national and river basin authorities and the major stakeholders. Proposed adaptation measures range from technical - such as rehabilitation of irrigation systems to reduce water losses, modernize water reservoirs and adjust river regulation to environmental flow needs, changing land use and crop diversification - to policy and finance measures, including revision of subsidies, economic consideration of ecosystem services, etc. Next steps include a more detailed assessment of economics, effectiveness and feasibility of the initially proposed adaptation measures and additional research.

Shamil Iliasov, Shamil; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Lipponen, Annukka; Novikov, Viktor

2014-05-01

248

Characteristics of fine particle carbonaceous aerosol at two remote sites in Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of PM to Eastern Asia, the Pacific Ocean, and the Western United States. PM is of significant interest not only because of its adverse effect on public health but also due to its more recently realized role in climate change. To investigate the sources and characteristics of PM in the region, a series of PM 2.5 and PM 10 samples were collected on an every-other-day basis at two sites (termed "Bishkek" and "Teploklyuchenka") in the Central Asian nation of the Kyrgyz Republic (also known as Kyrgyzstan) for a full year from July 2008 to July 2009. These samples were analyzed using standard methods for mass, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-insoluble organic carbon by difference (OC minus WSOC) and a variety of molecular marker chemical species to be used in a chemical mass balance (CMB) model to apportion the sources of OC. These analyses indicate that approximately 19 ± 6.4% of the PM 2.5 mass at both sites throughout the year consists of OC. The carbonaceous component of PM 2.5 is dominated by OC, with OC/Total Carbon (TC) ratios being around 0.8 in the winter to almost 0.95 in the summer months. The CMB analysis indicated that mobile sources, i.e., gasoline and diesel engine exhaust, biomass combustion, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene and ?-pinene precursors in the summer months were the dominant sources of OC. A strong positive correlation was observed between non-biomass burning WSOC and the un-apportioned OC from the CMB analysis, indicating that some of this un-apportioned OC is WSOC and likely the result of SOA-forming atmospheric processes that were not estimated by the CMB analysis performed. In addition, a comparison of the predominant contributors to OC between the two sites indicates that biomass combustion is a stronger relative source of OC at the Teploklyuchenka site, particularly in the winter, while contributions of isoprene- and ?-pinene-derived SOA to the measured OC was relatively similar between the sites.

Miller-Schulze, Justin P.; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Artamonova, Maria; Chen, Boris; Imashev, Sanjar; Sverdlik, Leonid; Carmichael, Greg R.; Deminter, Jeff T.

2011-12-01

249

Timing of tectonic events and crustal-scale structure of South Kyrgyz CAOB  

Science.gov (United States)

The main phases of tectonic collage of blocks and activation of post-collisional Talas-Ferghana strike-slip fault (TFF) are investigated in the Kyrgyz Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), by a combined field, metamorphic and Ar/Ar study. The field work conducted on the southern suture of the Middle Tian Shan to the East of the TFF highlights a south-dipping structure featured by a HP metamorphic core complex comprised of c. 320 Ma continental and oceanic eclogites exhumed by top-to-North motion. A large massif (10 x 50 km) of continental HP rocks is evidenced in the Atbashi Range (South Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan). Its structure and metamorphic history are investigated to reconstruct the geodynamic evolution of the northern rim of South Tian Shan and Tarim block in the Upper Paleozoic. This study gives insights into the crustal-scale structure of this mountain belt, currently intensely reactivated by the India-Asia collision. Metamorphic units exhibit blueschist to eclogite facies conditions. Evidence for eclogite facies in both acidic and mafic lithologies and geological structure are in agreement with a previously thinned continental margin. Prograde stage (I) begins in blue-schist/eclogite facies transition at 520 ± 30°C - 17 ± 1 kbar. Conditions of peak metamorphism (II) in eclogite facies range from 550 ± 30°C - 18.5 ± 1 kbar to 540-595°C - 21 kbar. Retrograde stage (III) condition is also in the eclogite facies conditions at 515 ± 30°C - 16.7 ± 1 kbar. Subduction of this thinned COT (Continent-Ocean Transition) probably occurred by slab pull in a south-dipping subduction zone, while another north-dipping subduction was active below Middle TianShan. Final stacking of Middle and South TianShan occurred at 320-310 Ma. These antithetic subduction zones are still reflected in the main structures of Tian Shan. Reactivation of the South-dipping structures since 30 Ma is ascribed to explain the current TianShan intra-continental slab inferred form seismology. After this accretionary episode, the suture southern was cross-cut by the TFF, which first stage of activation occurred at 312 ± 4 Ma, followed by a main stage of dextral motion in the Late Permian at 256 - 250 Ma. A late stage of reactivation of TFF is featured by emplacement of 195 ± 3 Ma pegmatitic dykes.

Rolland, Yann; Guillot, Stéphane; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Kröener, Alfred; Loury, Chloé; Mikolaichuk, Alexander V.

2013-04-01

250

Swedish support programme on nuclear non-proliferation in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the request of the Swedish Government, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has established a support and co-operation programme in the area of nuclear non-proliferation with Russia and several of the republics of the former Soviet Union. The Programme was initiated in 1991 and an overall goal is to accomplish national means and measures for control and protection of nuclear material and facilities, in order to minimise the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The objective of the Swedish Support Programme is to help each, so called, recipient State to be able to, independently and without help from outside, take the full responsibility for operating a national non-proliferation system and thereby fulfil the requirements imposed through the international legal instruments. This would include both the development and implementation of a modern nuclear legislation system, and the establishment of the components making up a national system for combating illicit trafficking. The support and co-operation projects are organised in five Project Groups (i.e. nuclear legislation, nuclear material control, physical protection, export/import control, and combating of illicit trafficking), which together cover the entire non-proliferation area. Up till June 2000, support and co-operation projects, completed and on-going, have been carried out in ten States, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, programmes have been initiated during the first part of 2000 with Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In addition, assistance has been given to Poland on a specific nuclear material accountancy topic. All projects are done on request by and in co-operation with these States. The total number of projects initiated during the period 1991 to June 2000 is 109, thereof 77 have been completed and 32 are currently on-going. It is the convinced understanding and opinion of the Swedish Support Programme Management that the States in question are seriously motivated and are carrying out an ambitious work to develop and improve their national non-proliferation regimes, in spite of their shortcomings concerning financial and human resources. For those States, with which Sweden has established support and co-operation programmes with 'full-scope' non-proliferation objectives, it is judged that the goals reached, up till now, are very satisfactory, and that the States in question have come a long way towards the fulfilment of international requirements. The Programme is now entering a third phase and the future Programme plans are currently under consideration. A broad outlook of the future activities is made in chapter D of this report

251

Change detection over Sokolov open-pit mining area, Czech Republic, using multi-temporal HyMAP data (2009-2010)  

Science.gov (United States)

Two HyMap images acquired over the same lignite open-pit mining site in Sokolov, Czech Republic, during the summers of 2009 and 2010 (12 months apart), were investigated in this study. The site selected for this research is one of three test sites (the others being in South Africa and Kyrgyzstan) within the framework of the EO-MINERS FP7 Project (http://www.eo-miners.eu). The goal of EO-MINERS is to "integrate new and existing Earth Observation tools to improve best practice in mining activities and to reduce the mining related environmental and societal footprint". Accordingly, the main objective of the current study was to develop hyperspectral-based means for the detection of small spectral changes and to relate these changes to possible degradation or reclamation indicators of the area under investigation. To ensure significant detection of small spectral changes, the temporal domain was investigated along with careful generation of reflectance information. Thus, intensive spectroradiometric ground measurements were carried out to ensure calibration and validation aspects during both overflights. The performance of these corrections was assessed using the Quality Indicators setup developed under a different FP7 project-EUFAR (http://www.eufar.net), which helped select the highest quality data for further work. This approach allows direct distinction of the real information from noise. The reflectance images were used as input for the application of spectral-based change-detection algorithms and indices to account for small and reliable changes. The related algorithms were then developed and applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to map spectral changes over the space of a year. Using field spectroscopy and ground truth measurements on both overpass dates, it was possible to explain the results and allocate spatial kinetic processes of the environmental changes during the time elapsed between the flights. It was found, for instance, that significant spectral changes are capable of revealing mineral processes, vegetation status and soil formation long before these are apparent to the naked eye. Further study is being conducted under the above initiative to extend this approach to other mining areas worldwide and to improve the robustness of the developed algorithm.

Adar, S.; Notesco, G.; Brook, A.; Livne, I.; Rojik, P.; Kopacková, V.; Zelenkova, K.; Misurec, J.; Bourguignon, A.; Chevrel, S.; Ehrler, C.; Fisher, C.; Hanus, J.; Shkolnisky, Y.; Ben Dor, E.

2011-11-01

252

Peru Mercury Inventory 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in other products such as batteries and computer electronics is not recycled and may ultimately be released to the environment.

Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

2007-01-01

253

Verification of the GIS-based Newmark method through 2D dynamic modelling of slope stability  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this work is to verify the simplified GIS-based Newmark displacement approach through 2D dynamic modelling of slope stability. The research is applied to a landslide-prone area in Central Asia, the Mailuu-Suu Valley, situated in the south of Kyrgyzstan. The comparison is carried out on the basis of 30 different profiles located in the target area, presenting different geological, tectonic and morphological settings. One part of the profiles were selected within landslide zones, the other part was selected in stable areas. Many of the landslides are complex slope failures involving falls, rotational sliding and/or planar sliding and flows. These input data were extracted from a 3D structural geological model built with the GOCAD software. Geophysical and geomechanical parameters were defined on the basis of results obtained by multiple surveys performed in the area over the past 15 years. These include geophysical investigation, seismological experiments and ambient noise measurements. Dynamic modelling of slope stability is performed with the UDEC version 4.01 software that is able to compute deformation of discrete elements. Inside these elements both elasto-plastic and purely elastic materials (similar to rigid blocks) were tested. Various parameter variations were tested to assess their influence on the final outputs. And even though no groundwater flow was included, the numerous simulations are very time-consuming (20 mins per model for 10 secs simulated shaking) - about 500 computation hours have been completed so far (more than 100 models). Preliminary results allow us to compare Newmark displacements computed using different GIS approaches (Jibson et al., 1998; Miles and Ho, 1999, among others) with the displacements computed using the original Newmark method (Newmark, 1965, here simulated seismograms were used) and displacements produced along joints by the corresponding 2D dynamical models. The generation of seismic amplification and its impact on peak-ground-acceleration, Arias Intensity and permanent slope movements (total and slip on joints) is assessed for numerous morphological-lithological settings (curvature, slope angle, surficial geology, various layer dips and orientations) throughout the target area. The final results of our studies should allow us to define the limitations of the simplified GIS-based Newmark displacement modelling; thus, the verified method would make landslide susceptibility and hazard mapping in seismically active regions more reliable.

