WorldWideScience

Sample records for Kyrgyzstan

  1. Corruption in Kyrgyzstan

    KARYMSHAKOV, Kamalbek; ABDYKAPAROV, Yzat

    2008-01-01

    This paper proceeding from the results of recent empirical studies and theoretical arguments on corruption in economic literature attempts to show the factors causing corruption and focuses on some facts of its consequences inKyrgyzstan. Literature on corruption defines main causes of corruption as: 1) Excessive regulatory burden; 2) Weak juridical system; 3) Level of political competition and democracy; 4) Sociological factors; 5) Low wages in public sector Results of application of regressi...

  2. Vote Points to Kyrgyzstan's Future

    LIU GUILING

    2010-01-01

    @@ @@ On June 27, a constitutional referendum was held in Kyrgyzstan. The Central Election Commission announced two days later a new Constitution had been approved. Some 2.72 million people were eligible to vote and the turnout was more than 70 percent. Of those who cast ballots, some 90 percent voted for the new Constitution and only 8 percent voted against it.

  3. Kyrgyzstan: Internal and External Course of Development

    Vadim Volovoj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After collapse of the Soviet Union Central Asia (CA was not in the focus of academic society and big geopolitical players, Kyrgyzstan not being an exception. But today Russia is back to CA through the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU and Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO. Kyrgyzstan is a member of CSTO and is going to join the EEU. Therefore it is worth of broader analysis. This study tried to understand specifics of Kyrgyz internal and external course of development. It found that internal political process in Kyrgyzstan used to be very problematic. The country suffered a lot from two revolutions, caused by the authoritarian “family rule” of Askar Akaev and Kurmanbek Bakiev. After that Kyrgyzstan decided to change its system of government from presidential to parliamentary (or semi-presidential model. But this experiment did not bring peace and stability, additionally complicated by ethnic tension between Kyrgyz and Uzbek citizens. Possible recipe of success – bigger socio-economic responsibility of the government, but it is still not in place. After two people revolts Kyrgyzstan was near to become a “failed state”, but orientation towards strategic partnership with Russia and membership in the EEU can help it to survive politically and economically at the expense of Russian geopolitical ambitions, compensate internal political turbulence by external factor of stability. Moreover, close (also institutional cooperation with Moscow strengthens systemic power of Kyrgyzstan in its relations with the closest neighbors, such as Uzbekistan (not satisfied with the water policy of Bishkek and Afghanistan (poses real security threat of Islamic extremism and terrorism to Kyrgyzstan. To sum up, for the moment Kyrgyz internal politics is hardly predictable, also because of the parliamentary experiment, but definite external orientation towards Russia and the EEU creates some basis for stable long term development of the country.

  4. Migration and first-time parenthood: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan

    Gunnar Andersson; Lesia Nedoluzhko

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the reproductive behavior of young women and men in the post-Soviet Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan, focusing on the link between migration and fertility. We employ event-history techniques to retrospective data from the 'Marriage, Fertility, and Migration' survey conducted in Northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to study patterns in first-time parenthood. We demonstrate the extent to which internal migration is related to family formation and to the patterns of becomi...

  5. New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan

    Georgy Lazkov; Alexander Sennikov

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica ( Asteraceae ), Crambe orientalis ( Brassicaceae ) and Salvia aethiopis ( Lamiaceae ) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria ( Amaranthaceae ) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia...

  6. Promoting Children’s Reading in Kyrgyzstan

    Duishon Shamatov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is on family reading for children in Kyrgyzstan a Central Asian former USSR state. Poor reading skills lead to poor learning in all other subjects. This paper presents the research study on the Reading for Children project, which aimed to promote a love for reading and enthusiasm for books from early ages.  The study also identifies whether the Reading for Children project has had any impact on language skills of small children. The study was conducted with the help of survey questionnaire, individual and group interviews as well as observation. The study findings demonstrated that Parents’ involvement in reading tasks can help develop their children’s interest in reading. The study demonstrated that the Reading for Children project increased access to children’s age-appropriate reading materials, promoted enjoyable reading experiences between parents and children, and strengthened family bonds between parents and conducting series of trainings on family reading. In addition, there were indications that the project had also positively influenced the children’s attitude towards education and performance at school.  Paper offers practice and policy recommendations. Abstrak Pembahasan Artikel ini tentang bacaan keluarga, untuk anak-anak di Kyrgyzstan Central Asian former USSR state. Kemampuan membaca yang buruk mengakibatkan daya belajar yang rendah pada semua mata pelajaran. Jika siswa belajar untuk membaca di usia awal dan pada tingkat kecepatan membaca yang memadai, maka mereka mempunyai kesempatan yang lebih besar untuk bertindak lebih baik di sekolah. Artikel  ini menyajikan penelitian tentang projek membaca untuk anak-anak, yang bertujuan untuk mempromosikan kecintaan terhadap membaca dan antusiasme terhadap buku sejak usia dini. Penelitian ini juga mengidentifikasi apakah projek bacaan pada anak-anak telah memiliki dampak terhadap kemampuan bahasa anak-anak kecil. Penelitian dilakukan dengan angket survey

  7. New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan

    Georgy Lazkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae, Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan.

  8. Migration and first-time parenthood: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan

    Gunnar Andersson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the reproductive behavior of young women and men in the post-Soviet Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan, focusing on the link between migration and fertility. We employ event-history techniques to retrospective data from the 'Marriage, Fertility, and Migration' survey conducted in Northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to study patterns in first-time parenthood. We demonstrate the extent to which internal migration is related to family formation and to the patterns of becoming a parent after resettlement. We gain deeper insights into demographic behavior by considering information on factors such as the geographical destination of migration and retrospectively stated motives for reported moves. In addition, our study reveals clear ethno-cultural differences in the timing of entry into parenthood in Kyrgyzstan.

  9. Traditional M e n Caps o f Kyrgyzstan

    Serap TANRISEVER

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyrgyzstan has an extraordinarily rich mosaic of folk culture. There is a great importance of wear clothing, crafts and decorative arts in this mosaic. Traditional caps and clothes of Kyrgyzstan are the best elements that reflect the presence of culture, t raditions, geography inhabited, climatic conditions that they already live in. Kyrgyzstan has been trying to keep alive the traditions, styles of lives by using the required crafts and handmade products although the global fashion, time and technological development. According to research, it has still been seen that the caps and clothes of Kyrgyzstan are being used less in daily life. Caps, Kalpak , Tebetey, Malakay, are some of the best known extant that come to this age related with the traditions of ca p s of Kyrgyzstan’s men . In this research, it has been worked of decorations of Kirghiz men caps , specialties of color and design, techniques of sewing, characteristics of mold and fabrics, Moreover the place and the meaning of the titles has been trying to determine in the cultural life. The scan method has been used by doing regional research.

  10. Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Junisbai, Azamat K.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where the…

  11. VAR Analysis of the Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Kyrgyzstan

    Nurlan ATABAEV

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of monetary transmission on real output and price level in Kyrgyzstan which is very important issue for central banks. We analyzed the relationships between the money supply, real output, price level, interest rate, credit and real exchange rate by using the vector autoregression approach (VAR and monthly data for 2003-2011. As a result the interest rate channel remains weak, on the other hand it have been revealed that the credit channel has some affects to real output, the exchange rate channel affects the prices. Exchange rate channel remains still the most effective channel. Based on these results, it can be argued that government can use credit and interest rate channel in increasing real output, and the exchange rate channel in achieving price stability in Kyrgyzstan.

  12. U.S.-KYRGYZSTAN: PARTNERS IN DIFFERENT WEIGHT DIVISIONS

    Kazakpaev, Marat

    2006-01-01

    As soon as Kyrgyzstan became an independent state, its relations with the United States in the military-political sphere moved ahead at a slack pace mainly because the "island of democracy," as the country was perceived in Central Asia, was too small and too poor economically to be contemplated as a strategic partner first by the Clinton and later by the George W. Bush Administration. However, the Kyrgyz Republic's consistent and positive foreign policy with respect to the U.S. contributed to...

  13. KYRGYZSTAN AT A CROSSROADS: FACING THE ECONOMIC CAUSES OF THE TULIP REVOLUTION

    Tchantouridze, Lasha

    2006-01-01

    The 24 March, 2005 Tulip Revolution has pointed out some of the most pressing problems that Kyrgyzstan currently faces. The Akaev administration was brought down by a popular uprising, which was occasioned more by economic hardship and deprivation than by political oppression. As a consequence, the post-revolutionary Kyrgyz leadership has inherited very acute economic and financial problems that they will have to address in order to avoid future public outbursts of fury. Kyrgyzstan's stabilit...

  14. Interactions of Soil Order and Land Use Management on Soil Properties in the Kukart Watershed, Kyrgyzstan

    Zulfiia Sakbaeva; Veronica Acosta-Martínez; Jennifer Moore-Kucera; Wayne Hudnall; Karabaev Nuridin

    2012-01-01

    Surveys of soil properties related to soil functioning for many regions of Kyrgyzstan are limited. This study established ranges of chemical (soil organic matter (SOM), pH and total N (TN)), physical (soil texture), and biochemical (six enzyme activities of C, N, P, and S cycling) characteristics for nine profiles from the Kukart watershed of Jalal-Abad region in Kyrgyzstan. These profiles represent different soil orders (Inceptisols, Alfisols, and Mollisols) and land uses (cultivated, nut-fr...

  15. On-site early-warning system for Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan

    Dino Bindi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development of an on-site early warning system for Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan is outlined. Several low cost sensors equipped with MEMS accelerometers are installed in eight buildings distributed within the urban area. The different sensing units communicate each other via wireless links and the seismic data are streamed in real-time to the data center using internet. Since each single sensing unit has computing capabilities, software for data processing can be installed to perform decentralized actions. In particular, each sensing unit can perform event detection task and run software for on-site early warning. If a description for the vulnerability of the building is uploaded in the sensing unit, this piece of information can be exploited to introduce the expected probability of damage in the early-warning protocol customized for a specific structure.

  16. Optimum Density and Space Structure of Kyrgyzstan’s Juniper Stands for Identifying Water Protective Properties

    Toktoraliev, Zayirbek; Batelaan, Okke; YUE, Pichang; Zhang, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Central Asia including Kyrgyzstan is a disaster prone area, suffering from snow avalanches, landslides and flooding. Within the Tyan-Shan region, a mountainous region in Southern Kyrgyzstan, there is an increasing number of natural hazards over the last years. One of the possible causes of the increase in natural disasters in the region is the deterioration of the Juniper forests in the region. Juniper forests have a large economical and ecological importance for Kyrgyzstan. However, the cond...

  17. Utilisation and Management Changes in South Kyrgyzstan's Mountain Forests

    Matthias Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Using political ecology as its conceptual framework, this paper focuses on the changes in forest utilisation and management of South Kyrgyzstan's walnut-fruit forests over the last century. The aim of this study on human-environment interactions is to investigate the relationship between actors on the one side, their interests and demands, and the forests and forested lands on the other. Forest resource utilisation and management - and even the recognition of different forest products as resources - are connected with political and socio-economic conditions that change with time. The walnut-fruit forests of South Kyrgyzstan are unique, characterised by high biodiversity and a multiplicity of usable products; and they have been utilised for a long time. Centralised and formal management of the forests started with the Russian occupation and was strengthened under Soviet rule, when the region became a part of the USSR. During this era, a state forest administration that was structured from Moscow all the way down to the local level drew up detailed plans and developed procedures for utilising the different forest products. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the socio-political and economic frame conditions have changed significantly, which has brought not only the sweeping changes in the managing institutions, but also the access rights and interests in the forest resources. At present, the region is suffering from a high unemployment rate, which has resulted in the forests' gaining considerable importance in the livelihood strategies of the local population. Political and economic liberalization, increased communication and trans-regional exchange relations have opened the door for international companies and agents interested in the valuable forest products. Today, walnut wood and burls, walnuts, wild apples and mushrooms are all exported to various countries in the world. Scientists and members of various international organisations stress the ecological

  18. Between Tradition and Modernity: Marriage Dynamics in Kyrgyzstan.

    Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Agadjanian, Victor

    2015-06-01

    The demographic literature on union formation in post-communist Europe typically documents retreat from marriage and increase in cohabitation. However, sociological and anthropological studies of post-Soviet Central Asia often point to a resurgence of various traditional norms and practices, including those surrounding marriage, that were suppressed under Soviet rule. We engage these two perspectives on union formation by analyzing transition to first marriage in Kyrgyzstan both before and after the collapse of the USSR. We use uniquely detailed marriage histories from a nationally representative survey conducted in the period 2011-2012 to examine the dynamics of traditional marital practices among that country's two main ethnic groups-Kyrgyz and Uzbeks-focusing on trends in arranged marriages and in marriages involving bride kidnapping. The analysis reveals instructive ethnic and period differences but also indicates an overall decline in the risks of both types of traditional marriage practices in the post-Soviet era. In fact, although the decline has characterized all marriage types, it was more substantial for traditional marriages. We interpret these trends as evidence of continuing modernization of nuptiality behavior in the region. PMID:25940113

  19. An innovative national health care waste management system in Kyrgyzstan.

    Toktobaev, Nurjan; Emmanuel, Jorge; Djumalieva, Gulmira; Kravtsov, Alexei; Schüth, Tobias

    2015-02-01

    A novel low-cost health care waste management system was implemented in all rural hospitals in Kyrgyzstan. The components of the Kyrgyz model include mechanical needle removers, segregation using autoclavable containers, safe transport and storage, autoclave treatment, documentation, recycling of sterilized plastic and metal parts, cement pits for anatomical waste, composting of garden wastes, training, equipment maintenance, and management by safety and quality committees. The gravity-displacement autoclaves were fitted with filters to remove pathogens from the air exhaust. Operating parameters for the autoclaves were determined by thermal and biological tests. A hospital survey showed an average 33% annual cost savings compared to previous costs for waste management. All general hospitals with >25 beds except in the capital Bishkek use the new system, corresponding to 67.3% of all hospital beds. The investment amounted to US$0.61 per capita covered. Acceptance of the new system by the staff, cost savings, revenues from recycled materials, documented improvements in occupational safety, capacity building, and institutionalization enhance the sustainability of the Kyrgyz health care waste management system. PMID:25649402

  20. Safe management of wastes from former mining and milling activities in Kyrgyzstan

    254,4 million cubic meters of mining activity's wastes are accumulated in 92 sites on the territory of Kyrgyzstan. 36 tailings and 25 dumps with total volume of 15,7 million of cubic meters were to responsibility of Ministry of Emergency Situations of Kyrgyzstan Republic by Governmental Decree of Kyrgyzstan Republic after collapse of Soviet Union including: 31 tailings with radioactive wastes and volume of 7,2 million cubic meters; 5 tailings with toxic wastes and volume of 5,2 million cubic meters; 25 mountain dumps of non-conditioned ores and volume of 3,3 million cubic meters. Project proposal are submitted to donor countries and international organizations for consideration of possible technical assistance and grant means issuance for carrying out remediation works of tailings.

  1. Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan

    Ana Navas-Acien; Patrick Breysse; Shahida Shahrir; Denis Vinnikov; Nurlan Brimkulov

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range) air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86) μg/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD) 13.5 (3.6) ...

  2. The Level of Brand Awareness in Consumer Electronic Products: The Example of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Kutay Oktay; Bilgehan Gülcan; Musa Çakır

    2015-01-01

    Brand awareness which is considered as one of the most important factor affecting the consumer purchasing preferences has been investigated by both academics and practitioners in the field of marketing in recent years. The current study investigated brand awareness in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan regarding consumer electronic products, such as laptop computers, tablet computers, and cell phones. To determine brand awareness, ...

  3. Environmental Journalism in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan: Reporting Scarce amid Environmental and Media Problems

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Independence for the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia has not led to press freedom, solutions to pressing environmental problems, or development of effective grassroots nongovernmental organizations. This article examines relations between journalists and environmental nongovernmental organizations, and it…

  4. Bayesian estimation of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan

    Dürr, S.; Bonfoh, B.; Schelling, E.; Kasymbekov, J.; Doherr, M.G.; Toktobaev, N.; Schueth, T.; Zinsstag, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new cases of human brucellosis per 100,000 inhabitants in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences in the world. However, because this number is based on official records, it is very likely that the incidence is underreported. The diagnostic tests most commonly used in Kyrgyzstan are the Rose Bengal test in ruminants and the Huddleson test in humans. The sensitivity and specificity of these tests have never been evaluated under field conditions in Kyrgyzstan, where the strains circulating in livestock and humans are unknown. Therefore, a representative national cross-sectional serological study was undertaken in humans, cattle, sheep and goats to assess the true seroprevalence and to compare different serological tests. In the year of study (2006), few animals were vaccinated against brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan. A total of 5,229 livestock sera and 1,777 human sera from three administrative regions were collected during spring 2006 and submitted to a range of serological tests. The true seroprevalence of brucellosis, estimated using Bayesian methodology, was 7% (95% credibility interval 4%–9%) in humans, 3% (1%–5%) in cattle, 12% (7%–23%) in sheep and 15% (7%–30%) in goats. The Rose Bengal test was confirmed as a useful screening test in livestock and humans, although its sensitivity was lower than that of other tests. The estimates of specificity of all tests were significantly higher than those for sensitivity. The high seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans, cattle and small ruminants in Kyrgyzstan was confirmed. Bayesian statistical approaches were demonstrated to be useful for simultaneously deriving test characteristics and true prevalence estimates in the absence of a gold standard. PMID:24761732

  5. From 'truth in strength to strength in truth': sociology, knowledge and power in Kyrgyzstan, 1966-2003

    Amsler, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    This doctoral thesis emerged from the in-depth study of the politics of social scientific knowledge in Kyrgyzstan and its relationship to political economies and social imaginaries from the Soviet to the early post-Soviet periods. LONG SUMMARY This dissertation is a study in the critical sociology of social scientific knowledge. It explores the construction of sociology as a field of knowledge, academic discipline and professional practice in Kyrgyzstan (formerly the Kirgiz Soviet Sociali...

  6. Excessive exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke among hospitality workers in Kyrgyzstan.

    Vinnikov, Denis; Brimkulov, Nurlan; Shahrir, Shahida; Breysse, Patrick; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range) air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86) microg/m(3). Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD) 13.5 (3.6) hours a day and 5.8 (1.4) days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS. PMID:20617012

  7. Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan

    Ana Navas-Acien

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86 μg/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD 13.5 (3.6 hours a day and 5.8 (1.4 days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS.

  8. Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Berner, U.; Scheeder, G.; Kus, J. [Section Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, BGR, Hannover (Germany); Voigt, S.; Schneider, J.W. [Geological Inst., TU Bergakademic Freiberg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Along the northern foothills of the Turkestan-Alai Range (SW Kyrgyzstan), a 1000 to 1500m thick succession of Mesozoic deposits is exposed recording regional changes of the paleo-landscape during Triassic to Cretaceous times. Detailed litho- and biofacies analyses, conducted by the TU Bergakademie Freiberg since 2006, provided for the first time a nearly complete columnar section of the continental Triassic Madygen Formation of Kyrgyzstan. Organic petrographical and organic geochemical methods (including RockEval pyrolyses, and biomarker analyses) have been applied to a suite of terrestrial sedimentary rocks of Triassic age with the intention to identify the depositional environment. Our investigations suggest that the potential source rocks of the terrestrial pluvial Madygen Formation might generate predominantly gaseous hydrocarbons at higher maturities. (orig.)

  9. HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question. PMID:24342741

  10. Environmental Effects of Possible Landslides in the Areas of Radioactive Waste Storage in Kyrgyzstan

    This paper describes the problems caused by the location of uranium mine and mill tailings in the mountainous regions of Kyrgyzstan which are subject to potentially disrupting natural events such as landslides and flooding. It describes the modelling analyses which have been carried out to provide an improved predictive capability of potential future events. On the basis of these analyses, strategies have been developed to avoid some of the worst consequences of the natural events. (author)

  11. Eager to Leave? Intentions to Migrate Abroad among Young People in Kyrgyzstan

    Agadjanian, Victor; Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Kumskov, Gennady

    2008-01-01

    This study examines young people’s intentions to migrate abroad in Kyrgyzstan, focusing in particular on differences between Asian and European-origin ethnic groups. The multivariate analyses of recent survey data show that even after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and social embeddedness Europeans are significantly more inclined to migrate than Asians. Whereas no gender differences in migration intentions among either group are detected, marriage, childbearing, and social capi...

  12. Banking Sector Reform and Interest Rates in Transition Economies: Bank-Level Evidence from Kyrgyzstan

    Martin Brown; Maria Rueda Maurer; Tamara Pak; Nurlanbek Tynaev

    2007-01-01

    We examine the impact of banking sector reforms on interest rates using bank-level data from Kyrgyzstan for 1998-2005. We find that increased confidence in the banking sector has contributed significantly to lowering interest rate levels, while the impact of lower intermediation costs, credit risk, and capital costs are negligible. Our results further suggest that the liberalization of the Kyrgyz financial sector has reduced both deposit and lending rates. Finally, we find that despite consid...

  13. Frequency distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis and other helminths of foxes in Kyrgyzstan

    I., Ziadinov; P., Deplazes; A., Mathis; B., Mutunova; K., Abdykerimov; R., Nurgaziev; P.R, Torgerson

    2010-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A study of the helminth fauna of foxes from Naryn Oblast in central Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the abundance of Echinococcus multilocularis in a district where a high prevalence of this parasite had previously been detected in dogs. A total of 151 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were investigated in a necropsy study. Of these 96 (64%) were infected with E. multilocularis with a mean abundance of 8669 parasites per fox. This indi...

  14. Assessing the state of Sustainable Land Management research in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan

    Dear, Chad; Shigaeva, Jyldyz; Wolfgramm, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    This article synthesizes findings from a review of the state of research on sustainable land management in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan and from an analysis of the interface between research and action. Using the Global Land Project (GLP 2005) analytical framework, we analyzed the distribution of 131 selected publications (including a clearly defined set of local and international academic and gray literature) across the framework's components and links in a social–ecological system. There is a ...

  15. Potentially dangerous glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan - Research overview of 2004-2015

    Jansky, Bohumir; Yerokhin, Sergey; Sobr, Miroslav; Engel, Zbynek; Cerny, Michal; Falatkova, Kristyna; Kocum, Jan; Benes, Vojtech

    2016-04-01

    Global warming causes intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in most of high mountains all over the world. This process is also evident in the mountain regions of central Tien Shan. Glacier melt water affects changes in hydrological regime of water streams and causes overfilling of high mountain lake basins. The dams of many lakes are very unstable and can burst open. To determine the degree of such risk, it is necessary to analyse the genesis of lakes, to characterize the morphology of the lake basins and to know the particularities of their hydrological regime. According to the latest inventory within territory of Kyrgyzstan, a total of 1328 lakes have been identified as potentially dangerous, 12 lakes are considered as currently dangerous, other 25 feature high potential hazard. Since 1952 more than 70 disastrous cases of lake outburst have been registered. The hazardous alpine lakes are studied in Kyrgyzstan systematically since 1966. Since 2004, Czech-Kyrgyz research team has been operating in Kyrgyzstan in the field of dangerous glacial lakes. Projects were focused primarily on high-mountain glacial lakes risk assessment, propositions of risk mitigation measures, establishment of permanent research station near one of the studied glacier complexes, preparation of risk analysis for selected endangered valleys, evaluation of climatic and hydrological data and glacier development within observed regions. The most significant portion of data and information has been gathered during field work, complemented by satellite image analysis and surveillance flights over the monitored sites.

  16. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:26870722

  17. Trends in traffic collisions and injuries in Kyrgyzstan, 2003-2007

    Viola Artikova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiological data on motor vehicle collisions, injuries and deaths in Kyrgyzstan to inform evidence-based policy development. METHODS: Data on motor vehicle collision and injury statistics covering 2003-2007 were obtained from official sources provided by the Department of Traffic Safety and the Ministry of Health's Republican Medical Information Centre.The data were analysed and compared with data derived from studies in other low- and middle-income countries. FINDINGS: Large heterogeneity between data sources was noted. Motor vehicle collisions caused by drivers increased twofold between 2003 and 2007. Reported motor vehicle collisions, deaths and injuries increased by 34%, 33% and 47%, respectively, over that period. Such increases were proportionately greater than the growth in population or in the number of registered motor vehicles.The proportion of injury attributable to motor vehicle collisions increased by 14% and the collision-related mortality rate increased by 39% in 2003-2007. CONCLUSION: In Kyrgyzstan, the number of motor vehicle collisions is rising and so is the number of those who are injured or killed in them. Reversing this trend will call for closer collaboration among relevant agencies and for a comprehensive surveillance system, along with operational improvements in emergency medical care, new and strictly enforced passenger safety laws and improvements to the transportation infrastructure.

  18. Interactions of Soil Order and Land Use Management on Soil Properties in the Kukart Watershed, Kyrgyzstan

    Zulfiia Sakbaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of soil properties related to soil functioning for many regions of Kyrgyzstan are limited. This study established ranges of chemical (soil organic matter (SOM, pH and total N (TN, physical (soil texture, and biochemical (six enzyme activities of C, N, P, and S cycling characteristics for nine profiles from the Kukart watershed of Jalal-Abad region in Kyrgyzstan. These profiles represent different soil orders (Inceptisols, Alfisols, and Mollisols and land uses (cultivated, nut-fruit forests, and pasture. The Sierozem (Inceptisols soils had the highest pH and contained the lowest SOM and TN contents compared to the Brown, Black-brown, and Meadow-steppe soils (Alfisols and Mollisols. Enzymatic activities within surface horizons (0–18 cm typically decreased in the following order: forest > pasture > cultivated. Enzyme activity trends due to land use were present regardless of elevation, climate, and soil types although subtle differences among soil types within land use were observed. The significant reductions in measured soil enzyme activities involved in C, N, P, and S nutrient transformations under cultivation compared to pasture and forest ecosystems and lower values under Inceptisols can serve as soil quality indicators for land use decisions in the watershed.

  19. Risk factors for Echinococcus coproantigen positivity in dogs from the Alay valley, Kyrgyzstan.

    Mastin, A; van Kesteren, F; Torgerson, P R; Ziadinov, I; Mytynova, B; Rogan, M T; Tursunov, T; Craig, P S

    2015-11-01

    Echinococcosis, caused by the zoonotic cestodes Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) and Echinococcus multilocularis, is highly endemic in the Central Asian Republic of Kyrgyzstan, and is being identified increasingly as a public health problem, especially amongst pastoral communities. As domestic dogs are considered to be the main source of human infection, the identification of potential transmission pathways is of relevance when considering implementing an echinococcosis control scheme. The current report describes the results of an analytical study of canine Echinococcus coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) prevalence in the Alay valley of southern Kyrgyzstan prior to the commencement of regular praziquantel dosing of dogs. A logistic regression model using a form of Bayes modal estimation was used to identify possible risk factors for coproantigen positivity, and the output was interpreted in a Bayesian context (posterior distributions of the coefficients of interest). The study found that sheepdogs had lower odds of coproantigen positivity, as did dogs in households with donkeys, where owners had knowledge of echinococcosis, and households which engaged in home slaughtering. Surprisingly, there was no evidence of an association between free roaming or previous praziquantel dosing and coproantigen positivity, as has been found in previous studies. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed in the context of the epidemiology of echinococcosis and potential intervention approaches. PMID:26442706

  20. Decentralizing Governance of Agropastoral Systems in Kyrgyzstan: An Assessment of Recent Pasture Reforms

    Jyldyz Shigaeva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Agropastoral systems in Kyrgyzstan have undergone dramatic change in recent decades. In large part, change has resulted from the introduction of legislation that devolves authority and responsibility for the management of common-pool agropastoral resources to community-level pasture users associations. By applying Ostrom’s principles of common resource governance, this paper analyzes the institutions and norms that currently shape local management practices in rural areas of Naryn Province in Kyrgyzstan and the views of different actors on pasture governance, including points of disagreement. Our research and analysis reveal that the community-initiated and -owned systems of pasture governance that were expected to develop and mature under the new Pasture Law have not yet been entirely realized. Decentralization occurred without the participation or awareness of most local resource users. As a consequence, users are creating and reinforcing their own community-defined practices and internal rules, leaving official management plans largely ignored and unenforced. Resource users tend to perceive the government-sanctioned pasture users associations not as public or democratic organizations that represent their interests, but rather as agencies that aim primarily to control the use of resources, exclude some people from decision-making, or impose taxation. Sustainable management of pasturelands therefore may best be served when community perspectives are more suitably integrated—from the planning phase through to collaborative governance and implementation of locally agreed upon management options.

  1. Progress Toward Remediation of Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    Buckley, P B; Ranville, J; Honeyman, B D; Smith, D K; Rosenberg, N; Knapp, R B

    2003-07-09

    The town of Mailuu-Suu in Kyrgyzstan inherited 23 distinct tailings deposits from Soviet-Era uranium mining operations. Mailuu-Suu is located in the narrow landslide-prone valley of the Mailuu-Suu River about 25 km from the Uzbekistan border. Large-scale release of the radioactive tailings, as a result of landslides, could lead to irreversible contamination of the river and downstream areas. The Mailuu-Suu River is a tributary to the Syr-Darya River, the Fergana valley's main source of irrigation water. The Fergana Valley is a key agricultural region and major population center that spans Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The trans-boundary nature of the Mailuu-Suu tailings issue presents an opportunity for collaboration among these Central Asian states. A cooperative approach to addressing environmental issues such as Mailuu-Suu may contribute to the region's stability by facilitating peaceful associations. Experience from remediation of sites in the US under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action Project (UMTRA) will be useful in progressing toward remediation at Mailuu-Suu.

  2. Childhood exposures to Rn-222 and background gamma radiation in the uranium provinces of south Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan

    The project was undertaken in southern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It was speculated that the radiation doses in these areas would be sufficiently high and dispersed to facilitate a case–control study where the radiation doses to leukaemia subjects/their siblings could be compared with those received by control children. As a precursor a pilot project was undertaken to confirm radiation exposures in the region. This was undertaken in association with regional childhood cancer treatment centres. Children from families affected by childhood leukaemia were monitored for 1 month for external γ-radiation dose and for exposure to radon gas. 28 children from families in Kazakhstan and from 31 families in Kyrgyzstan were monitored. The median measured radon in air concentration recorded in Kazakhstan was 123 Bq m−3 and in Kyrgyzstan was 177 Bq m−3. These represent 24-h average indoor/outdoor values. In the case of the γ-doses the mean annual dose was 1.2 mGy for Kazakhstan and 2.1 mGy for Kyrgyzstan. Overall, the results suggest that the populations studied receive similar annual radiation doses to those received by populations living in other areas with enhanced natural radioactivity and that further study of Kazakh and Kyrgyz populations would not facilitate a successful case–control study for childhood leukaemia

  3. The impact of transition and the Afghanistan crisis on employment and decent work concerns in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

    Pickup, Francine

    2003-01-01

    Examines the employment situation in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, focusing on the effects of events in neighbouring Afghanistan. Highlights the impact of radical Islamic groups, drug production and trade, migration and refugee movements, trade restrictions and increased external intervention. Makes recommendations for the promotion of decent work.

  4. Coping with the energy crisis: Impact assessment and potentials of non-traditional renewable energy in rural Kyrgyzstan

    The Kyrgyz energy sector is characterised by a dramatic energy crisis that has deprived a substantial part of the population from access to energy. Non-traditional renewable energy sources have emerged as a promising alternative in providing basic energy services to the rural poor. Based on qualitative interview data from local households and project planners, this study sets out to assess impacts, limitations and barriers of non-traditional renewable energy projects in rural areas in Kyrgyzstan. This study argues that recent renewable energy efforts from multilateral international agencies, the private sector, and nongovernmental organisations exhibit great potential in creating tangible benefits and improving basic energy services, but have so far been inefficient in establishing and replicating sustainable and long-term energy solutions. Existing practices need to be improved by attaching greater importance to the capacities and real needs of the rural poor. The guidance of integrated programmes and policies along with alternative financing schemes and awareness-raising are urgently needed to leverage local success stories and to facilitate a sustainable energy development in rural Kyrgyzstan. - Highlights: ► We examine 11 rural households and 5 project planners in rural Kyrgyzstan. ► We assess impacts of non-traditional renewable energies compared with conventional fuels. ► Renewable energies exhibit a range of tangible benefits for rural users. ► Limitations concern performance, durability, repair, acceptance, finance and policy. ► Renewable energy is a promising alternative for rural households in Kyrgyzstan.

  5. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY FEATURES OF HBV/HDV CO-INFECTION IN KYRGYZSTAN

    A. V. Semenov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious health problems in the world are hepatotropic viruses that cause chronic liver disease. Hepatitis B virus is distributed globally; around 5% of the carriers are also infected with hepatitis delta virus. Co-infection or superinfection of hepatitis viruses B and D significantly associated with a much more severe liver disease, compared with infection only hepatitis B virus. However, examination of hepatitis virus B carriers for the presence of hepatitis D virus in most regions of the world is not mandatory. It should be noted that the complete genotype mapping of viruses hepatitis B and D isolated on the territory of the CIS and the countries of the former Soviet Union, there is not yet, despite the constantly ongoing works devoted genotyping hepatotropic virus in the territory of the Russian Federation and neighboring countries. Due to the fact that one of the prospective ways of spreading viruses is the “labor migration” the inhabitants of Central Asia in other countries, including the Russian Federation, there is a need to pay attention to the situation of viral hepatitis in the region. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of genetic variants and characteristics of molecular epidemiology of chronic viral hepatitis co-infection B + D in Kyrgyzstan. The study involved 30 plasma samples from patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and D from different regions of Kyrgyzstan. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates showed that among patients examined HBV identified only D genotype. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates indicated that among the examined patients with chronic viral hepatitis B revealed only genotype D. It is shown prevalence of HBV subtype D1 (73.34% compared to the HBV subtype D2 (3.33% and D3 (23.33%. Revealed HDV genotype I with highly variable region of the gene encoding the delta antigen. The high similarity of some isolates with strains specific to neighboring

  6. Radioecological and radiobiologeochemical situation in the pool of river Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan)

    In the end of 20th. century in connection with increased technogenium of biosphere accompanying wide application of mineral fertilizers, cause accumulation in environment wastes of a mining industry, household wastes and other, technogenium biogeochemical provinces and new associations of chemical elements arise. It is known that sharp deficiency or the surplus in environment of biologically active elements results in diseases of animals, plants and men. On the territory of Kyrgyzstan and other countries biogeochemical provinces with deficiency and surplus I, F, Cu, V, Ca, Sr, Se, U and Hg are investigated. The doctrine about biogeochemical provinces finds practical realization in medicine and agriculture (preventive maintenance of endemical diseases, synthesis of medicines, manufacture of micro fertilizers etc.) The ecology of coast ecosystems and river Mailuu-Suu (ground, water, plants) is investigated for the first time in uranium-technogenius area

  7. High demand for firewood leads to overuse of walnut-fruit forests in Kyrgyzstan

    Maik Rehnus; Annemarie Nazarek; Davlet Mamadzhanov; Bronislav Ivanovitch Venglovsky; Jean-Pierre Sorg

    2013-01-01

    After Kyrgyzstan gained independence in 1991, the importance of the primary sector for food-and energy-supply increased significantly. This has led to a discussion about the sustainability of current firewood use. We investigated firewood collection and use practices in three selected villages and analysed differences between the annual increment of woody biomass and firewood consumption for heating during winter months. The calculated individual firewood consumption is on average 3.90 kg/capita/heating day and the calculation of differences between increment and consumption shows that in minimum one village the surrounding forests are overused for firewood collection. Pressure on the forest and the overuse of preferred tree species for firewood can lead to an overuse of the resource and to a decrease in the genetic diversity of these species in the walnut-fruit forests which are considered as a biodiversity hotspot of international significance due to the diversity of woody.

  8. Proposal for a probabilistic local level landslide hazard assessment model: The case of Suluktu, Kyrgyzstan

    Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn; Fornes, Petter; Cepeda, Jose Mauricio; Ekseth, Kristine Helene; Eidsvig, Unni; Ormukov, Cholponbek

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are a significant threat to human life and the built environment in many parts of Central Asia. To improve understanding of the magnitude of the threat and propose appropriate risk mitigation measures, landslide hazard mapping is needed both at regional and local level. Many different approaches for landslide hazard mapping exist depending on the scale and purpose of the analysis and what input data are available. This paper presents a probabilistic local scale landslide hazard mapping methodology for rainfall triggered landslides, adapted to the relatively dry climate found in South-Western Kyrgyzstan. The GIS based approach makes use of data on topography, geology, land use and soil characteristics to assess landslide susceptibility. Together with a selected rainfall scenario, these data are inserted into a triggering model based on an infinite slope formulation considering pore pressure and suction effects for unsaturated soils. A statistical model based on local landslide data has been developed to estimate landslide run-out. The model links the spatial extension of the landslide to land use and geological features. The model is tested and validated for the town of Suluktu in the Ferghana Valley in South-West Kyrgyzstan. Landslide hazard is estimated for the urban area and the surrounding hillsides. The case makes use of a range of data from different sources, both remote sensing data and in-situ data. Public global data sources are mixed with case specific data obtained from field work. The different data and models have various degrees of uncertainty. To account for this, the hazard model has been inserted into a Monte Carlo simulation framework to produce a probabilistic landslide hazard map identifying areas with high landslide exposure. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013], under grant agreement n° 312972 "Framework to integrate Space-based and in

  9. ON INSCRIPTIONS WITH ARABIC LETTERS IN KYRGYZSTAN
    KIRGIZİSTANDAKİ ARAP HARFLİ YAZITLAR ÜZERİNE

    Cengiz ALYILMAZ

    2009-01-01

    The territory within the boundaries of Kyrgyzstan Republic is highly important for Turkish-Islamic history. The territory contains many Arabic inscriptions belonging to Muslim-Turkic tribes especially Karahanli state (Karahanlilar), and Arabians who arrived in the region for conquests. This paper presents to the attention the significance of Turkish and Arabic inscriptions in Alphabet, found in historical mosques, prayer rooms, caravansaries, shrines, tombstones, holy places (ziyaret yerleri)...

  10. Development of a Dynamic Landslide Inventory Information System for Southern Kyrgyzstan

    Golovko, Daria; Roessner, Sigrid; Behling, Robert; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Kaufmann, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    Southern Kyrgyzstan is part of the tectonically active mountain ranges of the Tien Shan. The study area is located at the Eastern rim of the Fergana Basin representing a densely populated region where large landslides regularly endanger human lives and infrastructure. Therefore, GIS-based landslide susceptibility and hazard analysis is of great importance requiring detailed assessment of past landslide activity at regional scale. In Kyrgyzstan, information on past landslide activity is less available than in other more developed and researched regions of the world. Although landslide investigations were conducted since the 1950s, they have been drastically reduced since Kyrgyzstan's independence from the former Soviet Union in 1991 accompanied by loss of existing information. During the last years, information on landslides has been made publicly available mostly in form of derivatives, such as landslide hazard maps. All of these investigations have been limited to inhabited areas with known landslide danger. The presented research has the goal to develop a GIS-based approach for establishing a dynamic landslide inventory information system which allows efficient integration of the existing heterogeneous landslide data. They consist of reports prepared by Kyrgyz authorities as a result of field campaigns supported by visual interpretation of aerial photographs. These reports vary greatly in their spatial and temporal reliability as well as the format of the contained landslide data. This information has been complemented by multi-temporal satellite remote sensing data analysis carried out by the GFZ Potsdam aiming at interactive mapping of slopes affected by long-term complex landslide processes as well as developing an automated approach for landslide identification for the last 25 years. The used satellite remote sensing data provide a spatially continuous information base, partially with high temporal resolution, and thus enable creation of a dynamic landslide

  11. Re-establishing seasonal mass balance observation at Abramov Glacier, Kyrgyzstan, from 1968 - 2012

    Barandun, Martina; Huss, Matthias; Azisov, Erlan; Gafurov, Abror; Hoelzle, Martin; Merkushkin, Aleksandr; Salzmann, Nadine; Usubaliev, Ryskul

    2013-04-01

    The Abramov Glacier, located in the Pamir Alay in Kyrgyzstan, was subject to intense studies in the frame of various scientific programs under the former USSR. With the breakdown of the Soviet Union, the monitoring was abruptly abandoned in the late nineties. Well documented and continuous seasonal mass balance observations are available for 1968-1994. However, some inconsistencies between different publications lead to in-homogeneous data sets. Recently, the project CATCOS (Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems) was launched, aiming among other goals to re-establish mass balance observation on selected glaciers in Kyrgyzstan. At Abramov Glacier, a new stake network, an automatic weather station (AWS) and two automatic terrestrial cameras with instantaneous data transfer over satellite were installed in 2011. Measurements were repeated and intensified in 2012 and will be subject of a third field campaign in summer 2013. A complete re-analysis of the long-term mass balance series from 1968 to 1994 delivers corrected mass balance data for Abramov Glacier. To homogenize in-situ mass balance records, a spatially distributed mass balance model driven with local daily temperature and precipitation data was calibrated to each seasonal mass balance survey. The model resolves seasonal mass-balance measurements to a daily timescale and performs spatial inter- and extrapolation of data points based on a consistent algorithm, taking into account the principal factors of mass balance distribution. Summarizing the annually optimized parameters over the entire study period provides a robust model parameter set for years with less extensive direct measurements. From 1994 to 2011, neither direct point measurements nor meteorological data are available. In order to run the calibrated model developed for the 1960's to 90's, climate input variables were taken from bias corrected Re-analysis data (NCEP/NCAR and JRA). Evaluation of the model results was achieved

  12. The 24 July 2008 outburst flood of Zyndan glacier lake, Ysyk-Köl region, Kyrgyzstan

    Narama, C.; Duishonakonov, M.; Kääb, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2009-04-01

    On 24 July 2008, a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) occurred in the Zyndan River, the Ysyk-Köl region, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and many livestock (horse, sheep, fish), and caused heavy damage destroying a bridge, road, two homes, and crops of agriculture fields. We researched the damege after two days of the GLOF. Using kinematic GPS we measured the decrease of the glacier lake area, and the according drop of the water level through the outburst. Glacier lake area of about 0.03 km2 reduced after the collapse, more than 400,000 m3 of water were discharged. While the initial flood discharge was relatively small, it increased substantially and was carrying large boulders after 30 minutes. When spreading further downstream, the dirty waters trapped eight people on islands between the stream branches. The flood discharge continued to rise until midnight and began to decrease again around 3 AM the next morning. The lake at 3771 m asl is located in front of the west Zyndan glacier at the head of the Zyndan River basin. The glacier lake had developed rapidly due to glacier shrinkage caused by recent atmospheric warming. Reasons for the outburst included melting of dead ice inside the moraine that dammed the lake. The villages downstream escaped heavy damage, because the main flood changed its direction, away from the water reservoir along the village and towards another river.

