WorldWideScience

Sample records for Kyrgyzstan

  1. National identity in Kyrgyzstan

    Andersen, Niels Bruun; Hansen, Christian Høj; Petersen, Ulrik Haber

    2015-01-01

    This project is about national identity in Kyrgyzstan. Our problem statement is: How is national identity and cohesion constructed in contemporary Kyrgyzstan? And what influence has the past had on the development? During the writing process we went on an eight-day field trip to Kyrgyzstan to get a deeper insight of the culture and the country’s national identity. The project contains two analyses, with the first consisting of an analysis of national identity in Kyrgyzstan from existing...

  2. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan

    Briggs, Benjamin J.; Atkinson, Barry; Czechowski, Donna M.; Larsen, Peter A.; Meeks, Heather N.; Carrera, Juan P.; Duplechin, Ryan M.; Hewson, Roger; Junushov, Asankadyr T.; Gavrilova, Olga N.; Breininger, Irena; Phillips, Carleton J.; Robert J. Baker; Hay, John

    2011-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an emerging pathogen in Europe and Asia. We investigated TBEV in Kyrgyzstan by collecting small mammals and ticks from diverse localities and analyzing them for evidence of TBEV infection. We found TBEV circulating in Kyrgyzstan much farther south and at higher altitudes than previously reported.

  3. Economic Aspects of Defence in Kyrgyzstan

    Tolga Saruc; Sennur Sezgin; Selami Sezgin

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a country survey of the Kyrgyz defence economy. Kyrgyzstan is small landlocked country situated in Eastern Central Asia. It borders Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and China, with a population of nearly five million people. Although The Kyrgyz Republic introduced the most liberal reforms in Central Asia, its economy remains unstable with low level of economic growth. Moreover, Kyrgyzstan has a weak state structure, a history of ethnic tension, inequality and poverty. De...

  4. Kyrgyzstan starts up its first refinery

    McLeod, G. [Petrofac LLC, Tyler, TX (United States)

    1997-05-05

    The Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan started up its first oil refinery in October 1996. The 10,000 b/d plant is designed to produce gasoline, diesel, and mazut (heavy fuel oil) from local Kyrgyz crude. Before construction of the Jalalabad refinery, all finished petroleum products were imported from neighboring countries. Kyrgyzstan`s demand for finished products is about 40,000 b/d. The new refinery was designed and constructed by Petrofac of Tyler, Texas, on behalf of Kyrgoil Corp., Calgary. Kyrgoil is a partner with the Kyrgyz state oil company, Kyrgyzsneft, in a venture called Kyrzgyz Petroleum Co. (KPC). KPC has undertaken restoration and continued development of the oil fields in Kyrgyzstan`s Fergana basin, in addition to the refinery project. The company also has marketing rights for finished products within Kyrgyzstan. The refinery comprises: a hydroskimming (atmospheric distillation) section, diesel steam stripping, gasoline blending, and utilities and off-sites, including steam generation, power generation, tank farm, truck and rail tank-car loading and unloading facilities, crude inlet pipeline, high-voltage power line, substation, air compression, laboratory, and maintenance facilities.

  5. Kyrgyzstan: Internal and External Course of Development

    Vadim Volovoj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After collapse of the Soviet Union Central Asia (CA was not in the focus of academic society and big geopolitical players, Kyrgyzstan not being an exception. But today Russia is back to CA through the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU and Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO. Kyrgyzstan is a member of CSTO and is going to join the EEU. Therefore it is worth of broader analysis. This study tried to understand specifics of Kyrgyz internal and external course of development. It found that internal political process in Kyrgyzstan used to be very problematic. The country suffered a lot from two revolutions, caused by the authoritarian family rule of Askar Akaev and Kurmanbek Bakiev. After that Kyrgyzstan decided to change its system of government from presidential to parliamentary (or semi-presidential model. But this experiment did not bring peace and stability, additionally complicated by ethnic tension between Kyrgyz and Uzbek citizens. Possible recipe of success bigger socio-economic responsibility of the government, but it is still not in place. After two people revolts Kyrgyzstan was near to become a failed state, but orientation towards strategic partnership with Russia and membership in the EEU can help it to survive politically and economically at the expense of Russian geopolitical ambitions, compensate internal political turbulence by external factor of stability. Moreover, close (also institutional cooperation with Moscow strengthens systemic power of Kyrgyzstan in its relations with the closest neighbors, such as Uzbekistan (not satisfied with the water policy of Bishkek and Afghanistan (poses real security threat of Islamic extremism and terrorism to Kyrgyzstan. To sum up, for the moment Kyrgyz internal politics is hardly predictable, also because of the parliamentary experiment, but definite external orientation towards Russia and the EEU creates some basis for stable long term development of the country.

  6. Post-Soviet Moral Education: The Case of Kyrgyzstan

    Misco, Thomas; Hamot, Gregory E.

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Kyrgyzstan became a free and democratic state after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since that time, Kyrgyzstan has redefined and renegotiated what education in its society should be. Although numerous internal and external initiatives have sought to reshape Kyrgyzstan's curriculum and instructional strategies, these projects

  7. Economic Aspects of Defence in Kyrgyzstan

    Tolga Saruc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a country survey of the Kyrgyz defence economy. Kyrgyzstan is small landlocked country situated in Eastern Central Asia. It borders Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and China, with a population of nearly five million people. Although The Kyrgyz Republic introduced the most liberal reforms in Central Asia, its economy remains unstable with low level of economic growth. Moreover, Kyrgyzstan has a weak state structure, a history of ethnic tension, inequality and poverty. Defence burden of economy is 1.3 in 2006. Because of lack of capacity of Kyrgyz armed forces, the country faces Uzbek government military activities in the outside and political instability inside the country. The first part of the paper presents a brief economic background of Kyrgyzstan, its armed forces and its structure. The remains of the paper focus on the macroeconomic impacts of the defence spending in Kyrgyzstan. The study concludes that defence expenditure of Kyrgyzstan is less than optimal and it retards the development of the economy.

  8. Radioactive situation in Kyrgyzstan: problems and perspectives

    One of the major problems of the environment contamination in Kyrgyzstan is the development of radioactive and toxic pollution caused by nuclear tests, technogene accidents which took place in neighboring countries, and breach of safe storage and destruction of uranium and hazardous waste tailings. Long-term nuclear tests in various areas of the world and the accident at the NPP have caused the origin of stratospheric deposit of artificial radionuclides, the fallout of which have led to radioactive pollution of the biosphere. Maximum fallout have been observed in the latitudinal zone of 40-60 degrees and in the mountainous regions. As a result of many years of research the main sources of radioactive contamination have been established. It is shown that stratospheric or tropospheric and local fallout have permanently exposed the territory of Kyrgyzstan to the pollution by radionuclides. A brief description of radioactive contamination of the environment in Kyrgyzstan from remote external sources and atmospheric mechanisms of its transfer delineated on the basis of long-term observation of geophysical and atmospheric parameters and regular radiation monitoring have been presented. The investigated mechanisms can be used to interpret the sharp increase of the radioactive background and to estimate the risk to the environment and human health. Some methodological questions about the influence of geophysical conditions on the territorial distribution of contamination have bee considered. The tropospheric mechanism of contamination transfer for different seasons of year has been suggested. The uranium tailings located in mountain regions near densely populated areas and and groundwater basins are the internal sources of radioactive contamination in Kyrgyzstan. Waste products of uranium production present a real treat for the environment and public health. The problem of environment security in connection with destruction of uranium tailings has been discussed. Till now there has not been conducted assessment of radioactive contamination consequences to the environment and human health in this region. The impact of ionization radiation on people health has been presented

  9. Studying abroad: encouraging students to return to Kyrgyzstan

    Thieme, Susan; Elebaeva, Ainur; Bruce, Zarina; Samanchina, Jarkyn

    2013-01-01

    More and more students from Kyrgyzstan are now studying at foreign universities, where they gain knowledge and skills that are vital for Kyrgyzstan’s development and prosperity. But many face difficulties in finding opportunities to apply their new skills upon their return. This issue of evidence for policy examines the causes and consequences of this situation, and examines challenges of making student migration advantageous for Kyrgyzstan.

  10. A Study on Livestock and Land Management in Kyrgyzstan

    Zhumanova, Munavar

    2011-01-01

    Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country with the livelihood condition of its population determined by climate, landscape, soil, water resources, biodiversity, as well as social and economic conditions. Most of its population derives a substantial proportion of its income from livestock rearing and farming. Moreover, mountainous pastures, which consist 86% of total agricultural land, favour livestock in Kyrgyzstan. The population of all livestock species has been constantly increasing over the yea...

  11. New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan

    Georgy Lazkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae, Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan.

  12. On whether Kyrgyzstan Should Join the Bologna Process

    Dzhaparova, R.

    2006-01-01

    Right now every college and university in Kyrgyzstan faces the urgent question of whether to join the Bologna Process. Opinions in the republic are split down the middle: (1) some rectors categorically reject joining; and (2) others would like to convert to the credit technology of instruction and have already started to take active, practical

  13. Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Junisbai, Azamat K.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where the

  14. Traditional M e n Caps o f Kyrgyzstan

    Serap TANRISEVER

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyrgyzstan has an extraordinarily rich mosaic of folk culture. There is a great importance of wear clothing, crafts and decorative arts in this mosaic. Traditional caps and clothes of Kyrgyzstan are the best elements that reflect the presence of culture, t raditions, geography inhabited, climatic conditions that they already live in. Kyrgyzstan has been trying to keep alive the traditions, styles of lives by using the required crafts and handmade products although the global fashion, time and technological development. According to research, it has still been seen that the caps and clothes of Kyrgyzstan are being used less in daily life. Caps, Kalpak , Tebetey, Malakay, are some of the best known extant that come to this age related with the traditions of ca p s of Kyrgyzstan’s men . In this research, it has been worked of decorations of Kirghiz men caps , specialties of color and design, techniques of sewing, characteristics of mold and fabrics, Moreover the place and the meaning of the titles has been trying to determine in the cultural life. The scan method has been used by doing regional research.

  15. Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Junisbai, Azamat K.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where the…

  16. VAR Analysis of the Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Kyrgyzstan

    Nurlan ATABAEV

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of monetary transmission on real output and price level in Kyrgyzstan which is very important issue for central banks. We analyzed the relationships between the money supply, real output, price level, interest rate, credit and real exchange rate by using the vector autoregression approach (VAR and monthly data for 2003-2011. As a result the interest rate channel remains weak, on the other hand it have been revealed that the credit channel has some affects to real output, the exchange rate channel affects the prices. Exchange rate channel remains still the most effective channel. Based on these results, it can be argued that government can use credit and interest rate channel in increasing real output, and the exchange rate channel in achieving price stability in Kyrgyzstan.

  17. Reducing Non-consensual Bride Kidnapping in Kyrgyzstan

    Russell Kleinbach

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bride kidnapping in Kyrgyzstan is the act of abducting a woman to marry her and includes actions, ranging from consensual eloping to forceful kidnapping and rape. This paper reviews the current context and research on bride kidnapping and describes a program that shows promise in preventing bride kidnapping. This program was tested in two studies, one in small villages (2008-2009, and one in Karakol City (2011-2012. These studies provide evidence that the program can help reduce the rate of bride kidnapping from approximately 1/2 to approximately 1/4 of marriages. Analysis of the practice and the economic, political and cultural changes in Kyrgyzstan in the last century shows how this program can be effective by shifting the focus from law and punishment to a discourse framed by tradition, family, honor and shame, and using the assumption from Gandhi's Satyagraha that truth is force.

  18. Marriage, childbearing, and migration in Kyrgyzstan : Exploring interdependences

    Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Agadjanian, Victor

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigate interdependences between entry into a marital union, childbearing, and migration. We apply event-history techniques to retrospective data on women aged 18-29 from a survey conducted in northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to examine how these events can influence one another, with a special focus on the effects of duration of exposure. In our analysis, we account for several duration dependences (clocks). The results illustrate that months since marriage formation is th...

  19. Reducing Non-consensual Bride Kidnapping in Kyrgyzstan

    Russell Kleinbach; Gazbubu Babaiarova

    2013-01-01

    Bride kidnapping in Kyrgyzstan is the act of abducting a woman to marry her and includes actions, ranging from consensual eloping to forceful kidnapping and rape. This paper reviews the current context and research on bride kidnapping and describes a program that shows promise in preventing bride kidnapping. This program was tested in two studies, one in small villages (2008-2009), and one in Karakol City (2011-2012). These studies provide evidence that the program can help...

  20. The Discourses of Romanticism and Heroism in the Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan

    Aijarkyn

    2014-01-01

    After the two so-called ?colored revolutions? of March 24, 2005 and April 7, 2010 in Kyrgyzstan the ideas about the future development produced by political, traditional elite groups and academics are shaped into the certain discourses that reflect socio-cultural and political projects including real events and processes along with imagined reality. Among the inconsistent and incoherent discourses which take place in the social rhetoric of Kyrgyzstan, two dominant discourses about Kyrgyz no...

  1. KYRGYZSTAN AT A CROSSROADS: FACING THE ECONOMIC CAUSES OF THE TULIP REVOLUTION

    Tchantouridze, Lasha

    2006-01-01

    The 24 March, 2005 Tulip Revolution has pointed out some of the most pressing problems that Kyrgyzstan currently faces. The Akaev administration was brought down by a popular uprising, which was occasioned more by economic hardship and deprivation than by political oppression. As a consequence, the post-revolutionary Kyrgyz leadership has inherited very acute economic and financial problems that they will have to address in order to avoid future public outbursts of fury. Kyrgyzstan's stabilit...

  2. An innovative national health care waste management system in Kyrgyzstan.

    Toktobaev, Nurjan; Emmanuel, Jorge; Djumalieva, Gulmira; Kravtsov, Alexei; Schüth, Tobias

    2015-02-01

    A novel low-cost health care waste management system was implemented in all rural hospitals in Kyrgyzstan. The components of the Kyrgyz model include mechanical needle removers, segregation using autoclavable containers, safe transport and storage, autoclave treatment, documentation, recycling of sterilized plastic and metal parts, cement pits for anatomical waste, composting of garden wastes, training, equipment maintenance, and management by safety and quality committees. The gravity-displacement autoclaves were fitted with filters to remove pathogens from the air exhaust. Operating parameters for the autoclaves were determined by thermal and biological tests. A hospital survey showed an average 33% annual cost savings compared to previous costs for waste management. All general hospitals with >25 beds except in the capital Bishkek use the new system, corresponding to 67.3% of all hospital beds. The investment amounted to US$0.61 per capita covered. Acceptance of the new system by the staff, cost savings, revenues from recycled materials, documented improvements in occupational safety, capacity building, and institutionalization enhance the sustainability of the Kyrgyz health care waste management system. PMID:25649402

  3. Between Tradition and Modernity: Marriage Dynamics in Kyrgyzstan.

    Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Agadjanian, Victor

    2015-06-01

    The demographic literature on union formation in post-communist Europe typically documents retreat from marriage and increase in cohabitation. However, sociological and anthropological studies of post-Soviet Central Asia often point to a resurgence of various traditional norms and practices, including those surrounding marriage, that were suppressed under Soviet rule. We engage these two perspectives on union formation by analyzing transition to first marriage in Kyrgyzstan both before and after the collapse of the USSR. We use uniquely detailed marriage histories from a nationally representative survey conducted in the period 2011-2012 to examine the dynamics of traditional marital practices among that country's two main ethnic groups-Kyrgyz and Uzbeks-focusing on trends in arranged marriages and in marriages involving bride kidnapping. The analysis reveals instructive ethnic and period differences but also indicates an overall decline in the risks of both types of traditional marriage practices in the post-Soviet era. In fact, although the decline has characterized all marriage types, it was more substantial for traditional marriages. We interpret these trends as evidence of continuing modernization of nuptiality behavior in the region. PMID:25940113

  4. Safe management of wastes from former mining and milling activities in Kyrgyzstan

    254,4 million cubic meters of mining activity's wastes are accumulated in 92 sites on the territory of Kyrgyzstan. 36 tailings and 25 dumps with total volume of 15,7 million of cubic meters were to responsibility of Ministry of Emergency Situations of Kyrgyzstan Republic by Governmental Decree of Kyrgyzstan Republic after collapse of Soviet Union including: 31 tailings with radioactive wastes and volume of 7,2 million cubic meters; 5 tailings with toxic wastes and volume of 5,2 million cubic meters; 25 mountain dumps of non-conditioned ores and volume of 3,3 million cubic meters. Project proposal are submitted to donor countries and international organizations for consideration of possible technical assistance and grant means issuance for carrying out remediation works of tailings.

  5. Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan

    Ana Navas-Acien; Patrick Breysse; Shahida Shahrir; Denis Vinnikov; Nurlan Brimkulov

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range) air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86) μg/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD) 13.5 (3.6) ...

  6. The Level of Brand Awareness in Consumer Electronic Products: The Example of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Kutay Oktay; Bilgehan Gülcan; Musa Çakır

    2015-01-01

    Brand awareness which is considered as one of the most important factor affecting the consumer purchasing preferences has been investigated by both academics and practitioners in the field of marketing in recent years. The current study investigated brand awareness in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan regarding consumer electronic products, such as laptop computers, tablet computers, and cell phones. To determine brand awareness, ...

  7. 75 FR 67013 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan

    2010-11-01

    ... migration needs, including by contributions to international, governmental, and nongovernmental... HOUSE, WASHINGTON, August 26, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-27672 Filed 10-29-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 4710-10-P ... Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the...

  8. Environmental Journalism in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan: Reporting Scarce amid Environmental and Media Problems

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Independence for the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia has not led to press freedom, solutions to pressing environmental problems, or development of effective grassroots nongovernmental organizations. This article examines relations between journalists and environmental nongovernmental organizations, and it…

  9. Environmental Journalism in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan: Reporting Scarce amid Environmental and Media Problems

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Independence for the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia has not led to press freedom, solutions to pressing environmental problems, or development of effective grassroots nongovernmental organizations. This article examines relations between journalists and environmental nongovernmental organizations, and it

  10. Bayesian estimation of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan

    Dürr, S.; Bonfoh, B.; Schelling, E.; Kasymbekov, J.; Doherr, M.G.; Toktobaev, N.; Schueth, T.; Zinsstag, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new cases of human brucellosis per 100,000 inhabitants in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences in the world. However, because this number is based on official records, it is very likely that the incidence is underreported. The diagnostic tests most commonly used in Kyrgyzstan are the Rose Bengal test in ruminants and the Huddleson test in humans. The sensitivity and specificity of these tests have never been evaluated under field conditions in Kyrgyzstan, where the strains circulating in livestock and humans are unknown. Therefore, a representative national cross-sectional serological study was undertaken in humans, cattle, sheep and goats to assess the true seroprevalence and to compare different serological tests. In the year of study (2006), few animals were vaccinated against brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan. A total of 5,229 livestock sera and 1,777 human sera from three administrative regions were collected during spring 2006 and submitted to a range of serological tests. The true seroprevalence of brucellosis, estimated using Bayesian methodology, was 7% (95% credibility interval 4%–9%) in humans, 3% (1%–5%) in cattle, 12% (7%–23%) in sheep and 15% (7%–30%) in goats. The Rose Bengal test was confirmed as a useful screening test in livestock and humans, although its sensitivity was lower than that of other tests. The estimates of specificity of all tests were significantly higher than those for sensitivity. The high seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans, cattle and small ruminants in Kyrgyzstan was confirmed. Bayesian statistical approaches were demonstrated to be useful for simultaneously deriving test characteristics and true prevalence estimates in the absence of a gold standard. PMID:24761732

  11. Vegetation history of the walnut forests in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia): natural or anthropogenic origin?