Torgoev, A.; Havenith, H.-B.

2012-04-01

254

Parametric numerical study of seismic slope stability and the Newmark method  

Science.gov (United States)

2D dynamic modelling of seismic slope stability is applied to a landslide-prone area in Central Asia, the Mailuu-Suu Valley, situated in the south of Kyrgyzstan. The calculations are made with models constructed from over 30 profiles located in the target area, presenting different geological, tectonic and morphological settings. One part of the profiles were selected within landslide zones, the other part was selected in stable areas. Many of the landslides are complex slope failures involving falls, rotational sliding and/or planar sliding and flows. These input data were extracted from a 3D structural geological model built with the GOCAD software. Geophysical and geomechanical parameters were defined on the basis of results obtained by multiple surveys performed in the area over the past 15 years. These include geophysical investigation, seismological experiments and ambient noise measurements. Dynamic modelling of slope stability is performed with the UDEC version 4.01 software that is able to compute deformation of discrete elements. Inside these elements both elasto-plastic and purely elastic materials (similar to rigid blocks) were tested. Various parameter variations were tested to assess their influence on the final outputs. For a few models groundwater flow is included. The total parametric study involved more than 100 different models (about 800 computation hours). Preliminary results allow us to compare Newmark displacements computed using different GIS approaches (Jibson et al., 1998; Miles and Ho, 1999, among others) with the displacements computed using the original Newmark method (Newmark, 1965, here simulated seismograms were used) and displacements produced along joints by the corresponding 2D dynamical models. The generation of seismic amplification and its impact on peak-ground-acceleration, Arias Intensity and permanent slope movements (total and slip on joints) is assessed for numerous morphological-lithological settings (curvature, slope angle, surficial geology, various layer dips and orientations) throughout the target area. The final results of our studies should allow us to define the limitations of the simplified GIS-based Newmark displacement modelling; thus, the verified method would make landslide susceptibility and hazard mapping in seismically active regions more reliable.

Havenith, Hans-Balder; Torgoev, Almaz; Lamair, Laura

2013-04-01

255

Influence of High Energy Electromagnetic Pulses on the Dynamics of the Seismic Process Around the Bishkek Test Area (Central Asia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation of dynamical features of the seismic process as well as the possible influence of different natural and man-made impacts on it remains one of the main interdisciplinary research challenges. The question of external influences (forcings) acquires new importance in the light of known facts on possible essential changes, which occur in the behavior of complex systems due to different relatively weak external impacts. Seismic processes in the complicated tectonic system are not an exclusion from this general rule. In the present research we continued the investigation of dynamical features of seismic activity in Central Asia around the Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) test area, where strong electromagnetic (EM) soundings were performed in the 1980s. The unexpected result of these experiments was that they revealed the impact of strong electromagnetic discharges on the microseismic activity of investigated area. We used an earthquake catalogue of this area to investigate dynamical features of seismic activity in periods before, during, and after the mentioned man-made EM forcings. Different methods of modern time series analysis have been used, such as wavelet transformation, Hilbert Huang transformation, detrended fluctuation analysis, and recurrence quantification analysis. Namely, inter-event (waiting) time intervals, inter-earthquake distances and magnitude sequences, as well as time series of the number of daily occurring earthquakes have been analyzed. We concluded that man-made high-energy EM irradiation essentially affects dynamics of the seismic process in the investigated area in its temporal and spatial domains; namely, the extent of order in earthquake time and space distribution increase. At the same time, EM influence on the energetic distribution is not clear from the present analysis. It was also shown that the influence of EM impulses on dynamical features of seismicity differs in different areas of the examined territory around the test site. Clear changes have been indicated only in areas which, according to previous researches, have been characterized by anomalous increase of average rates of strain release and thus can be regarded as close to the critical state.

Matcharashvili, Teimuraz N.; Chelidze, Tamaz L.; Zhukova, Natalia N.

2014-06-01

256

Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

- complex dominated the uranium(VI) speciation. Thus uranium(VI) sorption is more strongly influenced by the solution composition than by bentonite type. Na-bentonite should be used instead of ea-bentonite as a geotechnical barrier, since calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation may be a realistic scenario. Further SEM-EDX and HREM-EDX studies showed that uranium(VI) sorption occurred predominantly on montmorillonite, which is the main component of bentonite. Uranium(VI) sorption on bentonite's accessory Minerals (pyrite, calcite, mica, and feldspar) was not observed. Investigation of uranium(VI) sorption on four montmorillonite-standard, which are distinguished by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling uranium releases from tailings into the aquatic system. The results showed that uranium(VI) speciation in water samples is controlled by pH as well as bicarbonate and calcium concentrations and is dominated by the very stable aquatic complexes Ca2UO2(CO3)3, (UO2)2CO3(OH)3- and UO2(CO3)34-. Influences of humic substances or phosphate ligands on uranium(VI) complexation were not detected. Uranium association with aquatic colloids in the studied samples as found to be negligible. With the help of a combination of the AREM-EDX method and batch experiments, uraninite (UO2) and brannerite (UTi2O6) could be identified with an occurrence frequency of about 67 % and 33 %, respectively. This combination allowed the conclusion that uranium release from tailing materials is controlled by the dissolution of uraninite, which itself is governed by the dissolution of calcite. Furthermore, a mobilisation of uraninite colloids smaller than 200 nm from tailing material into the used model solutions was observed.

257

Anavatanlar?ndan Sekiz Ülkeye Da??t?lm?? Bir Halk: Ah?ska Türkleri A People Scattered From Their Native Land to Eight Countries: Ahiska (Meskhetian Turks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ahiska or Meskhet Turks definations are geographical denominations, not etnic ones. Ahiska region and Turks living in this region was a natural part of Anatolian Turks as geopraphical and demographic. The precense of the Turks in this region known as Meskhetia in the history is based on ancient times. In the 11th century Seljuk conquests and then in the 12th century settlement of the Kipchak Turks, who came the region at the invitation of the Georgian king David who failed in fighting against Seljuks, enhanced the Turkish population at once. Thus, the Turks effectuated a full domination on the area in terms of the populatin. After a short time, in the middle 13th century Kipchaks declared their independence and founded their state named “Atabekler Devleti”. In history, this land dominated by The Kipchaks is known and displayed as Sa-Atabago (land of Atabegs by Georgians, too. The Atabegs Principality was captured by Ottoman State towards the end of 16th century and this principality was reorganized as Cildir Shire and Ahiska was done its capital city. In this region people have the same cultural codes with Anatolian Turks living on northeastern provinces of Turkey. Meskhetian Turks were exiled to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in 1944 when they lived in a province located in the southwest of Georgia and northeast of Turkey, and known as “Samtshe-Cavaheti” under the administrational umbrella of Georgia. Having not been allowed turning back to their hometowns, Meskhetian Turks live mostly in eight countries now and keep the characteristics of their dialect to a great extent which can be regarded as the following of Eastern Anatolian dialects. Ah?ska ya da Mesket Türkleri tan?mlar? etnik de?il co?rafi bir adland?rma olup, Ah?ska bölgesi ve Türkleri Anadolu Türklü?ünün co?rafi ve demografik bak?mdan tabii devam?d?r. Tarihte Meskhetia olarak da bilinen bölgedeki Türk varl??? çok eski devirlere dayanmakta olup, 11. yüzy?ldaki Selçuklu fetihleri ve Selçuklularla mücadelede yetersiz kalan Gürcü kral?n?n daveti ile 12. yüzy?lda K?pçak Türklerinin de bölgeye gelerek yerle?mesi bölgeyi tamamen Türkle?tirmi?tir. Gürcü Krall??? içinde güçlenen K?pçaklar 13. yüzy?l ortalar?nda ba??ms?zl?klar? ilan etmi?ler ve hâkim olduklar? bu bölgeler tarihte, Gürcüler taraf?ndan da, Atabek Yurdu olarak an?lm??t?r. Akkoyunlu, Karakoyunlu, Safevî Türk devletleri himayesinde varl???n? sürdüren Atabekler Devleti 16. yüzy?l?n sonlar?na do?ru Osmanl? Devletine kat?lm?? ve merkezi Ah?ska olan Ç?ld?r Eyaleti olarak yeniden düzenlenmi?tir. Bölgede K?pçak ve O?uz Türklerinin kayna?mas? ile olu?an topluluk, Artvin ve Erzurum illerimizin Çoruh nehri ve kollar? etraf?nda ve Ardahan ilimizin Posof ilçesi ve çevresinde ya?ayan Türklerle tarih boyunca dil ve kültür bak?m?ndan ayn? kodlara sahip olmu?tur. Ah?ska Türkleri, Gürcistan’?n Güney-Bat?s?nda, Türkiye’nin Kuzey-Do?usunda yer alan, günümüzde Gürcistan’?n idari yap?s? içinde “Samtshe-Cavaheti” olarak adland?r?lan vilayette ya?arken 1944 y?l?nda Özbekistan, Kazakistan ve K?rg?zistan’a sürgün edilmi?tir. Geçen 68 y?l içinde, sürgün edildikleri topraklara dönü?lerine imkân tan?nmayan Ah?ska Türkleri günümüzde ba?l?ca sekiz ülkede ya?amakta ve Do?u Anadolu a??zlar?n?n bir devam? niteli?indeki a??z özelliklerini büyük ölçüde korumaktad?rlar.