  13. Problem of bioecology in the natural-technogenic Uranium provinces of Kyrgyzstan

    Full text: It is known that Kyrgyzstan was the largest producer of uranium for the former USSR (for example, deposit Mailuu Suu, Sumsar, Min-Kush, Kaji-Sai, Ak-Tuz, Orlovka, Kara-Balta, etc.). Currently, interest in this problem increases again at the decision of the new strategic challenges in the world. It should be noted that due to inefficient and wasteful mining processing of minerals in the territory of Kyrgyzstan, in dumps and tailings 747.22 million m3 mineral processing wastes were formed containing a high number of potentially hazardous chemical elements and their compounds. To store them imported from other friendly countries. The status of these dumps and storage facilities so bad, that the radioactive waste, heavy metals and toxic substances contaminate the environment (soil, air, water) and living organisms. They are involved in biogeochemical cycles with the formation of new technological biogeochemical provinces (1,2,3). These technogenic features of the province, and activity of various biological organisms remain poorly understood and obscure the real geochemical situation. There are no forecasts of technological evolution of biogeochemical provinces. Limited data on the doctors and geologists for the 60-year period there was a significant change in uranium, polymetallic and other technogenic provinces in the country. Therefore, the most urgent is to find ecological and biogeochemical characteristics of enriched uranium and other rare earth elements, areas and assessment of the reactions of organisms in the biocenoses of the high content of radio-nuclides and base metals. We have conducted a comprehensive survey of uranium province, according to the methodology of radiological and biological study of various toxins of the biosphere. Complex of radio biogeochemical and radio-ecological studies were carried out in 2006-2011 using modern equipment. These included land ecosystems and the aquatic environment: water, samples of higher plants and animals

  14. Implementing Istanbul Protocol standards for forensic evidence of torture in Kyrgyzstan.

    Moreno, Alejandro; Crosby, Sondra; Xenakis, Stephen; Iacopino, Vincent

    2015-02-01

    The Kyrgyz government declared a policy of "zero tolerance" for torture and began reforms to stop such practice, a regular occurrence in the country's daily life. This study presents the results of 10 forensic evaluations of individuals alleging torture; they represent 35% of all criminal investigations into torture for the January 2011-July 2012 period. All individuals evaluated were male with an average age of 34 years. Police officers were implicated as perpetrators in all cases. All individuals reported being subjected to threats and blunt force trauma from punches, kicks, and blows with objects such as police batons. The most common conditions documented during the evaluations were traumatic brain injury and chronic seizures. Psychological sequelae included post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder, which was diagnosed in seven individuals. In all cases, the physical and psychological evidence was highly consistent with individual allegations of abuse. These forensic evaluations, which represent the first ever to be conducted in Kyrgyzstan in accordance with Istanbul Protocol standards, provide critical insight into torture practices in the country. The evaluations indicate a pattern of brutal torture practices and inadequate governmental and nongovernmental forensic evaluations. PMID:25623194

  15. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Kyrgyzstan: seroprevalence, risk factor analysis, and estimate of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis.

    Gulnara Minbaeva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-prevalence, as well as incidence of zoonotic parasitic diseases like cystic echinococcosis, has increased in the Kyrgyz Republic due to fundamental socio-economic changes after the breakdown of the Soviet Union. The possible impact on morbidity and mortality caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection in congenital toxoplasmosis or as an opportunistic infection in the emerging AIDS pandemic has not been reported from Kyrgyzstan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened 1,061 rural and 899 urban people to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 2 representative but epidemiologically distinct populations in Kyrgyzstan. The rural population was from a typical agricultural district where sheep husbandry is a major occupation. The urban population was selected in collaboration with several diagnostic laboratories in Bishkek, the largest city in Kyrgyzstan. We designed a questionnaire that was used on all rural subjects so a risk-factor analysis could be undertaken. The samples from the urban population were anonymous and only data with regard to age and gender was available. Estimates of putative cases of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis in the whole country were made from the results of the serology. Specific antibodies (IgG against Triton X-100 extracted antigens of T. gondii tachyzoites from in vitro cultures were determined by ELISA. Overall seroprevalence of infection with T. gondii in people living in rural vs. urban areas was 6.2% (95%CI: 4.8-7.8 (adjusted seroprevalence based on census figures 5.1%, 95% CI 3.9-6.5, and 19.0% (95%CI: 16.5-21.7 (adjusted 16.4%, 95% CI 14.1-19.3, respectively, without significant gender-specific differences. The seroprevalence increased with age. Independently low social status increased the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity while increasing numbers of sheep owned decreased the risk of seropositivity. Water supply, consumption of unpasteurized milk products or undercooked

  16. Glacier characteristics and changes in the Sary-Jaz River Basin (Central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan) – 1990–2010

    Osmonov, Azamat; Bolch, Tobias; Xi, Chen; Kurban, Alishir; Guo, Wanqing

    2013-01-01

    The water discharge from the heavily glacierized Sary-Jaz River Basin (Eastern Kyrgyzstan) is of high importance for the very arid Tarim Basin located in Xinjiang (north-western China). We investigated glacier changes in the entire Sary-Jaz River Basin, which covers a large part of the Central Tien Shan, for the period from 1990 to 2010 based on Landsat ‘TM’/‘ETM+’data. We found 1310 glaciers (>0.1 km²), which covered 2055 ± 41.1 km² (∼18% of the entire basin) in 1990. The glaciers shrank by ...

  17. The Benefits and Challenges of Farming in Mixed Crop-Livestock Production Systems in Ala-Buka, Kyrgyzstan

    Zhumanova, Munavar; Maharjan, Keshav Lall; Orozumbekov, Almazbek

    2014-01-01

    In Kyrgyzstan, the agrarian land reform has changed Soviet model of state-owned land with predominance of large-scale farm enterprises to a market-oriented model of privately owned land with predominance of small and medium-sized family farms. This study intends to analyze costs and benefits realized by farmers in producing major food crops, and to identify major challenges faced by these farmers in producing these crops. Field study was carried out in Baltagulov and 1-May Village Governments...

  18. Development of Triad approach based system for ecological risk assessment for contaminated areas of Kyrgyzstan

    Kydralieva, Kamilia; Uzbekov, Beksultan; Khudaibergenova, Bermet; Terekhova, Vera; Jorobekova, Sharipa

    2014-05-01

    This research is aimed to develop a high-effective system of an ecological risk assessment and risk-based decision making for anthropogenic ecosystems, with particular focus on the soils of the Kyrgyz Republic. The study is focused on the integration of Triad data including chemical, biological and ecotoxicological soil markers to estimate the potential risk from soils of highly anthropized areas impacted by deposition of different pollutants from mining operation. We focus on technogenic areas of Kyrgyzstan, the former uranium-producing province. Triad-based ecological risk assessment for technogenic sites are not currently used in Kyrgyzstan. However, the vitality of such research is self-evident. There are about 50 tailing dumps and more than 80 tips of radioactive waste which are formed as a result of uranium and complex ores (mercury, antimony, lead, cadmium and etc) mining around the unfavorable aforementioned places. According to the Mining Wastes' Tailings and Fills Rehabilitation Centre established in 1999 by a special Government's Resolution, one of the most ecologically dangerous uranium tailings resides in Kadzhi-Say. Although uranium processing is no longer practiced in Kadzhi-Say, a large number of open landfills and uranium ore storages still remain abandoned at the vicinity of this settlement. These neglected sites have enormous problems associated with soil erosion known as "technogenic deserts". The upper soil horizons are deprived of humus and vegetation, which favor the formation of low-buffer landscapes in the zones of maximum contamination. As a result, most of these areas are not re-cultivated and remain in critical environmental condition (Bykovchenko, et al., 2005; Tukhvatshin, 2005; Suranova, 2006). Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites will be integrated. The following Triad-based parameters will be employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous

  19. Radioecological and radiobiogeochemical situation of flood-lands of river Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan)

    Full text: In the end of XX c. in connection with increased texnogenium of biosphere accompanying wide application of mineral fertilizers, accumulation in environment wastes of a mining industry, household wastes and other, technogenium biogeochemical provinces and new associations of chemical elements arise. It is known, that sharp deficiency or the surplus in environment of biologically active elements results in diseases of animals, plants and a man. On the territory of Kyrgyzstan and other countries biogeochemical provinces with deficiency and surplus I, F, Cu, Cu, V, Ca, Sr, Se, U and Hg are investigated. The doctrine about biogeochemical provinces finds practical realization in medicine and agriculture (preventive maintenance of endemical diseases, synthesis of medicines, manufacture of micro fertilizers etc.). Selection of samples of soil, natural waters and plants carried out by a way of platforms on the certain routes with the account of landscape-geochemical and meteorological conditions. Processing of samples carried out in biogeochemistry laboratory of an environment GEOCHI of RAS and Biology-soil institute NAS of KR with use of soil and geological cards at an advice of the geologists and soil scientists of Kyrgyzstan. Concentration of triselementis was being by AAC, Spectrofluorimetrical and etc. methods. During operation of a uranium deposit Mailuu-Suu (1946-1968 years) more than 10 thousand tons of uranium were extracted. According to the scientific geologists and geochemists, radioactive wastes in the given site, are quantitatively equivalent to size of the extracted uranium. In tail-depository the huge weights of residual uranium and it long-lived of isotopes (Th-230, Ra-226 etc.), hence, radio-activity tail-depositories will be kept long. Now condition of these damps and storehouses contains in a so pitiable condition, that radioactive wastes, heavy metals and the toxic substances pollute an environment. And, most dangerous sites are in landslide

  20. Determinants of neonatal and under-three mortality in Central Asian countries: Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

    Krämer, Alexander

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies dealt with factors associated with childhood mortality, especially in developing countries, but less is known about former communistic countries. We therefore analyzed the factors affecting mortality rates among children in the Central Asian countries Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. We focused on the impact of living place (rural versus urban and age dependency (neonatal versus under-three mortality on the mortality risk. Methods: We used the Demographic and Health Surveys data (DHS for the three Central Asian countries. The combined data set included information about 2867 children under the age of three, 135 of whom died. We studied three multiple logistic regression models: for the mortality under the age of three, for neonatal mortality (1st month of life and for mortality in 2nd-36th month of life. Results: Under-three mortality was independently associated with living in a rural versus urban area (OR 1.69 (CI 1.11-2.56, birth order and mother not being currently married vs. married (OR 0.52 (CI 0.25-1.08. There was a lower risk of mortality for children living in larger families (six or more household members vs. less than six, OR 0.45 (CI 0.30-0.65. Living in a rural area was more strongly associated with mortality in 2-36 month of life than with neonatal mortality. Differences between countries were greater in neonatal mortality than in mortality between 2nd-36th month of life. Conclusions: This study suggests that urban-rural differences with respect to childhood mortality in these countries persist after adjusting for several socioeconomic factors.

  1. ALOS/PALSAR InSAR Time-Series Analysis for Detecting Very Slow-Moving Landslides in Southern Kyrgyzstan

    Kanayim Teshebaeva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the potential of ALOS/PALSAR time-series data to analyze the activation of deep-seated landslides in the foothill zone of the high mountain Alai range in the southern Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan. Most previous field-based landslide investigations have revealed that many landslides have indicators for ongoing slow movements in the form of migrating and newly developing cracks. L-band ALOS/PALSAR data for the period between 2007 and 2010 are available for the 484 km2 area in this study. We analyzed these data using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS time-series technique to assess the surface deformation related to the activation of landslides. We observed up to ±17 mm/year of LOS velocity deformation rates, which were projected along the local steepest slope and resulted in velocity rates of up to −63 mm/year. The obtained rates indicate very slow movement of the deep-seated landslides during the observation time. We also compared these movements with precipitation and earthquake records. The results suggest that the deformation peaks correlate with rainfall in the 3 preceding months and with an earthquake event. Overall, the results of this study indicated the great potential of L-band InSAR time series analysis for efficient spatiotemporal identification and monitoring of slope activations in this region of high landslide activity in Southern Kyrgyzstan.

  2. Phased Remediation Approach for Prevention of Risks Linked with Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    The area of the town of Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals from tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, we evaluated measures to be taken by the authorities to reduce the radiological exposure of the population and to prevent environmental pollution by radionuclides and heavy metals in case of loss of tightness of dams and damage to dumps and heaps from mining and milling by land and mudslides and proposed sustainable remedial options, accepted by the public. A radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu-Suu, located downstream of the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine-waste dump. The actual external exposure is around 1.2 mSv a-1 at both locations and exposure from radon is around 3 mSv a-1 at Mailuu-Suu and around 10 mSv a-1 at Kara Agach. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu-Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the very conservative hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (∼10-30 mSv a-1). Additional dose from irrigation with Mailuu-Suu river water is small in actual conditions (o 3, the potential of such a disaster to occur is non-negligible. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options are evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilization and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu-Suu River valley are studied (translocation of other tailings, tunnel to deviate river, partial protection of river from landslide blockage). It was proposed to acquire a phased approach in time performing urgent limited stabilization options for Tailing No 3, improve the stability of the Tailing No 3 by COLMIX-columns in the medium-term, while investigating and

  3. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, considering empirically estimated site effects

    Shahid Ullah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that variability in the surface geology potentially leads to the modification of earthquake-induced ground motion over short distances. Although this effect is of major importance when seismic hazard is assessed at the urban level, it is very often not appropriately accounted for. In this paper, we present a first attempt at taking into account the influence of the shallow geological structure on the seismic hazard assessment for Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, using a proxy (Vs30 that has been estimated from in situ seismic noise array analyses, and considering response spectral ratios calculated by analyzing a series of earthquake recordings of a temporary seismic network. To highlight the spatial variability of the observed ground motion, the obtained results are compared with those estimated assuming a homogeneous Vs30 value over the whole urban area. The seismic hazard is evaluated in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA and spectral acceleration (SA at different periods (frequencies. The presented results consider the values obtained for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The largest SA estimated considering a rock site classification of the area (0.43 g is observed for a period of 0.1 s (10 Hz, while the maximum PGA reaches 0.21 g. When site effects are included through the Vs30 proxy in the seismic hazard calculation, the largest SA, 0.67 g, is obtained for a period of 0.3 s (about 3.3 Hz. In terms of PGA, in this case the largest estimated value reaches 0.31 g in the northern part of the town. When the variability of ground motion is accounted for through response spectrum ratios, the largest SA reaches a value as high as 1.39 g at a period of 0.5 s. In general, considering site effects in the seismic hazard assessment of Bishkek leads to an increase of seismic hazard in the north of the city, which is thus identified as the most hazardous part within the study area and which is more far away from the faults.

  4. Hydrochemistry and land cover in the upper Naryn river basin, Kyrgyzstan

    Schneider, K.; Dernedde, Y.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H. G.

    2009-04-01

    Economic and social changes at the end of the 20th century affected land use decisions and land management in the Central Asian republics of the former Soviet Union. Amongst others, land tenure changed from mainly collectivized to private land, and in consequence, land management (e.g. soil treatment and fertilization practices) altered. Apart from agricultural pollutants and the impact of irrigation management, water resources are threatened by waste dumps remaining from mining activities. However, recent studies on the effect of land use changes on ecohydrology in Central Asia remain scarce. In a preliminary study, current land use and hydrochemistry in the upper Naryn Valley (Kyrgyzstan) was analyzed in 2008. Climate is semi-arid, and annual precipitation is approximately 300 mm. Precipitation peak occurs in early summer, while the rest of the year is rather dry. Crop and hay production prevail in the valley bottom. Environmental conditions in the mountains support pastoralism with a shift between summer and winter pastures. Agriculture depends on irrigation to a great deal as precipitation is seasonal and the vegetation period usually is the dry period. Today, production is mainly for subsistence purposes or local markets. The Naryn river is the headwater of the of the Syrdarya river which is one of the major sources of irrigation water in the Aral Sea basin. Hence, the ecohydrological condition of the contributing rivers is of major importance for the irrigation management downstream. Nevertheless, information on current ecohydrological conditions and land use which may affect the distribution and chemical composition of the rivers is lacking. In the presented study, basic hydrochemical measurements in the Naryn river and its tributaries were made. In situ measurements comprised electrical conductivity, ammonia and nitrate measurements, among others. While electrical conductivity varies greatly between the Naryn river and its tributaries, ammonia and nitrate

  5. Radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources in the former uranium mining and milling sites of Mailuu Suu (Kyrgyzstan)

    An assessment of the radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources at the former uranium mines and processing sites of Mailuu-Suu, in Kyrgyzstan, was carried out. A large number of water samples were collected from the drinking water distribution system (DWDS), rivers, shallow aquifers and drainage water from the mine tailings. Radionuclides and trace metal contents in water from the DWDS were low in general, but were extremely high for Fe, Al and Mn. These elements were associated with the particle fractions in the water and strongly correlated with high turbidity levels. Overall, these results suggest that water from the DWDS does not represent a serious radiological hazard to the Mailuu Suu population. However, due to the high turbidities and contents of some elements, this water is not good quality drinking water. Water from artesian and dug wells were characterized by elevated levels of U (up to 10 μg/L) and some trace elements (e.g. As, Se, Cr, V and F) and anions (e.g. Cl−, NO3−, SO42−). In two artesian wells, the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L for As in water was exceeded. As the artesian wells are used as a source of drinking water by a large number of households, special care should be taken in order to stay within the WHO recommended guidelines. Drainage water from the mine tailings was as expected highly contaminated with many chemicals (e.g. As) and radioactive contaminants (e.g. U). The concentrations of U were more than 200 times the WHO guideline value of 30 μg/L for U in drinking water. A large variation in 234U/238U isotopic ratios in water was observed, with values near equilibrium at the mine tailings and far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching ratios of 2.3 in the artesian well). This result highlights the potential use of this ratio as an indicator of the origin of U contamination in Mailuu Suu. - Highlights: • Chemical and radiological study of former uranium mines and processing sites. • Radioactive and

  6. Long bone histology of the stem salamander Kokartus honorarius (Amphibia: Caudata) from the Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan.

    Skutschas, Pavel; Stein, Koen

    2015-04-01

    Kokartus honorarius from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Kyrgyzstan is one of the oldest salamanders in the fossil record, characterized by a mixture of plesiomorphic morphological features and characters shared with crown-group salamanders. Here we present a detailed histological analysis of its long bones. The analysis of a growth series demonstrates a significant histological maturation during ontogeny, expressed by the progressive appearance of longitudinally oriented primary vascular canals, primary osteons, growth marks, remodelling features in primary bone tissues, as well as progressive resorption of the calcified cartilage, formation of endochondral bone and development of cartilaginous to bony trabeculae in the epiphyses. Apart from the presence of secondary osteons, the long bone histology of Kokartus is very similar to that of miniaturized temnospondyls, other Jurassic stem salamanders, miniaturized seymouriamorphs and modern crown-group salamanders. We propose that the presence of secondary osteons in Kokartus honorarius is a plesiomorphic feature, and the loss of secondary osteons in the long bones of crown-group salamanders as well as in those of miniaturized temnospondyls is the result of miniaturization processes. Hitherto, all stem salamander long bong histology (Kokartus, Marmorerpeton and 'salamander A') has been generally described as having paedomorphic features (i.e. the presence of Katschenko's Line and a layer of calcified cartilage), these taxa were thus most likely neotenic forms. The absence of clear lines of arrested growth and annuli in long bones of Kokartus honorarius suggests that the animals lived in an environment with stable local conditions. PMID:25682890

  7. Ideal climatic variables for the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, derived from GPS data and energy-mass balance measurements

    Fujita, K.; Takeuchi, N.; S.A. Nikitin; A. B. Surazakov; Okamoto, S; V. B. Aizen; Kubota, J.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007) of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Differential GPS surveys reveal a vertical surface deletion at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the modern state are 289 mm and −3.85 °C at the gl...

  8. Pre-incarceration police harassment, drug addiction and HIV risk behaviours among prisoners in Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    Polonsky, Maxim; Azbel, Lyuba; Wegman, Martin P; Izenberg, Jacob M; Bachireddy, Chethan; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The expanding HIV epidemic in Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), who comprise a third of prisoners there. Detention of PWID is common but its impact on health has not been previously studied in the region. We aimed to understand the relationship between official and unofficial (police harassment) detention of PWID and HIV risk behaviours. Methods In a nationally representative cross-sectional study, soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan (N=368) and Azerbaijan (N=510) completed standardized health assessment surveys. After identifying correlated variables through bivariate testing, we built multi-group path models with pre-incarceration official and unofficial detention as exogenous variables and pre-incarceration composite HIV risk as an endogenous variable, controlling for potential confounders and estimating indirect effects. Results Overall, 463 (51%) prisoners reported at least one detention in the year before incarceration with an average of 1.3 detentions in that period. Unofficial detentions (13%) were less common than official detentions (41%). Optimal model fit was achieved (X2=5.83, p=0.44; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) GFI=0.99; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) CFI=1.00; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) RMSEA=0.00; PCLOSE=0.98) when unofficial detention had an indirect effect on HIV risk, mediated by drug addiction severity, with more detentions associated with higher addiction severity, which in turn correlated with increased HIV risk. The final model explained 35% of the variance in the outcome. The effect was maintained for both countries, but stronger for Kyrgyzstan. The model also holds for Kyrgyzstan using unique data on within-prison drug injection as the outcome, which was frequent in prisoners there. Conclusions Detention by police is a strong correlate of addiction severity, which mediates its effect on HIV risk behaviour. This pattern suggests that police may target drug

  9. Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan.

    Lind, O C; Stegnar, P; Tolongutov, B; Rosseland, B O; Strømman, G; Uralbekov, B; Usubalieva, A; Solomatina, A; Gwynn, J P; Lespukh, E; Salbu, B

    2013-09-01

    During 1949-1967, a U mine, a coal-fired thermal power plant and a processing plant for the extraction of U from the produced ash were operated at the Kadji Sai U mining site in Tonsk district, Issyk-Kul County, Kyrgyzstan. The Kadji Sai U legacy site represents a source of contamination of the local environment by naturally occurring radionuclides and associated trace elements. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals at the site, field expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2008 by the Joint collaboration between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (JNKKT) project and the NATO SfP RESCA project. In addition to in situ gamma and Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water and sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of radionuclides and trace metals in water from Issyk-Kul Lake were in general low, but surprisingly high for As. Uptake of U and As was also observed in fish from the lake with maximum bioconcentration factors for liver of 1.6 and 75, respectively. The concentrations of U in water within the Kadji Sai area varied from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L, except for downstream from the mining area where U reached a factor of 10 higher, 0.2 mg/L. Uranium concentrations in the drinking water of Kadji Sai village were about the level recommended by the WHO for drinking water. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratio reflected equilibrium conditions in the mining pond, but far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching 2.3 for an artesian well). Uranium, As and Ni were mainly present as low molecular mass (LMM, less than 10 kDa) species in all samples, indicating that these elemental species are mobile and potentially bioavailable. The soils from the mining sites were enriched in U, As and trace metals. Hot spots with elevated radioactivity levels were easily detected in Kadji Sai and radioactive particles were observed. The presence of particles carrying significant amount of

  10. Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan

    During 1949–1967, a U mine, a coal-fired thermal power plant and a processing plant for the extraction of U from the produced ash were operated at the Kadji Sai U mining site in Tonsk district, Issyk-Kul County, Kyrgyzstan. The Kadji Sai U legacy site represents a source of contamination of the local environment by naturally occurring radionuclides and associated trace elements. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals at the site, field expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2008 by the Joint collaboration between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (JNKKT) project and the NATO SfP RESCA project. In addition to in situ gamma and Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water and sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of radionuclides and trace metals in water from Issyk-Kul Lake were in general low, but surprisingly high for As. Uptake of U and As was also observed in fish from the lake with maximum bioconcentration factors for liver of 1.6 and 75, respectively. The concentrations of U in water within the Kadji Sai area varied from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L, except for downstream from the mining area where U reached a factor of 10 higher, 0.2 mg/L. Uranium concentrations in the drinking water of Kadji Sai village were about the level recommended by the WHO for drinking water. The 234U/238U activity ratio reflected equilibrium conditions in the mining pond, but far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching 2.3 for an artesian well). Uranium, As and Ni were mainly present as low molecular mass (LMM, less than 10 kDa) species in all samples, indicating that these elemental species are mobile and potentially bioavailable. The soils from the mining sites were enriched in U, As and trace metals. Hot spots with elevated radioactivity levels were easily detected in Kadji Sai and radioactive particles were observed. The presence of particles carrying significant amount of

  11. ON INSCRIPTIONS WITH ARABIC LETTERS IN KYRGYZSTAN KIRGIZİSTANDAKİ ARAP HARFLİ YAZITLAR ÜZERİNE

    Cengiz ALYILMAZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The territory within the boundaries of Kyrgyzstan Republic is highly important for Turkish-Islamic history. The territory contains many Arabic inscriptions belonging to Muslim-Turkic tribes especially Karahanli state (Karahanlilar, and Arabians who arrived in the region for conquests. This paper presents to the attention the significance of Turkish and Arabic inscriptions in Alphabet, found in historical mosques, prayer rooms, caravansaries, shrines, tombstones, holy places (ziyaret yerleri, manuscripts (cönkler, books, coins, knick-knacks and belongings…. belonging to Islamic Era, for Turkish-Islamic history and their current conditions. Kırgızistan Cumhuriyeti sınırları içinde kalan topraklar, Türk-İslam tarihi açısından büyük önem taşımaktadır. Söz konusu topraklarda başta Karahanlılar olmak üzere Müslüman Türk boylarına ve fütuhat için bölgeye gelen Araplar’a ait pek çok Arap harfli yazıt bulunmaktadır.Bu makalede Kırgızistandaki tarihî camilerde, mescitlerde, kervansaraylarda, türbelerde, mezar taşlarında, ziyaret yerlerinde, el yazması eserlerde (cönklerde, kitaplarda, sikkelerde, süs ve kullanım eşyalarında… karşılaşılan İslamî döneme ait Arap harfli Türkçe ve Arapça yazıtların Türk-İslam tarihi açısından önemi ve bugünkü durumları dikkatelere sunulmaktadır.

  12. A large industrial pollution problem on the Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan border: Soviet production of mercury and stibium for the Soviet military

    Soviet industry of mercury and stibium was located in South-East Fergana in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan boarder. Khaidarken combine produced high pure mercury (99.9997 percent) since 1940, it was the second source in the World (after Almadena, Spain). Maximal production was 790 t in 1990, after Transitional Shock about 300 tons a year. Tail was established in 1967. There is special tube 5500 m transporting pulp to tail. The pulp contains about 0,003 mg/liter mercury, 0,005 mg/liter arsenic, 21 mg/liter stibium, etc. Pulp is cleaned by aluminum sulfuric and mortar. After drying and compressing by itself the concentrations rises: mercury 90-250 mg/kg, arsenic 190-400, stibium 800-1700 mg/kg. Environment pollution problem contains three kinds: ground water infiltration; old tube corroding some places (leaking from chink of tube) - both mentioned lead to vegetables cumulating; combine work spreading mercury by air to settlement Khaidarken. Kadamjay enterprise for stibium (mines, combine, purify plant, tails) began work in 1936. Most part of production used in soviet military. Maximal production was 17.000 t clearing ore in 1990, after USSR collapse 1-6 t/year. Tremendous tails and dams (total 150 mln t) remains non re-cultivated until now. The tails contain electrolysis wastage: sodium-sulfides, sulfites, sulfates; stibium; arsenic; cadmium; stibium; etc. Seven deposits (tail-damp really) established 1976, total square 76.1 thousands sq m, total volume 250 thousand cub m. The deposits over-filled, contents filtrating - little saline or lakes generated (one situated 50m near Uzbekistan boarder). River Shakhimardan flow to Uzbekistan (settlement Vuadil, Ferghana town). There are health damage indices in the areas.(author)

  13. Geomorphology and Ice Content of Glacier - Rock Glacier – Moraine Complexes in Ak-Shiirak Range (Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Bolch, Tobias; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Rohrbach, Nico; Fischer, Andrea; Osmonov, Azamat

    2015-04-01

    Meltwater originating from the Tien Shan is of high importance for the runoff to the arid and semi-arid region of Central Asia. Previous studies estimate a glaciers' contribution of about 40% for the Aksu-Tarim Catchment, a transboundary watershed between Kyrgyzstan and China. Large parts of the Ak-Shiirak Range drain into this watershed. Glaciers in Central and Inner Tien Shan are typically polythermal or even cold and surrounded by permafrost. Several glaciers terminate into large moraine complexes which show geomorphological indicators of ice content such as thermo-karst like depressions, and further downvalley signs of creep such as ridges and furrows and a fresh, steep rock front which are typical indicators for permafrost creep ("rock glacier"). Hence, glaciers and permafrost co-exist in this region and their interactions are important to consider, e.g. for the understanding of glacial and periglacial processes. It can also be assumed that the ice stored in these relatively large dead-ice/moraine-complexes is a significant amount of the total ice storage. However, no detailed investigations exist so far. In an initial study, we investigated the structure and ice content of two typical glacier-moraine complexes in the Ak-Shiirak-Range using different ground penetrating radar (GPR) devices. In addition, the geomorphology was mapped using high resolution satellite imagery. The structure of the moraine-rock glacier complex is in general heterogeneous. Several dead ice bodies with different thicknesses and moraine-derived rock glaciers with different stages of activities could be identified. Few parts of these "rock glaciers" contain also massive ice but the largest parts are likely characterised by rock-ice layers of different thickness and ice contents. In one glacier forefield, the thickness of the rock-ice mixture is partly more than 300 m. This is only slightly lower than the maximum thickness of the glacier ice. Our measurements revealed that up to 20% of

  14. Assessment of radiation exposure and evaluation of remedial measures for the uranium mining and milling area of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    The area of the town of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals in tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. Radioactive substances are stored in 23 tailings and 10 heaps situated along the Mailuu Suu River. The stability of many tailings is at risk. Attention is mostly directed to Tailing 3, because of its important radionuclide inventory and since threatened by the borders of a major landslide. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, a radiological monitoring programme was set up and a radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu Suu, located downstream the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine-waste dump. The actual radiological situation is of no immediate concern for most of the population of Mailuu Suu. The actual external exposure and exposure from radon are, respectively, around 1.2 mSv a-1 and 5 mSv a-1, at both locations. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (∼10-30 mSv a-1). Additional dose from irrigation with Mailuu Suu river water is small in actual conditions (-1). However, there is an important possibility that, triggered by an earthquake or a landslide, (part of the) tailing(s) content may be directed to the river Mailuu Suu. In case the content of Tailing 3 is thrust to river, calculated maximum doses are 45 and 77 mSv a-1 for an adult and a child, respectively, for an assumed exposure duration of 2 years. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options were evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilisation and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu Suu River valley were proposed (translocation of other

  15. Validation of GOME (ERS-2) NO2 vertical column data with ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan)

    Ionov, D.; Sinyakov, V.; Semenov, V.

    Starting from 1995 the global monitoring of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide is carried out by the measurements of nadir-viewing GOME spectrometer aboard ERS-2 satellite. Continuous validation of that data by means of comparisons with well-controlled ground-based measurements is important to ensure the quality of GOME data products and improve related retrieval algorithms. At the station of Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) the ground-based spectroscopic observations of NO2 vertical column have been started since 1983. The station is located on the northern shore of Issyk-Kul lake, 1650 meters above the sea level (42.6 N, 77.0 E). The site is equipped with grating spectrometer for the twilight measurements of zenith-scattered solar radiation in the visible range, and applies the DOAS technique to retrieve NO2 vertical column. It is included in the list of NDSC stations as a complementary one. The present study is focused on validation of GOME NO2 vertical column data, based on 8-year comparison with correlative ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul station in 1996-2003. Within the investigation, an agreement of both individual and monthly averaged GOME measurements with corresponding twilight ground-based observations is examined. Such agreement is analyzed with respect to different conditions (season, sun elevation), temporal/spatial criteria choice (actual overpass location, correction for diurnal variation) and data processing (GDP version 2.7, 3.0). In addition, NO2 vertical columns were integrated from simultaneous stratospheric profile measurements by NASA HALOE and SAGE-II/III satellite instruments and introduced to explain the differences with ground-based observations. In particular cases, NO2 vertical profiles retrieved from the twilight ground-based measurements at Issuk-Kul were also included into comparison. Overall, summertime GOME NO2 vertical columns were found to be systematicaly lower than ground-based data. This work was supported by International Association

  16. Assessment of radiation exposure and evaluation of remedial measures for the uranium mining and milling area of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, BR1 Building, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Clerc, Jean-Jacques [Arcadis, 10 avenue Newton, 92350 Le Plessis-Robinson (France); Aitaliev, Anarkul [Ministry of Ecology and Disaster Situations, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)

    2006-07-01

    The area of the town of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals in tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. Radioactive substances are stored in 23 tailings and 10 heaps situated along the Mailuu Suu River. The stability of many tailings is at risk. Attention is mostly directed to Tailing 3, because of its important radionuclide inventory and since threatened by the borders of a major landslide. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, a radiological monitoring programme was set up and a radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu Suu, located downstream the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine-waste dump. The actual radiological situation is of no immediate concern for most of the population of Mailuu Suu. The actual external exposure and exposure from radon are, respectively, around 1.2 mSv a{sup -1} and 5 mSv a{sup -1}, at both locations. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher ({approx}10-30 mSv a{sup -1}). Additional dose from irrigation with Mailuu Suu river water is small in actual conditions (< 0.1 mSv a{sup -1}). However, there is an important possibility that, triggered by an earthquake or a landslide, (part of the) tailing(s) content may be directed to the river Mailuu Suu. In case the content of Tailing 3 is thrust to river, calculated maximum doses are 45 and 77 mSv a{sup -1} for an adult and a child, respectively, for an assumed exposure duration of 2 years. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options were evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilisation and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu Suu River

  17. Winter snow Dayaoshan Kyrgyzstan wine nutritional analysis%瑶山吉冬诺酒主要营养成份分析研究

    林文业; 黄一帆; 黄岛平

    2013-01-01

    文章对瑶山吉冬诺酒进行了检测分析,发现其含有丰富的多糖、核酸、卵磷脂、低聚糖、超氧化物歧化酶、不饱和脂肪酸、氨基酸、维生素等营养成份,以及钙、镁、钾、钠、铜、铁、锌、硅、锶、硒等矿物质或微量元素。%Winter Snow Kyrgyzstan article Dayaoshan wine were analyzed to detect, found rich nutrients in polysaccharides, nucleic acids, lecithin, oligosaccharides, super oxide dismutase, unsaturated fatty acids, amino acids, and calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, copper, iron, zinc, silicon, strontium, selenium and other minerals or trace elements.

  18. Street-Level Bureaucrats at Work: A Municipality-Level Institutional Analysis of Community-Based Natural Resource Management Implementation Practice in the Pasture Sector of Kyrgyzstan

    Wibke Crewett

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article looks into lowest-level policy implementers’ (street-level bureaucrats’ role in donor-initiated natural resource governance reforms. The article employs an institutional analysis framework with a specific policy implementation focus. A multiple case study reviews a resource user information campaign during the early phase of a community-based pasture management reform in Kyrgyzstan. It finds implementation rule simplification by policy implementers at the expense of full resource user involvement as a result of an insufficient contextual fit of the formal information rules. The results emphasize the need of well-designed implementation rules in order to ensure full and equitable resource user involvement in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM.

  19. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

    Maddix Jason

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007. Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals

  20. Hydrophysical and hydrochemical features of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) as revealed by field survey of June, 2015

    Zavialov, Peter; Makkaveev, Petr; Rimskiy-Korsakov, Nikolay; Alymkulov, Salmor; Izhitskiy, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Lake Issyk-Kul is a major (volume 1700 km3, depth 668 m) terminal lake in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. The lake has a longstanding history of research and recently attracted international attention, in particular, as a potentially promising site for scientific drilling and reconstructing paleo-climate variability (e.g., Oberhansli and Molnar, 2012). However, the in situ hydrophysical and hydrochemical data collected from Issyk-Kul are still limited, and those available are somewhat outdated, given that the most recent field campaign reported in the literature dates back to about 15 years ago. A new field survey was conducted in June, 2015. The measurements included CTD profiling and water sampling at 19 stations in all parts of the lake, as well as continuous measurements by a pump-through system and an ultraviolet lidar along the ship's track. The water samples were analyzed for a variety of hydrochemical indicators, including nutrients, dissolved oxygen and methane. In addition, velocity meters were deployed at 3 mooring stations to investigate the synoptic variability of currents. The nitrates, nitrites, phosphorus and silica exhibited elevated surface concentrations in the central part of the lake, which is likely to be associated with the upwelling induced by the basin-wide cyclonic circulation gyre evident from the current measurements. At the same time, the coastal waters were characterized by very low content of nutrients, except the southeastern part of the lake exposed to significant continental discharges from the Tyup and the Dzhergalan rivers. In the areas of continental water influence, concentration of dissolved silica attained minimum values in the surface and intermediate layers. On the other hand, silica concentrations grew steadily from the depth of about 100 m down to the bottom. In general, concentrations of principal biogenic elements in the euphotic layer were relatively low - albeit not low enough to be a limiting factor for phytoplankton life

  1. Case study: Kyrgyzstan

    Baktybek Abdrisaev

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The paper discusses the importance of Open Source (OS hereinafter technology for national Information Communication Technology (ICT hereinafter development and E-Government for developing countries as a general strategy for overcoming the digital divide. The paper highlights the opportunities presented to the developing countries by the growing world-wide movement for use of OS systems, namely, the ability to promote the transfer of technological know-how and the growth of local IT professionals, the possibility of providing IT solutions within the limited financial means of a developing country, and the ability to strengthen the legal use of software. The paper

  2. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with

  3. Ideal climatic variables for the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, derived from GPS data and energy-mass balance measurements

    K. Fujita

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007 of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Differential GPS surveys reveal a vertical surface deletion at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the modern state are 289 mm and −3.85 °C at the glacier summit (4600 m above sea level, a.s.l., respectively. The good agreement between the long-term estimated and observed precipitation at a nearby station in the Tien Shan (292 mm at 3614 m a.s.l. for the period 1930–2002 suggests that the glacier dynamics have been regulated by the long-term average accumulation. The glacier mass-balance, reconstructed based on meteorological data from the Tien Shan station for the past 80 yr, explains the observed fluctuations in glacier extent, particularly the negative mass balance in the 1990s.

  4. From the Field: Windows of Opportunity – The Transformation of State Media to Public Service Media in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Moldova and Serbia

    Jan Lublinski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of state media to public service media (PSM is one of the most ambitious endeavors in the field of media development. Not many efforts to free the national media from government control have succeeded in the past decades. In this paper the comparatively promising cases of Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Moldova and Serbia are discussed. The PSM in these countries all have a new legal basis, including a public service remit and a relatively independent governing body in which civil society is represented. The services delivered to the public by these media are analyzed according to a number of societal functions which are assembled under two general headings: “creating a public sphere” and “supporting integration”. Based on this analysis, a differentiation between “PSM in initial transformation” and “PSM in advanced transformation” is suggested. In all cases studied, different actors successfully used windows of opportunity: general political agendas to reform the media, a specific engagement from the management as well as support from the population and civil society. Media development actors here helped to advance the processes of change in different ways. Recommendations for future media development include strategic planning, inclusion of local actors, the pooling of legal expertise as well as structured processes of organizational development and capacity building.

  5. Distribution of Natural (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226) and Technogenic (Sr-90, Cs-137) Radionuclides in Soil-Plants Complex Near Issyk-Kul Lake, Kyrgyzstan

    Jovanovic, L.; Kaldybaev, B.; Djenbaev, B.; Tilenbaev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Researches on radionuclides distribution in the soil-plants complex provide essential information in understanding human exposure to natural and technogenic sources of radiation. It is necessary in establishing regulation relating to radiation protection. The aim of this study was the radiochemical analysis of the content natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th,226Ra and technogenic radionuclides content (90Sr, 137Cs) in soils near Issyk-Kul lake (Kyrgyzstan). Results of radiochemical analyses have shown, that the concentrations of thorium-232 are fluctuating in the limits (11.7-84.1)-10-4% in the soils. The greatest concentration of thorium-232 has been found in the light chestnut soils. The content of uranium-238 in the soils near Issyk-Kul lake is fluctuating from 2.8 up to 12.7-10-4%. Radium-226 has more migration ability in comparison with other heavy natural radionuclides. According to our research the concentrations of radium-226 are fluctuating in the limits (9.4-43.0)-10-11%. The greatest concentration of radium-226 (43,0±2,8)-10-11% has been determined in the light chestnut soil. In connection with global migration of contaminating substances, including radioactive, the special attention is given long-lived radionuclides strontium-90 and caesium-137 in food-chains, and agroecosystems. Results of radiochemical analyses have shown, that specific activity of strontium-90 is fluctuating in the range of 2.9 up to 11.1 Bq/kg, and caesium-137 from 3.7 up to 14,3 Bq/kg in the soil of agroecosystems in the region of Issyk-Kul. In soil samples down to 1 meter we have observed vertical migration of these radionuclides, they were found to accumulate on the surface of soil horizon (0-5 cm) and their specific activity sharply decreases with depth. In addition in high-mountain pastures characterized by horizontal migration of cattle in profiles of soil, it was discovered that specific activity of radionuclides are lower on the slope than at the foot of the mountain. The

  6. Late Paleozoic evolution of the South Tien Shan: Insights from P-T estimates and allanite geochronology on retrogressed eclogites (Chatkal range, Kyrgyzstan)

    Loury, Chloé; Rolland, Yann; Cenki-Tok, Bénédicte; Lanari, Pierre; Guillot, Stéphane

    2016-05-01

    In the South Tien Shan range (Kyrgyzstan), the Late Paleozoic geodynamic evolution remains debated especially to the west of the Talas-Fergana fault (TFF) fault where suture-related high-pressure (HP) rocks are scarce. We provide new petrological and geochronological data on garnet amphibolites from the Chatkal range, to the west of the TFF, northwest of the South Tien Shan suture. These rocks are retrogressed eclogites. We used a micro-mapping approach combined with forward modeling and empirical thermobarometry to decipher the P-T path of these amphibolitized eclogites. The metamorphic peak conditions culminated at 490 ± 50 °C and 18.5 ± 2 kbar and were followed by higher temperature retrogression (∼560 °C at 11-7 kbar). In order to constrain the age of the HP stage, we dated allanite crystals texturally coeval to the HP mineral assemblage. Allanite grains dated in situ with a U-Pb LA-ICPMS methodology yield an age of 301 ± 15 Ma. Compared with previously published data for the east of the TFF, these P-T constraints allow improving the understanding of the Late Paleozoic geodynamic evolution of the South Tien Shan. To the east of TFF, the Turkestan Ocean closed around 320 Ma with the collision of the Tarim Craton with the Kazakh microcontinent. To the west of TFF, the Turkestan Ocean closed around 300 Ma, when the Alai block collided with the Kazakh microcontinent. This later collision involved nappe-stacking and intense subvertical folding in the western South Tien Shan. This complex folding explains the S-shape of the suture to the west of the TFF that cannot be observed in the eastern part. These new data allow us to propose a distinct tectonic evolution of the two sides of the TFF, which suggests that this fault was a major transform fault before being a strike-slip intra-continental fault.