    Beer, Ruth; Kaiser, Franziska; Schmidt, Kaspar; Ammann, Brigitta; Carraro, Gabriele; Grisa, Ennio; Tinner, Willy

    2008-03-01

    Extensive forests of common walnut ( Juglans regia L.) occur in the mountains of the Fergana and the Chatkal Ranges of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia), where they form a rich cultural landscape with a mosaic of natural and planted forest stands, fields, pastures, and drier open areas. These remote forests are likely to be an important genetic resource for J. regia, not only for in situ conservation but also as a resource for tree breeding. Pollen and charcoal analyses of the sediments of four lakes and two peat bogs in the core regions of the walnut forests provide new data to infer the vegetation history of the last 6800 years in the Fergana and Chatkal Ranges in Kyrgyzstan. Our results suggest that the potential natural forests or woods in the modern walnut forest region were dominated by Juniperus together with trees of Betula, Fraxinus, Rosaceae, and possibly Acer. A special focus was put on the vegetation history of J. regia, as it has been suggested that the walnut forests of Kyrgyzstan might be a refuge for this tree. However, our results suggest that the stands of J. regia are at the most 2000 years old, most of them even only about 1000 years old and probably of anthropogenic origin, confirming an old legend that is still orally transmitted in Kyrgyzstan. As with other old and widespread cultivated plants, it is not easy to reconstruct the original distribution and determine the borders of the past natural ranges. A review of paleoecological data points to refugia in southern Europe, Syria, Kyrgyzstan, China, and the Himalaya, where Juglans possibly outlived the last glaciation.

  12. HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question. PMID:24342741

  13. Excessive exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke among hospitality workers in Kyrgyzstan.

    Vinnikov, Denis; Brimkulov, Nurlan; Shahrir, Shahida; Breysse, Patrick; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range) air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86) microg/m(3). Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD) 13.5 (3.6) hours a day and 5.8 (1.4) days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS. PMID:20617012

  14. Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Berner, U.; Scheeder, G.; Kus, J. [Section Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, BGR, Hannover (Germany); Voigt, S.; Schneider, J.W. [Geological Inst., TU Bergakademic Freiberg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Along the northern foothills of the Turkestan-Alai Range (SW Kyrgyzstan), a 1000 to 1500m thick succession of Mesozoic deposits is exposed recording regional changes of the paleo-landscape during Triassic to Cretaceous times. Detailed litho- and biofacies analyses, conducted by the TU Bergakademie Freiberg since 2006, provided for the first time a nearly complete columnar section of the continental Triassic Madygen Formation of Kyrgyzstan. Organic petrographical and organic geochemical methods (including RockEval pyrolyses, and biomarker analyses) have been applied to a suite of terrestrial sedimentary rocks of Triassic age with the intention to identify the depositional environment. Our investigations suggest that the potential source rocks of the terrestrial pluvial Madygen Formation might generate predominantly gaseous hydrocarbons at higher maturities. (orig.)

  15. Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan

    Ana Navas-Acien

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86 μg/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD 13.5 (3.6 hours a day and 5.8 (1.4 days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS.

  16. Police reform and state-building in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia

    O'Shea, Liam

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation provides an in-depth study of police transformation in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union. It draws upon interviews with police, NGO workers, politicians and international practitioners, and employs a comparative-historical approach. Contra to democratic policing approaches, advocating the diffusion of police power and implementation of police reform concurrently with wider democratisation, reform was relatively successful...

  17. Assessing the state of Sustainable Land Management research in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan

    Dear, Chad; Shigaeva, Jyldyz; Wolfgramm, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    This article synthesizes findings from a review of the state of research on sustainable land management in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan and from an analysis of the interface between research and action. Using the Global Land Project (GLP 2005) analytical framework, we analyzed the distribution of 131 selected publications (including a clearly defined set of local and international academic and gray literature) across the framework's components and links in a social–ecological system. There is a ...

  18. Dog ownership, dog behaviour and transmission of Echinococcus spp. in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan

    Van Kesteren, F.; Torgerson, Paul R; et al.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan, and the incidence of human infection has increased substantially since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Domestic dogs are hosts of Echinococcus spp. and play an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The demography, ecology and behaviour of dogs are therefore relevant in studying Echinococcus spp. transmission. Dog demographics, roles of dogs, dog movements and faecal environmental contamination w...

  19. Frequency distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis and other helminths of foxes in Kyrgyzstan

    I., Ziadinov; P., Deplazes; A., Mathis; B., Mutunova; K., Abdykerimov; R., Nurgaziev; P.R, Torgerson

    2010-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A study of the helminth fauna of foxes from Naryn Oblast in central Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the abundance of Echinococcus multilocularis in a district where a high prevalence of this parasite had previously been detected in dogs. A total of 151 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were investigated in a necropsy study. Of these 96 (64%) were infected with E. multilocularis with a mean abundance of 8669 parasites per fox. This indi...

  20. Environmental Effects of Possible Landslides in the Areas of Radioactive Waste Storage in Kyrgyzstan

    This paper describes the problems caused by the location of uranium mine and mill tailings in the mountainous regions of Kyrgyzstan which are subject to potentially disrupting natural events such as landslides and flooding. It describes the modelling analyses which have been carried out to provide an improved predictive capability of potential future events. On the basis of these analyses, strategies have been developed to avoid some of the worst consequences of the natural events. (author)

  1. Canine echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan: using prevalence data adjusted for measurement error to develop transmission dynamics models

    Ziadinov, I; Mathis, A.; Trachsel, D; Rysmukhambetova, A.; Abdyjaparov, T A; Kuttubaev, O.T.; Deplazes, P.; TORGERSON, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A cross-sectional study of dogs in four villages in rural Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Echinococcus spp. A total of 466 dogs were examined by arecoline purgation for the presence of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. In addition, a faecal sample from each dog was examined for taeniid eggs. Any taeniid eggs found were investigated using PCR techniques (multiplex and single ...

  2. Human infections with Dicrocoelium dendriticum in Kyrgyzstan: the tip of the iceberg?

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Rinaldi, Laura; Abdyldaieva, Gulnara; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Steinmann, Peter; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Utzinger, Jrg

    2011-12-01

    Dicrocoelium dendriticum is the causative agent of a rare food-borne zoonosis of the human biliary tract, dicrocoeliasis, for which few human prevalence data are available. Infection occurs through the ingestion of ants containing metacercariae, whereas pseudo-infections (presence of D. dendriticum eggs in stool in the absence of adult worms) are due to the consumption of infected animal liver. Here, results from a cross-sectional survey carried out among 138 children aged 2-15 yr in a peri-urban area of Kyrgyzstan are reported. Each child provided 1 stool sample that was subjected to the FLOTAC technique. Eggs of D. dendriticum were diagnosed in 11 children (prevalence 8.0%; 95% confidence interval 4.5-13.7%). Although no distinction could be made between true and pseudo-infections, the prevailing animal husbandry system and the diet and hygienic conditions of the study area suggest that the social-ecological system in Kyrgyzstan is conducive for human transmission of D. dendriticum. There is a need to investigate the epidemiology of dicrocoeliasis in Kyrgyzstan, placing emphasis on the distinction between true and pseudo-infections. PMID:21736477

  3. Predictors of Students` Desire to be an Entrepreneur: Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, and the United States

    Barry A. FRIEDMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is an important element of national economic growth, and college business students represent an important feeder pool for a nations supply of entrepreneurs. The purpose of this study is to identify and contrast predictors of students desire to be entrepreneurs in Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, and the United States. Three hundred and five undergraduate business students in Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, and the United States completed the Aspiring Entrepreneurial Motives Questionnaire (Aziz, Friedman & Sayfullin, 2012. While the recognition motive was important for all students, predictors of their desire to be entrepreneurs differed across the three countries. In contrast to Kyrgyzstan and the United States, students in Georgia overall desire to be entrepreneurs was more complex as finance, recognition, freedom, marketing opportunities and economic conditions reached significance. National initiatives that recognize entrepreneurial accomplishments may therefore encourage more individuals to start and manage businesses. A more complex strategy may be required in Georgia, as the decision to be an entrepreneur appeared to be more multidimensional.

  4. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:26870722

  5. Situation analysis in the field of control and management of uranium tailings in Kyrgyzstan

    This article is devoted to situation analysis in the field of control and management of uranium tailings in Kyrgyzstan. The basic sites for control in Kyrgyzstan are: HMP P C 'KGRK', specialized on uranium oxide production (status operating) RSH; storage for low-activity waste (tailings and rock piles) former uranium industry; site for disposal of ionizing radiation sources and radioactive waste in Bishkek city; ionizing radiation sources; medical institutions (X-rays diagnostics, radiotherapy); natural anomaly (local sites with high radiation background). It was concluded that: in existing legislative basis there is a necessity to amend requirements for accepting regulatory provisions on radiation safety; it is necessary to continue working on combination of country's policy and strategy with Fundamental Safety Principles and with International instruments, agreements, codes which were ratified by State; legislative basis documental hierarchy on radiation safety issues is not a complete system, significant number of gaps are defined (more than 60 % from the whole system), basically, related to low stages of hierarchical structure (rules, norms, regulations, instructions and etc.); it is necessary to review existing leading documents with the purpose of inaccuracy correcting, especially in the field of safety statements (especially, it relates to new basic regulation on radiation safety, where contradicting to each other criteria are available, mixing to one 'pile' the concepts of 'dose threshold' and 'dose limits', incomplete and scrappy Radioactive Wastes classification, absence of instructions on ionizing radiation sources categorization and etc.

  6. Progress Toward Remediation of Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    The town of Mailuu-Suu in Kyrgyzstan inherited 23 distinct tailings deposits from Soviet-Era uranium mining operations. Mailuu-Suu is located in the narrow landslide-prone valley of the Mailuu-Suu River about 25 km from the Uzbekistan border. Large-scale release of the radioactive tailings, as a result of landslides, could lead to irreversible contamination of the river and downstream areas. The Mailuu-Suu River is a tributary to the Syr-Darya River, the Fergana valley's main source of irrigation water. The Fergana Valley is a key agricultural region and major population center that spans Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The trans-boundary nature of the Mailuu-Suu tailings issue presents an opportunity for collaboration among these Central Asian states. A cooperative approach to addressing environmental issues such as Mailuu-Suu may contribute to the region's stability by facilitating peaceful associations. Experience from remediation of sites in the US under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action Project (UMTRA) will be useful in progressing toward remediation at Mailuu-Suu

  7. Progress Toward Remediation of Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    Buckley, P B; Ranville, J; Honeyman, B D; Smith, D K; Rosenberg, N; Knapp, R B

    2003-07-09

    The town of Mailuu-Suu in Kyrgyzstan inherited 23 distinct tailings deposits from Soviet-Era uranium mining operations. Mailuu-Suu is located in the narrow landslide-prone valley of the Mailuu-Suu River about 25 km from the Uzbekistan border. Large-scale release of the radioactive tailings, as a result of landslides, could lead to irreversible contamination of the river and downstream areas. The Mailuu-Suu River is a tributary to the Syr-Darya River, the Fergana valley's main source of irrigation water. The Fergana Valley is a key agricultural region and major population center that spans Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The trans-boundary nature of the Mailuu-Suu tailings issue presents an opportunity for collaboration among these Central Asian states. A cooperative approach to addressing environmental issues such as Mailuu-Suu may contribute to the region's stability by facilitating peaceful associations. Experience from remediation of sites in the US under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action Project (UMTRA) will be useful in progressing toward remediation at Mailuu-Suu.

  8. Dog ownership, dog behaviour and transmission of Echinococcus spp. in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan.

    Van Kesteren, Freya; Mastin, Alexander; Mytynova, Bermet; Ziadinov, Iskender; Boufana, Belgees; Torgerson, Paul R; Rogan, Michael T; Craig, Philip S

    2013-11-01

    Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan, and the incidence of human infection has increased substantially since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Domestic dogs are hosts of Echinococcus spp. and play an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The demography, ecology and behaviour of dogs are therefore relevant in studying Echinococcus spp. transmission. Dog demographics, roles of dogs, dog movements and faecal environmental contamination were assessed in four rural communities in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan. Arecoline purge data revealed for the first time that E. granulosus, E. canadensis and E. multilocularis were present in domestic dogs in the Alay Valley. Surveys revealed that many households had dogs and that dogs played various roles in the communities, as pets, guard dogs or sheep dogs. Almost all dogs were free to roam, and GPS data revealed that many moved outside their communities, thus being able to scavenge offal and consume rodents. Faecal environmental contamination was high, presenting a significant infection risk to the local communities. PMID:23985326

  9. Risk factors for Echinococcus coproantigen positivity in dogs from the Alay valley, Kyrgyzstan.

    Mastin, A; van Kesteren, F; Torgerson, P R; Ziadinov, I; Mytynova, B; Rogan, M T; Tursunov, T; Craig, P S

    2015-11-01

    Echinococcosis, caused by the zoonotic cestodes Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) and Echinococcus multilocularis, is highly endemic in the Central Asian Republic of Kyrgyzstan, and is being identified increasingly as a public health problem, especially amongst pastoral communities. As domestic dogs are considered to be the main source of human infection, the identification of potential transmission pathways is of relevance when considering implementing an echinococcosis control scheme. The current report describes the results of an analytical study of canine Echinococcus coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) prevalence in the Alay valley of southern Kyrgyzstan prior to the commencement of regular praziquantel dosing of dogs. A logistic regression model using a form of Bayes modal estimation was used to identify possible risk factors for coproantigen positivity, and the output was interpreted in a Bayesian context (posterior distributions of the coefficients of interest). The study found that sheepdogs had lower odds of coproantigen positivity, as did dogs in households with donkeys, where owners had knowledge of echinococcosis, and households which engaged in home slaughtering. Surprisingly, there was no evidence of an association between free roaming or previous praziquantel dosing and coproantigen positivity, as has been found in previous studies. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed in the context of the epidemiology of echinococcosis and potential intervention approaches. PMID:26442706

  10. Trends in traffic collisions and injuries in Kyrgyzstan, 2003-2007

    Viola Artikova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiological data on motor vehicle collisions, injuries and deaths in Kyrgyzstan to inform evidence-based policy development. METHODS: Data on motor vehicle collision and injury statistics covering 2003-2007 were obtained from official sources provided by the Department of Traffic Safety and the Ministry of Health's Republican Medical Information Centre.The data were analysed and compared with data derived from studies in other low- and middle-income countries. FINDINGS: Large heterogeneity between data sources was noted. Motor vehicle collisions caused by drivers increased twofold between 2003 and 2007. Reported motor vehicle collisions, deaths and injuries increased by 34%, 33% and 47%, respectively, over that period. Such increases were proportionately greater than the growth in population or in the number of registered motor vehicles.The proportion of injury attributable to motor vehicle collisions increased by 14% and the collision-related mortality rate increased by 39% in 2003-2007. CONCLUSION: In Kyrgyzstan, the number of motor vehicle collisions is rising and so is the number of those who are injured or killed in them. Reversing this trend will call for closer collaboration among relevant agencies and for a comprehensive surveillance system, along with operational improvements in emergency medical care, new and strictly enforced passenger safety laws and improvements to the transportation infrastructure.

  11. Decentralizing Governance of Agropastoral Systems in Kyrgyzstan: An Assessment of Recent Pasture Reforms

    Jyldyz Shigaeva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Agropastoral systems in Kyrgyzstan have undergone dramatic change in recent decades. In large part, change has resulted from the introduction of legislation that devolves authority and responsibility for the management of common-pool agropastoral resources to community-level pasture users associations. By applying Ostrom’s principles of common resource governance, this paper analyzes the institutions and norms that currently shape local management practices in rural areas of Naryn Province in Kyrgyzstan and the views of different actors on pasture governance, including points of disagreement. Our research and analysis reveal that the community-initiated and -owned systems of pasture governance that were expected to develop and mature under the new Pasture Law have not yet been entirely realized. Decentralization occurred without the participation or awareness of most local resource users. As a consequence, users are creating and reinforcing their own community-defined practices and internal rules, leaving official management plans largely ignored and unenforced. Resource users tend to perceive the government-sanctioned pasture users associations not as public or democratic organizations that represent their interests, but rather as agencies that aim primarily to control the use of resources, exclude some people from decision-making, or impose taxation. Sustainable management of pasturelands therefore may best be served when community perspectives are more suitably integrated—from the planning phase through to collaborative governance and implementation of locally agreed upon management options.

  12. Coping with the energy crisis: Impact assessment and potentials of non-traditional renewable energy in rural Kyrgyzstan

    The Kyrgyz energy sector is characterised by a dramatic energy crisis that has deprived a substantial part of the population from access to energy. Non-traditional renewable energy sources have emerged as a promising alternative in providing basic energy services to the rural poor. Based on qualitative interview data from local households and project planners, this study sets out to assess impacts, limitations and barriers of non-traditional renewable energy projects in rural areas in Kyrgyzstan. This study argues that recent renewable energy efforts from multilateral international agencies, the private sector, and nongovernmental organisations exhibit great potential in creating tangible benefits and improving basic energy services, but have so far been inefficient in establishing and replicating sustainable and long-term energy solutions. Existing practices need to be improved by attaching greater importance to the capacities and real needs of the rural poor. The guidance of integrated programmes and policies along with alternative financing schemes and awareness-raising are urgently needed to leverage local success stories and to facilitate a sustainable energy development in rural Kyrgyzstan. - Highlights: ► We examine 11 rural households and 5 project planners in rural Kyrgyzstan. ► We assess impacts of non-traditional renewable energies compared with conventional fuels. ► Renewable energies exhibit a range of tangible benefits for rural users. ► Limitations concern performance, durability, repair, acceptance, finance and policy. ► Renewable energy is a promising alternative for rural households in Kyrgyzstan.

  13. Childhood exposures to Rn-222 and background gamma radiation in the uranium provinces of south Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan.