Erdinç DEM?RAY

2012-09-01

258

Natural and anthropogenic multi-type hazards for loess territories  

Science.gov (United States)

Central Asia (CA) is an extremely large region of varied geography from plains to high, rugged mountains (the region belongs to the Tien-Shan and Pamirs mountain system), vast deserts (Kara Kum, Kyzyl Kum, Taklamakan). The area of the CA region is including the territories of following countries: of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. CA is particularly exposed to natural hazards like earthquakes, landslide, rockfalls, avalanches, mudflows, flooding, high mountains lakes, sub flooding, and debris flow. This region is one of the most seismically active in the world. In XX century almost in each of five countries have occurred strong earthquakes with magnitude more than 7, led to human victims. Loess soils are widespread in this region in foothills, foothill plains and intermountain depressions. Loess can cause a number of engineering problems because loess undergoes structural collapse and subsidence due to saturation when both the initial dry density and initial water content are low. By comparison of the map of seismic zoning to a map of distribution of loess soils it is easy to be convinced that the territory of the majority of seismic areas are covering by collapsible loess soils with significant thickness (50-150 m). The natural hazards leads to a disaster, if it develops in an urbanized or industrial areas and directly affects people and economic objects. In this case, risk takes place with all its consequences especially on loess soil. In the past a formation of natural hazards was connected generally with two main groups of factors: geological structure and climatic conditions. Now to them the third factor - of human made influence was added. Intensive influence of human activity to the loess territories in CA for last 60 years is destruction of nature balance and changing in environment of loess land in zone with high seismic hazard. This processes primarily associated with following: 1) irrigation of new lands; 2) the developing of mining manufactures and their waste located in the foothill areas with high seismic risk and where manifested of dangerous geological processes as landslide, collapse, mud stream, rock falls and toxic contamination; 3) development of urbanization with manifestation of difference engineering geological processes in loess soil on the based of constructions in cities (collapse, liquefaction). That example of cascade effects when natural and anthropogenic multi type hazards in loess was the Gissar earthquake (1989) in Tajikistan when the earthquake of rather moderate intensity (M=5.2; H=5-7 km; I=7 - MSK scale) was triggered several landslides and mudslides connected with liquefaction of wetted loess and can cause a large number of human victims. In the pre 20 years steady irrigation of the slope area occurred for cotton field. This moistening has increase and the water content of the soil to wet 24-28%, up to a depth of 20-30 m that increased the vulnerability of this territory. The interactions between different natural hazards, include triggered, especially earthquakes, landslides, collapses, liquefaction in loess soil with taking account of anthropogenic hazard influence was investigate.

Mavlyanova, Nadira; Zakirova, Zulfiya

2013-04-01

259

The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region  

Science.gov (United States)

Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies are necessary. Temporary seismic networks have been installed in several Central Asian cities (Bishkek and Karakol, Kyrgyzstan; Dushanbe, Tajikistan; Tashkent, Uzbekistan) within the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA), a regional program of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The empirically estimated site effects have already helped to improve real-time risk scenarios for Bishkek and will be applied to other major cities. - A crucial requirement for disaster risk reduction involves the analysis of the vulnerability of existing building inventories. Whereas traditional approaches are very time- and cost-consuming, and even impossible given the high rate of urbanization in Central Asian capitals, our integrated approach is based on satellite remote sensing and ground-based omni-directional imaging, providing building inventories and thus structural vulnerability over large areas (EMCA, GEM-IDCT). All mentioned activities are carried out within the framework of cooperation between GFZ and regional national institutes, in particular the Central Asian Institute for Applied Geosciences. Altogether, this comprehensive and long-term risk analyses and research program will lead to a better understanding of the coupling of endogene and exogene processes and the identification of their impact on society.

Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

2012-12-01

260

Eocene sea retreat out of Asia: paleogeography, controlling mechanisms and environmental impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

The sediments of the Central Asian basins include the remnants of the easternmost extent of a large epicontinental sea. Before it retreated westward and eventually separated as the Paratethys Sea following the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), this shallow marine sea extended across the Eurasian continent from the Mediterranean Tethys in the west to the Tarim Basin in western China in the east. However, the paleogeography and the timing of the westward retreat of the proto-Paratethys Sea are too poorly constrained to identify its proposed controlling mechanisms and paleoenvironmental impacts. The sea supposedly entered Central Asia in the Cretaceous and five third-order marine incursions have been recognized from the Cretaceous-Paleogene sedimentary record, of which the last two transgressions are documented here. We studied the sea retreat in the Tarim Basin in western China, the Alai Valley and Ferghana Basin in southern Kyrgyzstan and the Afghan-Tajik Basin in south-western Tajikistan. Integrated bio-magnetostratigraphic dating shows that the sea retreated westward from the Tarim Basin in stepwise fashion. The major fourth transgression occurred during the Lutetian, after which the sea retreated from the southwest Tarim Basin paleodepocenter at ~41 Ma (base C18r). The last and fifth transgression was restricted to the westernmost margin of the Tarim basin and occurred during latest Bartonian-early Priabonian (base C17n.3n-base C16n.1n). At the level of precision of our dating, each of these marine incursions is apparently synchronous across the Tarim Basin suggesting rapid regional transgression/regression cycles in these shallow epicontinental basins with limited diachroneity. The shallow marine near-shore sediments of these last two transgressions can be convincingly correlated by litho- and biostratigraphy across Central Asia, showing for the first time that the sea may have largely retreated from Central Asia in the late Eocene. The lack of apparent diachroneity of the two last regressions and their concomitancy with the closure of the Turgai Strait in the late Lutetian, with short-term cooling events recognized in contemporary marine records, important late Eocene regressions documented in European basins (e.g. Paris Basin, Ebro Basin, and Transylvanian Basin) and with minor drops in global sea-level, suggest that the individual marine incursions may have been controlled by short-term global fluctuations in sea-level. On the other hand, the gradual continuous character of the marine-continental transitions and the westward paleogeographic step between the fourth and fifth incursions, separated by several millions of years, rather are typical of long-term tectonic control. Tectonism is likely related to the Eocene India-Asia collision and Pamir initiation to the south in agreement with the infilling with northward paleoflow directions observed in the investigated sections. This is confirmed here by paleomagnetic data from the southwest Tarim Basin showing that clockwise rotation initiated after the fourth marine incursion, probably in response to initial symmetric radial thrusting of the Pamir Mountains. However, the presence of a major disconformity in the southwest Tarim Basin at the EOT, associated with a major global sea-level fall, confirms that the Tarim Basin remained hydrologically connected to the Mediterranean Tethys in the Eocene and had not yet been isolated by tectonic uplift of the surrounding mountains. This is in agreement with previously reported late Oligocene-early Miocene exhumation ages of the Pamir-Kunlun orogenic system and proposed kinematic models suggesting that after late Oligocene-early Miocene initiation of slip along the Kashgar-Yecheng Transfer System along the Eastern Pamir. This is consistent with the paleomagnetic data presented here showing that after the Oligocene deformation became asymmetric with ceased clockwise rotation in the Tarim Basin and continued anticlockwise rotation on the western side in the Afghan-Tajik Basin. The stepwise sea retreat and disconformity are concur

Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Bosboom, Roderic; Proust, Jean-Noël; Mandic, Oleg; Villa, Giuliana; Grothe, Arjan; Stoica, Marius; Guo, Zhaojie; Krijgsman, Wout; Yang, Wei; Bougeois, Laurie; Aminov, Jovid; Ormukov, Cholponbec; Huang, Wentao

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Building momentum to minimize highly enriched uranium use, improve nuclear security and combat nuclear terrorism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Much has been done to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism under the auspices of international programs such as the G-8 Global Partnership, the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism, and the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. Despite the practical progress in removing the threat that terrorist groups could obtain the fissile material for an improvised nuclear device, however, much more work remains. In 1980, the 59 states participating in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation agreed that the civilian use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) should be minimized. Decades later, and despite dramatic new threats to world peace, the pledge to forego the use of HEU is not yet universal or legally binding. Nor have improvements to the physical security of this material been sufficient in many locations. This paper surveys the international measures that have been taken towards the formation of an international norm to minimize BEU risks through established mechanisms and suggests several additional approaches that may help to solidify support for practical measures and accelerate the process of civil HEU minimization and improved security globally. HEU reduction requires global cooperation: eliminating a small holding of HEU at a single facility or upgrading its security does not greatly reduce terrorist risks overall. Policymakers must be sure that their counterparts in other states arc engaged in similar efforts. A global HEU minimization norm would validate each nation's efforts, no matter how small, and provide a disincentive for inaction. Clearer standards for the security of this material and commitments to meet these standards would serve the same purpose. While each failure 10 act poses its own risks, it also erodes the usefulness of HEU elimination programs elsewhere and sends the wrong political message to the rest of the world. Moreover, it is technically impossible to minimize the largest REU holdings-those at fuel cycle facilities-until the end users of HEU no longer demand this material. And it should be noted that nearly all HEU trafficking cases involve material originating from fuel cycle facilities. Both practical and political considerations demand greater high level attention to minimizing HEU and improving its security. Great technological progress has been made since programs were initiated to convert reactors and medical isotope production processes, remove and reduce nuclear materials worldwide, and protect at-risk nuclear materials from theft and sabotage. The new technical capabilities have not been translated into significant reductions in HEU use, however, due to a lack of overarching political solutions. To date, only a few countries have indicated formally their support for HEU minimization, among them Iceland, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden in the context of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons review process, though there have been international calls for HEU minimization in other fora, including the G-8 'Action Plan on Nonproliferation' issued at the Sea Island summit of 2004 and the 2007 Astana joint statement of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. New measures are needed, however, to make these commitments real. With this in mind, the James Martin Center for Non-proliferation Studies has led an effort to draft HEU guidelines, modeled in part on the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (INFCIRC/549). There is international interest in such guidelines. France, for example, called for the adoption of HEU guidelines at the 2007 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2010 NPT Review Conference. HEU guidelines would codify best management practices, allow states to commit to national management strategies, and provide updated security recommendations, as this paper discusses in detail. While HEU guidelines are voluntary measures aimed at states, there are also ways that nuclear enterprises and other stakeholder groups can move the policy process forward. The adoption of resolutions by such groups can be good for business and