  7. The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Narama, C.; Duishonakunov, M.; Kääb, A.; Daiyrov, M.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2010-04-01

    On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF) occurred at the western (w-) Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, and ALOS/AVNIR-2) reveal that the flood reduced the lake area from 0.0422 km2 to 0.0083 km2, discharging 437 000 m3 of water. This glacier lake was not present in a Landsat 7 ETM+ image taken on 26 April 2008. It formed rapidly over just two and half months from early May to the late July, when large amounts of snow and glacier melt water became trapped in a basin in the glacier terminus area, blocked by temporary closure of the drainage channel through the terminal moraine that included much dead-ice. In the same mountain region, most other glacier-lake expansions were not particularly large during the period from 1999-2008. Although events like the w-Zyndan glacier lake outburst occur infrequently in the high Central Asian mountains, such fast developing, short-lived lakes are particularly dangerous and not easy to monitor using satellite data. Appropriate measures to protect against such lake outburst hazards in this region include educating residents on glacier hazards and monitoring techniques, providing frequently updated maps of glacier lakes, and planning and monitoring land-use, including house locations.

  8. The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    C. Narama

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF occurred at the western (w- Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, and ALOS/AVNIR-2 reveal that the flood reduced the lake area from 0.0422 km2 to 0.0083 km2, discharging 437 000 m3 of water. This glacier lake was not present in a Landsat 7 ETM+ image taken on 26 April 2008. It formed rapidly over just two and half months from early May to the late July, when large amounts of snow and glacier melt water became trapped in a basin in the glacier terminus area, blocked by temporary closure of the drainage channel through the terminal moraine that included much dead-ice. In the same mountain region, most other glacier-lake expansions were not particularly large during the period from 1999–2008. Although events like the w-Zyndan glacier lake outburst occur infrequently in the high Central Asian mountains, such fast developing, short-lived lakes are particularly dangerous and not easy to monitor using satellite data. Appropriate measures to protect against such lake outburst hazards in this region include educating residents on glacier hazards and monitoring techniques, providing frequently updated maps of glacier lakes, and planning and monitoring land-use, including house locations.

  9. Turanite, Cu2+5(V5+O4)2 (OH)4, from the Tyuya-Muyun radium-uranium deposit, Osh district, Kyrgyzstan: a new structure for an old mineral

    The crystal structure of turanite, Cu-2+(V5+O4)2 (OH)4, from the Tyuya-Muyun Ra-U deposit, the Alai Ridge foothills, Osh district Kyrgyzstan, triclinic, space group P1, a 5.3834(2), b 6.2736(3), c 6.8454(3) Angstrom, α 86.169(1), β 91.681(1), γ 92.425(1)o V 230.38(2) Angstrom3, Z = 1, has been solved by direct methods and refined to an R index of 2.2% based on 1332 observed [Fo > 4σF] unique reflections measured with MoKα X-radiation and a Bruker P4 diffractometer equipped with a CCD detector. Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave CuO 62.94, V2O5 28.90, H2O 5.85, sum 97.69 wt.%; the amount of H2O was determined by crystal-structure analysis. The resulting empirical formula on the basis of 12 anions (including OH = 4 apfu) is Cu2+4.97)(V5+O4)2 (OH)4.08. There are three distinct Cu sites fully occupied by Cu2+ and octahedrally coordinated by four O atoms and two (OH) groups, with = 2.115 Angstrom. The (Cuφ6) octahedra (φ = O, OH) form a sheet of edge-sharing octahedra (with vacancies, oct : vac = 5 : 1) parallel to (011). On each side of the vacant octahedron, a (VO4) tetrahedron is attached to three anions of the sheet and points away from the sheet to be attached to an anion of the adjacent sheet. Thus the (Cuφ6) octahedra and (VO4) tetrahedra constitute a framework, within which the sheets are also linked by hydrogen bonding from (OH) groups of one sheet to O anions of adjacent sheets. Turanite can be considered as a framework structure with interrupted sheets of (Cφ6) octahedra decorated by (VO4) tetrahedra, and is related to the structures of cornubite, cianciulliite, gordaite, bechererite, chalcophyllite, ramsbeckite and simonkolleite. (author)

  10. Bir Geçiş Ekonomisi Olarak Kırgızistan’da Doğrudan Yabancı Yatırımlar ve Orta Asya Ülkeleri İle Kıyaslanması(Foreign Direct Investments in Kyrgyzstan as a Transition Economy and Its Comparison with Central Asian Countries

    Madina PASHALIEVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sovyetler Birliği’nin dağılmasıyla bağımsızlığı ilan eden ve piyasa ekonomisine geçmeye çalışan ülkelere geçiş ekonomileri denilmektedir. Bu ülkelerden birisi olan Kırgızistan, Orta Asya bölgesindeki stratejik konumu, liberal ekonomisi ve ılımlı yaklaşımı itibariyle gün geçtikçe daha fazla dikkatleri üzerine çekmektedir. Geçiş döneminin izlerini üzerinden atmaya çalışan ülke, yabancı yatırımları teşvik etmek üzere ciddi yasal ve yapısal düzenleme ve uygulamalara gitmiştir. Bu çalışmada, Kırgızistan Cumhuriyeti’nde sürdürülebilir büyüme ve refahın arttırılması amacıyla uygulamaya konulan politikalar sayesinde ülkenin yabancı yatırımları hangi düzeyde çekebildiği ve bölge ülkeleri ile kıyaslandığında, durumunun ne olduğu ve sahip olduğu üstünlükler incelenmiştir. The countries which pronounced their independence after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and are endeavouring to shift to market economy are called transition economies. As one of these countries Kyrgyzstan is attracting more attention every other day due to its strategic position in Central Asia, its liberal economy and moderate approach. Trying to get rid of the traces of the transition period, this country has established serious legal and structural regulations and practices in order to promote foreign investments. This study deals with how much the Republic of Kyrgyzstan has managed to attract foreign investments thanks to the policies implemented for sustainable growth and improvement of welfare, and its status and superiorities when compared to other countries in the region.

  11. INTELLIGENTSIA PERSONNEL TRAINING IN KYRGYZSTAN IN GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

    Gulnara D. Dzhunushalieva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During Great Patriotic War, despite all the difficulties of wartime the Republic trained intelligentsia personnel, who had to fulfill the task of seamless combination of ideologic impact, cultural and educational work with specific military-administrative activities

  12. DEMOCRACY IN POST-SOVIET KYRGYZSTAN AND TURKMENISTAN

    Kokaisl, Petr

    2008-01-01

    It was not difficult for some transition states to accept the uniform model of the Western-type democracy. Many post-socialist states (especially from Central Europe-Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary) had experience of a certain method of delegating power from the pre-socialistic period, which was similar to the new system. However, some countries, when accepting global democracy, may not have any adequate traditions to build on. It is not always easy, especially for these states, to leave thei...

  13. Personality Value Orientations in Terms of Kyrgyzstan Society Anomie

    Ruslan M. Asanaliyev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available All well-known definitions of an anomy extremely precisely approach to a current state Kyrgyz society. The chosen ways under of subjective and objective circumstances lead to society destabilization. During such periods of social development the developed values and valuable orientations can’t be equal to the existing realities, and new weren't created yet up to the end, exactly in such conditions the anomy and deviant behavior most extend. Today to the country deviant behavior of considerable part of the population embodies the destructive tendencies most dangerous. These tendencies must be studied and analyzed.

  14. 75 FR 67013 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan

    2010-11-01

    ... HOUSE, WASHINGTON, August 26, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-27672 Filed 10-29-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 4710-10-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2011-12 of August 26, 2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and...) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended (22 U.S.C....

  15. COLOR REVOLUTIONS IN THE CENTRAL ASIAN CONTEXT: KYRGYZSTAN-UZBEKISTAN-KAZAKHSTAN

    Luzianin, Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Today, Color Revolutions in the post-Soviet expanse, Central Asia included, and their prospects have caught the attention of political scientists, historians, and economists. The events of the last two years have widened the field of discussion by adding to it the fairly complicated and sensitive topic of when, how, and in what way the regimes in Central Asia might be renewed. The discussion began even before the Bishkek and Andijan events added new dimensions to the possible options of trans...

  16. Tectonic and gravity-induced deformation along the active Talas-Fergana Fault, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Tibaldi, A.; Corazzato, C.; Rust, D.; Bonali, F. L.; Pasquarè Mariotto, F. A.; Korzhenkov, A. M.; Oppizzi, P.; Bonzanigo, L.

    2015-08-01

    This paper shows, by field palaeoseismological data, the Holocene activity of the central segment of the intracontinental Talas-Fergana Fault (TFF), and the relevance of possible future seismic shaking on slope stability around a large water reservoir. The fault, striking NW-SE, is marked by a continuous series of scarps, deflected streams and water divides, and prehistoric earthquakes that offset substrate and Holocene deposits. Fault movements are characterised by right-lateral strike-slip kinematics with a subordinate component of uplift of the NE block. Structural, geological and geomorphological field data indicate that shallow and deep landslides are aligned along the TFF, and some of them are active. Where the TFF runs close to the reservoir, the fault trace is obscured by a series of landslides, affecting rock and soil materials and ranging in size from small slope instabilities to deep-seated gravity-induced slope deformations (DGSDs). The largest of these, which does not show clear evidence of present-day activity, involves a volume of about 1 km3 and is associated with smaller but active landslides in its lower part, with volumes in the order of 2.5 × 104 m3 to 1 × 106 m3. Based on the spatial and temporal relations between landslides and faults, we argue that at least some of these slope failures may have a coseismic character. Stability analyses by means of limit equilibrium methods (LEMs), and stress-strain analysis by finite difference numerical modelling (FDM), were carried out to evaluate different hazard scenarios linked to these slope instabilities. The results indicate concern for the different threats posed, ranging from the possible disruption of the M-41 highway, the main transportation route in central Asia, to the possible collapse of huge rock masses into the reservoir, possibly generating a tsunami.

  17. RECONSTRUCTION AND PREDICTION OF WATER BALANCE COMPONENTS FROM DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL DATA FOR THE NARYN RIVER BASIN (KYRGYZSTAN

    V. G. Konovalov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Suggested new method for reconstruction of runoff includes: 1. Search informative points based weather observations for dependence runoff = f(climate index. Climate index consists of normalized anomalies of annual precipitation and air temperature, together with water vapor pressure and total cloud amount in the June–September. 2. The selection of sites that represent local relationship between the index of climate and tree rings. 3. Getting the multivariate linear regression equation between the runoff V and tree rings D. Basic climatic period 1961–1990 is used as a calibration interval of time. Verification of the equations for 1940–1960 identified the need to use other arguments in addition to the width of tree rings. For this purpose, two climate index: PDSI and SPEI were tested. It is established that the empirical formulae V = f(D, PDSI and V = f(D, SPEI are suitable for assessing the annual flow of the Naryn in 1901–2006. In the report is described a process of  reconstruction of flow for the years 1700–2005 based on the data of the width of the tree rings, and taking into account the temporal variability of parameters of regression equations.Chronologies of the width and density of tree rings in the thirty-two tree ring sites were used to reconstruct long-term series of average summer air temperature Ts at meteorological stations of the Pamir and Tien Shan. The calibration interval of time was 1961–1990 to find equations Ts = f(D of third-order multiple regression, and independent control of their quality, done in 1932–1960. Combined correlation coefficient in 10 cases out of 15 was more than 0.80, a relative error of calculation Ts in 19611990 ranged from 0.13 to 4.73%, and in 1932–1960 from 0.23 to 8.10%. Duration of the reconstructed series Ts ranged from 100 to 278 years. Positive results were received for predicting a common and glacial runoff of Naryn river, a long-term range of density of tree rings. 

  18. Radioecological problems in a region of natural-uranium province (Kyrgyzstan)

    Full text : At present the attempts have been made in our Republic for solving the problems concerning heritage of uranium ores extraction and processing in places where several thousands of tons of radioactively polluted wastes are accumulated, posing potential threat for contamination of the environment and for people's health. The scientists of the Kyrgyz Republic and other countries actively work over the above mentioned problems solution : several international ISTC, IAEA and other projects were fulfilled, the material and technical basis of specialized laboratories became better, the results were obtained for presentation and discussion. In all these laboratories different kinds of effective semi-conductor germanium detectors were used for analysis of radionuclides gamma-spectra in tail materials and samples of the environment

  19. Stable Isotopes of Sr and Pb as Tracers of Sources of Airborne Particulate Matter in Kyrgyzstan

    ConclusionsElemental concentrations were higher at the LIDAR site compared to the Bishkek site. Also, concentrations were higher during dust than non-dust events at both sites.The Sr isotopic ratios suggest dust from another region, such as from Western China, Africa, or Middle E...

  20. Stable isotopes of lead and strontium as tracers of sources of airborne particulate matter in Kyrgyzstan.

    Central Asia is dominated by an arid climate and desert-like conditions, leading to the potential of long-range transport of desert dust. One potential source of dust to Central Asia is the Aral Sea, the surface area of which has receded in size from 68,000 km2 to 14,280 km2, lar...

  1. Nepotism, beyond good or bad. Exploring recruitment policies in international aid organizations in Kyrgyzstan.

    Baldanova, Aldara

    2014-01-01

    While nepotism has been a pervasive social phenomenon in every culture, prevailing in family businesses - the topic has majorly been a taboo for academic research. It has been labeled as a discriminative practice in modern bureaucratic organizations. The development and international aid worldwide represent a large framework of bureaucracies and planning. Local cultures often represent a challenge if not an obstacle to the development practices and need a flexible approach. Kyrgyz society...

  2. Development of a rubella vaccination strategy: contribution of a rubella susceptibility study of women of childbearing age in Kyrgyzstan, 2001.

    Malakmadze, Naile; Zimmerman, Laura A; Uzicanin, Amra; Shteinke, Luidmila; Caceres, Victor M; Kasymbekova, Kaliya; Sozina, Irina; Glasser, John W; Joldubaeva, Mira; Aidyralieva, Chinara; Icenogle, Joseph P; Strebel, Peter M; Reef, Susan E

    2004-06-15

    To contribute to the development of a rubella vaccination strategy, we conducted a study to determine age-specific susceptibility among women aged 15-39 years by testing for rubella-specific IgG antibodies. Of 964 women, 13% were found to be susceptible to rubella. Significantly higher susceptibility among women >25 years old was observed. Susceptibility data are important but are not sufficient to develop a vaccination strategy. After considering all available information, we suggested vaccination of women aged <35 years and selective vaccination of older women who were planning pregnancy. PMID:15227627

  3. Threat assessment report. Regulatory aspects of the remediation and rehabilitation of nuclear legacy in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan

    During the Soviet period, the uranium mining operations in Central Asia served as one of the main uranium producers for the Soviet Union (SU) military complex. The regulatory standards for exposure and emissions control to all Soviet Republics were administered by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and were the same across the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the former Soviet Republics became independent, but also inherited the legacy in the form of wastes, including those from uranium ore processing and tailings and old Soviet regulatory documents, which are mostly inconsistent with the international standards and guidances and need substantial improvements. Many radioactive waste storage facilities in Central Asia, especially in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, are located in regions of seismic activity, in landslide- and mud flow-prone areas and areas subject to flooding and high ground water levels, and near the banks of the rivers that form the base of the large water basin of the Central Asian region. Many tailings are situated near towns, other populated areas and state borders, and they represent a long-term hazard to health and the environment. In regard to the legal and regulatory framework, it should be noted that none of the Central Asian countries have a National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management developed and approved by the Governments. Existing regulatory documents do not address the issues regarding safety assessments and safety cases or the implementation of long-term institutional control and monitoring of the abandoned dumps with radioactive wastes (RW) or future RW disposal sites, neither during operation nor after their closure. There is also a need to develop safety criteria (reference levels) and determine measures to be taken for existing exposure situations (past practices). In addition, there is a lack of safety requirements for different types of disposal facilities in accordance with the different categories of radioactive waste. Safety criteria and clearance levels are also not established. The NRPA, with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in the Central Asian countries to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and RW management in the Central Asian countries. Based on threat assessments that have been completed in each Central Asian country during the year 2010, this document focuses on the existing regulatory problems at the legacy sites and projects will address the regulatory documents which should be developed first. It is clear that in order to remove the threat connected with radioactive wastes, both that which has already been accumulated as a result of previous activity and that which is currently being generated in significant amounts and will be produced in the future, it is necessary to at least develop and implement: A National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management, including strategies for disposal of each category of the RW, allocation of responsibilities and financial assurance for these activities; Safety requirements on the design, siting, construction, operation, closure and establishment of the institutional control needed for disposal facilities in accordance with the approved national policy and strategy on radioactive waste management; and New classifications of radioactive waste according to the recently published international recommendations, including identification of corresponding categories; In addition, it is clear that in order to remove the threats connected with extensive territories contaminated by radionuclides, the rehabilitation of these areas is required and, accordingly, it is necessary to develop regulations on: Quantitative criteria defining reference levels for existing exposure situations, considering its justification, optimization and the graded approach; Criteria and hygienic specifications on the rehabilitation of territories contaminated with radioactive materials; The radiation safety of the personnel and the population during the subsequent use of the territory, buildings and constructions after rehabilitation; Reference levels for exposure dose constraints to prevent unreasonable irradiation of the population on the territories with radioactive contamination, and also to develop derived reference levels for the values of radiation parameters which can be directly measured when implementing radiation control; and Updating the exemption and clearance levels with the latest international recommendations. Finally, it is of crucial importance to strengthen the regulatory framework and infrastructure. Only with a strong regulatory body (or well-coordinated regulatory authorities) fulfilling its main responsibilities, namely authorization, inspection and enforcement, would it be possible to implement the remedial actions in a coherent and safe way. In addition, only with a strong regulatory infrastructure in place would it be possible to avoid the repetition of such bad experiences in ongoing practices and facilities or in new coming projects. Equal attention should also be paid to other non uranium mining and milling activities, such as the oil and gas industries. (Author)

  4. Threat assessment report. Regulatory aspects of the remediation and rehabilitation of nuclear legacy in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan

    Zhunussova, T.; Sneve, M.; Romanenko, O.; Solomatina, A.; Mirsaidov, I.

    2011-06-15

    During the Soviet period, the uranium mining operations in Central Asia served as one of the main uranium producers for the Soviet Union (SU) military complex. The regulatory standards for exposure and emissions control to all Soviet Republics were administered by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and were the same across the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the former Soviet Republics became independent, but also inherited the legacy in the form of wastes, including those from uranium ore processing and tailings and old Soviet regulatory documents, which are mostly inconsistent with the international standards and guidances and need substantial improvements. Many radioactive waste storage facilities in Central Asia, especially in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, are located in regions of seismic activity, in landslide- and mud flow-prone areas and areas subject to flooding and high ground water levels, and near the banks of the rivers that form the base of the large water basin of the Central Asian region. Many tailings are situated near towns, other populated areas and state borders, and they represent a long-term hazard to health and the environment. In regard to the legal and regulatory framework, it should be noted that none of the Central Asian countries have a National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management developed and approved by the Governments. Existing regulatory documents do not address the issues regarding safety assessments and safety cases or the implementation of long-term institutional control and monitoring of the abandoned dumps with radioactive wastes (RW) or future RW disposal sites, neither during operation nor after their closure. There is also a need to develop safety criteria (reference levels) and determine measures to be taken for existing exposure situations (past practices). In addition, there is a lack of safety requirements for different types of disposal facilities in accordance with the different categories of radioactive waste. Safety criteria and clearance levels are also not established. The NRPA, with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in the Central Asian countries to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and RW management in the Central Asian countries. Based on threat assessments that have been completed in each Central Asian country during the year 2010, this document focuses on the existing regulatory problems at the legacy sites and projects will address the regulatory documents which should be developed first. It is clear that in order to remove the threat connected with radioactive wastes, both that which has already been accumulated as a result of previous activity and that which is currently being generated in significant amounts and will be produced in the future, it is necessary to at least develop and implement: A National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management, including strategies for disposal of each category of the RW, allocation of responsibilities and financial assurance for these activities; Safety requirements on the design, siting, construction, operation, closure and establishment of the institutional control needed for disposal facilities in accordance with the approved national policy and strategy on radioactive waste management; and New classifications of radioactive waste according to the recently published international recommendations, including identification of corresponding categories; In addition, it is clear that in order to remove the threats connected with extensive territories contaminated by radionuclides, the rehabilitation of these areas is required and, accordingly, it is necessary to develop regulations on: Quantitative criteria defining reference levels for existing exposure situations, considering its justification, optimization and the graded approach; Criteria and hygienic specifications on the rehabilitation of territories contaminated with radioactive materials; The radiation safety of the personnel and the population during the subsequent use of the territory, buildings and constructions after rehabilitation; Reference levels for exposure dose constraints to prevent unreasonable irradiation of the population on the territories with radioactive contamination, and also to develop derived reference levels for the values of radiation parameters which can be directly measured when implementing radiation control; and Updating the exemption and clearance levels with the latest international recommendations. Finally, it is of crucial importance to strengthen the regulatory framework and infrastructure.

  5. Upper Paleozoic tectonics in the Tien Shan (Central Asian Orogenic Belt): insight from new structural data (Kyrgyzstan)

    Jourdon, Anthony; Petit, Carole; Rolland, Yann; Loury, Chloé; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément

    2016-04-01

    Due to successive block accretions, the polarity of structures and tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are several conflicting models about the polarity of subduction during the Paleozoic, the number of microplates and oceanic basins and the timing of tectonic events in Kyrgyz and Chinese Tien Shan. In this study, we propose new structural maps and cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz Tien Shan (MTS and STS respectively). These cross-sections highlight an overall dextral strike-slip shear zone in the MTS and a north verging structure related to south-dipping subduction in the STS. These structures are Carboniferous in age and sealed by Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits. In detail, the STS exhibits two deformation phases. The first one is characterized by coeval top-to-the north thrusting and top-to-the-South normal shearing at the boundaries of large continental unit that underwent High-Pressure (Eclogite facies) metamorphism. We ascribe this phase to the exhumation of underthrusted passive margin units of the MTS. The second one corresponds to a top to the North nappe stacking that we link to the last collisional events between the MTS and the Tarim block. Later on, during the Late Carboniferous, a major deformation stage is characterized by the deformation of the MTS and its thrusting over the NTS. This deformation occurred on a large dextral shear zone between the NTS and the MTS known as Song-Kul Zone or Nikolaiev Line as a "side effect" of the Tarim/MTS collision. Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the CAOB. The resulting model comprises the underthrusting of the MTS-Kazakh platform beneath the Tarim and its exhumation followed by the folding, shortening and thickening of the internal metamorphic units during the last collisional events which partitioned the deformation between the STS and the MTS. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton against the CAOB corresponds to a short lived collision phase (320-300 Ma), which ended the long-lived Paleozoic subduction history in the CAOB.

  6. Landslide assessment in a remote mountain region: a case study from the Toktogul region of Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    Khampilang, Namphon

    2015-01-01

    Slope instability is a significant natural hazard in the Tien Shan mountain range, some landslide studies were carried out in small areas in the Tien Shan Mountain but no landslide susceptibility mapping has been carried out for the region. This thesis describes the creation of a digital landslide inventory and the use of a Geographical Information System (GIS) to create the first landslide susceptibility models for the area. This research has resulted in the landslide inventory of the Tok...

  7. Glaciers and permafrost as water resource in Kyrgyzstan : distribution, recent dynamics and hazards, and the relevance for sustainable development of Central Asian semiarid regions

    Duishonakunov, Murataly Turganalievich

    2014-01-01

    The Kyrgyz Republic is the only Central Asian state, where the water resources are fully generated on its own territory. The water originates from the often glacier covered mountain ranges and its abundance is a vital component for the agriculture and the production of hydro-electric power. The mountainous Kyrgyz Republic is an essential “water tower” for irrigated arable farming on arid plain territories. In view of the climate change discussion, this study investigates the water resources o...

  8. Paleozoic structure of Middle Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan Central Asian Orogenic Belt): Insights on the polarity and timing of tectonic motions, subductions, and lateral correlations

    Jourdon, Anthony; Loury, Chloé; Rolland, Yann; Petit, Carole; Bellahsen, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    The structure and Palaeozoic tectonic evolution in Kyrgyz and Chinese Tien Shan Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are numerous and conflicting models about the polarity of tectonic motions in the Paleozoic, the number of continental blocks and oceanic basins involved and the timing of tectonic events. In this study we propose new maps and structural cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz Tien Shan (TS). These cross-sections allow us to highlight an overall South-verging structure in the Middle TS, with a thick-skin style involving the crystalline basement. This deformation occurred during the Early Carboniferous, and is sealed by an Upper Carboniferous unconformity. We ascribe this structure to an Upper Plate deformation linked to north-dipping subduction below Middle TS. In contrast, the South TS exhibits a north-verging structure, linked to south-dipping subduction, which is evidenced by an accretionary prism, a volcanic arc, and high-pressure rocks (Loury et al., 2015), and is correlated to similar structures in the Chinese TS (e.g., Charvet et al., 2011). Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the Middle and South TS CAOB. The resulting model comprises a long-lived north-dipping subduction of the Turkestan Ocean below the Middle TS-Karazakh Platform and a short-lived south-dipping subduction of a marginal back-arc basin below the Tarim. Consequently, the South TS is interpreted as a rifted block from the Tarim. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton to the CAOB corresponds to a rapid collision phase (320-300 Ma). This put an end to the long-lived Paleozoic subduction history in the CAOB. Charvet, J., Shu, L., et al., 2011. Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the Tianshan belt, NW China. Science China Earth Sciences, 54, 166-184. Loury, C. , Rolland, Y., Guillot S., Mikolaichuk, A.V., Lanari, P., Bruguier, O., D.Bosch, 2015. Crustal-scale structure of South Tien Shan: implications for subduction polarity and Cenozoic reactivation. Geological Society London Special Publications, in press.

  9. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

    Maddix Jason; Waning Brenda; Soucy Lyne

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the ...

  10. ACCOUNTING EDUCATION AT FACULTY OF ECONOMIC ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE IN KYRGYZSTAN UNIVERSITIES AND EXPECTATION OF STUDENTS FROM ACCOUNTING EDUCATION, A CASE STUDY IN BISHKEK

    Selcuk KENDIRLI; Ulker, Yakup; Yamaltdinov, Adilya

    2015-01-01

    Rapid changes in the application of enterprise has had a dominant effect on accounting education in the globalized world. While the continuous and rapidly changing process, it is becoming more important for the financial statement users to obtain true and trustworthy knowledge from accounting education at the university level.  The financial language of accounting must be adopted as part of these changes.  Accounting must produce true and trustworthy knowledge for the enterprises. There is a ...

  11. System penitencjarny w Kirgistanie: struktura i zakłady karne

    Ajdarow, Ernis

    2014-01-01

    Penitentiary system of Kyrgyzstan is a small part of the heritage, totalitarian penitentiary system of the USSR. From the moment of Kyrgyzstan's independence, the penitentiary system of Kyrgyzstan faces some difficulties but now it’s in the phase of development. The paper presents an overview of the current state of the prison system, such as management structure, prison staff, criminal subculture, prison conditions in the period of transformation.

  12. [Taxonomic status of the Burana virus (BURV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Tamdy group) isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 and Haem. concinna Koch, 1844 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae) in Kyrgyzstan].

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Complete genome sequence of the Burana virus (BURV) was determined using the next-generation sequencing approach (ID GenBank KF801651). The prototype strain of BURV LEIV-Krg760 was originally isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae), collected from cows in Tokmak wildlife sanctuary, eastern part of the Chu valley (43 degrees 10' N, 74 degrees 40' E) near Burana village, Kirgizia, in April 1971. Molecular genetics and phylogenetic analyses showed that the BURV belonged to the Nairovirus genus, Bunyaviridae and is related to Tamdy virus (TAMV) that is also associated with the ixodidae ticks of pasture biocenosis in Central Asia. Previous studies showed that TAMV is the prototypic virus of new phylogenetic Tamdy group in the Nairovirus genus. Thus, BURV was classified as a new virus of the Tamdy group, Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae. PMID:25549462

  13. TARHÎ SÜREÇTE ORTA ASYA VE KIRGIZISTAN’DA DİN SİYASETİ VE EĞİTİMİ / The Religious Politic and Education in Central Asia And Kyrgyzstan in Historical Process

    Kozukulov, Timur

    2010-01-01

    ÖZETGünümüzde din eğitiminin Kırgızistan’da dünü-bugünü tartışılmakta ve gelecekte nelerin yapılabileceği üzerinde durulmaktadır. Kırgızistan hükümeti formal değil, informal bir din eğitimi yapılmasını istemektedir. Çünkü Kırgızistan’da 80’denfazla etnik grup bulunmaktadır. Bu makale, tarihi süreçte Orta Asya ve Kırgızistan’da din egitimi ve din ile ilgili izlenen siyaseti konu etmekte,...

  14. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  15. The first results of environmental impact study of the production complex Ak-Tyuz according to the Protocol of the 3rdMeeting of Kyrgyzstan-Kazakhstan Intergovernmental Council

    The investigations of radionuclide and elemental composition of selected samples of the environment items were made. The method of instrumental gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of individual radionuclides in two samples of bottom sediments. The method of X-ray fluorescence analysis was used to study the elemental composition of the same samples of bottom sediments. All results of research activities clearly show the negative impact of the industrial zone Ak-Tyuz on radionuclide and elemental composition of water in Kichi-Kemin River.

  16. Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

  17. Taxonomic study of Central Asian species of the genus Macropsis Lewis, 1836 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae). II: redescriptions of poorly known species, new synonyms, and description of a new willow-dwelling species.

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2014-01-01

    Macropsis validiuscula Dubovsky, 1966, M. vicina (Horvath, 1897) = M. populicola Dubovsky, 1966 = M. albinata Dubovsky, 1966, syn. n. = M. albidula Dubovsky, 1966, syn. n., M. iliensis Mityaev, 1971 and M. elaeagnicola Dubovsky, 1966 are redescribed and illustrated based on material from Tien Shan Mts. (Kyrgyzstan) and Ferghana Valley (Uzbekistan), M. tienschanica Tishetshkin sp. n. from West Tien Shan Mts. (Kyrgyzstan) is described. M. iliensis Mityaev, 1971 is recorded from Kyrgyzstan for the first time. Data on host plants and male vibrational calling signals for all species considered are provided. PMID:24943603

  18. Electricity in Central Asia: Market and investment opportunity report

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.

  19. Uranium industry legacy. Problems and ways forward

    This article is devoted to uranium industry legacy of Kyrgyzstan. Data on tailings and rock piles is presented. Data on ongoing works and projects on remediation of uranium tailings is presented as well.

  20. AN EVALUATION OF COMMON WORDS OF TURKISH AND KYRGYZ LANGUAGES

    ABDIKULOVA, Roza

    2014-01-01

    Since receiving the sovereignty Kyrgyzstan has been continuing collaborative work with the Republic of Turkey in terms of policy, economy and culture. Today, schools, colleges, universities, and firms opened by Turkey are continuing to work in Kyrgyzstan. The language is the most important element that plays major role in providing interpersonal communication and joint operation. In spite of the same language origin, one can still encounter with difficulties in learning the Turkish and Kyrg...

  1. Taxonomic study of Central Asian species of the genus Macropsis Lewis, 1836 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae). III: Descriptions of two new willow-dwelling species, new synonym, annotated check-list, and key to species.

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2015-01-01

    Macropsis milkoi Tishetshkin sp. n. from West Tien Shan, Alay and Hissar-Darvaz Mts. (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) and Macropsis anufrievi Tishetshkin sp. n. from Hissar-Darvaz Mts. (Tajikistan) are described. M. elaeagni Emelyanov, 1964 = M. cyanescens Dubovskiy, 1966 syn. n. is redescribed and illustrated based on the material from Central Asia. Annotated check list and key to 30 Macropsis species from Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the mountains of Southern Kazakhstan are given. PMID:26250022

  2. Velvet Revolutions in Georgia, Ukraine and Kirghizistan

    Bozkurt, Giray Saynur

    2006-01-01

    The Yellow Revolution which was considered to be the outcomes of the civil revolution experienced in Georgia and Ukraine was concluded with the complete control of the opposition in the country and flee of the President Askar Akayev (On December 27 2004, he had accused the West of sponsoring revolutions in Ukraine and Georgia and vowed to prevent similar scenarios in Kyrgyzstan). Neither Putin nor Russian Foreign Affairs could determine any attitude during crisis in Kyrgyzstan. Due to the fac...

  3. IDEOLOGICAL APPROACHES OF FOLKLORE STUDIES IN KYRGYZSTAN ON THE SOVIET UNION PERIOD: ERSOLTONOY EPIC EXAMPLE SOVYETLER BİRLİĞİ DÖNEMİNDE KIRGIZİSTAN’DA FOLKLOR ÇALIŞMALARINDA İDEOLOJİK YAKLAŞIMLAR: ER SOLTONOY DESTANI ÖRNEĞİ

    Mehmet ÇERİBAŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Folklore, emerged in the 19th century with the romance movement as a tool of nationalizm, acted as shield aganist discriminative movements in the countries which weren’t able to achieve political unity. Political movement, which doesn’t consist freedom of expression and based on single party system like socialism, nazism and communism, wanted to take advantage of all communication channels for propaganda purpose. These movements imposed important folklore products which was considered as a means of communication and interaction. One of these is to understand the judgements values and develop policies on this judgements, other is to ensure harmony between the regime and people-more clearly by formatting fort he purpose of regime.Socialism which is of the movements using folklore for the ideological purpose have benefited from folklore to make people of occupied countries for he emperialist purpose compatible. Epic type, decorated with elements of romantics and nationalism, is used to increase nationalism by the Turks tribes where oral culture is dominant during the war period at ordinary times has taken spokemanship of proletariat class. Such work has been tested on the Kyrgyz Turks which were nomadic horseman and interested in the type of epic proceeding from Er Soltonoy’s of Kyrgyz Turks. 19. yüzyılda ortaya çıkan romantizm hareketiyle uluslaşmanın bir aracı olarak görülen folklor ürünleri, siyasi birliğini sağlayamamış ülkeler tarafından dıştan gelecek ayrıştırıcı akımlara karşı kalkan görevini görmüştür. Nazizm, Sosyalizm ve Komünizm gibi tek parti sistemine dayanan ve ifade özgürlüğünün olmadığı siyasi akımlar ise halka ulaşabilecekleri bütün iletişim kanallarından propaganda amacıyla yararlanmak istemişler; bu akımlar dönemin iletişim araçlarından sayılan folklor ürünlerine de bu bağlamda önemli görevler yüklemişlerdir. Bu görevlerden biri, halkın değer yargılarını anlamaya ve bu değer yargıları üzerinde politikalar geliştirmeye yönelikken, diğeri de geliştirilen bu politikalarla halkın değer yargıları üzerinde oynama yaparak halkla rejim arasında uyum sağlamak, daha açık bir ifade ile halkı rejimin amaçları doğrultusunda biçimlendirerek ferdin kendisi olmasını değil “rejimin adamı” olmasını sağlamaktır. Folkloru ideolojik amaçlar doğrultusunda kullanan akımlardan biri olan Sosyalizm, emperyalist amaçlarla işgal ettiği ülke vatandaşlarını sistemle uyumlu hale getirmek için folklor ürünlerinden çok sık yararlanmıştır. Özellikle sözlü kültürün hâkim olduğu Türk boylarında romantik ve milliyetçi öğelerle süslü destan türü, savaş döneminde milliyetçiliğin dozunu artırmak için kullanırken, olağan dönemlerde proletarya sınıfının sözcülüğüne büründürülmüştür. Bu tip çalışmalar atlı-göçebe özelliklerini yakın zamana kadar sürdüren ve destan türüne özel bir ilginin olduğu Kırgız Türkleri üzerinde de denenmiştir. Bu çalışmada Kırgız Türklerinin Er Soltonoy Destanı örneğinden yola çıkarak destan türü üzerinde yapılan ideolojik tahrifatlar üzerinde durulacaktır.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE SOCIO-POLITICAL PROCESSES IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Майрамгуль Зайнабидиновна Ташиева

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the foreign policy of the Kyrgyz Republic and the influence of geopolitical factors on the political processes in the country. The paper presents a periodization of foreign policy in modern Kyrgyzstan concerning the United States. The author reviewed the draft F. Starr's "Greater Central Asia" and analyzed the "theory of controlled chaos". Big attention is paid to the relationships of Kyrgyzstan and Russia , the USA and China, on the one hand, and with the nearest neighbors in the region, on the other. The paper analyzes the project for the construction of the railway "China - Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan". Russia takes one of the central points in the paper. Much attention is paid to the economic sphere, namely the construction of hydroelectric power. Due to the growing number of labor migrants from Kyrgyzstan to Russia , the article discusses the legislative framework in this area. The author lists the key factors that cause social and political problems between Kyrgyzstan and neighboring countries. This paper discusses in detail issues related to the enclaves and the disputed territories.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-31

  5. Optimum Density and Space Structure of Kyrgyzstan’s Juniper Stands for Identifying Water Protective Properties

    Zayirbek; Toktoraliev; Okke; Batelaan; Pichang; YUE; Heng; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Central Asia including Kyrgyzstan is a disaster prone area,suffering from snow avalanches,landslides and flooding.Within the Tyan- Shan region,a mountainous region in Southern Kyrgyzstan,there is an increasing number of natural hazards over the last years.One of the possible causes of the increase in natural disasters in the region is the deterioration of the Juniper forests in the region.Juniper forests have a large economical and ecological importance for Kyrgyzstan.However,the conditions worsened for these juniper forests.Since 1980 approximately 20% of the juniper forests were lost due to intensive deforestation,forest fires and excessive cattle grazing and possibly also climate changes are affecting the juniper trees and their soil properties.The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the juniper forest on the local hydrology and to characterize the water protective properties.

  6. Wing shape variation among central Asian populations of Calopteryx splendens

    Saber Sadeghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We applied geometric morphometric techniques to explore the morphological variation of forewings between 10 Asian Calopteryx splendens populations including Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan countries. We focused on the study of the phenetic relationships among the populations in central Asia. The results showed that the northern and western populations of Iran had the largest and smallest centroid size of the wings, respectively. In addition, differences among wing shape of the 10 studied populations of C. splendens were significant. Our results indicated that Tajikistan population has quite distinct divergence and also Turkmenistan and northern part of Iran populations both were very close each other and located in a separate clade. The Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkey, Uzbekistan, west Iran, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan populations were revealed to be more interrelated to each other, although Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan populations seems to be more closer than the other.

  7. Commentary - The Early Days of Central Asian Military Integration: the Kyrgyz National Division of the Red Army in 1927-1928

    Isabelle Ohayon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the sociology of a national division of the Red Army in the early days of its formation in Kyrgyzstan, as described in two documents about soldiers of Kyrgyz nationality in 1927 and 1928. At that time the Soviet Army was not seeking to substantially increase its numbers but rather recruiting in line with the intentions of the nationality policy, by integrating ethnic groups and regions that had been ignored by the high command. Kyrgyzstan is a striking exampl...

  8. Migration and first-time parenthood

    Lesia Nedoluzhko; Gunnar Andersson

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the reproductive behavior of young women and men in the post-Soviet Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan, focusing on the link between migration and fertility. We employ event-history techniques to retrospective data from the ‘Marriage, Fertility, and Migration’ survey conducted in Northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to study patterns in first-time parenthood. We demonstrate the extent to which internal migration is related to family formation and to the patterns of beco...

  9. Highlights of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    2006-01-01

    June 14-15, 2001-The first Shanghai Cooperation Organization-(SCO) summit is held in Shanghai, involving the presidents of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The six leaders issued a joint statement that announced Uzbekistan's participation in the "Shanghai Five," the launch of the SCO and the Shanghai treaty to crack down on terrorism, separatism and extremism.

  10. 8 CFR 236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.

    2010-01-01

    ... an order under 8 CFR part 240 becomes final, request amelioration of the conditions under which he or... of removal. Algeria 1 1 Arrangements with the countries listed in 8 CFR 236.1(e) provide that U.S... Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Malta Mauritius Moldova Mongolia Nigeria Philippines Poland 4...

  11. Regulatory Support Program in Central Asia. Progress and new bilateral project with the State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Republic of Uzbekistan

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    A meeting of the regional regulatory support program in Central Asia (CA) was held in May 25 to 26, 2011 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where parties discussed ongoing bilateral cooperation between the NRPA and the regulatory bodies of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Author)

  12. Characteristics of the Westernization of College Students' Mentality in Modernizing Countries

    Latova, N. V.; Latov, Iu. V.

    2008-01-01

    In this article the authors examine problems of the characteristics of the Westernization of the mentality of college and university students in four countries that are going through modernization: (1) Russia; (2) Turkey; (3) Kazakhstan; and (4) Kyrgyzstan. What the authors mean by "mentality" is the deep-seated "unconscious, unreflected" part of…

  13. MEMBER PRIVILEGES——Each of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization members finds its own national interests served within the regional organization

    SIDOROV; OLEG

    2006-01-01

    Facing common security threats, leaders of six countries-Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan-established the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in June 2001 to maintain regional stability and security, fight terrorism and extremism, prevent conflicts and enhance economic cooperation. The SCO's primary goals are economic cooperation and fighting terrorism.