    Priest, N D; Hoel, D; Uralbekov, B; Baizakova, D O; Burkitbayev, M

    2013-09-01

    The project was undertaken in southern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It was speculated that the radiation doses in these areas would be sufficiently high and dispersed to facilitate a case-control study where the radiation doses to leukaemia subjects/their siblings could be compared with those received by control children. As a precursor a pilot project was undertaken to confirm radiation exposures in the region. This was undertaken in association with regional childhood cancer treatment centres. Children from families affected by childhood leukaemia were monitored for 1 month for external γ-radiation dose and for exposure to radon gas. 28 children from families in Kazakhstan and from 31 families in Kyrgyzstan were monitored. The median measured radon in air concentration recorded in Kazakhstan was 123 Bq m(-3) and in Kyrgyzstan was 177 Bq m(-3). These represent 24-h average indoor/outdoor values. In the case of the γ-doses the mean annual dose was 1.2 mGy for Kazakhstan and 2.1 mGy for Kyrgyzstan. Overall, the results suggest that the populations studied receive similar annual radiation doses to those received by populations living in other areas with enhanced natural radioactivity and that further study of Kazakh and Kyrgyz populations would not facilitate a successful case-control study for childhood leukaemia. PMID:22727647

  14. Childhood exposures to Rn-222 and background gamma radiation in the uranium provinces of south Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan

    The project was undertaken in southern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It was speculated that the radiation doses in these areas would be sufficiently high and dispersed to facilitate a casecontrol study where the radiation doses to leukaemia subjects/their siblings could be compared with those received by control children. As a precursor a pilot project was undertaken to confirm radiation exposures in the region. This was undertaken in association with regional childhood cancer treatment centres. Children from families affected by childhood leukaemia were monitored for 1 month for external ?-radiation dose and for exposure to radon gas. 28 children from families in Kazakhstan and from 31 families in Kyrgyzstan were monitored. The median measured radon in air concentration recorded in Kazakhstan was 123 Bq m?3 and in Kyrgyzstan was 177 Bq m?3. These represent 24-h average indoor/outdoor values. In the case of the ?-doses the mean annual dose was 1.2 mGy for Kazakhstan and 2.1 mGy for Kyrgyzstan. Overall, the results suggest that the populations studied receive similar annual radiation doses to those received by populations living in other areas with enhanced natural radioactivity and that further study of Kazakh and Kyrgyz populations would not facilitate a successful casecontrol study for childhood leukaemia

  15. Challenges of Applying a Student-Centered Approach to Learning in the Context of Education in Kyrgyzstan

    de la Sablonniere, Roxane; Taylor, Donald M.; Sadykova, Nazgul

    2009-01-01

    The challenge of maximizing student learning has been paramount in many societies. This issue has become especially salient in the context of drastic social and political changes that have taken place in countries such as Kyrgyzstan. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, teachers and students are confronted with new ways of thinking, which are

  16. The Accommodation of Children and Young People in Kyrgyzstan by the System of Education, and the Problem of Gender Inequality

    Tiuliundieva, N.

    2006-01-01

    Kyrgyzstan, like other countries of the former Soviet Union, traditionally occupied a relatively high position in the world from the standpoint of the average level of education of its population. Any gender inequality when it came to obtaining an education was insignificant by international standards. However, the conversion to market relations,…

  17. Mountain lakes of Kyrgyzstan with regard to the risk of their rupture

    Jansk, B.; ?ern, M.; Yerokhin, S.

    2009-04-01

    More than 2,000 alpine lakes covering more than 0.1 hectare are recognized in a territory of Kyrgyzstan. Nearly 20% of this number is supposed to be potentially dangerous because of instability of moraine or landslide dams, frequent overflowing, rapid development of the lake basin and melting of buried ice inside the moraine. According to the last inventarization in total 328 lakes have been catalogued as potentially dangerous, 12 lakes are considered as actually dangerous, another 25 feature high potential hazard. Since 1952 more than 70 disastrous cases of lake outbursts have been registered. The hazardous alpine lakes have been studied in Kyrgyzstan systematically since 1966. Over the last six years the monitoring work has been carried out within the programme of Czech-Kyrgyz cooperation. Alpine lakes in the territory of Kyrgyzstan can be classified into several renetic types and sub-types. The moraine-glacial lakes are considered as the most dangerous type including 47% of listed lakes. The largest lake of this type is the Petrov lake, which has been studied and monitored in detail by Czech-Kyrgyz team over the last four years. According to the recent knowledge the lake has an area of 390 hectares, the water volume of more than 60 mil. m3 and the maximum depth 69 m. During the last 50 years, the area of the lake has expanded 4 times and, during the recent period (from 1999 to 2006), the water surface has been increasing by more than 9 ha a year. The annual retreat of frontal part of glacier tongue is 50 - 65 m during the last decade. The danger of outburst is increasing significantly due to the influence of recent climate changes and rapid glacier retreat. The evidence for this fact is the outburst of Zyndan lake in 2008. Three people died besides the damage of some houses and infrastructure. The lake of estimated volume of 480,000 m3 appeared during last five years just in front of terminal part of small glacier. The hazardousness of other lake types is more limited but it is necessary to pay attention especially to the lakes dammed by landslides and debris-flows. These lakes are characterised by high volume of water. The outbursts of this type of lakes are less frequent but regarding the water volume can be very disastrous. As the pilot locality for long-term studies was chosen the Koltor lake in northern Kyrgyzstan. The lake of the area 22.15 hectares and the volume 1,9 mil. m3 is endangering the lower part of the valley and adjacent part of densely populated Chu depression. Besides the mentioned localities, the Adygine pilot locality is monitored in the long-term. The climatological and glaciological programme have been implemented in addition to the lake monitoring.

  18. Proposal for a probabilistic local level landslide hazard assessment model: The case of Suluktu, Kyrgyzstan

    Vidar Vangelsten, Bjrn; Fornes, Petter; Cepeda, Jose Mauricio; Ekseth, Kristine Helene; Eidsvig, Unni; Ormukov, Cholponbek

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are a significant threat to human life and the built environment in many parts of Central Asia. To improve understanding of the magnitude of the threat and propose appropriate risk mitigation measures, landslide hazard mapping is needed both at regional and local level. Many different approaches for landslide hazard mapping exist depending on the scale and purpose of the analysis and what input data are available. This paper presents a probabilistic local scale landslide hazard mapping methodology for rainfall triggered landslides, adapted to the relatively dry climate found in South-Western Kyrgyzstan. The GIS based approach makes use of data on topography, geology, land use and soil characteristics to assess landslide susceptibility. Together with a selected rainfall scenario, these data are inserted into a triggering model based on an infinite slope formulation considering pore pressure and suction effects for unsaturated soils. A statistical model based on local landslide data has been developed to estimate landslide run-out. The model links the spatial extension of the landslide to land use and geological features. The model is tested and validated for the town of Suluktu in the Ferghana Valley in South-West Kyrgyzstan. Landslide hazard is estimated for the urban area and the surrounding hillsides. The case makes use of a range of data from different sources, both remote sensing data and in-situ data. Public global data sources are mixed with case specific data obtained from field work. The different data and models have various degrees of uncertainty. To account for this, the hazard model has been inserted into a Monte Carlo simulation framework to produce a probabilistic landslide hazard map identifying areas with high landslide exposure. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013], under grant agreement n 312972 "Framework to integrate Space-based and in-situ sENSing for dynamic vUlnerability and recover Monitoring" (SENSUM).

  19. ON INSCRIPTIONS WITH ARABIC LETTERS IN KYRGYZSTAN
    KIRGIZİSTANDAKİ ARAP HARFLİ YAZITLAR ÜZERİNE

    Cengiz ALYILMAZ

    2009-01-01

    The territory within the boundaries of Kyrgyzstan Republic is highly important for Turkish-Islamic history. The territory contains many Arabic inscriptions belonging to Muslim-Turkic tribes especially Karahanli state (Karahanlilar), and Arabians who arrived in the region for conquests. This paper presents to the attention the significance of Turkish and Arabic inscriptions in Alphabet, found in historical mosques, prayer rooms, caravansaries, shrines, tombstones, holy places (ziyaret yerleri)...

  20. Why does police reform appear to have been more successful in Georgia than in Kyrgyzstan or Russia?

    Kakachia, Kornely, Dr.; O’Shea, Liam

    2012-01-01

    Reform has been relatively successful in Georgia because, after the Rose Revolution, the new government used its dominance of the state to fire a huge number of officers, purge the old leadership, and instigate a crackdown on police corruption and links with organised crime. This took place in the background of a strong public demand for reform and a state-building process which dramatically reduced public sector corruption and altered state-society relations. In Kyrgyzstan and Russia, neithe...

  1. An international degree, social ties and return: when international graduates make a career back home in Kyrgyzstan

    Thieme, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Student mobility is increasing worldwide, and Kyrgyzstan is no exception. This study looks at students who returned after their degree and highlights the increasing transnational, networked character of professionals, emphasizing not only the physical presence of migrants, but also the value of knowledge transfer. Transnationalism can be maintained without moving physically, for example through interaction with international donor agencies in the country or through an in-depth application of...

  2. Problem of bioecology in the natural-technogenic Uranium provinces of Kyrgyzstan

    Full text: It is known that Kyrgyzstan was the largest producer of uranium for the former USSR (for example, deposit Mailuu Suu, Sumsar, Min-Kush, Kaji-Sai, Ak-Tuz, Orlovka, Kara-Balta, etc.). Currently, interest in this problem increases again at the decision of the new strategic challenges in the world. It should be noted that due to inefficient and wasteful mining processing of minerals in the territory of Kyrgyzstan, in dumps and tailings 747.22 million m3 mineral processing wastes were formed containing a high number of potentially hazardous chemical elements and their compounds. To store them imported from other friendly countries. The status of these dumps and storage facilities so bad, that the radioactive waste, heavy metals and toxic substances contaminate the environment (soil, air, water) and living organisms. They are involved in biogeochemical cycles with the formation of new technological biogeochemical provinces (1,2,3). These technogenic features of the province, and activity of various biological organisms remain poorly understood and obscure the real geochemical situation. There are no forecasts of technological evolution of biogeochemical provinces. Limited data on the doctors and geologists for the 60-year period there was a significant change in uranium, polymetallic and other technogenic provinces in the country. Therefore, the most urgent is to find ecological and biogeochemical characteristics of enriched uranium and other rare earth elements, areas and assessment of the reactions of organisms in the biocenoses of the high content of radio-nuclides and base metals. We have conducted a comprehensive survey of uranium province, according to the methodology of radiological and biological study of various toxins of the biosphere. Complex of radio biogeochemical and radio-ecological studies were carried out in 2006-2011 using modern equipment. These included land ecosystems and the aquatic environment: water, samples of higher plants and animals. From the radiometric survey we found that the level of exposure dose to the whole country was at the level of the background and below the standards (NRB-99; IAEA, 2009). But in the tailings and waste dumps, and some areas of natural background radiation increased. For example, Dzhenish and Ak-Terek placers - thorium sands from 30 to 60 mR/hr, at least 100-120 and at some points reaches 400 mR/hr in some areas tailings and dumps up to 1000 mR/h (Ak -Tuz, Kaji-Sai and Mailuu-Suu). Vegetation on the tailings and dumps most of the sparse, projective cover varies from 5 to 10% and only in some areas- up to 50%. Here one can meet the modified form of morphological plants (Peganum garmala, Potentilla argentea, Iris songarica Schrenk). In the roots of plants total alpha activity was 670 Bq/kg of beta-activity-137.5 Bq/kg, above-ground parts of plants, the alpha-activity of 490 Bq/kg, and beta activity-125.0 Bq/kg. The level of total uranium from the streams of the tail Kaji-Sai compared to water in the lake Issyk-Kul is 2-5 times more as compared with Kichi-Ak-Suu, and 40-100 times for the Bulan-Seget. However, the stream of the tail does not always reach the lake (2, 4). A total weight of tamarisk gerbils (Meriones tamariscinus), inhabiting the area and the tailings ponds, the level of alpha activity was 26.2 Bq/kg (Kn-0,039) ((Kn-book-accumulation factor), beta-activity-36.7 Bq/kg (Kn-0, 29), which is 1.5 - 2.0 times higher than that of animals with non-contaminated areas of Issyk-Kul region. Analyses of radio-nuclides in bone and muscle tissues of fish after 30 days spent in special packaging containers. We were able to identify all three major isotopes, gamma rays - 226 Ra, 228 Th and 212 Pb. In the bone tissue level of 226 Ra-chebachok-Leuciscus bergi Kaschkarov. 1925 (0,75 Bg/kg), and the Issyk-Kul trout-Salmo ischchan Issykogegarkuni Lushin. 1932 (0.52 Bg/kg) compared with muscle tissue more than 2-3 times, respectively, 0.26 and 0,20 Bg/kg wet wt. Thorium- 228, on the contrary, slightly increased in muscle tissue (0.13 Bg/kg on wet weight) compared to the bone - 0,07 Bg/kg on wet weight, other isotopes and species specific differences were found. It should be noted that all results are within the background and below the accepted norm. Established the level of gross alpha- and beta-activities in a number of conditional biogeochemical chain soil> the root of the plant> aboveground part of the plant>rodents. (authors) Reference: 1. Bakirov A. Mineral resources of Kyrgyzstan //Science and New Technologies. - 1997.No 4.P.52-60; 2. Djenbaev B.M. Geochemical ecology of terrestrial organisms. - Bishkek, 2009. 240 p.; 3. Torgoev I.A., Aleshin. J.G. Geoecology and waste from the mining complex in Kyrgyzstan. -Bishkek: Ilim, 2009. 240 p.; 4. Book title: Radioactive Waste (ISBN 978-953-51-0551-0). 502 p. 2012. (http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/).

  3. The 2008 Nura earthquake sequence at the Pamir-Tian Shan collision zone, southern Kyrgyzstan

    Sippl, C.; Ratschbacher, L.; Schurr, B.; Krumbiegel, C.; Rui, H.; Pingren, L.; Abdybachaev, U.

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed the 5 October 2008, Mw 6.6 Nura earthquake, which occurred in the border triangle between Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and China, and its aftershock series based on locally recorded seismic data. More than 3000 aftershocks were detected and located, using a double-difference technique and a regional 3-D velocity model. Moment tensors for the main event and the 42 largest aftershocks were determined by full-waveform inversion of long-period displacement seismograms. The Nura main shock was a shallow (˜3.4 km deep) reverse faulting event and occurred on an approximately east striking rupture plane situated east of the Alai Valley, along the Pamir Frontal Thrust of the Trans Alai Range, the leading edge of the Pamir Thrust System. Its presumed rupture plane dips steeply (˜59°) southward. The aftershocks constitute several distinct clusters that can be attributed to the activation of an array of individual faults including the one that was presumably broken by the main shock. Background seismicity occurred mainly further south, behind the crest of the Trans Alai Range, in an approximately east trending zone of dextral transpressional motion in the interior of the Pamir Thrust System. We show that nearly all reactivated structures lie in regions that experienced an increase in Coulomb stress due to the main shock rupture. The Nura earthquake sequence indicates slip partitioning between north-south shortening that creates large earthquakes along the Pamir Frontal Thrust, and lateral movement in the interior of the Pamir Thrust System.

  4. Implementing Istanbul Protocol standards for forensic evidence of torture in Kyrgyzstan.

    Moreno, Alejandro; Crosby, Sondra; Xenakis, Stephen; Iacopino, Vincent

    2015-02-01

    The Kyrgyz government declared a policy of "zero tolerance" for torture and began reforms to stop such practice, a regular occurrence in the country's daily life. This study presents the results of 10 forensic evaluations of individuals alleging torture; they represent 35% of all criminal investigations into torture for the January 2011-July 2012 period. All individuals evaluated were male with an average age of 34 years. Police officers were implicated as perpetrators in all cases. All individuals reported being subjected to threats and blunt force trauma from punches, kicks, and blows with objects such as police batons. The most common conditions documented during the evaluations were traumatic brain injury and chronic seizures. Psychological sequelae included post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder, which was diagnosed in seven individuals. In all cases, the physical and psychological evidence was highly consistent with individual allegations of abuse. These forensic evaluations, which represent the first ever to be conducted in Kyrgyzstan in accordance with Istanbul Protocol standards, provide critical insight into torture practices in the country. The evaluations indicate a pattern of brutal torture practices and inadequate governmental and nongovernmental forensic evaluations. PMID:25623194

  5. Quantitative Biostratigraphic Analysis of Central Asia with Implications for the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan

    McLaughlin, W. N.; Hopkins, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Central Asia lies at a nexus both in terms of geology and evolutionary biogeography. With the convergence of the Indian and Asian plates creating high rates of deformation over broad regions, shortening of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic basement rocks has created a rich history of late Cenozoic sedimentary basins. In fact, Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active country in the world. Additionally, Central Asia is a biogeographic crossroads, facilitating the intercontinental migrations of distant faunas from North American, Europe, Africa, and Southern Asia. With such an active geologic and biological evolution, the usefulness of temporal constraints is apparent. However, the continental collision environment has provided few volcanic rocks suitable for radiometric dating. Therefore, while less precise, the biostratigraphic analysis of Central Asia I present is an ideal method for both establishing ages and correlating between disparate basins. The last several decades provided great advancements in quantitative biostratigraphic methods applied to marine microfossils from drill cores. While these newer methods such as RASC (ranking and scaling), its sister program CASC, and CONOP (constrained optimization) provide a clear improvement over older methods such as graphic correlation, they have yet to be applied to terrestrial vertebrate faunas. Graphic correlation only allows comparison between two stratigraphic columns at a time and is heavily weighted by the initial selection of a type section. Both RASC and CONOP compare all stratigraphic sections simultaneously, eliminating type section bias. Previous vertebrate biostratigraphy methods attempted to predict FADs and LADs with the assumption they are generally minimum estimates. RASC instead establishes average stratigraphic ranges for each taxon and with CASC actually provides confidence intervals for each prediction, reducing the potential error resulting from reworking. CONOP generates maximum stratigraphic ranges observed in all sections, yet also includes error bars for the estimates of each biological event such as an extinction or origination. Used in conjunction, RASC, CASC, and CONOP provide both a solid evaluation of land mammal ages or zones for Central Asia and a predictive composite column for new late Cenozoic fossil localities. With a high degree of endemicity and migration, Central Asia cannot rely on the European Neogene Mammal Zones. This study aims to support and evaluate the emerging Asian biostratigraphic and geochronologic framework. With little fossil material currently collected from Kyrgyzstan, this study also sets a temporal framework for future paleontological work. Material is included from countries with much better constrained biostratigraphic records, preferably associated with existing radiometric dates. Specifically included were sites from Asiatic Russia, Mongolia, Western China, India, and Nepal. This geographic range is selected both to preserve the signal of faunas endemic to the Himalayan and Tibetan highlands, but also to provide a large enough sample to account for the well-known problems with the terrestrial fossil record such as high sampling errors and diachrony.