262

Modelling the influence of irrigation on the shrinking Aral Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

The Aral Sea is fed by two tributaries, the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya, and often is considered as one of the most complex hydrological basins of the world. The shrinkage of the Aral Sea during the last 50 years, which has been caused by excessive irrigation projects, has led to numerous ecological, human and economical problems. This study focuses on historic modelling (1960-2002) of the Amu Darya (535,000 km²) and the Syr Darya (219,000 km²) to assess the influence of land-use change, i.e. conversion of non-cultivated land to irrigated crops, on the hydrological cycle and on the shrinkage of the Aral Sea. Therefore, we have compiled crop- and irrigation-specific land use maps in five year intervals from extensive literature and data base reviews. These maps are first applied within the WaterGAP irrigation model, which has been further developed to account for the seven major crops of Central Asia, to compute crop-specific net irrigation requirements. In combination with a newly set up data base on time series of irrigation project efficiencies for Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan we have also been able to depict crop-specific gross irrigation requirements. These results have then been applied within the WaterGAP hydrology model, where they alter the water balance of each affected grid cell, and thus, runoff generation. All irrigation and hydrology calculations have been conducted in daily time steps and five arc minutes spatial resolution (~ 8 x 10 km grid cells) for the entire Aral Sea basin. Climate forcing data for the 42 year period has been taken from the CRU TS2.1 data set. First results of this model experiment show that not only massive water abstractions have caused the changes in the hydrological regime of both rivers, but also poor land and water management has taken its toll. Between 1960 and 1990 a state driven land use conversion from locally adapted food crops, such as cereals, to water intensive cash crops, such as cotton, has taken place. This and other factors have led to nearly doubling of water withdrawals within the basin. One further example is the on-going construction of the Karakum Canal, which diverts about 18km³ per year from the Amu Darya to the Karakum Desert, causing immense changes in the hydrograph and inflow to the Aral Sea. Due to poor water management, i.e. transmission losses of up to ~12km³ per year and old irrigation systems, most of the diverted canal water cannot be used for irrigation purposes. The influence of climate change in the Aral Sea basin between 1960 and 2002 is evident. However, excessive water abstractions mask climate change induced hydrological regime changes.

Aus der Beek, Tim; Voss, Frank; Floerke, Martina

2010-05-01

263

Magnetotelluric monitoring experiment at the northern Tien Shan seismogenic zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. High-density array MT soundings of the crust in the seismically active northern Tien Shan were performed using Phoenix MTU-5 stations in the Bishkek Geodynamic Polygon, at the junction of the Chu basin and the Kyrgyz Range. The MT transfer functions were determined to an accuracy of 1-2% (amplitude) and about 0.5-0.8 deg (phase) in most of 145 soundings. Preliminary analysis of the collected data aimed at estimating the geoelectrical dimensionality. The Bahr decomposition analysis indicated the presence of local 3D structures in the crust of the area superposed on the regional 2D structure. As a result of 2D inversion of amplitude and phase data with Randy Mackie codes, the geoelectric cross-sections along MT profiles have been constructed. Inversion models image upper-mid crustal zone of enhanced conductivity of the Issyk-Ata fault. Resistivity of this conductive zone is not exceeding 100 ohm-m. The conductor is connected to the surface structure and its upper part coincides with the line of Issyk-Ata fault on the surface. The low resistivity zone in the southern part of the investigated area is gently plunged into the southern direction beneath the rise of the Kyrgyz Range. Apparently, this zone represents large crust's zone of tectonic decollement and weakening with high fluid-gas environment permeability with properties of the waveguide. Next actual implication reveals from comparison of local seismicity spatial distribution and resistivity structure. One can clearly see the high seismicity clustering around the edge of conductive zones, thus we suggest that the local seismicity results either from the migration of the fluids to less permeable crust or from local stress concentration near the structural boundaries. So, presented results of high resolution magnetotelluric survey show that geoelectric imaging of fault zones deliver us the unique information of deep structure features and sometimes it can give us new unexpected tectonic explanations for studied objects. In addition to these structural EM investigations in 2003 Research Station RAS (Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan) and Phoenix Geophysics (Toronto, Canada) jointly installed two permanent stations at the seismogenic zone near Bishkek for monitoring natural and artificial electromagnetic fields, using Phoenix magnetotelluric equipment MTU-5D. MT parameters computed daily for the whole period of these observations are presented. Wavelet analysis was executed for the time series of daily average values of apparent resistivity (modules and phases) for two stationary stations of ?? measurements since autumn of 2003. The time intervals till a few months duration with abnormal behaviour of apparent resistivity variations in the period sounding range T=5-100s are marked, but for all that the maximum of change makes only the first percents. Such long-term change of resistivity has correlation with seismic activity in the region and, probably, can reflect the activation period of the structures in the mid-low crust at the Northern Tien Shan. The work was supported by RBRF grant 07-05-00594a.

264

Resistance to implementing policy change: the case of Ukraine / Résistance à la mise en œuvre du changement politique: cas de l’Ukraine / Resistencia a aplicar los cambios de política: el caso de Ucrania  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish La tuberculosis constituye un importante problema de salud pública en Europa oriental. Desde 1990, la incidencia de la enfermedad ha seguido aumentando en Belarús, la Federación de Rusia y Ucrania, así como en las repúblicas asiáticas centrales de Kazajstán, Kirguistán, Tayikistán y Uzbekistán. Euro [...] pa oriental, y en particular la Federación de Rusia y Ucrania, afrontan además el reto de salud pública que supone la rápida extensión de la epidemia de tuberculosis multirresistente (MDR-TB). De los 17 283 casos mundiales de tuberculosis multirresistente notificados en 2004, más del 60% (10 595) se dieron en la Región de Europa, la gran mayoría de ellos en Europa oriental, incluidos los estados bálticos de Estonia, Letonia y Lituania. Un dato especialmente preocupante es que, al igual que en África, el éxito del tratamiento DOTS en Europa oriental es sustancialmente inferior a la media en comparación con otras regiones del mundo, y la cobertura DOTS y la tasa de detección de casos bacilíferos siguen siendo los menores del mundo. Globalmente, estos problemas que, como África, sufre Europa oriental siguen siendo el principal obstáculo para alcanzar los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio relacionados con la tuberculosis en Europa. Ucrania presenta unas epidemias cada vez más graves de tuberculosis, tuberculosis multirresistente y VIH, con el telón de fondo de las epidemias de enfermedades de transmisión sexual y de consumidores de drogas inyectables. Pese a los intentos realizados, Ucrania no ha logrado implementar su política de tratamiento DOTS, debido a los problemas de organización de los sistemas de salud y a unos mecanismos de financiación y pago a los proveedores que han creado desincentivos para aplicar los cambios, y por añadidura la oposición que la estrategia DOTS ha encontrado entre los altos funcionarios y los médicos ha dificultado las actividades de implementación. Abstract in english Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in eastern Europe. Since 1990, the incidence rates of TB have continued to increase in Belarus, the Russian Federation, the Ukraine and the central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Eastern Europe, and in particul [...] ar the Russian Federation and the Ukraine, also face the public health challenge of an escalating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemic. Of the 17 283 global MDR-TB cases reported in 2004, over 60% (10 595) were from the European region and the vast majority of these from eastern Europe, including the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Of particular concern is the fact that, along with Africa, treatment success for DOTS in eastern Europe is substantially below average when compared with other regions of the world, and DOTS coverage and smear-positive case detection rate remain the lowest in the world. Collectively, along with Africa, these problems in eastern Europe remain the principal obstacle to meeting the Millennium Development Goals for TB in Europe. The Ukraine has worsening epidemics of TB, MDR-TB and HIV, against a background of epidemics of sexually transmitted illness (STI) and injecting drug users (IDUs). The TB and HIV epidemics are converging. In spite of attempts, the Ukraine has failed to implement DOTS policy due to health systems organization, financing and provider payment systems that created disincentives to change while opposition by policy-makers and clinicians to DOTS strategy hindered implementation efforts.

Rifat, Atun; Igor, Olynik.