  14. Barriers to Coverage of Transborder Environmental Issues in the Ferghana Valley of Central Asia

    Freedman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three former Soviet republics occupy Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, a region of serious transborder environmental problems, especially ones that involve water and energy. Most news organizations in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan provide little in-depth coverage of these issues. Journalists in one country usually do not seek news…

  15. Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies

    The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008–July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

  16. A Management Tool Kit on Training Needs Assessment and Programme Design: An Integrated Resource for Management Development in Transition Countries. Companion.

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document presents a management tool kit on training needs assessment and program design for countries in transition to a market economy. Chapter 1 describes the tool's development within the framework of the project called Strengthening of Partnership between Management Training Institutions and Companies, Ukraine-Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan.…

  17. Srovnání kulturních změn u afghanských Kyrgyzů a Kyrgyzů v Kyrgystánu

    Petr Kokaisl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Creation of the national state in Kyrgyzstan had significant influence to national awareness of the Kyrgyz. It was aroused here an interest in the history of own nation, there were presented historical constructs to the population about the ancientness and certain exclusivity of the Kyrgyz ethnic group, what many inhabitants adopted. For all Kyrgyz in all investigated areas is common relatively high historical awareness of membership to the Kyrgyz nation – this perception is not bound to the language. All Kyrgyz living beyond the Kyrgyzstan border perceive very similarly the creation of national state. It is a symbol of their national identity for them, to which they are looking up with a certain respect. Also the Afghani Kyrgyz that usually do not know the Kyrgyzstan state symbols express the wishes to visit Kyrgyzstan, a country, where they can feel as at home. More important that the proper area is the own existence of the Kyrgyz state that, already by its name, offers a certain proximity to the Kyrgyz living outside its borders.

  18. Cross-Cultural Investigation into Cognitive Underpinnings of Individual Differences in Early Arithmetic

    Rodic, Maja; Zhou, Xinlin; Tikhomirova, Tatiana; Wei, Wei; Malykh, Sergei; Ismatulina, Victoria; Sabirova, Elena; Davidova, Yulia; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Kovas, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated 626 5-7-year-old children in the UK, China, Russia, and Kyrgyzstan on a cognitive test battery measuring: (1) general skills; (2) non-symbolic number sense; (3) symbolic number understanding; (4) simple arithmetic--operating with numbers; and (5) familiarity with numbers. Although most inter-population differences were…

  19. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  20. COOPERATING,WITH COMPLICATIONS——The Shanghai Cooperation Organization still has a long way to go before it can operate effectively

    CHUFRIN; GENNADY

    2006-01-01

    On June 15,2001, the Declaration on the Establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization was signed, marking the formal launch of the regional organization. Its history can be traced back to 19% when Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan formed the Shanghai Five, later renamed the Shanghai Forum. After Uzbekistan joined, the forum changed into

  1. POPULATION GENETICS OF THE WHEAT LEAF RUST FUNGUS, PUCCINIA TRITICINA IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a major disease of wheat in Central Asia. Single uredinial isolates from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan, 131 in total, were tested for virulence to 20 isolines of Thatcher wheat with single leaf rust resistan...

  2. Open Kazakhstan, the Beating Heart of Eurasia

    2007-01-01

    @@ Kazakhstan lies in the north of the central Asian republics and is bounded by Russia in the north, China in the east, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan in the south, and the Caspian Sea and part of Turkmenistan in the west. It has almost 1,177 mi (about 1,894 km) of coastline on the Caspian Sea.

  3. The Members of the Agency

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.58) is Kyrgyzstan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2003. The list shows the dates on which the present 137 Member States became Members

  4. Review of species of the genus Adelurola Strand, 1928, with a key to species ( Hymenoptera , Braconidae , Alysiinae )

    Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Yari, Zahra; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Ehsan Rakhshani,; Belokobylskij, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The alysiine genus Adelurola Strand, 1928 ( Hymenoptera , Braconidae ) is revised. Illustrated re-descriptions and a key to all known species of this genus are given. The following new combination is proposed: Dapsilarthra eurys (Chen & Wu, 1994), comb. n. Adelurola amplidens (Fischer, 1966) and Adelurola asiatica Telenga, 1935 are recorded for the first time from Iran and Kyrgyzstan, respectively.

  5. Review of species of the genus Adelurola Strand, 1928, with a key to species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae)

    Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Yari, Zahra; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Ehsan Rakhshani; Belokobylskij, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The alysiine genus Adelurola Strand, 1928 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) is revised. Illustrated re-descriptions and a key to all known species of this genus are given. The following new combination is proposed: Dapsilarthra eurys (Chen & Wu, 1994), comb. n. Adelurola amplidens (Fischer, 1966) and Adelurola asiatica Telenga, 1935 are recorded for the first time from Iran and Kyrgyzstan, respectively. PMID:27047244

  6. Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first…

  7. SCO Management System Certification Research Class Opens in Beijing

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Management System Certification Research Class formally opened in Beijing on September 6, 2007. The research class was attended by government officials and experts in the fields of industry, commerce,environmental protection,statistics, standardization,metrology, detection and certification from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.

  8. Uranium, radium and radon level on territory of Western Mining-Chemical Combine of Mailuu-Suu town (Kyrgyz Republic)

    Full text: During realization of research work on International Cooperative Program in area of trans-boundary monitoring of the rivers between the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and the USA (project 'Navruz') it was established that the possible source of contamination of the Aral Sea basin on territory of Kyrgyzstan can be a waste deposit of the Western Mining-Chemical combine (WMChC, Mailuu-Suu town). In particular, it was shown, that the uranium content in the Mailuu-Suu river near WMChC reaches 3.1·10-6 g/l, and on boundary with Uzbekistan - 1.8·10-6 g/l. It is necessary to note that the uranium content in potable waters of a Chu valley is almost one order higher, than in the river Mailuu-Suu. On territory of Uzbekistan in the Mailuu-Suu river the uranium content is 2·10-5 g/l, as well as in waters of Chu valley in Kyrgyzstan. The reasons of increase of uranium level on territory of Uzbekistan cannot be uniquely connected with the WMChC activity. Is this increase of technogenic or natural origin, is Kyrgyzstan a supplier of radioactive wastes for Uzbekistan or not? The report represents new materials on uranium and radium content in soils washed by waters of the river Mailuu-Suu and on the content of radon in the air around WMChC

  9. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140805Fan Baocheng(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,China Geology Survey,Xi’an710054,China);Meng Guanglu The Geological Evolution and Metallization of TalasKalatawu Block in Northern Tianshan,Kyrgyzstan(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(2),2013,p.54-

  10. Local Budget Transparency and Participation : Evidence from the Kyrgyz Republic

    Esenaliev, Damir; Kisunko, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates determinants of civic participation in local budget processes in rural areas in the Kyrgyz Republic by using data from the Life in Kyrgyzstan survey, conducted in 2012. The analysis of the data suggests that although civic awareness and interest in local budget processes is relatively high, the participation rate in local budgeting processes is low. The paper also sh...

  11. Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasus and Central Asia

    Full text: Following the First Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late nineteen-ninetieth, TAEK, besides the cooperation with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Scientific Organisations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

  12. Geomigration model of uranium transfer

    Data on geologic structure and radiation environment in the vicinity of the tailings storage facility (TSF) of Kara-Balta uranium hydrometallurgical factory in Kyrgyzstan were used to design a mathematical model of physical processes of wind erosion from the surface of TSF. Numerical calculations have been performed to describe prevalence of contamination due to wind erosion in the environs of Kara-Balta

  13. Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone and the Collective Security Treaty

    In February 1997 Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan decided to establish Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone (CANWFZ). As a matter of fact, negotiations on establishing that zone started in 1998 when Kyrgyzstan proposed draft basic element of a treaty on CANWFZ. After almost two years rather successful work on drafting the treaty, since April 2000 no meetings take place between diplomats of the five Central Asian states. It is recognized by many experts that it is the Tashkent 1992 Collective Security Treaty (CST) which caused a deadlock. Usually CST is interpreted as allowing the deployment of Russian nuclear weapons on the territory of the CST member states, for example, of Kazakhstan. However, more detailed analysis shows, that CST cannot a serious obstacle for creating CANWFZ

  14. Empirical Analysis of Kyrgyz Trade Patterns

    Elvira KURMANALIEVA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Being naturally located between two big markets in Europe and Asia, Kyrgyzstan together with other Central Asian countries does not have a direct access to sea ports. Landlockedness limits volumes of international trade and creates obstacles for economic growth. Results of statistical analysis show that Kyrgyz trade neither follows Heckscher-Ohlin model nor intra-industry trade model. Another finding is that open and liberal trade policy of Kyrgyzstan has a large positive effect on trade volumes, suggesting that bilateral trade will expand markedly if country continues liberalization of its trade policy with other countries. Quality of infrastructure and transportation costs play a crucial role for landlocked countries and a free trade agreement with other countries looks like a good opportunity to overcome natural barriers and diversify their trade.

  15. The diffusion of Revolutions. A Comparison of regime turnovers in 5 Countries

    Fenger, Menno

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The recent wave of revolutions or near-revolutions in Serbia, Georgia, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine shared the following characteristics: they were triggered by stolen elections, they were the result of massive but non-violent demonstrations, and the opposition united behind a single, often charismatic, leader. This article combines two theoretical perspectives on the recent revolutions in South-Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a state failure perspective that focuses ...

  16. Empowerment Perceptions of Employees in Hotel Enterprises

    Şenol ÇAVUŞ; Nasiykat MAMBETOVA

    2015-01-01

    The concept of empowerment, which is applicable for any social group that the person belongs to, is an essential phenomenon for continuity and success of the organization. The main purpose of this study is to determine the empowerment perceptions of employees in hotel industry. The research was conducted in four and five star hotels that operate in the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, and 170 employees were reached at those hotels. Empowerment ...

  17. Banking system in Kyrgyz Republic

    Sagbansu, Lutfu

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concepts are essential for avoiding harmful problems, development stable and solvent banking system. These developments include the more effective regulation of the entry and exit of banks, removal of ob...

  18. Regional Cooperation in Central Asia & Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    2005-01-01

    @@ Of all the post-Soviet states, the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan experienced at the dawn of independence the most acute crisis in regime-building, economic self-support and security assurance. The risk of marginalization derived from inborn weakness of geo-political seclusion coupled with widening gap with the world mainstream has caused widespread concern.

  19. Music Piracy in Transitional Post-Soviet Economies: Ethics, Legislation, and Expertise

    Liza Rybina

    2011-01-01

    The growing development of Internet technologies in the world has created vast opportunities for illegal downloading and pirating of music. The purpose of the study is to examine the influence of social norms and ethics, perceived risk of personal harm, and consumer expertise of file-sharing on digital piracy in post-Soviet economies. A total sample of 226 respondents from Russia, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan is used to examine factors influencing intentions to pirate digital music. The study r...

  20. Existenzsicherung und Risikomanagement im ländlichen Raum Nordkirgistans

    Wenzel, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    For a large part of the rural population of Kyrgyzstan, life is characterized by insecurity, poverty and vulnerability to natural hazards. Since its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, this Central Asian country has undergone a rapid process of transformation, encompassing all levels of society. This has resulted in drastic changes in the livelihoods of the population due to the new political, economic and social conditions. This study is based on poverty and development research, ...

  1. Labour Migration from Central Asia to Russia : State Management of Migration

    2012-01-01

    Russia has become a large scale recipient of labour migrants from Central Asia. Unemployment and low wages in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan have made people travel north to what used to be the centre of the former Soviet Union – a state entity that these now independent states, a little more than some 20 years ago, all belonged to. Currently, Russia is facing a demographical crisis with dramatic population decline especially among the working-age group of the population. As such, acce...

  2. The Impact of Turkey’s Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how Turkey's domestic resources, which are Turkey's historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey's economic interests in the region, affect Turkey's foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics' interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic ...

  3. Income and Distribution Effects of Migration and Remittances: an Analysis Based on CGE Models for Selected CIS Countries

    Atamanov, Aziz; Luecke, Matthias; Omar Mahmoud, Toman; Mogilevsky, Roman; Tereshchenko, Kseniya; Tourdyeva, Natalia A.; Uzagalieva, Ainura; Vavryschuk , Vitaly

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the direct and indirect income effects of international labor migration and remittances in selected CIS countries. The analysis is based on computable general equilibrium (CGE) models for Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia. All net emigration countries would experience a sharp contraction of private consumption in the absence of remittances. In Russia, the main effect of immigration has been to hold down the real wage (as potential capital stock adjustments ...

  4. CENTRAL ASIA: ECONOMIC COOPERATION POTENTIAL

    Rakhmatullina, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The Central Asian republics are rich in energy resources: three of them (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan) can boast of oil and gas deposits, while the other two (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have vast hydropower potential. This means that harmonized energy policy designed to meet their demands in energy, energy exports, and stronger positions in ensuring international energy security makes sense. By the same token, these countries can, potentially, develop metallurgy, machine building,...

  5. CENTRAL ASIA AS A REGIONAL SECURITY COMPLEX

    Klimenko, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    According to the Failed States Index developed by the Foreign Policy magazine, for the last five years three of the CA states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, have been among the 60 weakest states in the world. Turkmenistan “left” this group only in 2011. Kazakhstan is the only CA state, which has been considered to be a relatively sustainable state. Despite this alarming statistics, the region gave the impression of relative stability. There have not been any major conflicts in CA si...

  6. ‘Through their Eyes’ – The photo exhibition

    Karat

    2011-01-01

    Through their Eyes is a photo exhibition put together by Karat in order to address socio-economic situation of women from Albania, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Macedonia, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Serbia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The artists submitting their works were invited to show their own vision of the economic situation of women in their countries in order to challenge existing stereotypes related to the socio-economic situation of women and to depict the re...

  7. Drivers of Exchange Rate Dynamics in Selected CIS Countries: Evidence from a FAVAR Analysis

    Dreger, Christian; Fidrmuc, Jarko

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the likely sources of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) over the last dec-ade (1999-2010). Evidence is based on country VARs augmented by a regional com-mon factor structure (FAVAR model). The models include nominal exchange rates, the common factor of exchange rates in the CIS countries, and international drivers such as global trade, share prices, and oil price. Global, regional and idiosyncrati...

  8. International Conference 'Uranium legacy of Soviet Union in Central Asia: problems and way forward' Proceedings

    The goal of the conference is to discuss safe management of uranium mill tailings, remediation activities foreseen under Eurasian Economic Community in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, existing problems and ways forward. A conference on this topic in Tajikistan with the support of the International Science and Technology Center and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority is relevant and very important taken into account foreseen remediation activities starting from 2013.

  9. Mineral Resources of Chinese Altay and Tianshan: Metallogeny and Related Tectonic Processesm—A field workshop of IGCP-473

    MaoJingwen; ReimarSeltmann; RichardJ.Goldfarb

    2004-01-01

    A workshop of the IGCP-473 was held in Xinjiang, northwestern China, from August 9-21. It was attended by more than 70 scientists, including 29 from outside of China, i.eUnited States, Canada, Australia, Japan,Russia, United Kingdom, South Africa,Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan, and Khazakstan. The workshop was superbly organized by a team led by Prof. Mao Jingwen of Institute of

  10. THE FAMILY IN POWER: A NEW PAST FOR AN OLD COUNTRY

    Shukuralieva, Narciss

    2011-01-01

    The Bakiev family, which remained in power in Kyrgyzstan for five years, relied on formal and informal methods to rule the country and never hesitated to violate the division of power principle. To tighten their grip on power, its members held forth about their noble ancestry and distorted the past to secure the future. The Tulip Revolution, officially recognized as a popular revolution and a protest against the corrupt authoritarian regime, was described as a turning point in the country’s h...

  11. La décollectivisation dans les montagnes d'Asie centrale (Tadjikistan, Kirghizstan) : Transformations agricoles et crise sociale

    Thorez, Julien

    2006-01-01

    Texte d'auteur avant la mise en page par la revue Post-soviet transformation is a time of radical change for societies and spatial organisation in Central Asian mountains. In Kyrgyzstan as in Tajikistan, the decollectivisation and disorganisation of the planned economic system led to an agricultural crisis (livestock, etc.). In some Kyrgyzstani's valleys, some adaptations to the new economic and territorial context are developing, but the expansion of autoconsumption reveals the pauperisat...

  12. Assessment of radon and gamma in Kurday mining site, Kazakhstan.

    Pandey, Uddav

    2012-01-01

    The present work is based on the data obtained from expeditions to Kurday, Kazakhstan in 2006 performed by Joint Norwegian- Kazakhstan – Kyrgyzstan- Tajikistan project in collaboration with the NATRO RESCA project. The former uranium mining and processing site Kurday, located in Zambyl region in southern Kazakhstan is rich in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) and technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORMs). It has been recognized...

  13. Taxonomic study of Central Asian species of the genus Macropsis Lewis, 1836 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae). I: Redescriptions of willow-dwelling species from West Tien Shan Mountains.

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2013-01-01

    Macropsis abdullaevi Dubovskiy, 1966 = M. arslanbobica Dlabola, 1967 syn. nov., M. ibragimovi Dubovskiy, 1966 and M. asiatica Dubovskiy, 1966 from West Tien Shan Mts. (Kyrgyzstan) are redescribed and illustrated based on material from type localities or/and adjacent territories. M. tarbagataica Mityaev, 1971 from Kazakhstan is recorded from West Tien Shan for the first time. Data on host plants and male vibrational calling signals for all species considered are provided. PMID:26171543

  14. Inanspruchnahme von Impfungen bei Eltern in Kirgisistan : Empfehlungen für die Impfpolitik

    Manas K. Akmatov

    2009-01-01

    - Background Vaccination is one of the most successful and effective tools for preventing infectious diseases. However, despite the well-established benefits of vaccinations many children in different regions of the world remain unvaccinated. - Objectives The aim of this dissertation was to describe a vaccination process in a transitional country, using the example of Kyrgyzstan. Among the specific aims of this dissertation was an analysis of factors associated with children's vaccin...

  15. The politico-institutional foundation of economic transition in Central Asia: Lessons from China

    Ahrens, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Central Asia is increasingly the focus of intense international attention because of its geopolitical and economic importance as well as its unsettled transition processes. Central Asian countries, i.e., Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, faced enormous challenges when the Soviet Union disintegrated. Overall, they have made rudimentary progress in opening up to the international community, creating market institutions, and building more inclusive, democratic pol...

  16. Yttrium and rare earth element contents in seamount cobalt crusts in the Indian Ocean

    Balaram, V.; Banakar, V.K.; Subramanyam, K.S.V.; Roy, P.; Satyanarayan, M.; RamMohan, M.; Sawant, S.S.

    , including rare earth elements (REEs) in adequate quantity. REEs are critical constituents to many of the world’s most advan- ced technologies such as defence metallurgy, consumer electronics, medical applications, etc. More than 97% of the world’s REE... ore production is from mines in China, which have restricted their exports recently for reasons unknown. Other countries with notable production are Brazil, India, Kyrgyzstan and Malaysia. Mainly, mona- zite from beach placers is mined in India...

  17. Drillers and mill operators in an open-pit gold mine are at risk for impaired lung function

    Vinnikov, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Background Occupational studies of associations of exposures with impaired lung function in mining settings are built on exposure assessment and far less often on workplace approach, so the aim of this study was to identify vulnerable occupational groups for early lung function reduction in a cohort of healthy young miners. Methods Data from annual screening lung function tests in gold mining company in Kyrgyzstan were linked to occupations. We compared per cent predicted forced expiratory vo...

  18. Local budget transparency and participation : evidence from the Kyrgyz Republic

    Esenaliev, Damir; Gregory Kisunko; Kisunko, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates determinants of civic participation in local budget processes in rural areas in the Kyrgyz Republic by using data from the Life in Kyrgyzstan survey, conducted in 2012. The analysis of the data suggests that although civic awareness and interest in local budget processes is relatively high, the participation rate in local budgeting processes is low. The paper also shows that interest, awareness, and participation are positively associated with the age, education, employ...

  19. Shangajská organizace pro spolupráci

    Wiesner, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan are members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization - organization working in the Central Asia area. First part of this thesis is focused on the history of the organization, the structure and the member states. Security and the influence of the organization on security in Central Asia represent the second part. In the final part the economic cooperation ot the members is depicted.

  20. DYNAMICS OF RUSSIAN-KYRGYZ RELATIONS: FROM THE CENTER-PERIPHERY TO UNILATERAL DEPENDENCE?

    Horák, Slavomír

    2007-01-01

    By Central Asian standards, Kyrgyzstan is a relatively small country. Its natural riches are limited to gold and water resources; other than that it has nothing to offer on the global and regional scale, which explains its insignificant geopolitical weight. Tucked away in a corner of the region, it is isolated from the main routes of Asian freight turnover and its mountains make transit unprofitable (especially compared with its neighbors). It cannot deal on an equal footing with its large ne...

  1. Mass-balance reconstruction for Glacier No. 354, Tien Shan, from 2003 to 2014

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a reconstruction of the seasonal mass balance of Glacier No. 354, located in the Akshiirak range, Kyrgyzstan, from 2003 to 2014. We use a distributed accumulation and temperature-index melt model driven by daily air temperature and precipitation from a nearby meteorological station. The model is calibrated with in situ measurements of the annual mass balance collected from 2011 to 2014. The snow-cover depletion pattern observed using satellite imagery provides additional i...

  2. Communication received from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation to the Agency concerning a statement of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation

    The Agency has received a communication dated 30 August 2005 from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation, attaching a statement by the heads of State of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan adopted at the Moscow session of the Collective Security Council of the Collective Security Treaty Organization on 23 June 2005. The communication from the Russian Federation and, as requested therein, its attachment, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  3. Rediscovery Of Tephritis kogardtauica (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Korneyev S. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A species, previously known from a short description based on the holotype lost in the bombing of Hamburg before description, T. kogardtauica Hering, 1944, was collected recently in great numbers in the Middle East, from Iran to Kyrgyzstan; it is redescribed, and the neotype is designated. Th e flies were found to infest flower heads of Inula stenocalathia (Rech. f. Soldano, I. peacockiana (Aitch. & Hemsl. Korovin, and I. grandis Schrenk ex Fisch. & C. A. Mey.

  4. Role of Wheat in Diversified Cropping Systems in Dryland Agriculture of Central Asia

    SULEIMENOV*, Mekhlis; AKHMETOV, Kanat; KASKARBAYEV, Zheksembay; KIREYEV, Aitkalym

    2005-01-01

    Wheat is major crop in dryland agriculture of Central Asia. In most cases both spring wheat and winter wheat are grown in rotation with summer fallow. Studies were conducted in order to identify alternative crops which possibly could replace part of summer fallow and part of wheat area. Summer fallow was found inefficient practice for soil moisture accumulation in semiarid steppes of northern and southern Kazakhstan as well as in Kyrgyzstan. Many alternative crops were identified in all zones...

  5. Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products

    T.D. Doolotkeldieva

    2010-01-01

    Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flo...

  6. Long-run validity of purchasing power parity and rank tests for cointegration for Central Asian Countries

    Liew, Venus Khim-Sen; Chia, Ricky Chee-Jiun; Ling, Tai-Hu

    2009-01-01

    This study finds that Purchasing Power Parity holds in the long-run for Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, based on Breitung’s (2001) rank tests for cointegration. Results from further analysis indicates that nominal exchange rates and relative prices are nonlinearly interrelated. Trade barriers, transportation costs and government intervention in the pricing system in these countries may have resulted in the establishment of the above-mentioned nonlinear relationship.

  7. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN CENTRAL ASIAN MASS MEDIA RESEARCH

    Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The end of the Cold War represented an apparent victory for NATO, capitalism, free enterprise, and democracy over the Warsaw Pact, Marxism-Leninist communism, and the Russian-Soviet empire. In 1991, five newly independent republics of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) emerged from the wreckage of that watershed event. Each new government proclaimed its commitment to free enterprise economic systems and democratic governance. Western democracies, n...

  8. Template Revolutions: Marketing U.S. Regime Change in Eastern Europe

    Sussman, Gerald; Krader, Sascha

    2008-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2005, Russia-allied governments in Serbia, Georgia, Ukraine, and (not discussed in this paper) Kyrgyzstan were overthrown through bloodless upheavals. Though Western media generally portrayed these coups as spontaneous, indigenous and popular (‘people power’) uprisings, the ‘color revolutions’ were in fact outcomes of extensive planning and energy ─ much of which originated in the West. The United States, in particular, and its allies brought to bear upon post-communist state...

  9. Temporal dynamics of a jökulhlaup system

    F. Ng; S. Liu

    2009-01-01

    Recurring jökulhlaups from ice-dammed lakes often form irregular time sequences that are seemingly unpredictable. Using the flood dates of Merzbacher Lake, Kyrgyzstan, as an example, we study these sequences through a model of lake filling and drainage where flood events initiate at a threshold water depth. Even with a constant threshold, model simulation can explain key aspects of the Merzbacher flood sequence. General analysis of model dynamics reveals a pacing mechanism that links one floo...

  10. Outlook on non-proliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkish speaking countries

    Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 nuclear power plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, great efforts were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the first Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join to European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasian Region. So, there are significant developments in cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owning to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's TAEK, besides the cooperation with various countries, has involved to cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for

  11. Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among turkish speaking countries

    Full text: Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 Nuclear Power Plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non proliferation of nuclear weapons, great affords were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides the co operations with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and

  12. Loneliness: its correlates and association with health behaviours and outcomes in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Andrew Stickley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU--a region where loneliness has been little studied to date. METHODS: Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries--Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine--in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress. RESULTS: The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova. CONCLUSIONS: Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU.

  13. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  14. Cleaning up a toxic legacy: Environmental remediation of former uranium production sites in Central Asia

    Nearly 60 abandoned uranium production sites dot the landscape and represent a hazard to the environment and inhabitants throughout rural Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Each site poses a challenge for local and national governments that lack technical expertise and resources for remediation. The sites were used to produce uranium until the 1990s. They were built before proper regulatory infrastructure was in place to ensure eventual decommissioning, so leftover residues with long-lived radioactive and highly toxic chemical contaminants still pose substantial risks to the health of the public and the environment

  15. Communication dated 11 September 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 11 September 2006, from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the IAEA regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006 in Semipalatinsk by the leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the enclosed information regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  16. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  17. Favorable climatic regime for maintaining the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan

    Fujita, K.; Takeuchi, N.; S.A. Nikitin; A. B. Surazakov; Okamoto, S; V. B. Aizen; Kubota, J.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007) of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Relative carrier-phase GPS surveys reveal a vertical lowering at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the current state are 289 mm and −3.8 °C at the glacier summit (46...

  18. Slope stability monitoring from microseismic field using polarization methodology

    Yu. I. Kolesnikov

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of seismoacoustic emission (SAE associated with fracturing in zones of shear stress concentration shows that SAE signals are polarized along the stress direction. The proposed polarization methodology for monitoring of slope stability makes use of three-component recording of the microseismic field on a slope in order to pick the signals of slope processes by filtering and polarization analysis. Slope activity is indicated by rather strong roughly horizontal polarization of the respective portion of the field in the direction of slope dip. The methodology was tested in microseismic observations on a landslide slope in the Northern Tien-Shan (Kyrgyzstan.

  19. Re-analysis of seasonal mass balance at Abramov glacier 1968–2014

    Martina Barandun; Matthias Huss; Leo Sold; D. Farinotti; Erlan Azisov; Nadine Salzmann; Ryskul Usubaliev; Alexandr Merkushkin; Martin Hoelzle

    2016-01-01

    Abramov glacier, located in the Pamir Alay, Kyrgyzstan, is a reference glacier within the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers. Long-term glaciological measurements exist from 1968 to 1998 and a mass-balance monitoring programme was re-established in 2011. In this study we re-analyse existing mass-balance data and use a spatially distributed mass-balance model to provide continuous seasonal time series of glacier mass balance covering the period 1968–2014. The model is calibrated to season...

  20. From Neighbors To Partners

    2007-01-01

    China and Central Asian nations are both benefiting from closer economic,political and social ties This year marks the 15th anniversary of China’s establishment of diplomatic relations with five Central Asian countries—Uzbekistan,Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan. After becoming independent upon the breakup of the Soviet Union, they established and developed stable and sustainable ties with China on a brand new basis. Now, with close cooperation in various fields, China and Central Asian countries have become friendly and cooperative partners.

  1. Processes and trends of the land use change in Aksu watershed in the central Asia from 1960 to 2008

    2010-01-01

    Land use change (LUC) in trans-boundary watersheds is of great importance to environmental assessment. The Aksu River is the largest trans-boundary river crossing Kyrgyzstan and China,but there was little information on the LUC of the watershed. We quantitatively investigated the processes and trends of its LUC by using analytic models based on the land use data derived from the remote sensing images and topographic maps. The LUC was in the quasi-balanced status with a slight difference between the loss and the gain of the area for most land use types during the period of 1960-1990,whereas transferred to the unbalanced status with significant difference between the loss and gain of the area during the period of 1990-2008. At the same time,land conversion direction changed from two-way transition to one-way transition for the most land use types. The integrated rate of net change of land use during the period of 1990-2008 is 2.1 times of that during the period of 1960-1990. Information on the processes and trends of LUC is valuable for better understanding the environmental changes across the whole trans-boundary watershed,and helpful to decision-making management for Kyrgyzstan and China.

  2. How accreditation stimulates business school change: evidence from the Commonwealth of independent states

    Yelena Istileulova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is scarce or almost non-existing research on changes that take place in business schools in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS. Changes in CIS business schools (B-schools are influenced by different external factors (e.g. socioeconomic system, market forces, financial crisis, demographic problems, changes in policies of higher education; influence of the Bologna process. On the other hand, B-schools in the CIS need to make internal changes to gain the external accreditation. We look into the nature of change processes taking place in CIS B-schools, observing them through the prism of ongoing external accreditation processes. The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of the accreditation process on CIS B-school changes. We used a comparative analysis based on the study of 22 Bschools from four countries (Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. We discovered that these changes refer to introducing more strict entrance requirements, strengthening financial resources, and improving efforts to reach the accreditation standards. Moreover, schools have to review their mission, decrease their student-to-faculty ratio, introduce measurement metrics for learning goals, and internationalise their programs. The advanced B-schools in Russia and Kazakhstan usually start with an international programme accreditation, and then move to an institutional one. The trend has begun spreading to schools from non-Bologna countries like Belarus, but it is still a long-time agenda item for Kyrgyzstan.

  3. JOURNALIST AS A POLICY IN CONDITIONS OF GLOBALIZATION KYRGYZ SOCIETY

    Jibek Toktobaeva Abdikerimova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the activities of the journalist as a politician in the context of globalization of information space , a separate section, the authors examined the role of the journalist as a policy to strengthen the stability and consolidation of society , as well as the thesis deals with the process of development and improvement of information policy in Kyrgyzstan.Purpose identify the features of the interaction of journalism and the political sphere in the activities of the journalist as a policy of democratization of Kyrgyz society.Methodology. The study used a multidisciplinary approach. The paper discusses various aspects: philosophical, politological, sociological, historical, and others. This research study used a systematic approach to the problem of the media in the political system, the relationship and interaction of journalism and politics. The paper applied consistently dialectical, historical, sociological and other approaches.Results. The results marked the theoretical and practical background activity of a journalist in the political sphere, identified and disclosed the impact of journalism on the political culture of personality and studied the main activities of the journalist as a politician in the context of globalization of information spacePractical implications. Can be used in determining the priorities of the state information policy, the preparation of documents and regulations by government agencies, in the work of parliament to improve legislation in the sphere of mass media of Kyrgyzstan.

  4. Climate- vs. Earthquake-induced Rock-Glacier Advances in the Tien Shan: Insights from Lichenometry

    Rosenwinkel, Swenja; Landgraf, Angela; Korup, Oliver; Sorg, Annina

    2014-05-01

    Rock glaciers have been traditionally used as landform proxies of the distribution of sporadic alpine permafrost. In the northern Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan, most distinct lobes of >200 rock glaciers that we mapped from satellite imagery occur at two major elevation levels. However, a number of particularly low-lying lobes seem difficult to reconcile with palaeoclimatic fluctuations and commensurate changes of permafrost patterns: The minimum elevation of the majority of rock-glacier snouts lies between ~2500 up to ~3700 m a.s.l., but some 10% of rock-glaciers extend down to well below 3000 m a.s.l. We hypothesize that some of the rock glaciers in this area may have formed following strong earthquakes that could have triggered massive supraglacial rock-slope failures, which would have subsequently created sediment-rich rock glaciers from clear-ice glaciers. Our hypothesis is based on the observation that the tectonically active northern Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan was affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and earliest 20th centuries, e.g. in 1885 (Ms 6.9), 1887 (Ms 7.3), 1889 (Ms 8.3), and 1911 (Ms 8.1). All of these earthquakes had triggered numerous landslides in the northern Tien Shan. It is also likely that similarly strong earthquakes had happened before, but their recurrence intervals are long and more palaeoseismological work is in progress. We test whether lichenometry of rock-glacier surfaces together with morphometric analysis are suitable methods to testing our hypothesis. We focus on assessing the possibility of earthquake-triggered rock-glacier advances, and use lichenometry to resolve age patterns of different rock-glacier lobes. We use a dataset of several thousand lichen diameter measurements encompassing seven different species calibrated by gravestones and dated mass-movement deposits. Data on four single and two merging rock glaciers in four selected valleys in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan support the notion

  5. Ekonomik Büyümenin Belirleyicileri ve 2008 Krizi: Orta Asya Ülkeleri ve Türkiye Ekonomisi İçin Panel Veri Analizi(The Determinats of Economic Growth and 2008 Crisis: Panel Data Analysis for Central Asia Countries and Turkey’s Economy

    Mehmet MERCAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the determinants of economic growth and the effects of 2008 global economic crisis on growth were analysed by using 1990-2012 periods’ annual data in the sample of Turkey and Central Asia Countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The 2008 crisis started in the USA in mid-2008 in mortgage markets and also affected the financial markets and the reel sector and it spread all over European Countries (EU and the world from September 2008 and it caused a shrink in world economy by 2.3 % and distorted the macroeconomic balances of countries including in particular the economic growth. According to the empirical findings of the analysis the government expenditures, the export and the private consumption expenditure in order made the most contribution to the countries’ economic growth. Effect of the crisis on economic growth was negative and statistically significant.

  6. HOLY KYRGZS’S CALPACK / KUTSAL KIRGIZ KALPAĞI

    Dr. Metin ARIKAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Calpack, in today’s Kyrgyzstan, is not only defined as a head craftwore in towns which is remembered barely during national and religiousbairams but also it emerged as a concrete sample of Kyrgyz nationalphilosophy, which has been kept alive from mythological era to epic era andfrom epic era to present day by the colors it involved and the motifs itcarried. Irregardless of the social statues, calpacks can be observed on nearlyall Kyrgyz men’s heads and even this particular feature of calpack makes itan important element to analyze not only for Kyrgyz culture but also for thecommon Turkish culture. Our aim is to determine the various values ofcalpack which have been survived from past to present.

  7. Archaeoseismological studies and structural position of the medieval earthquakes in the South of the Issyk-Kul depression (Tien Shan)

    Korzhenkov, A. M.; Kol'chenko, V. A.; Luzhanskii, D. V.; Abdieva, S. V.; Deev, E. V.; Mazeika, J. V.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Rodina, S. N.; Rodkin, M. V.; Fortuna, A. B.; Charimov, T. A.; Yudakhin, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    We carried out archaeoseismological studies in the Southern Issyk-Kul region (Kyrgyz Tien Shan) and obtained radiocarbon datings of the collected samples. These data suggest that the sources of strong earthquakes have occurred in this territory in the 11th and (probably) 16th centuries. These earthquakes had magnitude M ≥ 7 and seismic intensity of at least I ≥ 9. The sources of these earthquakes were associated with the local adyr (piedmont) faults—components of the Pre-Terskei border fault. Our results demonstrate considerable underestimation of the seismic hazard for the South Issyk-Kul region in the latest Seismic Zoning Map of Kyrgyz Republic (2012), which should be taken into account in the construction of the new seismic zoning map for Kyrgyzstan.

  8. Contesting danger

    Heathershaw, John; Megoran, Nick

    2011-01-01

    of danger is contested within the region. The example of urban violence in Osh, Kyrgyzstan and Jalalabad, Afghanistan in 2010 demonstrates how opportunities to mitigate conflict may have been lost due to the distortions of this discourse of danger. It concludes by raising the challenge to policy...... and subsequent considerations of the region in terms of the war on terror. It considers several examples of this discourse of danger including the popular US TV drama about presidential politics, The West Wing, the policy texts of ‘Washingtonian security analysis’ and accounts of danger, insecurity and urban...... violence in the Ferghana Valley. It is argued that popular policy and academic texts are relatively consistent across the three dimensions of endangerment. This argument is demonstrated through a discussion of how policy-making and practice is informed by this discourse of danger and of how the discourse...

  9. Update: malaria, U.S. Armed Forces, 2011.

    2012-01-01

    U.S. service members are at risk of malaria when they are assigned to endemic areas (e.g., Korea), participate in operations in endemic areas (e.g., Afghanistan, Africa) and visit malarious areas during personal travel. In 2011, 124 service members were reported with malaria. Nearly three-fourths of cases were presumably acquired in Afghanistan (n=91) and one-fifth were considered acquired in Africa (n=24). One-quarter of cases were caused by P. vivax and one-fifth by P. falciparum (including 6 Afghanistan-acquired infections); most cases were reported as "unspecified" malaria. Malaria was diagnosed/reported from 51 different medical facilities in the United States, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Iraq, Germany and Korea. Providers of care to military members should be knowledgeable regarding and vigilant for clinical presentations of malaria outside of endemic areas. PMID:22309389

  10. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries.

    Sharov, Petr; Dowling, Russell; Gogishvili, Megi; Jones, Barbara; Caravanos, Jack; McCartor, Andrew; Kashdan, Zachary; Fuller, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Using a global database of contaminated sites, toxic hotspots in eight former Soviet countries were analyzed to identify the prevalence, types and sources of toxic pollution, as well as their associated potential public health impacts. For this analysis, polluted sites in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were compiled and analyzed. The levels of contamination of seven key pollutants were assessed in each country. 424 contaminated sites were identified using data from Blacksmith Institute. Pesticides, lead (Pb), radioactive metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly identified key pollutants. Collectively, these sites pose health risks to an estimated 6.2 million residents. The existing data on toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries likely captures only a small percentage of actual contaminated sites, but suggests potentially severe public health consequences. Additional assessments are needed to understand the risks posed by toxic pollution in the region. PMID:26796744

  11. Central Asia earthquake catalogue from ancient time to 2009

    Natalya N. Mikhailova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the seismic catalogue compiled for Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan in the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA project. The catalogue from 2000 B.C. to 2009 A.D. is composed by 33,034 earthquakes in the MLH magnitude (magnitude by surface waves on horizontal components widely used in practice of the former USSR countries range from 1.5 to 8.3. The catalogue includes both macroseimic and instrumental constrained data, with about 32,793 earthquake after 1900 A.D. The main sources and procedure used to compile the catalogues are discussed, and the comparison with the ISC-GEM catalogue presented. Magnitude of completeness analysis shows that the catalogue is complete down to magnitude 4 from 1959 and to magnitude 7 from 1873, whereas the obtained regional b value is 0.805.

  12. Health conditions among workers who participated in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident

    People who took part in the Chernobyl accident cleanup have been registered upon their return to Kyrgyzstan since 1991, and their children since 1992. Later, citizens affected by the Semipalatinsk and Chelyabinsk contamination incidents were included for registration and health care purposes. The effects of the nuclear waste depositories in the Mailuu-Suu region were examined with the assistance of the Kansas University Medical Center (United States of America). All these investigations of affected people indicated apparent increases in a number of symptoms and illnesses when compared to the rest of the population. Samples sizes ranged from several hundred to several thousand. Above-normal radiation levels and/or the stress and fear of living in contaminated areas can lead to significant increases in nervous disorders, cardiovascular diseases and other problems. The most significant increase was in the suicide rate. 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  13. The Border Issue in Eurasia. Comparative Analysis of Central Asian, Russian-Chinese and Russian-Japanese Experience

    Akihiro Iwashita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the pessimistic forecasts regarding the resolution of border disputes in Central Asia and the Russian-Chinese relations, the parties have managed to develop an effective approach to the settlement of their territorial disputes. The article analyzes the cases of Russia and China, as well as disputes between China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Japan. Countries have developed a so-called "fifty-fifty" model to resolve their territorial disputes. At the same time, an on-going conflict between Russia and Japan over the islands poses a number of threats, and such a strategy seems to be useless. However, the author concludes that a border issue no longer plays a key role in international relations.

  14. Political Regimes in Central Asia: Crisis of Legitimacy, Political Violence and Uncertain Prospects

    Mohammad-Reza Djalili

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the present-day transition and political context of each of the states that comprise the former Soviet region of Central Asia since their independence: the internal changes they have undergone, the creation of their own institutions and regional and international relations. This evolution, especially with regard to the deficiencies in democracy and legitimacy of the majority of the current governments, based, in many cases, on personalist, authoritarian regimes, points to an uncertain future for a region in which, too frequently, its rulers have used all the means at their disposal (persecution of political opposition, disregard for human rights, constraint of the mass media and NGOs, etc. to guarantee their continuance in power. This article also includes an analysis of the most recent events, such as the Andijan (Uzbekistan massacre, the‘revolution’ without changes in Kyrgyzstan, and the authoritarian drift of Turkmenistan, which leads to conclusions filled with uncertainties for future political scenarios.