  6. Radioecological and radiobiogeochemical situation of flood-lands of river Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan)

    Full text: In the end of XX c. in connection with increased texnogenium of biosphere accompanying wide application of mineral fertilizers, accumulation in environment wastes of a mining industry, household wastes and other, technogenium biogeochemical provinces and new associations of chemical elements arise. It is known, that sharp deficiency or the surplus in environment of biologically active elements results in diseases of animals, plants and a man. On the territory of Kyrgyzstan and other countries biogeochemical provinces with deficiency and surplus I, F, Cu, Cu, V, Ca, Sr, Se, U and Hg are investigated. The doctrine about biogeochemical provinces finds practical realization in medicine and agriculture (preventive maintenance of endemical diseases, synthesis of medicines, manufacture of micro fertilizers etc.). Selection of samples of soil, natural waters and plants carried out by a way of platforms on the certain routes with the account of landscape-geochemical and meteorological conditions. Processing of samples carried out in biogeochemistry laboratory of an environment GEOCHI of RAS and Biology-soil institute NAS of KR with use of soil and geological cards at an advice of the geologists and soil scientists of Kyrgyzstan. Concentration of triselementis was being by AAC, Spectrofluorimetrical and etc. methods. During operation of a uranium deposit Mailuu-Suu (1946-1968 years) more than 10 thousand tons of uranium were extracted. According to the scientific geologists and geochemists, radioactive wastes in the given site, are quantitatively equivalent to size of the extracted uranium. In tail-depository the huge weights of residual uranium and it long-lived of isotopes (Th-230, Ra-226 etc.), hence, radio-activity tail-depositories will be kept long. Now condition of these damps and storehouses contains in a so pitiable condition, that radioactive wastes, heavy metals and the toxic substances pollute an environment. And, most dangerous sites are in landslide-dangerous zones or possible food by waters of the river Mailuusuu now. In pool of the river mud flows are often. For example, 1958 as a result of failure on tail-depository No 7 on the river has passed radioactive mud torrent with the charge more than 200 m3/s In the whole water p. Mailuusuu on our received data is unsuitable for drinking and cultural - household usage. The highest concentration after the attitude LPC (limit-permissible-concentration) is characteristic for Se (up to 20 times), and the level does not change in all extent of the river. Further is accumulated Fe up to 8 times more, is especial 2 and 5 points, and Hg, Cd and Al up to 2 times. It is necessary especially to note, that in r.Kulmen-Sai (inflow r.Mailuusuu are marked the increased contents of uranium up to 5 times, where the inhabitants use water for watering and economic needs. The concentration of other investigated microelements in the river at a level ore is lower LPC. Till current of the river the level of concentration Hg, Cd and Se does not vary almost, it is constant, on other elements of the certain laws is not revealed

  7. Development of Triad approach based system for ecological risk assessment for contaminated areas of Kyrgyzstan

    Kydralieva, Kamilia; Uzbekov, Beksultan; Khudaibergenova, Bermet; Terekhova, Vera; Jorobekova, Sharipa

    2014-05-01

    This research is aimed to develop a high-effective system of an ecological risk assessment and risk-based decision making for anthropogenic ecosystems, with particular focus on the soils of the Kyrgyz Republic. The study is focused on the integration of Triad data including chemical, biological and ecotoxicological soil markers to estimate the potential risk from soils of highly anthropized areas impacted by deposition of different pollutants from mining operation. We focus on technogenic areas of Kyrgyzstan, the former uranium-producing province. Triad-based ecological risk assessment for technogenic sites are not currently used in Kyrgyzstan. However, the vitality of such research is self-evident. There are about 50 tailing dumps and more than 80 tips of radioactive waste which are formed as a result of uranium and complex ores (mercury, antimony, lead, cadmium and etc) mining around the unfavorable aforementioned places. According to the Mining Wastes' Tailings and Fills Rehabilitation Centre established in 1999 by a special Government's Resolution, one of the most ecologically dangerous uranium tailings resides in Kadzhi-Say. Although uranium processing is no longer practiced in Kadzhi-Say, a large number of open landfills and uranium ore storages still remain abandoned at the vicinity of this settlement. These neglected sites have enormous problems associated with soil erosion known as "technogenic deserts". The upper soil horizons are deprived of humus and vegetation, which favor the formation of low-buffer landscapes in the zones of maximum contamination. As a result, most of these areas are not re-cultivated and remain in critical environmental condition (Bykovchenko, et al., 2005; Tukhvatshin, 2005; Suranova, 2006). Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites will be integrated. The following Triad-based parameters will be employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous substances), 2) ecological parameters (assessing changes in microorganism's community structure and functions, bioindication); and 3) toxicological bioassays (utilizing classical endpoints such as survival and reproduction rates, genotoxicity). The output will be consisted of 3 indexes: 1) Environmental Risk Index, quantifying the level of biological damage at population-community level, 2) Biological Vulnerability Index, assessing the potential threats to biological equilibria, and 3) Genotoxicity Index, screening genotoxic effects. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) will be used to integrate a set of environmental Triad data to be obtained during the project, which will be carried out in order to estimate the potential risk from soil contamination of the highly anthropized areas of Kadzhi-Say, which have been impacted by deposition of heavy metals. The basis of the development under this research is studies with a particular focus concerning the biocenosis mapping of Kyrgyz soils (Mamytova et al., 2003, 2010), investigations on interaction of humic substances with soil contaminants (Jorobekova, Kydralieva, Khudaibergenova, 2004; Khudaibergenova, 2005, 2007), and in addition, technical approach for ecotoxicological assessment of soils (Terekhova, 2007, 2011). Soil ecotoxicological estimation has been studied with a battery of tests using test-organisms of many trophic levels. Currently, bioindication of soils with various humus states is under study (Senesi, Yakimenko 2007; Yakimenko, et al., 2008).

  8. Frequency distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis and other helminths of foxes in Kyrgyzstan.

    Ziadinov, I; Deplazes, P; Mathis, A; Mutunova, B; Abdykerimov, K; Nurgaziev, R; Torgerson, P R

    2010-08-01

    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A study of the helminth fauna of foxes from Naryn Oblast in central Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the abundance of Echinococcus multilocularis in a district where a high prevalence of this parasite had previously been detected in dogs. A total of 151 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were investigated in a necropsy study. Of these 96 (64%) were infected with E. multilocularis with a mean abundance of 8669 parasites per fox. This indicates that red foxes are a major definitive host of E. multilocularis in this country. This also demonstrates that the abundance and prevalence of E. multilocularis in the natural definitive host are likely to be high in geographical regions where there is a concomitant high prevalence in alternative definitive hosts such as dogs. In addition Mesocestoides spp., Dipylidium caninum, Taenia spp., Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Capillaria and Acanthocephala spp. were found in 99 (66%), 50 (33%), 48 (32%), 46 (30%), 9 (6%), 34 (23%) and 2 (1%) of foxes, respectively. The prevalence but not the abundance of E. multilocularis decreased with age. The abundance of D. caninum also decreased with age. The frequency distribution of E. multilocularis and Mesocestoides spp. followed a zero-inflated negative binomial distribution, whilst all other helminths had a negative binomial distribution. This demonstrates that the frequency distribution of positive counts and not just the frequency of zeros in the data set can determine if a zero-inflated or non-zero-inflated model is more appropriate. This is because the prevalences of E. multolocularis and Mesocestoides spp. were the highest (and hence had fewest zero counts) yet the parasite distribution nevertheless gave a better fit to the zero-inflated models. PMID:20434845

  9. Rapid appraisal of human intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren in Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan.

    Steinmann, Peter; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Imanalieva, Cholpon; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Stefiuk, Kayte; Jeandron, Aurelie; Utzinger, Jrg

    2010-12-01

    A population-representative lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) survey was conducted in 2009 to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren across Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The diagnostic approach consisted of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from a single stool sample and an adhesive tape test. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors for infections. A total of 1262 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years were recruited; 41% of them harboured at least one of the eight identified helminth species. The two most prevalent helminths were Ascaris lumbricoides (23.1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (19.3%). Lower prevalences were found for Hymenolepis nana (4.4%), Fasciola hepatica (1.9%) and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (1.8%). Washing raw vegetables was a protective factor with regard to A. lumbricoides infection (odds ratio (OR)=0.69, p=0.022); tap water was borderline protective (OR=0.56, p=0.057). Children of the richest families were at a lower risk of E. vermicularis infection than the poorest ones (OR=0.41, p=0.011). Sharing the bed with more than one person was a risk factor for E. vermicularis infection (OR=2.0, p=0.002). The results call for targeted interventions against intestinal helminths in Osh oblast. In a first stage, annual deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups with albendazole or mebendazole should be implemented, and reliable diagnosis and additional anthelminthic drugs should be made available. Subsequently, transmission control including locally-adapted health education, improved water supply and adequate sanitation should become the central features. PMID:20615381

  10. ALOS/PALSAR InSAR Time-Series Analysis for Detecting Very Slow-Moving Landslides in Southern Kyrgyzstan

    Kanayim Teshebaeva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the potential of ALOS/PALSAR time-series data to analyze the activation of deep-seated landslides in the foothill zone of the high mountain Alai range in the southern Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan. Most previous field-based landslide investigations have revealed that many landslides have indicators for ongoing slow movements in the form of migrating and newly developing cracks. L-band ALOS/PALSAR data for the period between 2007 and 2010 are available for the 484 km2 area in this study. We analyzed these data using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS time-series technique to assess the surface deformation related to the activation of landslides. We observed up to ±17 mm/year of LOS velocity deformation rates, which were projected along the local steepest slope and resulted in velocity rates of up to −63 mm/year. The obtained rates indicate very slow movement of the deep-seated landslides during the observation time. We also compared these movements with precipitation and earthquake records. The results suggest that the deformation peaks correlate with rainfall in the 3 preceding months and with an earthquake event. Overall, the results of this study indicated the great potential of L-band InSAR time series analysis for efficient spatiotemporal identification and monitoring of slope activations in this region of high landslide activity in Southern Kyrgyzstan.

  11. Phased Remediation Approach for Prevention of Risks Linked with Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    The area of the town of Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals from tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, we evaluated measures to be taken by the authorities to reduce the radiological exposure of the population and to prevent environmental pollution by radionuclides and heavy metals in case of loss of tightness of dams and damage to dumps and heaps from mining and milling by land and mudslides and proposed sustainable remedial options, accepted by the public. A radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu-Suu, located downstream of the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine-waste dump. The actual external exposure is around 1.2 mSv a-1 at both locations and exposure from radon is around 3 mSv a-1 at Mailuu-Suu and around 10 mSv a-1 at Kara Agach. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu-Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the very conservative hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (∼10-30 mSv a-1). Additional dose from irrigation with Mailuu-Suu river water is small in actual conditions (o 3, the potential of such a disaster to occur is non-negligible. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options are evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilization and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu-Suu River valley are studied (translocation of other tailings, tunnel to deviate river, partial protection of river from landslide blockage). It was proposed to acquire a phased approach in time performing urgent limited stabilization options for Tailing No 3, improve the stability of the Tailing No 3 by COLMIX-columns in the medium-term, while investigating and evaluating further two long term remedial options: the translocation of the tailings and the long-right-bank river diversion tunnel. (author)

  12. Experience of the multi-parameters electromagnetic monitoring in the area of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)

    Saraev, A.; Antaschuk, K.; Simakov, A.

    2013-12-01

    Development of the multi-parameters electromagnetic (EM) monitoring technology in frequency range 0.1 Hz - 1 MHz is carried out in the area of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan). The technology includes registration of such EM earthquake precursors, as apparent resistivity variations, ULF magnetic and electrotelluric anomalies, electromagnetic emission and ionosphere disturbances. Two types of equipment are used for the EM monitoring: the audiomagnetotelluric system ACF-4M (0.1-1000 Hz) and the radiomagnetotelluric system RMT-F (1-1000 kHz). The equipment ensure time series registration of electric and magnetic field components, robust data processing, spectral parameters calculations, apparent resistivity and impedance phase determination. The integrated multi-parameters monitoring of the considered precursors is carried out simultaneously and obtaining of informative parameters is differed by methods of measured time series data processing only. For the apparent resistivity variations monitoring we apply the audiomagnetotelluric sounding method in frequency range 7-300 Hz with the sufficiently large investigation depth for decreasing of seasonal and daily factors influence, temperature changes and other weather conditions. In this frequency range natural EM fields are quite stable for reliable data obtaining in any time of day and season with accuracy 0.3 % for apparent resistivity. For ULF magnetic, electrotelluric and electromagnetic emission anomalies study we use the wide-band registration of time-series of electric and magnetic fields in frequency range from 0.1 Hz up to 1 MHz. Ionosphere disturbances are studied in radio (observations of remote radio transmitter's signals) and audio (Schumann resonances observations) frequency ranges. EM emission anomaly was registered before the earthquake of M=3.3 on 4 April 2013 in the monitoring station at 100 km distance to the West from the earthquake epicenter (Issyk-Kul lake area). In the dynamic spectrum of magnetic field horizontal component the anomaly is seen in intervals 10-25 and 70-100 kHz (Fig. 1). The duration of the anomaly is approximately 2 hours before the earthquake. This work was supported by the RFBR (project 13-05-12091). Fig. 1. An example of anomaly in the dynamic spectrum of magnetic field in radio frequency range 10-100 kHz before the earthquake of M=3.3 on 4 April 2013 in the area of Bishkek

  13. Accuracy of the Kato-Katz, adhesive tape and FLOTAC techniques for helminth diagnosis among children in Kyrgyzstan.

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Abdyldaieva, Gulnara; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Cox, Jonathan; Matthys, Barbara; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Utzinger, Jrg

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of three copro-microscopic techniques for helminth diagnosis: Kato-Katz, adhesive tape and FLOTAC. A total of 163 children from a peri-urban municipality near Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, participated and submitted multiple stool samples and adhesive tapes. Ninety children supplied at least two stool samples and two adhesive tapes. Three stool samples and three adhesive tapes were available from 71 and 64 children, respectively. From each stool sample, a single Kato-Katz thick smear was prepared and examined quantitatively. Additionally, the first stool sample was subjected to the FLOTAC technique and helminth eggs were counted. Adhesive tapes were checked for the presence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs. Using pooled results as a diagnostic 'gold' standard, the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, E. vermicularis, Hymenolepis nana and Dicrocoelium dendriticum were 54.4%, 13.3%, 11.1% and 11.1%, respectively. Infection intensities were low. When compared to triplicate Kato-Katz, a single FLOTAC was more sensitive for the diagnosis of A. lumbricoides (89.5% versus 39.5%) and D. dendriticum (88.9% versus 33.3%), but less sensitive for H. nana (66.7% versus 88.9%). For E. vermicularis, three adhesive tapes showed much higher sensitivity than a single FLOTAC (92.9% versus 14.3%). FLOTAC yielded significantly higher faecal egg counts than Kato-Katz for A. lumbricoides and D. dendriticum. Overall results suggest that, although FLOTAC represents a promising technique for helminth diagnosis in Kyrgyzstan, the repeated adhesive tape test remains so far the method of choice for diagnosing E. vermicularis. PMID:20800568

  14. Seismic Data Reveal Lake-Level Changes in Lake Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan

    Gebhardt, C.; Spiess, V.; Keil, H.; Sauermilch, I.; Oberhänsli, H.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; De Batist, M. A.; Naudts, L.; De Mol, L.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Issyk-Kul is located in an intramontane basin of the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, at 1607 m above sea level. It has formed in a tectonically active region with W-E striking major thrust zones both N and S of the lake. The lake is elongated with 180 km in W-E and 60 km in S-N direction and a water depth of roughly 670 m at its central plain. With a surface area of 6232 km2 and a total water colume of around 1736 km3, Lake Issyk-Kul is the second largest lake in the higher altitudes (De Batist et al., 2002). Two large delta areas have formed at the E and W end. Steep slopes at both the N and S shore separate rather narrow, shallow shelf areas from the central deeper plain. First seismic data of lake Issyk-Kul were acquired in 1982 by the Moscow University with a total of 31 profiles across the lake. In 1997 and 2001, a second and third seismic survey of the lake were carried out by the group of Marc De Batist (Ghent, Belgium) in cooperation with the Royal Museum of Central Africa (Tervuren, Belgium) and the SBRAS (Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia) using a sparker system with a single-channel streamer. These surveys were recently completed by a fourth expedition carried out by the University of Bremen in April 2013. During this expedition, 33 additional profiles were acquired with an airgun and a multi-channel streamer. The sparker surveys mostly cover the delta and shelf areas in high detail, while the airgun survey covers the deeper parts of the lake with penetration beyond the first multiple. Bathymetry data reveal that at the delta areas, the shelf is divided into two parts. The shallower comprises the part down to 110 m water depth with an average inclination of 0.5°, while the deeper part reaches from 110 m to 300 m water depth with an average slope inclination of 1°. Incised paleo-river channels of up to 2-3 km width and 50 m depth are visible both on the eastern and western shelf, but are limited to the shallower part of the deltas. They lie in the prolongation of modern river mouths at the eastern part of the lake, while at the western lake, they connect to former in- and outlets of the Chu River that is currently bypassing the lake (De Mol, 2006). A series of morphological terraces interpreted as ancient shorelines characterize the deeper part of the shelf. Together with lake-level terraces that are outcroping along the lake shores, the delta areas document up to 400 m of lake-level change. Deeper-penetrating multi-channel airgun profiles reveal that the sediments are mostly well-layered at least down to the multiple, and large-scale debris flows were detected only in some spots. The dipping of the layers increases with depth and reveals a halfgraben structure filled with lacustrine sediments. References: De Batist, M., et al., 2002. Bathymetry and sedimentary environments of Lake Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyz Republic (Central Asia): a large, high-altitude, tectonic lake. In: J. Klerkx and B. Imanackunov (Editors), Lake Issyk-Kul: Its Natural Environment. NATO Science Series, Series IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 101-123. De Mol, L., 2006. Reconstructie van meerspiegelschommelingen in het Issyk-Kul Meer (Kirgizië) op basis van de geomorfologische en seismostratigrafische analyse van rivierdelta's. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Gent, Gent, 144 pp.

  15. Hydrochemistry and land cover in the upper Naryn river basin, Kyrgyzstan

    Schneider, K.; Dernedde, Y.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H. G.

    2009-04-01

    Economic and social changes at the end of the 20th century affected land use decisions and land management in the Central Asian republics of the former Soviet Union. Amongst others, land tenure changed from mainly collectivized to private land, and in consequence, land management (e.g. soil treatment and fertilization practices) altered. Apart from agricultural pollutants and the impact of irrigation management, water resources are threatened by waste dumps remaining from mining activities. However, recent studies on the effect of land use changes on ecohydrology in Central Asia remain scarce. In a preliminary study, current land use and hydrochemistry in the upper Naryn Valley (Kyrgyzstan) was analyzed in 2008. Climate is semi-arid, and annual precipitation is approximately 300 mm. Precipitation peak occurs in early summer, while the rest of the year is rather dry. Crop and hay production prevail in the valley bottom. Environmental conditions in the mountains support pastoralism with a shift between summer and winter pastures. Agriculture depends on irrigation to a great deal as precipitation is seasonal and the vegetation period usually is the dry period. Today, production is mainly for subsistence purposes or local markets. The Naryn river is the headwater of the of the Syrdarya river which is one of the major sources of irrigation water in the Aral Sea basin. Hence, the ecohydrological condition of the contributing rivers is of major importance for the irrigation management downstream. Nevertheless, information on current ecohydrological conditions and land use which may affect the distribution and chemical composition of the rivers is lacking. In the presented study, basic hydrochemical measurements in the Naryn river and its tributaries were made. In situ measurements comprised electrical conductivity, ammonia and nitrate measurements, among others. While electrical conductivity varies greatly between the Naryn river and its tributaries, ammonia and nitrate concentrations remain below detection limit for the most part. The study shows that tributaries of high electrical conductivity do not affect hydrochemistry of the main river during summer because glacier and snow melt dominates runoff generation. Daily cycles of increased runoff due to snow and ice melt in the afternoon could be observed along the tributaries in the upper parts of the study area. Effects of agricultural production on ecohydrology remain weak as application of fertilizers and pesticides is currently low due to financial constraints. The data will be linked to land use data derived from satellite image products in order to analyse the effect of land cover and land cover changes on ecohydrological processes. Former observation of remote sensing data and related literature showed evidence for a change in land use management in the Naryn Valley. In 2008 training areas of land use classes for a supervised classification of 2008 remote sensing data have been recorded. A land use classification of the Naryn Valley on the base of Landsat ETM+ Data of 2008 and 1993 was done to get information on land use change on a regional scale. The classification uses spectral and spatial data in a hard classifier and object oriented combined approach. Comparing the two datasets with respect to changes in pattern of irrigated area and pasture area, change in cultivated crops and the change of agricultural cell sizes gives further information for hydrological modeling and land use monitoring purposes.