2008-02-01

265

Uranium Mining in Paraguay: An opportunity to improve the environmental regulations in mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In many respects uranium mining is much the same as any other mining activity. In Paraguay under the Environmental Law, as well as many other South American countries, projects must have environmental permits prior to commencing, and must comply with all environmental, safety and occupational health conditions applicable. Increasingly, these activities are regulated by international standards, with external audits. The capacity for enforcement varies from the experience and tradition in mining production. Mining in Paraguay is a very recent activity; and as well as the Environmental Authority was recently created in 2000; therefore the environmental legislation for mining is not developed. Once the mining activity is approved, open pits or shafts and drives are dug, waste rock and overburden is placed in engineered dumps. Tailings from the ore processing must be placed in engineered dams or underground. Finally the whole site must be rehabilitated at the end of the project. Meanwhile air and water pollution must be avoided. The nuclear Renaissance in the world is a result of the high prices of oil and governments commitments on reducing the Greenhouse Effect Emissions under the Kyoto protocol: many governments expressed their willingness to increment their uranium predictions as well as the nuclear energy generation. Representatives of the Paraguayan Government after a meeting of the National council of Defense had stated that the issue of uranium exploration and has a strategic significance, and it has requested the preparation of environmental regulations to regulate this activity. The sector development strategy has also been discussed within the National Council of Defense. In this regard upon request of the National Environmental Authority and with support from USAID cooperation a process of preparing regulations for uranium mining has initiated by considering the cases of remediation and liabilities left by uranium mining in Australia - Nabarlek; Gabon-Mounana; Australia - Valle South Alligator; Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Once the uranium mining process and risks were evaluated by the authorities, and taking into considerations that the process is common to all metalliferous mining, and are well recognized and understood, the government decided to prepare an Environmental Regulation for General Mining. Also a particular regulation for uranium mining was prepared and was included in the Standards Protocols and Term of References for Uranium Mining. The proposed regulation states the follow stages of the process: mine site rehabilitation assessment, environmental risk assessment to determine what environmental assets are at greatest risk from multiple threats, assessment of the biophysical impact of mining on people; assessment of the impact of uranium mining and chemical and biological control regimes to ensure that the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are protected from the operation of mines in the region. Finally in the Environmental Management Plan an environmental monitoring is implemented for early detection of effects in the environment, arising from dispersion of mine waters during the rain and wet season. It is expected that with the proposed environmental regulation, uranium mining will be encourage in Paraguay. (author)

266

Dynamics of large landslide movement over coal mine Angren, in period of different strong distant earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1985, on the working coal mine Angren board began to develop landslide "Central", and another landslide "Old substation" formed in 1993. In 2001 the process of connecting these two adjacent sites has been started, and in 2011 two landslides were merged. As a result, the upper band formed graben like longitudinal down warping with width 150 m, length 1400 m and an amplitude of 0.5-2 m, volume of the landslide was 120-130 m3. Motion of the landslide mass with average thickness of 100 m occurs in a shallow surface 40 in the contact zone of limestone with fine-grained sands and greenish clays of Paleogene. Merging of landslides occurred in result of earthquake impact from Hindu Kush in March 21, 2011, M = 5.8, at depth 196 km. Intensity of motions in Angren 2-3 units and effective duration of 105 seconds. Geodetic GPS measurements carried out there since 2005, regular cycle was held March, 21 in the morning before the earthquake, after 10-12 hours the earthquake was carried out repeated measurement. There was a sharp increase in groundwater discharge, in the upper ledges of mine was formed lake 20-25 m long, 15 m wide and 1 m deep. At the bottom of the mine employees watched the water flow, which probably is connected with the vibration and deformation of the underground hydrogeological system. The rate of displacement of landslide in the day of the earthquake is not sharply increased. It began to be accelerated in the course of 57 days (21.03-17.05) in the Central zone from 168 to 749 mm / day and 79 days (21.03-8.06) in the upper zone from 68 to 385.4 mm/day. Then, the displacement velocity began to decline during the past two months to 310.8 mm/day (middle) and 255 mm / day in the upper zone. In 19.07.2011, there was a local earthquake in Kyrgyzstan, M = 6.2, H = 10-12 km, distance 135 km from Angren with intensity of 5 units, duration of horizontal vibrations 60-70 seconds. By carried out repeated GPS measurements after 12 hours, the acceleration of the displacement was noted only in one benchmark (6), located in the upper zone, where the vertical displacement increased to 431 mm/day and subsided to 2-2.5 m. The horizontal dis-placement for 5 days before the earthquake was equal to 255 mm/day, after the earthquake, 223 mm/day, i.e. this earthquake did not cause the rate change. Thus, two different earth-quakes, occurred at different times caused different effects, but activation of the landslide determines by the state of critical stability of mine board.

Nyazov, R.; Nurtaev, B.

2011-12-01

267

Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics  

Science.gov (United States)

Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal Maoist insurgency. (5) Glacier lakes are in many cases very fragile and their natural dams routinely rupture, causing devastating floods. A rising regional terrorist threat in several countries could target these dams and precipitate calamitous and terrifying results. (6) Over the next century, retreating glaciers may open new corridors for trade and human migration across the Himalaya and pave the way for possible new economic, military and political alliances in the region. (7) Glacier retreat might open new sanctuaries for terrorists and open new corridors for possible ground-based military offensive action across the HKH ranges. The documentation of glacier characteristics that may influence their trafficability, and projections of future glacier extent and behavior are relevant to wide ranging concerns of the region's inhabitants. Satellite remote sensing and mapping of glaciers is one approach to defining and monitoring the problems and opportunities presented by HKH glaciers. Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) is a joint USGS/NASA Pathfinder project that has formed a global consortium of glaciologists in several regional centers that are mapping and monitoring the HKH glaciers using repeat-pass ASTER and Landsat ETM+ data. We are currently building a comprehensive satellite multispectral image and GIS database that is providing detailed information on the state and rates of change of each glacier in the HKH region and other areas of the world. Merging these results with DEMs allows a predictive capability that could be useful in policy development and security planning.

Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

2002-05-01

268

Glacial Retreat and Associated Glacial Lake Hazards in the High Tien Shan  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of studies have identified glacial retreat throughout the greater Himalayan region over the past few decades, but the Karakorum region remains an anomaly with large stagnating or advancing glaciers. The glacial behavior in the Tien Shan is still unclear, as few studies have investigated mass balances in the region. This study focuses on the highest peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range, in the region of Jengish Chokusu along the Kyrgyzstan-China-Kazakhstan border. In a first step, a 30-year time series of Landsat imagery (n=27) and ASTER imagery (n=10) was developed to track glacial growth and retreat in the region. Using a combination of spectral and topographic information, glacial outlines are automatically delineated. As several important glaciers in the study region contain medium to high levels of debris cover, our algorithm also improves upon current methods of detecting debris-covered glaciers by using topography, distance weighting methods, river networks, and additional spectral data. Linked to glacial retreat are glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) that have become increasingly common in High Mountain Asia over the last few decades. As glaciers retreat, their melt water is often trapped by weakly bonded moraines. These moraines have been known to fail due to overtopping caused by surge waves created by avalanches, rockslides, or glacial calving. A suite of studies throughout High Mountain Asia have used remotely-sensed data to monitor the formation and growth of glacial lakes. In a second step of the work, lake-area changes over the past 15 years were tracked monthly and seasonally using dense Landsat/ASTER coverage (n=30) with an automatic procedure based on spectral and topographic information. Previous work has identified GLOFs as a significant process for infrastructural damage in the southern Tien Shan/northern Pamir, as well as in the better studied Himalaya region. Lake identification and quantification of lake-growth rates is a valuable first step to identifying potential flooding hazards in the region. In a third step, ASTER imagery is used for mass balance estimates from stereogrammetry over the last 10 years (n=10). These mass balance estimates are some of the first in the region, and provide valuable context on the rate of retreat identified using Landsat imagery. By combining glacial retreat rates with lake-change rates, a preliminary hydrological budget was derived for the region. This budget provides a basis for estimating GLOF risk in the region, by combining risk factors such as lake-growth rate and glacial retreat rate with glacier slope and other near-lake risk factors, such as propensity for landslides, likely to cause overtopping in lakes and downstream flooding. Following the identification of dangerous lakes, elevation models were used for flow routing, to assess total downstream area that would be affected by a GLOF. In combination with infrastructure and demographic information, the algorithm can estimate potential downstream impacts on local communities. This work provides an integrated picture of glacial lake hazards in a previously unstudied region of the Tien Shan, as well as valuable mass balance and glacial retreat rate estimates.

Smith, T. T.

2013-12-01

269

Automated landslide identification based on temporal NDVI-trajectories using long-term optical multi-sensor time-series data  

Science.gov (United States)

Landslides are a world-wide occurring natural hazard leading to severe loss of life and infrastructure. Objective and dynamic landslide hazard assessment requires profound knowledge about spatiotemporal occurrence of landslides. Thus, landslide inventories, which are a prerequisite for landslide hazard and risk assessment, have to be as complete as possible in time and space. So far, for many parts of the world such multi-temporal landslide inventories are largely missing, because the preparation relies mainly on very time consuming and resource intensive conventional methods, i.e. visual interpretation of optical data aided by comprehensive field surveys. Against this background, long-term archives of satellite remote sensing data, such as the USGS level 1T Landsat-(E)TM database open up new opportunities for analysis of landslide occurrence at a regional scale. However, in order to achieve best possible temporal data coverage, multi-sensor data have to be used. In this study such a satellite remote sensing database has been established for an area of 12,000 km² in Southern Kyrgyzstan, which is strongly affected by landslides. The database consists of about 700 orthorectified multispectral mid- and high-resolution satellite remote sensing datasets acquired by Landsat-(E)TM, SPOT, IRS-1C (LISS3), ASTER and RapidEye during the last 27 years. This builds the methodological framework for developing a reliable and robust automated landslide identification approach with the potential for global applicability. The developed approach comprises automated multi-sensor pre-processing and multi-temporal change detection methods. Change detection requires a precise spatial alignment of the whole database. Therefore an automated image-to-image co-registration approach has been developed using time series of USGS level 1T Landsat-(E)TM data as spatial reference. Accuracy assessment has shown a high relative image-to-image accuracy of 17 m (RMSE) and a high absolute accuracy of 23 m (RMSE) of the whole co-registered multi-temporal database making it suitable for automated landslide detection at a regional scale. The developed change detection approach is based on the analysis of temporal NDVI-trajectories which are obtained for every pixel across the analysed time span. NDVI-trajectories represent specific temporal footprints of vegetation changes. They allow for automatic identification of landslide events due to landslide-specific footprints represented by short-term vegetation cover destruction as well as longer-term revegetation rates as effects of landslide related disturbance and dislocation of soil. In combination with DEM-derivatives (e.g. slope, stream order) the developed approach enables automated object-based identification of landslides of different sizes, shapes and in different stages of development (i.e. fresh failures, reactivations and relocations) and thus is suitable for mapping spatiotemporal landslide activity under varying natural conditions (land cover and lithology). This approach has been applied to the spatial and temporal high resolution RapidEye database acquired between 2009 and 2013 for the whole study area. In the result 612 landslides could be identified with sizes ranging between 125 and 750,000 m² representing a total landslide affected area of approx. 7.3 million m². Currently, this approach is extended to the whole multi-sensor time-series database.