  15. Tectono-Stratigraphic framework and Palaeozoic evolution of the Chinese South Tianshan

    Alexeiev, D. V.; Biske, Yu. S.; Wang, Bo; Djenchuraeva, A. V.; Getman, O. F.; Aristov, V. A.; Kröner, A.; Liu, Hongsheng; Zhong, Linglin

    2015-03-01

    A stratigraphic and structural study was carried out in the central part of the Chinese South Tianshan (STS) within a 50-100 km-wide transect centered on the Dushanzi-Kuqa road (83°-85° E). Our data elucidate the tectonic structure and evolution of the Palaeozoic sedimentary basin, document overthrust structures in the late Carboniferous-early Permian orogenic belt and suggest correlations between the western and eastern segments of the STS in Kyrgyzstan and China. We recognise a series of lithotectonic units in the study area that have different stratigraphic characteristics and were formed within (a) continental margin and slope of the Kazakhstan continent, (b) Turkestan (South Tianshan) ocean, (c) intra-oceanic carbonate sea-mounts, which at least partly evolved on top of an extinct island arc, (d) a back-arc oceanic-crust basin, (e) external deeper marine and internal shallow-marine areas of the Tarim shelf and (f) Tarim craton. The overall structure of the basin was similar within Kyrgyzstan and China. The main distinction of the western areas is a lack of ophiolites on the southern flank of the belt, a poorly expressed arc in the axial part, and a more complicated facial setting of the central area, where carbonate banks were separated by deeper marine depressions with cherty deposits. The eastern sector is defined by a continental arc that evolved on the northern margin of the Tarim craton in the Silurian and became separated from the continent in the latest Silurian-early Devonian. There is also a middle Palaeozoic metamorphic belt on the southern flank of the STS. A pre-Carboniferous unconformity, previously assumed throughout the study area, is only confirmed within the continental massifs of Kazakhstan and Tarim. As in the western areas, the unconformity does not exist within the STS. Continuous sedimentation in the STS occurred from the Early Devonian to the early Bashkirian in marginal parts of the belt and up to Gzhelian age in the axial part

  16. FEATURES OF SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT IN THE CIS COUNTRIES: DOES INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT AFFECT

    Nataliia Viktorovna Ostapenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of small businesses at the national level through a comparative analysis between the former Soviet countries – Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan. These countries are comparable by the previous path dependence (the period of the USSR, communism, by the position of the geographical location, as well as by similarity of cultural development. As can be seen from the analysis, which was conducted in article, the quantitative characteristics of small business development in the above countries are similar, based on the dependence on foreign markets and conditions in national economies. However, qualitative indicators of small business development in these countries are different. These differences can be attributed to the activities of the institutional environment (formal and informal institutions and its impact on the national economy. Conclusions about the effectiveness of quality of development of small business sector through the analysis of its contribution to the national economy are done.

  17. A Comparison of Foreign Direct Investments in Eurosian Countries to World Trend in the Period of 1995 - 2011

    Hayri Tuzla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The world which rapidly globalizes and where the boundaries diminish day by day, the foreign direct investments affect many diverse macroeconomic variables, specifically economic growth and unemployment. Most current studies support that there exists a strong causality relationship between foreign direct investments and economic growth.On the other hand, there exists a weaker positive causality relationship between economic growth and foreign direct investments. Moreover, it is an undeniable fact that the economic growth leads to a decline in unemployment. This study aims to compare the foreign direct investment trends of seven Eurasian countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan in the period of 1995 and 2011. The results are compared to both the world foreign direct investment trend and the other Central Asian countries.

  18. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic

    Petr Dolejš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies, of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereua wilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobius alenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobius corrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; L. creticus Dobroruka, 1977; L. erythrocephalus mohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; L. evae Dobroruka, 1958; L. magurensis Dobroruka, 1971; L. purkynei Dobroruka, 1957; L. tatricus Dobroruka, 1958; L. tatricus monounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobius homolaci Dobroruka, 1971; M. krali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymerium dilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; P. hanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendra aztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamia olympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan. The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid.

  19. Field Investigations on Snow Leopards

    2006-01-01

    @@ The snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is a rare and endangered species of large feline animals. Although sharing its name with the common leopard, it is not believed to be closely related to the leopard or the other members of the Pantherine group and is classified as the sole member of its genus. Its total number in the world is generally estimated at somewhere between 3,500 to 7,000, and experts say the figure is far more outdated. Although it is believed that China is home to more snow leopards than any of the other 11 countries in which they occur, such as Afghanistan, India, Pakistan,Tajikistan, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia, no one knows exactly how many of them are there in this country.

  20. Quantifying landscape resilience using vegetation indices

    Eddy, I. M. S.; Gergel, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape resilience refers to the ability of systems to adapt to and recover from disturbance. In pastoral landscapes, degradation can be measured in terms of increased desertification and/or shrub encroachment. In many countries across Central Asia, the use and resilience of pastoral systems has changed markedly over the past 25 years, influenced by centralized Soviet governance, private property rights and recently, communal resource governance. In Kyrgyzstan, recent governance reforms were in response to the increasing degradation of pastures attributed to livestock overgrazing. Our goal is to examine and map the landscape-level factors that influence overgrazing throughout successive governance periods. Here, we map and examine some of the spatial factors influencing landscape resilience in agro-pastoral systems in the Kyrgyzstan Republic where pastures occupy >50% of the country's area. We ask three questions: 1) which mechanisms of pasture degradation (desertification vs. shrub encroachment), are detectable using remote sensing vegetation indices?; 2) Are these degraded pastures associated with landscape features that influence herder mobility and accessibility (e.g., terrain, distance to other pastures)?; and 3) Have these patterns changed through successive governance periods? Using a chronosequence of Landsat imagery (1999-2014), NDVI and other VIs were used to identify trends in pasture condition during the growing season. Least-cost path distances as well as graph theoretic indices were derived from topographic factors to assess landscape connectivity (from villages to pastures and among pastures). Fieldwork was used to assess the feasibility and accuracy of this approach using the most recent imagery. Previous research concluded that low herder mobility hindered pasture use, thus we expect the distance from pasture to village to be an important predictor of pasture condition. This research will quantify the magnitude of pastoral degradation and test

  1. Active Seismicity and Tectonics in Central Asia from Seismological Data Recorded in the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountain Ranges

    Sippl, Christian; Schurr, Bernd; Schneider, Felix M.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mechie, James; Minaev, Vladislav; Abdybachaev, Ulan A.; Gadoev, Mustafo; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon

    2010-05-01

    Active tectonics in the Pamir mountains in central Asia, the westernmost part of the India-Eurasia collision zone, are controlled by ongoing convergence (about 20 mm/yr), causing substantial crustal shortening and compressional deformation. This leads to high seismicity rates throughout the region. Whereas seismic activity along the rim of the Pamir plateau is mostly compressional and concentrated along the Main Pamir Thrust, the distribution and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in its interior are more diffuse, with extensional events occurring along North-South trending rift zones (Kara Kul, Wachan). Seismicity in the south-western Pamir and in the Hindu Kush features frequent intermediate-depth earthquakes, reaching hypocentral depths of 300 km, which is rare for regions not obviously related to active subduction of oceanic lithosphere. These mantle earthquakes, which are not observed beneath the Himalayas and Tibet further east, form a rather well-defined Wadati-Benioff zone that was readily interpreted as subducted lithosphere present below the current collisional orogen. Earlier seismological studies showed the presence of a northward-dipping lithospheric slab under the Hindu Kush and a southward-dipping one beneath the Pamirs, with a small seismic gap in-between. Different hypotheses concerning the nature of these slabs (oceanic or continental lithosphere) and tectonic geometry in general (two slabs subducting in opposite directions or a single, hugely contorted slab) have been proposed in literature. Political instability in the region in the last two decades hampered on-site studies and field work, leaving many key issues poorly understood. In the framework of the multidisciplinary project TIPAGE (Tien Shan Pamir Geodynamic Programme), for the first time, new field campaigns collecting high quality data have been made possible. Local seismicity in the Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan) is currently being recorded by a temporary

  2. Preliminary results from receiver function analysis in a seismological network across the Pamir

    Schneider, Felix M.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Sippl, Christan; Schurr, Bernd; Mechie, James; Minaev, Vlad; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gadoev, Mustafo; Abdybachaev, Ulan A.

    2010-05-01

    The multi-disciplinary TIen Shan-PAmir GEodynamic (TIPAGE) program aims to investigate the dynamics of the orogeny of the Tien Shan and Pamir mountains, which are situated in south Kyrgyzstan and east Tajikistan in Central Asia. Deformation and uplift accompanied by crustal thickening is mainly induced by the collision between the Indian and Eurasian continental plates. As a local feature this collision provides the world's largest active intra-continental subduction zone. Within the framework of the TIPAGE program we operate a temporary seismic array consisting of 32 broadband and 8 short period seismic stations for a period of two years (from 2008 to 2010) covering an area of 300 x 300 km over the main part of the central Pamir plateau and the Alai-range of the southern Tien Shan. In the first year 24 broadband stations were set up in a 350-km long north-south profile geometry from Osh in southern Kyrgyzstan to Zorkul in south-eastern Tajikistan with approximately 15 km station spacing. We perform a receiver function (RF) analysis of converted P and S waves from teleseismic earthquakes at epicentral distances of 35-95 degrees with a minimum magnitude of 5.5. Therefore we decompose their wavefields by rotating the coordinate systems of the recorded seismograms from a N,E,Z into a SH,SV,P system. RFs are isolated by deconvolution of the P-component from the SH- and SV-component. They provide a robust tool to locate discontinuities in wave velocity like the Moho and thus represent the method of choice to determine crustal thickness. First results show a crustal thickness of 70-80km. Xenolith findings from depths of 100km reported by Hacker et al. (2005) give indication for even higher values. The N-S profile geometry will produce a high resolution RF image to map the gross crustal and lithospheric structure. In addition a 2D network with additional 16 stations will enable an investigation of lateral structure variation. We give an introduction to the project and

  3. Climatic and Hydrological Changes of Past 100 Years in Asian Arid Zone

    Feng, Zhaodong; Salnikov, Vitaliy; Xu, Changchun

    2014-05-01

    The Asian Arid Zone (AAZ) is here defined to include the following regions: northwestern China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Generally speaking, the AAZ has experienced a temperature rising during the past 100 years that was significantly faster than the global average (0.14 ºC per decade). Specifically, the rate was 0.39 ºC per decade in northwestern China (1950-2010), 0.26 ºC per decade in Kazakhstan (1936-2005), 0.22 ºC per decade in Mongolia (1940-2010), 0.29 ºC per decade in Uzbekistan (1950-2005), 0.18 ºC per decade in Turkmenistan (1961-1995). It should be noted that the mountainous parts of AAZ seems to have experienced a slower rate of temperature rising. For example, the rate was 0.10 ºC per decade in Tajikistan (1940-2005) and was 0.08 ºC per decade in Kyrgyzstan (1890-2005). Precipitation has a slight increasing trend in northwestern China, but it has fluctuated along a near-constant line in the rest of the AAZ. Hydrological data from high-elevation basin show that the runoff has been increasing primarily as a result of rising temperature that caused increases in ice melting. A natural decreasing trend of surface runoff in low-elevation basins is undeniable and the decreasing trend is attributable to intensified evaporation under warming conditions. It is true that the total amount of runoff in the Tianshan Mountains and the associated basins has been increased primarily as a result of temperature rising-resulted increases in ice melting. But, approaching to the turning point of glacier-melting supplies to runoff will pose a great threat to socio-economic sustainability and to ecological security. The turning point refers to the transition from increasing runoff to decreasing runoff within ice melting supplied watersheds under a warming climate.

  4. Predicting the volume of investments into capital assets in the industry of Kyrgyz Republic

    Tatyana Vladimirovna Palagina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to define the demand and predict the required volume of investments into capital assets of industrial sector of economy in Kyrgyz Republic. Results the article analyzes the dynamics of renewing the capital assets in the industrial sector of economy in Kyrgyzstan in the recent decade. Basing on the analysis of dynamics and actual condition of capital assets the author predicts the volume of investments into the capital assets taking into account the hypothesis on preserving the existing trends of renewing the capital assets.nbsp The influence is revealed of the level of deterioration of capital assets on the amount of investments expressed as the ratio of investment volume to the production volume. It is defined that reaching the predicted volumes of investment will keep the deterioration level at not more than 43. Scientific novelty for the first time the article predicts the investment volume basing on the balance model and extrapolation of mean values of renewal and retirement of capital assets in the recent decade 20032012 reveals the dependence of the deterioration level and capital assets investment norm. Practical value the main conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and educational activity in practical calculations and planning capital investments. nbsp

  5. Reduction of Radiometric Miscalibration—Applications to Pushbroom Sensors

    Sigrid Roessner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework—Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME—considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data.

  6. Management of environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia

    Sustainable waste management and disposal is a societal challenge in terms of economics, public health and environmental impact. The situation in developing countries, and in particular those subject to extreme natural hazards, results in increased overall risk as governments prioritize investments to issues of perceived higher economic importance. This dissertation investigates environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia. Environmental risk from municipal solid waste landfill sites encompasses a wide range of topics within socio-economics, physical sciences and engineering and therefore necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach. The underlying study is an accumulative result of a three-year collaborative research project (Contract No. INCO-CT-2005-516732) funded within the Eu Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). The international cooperation involved European, Russian and Central Asian research partners forming a multi-disciplinary consortium covering: GIS technologies, geology / hydrogeology geophysics and geotechnical engineering; landfill design and operation and waste management. understanding the relevant socio-economic aspects and legislative frameworks was necessary to prepare results and recommendations to address stakeholders in the Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and uzbekistan. (author)

  7. Remediation project planning at the uranium production legacy sites. Lesson learned from the best international practice and challenges for developing countries - 59043

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The former Soviet Union countries such as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine, where uranium production legacy sites are located (such as mines, waste rock piles, pits, chemical and hydrometallurgical plants, tailing dumps, etc.) are currently facing the challenge of making these objects environmentally safe. These countries share a common history of the uranium mining and milling industry, similar regulatory shortcomings and uncertainties regarding the strategy justification for such remediation projects. They also have to deal with scarcity of financial resources for long-term remediation programmes, and lack of experience with planning and management of environmental remediation projects at former uranium production sites. In the recent years, IAEA-supported programmes of international technical co-operation (the projects RER/0986 and RER/3010) were advancing actively, as well as those sponsored by the UNDP, EurAsEC and others, all aiming to assist with the preparedness and performance of future remediation projects. As demonstrated by analysis, effectiveness of the many programmes largely depends on the nations' level of preparedness to carry out remediation projects in accordance with the international standards. This paper presents the lessons learned from analyses of the different type of projects, which were already implemented or which are still in plan in different countries

  8. Central Asia: A major emerging energy player in the 21st century

    Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term. (author)

  9. The Impact of Turkey's Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Turkey's domestic resources, which are Turkey's historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey's economic interests in the region, affect Turkey's foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics' interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic states are the closer the foreign relations are between Turkey and the Turkic states is applicable to all five republics. In the field of business the study finds that Turkish economy follows a similar pattern in its relations with the Azerbaijani and the Central Asian market. Common policy goals of Turkey and the five states led Turkey to establish close foreign relations with these five regional countries. The hypothesis that the more Turkey has business interests in the Caspian Sea Region the more Turkey will have closer foreign relations with Turkic states is mostly apparent in the case of Azerbaijan. In the area of energy politics Turkey has its strongest link with Azerbaijan. Besides being strong economic partners Turkey is Azerbaijan's biggest supporter in the region against Armenia.

  10. Cooperação e poder: a Organização de Cooperação de Shangai como expressão da política externa chinesa para a Ásia Central

    Andréa Freire Lucena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan established the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. This international organization represents the first Chinese initiative in building an international security organization. This article aims to study the Chinese Foreign Policy for Central Asia from the perspective of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. We seek to answer how this international organization enables the Chinese state to achieve its interests in Central Asia. / No início do século XXI, Cazaquistão, China, Quirguistão, Rússia, Tajiquistão e Uzbequistão criaram a Organização de Cooperação de Shangai. A proeminência dessa organização internacional está no fato de ela representar a primeira iniciativa chinesa na construção de um organismo internacional de segurança. O presente artigo tem por objetivo estudar a Política Externa Chinesa para a Ásia Central sob a ótica da Organização de Cooperação de Shangai. Como problemática, busca- se responder de que maneira essa organização internacional possibilita ao Estado chinês atingir seus interesses na região centro asiática.

  11. The Impact of Turkey’s Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Turkey’s domestic resources, which are Turkey’s historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey’s economic interests in the region, affect Turkey’s foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics’ interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic states are the closer the foreign relations are between Turkey and the Turkic states is applicable to all five republics. In the field of business the study finds that Turkish economy follows a similar pattern in its relations with the Azerbaijani and the Central Asian market. Common policy goals of Turkey and the five states led Turkey to establish close foreign relations with these five regional countries. The hypothesis that the more Turkey has business interests in the Caspian Sea Region the more Turkey will have closer foreign relations with Turkic states is mostly apparent in the case of Azerbaijan. In the area of energy politics Turkey has its strongest link with Azerbaijan. Besides being strong economic partners Turkey is Azerbaijan’s biggest supporter in the region against Armenia.

  12. Vulnerability to Poverty in select Central Asian Countries

    Raghbendra Jha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the extant literature either income or consumption expenditures as measured over short periods of time have been regarded as a proxy for the material well-being of households. However, economists have long recognized that a household's sense of well-being depends not just on its average income or expenditures, but also on the risks it faces and its ability to deal with these risks. Hence vulnerability is a more satisfactory measure of welfare. In this study we used the concept of vulnerability as expected poverty to assess the household vulnerability to poverty in four Central Asian countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Except for Tajikistan, headcount poverty and vulnerability rates are significantly different. We also find that vulnerability differs significantly across households by location and selected household characteristics. In this paper we use a simple empirical measurement that allows estimating the headcount vulnerability to poverty using cross-section data. This measurement is based on the strong assumption that households have the same conditional distribution of consumption in a stationary environment. While this approach cannot capture all dimensions of vulnerability, it at least begins to raise the policy issue that vulnerability should be considered alongside poverty.

  13. Seismoacoustic responses to high-power electric pulses from well logging data at the Bishkek geodynamical test area

    Zakupin, A. S.; Bogomolov, L. M.; Mubassarova, V. A.; Il'ichev, P. V.

    2014-09-01

    The results of recording seismoacoustic emission (SAE) in the boreholes of the Bishkek geodynamical test area in Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, are presented. The spectral structure of SAE signals and the pattern of variations in SAE intensity during electromagnetic (EM) sounding of the Earth's crust by the highpower ERGU-600-2 generator unit are studied. The statistical methods for SAE data processing are adjusted for the problem of revealing the correlations between SAE responses and pulsed electrical impacts (i.e., energy input into the medium). The response of the medium to EM soundings, which are conducted for monitoring the apparent resistivity of the rocks, is revealed. The response of the medium manifests itself as the increase in SAE intensity (the responses to the electric current pulses generated during the soundings). The SAE responses belong to the same group of the effects (the signs of external forcing of rock destruction) as the variations in seismicity during the runs of the geophysical magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) generators in 1983-1989 or experimental soundings in 2000-2005. The sources of SAE signals are located at shallow depths, near the geophone installation place. This accounts for the difference between the variations in SAE intensity and microseismicity in response to the same impact.

  14. Rapid advance of two mountain glaciers in response to mine-related debris loading

    Jamieson, Stewart S. R.; Ewertowski, Marek W.; Evans, David J. A.

    2015-07-01

    Rapid glacier advance is known to occur by a range of mechanisms. However, although large-scale debris loading has been proposed as a process for causing rapid terminus advance, it has rarely been observed. We use satellite remote sensing data to observe accelerated glacier terminus advance in response to massive supraglacial loading on two glaciers in Kyrgyzstan. Over a 15 year period, mining activity has led to the dumping of spoil of up to 180 m thick on large parts of these valley glaciers. We find that the termini of these glaciers advance by 1.2 and 3.2 km, respectively, at a rate of up to 350 m yr-1. Our analysis suggests that although enhanced basal sliding could be an important process, massive supraglacial loads have also caused enhanced internal ice deformation that would account for most, or all, of the glacier terminus advance. In addition, narrowing of the glacier valley and mining and dumping of ice alter the mass balance and flow regime of the glaciers. Although the scale of supraglacial loading is massive, this full-scale experiment provides insight into glacier flow acceleration response where small valley glaciers are impacted by very large volumes of landslide debris.

  15. Investigation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central Asia and Caucasus

    Full text: Various threats to civilization such as natural and man-induced catastrophes, international terrorism, ecological imbalance, global climate change and others hazards have been recently increased in number. Today catastrophic processes are notable for a high degree of organization The humankind has faced the majority of hazards for the first time; therefore, there are no analogues and recipes to be used for their solving. Catastrophe risk have increased so much and joint efforts of the entire world immunity are required. One of the most effective ways to solve the issue can be estimation of risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes. Here we pay attention to the main regions, having the high seismic activities, where it is possible to stimulate natural calamities in this way or cause man-induced catastrophes with huge negative effects of international scale in Central Asia and Caucasus: Uranium, antimony and mercury tailing storages in Tian-Shan mountains. The possible terrorism acts here create the serious danger for Russian and USA military air bases, functioned near large Kyrgyzstan capital Bishkek city. The large Hydroelectric Stations with their huge dams and reservoirs, located near big industrial cities, different natural mines tailing storages, including Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Polygon in East Kazakhstan

  16. Genomic Characterization of Yogue, Kasokero, Issyk-Kul, Keterah, Gossas, and Thiafora Viruses: Nairoviruses Naturally Infecting Bats, Shrews, and Ticks.

    Walker, Peter J; Widen, Steven G; Firth, Cadhla; Blasdell, Kim R; Wood, Thomas G; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2015-11-01

    The genus Nairovirus of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses includes the important emerging human pathogen, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), as well as Nairobi sheep disease virus and many other poorly described viruses isolated from mammals, birds, and ticks. Here, we report genome sequence analysis of six nairoviruses: Thiafora virus (TFAV) that was isolated from a shrew in Senegal; Yogue (YOGV), Kasokero (KKOV), and Gossas (GOSV) viruses isolated from bats in Senegal and Uganda; Issyk-Kul virus (IKV) isolated from bats in Kyrgyzstan; and Keterah virus (KTRV) isolated from ticks infesting a bat in Malaysia. The S, M, and L genome segments of each virus were found to encode proteins corresponding to the nucleoprotein, polyglycoprotein, and polymerase protein of CCHFV. However, as observed in Leopards Hill virus (LPHV) and Erve virus (ERVV), polyglycoproteins encoded in the M segment lack sequences encoding the double-membrane-spanning CCHFV NSm protein. Amino acid sequence identities, complement-fixation tests, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses cluster into three groups comprising KKOV, YOGV, and LPHV from bats of the suborder Yingochiroptera; KTRV, IKV, and GOSV from bats of the suborder Yangochiroptera; and TFAV and ERVV from shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae). This reflects clade-specific host and vector associations that extend across the genus. PMID:26324724

  17. Feast or famine: 1992 spot market review

    There was nothing temperate about the uranium spot market in 1992. It was a year of extremes. Demand took off at a brisk pace early in the year as utilities, enticed by low U3O8 prices and interest rates, stepped up their discretionary purchases. With the NUKEM price range sinking to an all-time low of US$6.75-7.70 in November 1991, utilities reckoned that prices had bottomed out and decided to buy and hold material. Indeed, the upper end of NUKEM's range remained below $8.00 per lb for much of the first half of 1992. The main cause of low prices was the flood of imports from the crumbling Soviet Union and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]. The CIS republics quickly embraced a free-market philosophy to boost their faltering economies, and several hoped to use uranium as a source of badly-needed hard currency. But they were about to get a harsh introduction to capitalism. It came in the form of government intervention, in both the US and Europe. In May, the US Department of Commerce made its preliminary determination that the uranium-producing republics of the CIS were selling material in the US at less than fair market value. The antidumping case was eventually settled in October when the CIS republics [Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan] signed suspension agreements subjecting CIS origin uranium to price and quantity quotas in the US

  18. 10 points about buying C.I.S

    On October 16, 1992, the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) settled the antidumping case against the CIS republics by imposing price and volume quotas on CIS uranium imported into the United States. Bound by a suspension agreement, each of the six uranium-producing CIS republics is responsible for restricting the flow of imports to the US-either directly or indirectly. (As the NUKEM Market Report went to press, the Ukraine government notified the DOC of its intent not to terminate the suspension agreement.) This action is to prevent undercutting price levels in the US domestic uranium markets. What follows are ten points about everything you should know about importing uranium from the uranium-producing CIS republics- Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Newcomers to the CIS scene should follow this simple roadmap and be aware of the issues they face as importers in terms of Commerce/Customs requirements and documentation and where to get them, when to buy the material and how to transport it, how to deal effectively with CIS exporters, and how to avoid unnecessary complications when buying CIS

  19. 'Navruz' International project - the first results

    'Navruz' international project is subjected to purpose of a transparency increase for the Central Asia countries in the nuclear sphere and incorporates 4 states: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.The project is supported by the Sandia National Laboratory of USA Department of Energy. The representative from Kazakhstan in this project is the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (INP of NNC RK). The gist of the project comprises in ecological and radiation monitoring of the Amu-Darya and Syrdarya rivers, those aquatories are adjoined to all these listed participant-counters. The project duration is 2 years. Each country defines 15 control points on their territory. Two times a year (in spring and autumn) on these points the environment objects the sampling (water, soil, bottom sediments, plants) will be selected for further examination. There are natural radionuclides (236Ra, 228Th, 210Pb, 137Cs, 90Sr, 239Pu, 241Am) and toxic impurities (U, Pb, Se, Sb, As, Be and others) used for controlled parameters for examined objects. As administrators of analytical works two organizations (INP of NNC RK, Almaty, Kazakhstan) and INP AN RUz (Tashkent, Uzbekistan)) were determined. In the paper the field works results of the first expedition (November-December 2000) of the INP of NNC RK and analytical works of selected samples of the environmental objects were presented

  20. Music as Illness; Music as Healing.

    Pritchard, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    Throughout the Soviet Union, the arts became tied to ethnicity through the project of Socialist Realism. When, in 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic became independent from the Soviet Union, its national narrative continued to be built upon tropes of Kyrgyz ethnicity. Through their engagement with images of the ethno-national self, the arts provide a great source of beauty. Defining beauty as a representation of the self that is pure whole, and stable, Julia Kristeva asserts that beauty and suffering are part of the same phenomena. Arthur Kleinman argues that suffering is best understood as existing within the triangulated relationship of cultural representation, collective experience, and subjectivity. Music too is part of this triangulated relationship, and therefore, a part of suffering. Drawing upon ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in Kyrgyzstan, this article explores the illness experience of a single Kyrgyz musician. In doing so, it illustrates music's role in self-formation and the development of social, economic, and political ties and the shifts that occur in these during illness. In drawing forth the role of music in the construction of racialized ethnicities, this article demonstrates how the experience of transformative beauty can coexist with turmoil, marginalization, and violence. PMID:25394694

  1. The Impacts of Political Terrorism on Gross Domestic Product in Eurasia: A Spatial Data Analysis

    Huseyin ALTAY

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate impact of political terrorism on GDP for Eurasia region countries by using spatial statistics in the period of 1996-2013. For this purpose, quantile maps, Moran’s Scotterplots, LISA (Local Indicators of Spatial Association statistics are performed. We firstly found that there are the negative impacts of political terrorism on GDP. Secondly, countries as Iceland, Ireland, UK, Portugal, Spain, Norway, Sweden, Italy, Austria, Czech Rep., Denmark, Slovenia, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxemburg, Switzerland, Finland, and Netherland are determined as the strongest positive attraction centers in all Europe countries. Thirdly, Asian countries as India, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Tajikistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar are obtained as the strongest negative attraction centers for Asia. The rest of countries in Asia have been negatively affected by these negative attraction centers. Finally, for the big part of Asia (exclude countries as Japan, South Korea regions, political terrorism is one of the biggest factors of poorness and weakness of per capita GDP

  2. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region. PMID:26254293

  3. Los retos de la cooperación regional en Asia central: Más sombras que luces en la gestión de los recursos hídricos compartidos

    Mar Campins Eritja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the situation in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tayikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan is an interesting excercice in order to analyze the evolution of the international environmental security concept. As an exemple of how environmental changes may come to acquire an entity such as to be perceived as a threat when they combine with inequitable allocation of resources, we focus on shared water resources management. The framework at international level should be the two main instruments in this field, the 1992 Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes and the 1997 Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. On the one hand, Central Asian States have shown only a weak commitment to these international regimes. On the contrary, they have prioritized the former URSS’s model of water and energy exchange. This model, as being unsustainable and inequitable, favors the extreme dichotomy between the two major competing uses of water in the region (irrigation and hydropower production. On the other hand, some sub-regional institutions served to clarify the articulation of water management structures. However, because of important issues on their internal organization, they have not been able to achieve their mission and their efforts seems to be directed to seek stability and the status quo in Central Asia.

  4. Seismic triggering of landslides. Part B: Simulation of dynamic failure processes

    H.-B. Havenith

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From field observations it is possible to establish correlations between geological conditions and landslide occurrence. However, in general, it is difficult to assess the affect of individual factors on slope instability because of their mutual interaction. In addition, the dynamic effect of propagating seismic waves significantly increases the complexity of the slope stability problem. Wave diffraction, reflection and focusing effects are dependent on local geological conditions and make it difficult to analyse dynamic sliding mechanisms using field observations alone. As a consequence, in order to examine the influence of various geological and seismic factors on slope movements, it is often necessary to produce numerical models. This paper describes the results of such models as applied to two case studies in Kyrgyzstan: the Ananevo rockslide, located in granite, and the Suusamyr debris slump-flow, situated within soft sediments (see Part A: Havenith et al., 2003. Discrete element modelling (UDEC, adapted both to the discontinuous character of fractured rock and to the heterogeneity of layered mediums, was used. This permitted simulation of deformation mechanisms, including seismically induced bending, block tilting, and slip. Particular attention was paid to the interaction between deformation mechanisms, site-specific amplification effects, and subsurface structure.

  5. Seasonal deuterium excess in a Tien Shan ice core: Influence of moisture transport and recycling in Central Asia

    Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.; Aizen, V.B.; DeWayne, Cecil L.; Synal, H.-A.

    2003-01-01

    Stable water isotope (??18O, ??D) data from a high elevation (5100 masl) ice core recovered from the Tien Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan, display a seasonal cycle in deuterium excess (d = ??D - 8*??18O) related to changes in the regional hydrologic cycle during 1994-2000. While there is a strong correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ??18O and ??D in the ice core samples, the regression slope (6.9) and mean d value (23.0) are significantly different than the global meteoric water line values. The resulting time-series ice core d profile contains distinct winter maxima and summer minima, with a yearly d amplitude of ???15-20???. Local-scale processes that may affect d values preserved in the ice core are not consistent with the observed seasonal variability. Data from Central Asian monitoring sites in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) have similar seasonal d changes. We suggest that regional-scale hydrological conditions, including seasonal changes in moisture source, transport, and recycling in the Caspian/Aral Sea region, are responsible for the observed spatial and temporal d variability.

  6. Favorable climatic regime for maintaining the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan

    K. Fujita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007 of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Relative carrier-phase GPS surveys reveal a vertical lowering at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the current state are 289 mm and −3.8 °C at the glacier summit (4600 m a.s.l., respectively. The good agreement between dynamically derived precipitation and the long-term observed precipitation at a nearby station in the Tien Shan (296 mm at 3614 m a.s.l. for the period 1930–2002 suggests that the glacier has been in a near steady-state in terms of mass supply. The glacier mass-balance, reconstructed based on meteorological data from the Tien Shan station for the past 80 yr, explains the observed fluctuations in glacier extent, particularly the negative mass balance in the 1990s.

  7. Climate Change Increases Drought Stress of Juniper Trees in the Mountains of Central Asia.

    Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935-2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia. PMID:27100092

  8. After dumping agreement: A two-tiered market?

    In its largest increase since July 1990, the NUKEM price range for this month ended up at $9.50-$10.50. On October 16th, destined to become a landmark date in uranium industry history, the republics of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine and the Russian Federation signed quantitative restraint agreements with the US Department of Commerce. Predictably, prices jumped significantly as sellers withdrew from the market. With Commerce's initial calculation of a $7.95 market price for determining the level of CIS imports over the next six months, it appears quite certain that prices for non-CIS origins will continue to rise. (CIS imports can only begin when Commerce determines that the market price has hit $13). There is the possibility that a two-tiered market could emerge in the future with lower prices being paid for CIS origins by those utilities not affected by Euratom or Commerce restrictions. However, at this point, most potential buyers falling into this category have opted to maintain a wait-and-see approach

  9. Halal banking in post-soviet central Asia: Antecedents and consequences

    Bilal Ahmad Malik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the fall of Soviet Union in 1991 the whole Central Asian region perceived a considerable rise in Muslim identity, a call back to Islamic legacy. Nowadays, lots of Central Asian Muslims need to be aware of what Islam has termed legal (Halal and illegal (Haram. The process of Islamic revival occurred rapidly soon after the unification of Central Asian republics with other Muslim geographies through the membership of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC and other similar organizations. This interaction tended to be an essential push factor to the previously existing indigenous reviving trends and sentiments. Besides many other needs, Muslim customer demand appeared as navel movement in the market generally and in banking and financial sector particularly. To satisfy this need, the governments of Muslim majority Central Asian states, namely Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan presented Halal banking and financial goods in the market. In this work, it has been attempted to recognize the causes that lead to the emergence of Islamic banking and finance industry in the region and also to investigate the effect of these causes considering the development and progress of Halal banking and financial industry.

  10. Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation in Central Asia

    Uranium ore is a naturally occurring radioactive material which is often regarded as something separate to NORM due to its place at the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Uranium mining and processing was a significant industry in the Central Asian countries of the former Soviet Union. When the Soviet Union broke up in 1989 these countries gained their independence but the uranium mining industry now had to try and survive in a new economic environment. In Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan this proved too great a challenge. Production stopped and sites were simply abandoned with little or no attention paid to remediation. Skilled personnel departed and both physical and regulatory infrastructure decayed. Consequently, the legacies of the former times remained throughout Central Asia to become an issue of considerable concern to many. The sites were generally uncontrolled and the NORM residues from the mining and processing were a source of environmental contamination which also threatened public health in a number of ways. In recent years there has been considerable activity by a number of international agencies and Governments working towards solutions for these issues. Much of the effort has been undertaken by the IAEA and this paper describes the original situation, the development of remediation strategies and the various remediation related projects, their outcomes to date, and plans for the future in both the political and scientific arenas. (author)

  11. Assessment of Local Biodiversity Loss in Uranium Mining-Tales And Its Projections On Global Scale

    Sharshenova, D.; Zhamangulova, N.

    2015-12-01

    In Min-Kush, northern Kyrgyzstan there are 8 mining tales with an estimate of 1 961 000 tones of industrial Uranium. Local ecosystem services have declined rapidly. We analyzed a terrestrial assemblage database of Uranium mine-tale to quantify local biodiversity responses to land use and environmental changes. In the worst-affected habitats species richness reduced by 95.7%, total abundance by 60.9% and rarefaction-based richness by 72.5%. We estimate that, regional mountain ecosystem affected by this pressure reduced average within-sample richness (by 17.01%), total abundance (16.5%) and rarefaction-based richness (14.5%). Business-as-usual scenarios are the widely practiced in the region and moreover, due to economic constraints country can not afford any mitigation scenarios. We project that biodiversity loss and ecosystem service impairment will spread in the region through ground water, soil, plants, animals and microorganisms at the rate of 1km/year. Entire Tian-Shan mountain chain will be in danger within next 5-10 years. Our preliminary data shows that local people live in this area developed various forms of cancer, and the rate of premature death is as high as 40%. Strong international scientific and socio-economic partnership is needed to develop models and predictions.

  12. Transition in Central Asia: Growth with Increasingly Greater Inequality?

    Max Spoor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the economic evolution of the former Soviet states of Central Asia since their independence, especially in regard to growth and in comparison with growing inequality. The following topics are considered: first of all, the initial conditions in whichthe economic transition of these countries began; secondly, the transformations of widely varying scope (different “routes of transition” that these economies have experienced, from an almost non-reform (Turkmenistan or a gradual or partial reform (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, to a large-scale reform (Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan; and thirdly, the economic performance of the Central Asian states, which, with the exception of Uzbekistan, has been quite poor and has generated what we could call two kinds of “duality”: one which is generated by the expansion of extracting industries (oil, gas and metals, to the detriment of other sectors fundamental to the countries’ development, and another one originating from the growingunequal distribution of income among the population. While the first of these “dualities” cannot be maintained as a long-term development strategy, the second one could culminate in social agitation and instability, even in the medium term, which could contribute to thedestabilisation of the already fragile and volatile region of Central Asia.

  13. Overcoming data scarcity: Seasonal forecasting of reservoir inflows using public domain resources in Central Asia

    Dixon, Samuel G.; Wilby, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    Management of large hydropower reservoirs can be politically and strategically problematic. Traditional flow forecasting techniques rely on accurate ground based observations, a requirement not met in many areas of the globe (Artan et al., 2007). In particular, access to real-time observational data in transnational river basins is often not possible. In these regions, novel techniques are required to combat the challenges of flow forecasting for efficient reservoir management. Near real time remotely sensed information regarding flow predictors (e.g. satellite precipitation estimates) could combat data availability issues, improving the utility of seasonal reservoir inflow forecasts. This study investigates the potential for river flow forecasting using public domain resources, including satellite and re-analysis precipitation as well as climate indices for several strategically important reservoirs throughout Central Asia (including Toktogul, Andijan, Kayrakkum and Nurek). Using reservoir inflows from 2001-2010, parsimonious numerical models were created for each study site using selected significant predictors for lead times of 1-3 months as well half year averages. Preliminary investigation has shown that parsimonious statistical models can explain over 80% of the variance in monthly inflows with three month lead to the Toktogul reservoir, Kyrgyzstan (Dixon and Wilby, 2015). Such findings show promise for improving the safety and efficiency of reservoir operations as well as reducing risks emerging from climate change.

  14. Euroasian Integration Process and Effective Institutional Mechanism Creation Problems

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article "Euroasian Integration Process and Effective Institutional Mechanism Creation Problems" author investigates the problem of effective and balanced decision-making mechanism in the integration communities creation. Process of the Customs union creation on the Euroasian space began relatively long ago. Creation of such union was started by the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in the 1995. The same year Republic of Kazakhstan joined an integration process. A little later Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan joined the Customs union – in 1996 and in 1999 respectively. Author on the basis of careful study of the decision-making mechanisms in the Customs union, CIS, EurAsEC and EU, carries out the comparative analysis of the specified mechanisms. Author conducts detailed analytics, gives opinions of jurists, state and public figures, proves own opinions. On the basis of the comparative research conducted by the author the criteria of legal mechanism of decision-making in the integration process efficiency are researched and discussed, what allows to speak about the integration of the legal system. At the end of the article author draws a conclusion that coordination of sovereign desires of states in the integration community represents difficult and many-sided process which has to be based on the balanced decision-making mechanism, which is a main criterion of the institutional mechanism of integration efficiency.

  15. Gazprom: Russia's strategy

    Seventeen years after the splitting up of the Soviet empire, Russia is looking again for huge international ambitions. Its main advantage in this power search will is its energy resources. Production area, but also transit area between Asia, central Asia, Caucasus and Europe, Russia is an inevitable partner and wishes to take advantage of this strategic position. Gazprom, the hugest gas company in the world, is totally under the control of the government. Therefore, the Kremlin has made gas its main political and diplomatic weapon. Such an energetic imperialisms has strong economical and political consequences on the rest of Europe as illustrated by the recent Ukrainian crisis. The reconstruction of an energy empire similar to the one of the hottest days of the cold war worries also the USA. This study is a collective work carried out by students of the Sciences Po school of Paris in the framework of the 'international organizations' seminar given by by A.M Lizin, president of the Belgium senate and chairwoman of the human rights commission of the organization for European security and cooperation. Content: Gazprom's international strategy, Gazprom: an omnipotent gas company, Gazprom's international strategy at the service of the Russian foreign policy, Gazprom's energy stake and strategies, Gazprom and Armenia, Gazprom and Azerbaijan, Gazprom and Belgium, Gazprom and Bielorussia, Gazprom and Iberia, French position in energy stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's difficulties in Hungary, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in front of Gazprom, Gazprom and the US strategy. (J.S.)

  16. PREFACE: International Scientific Conference on Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials 2015 (RTEP2015)

    2016-02-01

    The International Scientific Conference "Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials" is a traditional representative forum devoted to the discussion of fundamental problems of radiation physics and its technical applications. The first nine conferences were held fourfold in Tomsk, Ulan-Ude (Russia), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), Tashkent (Uzbekistan), Sharm El Sheikh (Egypt), the island of Cyprus. The XI conference was held in Tomsk, Russia. The program of the Conference covers a wide range of technical areas and modern aspects of radiation physics, its applications and related matters. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: • Physical and chemical phenomena in inorganic materials in radiation, electrical and thermal fields; • Research methods and equipment modification states and properties of materials; • Technologies and equipment for their implementation; • The use of radiation-thermal processes in nanotechnology; • Adjacent to the main theme of the conference issues The conference was attended by leading scientists from countries near and far abroad who work in the field of radiation physics of solid state and of radiation material science. The School-Conference of Young Scientists was also held during the conference. The event was held with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects No. 15-02-20616.

  17. Climate Change Increases Drought Stress of Juniper Trees in the Mountains of Central Asia

    Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935–2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia. PMID:27100092

  18. Seismic tomography beneath the orogenic belts and adjacent basins of northwestern China

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional velocity images of the crust and upper mantlebeneath orogenic belts and adjacent basins of the northwestern continent of China are reconstructed by seismic tomography, based on arrival data of P wave recorded in seismic networks in Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu of China and Kyrgyzstan. The velocity images of upper crust demonstrate the tectonic framework on the ground surface. High velocities are observed beneath orogenic belts, and low velocities are observed in the basins and depressions that are obviously related to unconsolidated sediments. The velocity image in mid-crust maintains the above features, and in addition low velocities appear in some earthquake regions and a low velocity boundary separates the western Tianshan Mts. from eastern Tianshan Mts. The orogenic belts and the northern Tibetan plateau have a Moho depth over 50 km, whereas the depths of the Moho in basins and depressions are smaller than 50 km. The velocity images of upper mantle clearly reveal the colliding relationship and location of deep boundaries of the continental blocks in northwestern China, indicating a weakness of the upper mantle structure of orogenic belts. The top depth of upper mantle asthenosphere varies from place to place. It seems shallower under the northern Tibetan plateau, Altay and Qilian Mts., and deeper under the Tarim and Tianshan regions. Hot mantle probably rose to the bottom of some orogenic belts along tectonic boundaries when continental blocks collided to each other. Therefore their dynamic features are closely correlated to the formation and evolution of orogenic belts in northwestern China.