  16. Radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources in the former uranium mining and milling sites of Mailuu Suu (Kyrgyzstan)

    An assessment of the radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources at the former uranium mines and processing sites of Mailuu-Suu, in Kyrgyzstan, was carried out. A large number of water samples were collected from the drinking water distribution system (DWDS), rivers, shallow aquifers and drainage water from the mine tailings. Radionuclides and trace metal contents in water from the DWDS were low in general, but were extremely high for Fe, Al and Mn. These elements were associated with the particle fractions in the water and strongly correlated with high turbidity levels. Overall, these results suggest that water from the DWDS does not represent a serious radiological hazard to the Mailuu Suu population. However, due to the high turbidities and contents of some elements, this water is not good quality drinking water. Water from artesian and dug wells were characterized by elevated levels of U (up to 10 μg/L) and some trace elements (e.g. As, Se, Cr, V and F) and anions (e.g. Cl−, NO3−, SO42−). In two artesian wells, the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L for As in water was exceeded. As the artesian wells are used as a source of drinking water by a large number of households, special care should be taken in order to stay within the WHO recommended guidelines. Drainage water from the mine tailings was as expected highly contaminated with many chemicals (e.g. As) and radioactive contaminants (e.g. U). The concentrations of U were more than 200 times the WHO guideline value of 30 μg/L for U in drinking water. A large variation in 234U/238U isotopic ratios in water was observed, with values near equilibrium at the mine tailings and far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching ratios of 2.3 in the artesian well). This result highlights the potential use of this ratio as an indicator of the origin of U contamination in Mailuu Suu. - Highlights: • Chemical and radiological study of former uranium mines and processing sites. • Radioactive and chemical contamination of water resources in Mailuu-Suu Kyrgyzstan. • Water quality of the drinking water distribution system in Mailuu Suu. • Uranium isotopic ratios as tracers of uranium contamination

  17. Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan.

    Lind, O C; Stegnar, P; Tolongutov, B; Rosseland, B O; Strømman, G; Uralbekov, B; Usubalieva, A; Solomatina, A; Gwynn, J P; Lespukh, E; Salbu, B

    2013-09-01

    During 1949-1967, a U mine, a coal-fired thermal power plant and a processing plant for the extraction of U from the produced ash were operated at the Kadji Sai U mining site in Tonsk district, Issyk-Kul County, Kyrgyzstan. The Kadji Sai U legacy site represents a source of contamination of the local environment by naturally occurring radionuclides and associated trace elements. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals at the site, field expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2008 by the Joint collaboration between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (JNKKT) project and the NATO SfP RESCA project. In addition to in situ gamma and Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water and sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of radionuclides and trace metals in water from Issyk-Kul Lake were in general low, but surprisingly high for As. Uptake of U and As was also observed in fish from the lake with maximum bioconcentration factors for liver of 1.6 and 75, respectively. The concentrations of U in water within the Kadji Sai area varied from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L, except for downstream from the mining area where U reached a factor of 10 higher, 0.2 mg/L. Uranium concentrations in the drinking water of Kadji Sai village were about the level recommended by the WHO for drinking water. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratio reflected equilibrium conditions in the mining pond, but far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching 2.3 for an artesian well). Uranium, As and Ni were mainly present as low molecular mass (LMM, less than 10 kDa) species in all samples, indicating that these elemental species are mobile and potentially bioavailable. The soils from the mining sites were enriched in U, As and trace metals. Hot spots with elevated radioactivity levels were easily detected in Kadji Sai and radioactive particles were observed. The presence of particles carrying significant amount of radioactivity and toxic trace elements may represent a hazard during strong wind events (wind erosion). Based on sequential extractions, most of the elements were strongly associated with mineral matter, except for U and As having a relatively high remobilization potential. Low Kd was obtained for U (3.5 × 10(2) L/kg d.w.), intermediate Kds (~3 × 10(3) L/kg d.w.) were obtained for (226)Ra, As and Ni, while a high Kd (2.2 × 10(5) L/kg d.w.) were obtained for Pb. The accumulation of metals in fish gills reflected the LMM species in the Issyk-Kul water, and did not show any bioaccumulation. The muscle Hg concentrations in all fish species were low and did not represent any health risk even for groups at risk. Total gamma and Rn dose rate to man amounted to about 12 mSv/y, while the highest calculated dose rate for non-human species based on the ERICA Assessment Tool were obtained in terrestrial plants (164 μGy/h) due to the Ra exposure. The results obtained showed that radiation doses to resident public at all of the investigated sites in the Kadji Sai area were in general relatively low. Low radiological risk and no detrimental health impact on resident public can be expected at these sites. However, exposure to Rn and Tn in the living environment can be further reduced by implementing simple countermeasures such as ventilation of dwelling cellars. More focus in the Kadji Sai area should probably be put on trace elements, especially the As uptake in fish in Lake Issyk-Kul. PMID:22898665

  18. Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan

    During 1949–1967, a U mine, a coal-fired thermal power plant and a processing plant for the extraction of U from the produced ash were operated at the Kadji Sai U mining site in Tonsk district, Issyk-Kul County, Kyrgyzstan. The Kadji Sai U legacy site represents a source of contamination of the local environment by naturally occurring radionuclides and associated trace elements. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals at the site, field expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2008 by the Joint collaboration between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (JNKKT) project and the NATO SfP RESCA project. In addition to in situ gamma and Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water and sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of radionuclides and trace metals in water from Issyk-Kul Lake were in general low, but surprisingly high for As. Uptake of U and As was also observed in fish from the lake with maximum bioconcentration factors for liver of 1.6 and 75, respectively. The concentrations of U in water within the Kadji Sai area varied from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L, except for downstream from the mining area where U reached a factor of 10 higher, 0.2 mg/L. Uranium concentrations in the drinking water of Kadji Sai village were about the level recommended by the WHO for drinking water. The 234U/238U activity ratio reflected equilibrium conditions in the mining pond, but far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching 2.3 for an artesian well). Uranium, As and Ni were mainly present as low molecular mass (LMM, less than 10 kDa) species in all samples, indicating that these elemental species are mobile and potentially bioavailable. The soils from the mining sites were enriched in U, As and trace metals. Hot spots with elevated radioactivity levels were easily detected in Kadji Sai and radioactive particles were observed. The presence of particles carrying significant amount of radioactivity and toxic trace elements may represent a hazard during strong wind events (wind erosion). Based on sequential extractions, most of the elements were strongly associated with mineral matter, except for U and As having a relatively high remobilization potential. Low Kd was obtained for U (3.5 × 102 L/kg d.w.), intermediate Kds (∼3 × 103 L/kg d.w.) were obtained for 226Ra, As and Ni, while a high Kd (2.2 × 105 L/kg d.w.) were obtained for Pb. The accumulation of metals in fish gills reflected the LMM species in the Issyk-Kul water, and did not show any bioaccumulation. The muscle Hg concentrations in all fish species were low and did not represent any health risk even for groups at risk. Total gamma and Rn dose rate to man amounted to about 12 mSv/y, while the highest calculated dose rate for non-human species based on the ERICA Assessment Tool were obtained in terrestrial plants (164 μGy/h) due to the Ra exposure. The results obtained showed that radiation doses to resident public at all of the investigated sites in the Kadji Sai area were in general relatively low. Low radiological risk and no detrimental health impact on resident public can be expected at these sites. However, exposure to Rn and Tn in the living environment can be further reduced by implementing simple countermeasures such as ventilation of dwelling cellars. More focus in the Kadji Sai area should probably be put on trace elements, especially the As uptake in fish in Lake Issyk-Kul

  19. Bismarck meets Beveridge on the Silk Road: coordinating funding sources to create a universal health financing system in Kyrgyzstan

    Joseph Kutzin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Options for health financing reform are often portrayed as a choice between general taxation (known as the Beveridge model and social health insurance (known as the Bismarck model. Ten years of health financing reform in Kyrgyzstan, since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, provide an excellent example of why it is wrong to reduce health financing policy to a choice between the Beveridge and Bismarck models. Rather than fragment the system according to the insurance status of the population, as many other low- and middle-income countries have done, the Kyrgyz reforms were guided by the objective of having a single system for the entire population. Key features include the role and gradual development of the compulsory health insurance fund as the single purchaser of health-care services for the entire population using output-based payment methods, the complete restructuring of pooling arrangements from the former decentralized budgetary structure to a single national pool, and the establishment of an explicit benefit package. Central to the process was the transformation of the role of general budget revenues - the main source of public funding for health - from directly subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services on behalf of the entire population by redirecting them into the health insurance fund. Through their approach to health financing policy, and pooling in particular, the Kyrgyz health reformers demonstrated that different sources of funds can be used in an explicitly complementary manner to enable the creation of a unified, universal system

  20. ON INSCRIPTIONS WITH ARABIC LETTERS IN KYRGYZSTAN KIRGIZİSTANDAKİ ARAP HARFLİ YAZITLAR ÜZERİNE

    Cengiz ALYILMAZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The territory within the boundaries of Kyrgyzstan Republic is highly important for Turkish-Islamic history. The territory contains many Arabic inscriptions belonging to Muslim-Turkic tribes especially Karahanli state (Karahanlilar, and Arabians who arrived in the region for conquests. This paper presents to the attention the significance of Turkish and Arabic inscriptions in Alphabet, found in historical mosques, prayer rooms, caravansaries, shrines, tombstones, holy places (ziyaret yerleri, manuscripts (cönkler, books, coins, knick-knacks and belongings…. belonging to Islamic Era, for Turkish-Islamic history and their current conditions. Kırgızistan Cumhuriyeti sınırları içinde kalan topraklar, Türk-İslam tarihi açısından büyük önem taşımaktadır. Söz konusu topraklarda başta Karahanlılar olmak üzere Müslüman Türk boylarına ve fütuhat için bölgeye gelen Araplar’a ait pek çok Arap harfli yazıt bulunmaktadır.Bu makalede Kırgızistandaki tarihî camilerde, mescitlerde, kervansaraylarda, türbelerde, mezar taşlarında, ziyaret yerlerinde, el yazması eserlerde (cönklerde, kitaplarda, sikkelerde, süs ve kullanım eşyalarında… karşılaşılan İslamî döneme ait Arap harfli Türkçe ve Arapça yazıtların Türk-İslam tarihi açısından önemi ve bugünkü durumları dikkatelere sunulmaktadır.

  1. A large industrial pollution problem on the Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan border: Soviet production of mercury and stibium for the Soviet military

    Soviet industry of mercury and stibium was located in South-East Fergana in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan boarder. Khaidarken combine produced high pure mercury (99.9997 percent) since 1940, it was the second source in the World (after Almadena, Spain). Maximal production was 790 t in 1990, after Transitional Shock about 300 tons a year. Tail was established in 1967. There is special tube 5500 m transporting pulp to tail. The pulp contains about 0,003 mg/liter mercury, 0,005 mg/liter arsenic, 21 mg/liter stibium, etc. Pulp is cleaned by aluminum sulfuric and mortar. After drying and compressing by itself the concentrations rises: mercury 90-250 mg/kg, arsenic 190-400, stibium 800-1700 mg/kg. Environment pollution problem contains three kinds: ground water infiltration; old tube corroding some places (leaking from chink of tube) - both mentioned lead to vegetables cumulating; combine work spreading mercury by air to settlement Khaidarken. Kadamjay enterprise for stibium (mines, combine, purify plant, tails) began work in 1936. Most part of production used in soviet military. Maximal production was 17.000 t clearing ore in 1990, after USSR collapse 1-6 t/year. Tremendous tails and dams (total 150 mln t) remains non re-cultivated until now. The tails contain electrolysis wastage: sodium-sulfides, sulfites, sulfates; stibium; arsenic; cadmium; stibium; etc. Seven deposits (tail-damp really) established 1976, total square 76.1 thousands sq m, total volume 250 thousand cub m. The deposits over-filled, contents filtrating - little saline or lakes generated (one situated 50m near Uzbekistan boarder). River Shakhimardan flow to Uzbekistan (settlement Vuadil, Ferghana town). There are health damage indices in the areas.(author)

  2. Hydrological changes in western Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) during the Holocene as inferred from a palaeolimnological study in lake Son Kul

    Huang, Xiangtong; Oberhnsli, Hedi; von Suchodoletz, Hans; Prasad, Sushma; Sorrel, Philippe; Plessen, Birgit; Mathis, Marie; Usubaliev, Raskul

    2014-11-01

    The hydrology of western Central Asia is highly sensitive to climatic perturbations. In order to understand its long-term variability and to infer linkages between precipitation and atmospheric and oceanic systems, we conducted a thorough sedimentary and geochemical study on a composite core retrieved in lake Son Kul (central Kyrgyzstan). A multi-proxy approach was conducted on lake sediments based on grain size analyses, magnetic susceptibility, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and carbon and oxygen isotope analyses on bulk and biogenic materials (ostracoda and molluscs shells) at a resolution equivalent to ca40 years, aiming to characterise the sequence of palaeolimnological changes in Son Kul. As indicated by ?18O record of bulk carbonates, mainly consisting of aragonite, the Holocene hydrological balance was negative during most of time, suggesting an excess of evaporation (E) over precipitation (P). Limnological conditions fluctuated rapidly before 5000calyrBP indicating significant changes in regional hydrology and climate. In particular, the long-term negative hydrological balance was impeded by several short stages with marked increase of precipitation, lasting several decades to a few centuries (e.g., 8300-8200, 6900-6700, 6300-6100, 5500-5400, 5300-5200 and 3100-3000calyrBP). Precipitation changes as inferred from ?18O data are also documented by increased minerogenic detritus and higher TOC. We propose that the seasonal pattern of precipitation varied transiently in western Central Asia during the Holocene, although evaporation changes may also account for the rapid changes observed in ?18O data. When the annual water balance was less critical (P?E), the excess of water might be ascribed to increased precipitation during cold seasons mainly because winter precipitation has more negative ?18O than its summer equivalent. Conversely, when the annual water balance is negative (P?E), the moisture was mainly delivered during the warm season, as between 5000 and 2000calyrBP. Our results thus imply that moisture sources could have changed as well during the Holocene. Moisture was delivered as today mainly during summer from the extended Caspian-Aral Basin and eastern Mediterranean, although Arctic and even North Atlantic seas might be important moisture sources when seasonal precipitation was dominated by winter precipitation. We hypothesise that warming Arctic and North Atlantic seas were important for the North Hemisphere circulation during the cold season.

  3. Validation of GOME (ERS-2) NO2 vertical column data with ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan)

    Ionov, D.; Sinyakov, V.; Semenov, V.

    Starting from 1995 the global monitoring of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide is carried out by the measurements of nadir-viewing GOME spectrometer aboard ERS-2 satellite. Continuous validation of that data by means of comparisons with well-controlled ground-based measurements is important to ensure the quality of GOME data products and improve related retrieval algorithms. At the station of Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) the ground-based spectroscopic observations of NO2 vertical column have been started since 1983. The station is located on the northern shore of Issyk-Kul lake, 1650 meters above the sea level (42.6 N, 77.0 E). The site is equipped with grating spectrometer for the twilight measurements of zenith-scattered solar radiation in the visible range, and applies the DOAS technique to retrieve NO2 vertical column. It is included in the list of NDSC stations as a complementary one. The present study is focused on validation of GOME NO2 vertical column data, based on 8-year comparison with correlative ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul station in 1996-2003. Within the investigation, an agreement of both individual and monthly averaged GOME measurements with corresponding twilight ground-based observations is examined. Such agreement is analyzed with respect to different conditions (season, sun elevation), temporal/spatial criteria choice (actual overpass location, correction for diurnal variation) and data processing (GDP version 2.7, 3.0). In addition, NO2 vertical columns were integrated from simultaneous stratospheric profile measurements by NASA HALOE and SAGE-II/III satellite instruments and introduced to explain the differences with ground-based observations. In particular cases, NO2 vertical profiles retrieved from the twilight ground-based measurements at Issuk-Kul were also included into comparison. Overall, summertime GOME NO2 vertical columns were found to be systematicaly lower than ground-based data. This work was supported by International Association for the promotion of co-operation with scientists from the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union (INTAS-YSF-02-138), International Science and Technology Center (ISTC Kr-763), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR-03-05-64626), the joint foundation of Russian Ministry of Education and St.Petersburg Administration (PD02-1.5-96) and the President of Russia grant (MK-2686.2003.05).

  4. Assessment of radiation exposure and evaluation of remedial measures for the uranium mining and milling area of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    The area of the town of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals in tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. Radioactive substances are stored in 23 tailings and 10 heaps situated along the Mailuu Suu River. The stability of many tailings is at risk. Attention is mostly directed to Tailing 3, because of its important radionuclide inventory and since threatened by the borders of a major landslide. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, a radiological monitoring programme was set up and a radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu Suu, located downstream the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine-waste dump. The actual radiological situation is of no immediate concern for most of the population of Mailuu Suu. The actual external exposure and exposure from radon are, respectively, around 1.2 mSv a-1 and 5 mSv a-1, at both locations. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (∼10-30 mSv a-1). Additional dose from irrigation with Mailuu Suu river water is small in actual conditions (-1). However, there is an important possibility that, triggered by an earthquake or a landslide, (part of the) tailing(s) content may be directed to the river Mailuu Suu. In case the content of Tailing 3 is thrust to river, calculated maximum doses are 45 and 77 mSv a-1 for an adult and a child, respectively, for an assumed exposure duration of 2 years. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options were evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilisation and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu Suu River valley were proposed (translocation of other tailings, tunnel to deviate river, partial protection of river from landslide blockage). (authors)

  5. Comparing site response techniques by means of earthquake data and ambient seismic noise analysis in Karakol (Kyrgyzstan)

    Ullah, Shahid; Pilz, Marco; Bindi, Dino; Orunbaev, Sagynbeck; Kamchybekov, Yrysmendi; Picozzi, Matteo; Parolai, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Surface geology plays an important role in the variation of earthquake ground motion and hence in seismic hazard and risk assessment. This makes Kyrgyzstan, being located in one of the seismically most active regions in the world, an important investigation area for studying site effects. To this regard, as part of Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA) project, a temporary seismic network of 16 short period sensors was installed in the city of Karakol which operated continuously for more than 3 months from 10th of July 2011 until October 2011. A significant number of around 80 events, local, regional and teleseismic, were recorded during this time. Moreover, single station seismic noise measurements were carried out at 34 sites across the city. Since the shear-wave velocity structure is hardly known in the city, 3 array measurements with 20 stations were also carried out in different parts of the city, respectively. Here we present the results obtained from a combined analysis of earthquake and noise data. Standard Spectral Ratios (SSR) from earthquake analysis show amplification over a broad frequency range for stations in the city with respect to a reference station in the south located on hard rock. Moreover, also the amplitudes of the spectral ratios are varying over short scales, showing high amplitudes of around 7 to 9 in the northern part of the study area near Lake Issyk-Kul, whereas the amplitudes in the southern part of the city are around 1.5 to 3. H/V from noise analysis shows a flat response in the central and northern part of the city while some stations in the southern part show clear peak with large amplitude. Such strong variations of ground motion over short scales might therefore be indicative of a complex subsurface structure. The array recordings were analyzed for Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curves using extended spatial autocorrelation (ESAC) method. The dispersion curves were inverted for the local shear-wave velocity structure, indicating large velocity variations over short scales with lower velocities for the northern part and higher velocities for the southern part of the study area

  6. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

    Maddix Jason

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007. Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative financial experiences of pharmacy initiatives to inform future projects and advance access to medicines goals.