Behling, Robert; Roessner, Sigrid; Segl, Karl; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Kaufmann, Hermann

2014-05-01

270

Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radium in natural water springs presents two main problems in radiological protection. The first problem is the direct 226Ra ingestion during the water consumption. The second problem is concerning the fact that the elevated radium concentration in water springs is the source of possible soil contamination by 226Ra and high radon concentration in the atmosphere of the dwellings situated over the contaminated place. Due to high radiotoxicity 226Ra is characterized by low action level (0.5 Bq/l for drinking water) and a high sensitivity technique is required to measure such low concentrations. The developed method of 226Ra concentration measurements is based on emanation technique: the specific activity of 226Ra is determined by radon volume activity measurement in closed system during the water sample bubbling. The main measuring steps are: Degassing, sealing and storage of the water sample during at least 2 weeks; Absorption of background 222Rn in the inner volume of measuring system consisting of radon monitor AlphaGUARD, set of glass vials AlphaKIT and air pump AlphaPUMP; Transfer of water sample in the system and beginning of air bubbling through the sample. Measurement of 222Rn concentration in closed system (at least 10 values of radon concentration) The minimum detected specific activity of 226Ra in such technique is 0.03 Bq/l without any need for preliminary radium concentration. After 2 week interval the water sample can be repeatedly measured. The 226Ra in water was measured in 4 regions with high levels of radon in dwellings: Ural (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Caucasus (Russia) and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). It was founded that high radon concentration in water (400-600 Bq/l) is not always lead to radium presence in the sample. In practically all of measured samples the radium specific activity was either below action level or a little above it. A close correlation between 226Ra in water and radon in dwellings was found only in Niska Banja and Caucasus. For these places the formation of travertine during the interaction of radium in water and limestone is typical. It should be noted that low 226Ra specific activity in water (approx. 0.15-0.4 Bq/l) can lead to high radium specific activity in travertine (up to 1000-1500 Bq/kg) and extremely high indoor radon concentration. The maximum 226Ra specific activity was measured in spring waters 'Slavyanovskaya' and 'Smirnovskaya' sampled in Zheleznovodsk (Caucasus) - 4.1 and 2.1 Bq/l. It should be noted that these waters are traditionally used as a mineral waters prescribed for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders during more then 150 years

271

Radioisotopic parameters of water of the Syrdarya river basin in territory of the Kyrgyz Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solution of atomic problem, which comprises atomic weapon creation, required intensive exploration and extraction of radioactive raw material, uranium ores in the first place, as well as other important metals for this purpose. Practical realization of these problems led to formation of many storages of wastes (tail storages) and dumps of mining production. In this connection the problems of the environmental protection from contamination by radioactive and other unhealthy metals appeared. As a result of mining and processing of radioactive and other raw material, which are necessary in atomic industry, a series of tail storages and dumps appeared in the Kyrgyz Republic. The largest of them are the Kara-Balty, Mailuu-Suu, Kavak, Kadamjai and other tail storages of uranium production. Toxic ingredients of the tail storages migrate together with the natural waters. However the regularities of their migration in space and time are studied insufficiently. By this reason it is almost impossible forecasting radiative and other ecological hazard. As an assessment of the measure of migration from territories of uranium plants only summarized the content of the uranium in underground waters, without natural and technogenic (man-caused) component separation is used at present time, though it is obvious, that just a technogenic component must characterize hazard. For solving this problem the discovery 'Phenomenon of uranium-234 and uranium-238 natural separation' and different degree of 234U and 238U fractioning in natural conditions and during technological processes were used. Essence of the discovery consists in that at transition of uranium from solid uranium-containing formations in liquids (comprising natural waters), which do not dissolve these formations, the enrichment of isotopic mixture by uranium-234 occurs. As a result of this natural waters and hydrogenic uranium derived from them have a surplus of 234U toward 238U. In technological cycle when deriving the uranium-element from uranium ores and other mineral raw material by dissolving, the correlation between mentioned uranium isotopes holds true. During the derived technological process uranium is without surplus of 234U toward 238U. It is stipulated by the mechanism of pointed phenomenon. Thus, there is a real possibility to distinguish by magnitude of ratio of activities 234U/238U=? the uranium of natural waters (?>1) from technogenic (man-caused) uranium of tail storages and leaches of uranium dumps (?=1), that in turn allows outlining areas of technogenic uranium distribution in waters. In frameworks of International cooperative program of transboundary river monitoring between the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and the United States of America ('Navruz', the ISTC project KR-850) the isotopic composition (ratio of activities 234U/238U=?) and uranium content (CU) in water of the rivers, forming the Syrdarya, the largest in Central Asia river, were defined by the Kyrgyz Republic. The samples were selected in 15 locations (the table below) twice a year: quiet phase - in autumn, and a phase of high water -in spring. Periodical sampling has begun in autumn of 2000 and continues till now. To define these parameters up to 20 liters of water were taken from every location. The samples were measured using known methods. The ratio of activities 234U/238U and the uranium content were defined on ionization ?-spectrometers in Radiometric laboratory of Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic. The obtained data are given in Table 1

272

[Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among patients with chronic hepatitis C infection in Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey: a five-year evaluation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis. It is important to know the genotypes of HCV in the decision of the HCV related chronic hepatitis therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HCV genotypes determined at the Microbiology Laboratory of Akdeniz University Hospital, and to evaluate the changes in the distribution of the genotypes within the last five years. A total of 422 blood samples from HCV-RNA positive chronic hepatitis C patients (219 male, 203 female; age range: 8-79 yrs, mean age 46.3 ± 15.5 yrs) which were sent to our laboratory for genotyping between 2009-2013 period, were analyzed retrospectively. HCV-RNA extractions were performed in an automated system (EZ1 Virus Mini Kit v2.0, Qiagen, Germany), and a commercial reverse hybridization line probe-based assay (LIPA; GEN-C RT-PCR, Italy) was carried out for genotyping, For viral load determinations, a real-time PCR method (Cobas TaqMan HCV, Roche Diagnostics, Germany) was used. Demographic data of the patients were obtained from the hospital information systems and electronic patients' files. Out of the 422 patients, genotype 1b was detected in 63.3% (n= 267), genotype 1a in 14.7% (n= 62), genotype 3a in 11.1% (n= 47), genotype 2b in 0.9% (n= 4), genotype 4e in 0.2% (n= 1). The subtypes couldn't be determined for 5.4% (n= 23), 2.6% (n= 11) and 1.4% (n= 6) of the patients infected with genotype 1, 2 and 4, respectively. One (0.2%) patient, was coinfected with genotype 1 and 4. Of the patients, 40 were foreign-born (16 cases from Russia; 4 of each from Ukraine and Georgia; 3 of each from Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Germany; one of each from Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Chechnya, Moldova, Switzerland and Romania) and among these patients genotype 3a (19/40; 47.5%) was the most common genotype followed by genotype 1b (17/40; 42.5%). Median values of HCV viral load were 668.500 IU/ml (range: 2.000-9.630.000) in the whole group; while it was 732.000 IU/ml (range: 2.000-9.630.000) in patients infected with genotype 1 and 444.000 IU/ml (range: 2.650- 8.330.000) in patients infected with the other genotypes (p> 0.05). Patients infected with genotype 1 were found to be older than those infected with other genotypes (47 ± 15.7 and 39.5 ± 12.2, respectively; p 0.05). In conclusion, the determination of HCV genotypes is of crucial importance for treatment decision-making of chronic HCV infection. Besides, it also allows monitoring the changes in the epidemiology of HCV. In this study, although genotype 1b was determined as the most common HCV genotype, the detection of other genotypes was remarkable. This finding was attributed to the presence of many foreign national people in Antalya region which was a high capacity tourism area in Turkey. PMID:25052109

Sa?lik, ?mran; Mutlu, Derya; Öngut, Gözde; ?nan, Dilara; Ö?ünç, Dilara; Can Sarino?lu, Rabia; Özhak Baysan, Betil; Gültekin, Meral; Çolak, Dilek

2014-07-01

273

Chelyabinsk meteoroid: seismological observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of present work was analysis of seismological phenomena emerged due to Chelyabinsk airburst (15 February 2013). According to different astronomical and seismological agencies reports airburst coordinates and time vary over a wide range and its energy ranges from 70 kt to 1.4 Mkt of TNT equivalent (1 kt = 4.185·1012 J) [reports by NASA; USGS; CTBTO; Perm Regional Seismological Center; Kazakhstan Seismological Center; Department of Physics and Astronomy of University of Western Ontario; Le Pichon et al., 2013; Borovicka et al., 2013; Brown et al., 2013; Tauzin et al., 2013; Gokhberg et al., 2013; Seleznev et al., 2013]. We used records obtained by broadband seismic station global networks (Iris/Ida, Iris/USGS) and by regional networks (Iris/China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Baikal Regional Seismological Center). Data provided by IRIS Data Management System (Seattle, Washington, USA, www.iris.edu/). Seismogram visual analysis showed the presence at several stations of the seismic wave, which at the time of occurrence and form may be associated with the explosion of a meteoroid. It was recorded at 32 stations and is a short period motion (period T = 3-16 sec) for up to 1 minute. This wave was defined by us as the Rayleigh surface wave. Maximum epicentral distance at which confidently fixed surface wave is about 3650 km (station LSA, Tibet). At stations located farther away from the airburst site, the signal is noisy by surface waves from the earthquake Tonga (February 15, 2013, origin time 03:02:23.3, M=5.8, coordinates -19.72N, -174.48W, report by USGS). Spectral analysis showed that the recorded signal at short epicentral distances (up to 1300 km) is most manifest in the low frequency range - 0.25 (0.5) up to 1 Hz, while the remote stations for surface wave is lost in microseismic noise. A visual analysis of the arrival times of Rayleigh waves at seismic stations located at different epicentral distances are marked with their nonlinear: at close distances much lower rate than in the remote, and the average 2.4 and 3.2 km/s, respectively. This nonlinearity can be explained from the viewpoint of surface Rayleigh wave as a result of exposure to acoustic (infrasound) wave from the explosion of a meteoroid in atmosphere on the earth's surface [Tauzin et al., 2013; Ewing et al., 1957; Edwards et al., 2007]. The difference in the velocities of seismic and acoustic waves (velocity of propagation of sound waves in air is ~0.3 km/s) explains the relatively low rate of arrival of the surface wave at seismic stations close. The average surface wave velocity is 3.2 km/s. Dominant period method was used for estimation of surface wave attenuation - values obtained seismic Q and its dependence on frequency. Dependence of Q on the frequency is exponential: QR(f)=1700·exp1.2. Seismic energy was evaluated by surface wave magnitude (magnitude Ms and MS). To calculate the magnitude of the maximum amplitude used Ms surface wave measured at periods ranging from 18 to 22 sec, for calculating the magnitude MS - ranging from 3 to 60 sec. The resulting average values are equal magnitudes 4.1 and 4.2. Analysis of the azimuthal distribution of values for surface wave magnitude (Ms), the maximum amplitudes and frequencies of surface waves showed that these parameters have a distinct azimuthal orientation, oriented according to the flight path of the meteoroid. Fixed azimuthal orientation can be explained by the Doppler effect - the dependence of the oscillation frequency of the direction of motion of the source. The minimum and maximum