  19. Crystallographic analysis of the structure of livingstonite HgSb4S8 from refined data

    An X-ray diffraction study of mineral livingstonite (HgSb4S8) from Khaydarkan (Kyrgyzstan) has been performed on a Bruker Nonius X8Apex diffractometer with a 4K CCD detector (R = 0.031). The unit-cell parameters were found to be a = 30.1543(10) A, b = 3.9953(2) A, c = 21.4262(13) A, β = 104.265(1)o, V = 2501.7(2) A3, Z = 8, dcalcd = 5.013 g/cm3, and sp. gr. A2/a. It was confirmed that livingstonite belongs to rod-layers structures. In one type of layer, two double Sb2S4 chains are bound by disulfide groups [S2]2- (S-S 2.078(2) A); in the other type, these chains are bound via Hg2+ cations. A crystallographic analysis confirmed the existence of independent pseudotranslational ordering in the cation and anion matrices, which is characteristic of the lozenge-like structures of sulfides and sulfosalts.

  20. Central Asia: A major emerging energy player in the 21st century

    Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term

  1. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases

    T. Schöne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  2. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases

    T. Schöne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  3. Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products

    T.D. Doolotkeldieva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flour, first grade flour and high grade flour. The samples were analyzed using classical mycological and immunoassay methods in order to detect mycotoxins producing fungi species. We isolated overall 27 species belonging to 7 genera. Mycotoxins producing species like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium cyclopium were detected in the stored grains and in mechanically-cleaned grains. The species of Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium genera dominated in roughly-milled flour samples, so this site of flour manufacture still has a risk and danger of contamination with mycotoxins producing fungus. Only the final product i.e. the high grade flour lacked any fungal contamination. We recommend to scrutinize flour samples at the last stages of processing, particularly in the mills like В1, С1 and С4.

  4. National independence and nonproliferation in the new states of Central Asia

    Gleason, G.

    1993-12-01

    Five independent states emerged in Central Asia from the breakup of the USSR. One of these states, Kazakhstan, possesses nuclear weapons. The other four of these states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are not known to possess nuclear weapons, however they occupy a geostrategic position which makes them important to non-proliferation efforts. The present report profiles the capabilities and intentions of these four Central Asian states. The analysis of capabilities suggests that none of these states has the capability to develop a usable nuclear weapon. However, all of these countries-- especially Uzbekistan--have components of the old Soviet nuclear weapons complex which are now orphans. They have no use for these facilities and must either re-profile them, destroy them, or transfer them. The analysis of intentions suggests that the dynamics of national independence have created a situation in which Uzbekistan has hegemonic designs in the region. Implications for retarding nuclear proliferation in the Central Asian region are examined. Opportunities for outside influence are assessed.

  5. Tien Shan Geohazards Database: Earthquakes and landslides

    Havenith, H. B.; Strom, A.; Torgoev, I.; Torgoev, A.; Lamair, L.; Ischuk, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present new and review already existing landslide and earthquake data for a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions have been presented previously. They were compiled and new data were added to fill the gaps between the databases. Major new inputs are products of the Central Asia Seismic Risk Initiative (CASRI): a tentative digital map of active faults (even with indication of characteristic or possible maximum magnitude) and the earthquake catalogue of Central Asia until 2009 that was now updated with USGS data (to May 2014). The new compiled landslide inventory contains existing records of 1600 previously mapped mass movements and more than 1800 new landslide data. Considering presently available seismo-tectonic and landslide data, a target region of 1200 km (E-W) by 600 km (N-S) was defined for the production of more or less continuous geohazards information. This target region includes the entire Kyrgyz Tien Shan, the South-Western Tien Shan in Tajikistan, the Fergana Basin (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) as well as the Western part in Uzbekistan, the North-Easternmost part in Kazakhstan and a small part of the Eastern Chinese Tien Shan (for the zones outside Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, only limited information was available and compiled). On the basis of the new landslide inventory and the updated earthquake catalogue, the link between landslide and earthquake activity is analysed. First, size-frequency relationships are studied for both types of geohazards, in terms of Gutenberg-Richter Law for the earthquakes and in terms of probability density function for the landslides. For several regions and major earthquake events, case histories are presented to outline further the close connection between earthquake and landslide hazards in the Tien Shan. From this study, we concluded first that a major hazard component is still now insufficiently known for both types of geohazards

  6. Nuclear material in the NIS. Experience and progress in enhancing security

    The break-up of the former Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in the creation of 14 newly independent States (NIS), besides the Russian Federation. Eleven States are known to have nuclear activities (including mining activities). These are Armenia, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Three other States are known to have no nuclear activity or mining activity. These are Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Turkmenistan. All 14 States have acceded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Safeguards agreements have been signed with 12 of the States. There are nine States where a safeguards agreement is in force: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, and three States - Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia - have signed safeguards agreements which are pending ratification. Azerbaijan was the latest State to sign a safeguards agreement, in 1999. Eight States have signed the Additional Protocol. The Additional Protocol has entered into force in four of the NIS: Azerbaijan, Latvia, Lithuania, and Uzbekistan. Long before the individual NIS ratified the NPT and signed the safeguards agreements, IAEA experts and safeguards staff went on technical visits to locations where the State informed the Agency that there was nuclear material. The purposes of these visits were to advise the country on the initial inventory declarations and possible safeguards activities for each facility, to explain these activities to facility and State representatives, and to demonstrate safeguards equipment that would be used, thereby preparing the facility for eventual inspections. A wide variety of different types of nuclear facilities (uranium mining, fuel fabrication plant, commercial nuclear power plants, research reactors, and storage facilities) are located in the NIS. With most NIS becoming parties to the NPT as non-nuclear weapon States, there has been an acute

  7. Missing Millions and Measuring Progress towards the Millenium Development Goals with a focus on Central Asian States

    Roy Carr-Hill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In developing countries, population estimates and assessments of progress towards the Millenium Development Goals are based increasingly on household surveys.  It is not recognised that they are inappropriate for obtaining information about the poorest of the poor..  This is because they, typically, omit by design: those not in households because they are homeless; those who are in institutions; and mobile, nomadic or pastoralist populations.  In addition, in practice, because they are difficult to reach, household surveys will typically under-represent: those in fragile, disjointed or multiple occupancy households; those in urban slums, and may omit certain areas of a country deemed to pose a security risk. Those six sub-groups constitute a pretty comprehensive ostensive definition of the ‘poorest of the poor’. Methods This paper documents these omissions in general, drawing on worldwide literature about the theory and practice fo implementing censuses and household surveys; and shows how substantial proportions are missing from both censuses and the sample frames of surveys. Results This paper suggests that between 300 and 350 million will effectively be missed worldwide from the sampling frames of such surveys and from most censuses.  The impact on the health MDGs is illustrated for the five republics of the former Soviet Union making up Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan Conclusions It is impossible to assess progress towards or away from the MDGS in both the Central Asian Republics and worldwide.  It is urgent to find solutions to the problem of the ‘missing ‘ poor population sub-groups.

  8. Glacier Surface Monitoring by Maximizing Mutual Information

    Erten, E.; Rossi, C.; Hajnsek, I.

    2012-07-01

    The contribution of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) images compared with the single-channel SAR in terms of temporal scene characterization has been found and described to add valuable information in the literature. However, despite a number of recent studies focusing on single polarized glacier monitoring, the potential of polarimetry to estimate the surface velocity of glaciers has not been explored due to the complex mechanism of polarization through glacier/snow. In this paper, a new approach to the problem of monitoring glacier surface velocity is proposed by means of temporal PolSAR images, using a basic concept from information theory: Mutual Information (MI). The proposed polarimetric tracking method applies the MI to measure the statistical dependence between temporal polarimetric images, which is assumed to be maximal if the images are geometrically aligned. Since the proposed polarimetric tracking method is very powerful and general, it can be implemented into any kind of multivariate remote sensing data such as multi-spectral optical and single-channel SAR images. The proposed polarimetric tracking is then used to retrieve surface velocity of Aletsch glacier located in Switzerland and of Inyltshik glacier in Kyrgyzstan with two different SAR sensors; Envisat C-band (single polarized) and DLR airborne L-band (fully polarimetric) systems, respectively. The effect of number of channel (polarimetry) into tracking investigations demonstrated that the presence of snow, as expected, effects the location of the phase center in different polarization, such as glacier tracking with temporal HH compared to temporal VV channels. Shortly, a change in polarimetric signature of the scatterer can change the phase center, causing a question of how much of what I am observing is motion then penetration. In this paper, it is shown that considering the multi-channel SAR statistics, it is possible to optimize the separate these contributions.

  9. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries.

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha(-1)) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  10. The Costs of Benefit Sharing: Historical and Institutional Analysis of Shared Water Development in the Ferghana Valley, the Syr Darya Basin

    Ilkhom Soliev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions on water-energy-food nexus generally lack a historical perspective and more rigorous institutional analysis. Scrutinizing a relatively mature benefit sharing approach in the context of transboundary water management, the study shows how such analysis can be implemented to facilitate understanding in an environment of high institutional and resource complexity. Similar to system perspective within nexus, benefit sharing is viewed as a positive sum approach capable of facilitating cooperation among riparian parties by shifting the focus from the quantities of water to benefits derivable from its use and allocation. While shared benefits from use and allocation are logical corollary of the most fundamental principles of international water law, there are still many controversies as to the conditions under which benefit sharing could serve best as an approach. Recently, the approach has been receiving wider attention in the literature and is increasingly applied in various basins to enhance negotiations. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the costs associated with benefit sharing, particularly in the long run. The study provides a number of concerns that have been likely overlooked in the literature and examines the approach in the case of the Ferghana Valley shared by Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan utilizing data for the period from 1917 to 2013. Institutional analysis traces back the origins of property rights of the transboundary infrastructure, shows cooperative activities and fierce negotiations on various governance levels. The research discusses implications of the findings for the nexus debate and unveils at least four types of costs associated with benefit sharing: (1 Costs related to equity of sharing (horizontal and vertical; (2 Costs to the environment; (3 Transaction costs and risks of losing water control; and (4 Costs as a result of likely misuse of issue linkages.

  11. 投资亚洲新兴市场的机遇与挑战%Investment opportunity and challenge in Asian emerging markets

    胡永达; 雷晓力; 张福良; 杜轶伦

    2014-01-01

    印度尼西亚、哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯坦等亚洲新兴国家是我国“家门口”地区,也是“一带一路”大战略实现和落地的重要节点。这些国家和地区铜、镍、锡、石油、天然气等资源丰富,与我国资源互补性强,且这些地区尤其是中亚地区勘查程度相对较低、资源潜力大、与我国的外交关系也较好,投资机遇大,但同时因矿业勘查开发政策总体不完善,且人文环境有所差异,面临的风险也较大,投资机遇与挑战并存。%Indonesia ,Kazakhstan and kyrgyzstan are China’s neighbours and key nodes of One Belt and One Road .Also ,there are rich mineral resources such as copper ,nickel ,tin ,petroleum ,natural gas and so on ,which are deficient in China .Meanwhile ,the exploration degree of mineral resources is quite low ,with high potential in those countries or region especial in Central Asia .And China has good diplomatic relations with those countries .So ,there are large investment opportunities .Of course ,there is large risk because of incompetent mining policy ,different cultural environment and so on .

  12. Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan

    Polonium-210 in water and 210Pb and 210Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of 210Pb and 210Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of 210Po was higher than for 210Pb, and the accumulation of 210Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg−1 ww). Although the average activity concentration of 210Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25–327 Bq kg−1 ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported 210Po into the liver, and that the distributions of 210Po and 210Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for 210Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 105, >2.5 × 104 and >1.4 × 104, respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log 210Po in liver and δ15N could indicate biomagnification of 210Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for 210Po, the concentration of 210Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake

  13. The Virtual Silk Highway -- Connectivity for Central Asia and the Caucasus

    Frese, Hans

    2007-04-01

    This presentation focuses on Internet for research and education communities in the countries along the Great Silk Road, eight republics of the Former Soviet Union (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia) and Afghanistan. When the Internet became a standard science tool in the nineties, connectivity to this area was limited to analog telephone lines. The TAE fiber was installed from Istanbul via Tashkent to Shanghai, but it was based on international ISDN telephone calls at 10 per minute, unaffordable to communities with salaries of 300 per month. Satellites offered connectivity on short notice at better prices but funding by the communities was out of the question. Aid programs stepped in, connecting individual institutes across the area to the outside world. ISPs catered to those who could afford it, such as universities selling MBA courses, but Internet for research and education was lacking. In 2001, the NATO Science Programme added to its grants to institutes a multi-year program of providing a shared satellite service for international connectivity to all the countries above. National connectivity and solving the ``last mile problem'' was also funded, provided that a National Research and Education Network (NREN) organization was created in the country. SILK-1 ran 2002-6 for 3.5m providing 30Mbps west->east and 6Mbps east->west. QOS was implemented for video and audio conferencing. Co-funding by NRENs and others was established, but sustainability is still outstanding. Only recently, affordable fiber (<1k/month for 1 Mbps) is offered in parts of the area, so the RFP of SILK-2 in 2006 was issued in a technology-neutral way. No fiber bids were received, but a cheaper satellite service providing a total of 120/30Mbps for 3.5m in 2007-8. With fiber initiatives under way, it is hoped that part of SILK-2 can switch to fiber in 2009.

  14. A plan for location calibration of IMS stations and near Kazakhstan

    For purposes of monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, it is desirable to be able to locate seismic events routinely to within an uncertainty not greater than 1000 square km. From more than five years of experience with publication of the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) by the Prototype International Data Centre (PIDC), resulting in estimated locations for more than 100,000 seismic events, it is apparent that improved location accuracy is needed in order to reduce uncertainties below 1000 square km. In this paper, we outline a three-year program of applied research which commenced in March 2000 and which has the goal of achieving improved REB locations based upon data to be contributed to the International Data Centre from 30 IMS stations in Eastern Asia. Our first efforts will focus on the four IMS seismographic stations in Kazakhstan (AKT, BRV, KUR, MAK), together with IMS stations ZAL in Russia and AAK in Kyrgyzstan. Following the recommendations of two 'IMS Location Calibration Workshops' held in Oslo, Norway, in 1999 and 2000, our approach is to generate station-specific travel times for each observable seismic phase, as a function of distance and azimuth (and depth, where possible). Such travel times are obtained on the basis of (i) early studies based mainly on earthquake data (e.g. Nersesov and Rautian, 1964), (ii) Deep Seismic Sounding, and (iii) recent studies of nuclear and chemical explosions. We are also using (iv) an empirical approach in which phases are picked at IMS stations, for so-called Ground Truth events whose location is known quite accurately on the basis of additional data, obtained for example from local and regional networks. (author)

  15. Automated complex of radiation control of movement of fissile and other radioactive materials

    Full text: In the frame of grant FA-A11-F072 automated radiation control complex on the basis of multi-detector system was elaborated. The following problems were solved during the study: system configuration including standards, elemental basis, interfaces, information exchange protocols, signals, power supply units, construction details and so on. The functional schemes of constituent pars and the complex as a whole were elaborated including software algorithms and the construction of radiation monitor. In 2010 the experimental prototype of radiation control complex was manufactured and software for microcontrollers was elaborated. Long time laboratory tests of the system including temperature ones were fulfilled and the scientific technical documentation was prepared. The experimental sample of detection system of fissile and other radioactive materials was installed at Bekabad UZMETKOMBINAT enterprise. Installed system comprises two pillars of radiation portal monitor with 8 gamma detectors, power supply unit, data processing unit, commutation and interface transformation unit, indication and alarm elements, server on IBM PC basis and software. Installed system was officially commissioned in May 2011 at railway scales of enterprise, where the initial radiation control of incoming metal scrap rakes place. From this time up to now a lot of cases of elevated radiation level in the scrap coming from Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan were detected by radiation control system, the most frequent cause of alarms being 226Ra radionuclide. In all cases of alarms caused by radioactive materials in contaminated scrap the performers of the present project of INP AS RU conducted additional radiation research and issued expertise conclusions. Thus the radiation control system elaborated and manufactured in INP proved its reliability in detection of radioactive substances and in prevention of radiation contamination of metal products. (author)

  16. Information Management Systems for Cultural Heritage and Conservation of World Heritage Sites. The Silk Roads Case Study

    Ona Vileikis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of Information Management Systems (IMS in cultural heritage. IMS offer a set of tools for understanding, inventorying and documenting national, regional and World Heritage properties.  Information Management Systems can assist State Parties, stakeholders and heritage site managers involved in cultural heritage management and conservation by easily mining, sharing and exchanging information from multiple sources based on international standards. Moreover, they aim to record, manage, visualize, analyze and disseminate heritage information. In close collaboration with five Central Asian countries, namely, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan; a Belgian consortium headed by the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC, K.U.Leuven is developing the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (CHRIS. This Web-based Information Management System supports the preparation of the Central Asia Silk Roads serial and transnational nominations on the UNESCO World Heritage list. The project has been set up thanks to the financial support of the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO and in collaboration with UNESCO World Heritage Centre in conjunction with the People’s Republic of China and the Japanese Funds-in-Trust UNESCO project. It provides a holistic approach for the recording, documenta tion, protection and monitoring tasks as part of the management of these potential World Heritage Properties. The Silk Roads CHRIS is easily accessible to the general user, presented in a bilingual English and Russian frame and interoperable, i.e. open for other applications to connect to. In this way, all information for the nomination dossiers is easily verified regarding consistency and quality and ready for managing, periodic reporting and monitoring processes in the respect to the property listed. Fina lly, this study provides a general framework to establish

  17. Micro-analytical characterisation of radioactive heterogeneities in samples from Central Asian TENORM sites

    The present work focuses on the use of micro-analytical techniques to demonstrate the heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides and metals in soils collected at Former Soviet Union mining sites in Central Asia. Based on digital autoradiography, radionuclides were heterogeneously distributed in soil samples collected at the abandoned uranium mining sites Kurday, Kazakhstan, Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan and Taboshar, Tajikistan. Using electron microscopy interfaced with X-ray microanalysis submicron – mm-sized radioactive particles and rock fragments with U, As, Se and toxic metals on the surfaces were identified in Kurday and Kadji Sai samples. Employing scanning and tomographic (3D) synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF) and synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-SRXRD) allowed us to observe the inner structure of the particles without physical sectioning. The distribution of elements in virtual crosssections demonstrated that U and a series of toxic elements were rather heterogeneously distributed also within individual radioactive TENORM particles. Compared to archived data, U in Kadji Sai particles was present as uraninite (U4O9+y or UO2+x) or Na-zippeite ((Na4(UO2)6[(OH)10(SO4)3]·4H2O), i.e. U minerals with very low solubility. The results suggested that TENORM particles can carry substantial amount of radioactivity, which can be subject to re-suspension, atmospheric transport and water transport. Thus, the potential radioecological and radioanalytical impact of radioactive particles at NORM and TENORM sites worldwide should be taken into account. The present work also demonstrates that radioecological studies should benefit from the use of advanced methods such as synchrotron radiation based techniques

  18. TO THE QUESTION OF THE ROLE OF THE YOUTH IN CONDITIONS OF ESCALATION OF ETHNOPOLITICAL CONFLICTS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21ST CENTURY

    Stepanishchenko O. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features of ethno-political conflicts in the 21st century, originating on the territory of the post-Soviet and post-socialist space; considers the format, structure, purpose and reasons for intensification; reveals the nature and mechanisms of inter-ethnic confrontations, the reasons for their escalation in certain historical periods, the similarity of the "scenarios" of their development, the role of external and internal factors in the outbreak of ethnic conflicts and their stimulating. The work considers the role of young people as a tool in the political struggle, the reasons for their sensitivity to the ideas of nationalism due to the lack of social experience or the impact of purposeful influence. It summarizes the examples the youth resource use in the process of unleashing, the so-called "color revolutions" and ethnic conflicts related to them, in countries such as Yugoslavia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine, Moldova. The article does a comparative analysis of successful and unsuccessful revolutionary projects in Armenia, Belarus and Russia. Most "activity" in the part of the preparation of this kind of movement is taking place in the post-Soviet space in the states that make up the core of a new interstate union EurAsEC, and preparation of opposition movements include stimulating Russophobia, rewriting of history and etc. The arising threats require an adequate response. Tae paper brings forward the ways of neutralizing the emerging threats; such as reassessment of the role of the youth; participation in the processes of socialization of young generations in state, public, political and social institutions; systematic and long-term work with young people, not limited to the formal framework of educational institutions, which will help to bring up the generation, resistant to viruses of ethno-nationalism

  19. Uzbekistan - nonproliferation and continuous activities on countering nuclear materials and other radioactive sources illicit trafficking

    Full text: Countering illicit trafficking of nuclear weapon and its components is an important task in the modern world. For this reason, at the borders and customs points the control of transportation is to be conducted in order to determine radioactive and fissile materials in them. This report presents the results of works performed in the period of 2001 - 2005 years on the program for development of radiation monitors and equipping the Uzbekistan border customs points with them, in order to fight the smuggling of nuclear and radioactive materials. The Republic of Uzbekistan is located on the transit transportation crossroad, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Western Europe - to the North, and Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and others - to the South. Therefore, this program is important for saving peace in the world and fighting any attempts to create nuclear weapon in the region. The radiation monitoring equipment is installed at the border customs points through which the transportation enters the Uzbekistan and at the Tashkent International Airport where passengers arrive by air. Also, the customs points are equipped through which the transportation quits for South and international passenger depart. The radiation portal monitors are designed by CIS Aspect (Dubna, Moscow region), however, we develop our own portal monitoring system which can be produced after certification. The Institute of Nuclear Physics provides the technical expertise that includes installation, calibration, maintenance, and secondary alarm response; mobile response units are being developed to rapidly and accurately identify seized material and recommend handling procedures. At present we are accumulating information on the alarm from the Yantar - type radiation monitor at the customs check-points and examining characteristics of the system to improve the results of our research

  20. The Case of NRENs in Central Asia

    Robert Franciscus Janz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available National Research and Education Network organizations (NRENs provide advanced information and communication technology (ICT services for the academic community of their country. Their focus is often on providing affordable high speed bandwidth amongst their members and to other research networks, but NRENs also provide other advanced services such as electronic repositories, educational environments and supercomputing facilities. Higher Education and Research institutions have to play an active role in the transformation to the “Knowledge Society”. A recent (2010 report of the International Telecommunication Union has identified NRENs as important vehicles in reaching the goals of the World Summit of the Information Society. It is also demonstrated that the Central Asian countries score very low in the Networked Readiness Indices of the World Economic Forum, including areas where strong NRENs could improve the status quo. NRENs therefore have a role that is also important for the nation itself and therefore claims for government support are legitimate. About 62% of the countries of the world already have an NREN and there are four characteristics that are common to these NRENs. In nearly all of the cases the NREN is a not-for-profit organization that not only serves the academic community, but is also owned by the same community. Four out of five Central Asian countries have an active NREN and these NRENs all participate in the EC funded CAREN project that aims to set up a sustainable regional network for the academic communities in the participating countries. Today, the Central Asian Research and Education Network (CAREN is upgrading the ancient Silk Road to a 21st-century high-speed internet highway for research and educational institutions through the region. Operational since July 2010, CAREN currently interconnects scientists and students from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.

  1. Mid-twentieth century increases in anthropogenic Pb, Cd and Cu in central Asia set in hemispheric perspective using Tien Shan ice core

    Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V.; Kreutz, K.; Wake, C. P.; Aizen, E.; Kang, S.; Maasch, K. A.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution major and trace element (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Ti, and V) ice core records from Inilchek glacier (5120 m above sea level) on the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau provide the first multi-decadal ice core record spanning the period 1908-1995 AD in central Tien Shan. The trace element records reveal pronounced temporal baseline trends and concentration maxima characteristic of post-1950 anthropogenic emissions. Examination of Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations, along with non-crustal calculation estimates (i.e. excess (ex) and enrichment factor (EF)), reveal that discernable anthropogenic inputs began during the 1950s and rapidly increased to the late-1970s and early 1980s, by factors up to of 5, 6 and 3, respectively, relative to a 1910-1950 means. Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations between the 1950s-1980s are reflective of large-scale Soviet industrial and agricultural development, including the growth of production and/or consumption of the non-ferrous metals, coal and phosphate fertilizers. NOAA HYSPLIT back-trajectory frequency analysis suggests pollutant sources originating primarily from southern Kazakhstan (e.g. Shymkent and Balkhash) and the Fergana Valley (located in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Inilchek ice core Pb, Cd and Cu reveals declines during the 1980s concurrent with Soviet economic declines, however, due to the rapid industrial and agricultural growth of western China, Pb, Cd and Cu trends increase during the 1990s reflecting a transition from primarily central Asian sources to emission sources from western China (e.g. Xinjiang Province).

  2. 2D dynamic studies combined with the surface curvature analysis to predict Arias Intensity amplification

    Torgoev, Almaz; Havenith, Hans-Balder

    2016-01-01

    A 2D elasto-dynamic modelling of the pure topographic seismic response is performed for six models with a total length of around 23.0 km. These models are reconstructed from the real topographic settings of the landslide-prone slopes situated in the Mailuu-Suu River Valley, Southern Kyrgyzstan. The main studied parameter is the Arias Intensity (Ia, m/sec), which is applied in the GIS-based Newmark method to regionally map the seismically-induced landslide susceptibility. This method maps the Ia values via empirical attenuation laws and our studies investigate a potential to include topographic input into them. Numerical studies analyse several signals with varying shape and changing central frequency values. All tests demonstrate that the spectral amplification patterns directly affect the amplification of the Ia values. These results let to link the 2D distribution of the topographically amplified Ia values with the parameter called as smoothed curvature. The amplification values for the low-frequency signals are better correlated with the curvature smoothed over larger spatial extent, while those values for the high-frequency signals are more linked to the curvature with smaller smoothing extent. The best predictions are provided by the curvature smoothed over the extent calculated according to Geli's law. The sample equations predicting the Ia amplification based on the smoothed curvature are presented for the sinusoid-shape input signals. These laws cannot be directly implemented in the regional Newmark method, as 3D amplification of the Ia values addresses more problem complexities which are not studied here. Nevertheless, our 2D results prepare the theoretical framework which can potentially be applied to the 3D domain and, therefore, represent a robust basis for these future research targets.

  3. What works? Strategies to increase reproductive, maternal and child health in difficult to access mountainous locations: a systematic literature review.

    Abbey Byrne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Geography poses serious challenges to delivery of health services and is a well documented marker of inequity. Maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH outcomes are poorer in mountainous regions of low and lower-middle income countries due to geographical inaccessibility combined with other barriers: poorer quality services, persistent cultural and traditional practices and lower socioeconomic and educational status. Reaching universal coverage goals will require attention for remote mountain settings. This study aims to identify strategies to address barriers to reproductive MNCH (RMNCH service utilisation in difficult-to-reach mountainous regions in low and lower-middle income settings worldwide. METHODS: A systematic literature review drawing from MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Eldis. Inclusion was based on; testing an intervention for utilisation of RMNCH services; remote mountain settings of low- and lower-middle income countries; selected study designs. Studies were assessed for quality and analysed to present a narrative review of the key themes. FINDINGS: From 4,130 articles 34 studies were included, from Afghanistan, Bolivia, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Indonesia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea and Tajikistan. Strategies fall into four broad categories: improving service delivery through selected, trained and supported community health workers (CHWs to act alongside formal health workers and the distribution of critical medicines to the home; improving the desirability of existing services by addressing the quality of care, innovative training and supervision of health workers; generating demand by engaging communities; and improving health knowledge for timely care-seeking. Task shifting, strengthened roles of CHWs and volunteers, mobile teams, and inclusive structured planning forums have proved effective. CONCLUSIONS: The review highlights where known evidence-based strategies have

  4. Uncertainties in hydrological modelling and its consequences for water management in Central Asia

    Malsy, Marcus; aus der Beek, Tim; Flörke, Martina

    2013-04-01

    Central Asia features an extreme continental climate with mostly arid to semi-arid conditions. Due to low precipitation and therefore low water availability, water is a scarce resource and often the limiting factor in terms of socio-economic development. The aim of this model study is to compare the uncertainties of hydrological modelling induced by global and regional climate datasets and to calculate the impacts on estimates of local water resources. Within this integrated model study the hydrological and water use model WaterGAP 3 (Global Assessment and Prognosis) is being applied to all river basins located in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Mongolia in five arc minutes spatial resolution (~ 6 x 9 km per grid cell). First of all, water abstractions for the sectors households, irrigation, livestock, manufacturing industries, and electricity production are being computed and fed into the hydrological module of WaterGAP. Then, water fluxes of the terrestrial water cycle are being modelled. The performance of the model is then being evaluated by comparing modelled and observed river discharge for the time period 1971 to 2000. As WaterGAP input, various global and regional climate datasets are available for the study region. In detail, these are the global TS dataset of the Climate Research Unit (CRU), the WATCH forcing data (WFD) developed within the EU-FP6 Project WATer and global CHange (WATCH) and the regional Aphrodités Water Resources dataset. Finally, the uncertainties in modelled water availability induced by the different datasets are quantified to point out the consequences for a sustainable water management. The results show that the datasets differ in both aspects, temporal and spatial goodness. At this, not only differences between the regional and the global datasets, but also among the global datasets are evident.

  5. National Legislation and Regulations in the Uranium Legacy Radiation Safety of the Former USSR

    There are many uranium legacy sites in Russia and ex-Soviet republics in the Central Asia, which are decommissioned now. In Russia, there is a number of operating uranium mines and ore milling facilities to be decommissioned after termination of their life cycle. Today, the list of Russian subsoil areas of the federal significance includes 135 uranium deposits. The uranium legacy management is accompanied with the environmental impact. The intensity of such impact depends on the amount of generated waste, degree of its confining and dispersion in the environment. The whole question reduces itself to the following: to what extent this impact is harmful to the environment and human health. The proper regulation of this problem is a criterion for the safe work. Today, the advanced guidance document is under development 'Health-care requirements for design and operation of facilities for uranium ore mining and milling'. In order to enhance the regulatory framework, the following tasks are urgent: introduction of the existing exposure situation in the national laws and regulations in compliance with the ICRP statutory system; development criteria for remediation of sites and their gradual return to uncontrolled use. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary SNF and Radioactive Wastes storage; review of possibilities and methods for optimization of the remediation strategies under development; identification of the special category - R W originated from the uranium ore mining and milling. Some regulatory problems assume to be solved under the Eurasian Economic Community inter-state target programme 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines'. Within this programme, by examples of the uranium legacy facilities in Kyrgyzstan and in Tajikistan, posed to trans-border disasters and required urgent remediation, the

  6. Navruz Project: Sharing radioactivity data for the rivers of Uzbekistan

    The Navruz Project is an international, collaborative, transboundary data collection and data sharing project for rivers in the Aral Sea basin engaging scientist and water managers from Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tadjikistan, Uzbekistan and the United States. Standardized sampling and data collection methods assure that data are comparable across international borders, and data are shared among all partners and public through a website at http://ironside.sandia.gov/Central/centralasia.html. As a result of measurement of pollution of water and bottom sediments, the areas with high concentration of radionuclides are revealed. In particular, the Akhangaran and Syr-Darya rivers were studied and it was shown that the beta- and an alpha-activity of Akhangaran river water is significant in the sampling point 19 (former uranium mine). Migration of uranium series radionuclides up to a water deposit (point 21) is observed. At the inflow to the water deposit a small aura of uranium salts was formed due to migration of soluble salts of uranium. However, at confluence of Akhangaran and Syr-Darya the increase of both total beta- and alpha-activity is observed occurring, apparently, due to drainage waters. The beta- and alpha-activity of Syr-Darya river water gradually grows and reaches 1.02 and 0.65 Bq/L, respectively. This increase is possibly caused by the human technogenic activity. Thus, it is necessary to note that the alpha-activity level of water exceeds permissible level for drinking water in practically all investigated points. For the Akhangaran river, alpha-activity of bottom sediments is significant and subjected to seasonal fluctuations (autumn - increase, spring - decrease). Migration of radionuclides in bottom sediments can be observed at the distance up to 60 km from the point where the pollution source is located, which is especially pronounced for uranium series nuclides. This demonstrates the geochemical properties of uranium, and shows that salts of uranium are

  7. Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan

    H.-B. Havenith

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF CRUSTAL MOTION IN THE TIEN SHAN USING INSAR

    Mellors, R J

    2011-02-25

    The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

  9. Regulations of evapotranspiration and ecosystem productivity from biophysical and human drivers in drylands Northern Eurasia

    Chen, J.; Ouyang, Z.; John, R.; Henebry, G. M.; Xie, Y.; de Beurs, K.; Fan, Y.; Shao, C.; Qi, J.; Wu, J.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of coupled human and environmental systems (CHES) has been a dominant framework in the past decade for understanding the cohesive connections between natural and human systems. Here we focus on how socio-ecological services may be regulated by the regional and local water cycles and by ecosystem production in the drylands of Northern Asia (>40 degree N), which includes Inner Mongolia of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Total precipitation and evapotranspiration are used as the primary drivers to explain ecosystem production (e.g., GPP) and indicators of social function and structure (e.g., GDP, population) using the data collected from 1980 through 2010 of these seven areas. We hypothesize that the changes in the regional and local water cycles in these contrasting regions and socioeconomic settings significantly affect CHES functioning. Institutional changes, including shifts in policy, can play a much stronger role than those caused by the physical changes in determining the relationships between water cycle and CHES functioning. The complex connections among the biophysical and socioeconomic variables are analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM) at country and regional scales. The highest water use efficiency (GPP:PET=0.57) was found for Uzbekistan, which also had the highest GDP:GPP (0.66) among the seven areas. In contrast, Mongolia exhibited the lowest values during the study period despite its very high GPP:Population value (45.8). The low population in Mongolia appeared responsible for its rank within the dryland region. Regional institutional changes with global ramifications, such as the collapse of Soviet Union and China joining the World Trade Organization, appears to have affected the CHES of the study areas.

  10. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  11. Ionizing radiation sources management in the Commonwealth of Independent States - CIS

    Ionizing radiation sources cover a broad band of power: from powerful NPP reactors and research reactors to portable radioisotope ionizing radiation sources applied in medicine, agriculture, industry and in the energy supply systems of remote facilities. At present, scales and use field of radionuclide sources in the CIS have the tendency to increase. In this connection, the issues of ionizing radiation sources management safety at all stages of their life cycle, from production to treatment, have been of a great importance. The materials on ionizing radiation sources inventory and treatment in the CIS (Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Ukraine) are presented in the report. It is shown that in some republics, there is difficulty in ionizing radiation sources accounting and control system; the national regulatory and legal framework bases regulating activity on radioactive sources use, localization and treatment require update. Many problems are connected with the sources beyond state accounting. The problem of ionizing radiation sources use safety is complicated by the growing activity of various terrorist groups. The opportunity to use ionizing radiation sources with terrorism goals requires the application of defined systems of security and physical protection at all stages of their management. For this purpose a collective, with all CIS countries, organization of radioactive sources accounting and control as well as countermeasures on their illegal transportation and use are necessary. In this connection, the information collection regarding situation with providing of ionizing radiation sources safety, conditions of equipment and storage facilities, radioactive materials accounting and control system in the CIS countries is vitally needed

  12. Addressing global change challenges for Central Asian socio-ecosystems

    Jiaguo QI; Temirbek S.BOBUSHEV; Rashid KULMATOV; Pavel GROISMAN; Garik GUTMAN

    2012-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions on the planet earth to global climate change,depending on very fragile natural resources.The Soviet legacy has left the five countries (Kazakhstan,Tajikistan,Kyrgyzstan,Turkmenistan,and Uzbekistan) with a highly integrated system but they are facing great challenges with tensions that hinder regional coordination of food and water resources.With increasing climate variability and warming trend in the region,food and water security issues become even more crucial now and,if not addressed properly,could affect the regional stability.The long-term drivers of these two most critical elements,food and water,are climate change; the immediate and probably more drastic factors affecting the food and water security are land uses driven by institutional change and economic incentives.As a feedback,changes in land use and land cover have directly implications on water uses,food production,and lifestyles of the rural community in the region.Regional and international efforts have been made to holistically understand the cause,extent,rate and societal implications of land use changes in the region.Much of these have been understood,or under investigation by various projects,but solutions or research effort to develop solutions,to these urgent regional issues are lacking.This article,serves as an introduction to the special issue,provides a brief overview of the challenges facing the Central Asian countries and various international efforts in place that resulted in the publications of this special issue.

  13. Good Health at Low Cost 25 years on: lessons for the future of health systems strengthening.

    Balabanova, Dina; Mills, Anne; Conteh, Lesong; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Banteyerga, Hailom; Dash, Umakant; Gilson, Lucy; Harmer, Andrew; Ibraimova, Ainura; Islam, Ziaul; Kidanu, Aklilu; Koehlmoos, Tracey P; Limwattananon, Supon; Muraleedharan, V R; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Palafox, Benjamin; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; McKee, Martin

    2013-06-15

    In 1985, the Rockefeller Foundation published Good health at low cost to discuss why some countries or regions achieve better health and social outcomes than do others at a similar level of income and to show the role of political will and socially progressive policies. 25 years on, the Good Health at Low Cost project revisited these places but looked anew at Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Thailand, and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which have all either achieved substantial improvements in health or access to services or implemented innovative health policies relative to their neighbours. A series of comparative case studies (2009-11) looked at how and why each region accomplished these changes. Attributes of success included good governance and political commitment, effective bureaucracies that preserve institutional memory and can learn from experience, and the ability to innovate and adapt to resource limitations. Furthermore, the capacity to respond to population needs and build resilience into health systems in the face of political unrest, economic crises, and natural disasters was important. Transport infrastructure, female empowerment, and education also played a part. Health systems are complex and no simple recipe exists for success. Yet in the countries and regions studied, progress has been assisted by institutional stability, with continuity of reforms despite political and economic turmoil, learning lessons from experience, seizing windows of opportunity, and ensuring sensitivity to context. These experiences show that improvements in health can still be achieved in countries with relatively few resources, though strategic investment is necessary to address new challenges such as complex chronic diseases and growing population expectations. PMID:23574803

  14. Alternative Organizations by which Russia is Trying to Impose on the International Stage

    Florinel Iftode

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Security or insecurity dominates the current context of international relations. It is a situation generated by the collapse of the Eastern European communist bloc and the USSR in the late 80s and early 90s, or the resistance impact to the New World Order fueled by the negative phenomena of globalization. One of the concerns of any policymakers is to know well the power relations at global and regional levels, as from their substance they will know which are the margins of action, towards one direction or another. Therefore, it will always seek to find out who is stronger and who could take domination on the scenes of international politics. Therefore, we will briefly review the factors that make the countries Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa unable to defeat the global dominance of the US and its major allies, only to budge it a little. Vladimir Putin has created two organizations competing to G7 and NATO. Two summits were held in Ufa, Russian Federation: the Summit of the Organization of Shanghai Cooperation (comprised of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan and the group BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. At the summit the organization was invited Belarus president, Alexander Lukashenko, as the leader of a country member in the Eurasian Economic Union countries. The Kremlin is trying to play the leading role in these organizations, but according to the International experts, such attempts did not succeed because Moscow cannot go beyond the shadow of Beijing's de facto leader of both structures.

  15. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  16. Development and evaluation of a water level proportional water sampler

    Schneider, P.; Lange, A.; Doppler, T.

    2013-12-01

    We developed and adapted a new type of sampler for time-integrated, water level proportional water quality sampling (e.g. nutrients, contaminants and stable isotopes). Our samplers are designed for sampling small to mid-size streams based on the law of Hagen-Poiseuille, where a capillary (or a valve) limits the sampling aliquot by reducing the air flux out of a submersed plastic (HDPE) sampling container. They are good alternatives to battery-operated automated water samplers when working in remote areas, or at streams that are characterized by pronounced daily discharge variations such as glacier streams. We evaluated our samplers against standard automated water samplers (ISCO 2900 and ISCO 6712) during the snowmelt in the Black Forest and the Alps and tested them in remote glacial catchments in Iceland, Switzerland and Kyrgyzstan. The results clearly showed that our samplers are an adequate tool for time-integrated, water level proportional water sampling at remote test sites, as they do not need batteries, are relatively inexpensive, lightweight, and compact. They are well suited for headwater streams - especially when sampling for stable isotopes - as the sampled water is perfectly protected against evaporation. Moreover, our samplers have a reduced risk of icing in cold environments, as they are installed submersed in water, whereas automated samplers (typically installed outside the stream) may get clogged due to icing of hoses. Based on this study, we find these samplers to be an adequate replacement for automated samplers when time-integrated sampling or solute load estimates are the main monitoring tasks.

  17. ОБ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ ГИС «ЦИФРОВОЙ КЫРГЫЗСТАН» ДЛЯ МЕЖВЕДОМСТВЕННОЙ ОБРАБОТКИ ДАННЫХ ДЗЗ

    ТАЛЫПОВ КУБАТБЕК КЕМЕЛОВИЧ

    2015-01-01

    В статье приводится описание ГИС «Цифровой Кыргызстан» и примеры использования данной ГИС для тематической обработки данных дистанционного зондирования Земли для задач сельского хозяйства, геологии и оценки состояния ледников. Обсуждаются также другие возможные применения.The article describes the GIS Digital Kyrgyzstan" and examples of the use of this GIS for thematic processing of remote sensing data of Land for agriculture, geology and assessment of the state of glaciers. The authors also ...