  7. Case study: Kyrgyzstan

    Baktybek Abdrisaev

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The paper discusses the importance of Open Source (OS hereinafter technology for national Information Communication Technology (ICT hereinafter development and E-Government for developing countries as a general strategy for overcoming the digital divide. The paper highlights the opportunities presented to the developing countries by the growing world-wide movement for use of OS systems, namely, the ability to promote the transfer of technological know-how and the growth of local IT professionals, the possibility of providing IT solutions within the limited financial means of a developing country, and the ability to strengthen the legal use of software. The paper

  8. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    Harmer Andrew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84, service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58 and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86. Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector.

  9. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV\\/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV\\/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV\\/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector.

  10. From the Field: Windows of Opportunity – The Transformation of State Media to Public Service Media in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Moldova and Serbia

    Jan Lublinski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of state media to public service media (PSM is one of the most ambitious endeavors in the field of media development. Not many efforts to free the national media from government control have succeeded in the past decades. In this paper the comparatively promising cases of Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Moldova and Serbia are discussed. The PSM in these countries all have a new legal basis, including a public service remit and a relatively independent governing body in which civil society is represented. The services delivered to the public by these media are analyzed according to a number of societal functions which are assembled under two general headings: “creating a public sphere” and “supporting integration”. Based on this analysis, a differentiation between “PSM in initial transformation” and “PSM in advanced transformation” is suggested. In all cases studied, different actors successfully used windows of opportunity: general political agendas to reform the media, a specific engagement from the management as well as support from the population and civil society. Media development actors here helped to advance the processes of change in different ways. Recommendations for future media development include strategic planning, inclusion of local actors, the pooling of legal expertise as well as structured processes of organizational development and capacity building.

  11. Ideal climatic variables for the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, derived from GPS data and energy-mass balance measurements

    K. Fujita

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007 of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Differential GPS surveys reveal a vertical surface deletion at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the modern state are 289 mm and −3.85 °C at the glacier summit (4600 m above sea level, a.s.l., respectively. The good agreement between the long-term estimated and observed precipitation at a nearby station in the Tien Shan (292 mm at 3614 m a.s.l. for the period 1930–2002 suggests that the glacier dynamics have been regulated by the long-term average accumulation. The glacier mass-balance, reconstructed based on meteorological data from the Tien Shan station for the past 80 yr, explains the observed fluctuations in glacier extent, particularly the negative mass balance in the 1990s.

  12. Determination of the source time function of seismic event by blind deconvolution of regional coda wavefield: application to December 22, 2009 explosion at Kambarata, Kyrgyzstan

    Sebe, O. G.; Guilbert, J.; Bard, P.

    2011-12-01

    At regional distance, recovering the source time function of a seismic event is a rather difficult task as the Green function is unknown due to large scattering of the waves by crust heterogeneities. Contrary to classical methods based on deterministic assessment of the Green function, this work proposes to exploit the stochastic nature of regional coda wavefield in order to extract the seismic source time function of a regional event. Since the work of Aki and Chouet 1975, it is well recognized that regional coda waves can provide stable and robust information on the source of seismic events. Unfortunately, all the proposed techniques are limited to the power spectral density of the seismic source function. A modified version of our two step spectral factorization algorithm [Sbe et al. 2005] of coda waves has been proposed in order to include higher order statistic (HOS) blind deconvolution techniques. Assuming that the coda excitation time series is a non-Gaussian independent and identically distributed random signal, the higher order statistics, especially the tricorrelation, is able to remove the randomness of coda excitation and extract source properties. In addition, unlike classical second order approach which only provides the power spectral density, the tricorrelation keeps the information on the phase spectrum of the source, allowing the estimation of the source time function. This original blind deconvolution algorithm of coda waves has been applied on the regional records of the December 22, 2009 explosion in Kambara, Kyrgyzstan. Based on statistic analyses of the higher order cumulants, this method has been able to recover the main properties of the source time function of this detonation: two successive explosions have been identified with a time delay of about 1.7 sec and an amplitude ratio of about 2 in favour of second explosion. This successful blind recovering of high resolution source properties is an encouraging result toward the development of new source characterization methods especially when the classical deconvolution techniques are unusable due to the Green's function complexity or unknown.

  13. Late Paleozoic evolution of the South Tien Shan: Insights from P-T estimates and allanite geochronology on retrogressed eclogites (Chatkal range, Kyrgyzstan)

    Loury, Chloé; Rolland, Yann; Cenki-Tok, Bénédicte; Lanari, Pierre; Guillot, Stéphane

    2016-05-01

    In the South Tien Shan range (Kyrgyzstan), the Late Paleozoic geodynamic evolution remains debated especially to the west of the Talas-Fergana fault (TFF) fault where suture-related high-pressure (HP) rocks are scarce. We provide new petrological and geochronological data on garnet amphibolites from the Chatkal range, to the west of the TFF, northwest of the South Tien Shan suture. These rocks are retrogressed eclogites. We used a micro-mapping approach combined with forward modeling and empirical thermobarometry to decipher the P-T path of these amphibolitized eclogites. The metamorphic peak conditions culminated at 490 ± 50 °C and 18.5 ± 2 kbar and were followed by higher temperature retrogression (∼560 °C at 11-7 kbar). In order to constrain the age of the HP stage, we dated allanite crystals texturally coeval to the HP mineral assemblage. Allanite grains dated in situ with a U-Pb LA-ICPMS methodology yield an age of 301 ± 15 Ma. Compared with previously published data for the east of the TFF, these P-T constraints allow improving the understanding of the Late Paleozoic geodynamic evolution of the South Tien Shan. To the east of TFF, the Turkestan Ocean closed around 320 Ma with the collision of the Tarim Craton with the Kazakh microcontinent. To the west of TFF, the Turkestan Ocean closed around 300 Ma, when the Alai block collided with the Kazakh microcontinent. This later collision involved nappe-stacking and intense subvertical folding in the western South Tien Shan. This complex folding explains the S-shape of the suture to the west of the TFF that cannot be observed in the eastern part. These new data allow us to propose a distinct tectonic evolution of the two sides of the TFF, which suggests that this fault was a major transform fault before being a strike-slip intra-continental fault.

  14. “My Favourite Day Is Sunday”: Community Perceptions of (Drug-Resistant) Tuberculosis and Ambulatory Tuberculosis Care in Kara Suu District, Osh Province, Kyrgyzstan

    Burtscher, Doris; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Toktosunov, Ulan; Angmo, Nilza; Samieva, Nazgul; Rocillo Arechaga, Eva P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Kyrgyzstan is one of the 27 high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden countries listed by the WHO. In 2012, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) started a drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) project in Kara Suu District. A qualitative study was undertaken to understand the perception of TB and DR-TB in order to improve the effectiveness and acceptance of the MSF intervention and to support advocacy strategies for an ambulatory model of care. Methods This paper reports findings from 63 interviews with patients, caregivers, health care providers and members of communities. Data was analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Validation was ensured by triangulation and a ‘thick’ description of the research context, and by presenting deviant cases. Results Findings show that the general population interprets TB as the ‘lungs having a cold’ or as a ‘family disease’ rather than as an infectious illness. From their perspective, individuals facing poor living conditions are more likely to get TB than wealthier people. Vulnerable groups such as drug and alcohol users, homeless persons, ethnic minorities and young women face barriers in accessing health care. As also reported in other publications, TB is highly stigmatised and possible side effects of the long treatment course are seen as unbearable; therefore, people only turn to public health care quite late. Most patients prefer ambulatory treatment because of the much needed emotional support from their social environment, which positively impacts treatment concordance. Health care providers favour inpatient treatment only for a better monitoring of side effects. Health staff increasingly acknowledges the central role they play in supporting DR-TB patients, and the importance of assuming a more empathic attitude. Conclusions Health promotion activities should aim at improving knowledge on TB and DR-TB, reducing stigma, and fostering the inclusion of vulnerable populations. Health seeking delays and adherence problems will be countered by further implementation of shortened treatment regimens. An ambulatory model of care is proposed when convenient for the patient; hospitalisation is favoured only when seen as more appropriate for the respective individual. PMID:27019454

  15. Disequilibrium between uranium and its progeny in the Lake Issyk-Kul system (Kyrgyzstan) under a combined effect of natural and manmade processes

    The Kadji-Sai abandoned field of U-bearing brown coal on the southern coast of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) poses a threat of radioactive pollution to the world's fifth deepest and second largest pristine highland lake. The valleys of ephemeral streams in the lake catchment are filled with coarse-grained sand and clay, with a background U-Ra activity of 35-55 Bq kg-1. High activity areas vs. this background come from three sources: (1) scarce outcrops of uraniferous brown coal and mining wastes containing fragments of this coal with 238U/226Ra ratios of 0.8 due to uranium losses through weathering; (2) manmade anomalies caused by a radioactive waste dump, where U was extracted from the ash of coal burnt at a coal-fired power plant. As a result, the 238U/226Ra ratios become 0.15-0.25; (3) six catch pools terraced below the mine, where U activity decreases downslope, and 238U/226Ra ratios reach 150-200. Uranium lost in the extraction process may have been retained on the terraces. The distribution pattern of radionuclides in the bottom sediments of the lake is controlled by water depth and offshore distance. The upper section of homogeneous limy-argillic deposits in the lake center remains undisturbed by currents, as indicated by regular sub-exponential distribution of atmospheric 137Cs and 210Pbatm. Sedimentation rate in the lake center for the past century, found from 210Pb, was 0.32 mm yr-1. 238U/226Ra in deep-water sediments was about 3. The activity of uranium adsorbed by sediments from the lake water was estimated by subtraction of the Ra-equilibrium component from the total U activity. Thus, the flux of dissolved U to the bottom sediments was as 2.07 x 10-7 g cm-2 yr-1. The upper section of near-shore deposits was disturbed by currents, with 137Cs and 210Pbatm more or less uniformly distributed in this layer. Peaks of 226Ra and 210Pb occur at different depths from 5 to 20 cm below the sediment surface, with 238U/226Ra ratios 0.28-0.44. The presence of mullite in these sediments indicated that radioactive ash penetrated into the lake in the past. At present, 226Ra in the ash is buried under a non-radioactive cap

  16. A narrative review of visceral leishmaniasis in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, the Crimean Peninsula and Southern Russia.

    Strelkova, Margarita V; Ponirovsky, Evgeny N; Morozov, Evgeny N; Zhirenkina, Ekaterina N; Razakov, Shavkat A; Kovalenko, Dmitriy A; Schnur, Lionel F; Schnian, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    There is an extensive body of medical and scientific research literature on visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Crimean Peninsula and the southern part of The Russian Federation that is written in Russian, making it inaccessible to the majority of people who are interested in the leishmaniases in general and VL in particular. This review and summary in English of VL in what was Imperial Russia, which then became the Soviet Union and later a number of different independent states intends to give access to that majority. There are numerous publications in Russian on VL and, mostly, those published in books and the main scientific journals have been included here. The vast geographical area encompassed has been subdivided into four main parts: the southern Caucasus, covering Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia; Central Asia, covering Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; the Crimean Peninsula and the northern Caucasus, which is part of The Russian Federation. Only rare cases of VL have been recorded in the northern Caucasus and Crimean Peninsula. In the other countries mentioned, human VL has been more intense but epidemics like those associated with L. donovani in India and East Africa have not occurred. For most of the countries, there are sections on the distribution, clinical aspects, the causative agent, the reservoirs and the vectors. Serological surveys and research into therapy are also covered. Recent studies on VL in Uzbekistan covered the application of serological, biochemical and molecular biological methods to diagnose human and canine VL, to identify the leishmanial parasites causing them in Uzbekistan and neighbouring Tajikistan and the epidemiology of VL in the Namangan Region of the Pap District, Eastern Uzbekistan. More recently, two studies were carried out in Georgia investigating the prevalence of human and canine VL, and the species composition of phlebotomine sand flies and their rates of infection with what was probably L. infantum in Tbilisi, eastern Georgia and Kutaisi, a new focus, in western Georgia. Though published in English, summaries of this information have been included where relevant to update the parts on VL in Uzbekistan and Georgia. PMID:26077778

  17. Glaciers, permafrost and snow in the upstream Naryn catchments, Kyrgyzstan - Distribution, characteristics and trends for the water budget under climate change conditions

    Duishonakunow, Murataly; King, Lorenz; Usubaliev, Ryskul; Moldobekov, Bolot

    2014-05-01

    There is strong scientific consciousness among scientist that the global climate is warming and that glaciers and permafrost worldwide are rapidly responding to this trend. A strong glacial retreat in the Central Asian mountains was especially intensive during the last decades. Its impact on water resources is noteworthy for the arid regions of the Kyrgyz Republic. This research assesses recent glacial and periglacial changes and their impact on water resources of the Upstream Naryn catchments. Naryn River is the largest river of Kyrgyzstan. It flows from east to west at a length of more than 700 km before reaching Syr-Darya. A period of 45 years (1965-2010) was analyzed using 1:25,000 scale topographic maps and ALOS/AVNIR satellite imagery. The result shows that the glacier area decreased by 17.4% in the Akshyirak mountain massif, 20.8% in the Borkoldoy mountain, 21.9% in the Jetim mountain, 24.6% in the Jetimbel mountain, 28.9% in the Naryn mountain, 20.8% in the Sook mountain, 20.9% in the Terskey mountain (South slope glaciers) and 17.8% in the Uchemchek mountain ranges. The accelerated glacial retreat will have strong effects concerning periods of water shortage in densely populated areas especially for the agriculture. Also the increase of frequent glacial induced hazards (e.g. GLOFs) is obvious. Whereas the additional runoff supplied by glaciers is well-known, the contribution of slowly melting ground-ice and perennial snow fields is almost unknown. However, this periglacial contribution is significant in the extremely arid mountain areas of the Central Tianshan. Hence, our research was to include this contribution to the water balance. The geomorphology of the study area was mapped, and a network of 18 high resolution thermistor strings and mini data loggers was installed. Hourly temperatures were recorded at various depths of up to 132 cm. The measurements started August 2010, covered three full years, and show that permafrost is wide-spread above 3300 m. a.s.l., the lowermost permafrost areas have been found even below 2700 meters. A ten year observation period (2001 - 2011) of the Tian-Shan Meteorological Station located at 3659 meters a.s.l. is of special interest. It testifies the thawing and development of the active layer with maximum depths observed early August. During the period 2010 to 2013, an average active layer depth of 300 cm depth was reached here. With the detailed identification of parameters determining the active layer thickness and the study of thaw dynamics, large scale modeling of the state of the permafrost in the Central Tian Shan is attempted. It can be shown, that not only negative glacier mass balances but also the degradation of permafrost with melting of ground ice and the reduction of perennial snow patches over the last 12 years contributes considerably to additional run-off.

  18. Renewable energy sources of Kyrgyzstan

    The article presents the talk on the renewable energy sources of Kyrgyz Republic given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent(Uzbekistan) in June 1997. It is shown that renewable energy sources may cover 50% of energy demand in Republic and the most economically and ecologically effective is considered solar energy. (A.A.D.)

  19. [Taxonomic status of the Tyulek virus (TLKV) (Orthomyxoviridae, Quaranjavirus, Quaranfil group) isolated from the ticks Argas vulgaris Filippova, 1961 (Argasidae) from the birds burrow nest biotopes in the Kyrgyzstan].

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovski?, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Aristova, V A; Gitel'man, A K; Samokhvalov, E I; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    The Tyulek virus (TLKV) was isolated from the ticks Argas vulgaris Filippova, 1961 (Argasidae), collected from the burrow biotopes in multispecies birds colony in the Aksu river floodplain near Tyulek village (northern part of Chu Valley, Kyrgyzstan). Recently, the TLKV was assigned to the Quaranfil group (including the Quaranfil virus (QRFV), Johnston Atoll virus (JAV), Lake Chad virus) that is a novel genus of the Quaranjavirus in the Orthomyxoviridae family. In his work, the complete genome (ID GenBank KJ438647-8) sequence of the TLKV was determined using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform). Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences shows closed relationship of the TLKV with QRFV and JAV (86% and 84% identity for PB1 and about 70% for PB2 and PA, respectively). The identity level of the TLKV and QRFV in outer glycoprotein GP is 72% and 80% for nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the TLKV belongs to the genus of the Quaranjavirus in the family Orthomyxoviridae. PMID:25069282

  20. Turanite, Cu2+5(V5+O4)2 (OH)4, from the Tyuya-Muyun radium-uranium deposit, Osh district, Kyrgyzstan: a new structure for an old mineral

    The crystal structure of turanite, Cu-2+(V5+O4)2 (OH)4, from the Tyuya-Muyun Ra-U deposit, the Alai Ridge foothills, Osh district Kyrgyzstan, triclinic, space group P1, a 5.3834(2), b 6.2736(3), c 6.8454(3) Angstrom, α 86.169(1), β 91.681(1), γ 92.425(1)o V 230.38(2) Angstrom3, Z = 1, has been solved by direct methods and refined to an R index of 2.2% based on 1332 observed [Fo > 4σF] unique reflections measured with MoKα X-radiation and a Bruker P4 diffractometer equipped with a CCD detector. Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave CuO 62.94, V2O5 28.90, H2O 5.85, sum 97.69 wt.%; the amount of H2O was determined by crystal-structure analysis. The resulting empirical formula on the basis of 12 anions (including OH = 4 apfu) is Cu2+4.97)(V5+O4)2 (OH)4.08. There are three distinct Cu sites fully occupied by Cu2+ and octahedrally coordinated by four O atoms and two (OH) groups, with = 2.115 Angstrom. The (Cuφ6) octahedra (φ = O, OH) form a sheet of edge-sharing octahedra (with vacancies, oct : vac = 5 : 1) parallel to (011). On each side of the vacant octahedron, a (VO4) tetrahedron is attached to three anions of the sheet and points away from the sheet to be attached to an anion of the adjacent sheet. Thus the (Cuφ6) octahedra and (VO4) tetrahedra constitute a framework, within which the sheets are also linked by hydrogen bonding from (OH) groups of one sheet to O anions of adjacent sheets. Turanite can be considered as a framework structure with interrupted sheets of (Cφ6) octahedra decorated by (VO4) tetrahedra, and is related to the structures of cornubite, cianciulliite, gordaite, bechererite, chalcophyllite, ramsbeckite and simonkolleite. (author)

  1. Personality Value Orientations in Terms of Kyrgyzstan Society Anomie

    Ruslan M. Asanaliyev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available All well-known definitions of an anomy extremely precisely approach to a current state Kyrgyz society. The chosen ways under of subjective and objective circumstances lead to society destabilization. During such periods of social development the developed values and valuable orientations can’t be equal to the existing realities, and new weren't created yet up to the end, exactly in such conditions the anomy and deviant behavior most extend. Today to the country deviant behavior of considerable part of the population embodies the destructive tendencies most dangerous. These tendencies must be studied and analyzed.