Dobrynina, Anna; Chechelnitsky, Vladimir; Chernykh, Evgeny; Sankov, Vladimir

2014-05-01

274

Snow algae in an ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains  

Science.gov (United States)

Snow algae are photosynthetic microorganisms and are living on the surfase of glaciers. They grow on melting surface from spring to summer and their biomass and community structure are changed with physical and chemical conditions on glaciers. Ice cores drilled from glaciers also contain snow algae that grew in the past. Studying biomass and community structure of snow algae in ice cores could reveal the temporal variation in snow algae in the past, and also environmental conditions relating propagation of snow algae. In this study, we anlalyzed snow algae preserved in an ice core of Grigoriev Ice cap located in eastern Kyrgyzstan of the central Asia, and to describe their temporal variations for the last 200 years. The ice core drilling was carried out on September in 2007 on the Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains. A 87 m long ice core from the surface to the bedrock was recovered at the top of the ice cap. The core was horizontally cut every 5 cm (total 1212 samples). The samples were melted and preserved as a 3% formalin solution. After the sample water was filtered through a hydrophilized PTFE membrane filter, observed by microscope. Snow algae in the sample water were counting. The algal biomass was represented by the cell number per unit water volume. Here, we showed the results between the surface to the 64 m in depth. We also analyzed the snow algal communities on the surface of the ice cap collected from five different sites from the top down to the terminus. Microscopy revealed that the ice core contained three taxa of filamentous cyanobacteria, an unicellular cyanobacterium, and two green algae. They were also found on the ice or snow surface of the i Ice cap. The quantitative analyses of the algae in the part of upper 64 m deep of the ice core samples revealed that the algal biomass varied significantly and showed many peaks. Furthermore, the biomass profile differed among the taxa. The filamentous cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 4.6 x 103?m3 mL-1 (mean: 56?m3 mL-1 ), the unicellular cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 3.0 x 104?m3 mL-1 (mean: 1.2 x 103?m3 mL-1 ), and Green algae varied from 0.0 to 2.3 x 104?m3 mL-1 (mean: 2.2 x 103?m3 mL-1 ). Based on the dating by pollen grains, the 64 m core covers 237 years. The results suggest that the snow algae did not grow every year on the top of the ice cap, and their biomass and community structure varied greatly from year to year. The total biomass after the 1960s was significantly higher than those before the 1950s. This suggested suggests that the surface conditions changed more favorable to the growth of algae in the 1960s. Annal variation of the algal biomass was found to be significantly correlated with air temperature at the nearest observing station from Grigoriev the iIce cap and hydrogen stable isotope (?D) in the ice core. The results suggest that the algal growth is more preferable in warmer year.

Honda, M.; Takeuchi, N.; Sera, S.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.; Naoki, K.; Aizen, V. B.

2012-12-01

275

Assembly of the Pamirs: Age and origin of magmatic belts from the southern Tien Shan to the southern Pamirs and their relation to Tibet  

Science.gov (United States)

Magmatic rocks and depositional setting of associated volcaniclastic strata along a north-south traverse spanning the southern Tien Shan and eastern Pamirs of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan constrain the tectonics of the Pamirs and Tibet. The northern Pamirs and northwestern Tibet contain the north facing Kunlun suture, the south facing Jinsha suture, and the intervening Carboniferous to Triassic Karakul-Mazar subduction accretion system; the latter is correlated with the Songpan-Garze-Hoh Xi system of Tibet. The Kunlun arc is a composite early Paleozoic to late Paleozoic-Triassic arc. Arc formation in the Pamirs is characterized by ˜370-320 Ma volcanism that probably continued until the Triassic. The cryptic Tanymas suture of the southern northern Pamirs is part of the Jinsha suture. A massive ˜?227 Ma batholith stitches the Karakul-Mazar complex in the Pamirs. There are striking similarities between the Qiangtang block in the Pamirs and Tibet. Like Tibet, the regional structure of the Pamirs is an anticlinorium that includes the Muskol and Sares domes. Like Tibet, the metamorphic rocks in these domes are equivalents to the Karakul-Mazar-Songpan-Garze system. Granitoids intruding the Qiangtang block yield ˜200-230 Ma ages in the Pamirs and in central Tibet. The stratigraphy of the eastern Pshart area in the Pamirs is similar to the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone in the Amdo region of eastern central Tibet, but a Triassic ocean basin sequence is preserved in the Pamirs. Arc-type granitoids that intruded into the eastern Pshart oceanic-basin-arc sequence (˜190-160 Ma) and granitoids that cut the southern Qiangtang block (˜170-160 Ma) constitute the Rushan-Pshart arc. Cretaceous plutons that intruded the central and southern Pamirs record a long-lasting magmatic history. Their zircons and those from late Miocene xenoliths show that the most distinct magmatic events were Cambro-Ordovician (˜410-575 Ma), Triassic (˜210-250 Ma; likely due to subduction along the Jinsha suture), Middle Jurassic (˜147-195 Ma; subduction along Rushan-Pshart suture), and mainly Cretaceous. Middle and Late Cretaceous magmatism may reflect arc activity in Asia prior to the accretion of the Karakoram block and flat-slab subduction along the Shyok suture north of the Kohistan-Ladakh arc, respectively. Before India and Asia collided, the Pamir region from the Indus-Yarlung to the Jinsha suture was an Andean-style plate margin. Our analysis suggests a relatively simple crustal structure for the Pamirs and Tibet. From the Kunlun arc in the north to the southern Qiangtang block in the south the Pamirs and Tibet likely have a dominantly sedimentary crust, characterized by Karakul-Mazar-Songpan-Garze accretionary wedge rocks. The crust south of the southern Qiangtang block is likely of granodioritic composition, reflecting long-lived subduction, arc formation, and Cretaceous-Cenozoic underthrusting.

Schwab, Martina; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Siebel, Wolfgang; McWilliams, Michael; Minaev, Vladislav; Lutkov, Valery; Chen, Fokun; Stanek, Klaus; Nelson, Bruce; Frisch, Wolfgang; Wooden, Joseph L.

2004-08-01

276

Glaciers of Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter is the ninth to be released in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, a series of 11 chapters. In each of the geographic area chapters, remotely sensed images, primarily from the Landsat 1, 2, and 3 series of spacecraft, are used to analyze the specific glacierized region of our planet under consideration and to monitor glacier changes. Landsat images, acquired primarily during the middle to late 1970s and early 1980s, were used by an international team of glaciologists and other scientists to study various geographic regions and (or) to discuss related glaciological topics. In each glacierized geographic region, the present areal distribution of glaciers is compared, wherever possible, with historical information about their past extent. The atlas provides an accurate regional inventory of the areal extent of glacier ice on our planet during the 1970s as part of a growing international scientific effort to measure global environmental change on the Earth?s surface. The chapter is divided into seven geographic parts and one topical part: Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union (F-1), Glaciers of China (F-2), Glaciers of Afghanistan (F?3), Glaciers of Pakistan (F-4), Glaciers of India (F-5), Glaciers of Nepal (F?6), Glaciers of Bhutan (F-7), and the Paleoenvironmental Record Preserved in Middle-Latitude, High-Mountain Glaciers (F-8). Each geographic section describes the glacier extent during the 1970s and 1980s, the benchmark time period (1972-1981) of this volume, but has been updated to include more recent information. Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union are located in the Russian Arctic and various mountain ranges of Russia and the Republics of Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakstun. The Glacier Inventory of the USSR and the World Atlas of Ice and Snow Resources recorded a total of 28,881 glaciers covering an area of 78,938 square kilometers (km2). China includes many of the mountain-glacier systems of the world including the Himalaya, Karakorum, Tien Shan and Altay mountain ranges. The glaciers are widely scattered and cover an area of about 59,425 km2. The mountain glaciers may be classified as maritime, subcontinental or extreme continental. In Afghanistan, more than 3,000 small glaciers occur in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains. Most glaciers occur on north-facing slopes shaded by mountain peaks and on east and southeast slopes that are shaded by monsoon clouds. The glaciers provide vital water resources to the region and cover an area of about 2,700 km2. Glaciers of northern Pakistan are some of the largest and longest mid-latitude glaciers on Earth. They are located in the Hindu Kush, Himalaya, and Karakoram mountains and cover an area of about 15,000 km2. Glaciers here are important for their role in providing water resources and their hazard potential. The glaciers in India are located in the Himalaya and cover about 8,500 km2. The Himalaya contains one of the largest reservoirs of snow and ice outside the polar regions. The glaciers are a major source of fresh water and supply meltwater to all the rivers in northern India, thereby affecting the quality of life of millions of people. In Nepal, the glaciers are located in the Himalaya as individual glaciers; the glacierized area covers about 5,324 km2. The region is the highest mountainous region on Earth and includes the Mt. Everest region. Glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya have a total area of about 1,317 km2. Many recent glacier studies are focused on glacier lakes that have the potential of generating dangerous glacier lake outburst floods. Research on the glaciers of the middle-latitude, high-mountain glaciers of Asia has also focused on the information contained in the ice cores from the glaciers. This information helps in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic records, and the computer modeling of global climate change.

Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

2010-01-01

277

Formulation of humic-based soil conditioners  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of the study is to prepare soil conditioners (SC) able to carry out the following functions: (i) the chemical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the adjustment of pH, (ii) the balancing of inorganic nutrients, (iii) the physical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the improvement of water permeability, air permeability and water retention properties, and (iv) improvement of the ecological system concerning of useful microorganisms activity in the soil. The SC was made of a mixture of inorganic ingredients, a chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of which promoted improvement of physical characteristic of soil and enrichment by its mineral nutritious elements. In addition to aforesaid ingredients, this soil conditioner contains agronomical-valued groups of microorganisms having the function promoting the growth of the crop. As organic component of SC humic acids (HA) was used. HA serve many major functions that result in better soil and plant health. In soil, HA can increase microbial and mycorrhizal activity while enhancing nutrient uptake by plant roots. HA work as a catalyst by stimulating root and plant growth, it may enhance enzymatic activity that in turn accelerates cell division which can lead to increased yields. HA can help to increase crop yields, seed germination, and much more. In short, humic acids helps keep healthy plants health. The first stage goal was to evaluate mineral and organic ingredients for formulation of SC. Soil conditioners assessed included ash and slag. The use of slags has been largelly used in agriculture as a source of lime and phosphoric acid. The silicic acid of slags reduces Al-acitivity thus, promoting a better assimilation of P-fertilizer by plants. Additionally, silicic acid is also known to improve soil moisture capacity, thus enhancing soil water availability to plants. Physico-chemical characteristics of ash and slag were determined, as a total - about 20 samples. Results include: Chemical composition of (i) ash: 53-54% SiO2; 26-27% Al2O3; 3-5% Fe2O3; 1.7-2.9% CaO; 1.3-2.3% MgO; 0.5-0.8% Na2O; 1.0-1.5% K2O and; (ii), slag: 17-20% SiO2; 15-20% Al2O3; 30-40% CaO; 1-6% Fe2O3; 4-11% MgO. Of all samples assessed, per 5 samples from various regions with various compositions (high, average and low content of metal oxides) were selected and tested as component of SC in vegetative pot and field experiments, i.e., to study the immobilization processes including microorganisms and inorganic ingredients. This study helped to elucidate the influence of ash and slag composition on microbial development. The next stage was (i) to evaluate microbial activity of selected soils from Kyrgyzstan, (ii) to isolate microorganisms exhibiting antagonistic activity against pathogenic microorganisms present in the soil and, (iii) to utilize microbes as nutrient sources. Candidate microbial cultures were isolated from soils/crops and assessed as plant growth promoting microorganisms. The characteristics of the physiological groups of microorganisms were also investigated. Of different physiological groups of microorganisms selected, ca, 3 consortia of agronomical-valued microbial groups from undisturbed soils was selected as component of soil conditioners. Microorganisms, namely oligonitrophils, ammonifiers, nitrifiers, were tested based on beneficial bioactivity including plant biomass and stem length on commercial onion and lettuce crops. Our results demonstrate that all the combinations ash/slag, humic acids and consortium of beneficial agronomical-valued microbial groups into one environmentally friendly soil conditioner possessed equal or higher growth-promoting potential in relation to lettuce. However, our results demonstrated clearly that among studied scope of soil conditioners only one of them could be recommended for further study in terms of practical applications. Namely, it was mixture consisting of humic acids, ash and oligonitrophils as soil conditioning agent. Acknowledgement. This research was supported by the grant of ISTC KR-993.2.

Amanova, M. A.; Mamytova, G. A.; Mamytova, B. A.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

2009-04-01

278

Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples; Untersuchungen zur Uransorption an Bentonit bzw. Montmorillonit sowie von Uran in Umweltproben  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The geotechnical barrier is an important component of a geological repository and consists of compacted bentonite surrounding radioactive waste containers. Its most important functions are, to retard the radionuclide migration into the biosphere and to prevent groundwater contact with containers. lt is therefore of central importance to investigate the bentonite material on its capacity to sorb radionuclides under near-natural chemical and physical conditions. The purpose of this work was to study the adsorption of uranium(VI) on bentonit and on montmorillonite-standards at high uranium concentrations. Thereby, a special account was given to the calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation, which leads to the formation of very stable and mobile uncharged Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} complex. Results of batch experiments showed that the dicalcium-uranyl-tricarbonate complexation lowers the uranium(VI) sorption on natural clay (bentonite) by a factor of up to 3. After 21 days of contact time, about 40 % and 20 % of the initial uranium(VI)concentration were sorbed on Na-bentonite and ea-bentonite, respectively, from a solution with Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} dominating the uranium(VI) speciation. On the contrary, about 55 % of the initial uranium(VI)-concentration were sorbed on thes clays from the solution, in which (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}{sup -} complex dominated the uranium(VI) speciation. Thus uranium(VI) sorption is more strongly influenced by the solution composition than by bentonite type. Na-bentonite should be used instead of ea-bentonite as a geotechnical barrier, since calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation may be a realistic scenario. Further SEM-EDX and HREM-EDX studies showed that uranium(VI) sorption occurred predominantly on montmorillonite, which is the main component of bentonite. Uranium(VI) sorption on bentonite's accessory Minerals (pyrite, calcite, mica, and feldspar) was not observed. Investigation of uranium(VI) sorption on four montmorillonite-standard, which are distinguished by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling uranium releases from tailings into the aquatic system. The results showed that uranium(VI)

Azeroual, Mohamed

2010-09-22

279

Les écoles néo-nurcu de Fethullah Gülen en Asie centrale : implantation, fonctionnement et nature du message véhiculé par le biais de la coopération éducative  

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Full Text Available Depuis la fin de l'URSS, l'Asie centrale turque (l'Ouzbékistan, le Turkménistan et le Kirgistan ont émergé sur la scène géo-politique et ont nourri le débat identitaire en Turquie. Alors que l'Etat turc attribue une grande importance géopolitique à ces républiques, la présence turque dans ces pays résulte plus de l'engagement d'acteurs privés parmi lesquels la communauté de Fethüllâh Gülen, leader de la branche du mouvement nurcu fondée par Said Nursi (1873-1960. À l'aube de l'indépendance des pays d'Asie centrale, la communauté de Fethüllâh Gülen, est à l'apogée de son pouvoir d'influence en Turquie car il profite d'un important réseau dans le système éducatif qui sert sa stratégie en Asie centrale. Cette communauté a inauguré dès septembre 2002 des douzaines d'écoles privées montées par des professeurs nurcu en partenariat avec des enseignants d'Asie centrale et grâce au soutien du mécénat et à l'action missionnaire du mouvement éducatif. Comme tout mouvement missionnaire, le groupe de Fethüllâh Gülen, développe une idéologie et transmet un message pour la diffusion d'un islam moderne, légèrement teinté de mysticisme. La diffusion de l'éthique musulmane est d'ailleurs la première motivation des missionnaires nurcu d'Asie centrale. Néanmoins, à cause de la suspicion et même de la paranoïa qui ont cours dans ces États post-soviétiques, contre toutes les formes de mouvements religieux, les écoles nurcu ont dû focaliser leur enseignement plus sur la turcité que sur l'islam ce qui explique les bonnes relations que ces communautés ont avec les États turcs d'Asie, alors qu'elles le sont beaucoup moins avec la Turquie. Alors que le mouvement de Fethüllâh Gülen est très apprécié en Asie centrale pour ses activités éducatives, il n'a aucune garantie d'être établi durablement dans la région. De fait, actuellement, la majorité de ses missionnaires sont des Turcs anatoliens. L'éducation d'élites locales va prendre plus de temps ; elle dépendra de la rapidité à laquelle les nouveaux régimes évolueront vers plus de tolérance pour les différents mouvements politiques et religieux.Since the break up of USSR, Turkic Central Asia - Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan et Kyrgyzstan - emerged on the geopolitical scene and fed the identity debate in Turkey. Although the Turkish state grants these republics a new and high geopolitical importance, Turkish presence in the region results more from the commitment of private actors, among which one should distinguish the community of Fethullah Gülen, leader of a branch of the nurcu movement funded by Said Nursi (1873-1960. On the eve of independence in Central Asia, the community of Fethullah Gülen stands at the peak of its power and influence in Turkey. It benefits from a large and powerful educational network that serves its implementation strategy for Central Asia. With the support of businessmen and missionary education professionals, this community inaugurates as soon as September 1991 dozens of private schools run by nurcu professors together with their Central Asian partners. Businessmen from Turkey and Central Asia provide the financial support necessary for the development of such schools, out of which will emerge the next elites of the nation with a close relationship to the movement. Like any missionary movement, the group of Fethullah Gülen carries an ideology and spreads a message for the dissemination of an Islam based on modernity and slightly tinged with mysticism. Spreading Islamic ethics is definitely the priority motivation for nurcu missionaries in Central Asia. However, because of the strong suspicion and paranoia among those post-Soviet states against any kind of religious movement, nurcu schools in order to strengthen their presence focus more on turcity than on Islamic ethics. Their contribution to the dissemination of turcity explains the good relations this religious community has been maintaining with the Turkish state in Central Asia while their relations are ver

Bayram Balci

2009-05-01