  18. Large-area settlement pattern recognition from Landsat-8 data

    Wieland, Marc; Pittore, Massimiliano

    2016-09-01

    The study presents an image processing and analysis pipeline that combines object-based image analysis with a Support Vector Machine to derive a multi-layered settlement product from Landsat-8 data over large areas. 43 image scenes are processed over large parts of Central Asia (Southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Eastern Uzbekistan). The main tasks tackled by this work include built-up area identification, settlement type classification and urban structure types pattern recognition. Besides commonly used accuracy assessments of the resulting map products, thorough performance evaluations are carried out under varying conditions to tune algorithm parameters and assess their applicability for the given tasks. As part of this, several research questions are being addressed. In particular the influence of the improved spatial and spectral resolution of Landsat-8 on the SVM performance to identify built-up areas and urban structure types are evaluated. Also the influence of an extended feature space including digital elevation model features is tested for mountainous regions. Moreover, the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties is analyzed and compared to the heterogeneity of the building stock within the computational unit of the segments. The study concludes that the information content of Landsat-8 images is sufficient for the tested classification tasks and even detailed urban structures could be extracted with satisfying accuracy. Freely available ancillary settlement point location data could further improve the built-up area classification. Digital elevation features and pan-sharpening could, however, not significantly improve the classification results. The study highlights the importance of dynamically tuned classifier parameters, and underlines the use of Shannon entropy computed from the soft answers of the SVM as a valid measure of the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties.

  19. Gazprom: Russia's strategy; Gazprom: Strategie de la Russie

    Lizin, A.M.; Zeisler, N

    2007-01-15

    Seventeen years after the splitting up of the Soviet empire, Russia is looking again for huge international ambitions. Its main advantage in this power search will is its energy resources. Production area, but also transit area between Asia, central Asia, Caucasus and Europe, Russia is an inevitable partner and wishes to take advantage of this strategic position. Gazprom, the hugest gas company in the world, is totally under the control of the government. Therefore, the Kremlin has made gas its main political and diplomatic weapon. Such an energetic imperialisms has strong economical and political consequences on the rest of Europe as illustrated by the recent Ukrainian crisis. The reconstruction of an energy empire similar to the one of the hottest days of the cold war worries also the USA. This study is a collective work carried out by students of the Sciences Po school of Paris in the framework of the 'international organizations' seminar given by by A.M Lizin, president of the Belgium senate and chairwoman of the human rights commission of the organization for European security and cooperation. Content: Gazprom's international strategy, Gazprom: an omnipotent gas company, Gazprom's international strategy at the service of the Russian foreign policy, Gazprom's energy stake and strategies, Gazprom and Armenia, Gazprom and Azerbaijan, Gazprom and Belgium, Gazprom and Bielorussia, Gazprom and Iberia, French position in energy stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's difficulties in Hungary, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in front of Gazprom, Gazprom and the US strategy. (J.S.)

  20. Eurasian Union: A Utopia, a Dream or a Coming Reality?

    Tuğçe Varol SEVIM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years passed after the dissolution of the USSR and the re-birth of Russian Federation and Central Asian states in the world arena in such a unipolar world. Since the rise of Vladimir Putin to power Russia resists on unipolar system and sees that as a treat to its security. Hence, Kremlin perceives that the economic strength is the sine qua non for the future of Russia in order to sustain a Big Power status not only in its region but also in the world. In 2011, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan have achieved to form a Customs Union among them and invited all the states in the region to join the organization. There were thesis which mainly argued that Russia would no longer be a “power” in the Central Asia and could only be a regional power just in case of maintaining of its own unity. However, the circumstances have changed in the region accordingly Russian weight as a result of the new conjuncture. In 2012, Russia had a new presidential election and Putin returned to Kremlin as President himself. It has been understood from his words that Kremlin's new strategy to be focused on creating a Eurasian Union including Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan at the first stage. It is aimed to analyze in this study that whether this project could be successful and if so, what could be the impacts on world order in terms of competition between Russia, the United States and China also. And finally, what could be the result of such an organization for the Russia.

  1. Radioactive parameters of waters of the Syr-Darya river basin on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic

    Full text: Within the framework of the International Cooperation Program in the sphere of the transboundary monitoring of the rivers between the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, and the United States of America (Navruz, ISTC KR-850 Project), in addition, in the Kyrgyz Republic, the isotopic content (isotopic ratio of 234U/ 238U=γ ), and the uranium content (CU) in the waters was measured. The isotopic ratio 234U/ 238U=γ of the waters of the rivers Naryn and Kara-Daria basins has no anomalous values of 234U/ 238U, which indicates the absence of the man-caused uranium in these rivers. The results of determination of the activity ratio of 234U/ 238U and uranium content in the Mailuu-Suu river basin are of great interest. In the upper reaches of the Mailuu-Suu river the uranium content is 0.4 10-6 g/l (0.8 10-6 g/l in the flood period), in Mailuu-Suu town (after the tailing dump) - (3 †4) 10-6 g/l, i.e. this value is an order of magnitude higher, and at the border with Uzbekistan - 1.8 ·10-6 g/l (3.2 ·10-6 g/l in the period of flooding), which is lower as compared with the town. Correspondently, there are changes in the activity ratio from 1.39 (in the upper reaches of the river) to 1.05 (in the town), and 1.32 (1.12 during the flood period) at the border with Uzbekistan. This situation indicates, first, the enrichment of the waters of the rivers with the man-caused uranium ( γ=1), and its subsequent sorption along the river stream. The obtained results indicate the absence of the man-caused uranium in the whole stream of the Naryn and Kara-Daria rivers on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic, and lack of noticeable contamination of the waters of the Mailuu-Suu river with the man-caused uranium from the tailing dumps of the Western Mining-Chemical Plant (WMCP, Mailuu-Suu). It also should be noted that the share of the man-caused uranium, transported to Uzbekistan by the Mailuu-Suu river does not exceed 20-30%, and the total uranium

  2. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    Skipperud, L.; Rosseland, B.O.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU (Norway); Stegnar, P. [Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Yunusov, M. [IA Vostokredmet (Tajikistan); Burkitbaev, L.M. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered

  3. Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis

    Janevic Teresa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS, countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. Methods Using 2005–2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, we examined associations between individual and community socioeconomic status with current modern contraceptive use (MCU among N = 55,204 women aged 15–49 married or in a union. Individual socioeconomic status was measured using quintiles of wealth index and education level (higher than secondary school, secondary school or less. Community socioeconomic status was measured as the percentage of households in the poorest quintile of the nationals household wealth index (0%, 0–25%, or greater than 25%. We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate associations adjusted for age, number of children, urban/rural, and socioeconomic variables. Results MCU varied by country from 14% (in Azerbaijan to 62% (in Belarus. Overall, women living in the poorest communities were less likely than those in the richest to use modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.76, 0.89. Similarly, there was an increasing odds of MCU with increasing individual-level wealth. Women with a lower level of education also had lower odds of MCU than those with a higher level of education (aOR = .75, 95%CI = 0.71, 0.79. In country-specific analyses, community-level socioeconomic inequalities were apparent in 4 of 10 countries; in contrast, inequalities by individual-level wealth were apparent in 7 countries and by education in 8 countries. All countries in which community-level socioeconomic status was associated with

  4. Reconstruction of glacial lake outburst floods in northern Tien Shan: Implications for hazard assessment

    Zaginaev, V.; Ballesteros-Cánovas, J. A.; Erokhin, S.; Matov, E.; Petrakov, D.; Stoffel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and related debris flows are among the most significant natural threats in the Tien Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and have even caused the loss of life and damage to infrastructure in its capital Bishkek. An improved understanding of the occurrence of this process is essential so as to be able to design reliable disaster risk reduction strategies, even more so in view of ongoing climate change and scenarios of future evolutions. Here, we apply a dendrogeomorphic approach to reconstruct past debris-flow activity on the Aksay cone (Ala-Archa valley, Kyrgyz range), where outbursting glacier lakes and intense rainfalls have triggered huge debris flows over the past decades. A total of 96 Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees growing on the cone and along the main channel have been selected based on the evidence of past debris-flow damage in their trunks; these trees were then sampled using increment borers. The dating of past events was based on the assessment of growth disturbances (GD) in the tree-ring records and included the detection of injuries, tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts, reaction wood, and abrupt growth changes. In total, 320 GD were identified in the tree-ring samples. In combination with aerial imagery and geomorphic recognition in the field, reactions in trees and their position on the cone have allowed reconstruction of the main spatial patterns of past events on the Aksay cone. Our findings suggest that at least 27 debris flows have occurred on the site between 1877 and 2015 and point to the occurrence of at least 17 events that were not documented prior to this study. We also observe high process activity during the 1950s and 1960s, with major events on the cone in 1950, 1966, and 1968, coinciding with phases of slight glacier advance. The spatial analyses of events also point to two different spatial patterns, suggesting that quite dissimilar magnitudes probably occurred during glacier lake outburst floods and

  5. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  6. Projected impacts of climate change on hydrology, water resource use and adaptation needs for the Chu and Talas cross-border rivers basin, Central Asia

    Shamil Iliasov, Shamil; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Lipponen, Annukka; Novikov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    The observed long-term trends, variability and projections of future climate and hydrology of the Chu and Talas transboundary rivers basin were analysed using a common approach for Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan parts of the basin. Historical, current and forecasted demands and main uses of water in the basin were elaborated by the joint effort of both countries. Such cooperative approach combining scientific data, water practitioners' outlook with decision making needs allowed the first time to produce a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on water resources in the Chu-Talas transboundary rivers basin, identify future needs and develop the initial set of adaptation measures and recommendations. This work was carried out under the project "Promoting Cooperation to Adapt to Climate Change in the Chu and Talas Transboundary Basin", supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Climate change projections, including air temperatures and rainfall in the 21st century were determined with a spatial resolution 0.5 degrees based on the integration of 15 climate change model outputs (derived from IPCC's 4th Assessment Report, and partially 5th Assessment Report) combined with locally-designed hydrology and glacier models. A significant increase in surface air temperatures by 3-6°C may be expected in the basin area, especially in summer and autumn. This change is likely to be accompanied by rainfall increase during the cold season and a decrease in the warm half of the year. As a result, a deterioration of moisture conditions during the summer-autumn period is possible. Furthermore, milder winters and hotter summers can be expected. Mountains will likely receive more liquid precipitation, than snow, while the area and volume of glaciers may significantly reduce. Projected changes in climate and glaciers have implications for river hydrology and different sectors of the economy dependent

  7. Swedish support programme on nuclear non-proliferation in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    At the request of the Swedish Government, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has established a support and co-operation programme in the area of nuclear non-proliferation with Russia and several of the republics of the former Soviet Union. The Programme was initiated in 1991 and an overall goal is to accomplish national means and measures for control and protection of nuclear material and facilities, in order to minimise the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The objective of the Swedish Support Programme is to help each, so called, recipient State to be able to, independently and without help from outside, take the full responsibility for operating a national non-proliferation system and thereby fulfil the requirements imposed through the international legal instruments. This would include both the development and implementation of a modern nuclear legislation system, and the establishment of the components making up a national system for combating illicit trafficking. The support and co-operation projects are organised in five Project Groups (i.e. nuclear legislation, nuclear material control, physical protection, export/import control, and combating of illicit trafficking), which together cover the entire non-proliferation area. Up till June 2000, support and co-operation projects, completed and on-going, have been carried out in ten States, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, programmes have been initiated during the first part of 2000 with Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In addition, assistance has been given to Poland on a specific nuclear material accountancy topic. All projects are done on request by and in co-operation with these States. The total number of projects initiated during the period 1991 to June 2000 is 109, thereof 77 have been completed and 32 are currently on-going. It is the

  8. National Legislation and Regulations in the Uranium Legacy Radiation Safety of the Former USSR

    There are many uranium legacy sites in Russia and ex-Soviet republics in the Central Asia, which are decommissioned now. In Russia, there is a number of operating uranium mines and ore milling facilities to be decommissioned after termination of their life cycle. Today, the list of Russian subsoil areas of the federal significance includes 135 uranium deposits. The uranium legacy management is accompanied with the environmental impact. The intensity of such impact depends on the amount of generated waste, degree of its confining and dispersion in the environment. The whole question reduces itself to the following: to what extent this impact is harmful to the environment and human health. The proper regulation of this problem is a criterion for the safe work. Today, the advanced guidance document is under development 'Health-care requirements for design and operation of facilities for uranium ore mining and milling'. In order to enhance the regulatory framework, the following tasks are urgent: introduction of the existing exposure situation in the national laws and regulations in compliance with the ICRP statutory system; development criteria for remediation of sites and their gradual return to uncontrolled use. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary SNF and Radioactive Wastes storage; review of possibilities and methods for optimization of the remediation strategies under development; identification of the special category - R W originated from the uranium ore mining and milling. Some regulatory problems assume to be solved under the Eurasian Economic Community inter-state target programme 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines'. Within this programme, by examples of the uranium legacy facilities in Kyrgyzstan and in Tajikistan, posed to trans-border disasters and required urgent

  9. Underground gas storage in the World - 2013 (fifth Edition)

    , Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom. North America: Canada, USA. CIS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Asia/Oceania: Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Korea, Taiwan. Rest of the World: Argentina, Mexico, Iran

  10. [Ethnic conflicts and environmental degradation in Central Asia. The Ferghana valley and northern Kazakhstan].

    De Cordier, B

    1996-01-01

    This work seeks to demonstrate that the combination of ecological degradation, demographic pressure, and ethnic heterogeneity in Central Asia constitute a serious threat to the future stability of the region. The predominantly rural Ferghana Valley and Northern Kazakhstan suffer from shortages of water and land and from unemployment that leads to extensive out-migration to cities suffering from decline in their Soviet-era industries. The problem in the Ferghana Valley began with Tsarist conquest of the valley in 1876 and the subsequent imposition of cotton cultivation, which was greatly expanded by the Soviet Union. The Ferghana Valley, despite being a natural unit, was divided between Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan in the 1920s and 1930s, and remains divided between the independent states. The current population of 11 million is ethnically diverse, with Uzbeks in the majority and increasing most rapidly. Immigration from the Caucasus since 1950 added to the tension. Future peace will depend on such factors as whether the neo-Communist political regime chooses to incite ethnic hostilities, the manner in which land is redistributed, and the outcome of struggles for control of the flourishing narcotics trade. The northern Kazakhstan region was designated a pioneer wheat-growing region by Soviet planners in 1954. Russian and Ukrainian migrants established between 1954 and 1956 are today the predominant population sector, but feel their privileged position threatened by nationalist policies making Kazakh the official language and giving preference in employment to Kazakhs. Resettlement of Kazakhs from Mongolia, China, and Afghanistan in the region and the high Kazakh birth rate increase tensions. Grain production initially grew rapidly, but the mediocre soil and erosion-inducing constant dry winds have caused production to stagnate or decline. Regional disputes within Kazakhstan complicate the situation. Northern Kazakhstan, with its industrial development, is

  11. From Dungans to Xinyimin: China, Chinese Migration and the Changing Sociopolitical Fabric of Central Asian Republics

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the issue of ethnic identity of the Dungans – descendants of early Chinese migrants in Central Asia – and its change and preservation in the context of the fragile social fabric of the Central Asian states that were born from the shadow of the now-defunct Soviet Union, the arduous processes of nation-building plagued by often violent, competing emergent nationalisms as well as political and economic turbulence, and the impact brought by the emergence of the xinyimin (Chinese new migrants. These Chinese-speaking Dungans staying in compact communities mostly in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan are descendants of political and war refugees from China’s provinces of Shaanxi and Gansu who moved across the border into the territory of Czarist Russia in the later part of the nineteenth century after the crushing of the Northwest Uprising by the Imperial Ch’ing (the Manchu dynasty army which bordered on genocide and ethnic cleansing. This paper analyses how a new ethnic identity has since emerged due partly to the geographical isolation imposed by the formidable natural barrier of the Tianshan (“Heavenly Mountains” However, their Chinese language in the form of a mixture of the Shaanxi and Gansu regionalects, remarkably written today not in Chinese characters but in the Cyrillic alphabet, and Chinese traditions of the Shaanxi and Gansu varieties have been fiercely preserved through the generations until today, including nineteenth-century vocabulary and traditions which are no longer found in modern China, due both to the cohesiveness of communal life and an aversion to marriage outside the community. After analysing the community’s dilemmas of identity preservation and identity creation, this paper then proceeds to look at the impact of the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulting in the birth of the post-Soviet independent Central Asian republics, and the influx of the xinyimin from China since the

  12. Water Resources by 2100 in Mountains with Declining Glaciers

    Beniston, M.

    2015-12-01

    Future shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns, and changes in the behavior of snow and ice - and possibly the quasi-disappearance of glaciers - in many mountain regions will change the quantity, seasonality, and possibly also the quality of water originating in mountains and uplands. As a result, changing water availability will affect both upland and populated lowland areas. Economic sectors such as agriculture, tourism or hydropower may enter into rivalries if water is no longer available in sufficient quantities or at the right time of the year. The challenge is thus to estimate as accurately as possible future changes in order to prepare the way for appropriate adaptation strategies and improved water governance. The European ACQWA project, coordinated by the author, aimed to assess the vulnerability of water resources in mountain regions such as the European Alps, the Central Chilean Andes, and the mountains of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) where declining snow and ice are likely to strongly affect hydrological regimes in a warmer climate. Based on RCM (Regional Climate Model) simulations, a suite of cryosphere, biosphere and economic models were then used to quantify the environmental, economic and social impacts of changing water resources in order to assess how robust current water governance strategies are and what adaptations may be needed to alleviate the most negative impacts of climate change on water resources and water use. Hydrological systems will respond in quantity and seasonality to changing precipitation patterns and to the timing of snow-melt in the studied mountain regions, with a greater risk of flooding during the spring and droughts in summer and fall. The direct and indirect impacts of a warming climate will affect key economic sectors such as tourism, hydropower, agriculture and the insurance industry that will be confronted to more frequent natural disasters. The results from the ACQWA project suggest that there is a need for a

  13. Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010

    L. Mei

    2011-08-01

    Asian countries, the exceptions being Finland, Estonia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. However, a possible impact on the Arctic region was also identified; such an effect would have a serious influence on the polar atmospheric environment and on animals such as polar bears.

  14. Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the Russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010

    L. Mei

    2011-12-01

    european and asian countries, the exceptions being Finland, Estonia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. However, a possible impact on the Arctic region was identified; such an effect would have a serious influence on the polar atmospheric enviroment, and on animals such as polar bears.

  15. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered mobile and

  16. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia.

    Walker, Robert; Blackburn, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Improving human welfare is a critical global concern, but not always easy to achieve. Complications in this regard have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union, where socialist-style economic institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow in coming. Lack of capital, ethnic conflict, and political instability have at times undermined the institutional reform that would be necessary to enable economic efficiency and development. Nowhere are such challenges more pronounced than in the new nation states of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by lack of infrastructure, low levels of human capital, and a scarcity of financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asian states are landlocked, far from centers of market demand and capital availability. Despite these daunting barriers, development potential does exist, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia's pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, the most significant existing impediment to realizing the full market potential of the region's animal products. Next, it provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD), which greatly impacts livestock and prohibits export, and Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis with high incidence in both humans and livestock in the region. Included is an important success story involving the FMD eradication programs in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers the role of wildlife in

  17. Recent development of glacier complex Adygine and resulting risks

    Falatkova, Kristyna; Sobr, Miroslav; Engel, Zbynek; Jansky, Bohumir

    2015-04-01

    Recent development of glacier complex Adygine and resulting risks Falátková, K., Šobr, M., Engel, Z., Janský, B. Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Prague, Czech republic Glacier complex Adygine (3,400-4,200 m asl) is situated on the northern flank of the Kyrgyz Range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. The valley downstream is part of National Park Ala Archa, which is popular with tourists, and is heading towards the country's capital - Bishkek. At the study site there is a glacier which is observed since 1960's. The glacier has been monitored by satellite imagery and in last 10 years by on-site geodetic measurement as well. Due to glacier shrinkage several glacial lakes of different genetic types (moraine-dammed, moraine- and rock-dammed, termokarst) have appeared at the site. Nowadays, the lakes are situated on three levels in front of the glacier's terminus and form a cascade, they are also hydrologically connected. The lakes were subjected to detailed bathymetric measurement and some parts of the dams were surveyed by geophysical methods. Especially the newest lakes in proximity of the terminus has been undergoing dynamic changes and may pose a threat in the near future. The risks arising together with changing climatic conditions and retreat of the glacier are associated with mainly three of the lakes. The largest one with area of 3.2 ha is dammed by a rock step overlaid by a moraine. Geophysical research of the dam revealed buried ice and seepage channels in its western part. It is the capacity of these subsurface channels, which are draining the lake throughout the year that represents a weak point in terms of dam stability. The second lake, a termokarst one, is a similar case but drained solely by subsurface channels. Very steep slopes of the lake basin are covered with loose material which could slide down and block the drainage channels. The lake would then fill all the basin (approx. 50,000 m3) very quickly as it is supplied with water from the

  18. GREAT REBELLION OF 1916 in KYRGYZ: URKÜN 1916 KIRGIZ BÜYÜK İSYANI: ÜRKÜN

    Füsun KARA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The revolution in 1916 was one of the biggest tragedies in the politics of the Russian Empire was to have Kyrgyzstan as its colony. For instance, the best places were given to russians, local people were forced to move to rural area. The main reason was a call for men into Russia’s Central Asian colonies to serve in the Tsarist army fighting in World war I. The first uprising was in Khojent on july 4 th 1916 and the movement spread to other parts of Turkestan. Kyrgyz Turks were killed by the Russian forces and settlers. Kyrgyz population from the North of the country were killed. And another 120.000 fled across the border to China 1916 İsyanı Kırgız tarihinin en büyük trajedilerinden biridir. Bu olay Kırgızistan’da Ürkün olarak bilinir. Rus İmparatorluğu Kırgızistan’da koloni politikası uygulamıştır. En iyi yerler Ruslara verilmiş yerli halk kendi toprağından edilerek kırsal alanlara göç ettirilmiştir. Ayaklanmanın temel nedeni ise I. Dünya Savaşında Çarlığın Rusya’nın geri hizmetlerinde çalışmak üzere Türkistanlıları çağırması olmuştur. Ayaklanma 4 Temmuz 1916’da Hocent’te başlamıştır daha sonra Türkistan’ın diğer kısımlarına yayılmıştır. Kırgız Türkleri Rus askerleri ve Rus yerleşimciler tarafından öldürülmüştür. Ülkenin kuzeyindeki ayaklanmacılar öldürülmüş diğer 120 bini Çine kaçmıştır.

  19. Central Asia Water (CAWa) - A visualization platform for hydro-meteorological sensor data

    Stender, Vivien; Schroeder, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Water is an indispensable necessity of life for people in the whole world. In central Asia, water is the key factor for economic development, but is already a narrow resource in this region. In fact of climate change, the water problem handling will be a big challenge for the future. The regional research Network "Central Asia Water" (CAWa) aims at providing a scientific basis for transnational water resources management for the five Central Asia States Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. CAWa is part of the Central Asia Water Initiative (also known as the Berlin Process) which was launched by the Federal Foreign Office on 1 April 2008 at the "Water Unites" conference in Berlin. To produce future scenarios and strategies for sustainable water management, data on water reserves and the use of water in Central Asia must therefore be collected consistently across the region. Hydro-meteorological stations equipped with sophisticated sensors are installed in Central Asia and send their data via real-time satellite communication to the operation centre of the monitoring network and to the participating National Hydro-meteorological Services.[1] The challenge for CAWa is to integrate the whole aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations in a proper design of a monitoring infrastructure. The use of standardized interfaces to support data transfer and interoperability is essential in CAWa. An uniform treatment of sensor data can be realized by the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) , which makes a number of standards and interface definitions available: Observation & Measurement (O&M) model for the description of observations and measurements, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) for the description of sensor systems, Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for obtaining sensor observations, Sensor Planning Service (SPS) for tasking sensors, Web Notification Service (WNS) for asynchronous dialogues and Sensor Alert Service

  20. Radioisotopic parameters of the Syr-Darya river basin water at the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic

    Within the framework of the International Cooperation Program in the sphere of the transboundary monitoring of the rivers between the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, and the United States of America (Navruz, ISTC KR-850 Project), in addition, in the Kyrgyz Republic, the isotopic content (isotopic ratio of 234U/ 238U=γ ), and the uranium content (CU) in the waters was measured. The isotopic ratio 234U/ 238U=γ of the waters of the rivers Naryn and Kara-Daria basins has no anomalous values of 234U/ 238U, which indicates the absence of the man-caused uranium in these rivers. The results of determination of the activity ratio of 234U/ 238U and uranium content in the Mailuu-Suu river basin are of great interest. In the upper reaches of the Mailuu-Suu river the uranium content is 0.4 10-6 g/l (0.8 10-6 g/l in the flood period), in Mailuu-Suu town (after the tailing dump) - (3 †4) 10-6 g/l, i.e. this value is an order of magnitude higher, and at the border with Uzbekistan - 1.8 ·10-6 g/l (3.2 ·10-6 g/l in the period of flooding), which is lower as compared with the town. Correspondently, there are changes in the activity ratio from 1.39 (in the upper reaches of the river) to 1.05 (in the town), and 1.32 (1.12 during the flood period) at the border with Uzbekistan. This situation indicates, first, the enrichment of the waters of the rivers with the man-caused uranium ( γ=1), and its subsequent sorption along the river stream. The obtained results indicate the absence of the man-caused uranium in the whole stream of the Naryn and Kara-Daria rivers on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic, and lack of noticeable contamination of the waters of the Mailuu-Suu river with the man-caused uranium from the tailing dumps of the Western Mining-Chemical Plant (WMCP, Mailuu-Suu). It also should be noted that the share of the man-caused uranium, transported to Uzbekistan by the Mailuu-Suu river does not exceed 20-30%, and the total uranium content in

  1. United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs): Helping to Ensure the Integration of Nuclear Techniques with other Development Initiatives and Plans

    demonstrated in a soil conservation project in Tajikistan (TAD5005) entitled 'Developing Soil Conservation Strategies for Improved Soil Health', part of a technical cooperation effort that began with the assessment of soil erosion and sedimentation for land use. In former years limited capacity to monitor national resources has led to poverty due to widespread soil erosion that has affected agricultural lands. A lack of essential soil redistribution information made it impossible for the nation to assess, monitor and address the processes of accelerated natural resource degradation. The technical cooperation project was developed as a result of Tajikistan's identified need for improved national capacities and facilities to provide the basis for soil erosion modelling and land use planning. The IAEA is providing expert advice in field sampling design, laboratory set-up and data interpretation and training, to contribute to a better understanding of the main factors affecting Tajikistan's soil redistribution. As a result of this assistance, sustainable natural resource management will be possible, based on the identification of cost-effective soil conservation measures. This project has become associated with the project on Sustainable Land Management in the High Pamir and Pamir-Alai Mountains (PALM), an integrated transboundary initiative of the governments of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan and has involved numerous partners: - The Global Environment Facility (GEF), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and other donors who provided financial support to PALM; - The State agencies for environment protection and forestry in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; - Partnerships were established with the University of Bern's Centre for Development and Environment through the National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, and with scientists from Moscow State University; - GEF directed complementary resources to the project through the PALM mechanism; - The United Nations University

  2. Mouvements migratoires entre la Turquie et les Républiques turcophones du Caucase et d’Asie centrale Migratory movements between Turkey and the Turkish-speaking republics of Caucasia and Central Asia. Religious impacts

    Bayram Balci

    2010-12-01

    galement envoyé des milliers de migrants turcs dans le cadre de plusieurs projets missionnaires. Amenée à s’enraciner dans ses villes d’expatriation en Asie centrale, cette migration turque a déjà très nettement marqué de son empreinte l’islam de ces pays, plus particulièrement au Turkménistan, au Kazakhstan et au Kirghizstan qui ont d’excellentes relations politiques avec la Turquie. Ainsi, bon nombre de nouvelles élites religieuses dans ces pays ont été formées dans le cadre de la coopération avec les mouvements missionnaires turcs et leurs disciples qui ont immigré en Asie centrale. S’inscrivant en marge de la politique officielle turque de coopération en matière religieuse avec les pays d’Asie centrale, les migrants turcs n’en rendent pas moins un grand service à la diplomatie d’Ankara dans la région en l’aidant indirectement à se constituer une sphère d’influence dans cet espace turcophone qui occupe une place notable dans la nouvelle politique extérieure de la Turquie.With the fall of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, a wave of migrants left Turkey for the newly independent Turkish-speaking Central Asian republics with which the country had strong cultural ties – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. As a result of this multiform movement, an important religious message travelled in both directions, but especially from Turkey to the main Central Asian cities. This article focuses on this message. Turkish migrants, who were often missionaries, used commerce and cooperation initiatives in education as two main tools to re-Islamise Central Asia. For many Turkish Islamic movements, it was important to bring this region back into the fold after over 70 years of domination by a Soviet government with a strongly anti-religious policy. As part of this proselytizing, four key Turkish Islamic movements became visible in Central Asia. The largest was undoubtedly that founded by Said Nursi, whose disciples were

  3. Snow algae in an ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains

    Honda, M.; Takeuchi, N.; Sera, S.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.; Naoki, K.; Aizen, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Snow algae are photosynthetic microorganisms and are living on the surfase of glaciers. They grow on melting surface from spring to summer and their biomass and community structure are changed with physical and chemical conditions on glaciers. Ice cores drilled from glaciers also contain snow algae that grew in the past. Studying biomass and community structure of snow algae in ice cores could reveal the temporal variation in snow algae in the past, and also environmental conditions relating propagation of snow algae. In this study, we anlalyzed snow algae preserved in an ice core of Grigoriev Ice cap located in eastern Kyrgyzstan of the central Asia, and to describe their temporal variations for the last 200 years. The ice core drilling was carried out on September in 2007 on the Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains. A 87 m long ice core from the surface to the bedrock was recovered at the top of the ice cap. The core was horizontally cut every 5 cm (total 1212 samples). The samples were melted and preserved as a 3% formalin solution. After the sample water was filtered through a hydrophilized PTFE membrane filter, observed by microscope. Snow algae in the sample water were counting. The algal biomass was represented by the cell number per unit water volume. Here, we showed the results between the surface to the 64 m in depth. We also analyzed the snow algal communities on the surface of the ice cap collected from five different sites from the top down to the terminus. Microscopy revealed that the ice core contained three taxa of filamentous cyanobacteria, an unicellular cyanobacterium, and two green algae. They were also found on the ice or snow surface of the i Ice cap. The quantitative analyses of the algae in the part of upper 64 m deep of the ice core samples revealed that the algal biomass varied significantly and showed many peaks. Furthermore, the biomass profile differed among the taxa. The filamentous cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 4

  4. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  5. Uranium Mining in Paraguay: An opportunity to improve the environmental regulations in mining

    ; Gabon-Mounana; Australia - Valle South Alligator; Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Once the uranium mining process and risks were evaluated by the authorities, and taking into considerations that the process is common to all metalliferous mining, and are well recognized and understood, the government decided to prepare an Environmental Regulation for General Mining. Also a particular regulation for uranium mining was prepared and was included in the Standards Protocols and Term of References for Uranium Mining. The proposed regulation states the follow stages of the process: mine site rehabilitation assessment, environmental risk assessment to determine what environmental assets are at greatest risk from multiple threats, assessment of the biophysical impact of mining on people; assessment of the impact of uranium mining and chemical and biological control regimes to ensure that the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are protected from the operation of mines in the region. Finally in the Environmental Management Plan an environmental monitoring is implemented for early detection of effects in the environment, arising from dispersion of mine waters during the rain and wet season. It is expected that with the proposed environmental regulation, uranium mining will be encourage in Paraguay. (author)

  6. Estimation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central asia and the Caucasus

    Full text: It is our international Program with the participation of 6 countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. For all presented regions we single out the following typical factors that significantly increase a risk of implementing natural and man-induced catastrophes: (1) these regions are located in the mountain areas with the high seismic level (5- 9 grades by Richter scale); (2) the largest mountain rivers have cascades of powerful hydroelectric stations with their sizeable reservoirs and huge high dams (>100m); (3) on the regions' densely populated lands there are plenty of mines for extraction of metals/minerals, industrial facilities and plants with U-tailing dumps and burrows of varied pollutants with using the different radioactive, toxic and poisonous substances in their technologies; (3) the man-induced activity here increases probabilities for occurrence of not only severe man-induced catastrophes, but also natural ones; (4) An especially grave situation has been created on trans boundary lands of these continue, due to the lack of common ecological and geochemical monitoring systems, that increases political and economic tension between the countries and generating negative migration processes; (5) risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes are not only regional but also global by nature, since they entail contamination of vast lands, the basins of the Black, Caspian and Kara Seas, that of the Arctic Ocean and, consequently, the entire World Ocean; (6) opportunity to perform deliberate attacks of terrorists with the using of explosives, that are able to cause man-induced catastrophes and stimulate natural calamities (earthquakes, mud flows, landslips, etc.). It is easier to implement attacks of terrorists there due to the intersection of main lines, an available border with current centers of international terrorism, located in Chechnya, Afghanistan and some others. The hazard is especially great for new

  7. 雪豹(Uncia uncia)研究的文献计量评价%A bibliometric evaluation of research on Snow Leopard ( Uncia uncia)

    王彦; 马鸣; 买尔旦·吐尔干

    2012-01-01

    通过对1950-2010年SCI收录和1989-2010年CSCD收录的雪豹(Uncia uncia)研究文献分析,从年度文献数量变化、国家/地区分布、主要研究机构、期刊分布、发表文献作者、基金资助机构、刊载文献类型、学科类别和语种分布9个方面,对雪豹研究文献的分布规律和研究现状进行了统计分析.结果表明:在SCI上发表雪豹研究论文的国家排名依次是美(50.6%)、英(16.5%)、印度(12.5%)和中国(5.6%);在文献量机构排名方面,国际雪豹基金会和英国爱丁堡大学并列第一,中国科学院排名第五;中国的主要合作国家中包括了美、英和中亚国家(吉尔吉斯斯坦、蒙古).无论是分布范围还是数量,中国雪豹资源都居于世界第一,而研究却不相匹配,国内在这方面还仍需努力.%Based on the analysis of the literatures indexed by the Science Citation Index (SCI) in 1950-2010 and by the Chinese Science Citation Database (CSCD) in 1980-2010, a biblio-metric evaluation was conducted on the distribution patterns of the literatures about snow leopard ( Uncia uncia) from the aspects of annual number, authors and their country origin, research in-stitutions, journal distribution, funding agencies, literature types, subject categories, and lan-guages. According to the quantities of the papers cited by SCI, the top four nations are the USA (50.6% ) , Britain (16.5% ), India (12.5% ), and China (5.6%). International Snow Leop-ard Trust and Edinburgh University are the first ranked paper-production institutions, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences takes the fifth place. The main research partners of China are from Britain, USA, and China neighboring countries such as Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia. In terms of the distribution range and the quantity of the snow leopard resources in the world, China ranks the first, but the related researches in this country do not match this situation, and need to do much more.

  8. The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region

    Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    are necessary. Temporary seismic networks have been installed in several Central Asian cities (Bishkek and Karakol, Kyrgyzstan; Dushanbe, Tajikistan; Tashkent, Uzbekistan) within the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA), a regional program of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The empirically estimated site effects have already helped to improve real-time risk scenarios for Bishkek and will be applied to other major cities. - A crucial requirement for disaster risk reduction involves the analysis of the vulnerability of existing building inventories. Whereas traditional approaches are very time- and cost-consuming, and even impossible given the high rate of urbanization in Central Asian capitals, our integrated approach is based on satellite remote sensing and ground-based omni-directional imaging, providing building inventories and thus structural vulnerability over large areas (EMCA, GEM-IDCT). All mentioned activities are carried out within the framework of cooperation between GFZ and regional national institutes, in particular the Central Asian Institute for Applied Geosciences. Altogether, this comprehensive and long-term risk analyses and research program will lead to a better understanding of the coupling of endogene and exogene processes and the identification of their impact on society.

  9. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many

  10. Seismotectonics of the Pamir

    Schurr, B.; Sippl, C.; Krumbiegel, C.; Yuan, X.; Ratschbacher, L.; Schneider, F.; Mechie, J.; Oimahmadov, I.; Gadoev, M.; Minaev, V.; Abdybachaev, U.; Orunbaev, S.; Negmatullaev, S.

    2011-12-01

    The over 7000m high peaks of the Trans-Alai and the on average over 4000m elevated Pamir plateau is in some way the mirrored equivalent of the Himalaya and Tibet plateau on the northwestern promontory of India-Eurasia collision. Current shortening across the Trans Alai of 13mm/a takes up about 1/3 of India-Eurasia convergence, only little less than across the Himalaya and the highest rate localized far away from a plate boundary. Accumulated Cenozoic shortening reaches also a magnitude similar to the adjacent Himalaya-Tibet system, yet was accommodated over about half the meridional width. There are other marked differences between the two systems. The Pamir is presumably thrusted over Eurasia rather than India and instead of a foreland basin another major orogen, the Tien Shan, stands between its frontal thrust and stable Eurasia. The Pamir and adjacent Hindu Kush feature vigorous intermediate depth (100-300km) mantle seismicity, an attribute absent beneath all other major continental orogens. We will report on a new earthquake data set collected during a field campaign between 2008 and 2010, when we operated a network of 40 seismic stations across the southern Tien Shan and Pamir mountain ranges in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. This is the first modern, digital and dense seismic network in the region. From more than 6000 well located earthquakes approximately two third are crustal. To derive robust source mechanisms and additional constraint on event depths, we use full waveform inversion of our local temporary and regional permanent seismic station recordings for events with magnitudes > 3.5. We use relocated hypocenters and fault plane solutions to describe the deformation pattern in the crust. Seismicity clusters in several well defined known and unknown structures. The Main Pamir Thrust (MPT) on the northern perimeter of the Pamir is clearly outlined by a string of earthquakes with thrust mechanisms, with the eastern part of the Alai valley more active than the

  11. 基于Web of Science的盐生植物研究文献计量评价%Bibliometrics evaluation of the halophytes scientific papers based on Web of Science

    王彦; 田长彦

    2013-01-01

    通过对1900-2011年SCI收录的盐生植物(halophytes)研究文献分析,从年度文献数量变化、国家/地区分布、期刊分布、主要研究机构、发表文献作者、基金资助机构、刊载文献类型和学科类别及高被引论文分析9个方面,对盐生植物研究文献的分布规律和研究现状进行了统计分析.结果表明:在SCI上收录盐生植物研究论文的国家排名依次是美国(19.46%)、中国(11.51%)、印度(7.69);在文献量的机构排名方面,排列前三名的分别是中国科学院、西班牙高级科学研究理事会和巴基斯坦费萨拉巴德农业大学;中国的主要合作国家中包括了美国、日本、德国、澳大利亚、巴基斯坦、以色列和印度等20个国家和地区,建议还需要进一步加强与周边中亚地区(哈萨克斯坦、蒙古等)的合作与研究.%Scientific papers on the halophytes,indexing by the Science Citation Index (SCI) within 1900-2011,were analyzed according to 9 aspects such as the annual document quantity change,research institution,country/region origin,periodical distribution,author,founding agency,document type and subject categories,the analysis of highly cited frequency research paper due to investigate the distribution pattern and current status of scientific papers on the halophytes.Our results indicated that the national ranking according to number of papers cited by SCI was following:United States (19.46%),China (11.51%) and India (7.69%).The top three research institutions ranking according the number of papers cited by SCI were Chinese Academy of Sciences,Spanish Senior Scientific Research Council and Pakistan Faisalabad Agricultural University.China also has scientific cooperation with more than 20 countries,such as United States,Japan,Germany,Australia,Pakistan,Israel and India.China needs to do more work to develop closer cooperative research with Central Asia countries such as Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia.

  12. Late Paleozoic tectonomagmatic evolution of the western southern Tian Shan, Tajikistan

    Worthington, James R.; Kapp, Paul; Minaev, Vladislav; Chapman, James B.; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gadoev, Mustafo

    2015-04-01

    The 2500-km-long Tian Shan orogenic belt constitutes a dominantly Paleozoic amalgmation of Eurasia that has been overprinted by the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Cimmerian and Indo-Eurasian collisions. This southernmost unit of the Central Asian Orogenic System (CAOS) is divided N-S by discontinuous suture zones that reflect its complex assemblage and E-W by the Talas-Fergana dextral (modern kinematics) fault zone. The western southern Tian Shan in Tajikistan/Uzbekistan is poorly studied compared to the rest of the orogen in Kyrgyzstan/China, but a dominant signal of late Paleozoic magmatism synchronous to widespread magmatism documented along strike provides an intriguing opportunity to investigate regional tectonic processes at this time. The late Carboniferous-early Permian Gissar batholith is the southern Tian Shan's southernmost lithotectonic unit. Zircon U-Pb weighted-mean crystallization ages for Gissar granitoids range from ~310-290 Ma, are youngest in the east, and define a primary stage of arc magmatism related to closure of the Turkestan ocean. A ~280 Ma crystallization age was obtained for a Ne syenite, which corresponds to small, 'post-collisional,' alkaline intrusions in 1:200,000 Soviet geologic maps. Zircon ɛHf in Gissar granitoids generally decreases with decreasing zircon U-Pb age from +5'10. Zircon ɛHf in the young Ne syenite is +1-+6. Taken together, these trends indicate a progressive shift from juvenile to intermediate magmatism over 20 Myr, followed by a marked return to juvenile magmatism within 10 Myr. The Garm 'metamorphic' massif is situated within the eastern Gissar batholith and is derived from greater depths than the rest of the batholith, as indicated by its defining features: (i) Discontinuous outcrops of Bt+Grt quartzofeldspathic gneisses/schists; and (ii) Presence of igneous garnet in granitoids. Zircons from the Garm quartzofeldspathic gneisses/schists exhibit pronounced Pb-loss discordia that are consistent with ~amphibolite

  13. [Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among patients with chronic hepatitis C infection in Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey: a five-year evaluation].