  2. The Transformation of Askar Akaev, President of Kyrgyzstan

    Spector, Regine A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper follows the transformation of Kyrgyzstan’s president, Askar Akaev, over the course of the 1900s from an initial path of liberalization to more authoritarian tendencies. Akaev’s role in Kyrgyzstan’s post-Soviet trajectory is largely neglected in current scholarship, and this paper analyzes how the role of leadership compares with existing literature. This analysis focuses on how Akaev builds authority with various audiences and the constraints he had faced during his tenure. This pa...

  3. Radioecological problems in a region of natural-uranium province (Kyrgyzstan)

    Full text : At present the attempts have been made in our Republic for solving the problems concerning heritage of uranium ores extraction and processing in places where several thousands of tons of radioactively polluted wastes are accumulated, posing potential threat for contamination of the environment and for people's health. The scientists of the Kyrgyz Republic and other countries actively work over the above mentioned problems solution : several international ISTC, IAEA and other projects were fulfilled, the material and technical basis of specialized laboratories became better, the results were obtained for presentation and discussion. In all these laboratories different kinds of effective semi-conductor germanium detectors were used for analysis of radionuclides gamma-spectra in tail materials and samples of the environment

  4. Measurements of radiatively active tropo-stratospheric constituents over the northern Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan)

    Semenov, V.; Sinyakov, V.; Aref'ev, V.; Kashin, F.; Kamenogradsky, N.

    2003-04-01

    The results of long-term (from 15 to 22 years) continuous measurements of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and carbon dioxide total contents in the atmosphere; and of its spectral transparency in the visible range and aerosol optical depth are presented. The measurements were carried out on Issyk Kul station (42.6 N, 77 E, 1650 m a.s.l.) in center of the Eurasian continent (Northern Tien Shan, the Issyk Kul lake) by the spectroscopic method with the use of the sun as a radiation source. Issyk Kul station belong NDSC complementary network. Total ozone is determined by the multiwave method according to the results of solar radiation absorption measurements at 6 wave lengths: 303.3; 305.2; 308.6; 311.0; 313.8 and 315.0 nm coinciding with maxima in the spectrum having a quasilinear structure. The method of CO2 measurements is based on the measurement of solar radiation transmission through the atmosphere with a mean spectral resolution of about 3 cm-1 in the carbon dioxide absorption band with the center near 2.06 micron. The measurement results obtained by this method have low sensitivity to CO2 local sources-sinks. To control water vapor content by the spectroscopic method a narrow section (about 2.04 micron) of the atmospheric spectrum was registered in the wing of CO2 absorption band with the center at about 2.06 micron. Such a choice of the spectrum section provides simultaneous determination of H2O and CO2 contents with one and the same record of a solar radiation spectrum. The measurements of total nitrogen dioxide were carried out with the use of the spectroscopic instrumentation set by the three-wave-length twilight method. For determining NO2 the intensity of the solar radiation at the wave lengths of 437.6, 439.8 and 442.0 nm scattered in the atmosphere were registered at the zenith angles of 85-92 degrees at sunrise and sunset. The changes of mean monthly and annual values of the atmospheric components studied were considered. Seasonal and other variations with different periods and trends were revealed: positive for total carbon dioxide (0.45+/-0.01)% a yr, total water vapor (0.8+/-0.5)% a yr, total nitrogen dioxide (1.44+/-0.08)% yr and for spectral transparencies (0.37+/-0.07)% a yr; and negative for total ozone (0.44+/-0.08)% a yr. The measurements results were compared to one another and to some meteorological and geophysical parameters and phenomena. The studies have been carries out under a financial support of the International Science and Technology Center (Grant ISTC Kr-763.

  5. The Impact of Banking Sector Reform in a Transition Economy : Evidence from Kyrgyzstan

    Brown, Martin; Maurer, Maria Rueda; Pak, Tamara; Tynaev, Nurlanbek

    2009-01-01

    We examine the impact of financial sector reform on interest rate levels and spreads using Kyrgyz bank-level data from 1998 to 2005. We find that, in addition to macroeconomic stabilization, structural reforms to the banking sector significantly contributed to lower interest rates. In particular, our results suggest that foreign bank entry and regulatory efforts to increase average bank size were important in reducing deposit rates. In contrast, we find little evidence that banking sector ref...

  6. Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: the City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).

    Sim, Natasha M; Wilson, David C; Velis, Costas A; Smith, Stephen R

    2013-10-01

    The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice. PMID:24068306

  7. Tectonic and gravity-induced deformation along the active Talas-Fergana Fault, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Tibaldi, A.; Corazzato, C.; Rust, D.; Bonali, F. L.; Pasquarè Mariotto, F. A.; Korzhenkov, A. M.; Oppizzi, P.; Bonzanigo, L.

    2015-08-01

    This paper shows, by field palaeoseismological data, the Holocene activity of the central segment of the intracontinental Talas-Fergana Fault (TFF), and the relevance of possible future seismic shaking on slope stability around a large water reservoir. The fault, striking NW-SE, is marked by a continuous series of scarps, deflected streams and water divides, and prehistoric earthquakes that offset substrate and Holocene deposits. Fault movements are characterised by right-lateral strike-slip kinematics with a subordinate component of uplift of the NE block. Structural, geological and geomorphological field data indicate that shallow and deep landslides are aligned along the TFF, and some of them are active. Where the TFF runs close to the reservoir, the fault trace is obscured by a series of landslides, affecting rock and soil materials and ranging in size from small slope instabilities to deep-seated gravity-induced slope deformations (DGSDs). The largest of these, which does not show clear evidence of present-day activity, involves a volume of about 1 km3 and is associated with smaller but active landslides in its lower part, with volumes in the order of 2.5 × 104 m3 to 1 × 106 m3. Based on the spatial and temporal relations between landslides and faults, we argue that at least some of these slope failures may have a coseismic character. Stability analyses by means of limit equilibrium methods (LEMs), and stress-strain analysis by finite difference numerical modelling (FDM), were carried out to evaluate different hazard scenarios linked to these slope instabilities. The results indicate concern for the different threats posed, ranging from the possible disruption of the M-41 highway, the main transportation route in central Asia, to the possible collapse of huge rock masses into the reservoir, possibly generating a tsunami.

  8. Forecasting reservoir inflows using remotely sensed precipitation estimates: A pilot study for the River Naryn, Kyrgyzstan

    Dixon, Samuel G.; Wilby, Robert L.

    2015-04-01

    Management of large, transboundary river systems can be politically and strategically problematic. However, accurate flow forecasting based on public domain data holds scope for more informed resource and infrastructure management. Moreover, remotely sensed, near real time precipitation estimates offer the potential to forecast rainfall-runoff in regions where ground based data are sparse. This study investigates the potential for river flow forecasting using satellite precipitation estimates for a sub-basin in Central Asia, a spatial scale and region that has received relatively little attention to date. Basin to sub basin scale flow forecasting allows the use of higher resolution input data, as well as possibility for greater physical realism of modelling through more detailed understanding of local runoff mechanisms. Correlation analysis of observed precipitation and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation estimates show less skill for daily (r = 0.25) than monthly (r = 0.93) totals. Using a parsimonious multiple linear regression model skill levels were found to be superior to the Zero Order Forecast (i.e. long-term mean flow) for lead times up to three months. Over 80% of the variance in monthly inflows is explained at three month lead, and up to 65% for summer half-year average. The analysis also reveals zones in the river basin that are delivering highest predictability and hence candidate areas for surface network expansion. These findings open promising avenues for exploration including the use of non-linear algorithms to improve forecasting skill or use of satellite based precipitation estimates to forecast natural hazards, such as rainfall triggered landslides and mudflows.

  9. Climate change and glacier retreat in northern Tien Shan (Kazakhstan/Kyrgyzstan) using remote sensing data

    Bolch, Tobias

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an analysis of precipitation and temperature trends and a GIS-supported investigation of the related glacier change in the mountain ridges Zailiyskiy and Kungey Alatau, which represent an important part of the northern Tien Shan. The recent glacier coverage was delineated in a semi-automated way using a TM4/TM5 ratio image of a Landsat ETM Scene from the year 1999 and a merged ASTER/SRTM3-DEM. The extent of these glaciers is compared to that of the glaciers in the Soviet Glacier Inventory [UdSSR, Academica Nauk (1966 to 1983). Katalog Lednikov SSSR (in Russian), Gidrometeoizdat. Leningrad], which represents the situation in study area in approx. 1955. Regionalization of temperature and precipitation as well as solar radiation calculation was conducted in order to determine the climate situation at the glaciers. Trend and correlation analysis for the period from 1879 to 2000 at 16 climate stations showed a temperature increase, which have become pronounced since the 1950s. Another strong increase occurred at the beginning of the 1970s and since around 1980, the temperatures have generally stayed at this high level. The trend coefficient was about 0.8 K/100a for the period 1900 to 2000 and about 2.0 K/100a on average for the second half of the last century. The increase was about two times higher than the global average in northern Tien Shan from 1950 until 2000, where the increase was mainly due to temperature rise in autumn and winter. The increase is less pronounced in the mountainous areas, but still obvious. However, the higher temperature increase at the lower stations, located for the most part in cities or larger settlements, may be due in part to increased urbanization. For precipitation, there was a small increase on average, but no clear trend. On the average, the decrease in glacier extent was more than 32% between 1955 and 1999 in the investigated valleys of Zailiyskiy and Kungey Alatau. The glacier retreat was not homogeneous, but depended strongly on the size, location and climate regime at the glaciers. The area loss of the continental-type glaciers with very predominant summer accumulation, as for those situated in the deeply incised Chon-Kemin valley between Zailiyskiy and Kungey Alatau, was conspicuously less, in parts, than the loss at the more maritime glaciers on the northern slope of Zailiyskiy Alatau. This is consistent with the small increase in summer temperatures. However, under dryer conditions with high solar radiation input, such as with glaciers in the Chon-Aksu valley in Kungey Alatau, the area retreat of the continental-type glaciers can be even more pronounced than that of the more maritime glaciers.

  10. Stable isotopes of lead and strontium as tracers of sources of airborne particulate matter in Kyrgyzstan.

    Central Asia is dominated by an arid climate and desert-like conditions, leading to the potential of long-range transport of desert dust. One potential source of dust to Central Asia is the Aral Sea, the surface area of which has receded in size from 68,000 km2 to 14,280 km2, lar...

  11. Stable Isotopes of Sr and Pb as Tracers of Sources of Airborne Particulate Matter in Kyrgyzstan

    ConclusionsElemental concentrations were higher at the LIDAR site compared to the Bishkek site. Also, concentrations were higher during dust than non-dust events at both sites.The Sr isotopic ratios suggest dust from another region, such as from Western China, Africa, or Middle E...

  12. Paleoseismological investigations along a newly developing fault in the northern Tien Shan foreland near Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

    Landgraf, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Djumabaeva, A.; Strecker, M. R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Haberland, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Kyrgyz Tien Shan is a low-strain orogen, which experiences large-magnitude earthquakes. The area comprises a broken foreland of basement-cored uplifts bounded by reverse faults that were reactivated along inherited shear zones, but lacks a clear deformation front. About one third of the current India-Asia collision is accommodated in the Tien Shan, but deformation is widely distributed across E-W striking structures. This pattern seems to be in agreement with long-term Quaternary slip rates of 1-3 mm/a, as calculated for single faults along a N-S transect. However, this pattern differs from the distribution of recent and historical seismicity, which is concentrated along the northern and southern periphery of the Tien Shan, respectively. Moreover, a series of major earthquakes occurred in the late 19th and earliest 20th centuries along the northern limit: 1885 (Ms 6.9), 1887 (Ms 7.3), 1889 (Ms 8.3), and 1911 (Ms 8.1). These events are amongst the largest known intraplate earthquakes worldwide and their spatial and temporal association is intriguing, but cause and recurrence still remain enigmatic. Furthermore, we find newly youthful fault scarps in close vicinity to reactivated inherited structures inferred to have been active during the Quaternary. To elucidate these rupture and earthquake patterns, we started paleoseismological investigations along a young fault, located just 35 km west of Belovodskoie, the epicenter of the 1885 (Ms 6.9) earthquake, and about 75 km west of Bishkek, the Kyrgyz capital. Two scarps are developed in an alluvial fan, nested inside a late Pleistocene loess terrace. The northern, more prominent, E-W striking scarp, can be followed for about 4 km across the alluvial fan. It is aligned with a cumulative break in topography of about 13 m in the loess-covered surface to the west. The trace of the scarp suggests a dominant reverse faulting mechanism, while the smaller scarp suggests a minor left-lateral component of motion. The alluvial fan is composed of different lobes with distinct offsets between about 0.6 m and 3.8 m. Three trenches were excavated in the low-offset and intermediate-offset segments of the main scarp, respectively, in order to better understand the offset distribution and associated earthquake history. In all trenches, dip-slip motion has been recognized as the dominant faulting process, resulting in hanging-wall collapse scarps with the deposition of colluvial wedges. We find one event in the low-offset segment. This event has offset two alluvial units and one organic-rich soil . The other two trenches reveal evidence for at least two rupture events, respectively. Unfortunately, the stratigraphic base recording earlier events could not be excavated due to safety reasons. However, our new trenching data suggest that the ultimate event recorded in all three trenches was characterized by an offset between 1.2 and 1.4 m. Using probabilistic magnitude estimates for this slip this may correspond to a magnitude between 6.8 and 7.2, emphasizing the seismogenic nature of the northern Tien Shan with infrequent, large magnitude earthquakes. Ongoing age determination of offset strata and colluvial wedges, and high-resolution seismic reflection profiling are expected to provide additional data to further constrain the seismogenic deformation in this region.

  13. Stable isotopes of lead and strontium as tracers of sources of airborne particulate matter in Kyrgyzstan

    Central Asia is dominated by an arid climate and desert-like conditions, leading to the potential for long-range transport of desert dust within and out of the region. Of particular interest is the Aral Sea, which has receded in size largely due to water diversion. As a result, n...

  14. Oil and gas resources of the Fergana Basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgyzstan)

    1995-01-01

    This analysis is part of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA`s) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). This one for the Fergana Basin is an EIA first for republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU). This was a trial study of data availability and methodology, resulting in a reservoir-level assessment of ultimate recovery for both oil and gas. Ultimate recovery, as used here, is the sum of cumulative production and remaining Proved plus Probable reserves as of the end of 1987. Reasonable results were obtained when aggregating reservoir-level values to the basin level, and in determining general but important distributions of across-basin reservoir and fluid parameters. Currently, this report represents the most comprehensive assessment publicly available for oil and gas in the Fergana Basin. This full report provides additional descriptions, discussions and analysis illustrations that are beneficial to those considering oil and gas investments in the Fergana Basin. 57 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Trends in out-of-pocket payments for health care in Kyrgyzstan, 2001-2007.

    Falkingham, Jane; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Baschieri, Angela

    2010-09-01

    Within the countries of the former Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz Republic has been a pioneer in reforming the system of health care finance. Since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, the country has gradually moved from subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services through the 'single payer' of the health insurance fund. In 2002 the government introduced a new co-payment for inpatients along with a basic benefit package. A key objective of the reforms has been to replace the burgeoning system of unofficial informal payments for health care with a transparent official co-payment, thereby reducing the financial burden of health care spending for the poor. This article investigates trends in out-of-pocket payments for health care using the results of a series of nationally representative household surveys conducted over the period 2001-2007, when the reforms were being rolled out. The analysis shows that there has been a significant improvement in financial access to health care amongst the population. The proportion paying state providers for consultations fell between 2004 and 2007. As a result of the introduction of co-payments for hospital care, fewer inpatients report making payments to medical personnel, but when they are made, payments are high, especially to surgeons and anaesthetists. However, although financial access for outpatient care has improved, the burden of health care payments amongst the poor remains significant. PMID:20332252

  16. 75 FR 63242 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Junior Faculty...

    2010-10-14

    ... Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan..., Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Montenegro,...

  17. Elevation changes of Inylchek Glacier during 19742007, Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan derived from remote sensing data

    D. Shangguan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Glacier melt is an important source of fresh water for the arid regions surrounding the Tian Shan. Inylchek Glacier (650 km2 is the largest glacier in Tian Shan consisting of two branches (northern Inylchek glacier and southern Inylchek glacier separated by the regularly draining Lake Merzbacher. However, little is known about volume and mass changes of the last decades. In this study, we investigated the changes of glacier area and glacier surface elevation from 1974 until 2007 and the surface velocity between 2003 and 2011 using multi-temporal remote-sensing data. The main flow direction of Southern Inylchek Glacier tongue showed strong velocities of ?100 m a?1 with a slight decreasing tendency between 2002/03 and 2010/11. The end of the tongue however, is likely stagnant as the main flow is directed towards Lake Merzbacher. The total glacier area increased by 1.3 0.1 km2 (?0.2% within the studies period though southern Inylchek Glacier shrank consecutive since 1974. The overall area gain was caused by the strong increase of northern Inylchek Glacier of 3.7 0.3 km2 between 19901999. A comparison of glacier surface elevation using multi-temporal digital elevation models derived from KH9-Hexagon (1974, SRTM (1999, ALOS (2006 and SPOT5-HRG (2007 revealed an overall elevation difference of Inylchek Glacier of ?0.5 0.1 m a?1 for the period of 19742007. The northern glacier branch showed on average no significant surface elevation change (0.1 0.1 m a?1 during 1974 and 2007 while a significant lowering of 0.7 0.1 m a?1 was observed for the southern branch. The overall negative values are mainly due to the period 19741999. A possible thickening of 0.5 0.5 m a?1 occurred between 1999 and 2007 where a clear thickening was measured in the accumulation area of the southern branch. We also identified the thickening with a maximum of about ?150 m close to the end of the northern Inylchek Glacier tongue for the period 19741999. This is possibly due to a surge event which happened between 1990 and 1999 according to the area change data. The ablation region of southern Inylchek Glacier showed considerable lowering rates especially in the distal part of the tongue with low velocity despite thick debris coverage.

  18. Threat assessment report. Regulatory aspects of the remediation and rehabilitation of nuclear legacy in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan

    Zhunussova, T.; Sneve, M.; Romanenko, O.; Solomatina, A.; Mirsaidov, I.