    Sağlik, İmran; Mutlu, Derya; Öngut, Gözde; İnan, Dilara; Öğünç, Dilara; Can Sarinoğlu, Rabia; Özhak Baysan, Betil; Gültekin, Meral; Çolak, Dilek

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis. It is important to know the genotypes of HCV in the decision of the HCV related chronic hepatitis therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HCV genotypes determined at the Microbiology Laboratory of Akdeniz University Hospital, and to evaluate the changes in the distribution of the genotypes within the last five years. A total of 422 blood samples from HCV-RNA positive chronic hepatitis C patients (219 male, 203 female; age range: 8-79 yrs, mean age 46.3 ± 15.5 yrs) which were sent to our laboratory for genotyping between 2009-2013 period, were analyzed retrospectively. HCV-RNA extractions were performed in an automated system (EZ1 Virus Mini Kit v2.0, Qiagen, Germany), and a commercial reverse hybridization line probe-based assay (LIPA; GEN-C RT-PCR, Italy) was carried out for genotyping, For viral load determinations, a real-time PCR method (Cobas TaqMan HCV, Roche Diagnostics, Germany) was used. Demographic data of the patients were obtained from the hospital information systems and electronic patients' files. Out of the 422 patients, genotype 1b was detected in 63.3% (n= 267), genotype 1a in 14.7% (n= 62), genotype 3a in 11.1% (n= 47), genotype 2b in 0.9% (n= 4), genotype 4e in 0.2% (n= 1). The subtypes couldn't be determined for 5.4% (n= 23), 2.6% (n= 11) and 1.4% (n= 6) of the patients infected with genotype 1, 2 and 4, respectively. One (0.2%) patient, was coinfected with genotype 1 and 4. Of the patients, 40 were foreign-born (16 cases from Russia; 4 of each from Ukraine and Georgia; 3 of each from Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Germany; one of each from Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Chechnya, Moldova, Switzerland and Romania) and among these patients genotype 3a (19/40; 47.5%) was the most common genotype followed by genotype 1b (17/40; 42.5%). Median values of HCV viral load were 668.500 IU/ml (range: 2.000-9.630.000) in the whole group; while it was 732.000 IU

  14. Assembly of the Pamirs: Age and origin of magmatic belts from the southern Tien Shan to the southern Pamirs and their relation to Tibet

    Schwab, M.; Ratschbacher, L.; Siebel, W.; McWilliams, M.; Minaev, V.; Lutkov, V.; Chen, F.; Stanek, K.; Nelson, B.; Frisch, W.; Wooden, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Magmatic rocks and depositional setting of associated volcaniclastic strata along a north-south traverse spanning the southern Tien Shan and eastern Pamirs of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan constrain the tectonics of the Pamirs and Tibet. The northern Pamirs and northwestern Tibet contain the north facing Kunlun suture, the south facing Jinsha suture, and the intervening Carboniferous to Triassic Karakul-Mazar subduction accretion system; the latter is correlated with the Songpan-Garze-Hoh Xi system of Tibet. The Kunlun arc is a composite early Paleozoic to late Paleozoic-Triassic arc. Arc formation in the Pamirs is characterized by ???370-320 Ma volcanism that probably continued until the Triassic. The cryptic Tanymas suture of the southern northern Pamirs is part of the Jinsha suture. A massive ??????227 Ma batholith stitches the Karakul-Mazar complex in the Pamirs. There are striking similarities between the Qiangtang block in the Pamirs and Tibet. Like Tibet, the regional structure of the Pamirs is an anticlinorium that includes the Muskol and Sares domes. Like Tibet, the metamorphic rocks in these domes are equivalents to the Karakul-Mazar-Songpan-Garze system. Granitoids intruding the Qiangtang block yield ???200-230 Ma ages in the Pamirs and in central Tibet. The stratigraphy of the eastern Pshart area in the Pamirs is similar to the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone in the Amdo region of eastern central Tibet, but a Triassic ocean basin sequence is preserved in the Pamirs. Arc-type granitoids that intruded into the eastern Pshart oceanic-basin-arc sequence (???190-160 Ma) and granitoids that cut the southern Qiangtang block (???170-160 Ma) constitute the Rushan-Pshart arc. Cretaceous plutons that intruded the central and southern Pamirs record a long-lasting magmatic history. Their zircons and those from late Miocene xenoliths show that the most distinct magmatic events were Cambro-Ordovician (???410-575 Ma), Triassic (???210-250 Ma; likely due to subduction along the

  15. Isotope composition and uranium content in the rivers Naryn and Mailuu-Suu

    .e. hydrogenic uranium is enriched with 234U compared to 238U. In the technological cycle, during the extraction of the uranium element by dissolution from uranium ore (or from any other mineral raw material), the proportion between the uranium isotopes does not change. That is, the technological process does not lead to the enhancement of one uranium isotope over another. So, there is some real possibility that, by measuring the magnitude of γ = 234U/238U in various environments, one can discern technogenic uranium (where γ = 0) from the uranium leached into ground waters from dumps and tailings (where γ > 0). In this work we attempted to utilize this effect for the purpose of defining the technogenic fraction of uranium in the waters of the Naryn and Mailuu-Suu rivers. To measure uranium content CU and isotopic concentration ratio γ, samples were taken from these rivers at locations shown in Figure 1. The sampling was performed within the framework of Project Navruz-an international program of collaboration for the trans-boundary monitoring of rivers, sponsored by the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and the United States of America. Further information about this project can be found on this web site: http://www.cmc.sandia.gov/Central/centralasia.html

  16. Applications of remote sensing and GIS in surface hydrology: Snow cover, soil moisture and precipitation

    Wang, Xianwei

    Terra and Aqua snow cover products, and the new combined daily and multi-day composite from both MODIS Terra and Aqua daily products. In Chapter 5, utilizing the new cloud-low multi-day composite of MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products, several new methods are developed to study the spatiotemporal variation of snow cover conditions from different aspects at the Northern Xinjiang and on the Central Tianshan Mountains, mainly in China, partly covering Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Secondly, Chapter 6 investigates the feasibility to indirectly map root-zone soil moisture using optical remote sensing techniques and in situ measurements. Specifically, covariation of root-zone soil moisture with the normalized difference of vegetation index (NDVI) from MODIS observation is studied at three sites (New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas). The three sites represent two types of vegetation (shrub and grass) and two types of climate conditions: arid/semi-arid (New Mexico and Arizona) and humid (Texas). Results show that the root-zone soil moisture has significant linear correlation with vegetation (NDVI). Finally, Chapter 7 validates and compares the NEXRAD Stage III and MPE precipitation products using a high density rain gauge network on the Upper Guadalupe River Basin of the Texas Hill Country in 2001 and 2004. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  17. Prevention of goiter in children who consume water contaminated with radionuclides (Uranium and Thorium)

    drink during the day. The term does not restrict the use of tea. Rhodiola rosea tincture and iodized salt were also administered alongside with the concentrates. In Group II (control group) children administered an iodized salt. The results of preventive measures were evaluated in March 2012. In Group I goiter was reported only in 2 (2.8%) of 71 children as compared to 23 (31.9%) out of 72 in Group II. Thus, for the prevention of goiter in children who consume water contaminated with radionuclides (uranium and thorium) in conditions of Mayluu-Suu it is recommended to administer therapeutic concentrates obtained from the herbs and fruits growing in Kyrgyzstan, and tinctures of Rhodiola rosea alongside with the iodized salt of high quality. Prevention of goiter may be initiated in early childhood. (author)

  18. Magnetotelluric monitoring experiment at the northern Tien Shan seismogenic zone

    unexpected tectonic explanations for studied objects. In addition to these structural EM investigations in 2003 Research Station RAS (Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan) and Phoenix Geophysics (Toronto, Canada) jointly installed two permanent stations at the seismogenic zone near Bishkek for monitoring natural and artificial electromagnetic fields, using Phoenix magnetotelluric equipment MTU-5D. MT parameters computed daily for the whole period of these observations are presented. Wavelet analysis was executed for the time series of daily average values of apparent resistivity (modules and phases) for two stationary stations of ?? measurements since autumn of 2003. The time intervals till a few months duration with abnormal behaviour of apparent resistivity variations in the period sounding range T=5-100s are marked, but for all that the maximum of change makes only the first percents. Such long-term change of resistivity has correlation with seismic activity in the region and, probably, can reflect the activation period of the structures in the mid-low crust at the Northern Tien Shan. The work was supported by RBRF grant 07-05-00594a.

  19. PREFACE: XVIII International Scientific Symposium in Honour of Academician M. A. Usov: Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development

    2014-08-01

    took an active part in the symposium having presented 150 reports. The reports of the symposium were made by students (655 participants), post-graduate students (180), researchers (82), engineers (30), young teachers (18) and schoolchildren (5). The organizations represented by the participants were higher education institutions (607), Russian Academy of Sciences (22), National Academy of Sciences (8), Research Institutes (18), industrial enterprises (10) and schools (5). The speakers who made 827 reports were students of bachelor and master degree programs (547, including 490 from TPU), post-graduate students and young researchers (130, including 80 from TPU) and five schoolchildren. The amount of those who attended different panels over the four days of the symposium consisted of 2010 people. Nine foreign countries (except for CIS) were represented by 32 reports made by participants from Germany, France, China, Italy, Poland, Ecuador, Iraq, Vietnam and Mongolia. Nine CIS countries were represented by 58 reports made by participants from National Academies of Sciences and Universities of Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Russian participants came from various areas of the country: in the east from Sakhalin, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Vladivostok, Blagoveshchensk, Krasnoyarsk, Chita, Irkutsk to Barnaul, Kemerovo, Novokuznetsk, and etc.; in the north from Mirny, Yakutsk, Neryungri, Magadan, Nizhnevartovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Nefteugansk to Tyumen, Ulan-Ude, Syktyvkar, and etc.; in the west from Minsk, Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg to Samara, Kazan, Ufa, Perm, Novosibirsk; in the south from the cities of the Central Asian republics to Ivano-Frankovsk, Odessa, Novocherkassk, Simferopol, Novorossiysk, Vladikavkaz, Voronezh, Stavropol, Astrakhan, and etc. A great number of young people from Urals, Western and Eastern Siberia took an active part in the Symposium. CIS countries were

  20. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  1. Eocene sea retreat out of Asia: paleogeography, controlling mechanisms and environmental impacts

    Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Bosboom, Roderic; Proust, Jean-Noël; Mandic, Oleg; Villa, Giuliana; Grothe, Arjan; Stoica, Marius; Guo, Zhaojie; Krijgsman, Wout; Yang, Wei; Bougeois, Laurie; Aminov, Jovid; Ormukov, Cholponbec; Huang, Wentao

    2014-05-01

    The sediments of the Central Asian basins include the remnants of the easternmost extent of a large epicontinental sea. Before it retreated westward and eventually separated as the Paratethys Sea following the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), this shallow marine sea extended across the Eurasian continent from the Mediterranean Tethys in the west to the Tarim Basin in western China in the east. However, the paleogeography and the timing of the westward retreat of the proto-Paratethys Sea are too poorly constrained to identify its proposed controlling mechanisms and paleoenvironmental impacts. The sea supposedly entered Central Asia in the Cretaceous and five third-order marine incursions have been recognized from the Cretaceous-Paleogene sedimentary record, of which the last two transgressions are documented here. We studied the sea retreat in the Tarim Basin in western China, the Alai Valley and Ferghana Basin in southern Kyrgyzstan and the Afghan-Tajik Basin in south-western Tajikistan. Integrated bio-magnetostratigraphic dating shows that the sea retreated westward from the Tarim Basin in stepwise fashion. The major fourth transgression occurred during the Lutetian, after which the sea retreated from the southwest Tarim Basin paleodepocenter at ~41 Ma (base C18r). The last and fifth transgression was restricted to the westernmost margin of the Tarim basin and occurred during latest Bartonian-early Priabonian (base C17n.3n-base C16n.1n). At the level of precision of our dating, each of these marine incursions is apparently synchronous across the Tarim Basin suggesting rapid regional transgression/regression cycles in these shallow epicontinental basins with limited diachroneity. The shallow marine near-shore sediments of these last two transgressions can be convincingly correlated by litho- and biostratigraphy across Central Asia, showing for the first time that the sea may have largely retreated from Central Asia in the late Eocene. The lack of apparent

  2. Seismicity of the Pamir and Hindu Kush: new constraints on regional tectonics

    Sippl, C.; Schurr, B.; Schneider, F.; Yuan, X.; Mechie, J.; Haberland, C.; Gadoev, M.; Oimahmadov, I.; Abdybachaev, U.; Orunbaev, S.; Minaev, V.; Negmatullaev, S.; Rui, H.; Pingren, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Pamir and Hindu Kush regions in Central Asia host the most active zone of intracontinental seismic activity at intermediate depths (up to nearly 300km) in the world, which is still poorly understood in terms of its detailed structure and, most importantly, its origin. Being situated far from any typical subduction zone setting and displaying a change in its polarity along strike, this seismically active zone has been interpreted in numerous ways, e.g. as a single slab of Indian lithosphere originally subducted northwards which was subsequently overturned in its eastern part or as two adjacent subduction zones of opposing polarity. Several key questions concerning this region, among them the nature of subducted material (oceanic or continental?), the mechanism behind the generation of these intermediate-depth earthquakes and the region's tectonic framework have not been answered as of yet. As the seismological subpart of the TIPAGE project, we deployed a network of 40 seismometer stations for a total duration of two years (2008-2010) in Tajikistan and southern Kyrgyzstan, covering the Pamir mountains and surroundings. Complemented with two more temporary deployments and additional data from several permanent networks in adjacent areas, this constitutes a seismic dataset of unprecedented station density for this part of Central Asia. Showing the distribution of more than 9,500 earthquakes located with a highly precise double-difference method based on the cross-correlation of individual traces, fault plane solutions for shallow and deep earthquakes as well as preliminary results from traveltime tomography, we can resolve the exact geometry of the deep seismic zone and draw further constraints on the tectonic processes active in the region. The S-shaped region of intermediate-depth seismicity is clearly subdivided into two separate parts, hence termed Hindu Kush and Pamir seismic zones. The Hindu Kush seismic zone strikes due east-west at a latitude of about 36.4

  3. STRAIN LOCALIZATION PECULIARITIES AND DISTRIBUTION OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION SOURCES IN ROCK SAMPLES TESTED BY UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION AND EXPOSED TO ELECTRIC PULSES

    V. A. Mubassarova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of uniaxial compression tests of rock samples in electromagnetic fields are presented. The experiments were performed in the Laboratory of Basic Physics of Strength, Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Ural Branch of RAS (ICMM. Deformation of samples was studied, and acoustic emission (AE signals were recorded. During the tests, loads varied by stages. Specimens of granite from the Kainda deposit in Kyrgyzstan (similar to samples tested at the Research Station of RAS, hereafter RS RAS were subject to electric pulses at specified levels of compression load. The electric pulses supply was galvanic; two graphite electrodes were fixed at opposite sides of each specimen. The multichannel Amsy-5 Vallen System was used to record AE signals in the six-channel mode, which provided for determination of spatial locations of AE sources. Strain of the specimens was studied with application of original methods of strain computation based on analyses of optical images of deformed specimen surfaces in LaVISION Strain Master System.Acoustic emission experiment data were interpreted on the basis of analyses of the AE activity in time, i.e. the number of AE events per second, and analyses of signals’ energy and AE sources’ locations, i.e. defects.The experiment was conducted at ICMM with the use of the set of equipment with advanced diagnostic capabilities (as compared to earlier experiments described in [Zakupin et al., 2006a, 2006b; Bogomolov et al., 2004]. It can provide new information on properties of acoustic emission and deformation responses of loaded rock specimens to external electric pulses.The research task also included verification of reproducibility of the effect (AE activity when fracturing rates responded to electrical pulses, which was revealed earlier in studies conducted at RS RAS. In terms of the principle of randomization, such verification is methodologically significant as new effects, i.e. physical laws, can be considered

  4. Land resource development and utilization in Central Asia%中亚土地资源开发与利用分析

    范彬彬; 罗格平; 胡增运; 李超凡; 韩其飞; 王渊刚; 李小玉; 艳燕

    2012-01-01

    rapidly, and then increase slowly. The area of the farmland decreases from 43. 1 x 104 km2 (10. 9% ) in 1992 to 29. 8 x 104 km2 (7. 58% ) in 2000, and then increases to 31.6 x 104 km2(8.04% ) in 2009 which is still far from the farmland area in 1992. Because of the breakup of the Soviet Union, a series of problem including the shortage of means of production, the destruction of the agricultural infrastructure and the market economy is still not established which had been caused the waste of land. After that, the independent of the states in Central Asia leads the recovery of the social economy and the area of farmland. (2) The areas of forest and grassland in Central Asia are varied little. However, the grassland grazing capacity has changed in large degree. In details; the grazing capacity of Kazakhstan has been decreased continually with the number 6. 25 × 107 sheep in 2009 that is only accounts to 63. 1% of the 9. 91 ×10 sheep in 1992; on the contrary, the grazing capacity of Turkmenistan has been increasing from 1. 04 × 10 sheep in 1992 to 2.96×107 sheep in 2009 that is triple of 1.04 x 107 sheep in 1992; the grazing capacity of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan increases at different degree, respectively. The privatization of pasture in the most of Central Asia and the damage of seasonal pasture contribute to the change of the grassland grazing capacity. (3) The potential productivity of the land resource is great in Central Asia. However, ecological problems such as soil erosion and soil-salinization of the farmland and pasture overgrazing, have been discovered in this area. In addition , the reasonable application of water resources in Central Asia has great important ecological significance and e-conomic value, especially in the arid land. But, as well know, the water resources are shortage and the distribution is not reasonable, and there are still some problems in the application of the water resources, such as, the waste of water, the pollution of water

  5. Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples

    composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling uranium releases from tailings into the aquatic system. The results showed that

  6. Building momentum to minimize highly enriched uranium use, improve nuclear security and combat nuclear terrorism

    -until the end users of HEU no longer demand this material. And it should be noted that nearly all HEU trafficking cases involve material originating from fuel cycle facilities. Both practical and political considerations demand greater high level attention to minimizing HEU and improving its security. Great technological progress has been made since programs were initiated to convert reactors and medical isotope production processes, remove and reduce nuclear materials worldwide, and protect at-risk nuclear materials from theft and sabotage. The new technical capabilities have not been translated into significant reductions in HEU use, however, due to a lack of overarching political solutions. To date, only a few countries have indicated formally their support for HEU minimization, among them Iceland, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden in the context of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons review process, though there have been international calls for HEU minimization in other fora, including the G-8 'Action Plan on Nonproliferation' issued at the Sea Island summit of 2004 and the 2007 Astana joint statement of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. New measures are needed, however, to make these commitments real. With this in mind, the James Martin Center for Non-proliferation Studies has led an effort to draft HEU guidelines, modeled in part on the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (INFCIRC/549). There is international interest in such guidelines. France, for example, called for the adoption of HEU guidelines at the 2007 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2010 NPT Review Conference. HEU guidelines would codify best management practices, allow states to commit to national management strategies, and provide updated security recommendations, as this paper discusses in detail. While HEU guidelines are voluntary measures aimed at states, there are also ways that nuclear enterprises and other stakeholder groups can move the

  7. Glaciers of Asia

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is the ninth to be released in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, a series of 11 chapters. In each of the geographic area chapters, remotely sensed images, primarily from the Landsat 1, 2, and 3 series of spacecraft, are used to analyze the specific glacierized region of our planet under consideration and to monitor glacier changes. Landsat images, acquired primarily during the middle to late 1970s and early 1980s, were used by an international team of glaciologists and other scientists to study various geographic regions and (or) to discuss related glaciological topics. In each glacierized geographic region, the present areal distribution of glaciers is compared, wherever possible, with historical information about their past extent. The atlas provides an accurate regional inventory of the areal extent of glacier ice on our planet during the 1970s as part of a growing international scientific effort to measure global environmental change on the Earth?s surface. The chapter is divided into seven geographic parts and one topical part: Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union (F-1), Glaciers of China (F-2), Glaciers of Afghanistan (F?3), Glaciers of Pakistan (F-4), Glaciers of India (F-5), Glaciers of Nepal (F?6), Glaciers of Bhutan (F-7), and the Paleoenvironmental Record Preserved in Middle-Latitude, High-Mountain Glaciers (F-8). Each geographic section describes the glacier extent during the 1970s and 1980s, the benchmark time period (1972-1981) of this volume, but has been updated to include more recent information. Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union are located in the Russian Arctic and various mountain ranges of Russia and the Republics of Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakstun. The Glacier Inventory of the USSR and the World Atlas of Ice and Snow Resources recorded a total of 28,881 glaciers covering an area of 78,938 square kilometers (km2). China includes many of the mountain

  8. The development of the detailed climatic scenarios for Central Asia region

    Full text: In Tajikistan Republic over 10% of the territory is the zone of everlasting snow and glaciers. This territory requires strategic defence, as global anthropogenic increasing of temperature more perceptibly tells upon the regime of forming the river flow and activation of ice disintegration. Intense glaciers melting causes not only decreasing of the fresh water supply for Central Asia but also the formation of glacial lakes. Therefore there appears the danger of destructive mountain flows, which caused the human victims and land degradation not once. Under modern climatic conditions the area of the Pamirs and Alai's glaciers is decreasing annually by 1.2 sq. km. As a whole on region the tendency of decrease of emission of polluting substances from stationary sources in air pool is observed. If in 1990 the quantity of emission has made of 6793 thousand tons, by 1995 this size has decreased on 2,084 thousand tons. The maximal contribution to total amount of emissions of polluting substances in an atmosphere has of Kazakhstan - 68%. The share of other countries of Central Asia is distributed as follows: Uzbekistan - 18%, Turkmenistan - 10%, Kyrgyzstan - 2% Tajikistan - 2%. In structure of manufacture of the electric power by Kazakhstan on a share of hydroelectric power station is 6-7%, dusty and coil - 79%, gas and fuel - oil - 12-13%. In structure of generating capacities of power stations of Uzbekistan the densities of thermal power stations makes 87.4%, hydroelectric power stations - 12.6%. As power resources for manufacture of energy the share of gas makes 82.6%, black oil - 13%, coil -4.4%. The constant escalating of thermal capacities results in an aggravation of an ecological problem of region. Emissions of harmful substances by boiler of thermal power stations at development 1.0 GWt.h. is: Flying ashes and not burned down fuel - 4.6 thousand tons, oxides of sulfur - 4.4. thousand tons, oxides of nitrogen - 1.0 thousand t., thus are used about 850

  9. Formulation of humic-based soil conditioners

    Amanova, M. A.; Mamytova, G. A.; Mamytova, B. A.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    : Chemical composition of (i) ash: 53-54% SiO2; 26-27% Al2O3; 3-5% Fe2O3; 1.7-2.9% CaO; 1.3-2.3% MgO; 0.5-0.8% Na2O; 1.0-1.5% K2O and; (ii), slag: 17-20% SiO2; 15-20% Al2O3; 30-40% CaO; 1-6% Fe2O3; 4-11% MgO. Of all samples assessed, per 5 samples from various regions with various compositions (high, average and low content of metal oxides) were selected and tested as component of SC in vegetative pot and field experiments, i.e., to study the immobilization processes including microorganisms and inorganic ingredients. This study helped to elucidate the influence of ash and slag composition on microbial development. The next stage was (i) to evaluate microbial activity of selected soils from Kyrgyzstan, (ii) to isolate microorganisms exhibiting antagonistic activity against pathogenic microorganisms present in the soil and, (iii) to utilize microbes as nutrient sources. Candidate microbial cultures were isolated from soils/crops and assessed as plant growth promoting microorganisms. The characteristics of the physiological groups of microorganisms were also investigated. Of different physiological groups of microorganisms selected, ca, 3 consortia of agronomical-valued microbial groups from undisturbed soils was selected as component of soil conditioners. Microorganisms, namely oligonitrophils, ammonifiers, nitrifiers, were tested based on beneficial bioactivity including plant biomass and stem length on commercial onion and lettuce crops. Our results demonstrate that all the combinations ash/slag, humic acids and consortium of beneficial agronomical-valued microbial groups into one environmentally friendly soil conditioner possessed equal or higher growth-promoting potential in relation to lettuce. However, our results demonstrated clearly that among studied scope of soil conditioners only one of them could be recommended for further study in terms of practical applications. Namely, it was mixture consisting of humic acids, ash and oligonitrophils as soil conditioning agent

  10. Symmetry distribution of cities in China

    YE; Danian

    2001-01-01

    [1]Molnar, P., Tapponnier, P., Cenozoic tectonics of Asia: Effects on a continental collision, Science, 1975, 189: 419-426.[2]Molnar, P., Deng Qidong, Faulting associated with large earthquakes and the average rate of deformation in central and eastern Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 1984, 89: 6203-6227.[3]Hendrix, M. S., Dumitru, T. A., Graham, S. A., Late Oligocene-early Miocene unroofing in the Chinese Tianshan: An early effect of the India-Asia collision, Geology, 1994, 22: 487-490.[4]Sobel, R. E., Dumitru, T. A., Thrusting and exhumation around the margins of the western Tarim Basin during the India-Asia collision, J. Geophys. Res., 1997, 102: 5043-5063.[5]Ghose, S., Hamburger, M. W., Virieux, J., Three-dimentional velocity structure and earthquake locations beneath the northern Tianshan of Kyrgyzstan, central Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 1998, 103: 2725-2748.[6]Ghose, S., Hamburger, M. W., Ammon, C. J., Source parameters of moderate-sized earthquakes in the Tianshan, central Asia from regional moment tensor inversion, Geophys. Res. lett., 1998, 25: 3181-3184.[7]Abdrakhmatov, K. Ye, Aldazhanov, S. A., Hager, B. H. et al., Relatively recent construction of the Tianshan inferred from GPS measurements of present-day curstal deformation rates, Nature, 1996, 384: 450-452.[8]Wang Qi, Ding Guoyu, Qiao Xuejun et al., Present-day Tianshan's quick shortening and the south-north block's relative movement, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 2000, 45(14): 1543-1547.[9]Zhu Wenyao, Wang Xiaoya, Chen Yuyi et al., Crustal motion of Chinese mainland monitored by GPS, Science in China, Ser. D, 2000, 43(2): 394-400.[10]Avouac, J. P., Tapponnier, P., Bai, M. et al., Active thrusting and folding along the northern Tianshan and late cenozoic rotation of the Tarim relative to Dzungaria and Kazakhstan, J. Geopgys. Res., 1993, 98: 6755-6804.[11]Burtman, V. S.,Skobelev, S. F., Molnar, P., Late cenozoic slip on the Talas-Ferghana fault, the Tianshan

  11. Estimation of the shortening rate since late Pleistocene in the Aksu area on the southern flank of the Tianshan, China

    WANG; Xin

    2001-01-01

    [1]Molnar, P., Tapponnier, P., Cenozoic tectonics of Asia: Effects on a continental collision, Science, 1975, 189: 419-426.[2]Molnar, P., Deng Qidong, Faulting associated with large earthquakes and the average rate of deformation in central and eastern Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 1984, 89: 6203-6227.[3]Hendrix, M. S., Dumitru, T. A., Graham, S. A., Late Oligocene-early Miocene unroofing in the Chinese Tianshan: An early effect of the India-Asia collision, Geology, 1994, 22: 487-490.[4]Sobel, R. E., Dumitru, T. A., Thrusting and exhumation around the margins of the western Tarim Basin during the India-Asia collision, J. Geophys. Res., 1997, 102: 5043-5063.[5]Ghose, S., Hamburger, M. W., Virieux, J., Three-dimentional velocity structure and earthquake locations beneath the northern Tianshan of Kyrgyzstan, central Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 1998, 103: 2725-2748.[6]Ghose, S., Hamburger, M. W., Ammon, C. J., Source parameters of moderate-sized earthquakes in the Tianshan, central Asia from regional moment tensor inversion, Geophys. Res. lett., 1998, 25: 3181-3184.[7]Abdrakhmatov, K. Ye, Aldazhanov, S. A., Hager, B. H. et al., Relatively recent construction of the Tianshan inferred from GPS measurements of present-day curstal deformation rates, Nature, 1996, 384: 450-452.[8]Wang Qi, Ding Guoyu, Qiao Xuejun et al., Present-day Tianshan's quick shortening and the south-north block's relative movement, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 2000, 45(14): 1543-1547.[9]Zhu Wenyao, Wang Xiaoya, Chen Yuyi et al., Crustal motion of Chinese mainland monitored by GPS, Science in China, Ser. D, 2000, 43(2): 394-400.[10]Avouac, J. P., Tapponnier, P., Bai, M. et al., Active thrusting and folding along the northern Tianshan and late cenozoic rotation of the Tarim relative to Dzungaria and Kazakhstan, J. Geopgys. Res., 1993, 98: 6755-6804.[11]Burtman, V. S.,Skobelev, S. F., Molnar, P., Late cenozoic slip on the Talas-Ferghana fault, the Tianshan

  12. DGMK/OeGEW spring meeting of the exploration and production department. Proceedings; DGMK/OeGEW-Fruehjahrstagung des Fachbereichs Aufsuchung und Gewinnung. Tagungsbericht

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the spring meeting 2009 of the exploration and production department of the German Society and Coal Science and Technology (DGMK, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Austrian Society of Petroleum Sciences (OeGEW, Vienna, Austria) at 27th and 28th April, 2009, in Celle (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Natural gas for Europe - Where does it come from, and how safe is it?; (2) Fluid dynamics in salt-encased carbonates; (3) Predicting petroleum fluid quality and quantity by using the PhaseKinetic approach for a basin modelling study in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin, offshore Newfoundland, Canada; (4) Models of geomechanical reservoirs for the prognosis of tectonic stresses and crack grids - concept and case study from the Sirte Basin / Libya; (5) A depositional model and sequence stratigraphic correlation for Ordovician glacial deposits, Illizi Basin, Algeria; (6) Palynology of the upper Silurian to Middle Devonian of wells from the Reggane Basin, southern Algeria; (7) Evaluation of heterogeneities in petroleum deposits by mans of asphaltene; (8) Experiments to reactions of n-alkanes with hematite in clastic reservoir rocks; (9) Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen Formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan); (10) Mud Volcanoes of Azerbaijan - Organic chemistry of ejected sediments; (11) Seismoelectric signatures for the determination of depositional parameters; (12) A workflow for the processing and imaging of Reflexion seismic data with CRS attributes; (13) Detection of altitude variations during production of natural gas or petroleum in the area of the San Jorge Basin by means of satellite radar interferometry; (14) (S)PWD - Development of a high resolution system for seismic exploratory work in the deep drilling; (15) Development of a discontinuum mechanics based computer algorithm in the FDM program FLAC3D for Frac dispersion in tigt gas reservoirs; (16) A fresh

  13. The development of detailed climatic scenarios for the Central Asia Region

    Full text: In Tajikistan Republic over 10% of the territory is the zone of everlasting snow and glaciers. This territory requires strategic defence, as global anthropogenic increasing of temperature more perceptibly tells upon the regime of forming the river flow and activation of ice disintegration. Intense glaciers melting causes not only decreasing of the fresh water supply for Central Asia but also the formation of glacial lakes. Therefore there appears the danger of destructive mountain flows, which caused the human victims and land degradation not once. Under modern climatic conditions the area of the Pamirs and Alai's glaciers is decreasing annually by 1.2 sq. km. As a whole on region the tendency of decrease of emission of polluting substances from stationary sources in air pool is observed. If in 1990 the quantity of emission has made of 6793 thousand tons, by 1995 this size has decreased on 2084 thousand tons. The maximal contribution to total amount of emissions of polluting substances in an atmosphere has of Kazakhstan - 68%. The share of other countries of Central Asia is distributed as follows: Uzbekistan - 18%, Turkmenistan - 10%, Kyrgyzstan - 2% Tajikistan - 2%. In structure of manufacture of the electric power by Kazakhstan on a share of hydroelectric power station is 6-7%, dusty and coil - 79%, gas and fuel - oil - 12-13%. In structure of generating capacities of power stations of Uzbekistan the densities of thermal power stations makes 87.4%, hydroelectric power stations - 12.6%. As power resources for manufacture of energy the share of gas makes 82.6%, black oil - 13%, coil - 4.4%. The constant escalating of thermal capacities results in an aggravation of an ecological problem of region. Emissions of harmful substances by boiler of thermal power stations at development 1.0 GWt.h. is: Flying ashes and not burned down fuel - 4.6 thousand tons, oxides of sulfur - 4.4. thousand tons, oxides of nitrogen - 1.0 thousand t., thus are used about 850

  14. Anavatanlarından Sekiz Ülkeye Dağıtılmış Bir Halk: Ahıska Türkleri A People Scattered From Their Native Land to Eight Countries: Ahiska (Meskhetian Turks

    Erdinç DEMİRAY

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahiska or Meskhet Turks definations are geographical denominations, not etnic ones. Ahiska region and Turks living in this region was a natural part of Anatolian Turks as geopraphical and demographic. The precense of the Turks in this region known as Meskhetia in the history is based on ancient times. In the 11th century Seljuk conquests and then in the 12th century settlement of the Kipchak Turks, who came the region at the invitation of the Georgian king David who failed in fighting against Seljuks, enhanced the Turkish population at once. Thus, the Turks effectuated a full domination on the area in terms of the populatin. After a short time, in the middle 13th century Kipchaks declared their independence and founded their state named “Atabekler Devleti”. In history, this land dominated by The Kipchaks is known and displayed as Sa-Atabago (land of Atabegs by Georgians, too. The Atabegs Principality was captured by Ottoman State towards the end of 16th century and this principality was reorganized as Cildir Shire and Ahiska was done its capital city. In this region people have the same cultural codes with Anatolian Turks living on northeastern provinces of Turkey. Meskhetian Turks were exiled to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in 1944 when they lived in a province located in the southwest of Georgia and northeast of Turkey, and known as “Samtshe-Cavaheti” under the administrational umbrella of Georgia. Having not been allowed turning back to their hometowns, Meskhetian Turks live mostly in eight countries now and keep the characteristics of their dialect to a great extent which can be regarded as the following of Eastern Anatolian dialects. Ahıska ya da Mesket Türkleri tanımları etnik değil coğrafi bir adlandırma olup, Ahıska bölgesi ve Türkleri Anadolu Türklüğünün coğrafi ve demografik bakımdan tabii devamıdır. Tarihte Meskhetia olarak da bilinen bölgedeki Türk varlığı çok eski devirlere dayanmakta olup

  15. Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples; Untersuchungen zur Uransorption an Bentonit bzw. Montmorillonit sowie von Uran in Umweltproben

    Azeroual, Mohamed

    2010-09-22

    (VI) sorption on four montmorillonite-standard, which are distinguished by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling

  16. [Current malaria situation in the Republic of Uzbekistan].

    Razakov, Sh A; Shakhgunova, G Sh

    2001-01-01

    imported and passed on. Noteworthy is the Surkhandaryin region that accounted for 60% of the cases recorded in 1999. The number of towns and villages where malaria occurs for the first time increased (49 and 46 cases in 1999 and 1998, respectively). The number of cases imported into rural areas also increased (70 (83%) cases in 1999 versus 48 (65%) cases in 1998); due to the large populations of malaria mosquitoes, there is a real danger that the disease may spread. In 1999, most cases of malaria were imported from Tajikistan (65 cases or 76% of all cases). There was a case from each of the following countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Kazakhstan and 5 cases from Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan. The recorded cases included slighly more men than women (54% vs 46%). There were 10 infected children under 14 years, which was 23.5% of all notified cases. Analyzing various populations showed that 67.1% of the patients visited their relatives in malaria-endemic countries (mostly Tajikistan) and 25.8% migrated from Tajikistan. All the detected cases were confirmed by laboratory tests. As in the past, most cases were tertian (P. vivax) malaria (n = 82 or 96.4% of all cases). Tropical (P. falciparum) malaria was confirmed in 3 (3.5%) cases. These cases had been imported from Tajikistan into the Surkhandaryin region. Seventy seven (91%) cases were detected in the epidemical season. Of them 58 (68.2%) cases were detected during a malaria transmission season. Seven cases who contacted the patients with imported malaria and were infected were recorded in 1999. They included 4 and 3 cases in the Surkhandaryin and Kashkadaryin Regions, respectively. In 1999, there was a decline in the number of malaria patients who needed health care and in the diagnosed malaria cases in therapeutical and prophylactic institutions. Throughout the country, 34 (40%) of the 85 detected cases presented within 3 days of malaria outbreak (68.9% in 1998). Malaria was immediate diagnosed in 43.5% of cases (64.9% in

  17. Destan Geleneğinden Tarihi Romana: Tölögön Kasımbek ve Kırılan Kılıç I,II From Legend Tradition to Historical Novels: Tölögön Kasımbek and Broken Sword I,II

    Canan OLPAK KOÇ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Being a social entity, humanity has been searching the ways of transferring their feelings, thoughts, imaginations and impressions to next generations all the time. Before written expressions became widespread, they used to try to accomplish this aim with the help of verbal folk literature. In this sense, epic had become the most significant tool to transfer experiences not only for individuals but also for communities. After written expressions became widespread, epic gave its place to written literature genres like novel and story. However, those narrative genres have been written by individual authors and they have reflected cultures which they had grown in to their works. Kyrgyz have a considerably old past. Interaction between Turkish Literature and Kyrgyz Literature had developed pretty limited because of several reasons. Especially in period when there was no relation with Kyrgyzstan, there had been very few publications about the Kyrgyz Literature. With increasing relations after the year of 1990, Kyrgyz Literature began known. Bringing Kırılan Kılıç I (Broken Sword I and Kırılan Kılıç II (Broken Sword II novels, which are belong to Tölögön Kasımbek, in to Turkish Literature is the product of increasing interest in this period. It is important that how the man understand the story of existance and how he/she tell the existence of the public. Tölögön Kasımbek, in his novels Kırılan Kılıç I ,II (Broken Sword I,II has told the adventure of kyrgyz people and how they’d been destroyed by being defeated by the Russians. The book can be accepted as a legendary historical novel within this aspects. We, in this study, will see how close are the epic motifs of the Tölögön who wrote the history of Kyrgyz, to the reali ty which the historical novels never leaves. Toplumsal bir varlık olarak insan duygularını, düşüncelerini, hayallerini, izlenimlerini her zaman bir sonraki nesle aktarmanın yolunu aramıştır. Yaz

  18. Contraband of Falcons

    Elvira G. Nikolenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the criminal proceeding in smuggling of falcons, former employees of the Line Internal Affairs Department in MIA transport, working in Domodedovo airport, were sentenced to large fines  - A. Kurokhtin, D. Gorodenko and A. Kustov, as was reported in Rossiyskaya Gazeta on 19.06.2013. Inspectors of the State Committee for the wild life protection together with employees of the MIA of Khakassia on 15.09.2013 detained two individuals engaged in illegal catching of falcons. On 04.11.2013 in Buryatia perpetrator, which transported 16 falcons, was arrested. On the road Khabarovsk-Chita in the vicinity of the village Nikolayevka in Jewish Autonomous Region (Russia police seized 21 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus, which on 26.11.2013 was reported in STRBC “Dalnevostochnaya”. In the village Lesnoi of Yelizovo district in the Kamchatka Region on 29.11.2013, police arrested two men and seized eight Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus. One Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug seized on 12.12.2013 in the village Staroaleyskoe of Tretyakovo district of the Altai Kray (Russia. On 24.12.2013 in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Russia the police, together with colleagues from the regional FSSD seized 13 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus from two residents of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. On 15.01.2014 in Kamchatka, the 51-year-old resident of the village of Nagorny in Yelizovski District, which kept 8 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus in the garage at his house land plot, was arrested. Prosecution office of Tarbagatay district of East Kazakhstan region (Kazakhstan together with the police and the authorities for the wild life protection found 7 Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug on 06.08.2014. At security control point “Ak-tilek - roadway" (Kazakhstan on 29.08.2014 border guards together with employees of the State Customs Service apprehended a citizen of Kazakhstan, who tried to take from Kyrgyzstan to Kazakhstan 3 young Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug. Supervisors of safety department in

  19. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Other”

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    , P.G. DavisABS 8. PERCEPTION OF NEONATAL SIMULATION AMONGST DIFFERENT PROFESSIONALS IN A LEVEL 3 NEONATAL UNIT: A 2-YEAR EXPERIENCE IN LUTON AND DUNSTABLE • D. Wari-Pepple, H. Doyle, S. Shanmugalingam, C. Chetcuti-GanadoABS 9. SUCCESS IN NEONATAL SKILLS & SCENARIO TEACHING IN NORTHERN IRELAND • C. Duncan, D. Leemon, D.L. ArmstrongABS 10. STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE LEARNING AT THE INAUGURAL NEONATAL CRANIAL ULTRASOUND WORKSHOP • M.V. Fortier, D.K.L. Chan, V.R. BaralABS 11. FIRST DAYS IN NICU – ARE GRADUATES WELL PREPARED FOR WORK? • P. Ostrogórska, K. Lorenc, A. Dziad, A. Suder, A. Kulig, I. Opach, A. GniadekABS 12. A TWO SECOND VISUAL METRONOME IMPROVES CARDIAC COMPRESSIONS DURING NEWBORN RESUSCITATION SIMULATION • C. Henry, S. Coleman, E. Murphy, S. Tan, C. Tamakloe, P. Blanchfield, D. SharkeyABS 13. A NEW SURVEY IN NEONATAL RESUSCITATION IN SPAIN • M. Izquierdo, M. Iriondo, M. ThioABS 14. UMBILICAL ARTERY INSERTION IN NEWBORN INFANTS: ACCURACY OF 11 AVAILABLE FORMULAE TO GUIDE CATHETER TIP PLACEMENT • W.L. Lean, J.A. Dawson, C. Theda, P.G. Davis, M. ThioABS 15. THE INTEGRATION OF EFFECTIVE PERINATAL AND NEONATAL CARE IN KYRGYZSTAN • S. Abduvalieva, K. Uzakbaev, C. Rakhmanova, A. AskerovABS 16. NEONATAL VIDEOLARYNGOSCOPY AS A TEACHING AID – THE TRAINEES’ PERSPECTIVE • J.E. O’Shea, M. Thio, C.O.F. Kamlin, L. McGrory, C. Wong, M. Campbell, J. John, C. Roberts, C. Kuschel, P.G. DavisABS 17. STANDARDIZED PROCEDURAL SKILLS TRAINING WITH A DOCUMENTED LEARNING OUTCOME • K.J. Kyng, T. Skajaa, R. Kaa, S. Kerrn-Jespersen, K. Bennedsgaard, B. Høst, S. Rubak, T.B. HenriksenABS 18. ACCURACY OF METHODS TO ESTIMATE THE INSERTION LENGTH OF UMBILICAL VENOUS CATHETERS IN NEWBORN INFANTS • W.L. Lean, J.A. Dawson, C. Theda, P.G. Davis, M. ThioABS 19. OXYGEN SATURATION LEVELS IN PRETERM INFANTS IN DELIVERY ROOM • S. Uslu, U. Zubarioglu, S. Sozeri, A. Bulbul, M. Dursun, E. TurkogluABS 20. PRE-HOSPITAL TRANSPORT OF THE NEWBORN: AN UNKNOWN ENTITY? • L