    2011-06-15

    During the Soviet period, the uranium mining operations in Central Asia served as one of the main uranium producers for the Soviet Union (SU) military complex. The regulatory standards for exposure and emissions control to all Soviet Republics were administered by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and were the same across the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the former Soviet Republics became independent, but also inherited the legacy in the form of wastes, including those from uranium ore processing and tailings and old Soviet regulatory documents, which are mostly inconsistent with the international standards and guidances and need substantial improvements. Many radioactive waste storage facilities in Central Asia, especially in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, are located in regions of seismic activity, in landslide- and mud flow-prone areas and areas subject to flooding and high ground water levels, and near the banks of the rivers that form the base of the large water basin of the Central Asian region. Many tailings are situated near towns, other populated areas and state borders, and they represent a long-term hazard to health and the environment. In regard to the legal and regulatory framework, it should be noted that none of the Central Asian countries have a National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management developed and approved by the Governments. Existing regulatory documents do not address the issues regarding safety assessments and safety cases or the implementation of long-term institutional control and monitoring of the abandoned dumps with radioactive wastes (RW) or future RW disposal sites, neither during operation nor after their closure. There is also a need to develop safety criteria (reference levels) and determine measures to be taken for existing exposure situations (past practices). In addition, there is a lack of safety requirements for different types of disposal facilities in accordance with the different categories of radioactive waste. Safety criteria and clearance levels are also not established. The NRPA, with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in the Central Asian countries to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and RW management in the Central Asian countries. Based on threat assessments that have been completed in each Central Asian country during the year 2010, this document focuses on the existing regulatory problems at the legacy sites and projects will address the regulatory documents which should be developed first. It is clear that in order to remove the threat connected with radioactive wastes, both that which has already been accumulated as a result of previous activity and that which is currently being generated in significant amounts and will be produced in the future, it is necessary to at least develop and implement: A National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management, including strategies for disposal of each category of the RW, allocation of responsibilities and financial assurance for these activities; Safety requirements on the design, siting, construction, operation, closure and establishment of the institutional control needed for disposal facilities in accordance with the approved national policy and strategy on radioactive waste management; and New classifications of radioactive waste according to the recently published international recommendations, including identification of corresponding categories; In addition, it is clear that in order to remove the threats connected with extensive territories contaminated by radionuclides, the rehabilitation of these areas is required and, accordingly, it is necessary to develop regulations on: Quantitative criteria defining reference levels for existing exposure situations, considering its justification, optimization and the graded approach; Criteria and hygienic specifications on the rehabilitation of territories contaminated with radioactive materials; The radiation safety of the personnel and the population during the subsequent use of the territory, buildings and constructions after rehabilitation; Reference levels for exposure dose constraints to prevent unreasonable irradiation of the population on the territories with radioactive contamination, and also to develop derived reference levels for the values of radiation parameters which can be directly measured when implementing radiation control; and Updating the exemption and clearance levels with the latest international recommendations. Finally, it is of crucial importance to strengthen the regulatory framework and infrastructure.

  19. Threat assessment report. Regulatory aspects of the remediation and rehabilitation of nuclear legacy in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan

    During the Soviet period, the uranium mining operations in Central Asia served as one of the main uranium producers for the Soviet Union (SU) military complex. The regulatory standards for exposure and emissions control to all Soviet Republics were administered by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and were the same across the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the former Soviet Republics became independent, but also inherited the legacy in the form of wastes, including those from uranium ore processing and tailings and old Soviet regulatory documents, which are mostly inconsistent with the international standards and guidances and need substantial improvements. Many radioactive waste storage facilities in Central Asia, especially in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, are located in regions of seismic activity, in landslide- and mud flow-prone areas and areas subject to flooding and high ground water levels, and near the banks of the rivers that form the base of the large water basin of the Central Asian region. Many tailings are situated near towns, other populated areas and state borders, and they represent a long-term hazard to health and the environment. In regard to the legal and regulatory framework, it should be noted that none of the Central Asian countries have a National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management developed and approved by the Governments. Existing regulatory documents do not address the issues regarding safety assessments and safety cases or the implementation of long-term institutional control and monitoring of the abandoned dumps with radioactive wastes (RW) or future RW disposal sites, neither during operation nor after their closure. There is also a need to develop safety criteria (reference levels) and determine measures to be taken for existing exposure situations (past practices). In addition, there is a lack of safety requirements for different types of disposal facilities in accordance with the different categories of radioactive waste. Safety criteria and clearance levels are also not established. The NRPA, with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in the Central Asian countries to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and RW management in the Central Asian countries. Based on threat assessments that have been completed in each Central Asian country during the year 2010, this document focuses on the existing regulatory problems at the legacy sites and projects will address the regulatory documents which should be developed first. It is clear that in order to remove the threat connected with radioactive wastes, both that which has already been accumulated as a result of previous activity and that which is currently being generated in significant amounts and will be produced in the future, it is necessary to at least develop and implement: A National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management, including strategies for disposal of each category of the RW, allocation of responsibilities and financial assurance for these activities; Safety requirements on the design, siting, construction, operation, closure and establishment of the institutional control needed for disposal facilities in accordance with the approved national policy and strategy on radioactive waste management; and New classifications of radioactive waste according to the recently published international recommendations, including identification of corresponding categories; In addition, it is clear that in order to remove the threats connected with extensive territories contaminated by radionuclides, the rehabilitation of these areas is required and, accordingly, it is necessary to develop regulations on: Quantitative criteria defining reference levels for existing exposure situations, considering its justification, optimization and the graded approach; Criteria and hygienic specifications on the rehabilitation of territories contaminated with radioactive materials; The radiation safety of the personnel and the population during the subsequent use of the territory, buildings and constructions after rehabilitation; Reference levels for exposure dose constraints to prevent unreasonable irradiation of the population on the territories with radioactive contamination, and also to develop derived reference levels for the values of radiation parameters which can be directly measured when implementing radiation control; and Updating the exemption and clearance levels with the latest international recommendations. Finally, it is of crucial importance to strengthen the regulatory framework and infrastructure. Only with a strong regulatory body (or well-coordinated regulatory authorities) fulfilling its main responsibilities, namely authorization, inspection and enforcement, would it be possible to implement the remedial actions in a coherent and safe way. In addition, only with a strong regulatory infrastructure in place would it be possible to avoid the repetition of such bad experiences in ongoing practices and facilities or in new coming projects. Equal attention should also be paid to other non uranium mining and milling activities, such as the oil and gas industries. (Author)

  20. ACCOUNTING EDUCATION AT FACULTY OF ECONOMIC ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE IN KYRGYZSTAN UNIVERSITIES AND EXPECTATION OF STUDENTS FROM ACCOUNTING EDUCATION, A CASE STUDY IN BISHKEK

    Selcuk KENDIRLI; Ulker, Yakup; Yamaltdinov, Adilya

    2015-01-01

    Rapid changes in the application of enterprise has had a dominant effect on accounting education in the globalized world. While the continuous and rapidly changing process, it is becoming more important for the financial statement users to obtain true and trustworthy knowledge from accounting education at the university level.  The financial language of accounting must be adopted as part of these changes.  Accounting must produce true and trustworthy knowledge for the enterprises. There is a ...

  1. Paleozoic structure of Middle Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan Central Asian Orogenic Belt): Insights on the polarity and timing of tectonic motions, subductions, and lateral correlations

    Jourdon, Anthony; Loury, Chloé; Rolland, Yann; Petit, Carole; Bellahsen, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    The structure and Palaeozoic tectonic evolution in Kyrgyz and Chinese Tien Shan Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are numerous and conflicting models about the polarity of tectonic motions in the Paleozoic, the number of continental blocks and oceanic basins involved and the timing of tectonic events. In this study we propose new maps and structural cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz Tien Shan (TS). These cross-sections allow us to highlight an overall South-verging structure in the Middle TS, with a thick-skin style involving the crystalline basement. This deformation occurred during the Early Carboniferous, and is sealed by an Upper Carboniferous unconformity. We ascribe this structure to an Upper Plate deformation linked to north-dipping subduction below Middle TS. In contrast, the South TS exhibits a north-verging structure, linked to south-dipping subduction, which is evidenced by an accretionary prism, a volcanic arc, and high-pressure rocks (Loury et al., 2015), and is correlated to similar structures in the Chinese TS (e.g., Charvet et al., 2011). Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the Middle and South TS CAOB. The resulting model comprises a long-lived north-dipping subduction of the Turkestan Ocean below the Middle TS-Karazakh Platform and a short-lived south-dipping subduction of a marginal back-arc basin below the Tarim. Consequently, the South TS is interpreted as a rifted block from the Tarim. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton to the CAOB corresponds to a rapid collision phase (320-300 Ma). This put an end to the long-lived Paleozoic subduction history in the CAOB. Charvet, J., Shu, L., et al., 2011. Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the Tianshan belt, NW China. Science China Earth Sciences, 54, 166-184. Loury, C. , Rolland, Y., Guillot S., Mikolaichuk, A.V., Lanari, P., Bruguier, O., D.Bosch, 2015. Crustal-scale structure of South Tien Shan: implications for subduction polarity and Cenozoic reactivation. Geological Society London Special Publications, in press.

  2. Glaciers and permafrost as water resource in Kyrgyzstan : distribution, recent dynamics and hazards, and the relevance for sustainable development of Central Asian semiarid regions

    Duishonakunov, Murataly Turganalievich

    2014-01-01

    The Kyrgyz Republic is the only Central Asian state, where the water resources are fully generated on its own territory. The water originates from the often glacier covered mountain ranges and its abundance is a vital component for the agriculture and the production of hydro-electric power. The mountainous Kyrgyz Republic is an essential “water tower” for irrigated arable farming on arid plain territories. In view of the climate change discussion, this study investigates the water resources o...

  3. Mensch und Umwelt in Kirgistan: Politische kologie im postkolonialen und postsozialistischen Kontext [Humans and the Environment in Kyrgyzstan: Political Ecology in a Postcolonial and Postsocialist Context

    Martin Maurer

    2015-01-01

    Reviewed: Mensch und Umwelt in Kirgistan: Politische kologie im postkolonialen und postsozialistischen Kontext. By Matthias Schmidt. Stuttgart, Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2013. 400 pp. J 52.00, US$ 79.80. ISBN 978-3-515-10478-4.

  4. Mensch und Umwelt in Kirgistan: Politische kologie im postkolonialen und postsozialistischen Kontext [Humans and the Environment in Kyrgyzstan: Political Ecology in a Postcolonial and Postsocialist Context

    Martin Maurer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mensch und Umwelt in Kirgistan: Politische kologie im postkolonialen und postsozialistischen Kontext. By Matthias Schmidt. Stuttgart, Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2013. 400 pp. J 52.00, US$ 79.80. ISBN 978-3-515-10478-4.

  5. The fate of oceanic crust in Paleozoic subduction zones: the metamorphic evolution of (ultra-)high-pressure rocks of the Tianshan (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, NW China)

    Meyer, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Subduction zones are the place in the global subduction factory where crustal rocks are buried to mantle depths. Due to its higher density, most oceanic crust is irreversibly buried and thus, processes, which result in the exhumation of deeply subducted oceanic crust have received less attention, compared to continental crust. This may be due to the rare occurrences of exhumed ultra-high-pressure oceanic crust. Given that processes in modern subduction zones cannot be investigated directly, (...

  6. Sources of Mistrust: An Experimental Case Study of a Central Asian Water Conflict

    Abbink, Klaus; Moller, Lars Christian; O'Hara, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    With the disintegration of the USSR a conflict arose between Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan over the transboundary Syr Darya river. Upstream Kyrgyzstan controls the Toktogul reservoir which generates hydropower demanded mainly in winter for heating. Downstream Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan need irrigation water in summer, primarily to grow an export crop (cotton). Regional agreements obliging Kyrgyzstan to higher summer discharges in exchange for fossil fuel transfers from downstream ripar...

  7. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,

  8. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  9. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    Harmer Andrew; Brugha Ruairi; Bogdan Daryna; Spicer Neil; Murzalieva Gulgun; Semigina Tetiana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical st...

  10. Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

  11. Electricity in Central Asia: Market and investment opportunity report

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.

  12. Proceedings of reports

    Proceeding of the conference covers different aspects of solid state physics and concludes 173 papers. Scientist and specialists from Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan took part in the conference

  13. AN EVALUATION OF COMMON WORDS OF TURKISH AND KYRGYZ LANGUAGES

    ABDIKULOVA, Roza

    2014-01-01

    Since receiving the sovereignty Kyrgyzstan has been continuing collaborative work with the Republic of Turkey in terms of policy, economy and culture. Today, schools, colleges, universities, and firms opened by Turkey are continuing to work in Kyrgyzstan. The language is the most important element that plays major role in providing interpersonal communication and joint operation. In spite of the same language origin, one can still encounter with difficulties in learning the Turkish and Kyrg...

  14. IDEOLOGICAL APPROACHES OF FOLKLORE STUDIES IN KYRGYZSTAN ON THE SOVIET UNION PERIOD: ERSOLTONOY EPIC EXAMPLE SOVYETLER BİRLİĞİ DÖNEMİNDE KIRGIZİSTAN’DA FOLKLOR ÇALIŞMALARINDA İDEOLOJİK YAKLAŞIMLAR: ER SOLTONOY DESTANI ÖRNEĞİ

    Mehmet ÇERİBAŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Folklore, emerged in the 19th century with the romance movement as a tool of nationalizm, acted as shield aganist discriminative movements in the countries which weren’t able to achieve political unity. Political movement, which doesn’t consist freedom of expression and based on single party system like socialism, nazism and communism, wanted to take advantage of all communication channels for propaganda purpose. These movements imposed important folklore products which was considered as a means of communication and interaction. One of these is to understand the judgements values and develop policies on this judgements, other is to ensure harmony between the regime and people-more clearly by formatting fort he purpose of regime.Socialism which is of the movements using folklore for the ideological purpose have benefited from folklore to make people of occupied countries for he emperialist purpose compatible. Epic type, decorated with elements of romantics and nationalism, is used to increase nationalism by the Turks tribes where oral culture is dominant during the war period at ordinary times has taken spokemanship of proletariat class. Such work has been tested on the Kyrgyz Turks which were nomadic horseman and interested in the type of epic proceeding from Er Soltonoy’s of Kyrgyz Turks. 19. yüzyılda ortaya çıkan romantizm hareketiyle uluslaşmanın bir aracı olarak görülen folklor ürünleri, siyasi birliğini sağlayamamış ülkeler tarafından dıştan gelecek ayrıştırıcı akımlara karşı kalkan görevini görmüştür. Nazizm, Sosyalizm ve Komünizm gibi tek parti sistemine dayanan ve ifade özgürlüğünün olmadığı siyasi akımlar ise halka ulaşabilecekleri bütün iletişim kanallarından propaganda amacıyla yararlanmak istemişler; bu akımlar dönemin iletişim araçlarından sayılan folklor ürünlerine de bu bağlamda önemli görevler yüklemişlerdir. Bu görevlerden biri, halkın değer yargılarını anlamaya ve bu değer yargıları üzerinde politikalar geliştirmeye yönelikken, diğeri de geliştirilen bu politikalarla halkın değer yargıları üzerinde oynama yaparak halkla rejim arasında uyum sağlamak, daha açık bir ifade ile halkı rejimin amaçları doğrultusunda biçimlendirerek ferdin kendisi olmasını değil “rejimin adamı” olmasını sağlamaktır. Folkloru ideolojik amaçlar doğrultusunda kullanan akımlardan biri olan Sosyalizm, emperyalist amaçlarla işgal ettiği ülke vatandaşlarını sistemle uyumlu hale getirmek için folklor ürünlerinden çok sık yararlanmıştır. Özellikle sözlü kültürün hâkim olduğu Türk boylarında romantik ve milliyetçi öğelerle süslü destan türü, savaş döneminde milliyetçiliğin dozunu artırmak için kullanırken, olağan dönemlerde proletarya sınıfının sözcülüğüne büründürülmüştür. Bu tip çalışmalar atlı-göçebe özelliklerini yakın zamana kadar sürdüren ve destan türüne özel bir ilginin olduğu Kırgız Türkleri üzerinde de denenmiştir. Bu çalışmada Kırgız Türklerinin Er Soltonoy Destanı örneğinden yola çıkarak destan türü üzerinde yapılan ideolojik tahrifatlar üzerinde durulacaktır.

  15. Commentary - The Early Days of Central Asian Military Integration: the Kyrgyz National Division of the Red Army in 1927-1928

    Isabelle Ohayon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the sociology of a national division of the Red Army in the early days of its formation in Kyrgyzstan, as described in two documents about soldiers of Kyrgyz nationality in 1927 and 1928. At that time the Soviet Army was not seeking to substantially increase its numbers but rather recruiting in line with the intentions of the nationality policy, by integrating ethnic groups and regions that had been ignored by the high command. Kyrgyzstan is a striking exampl...

  16. Uranium, radium and radon level on territory of Western Mining-Chemical Combine of Mailuu-Suu town (Kyrgyz Republic)

    Full text: During realization of research work on International Cooperative Program in area of trans-boundary monitoring of the rivers between the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and the USA (project 'Navruz') it was established that the possible source of contamination of the Aral Sea basin on territory of Kyrgyzstan can be a waste deposit of the Western Mining-Chemical combine (WMChC, Mailuu-Suu town). In particular, it was shown, that the uranium content in the Mailuu-Suu river near WMChC reaches 3.1·10-6 g/l, and on boundary with Uzbekistan - 1.8·10-6 g/l. It is necessary to note that the uranium content in potable waters of a Chu valley is almost one order higher, than in the river Mailuu-Suu. On territory of Uzbekistan in the Mailuu-Suu river the uranium content is 2·10-5 g/l, as well as in waters of Chu valley in Kyrgyzstan. The reasons of increase of uranium level on territory of Uzbekistan cannot be uniquely connected with the WMChC activity. Is this increase of technogenic or natural origin, is Kyrgyzstan a supplier of radioactive wastes for Uzbekistan or not? The report represents new materials on uranium and radium content in soils washed by waters of the river Mailuu-Suu and on the content of radon in the air around WMChC

  17. Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.

    Kreindler, Isabelle

    1997-01-01

    Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,

  18. My Teaching Philosophy

    Mambetaliev, Askarbek

    2007-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union the Ministry of Education of the Kyrgyz Republic has included a few social science disciplines in the list of the Educational State Standards, though the content of these subjects and teaching methodologies are still weak. One of the problems, which I constantly face in Kyrgyzstan when developing a new

  19. Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first

  20. POPULATION GENETICS OF THE WHEAT LEAF RUST FUNGUS, PUCCINIA TRITICINA IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a major disease of wheat in Central Asia. Single uredinial isolates from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan, 131 in total, were tested for virulence to 20 isolines of Thatcher wheat with single leaf rust resistanc...

  1. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  2. Srovnání kulturních změn u afghanských Kyrgyzů a Kyrgyzů v Kyrgystánu

    Petr Kokaisl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Creation of the national state in Kyrgyzstan had significant influence to national awareness of the Kyrgyz. It was aroused here an interest in the history of own nation, there were presented historical constructs to the population about the ancientness and certain exclusivity of the Kyrgyz ethnic group, what many inhabitants adopted. For all Kyrgyz in all investigated areas is common relatively high historical awareness of membership to the Kyrgyz nation – this perception is not bound to the language. All Kyrgyz living beyond the Kyrgyzstan border perceive very similarly the creation of national state. It is a symbol of their national identity for them, to which they are looking up with a certain respect. Also the Afghani Kyrgyz that usually do not know the Kyrgyzstan state symbols express the wishes to visit Kyrgyzstan, a country, where they can feel as at home. More important that the proper area is the own existence of the Kyrgyz state that, already by its name, offers a certain proximity to the Kyrgyz living outside its borders.

  3. Introduction to kick-off technical meeting of ENVIRONET

    Aims,scopes and topics, products and services, and partners of ENVIRONET, short for Network of Centres of Excellence on Environmental Management and Remediation, are introduced. Main problems of environmental remediation are given, and environmental remediation case studies of central Asian countries, such as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, are presented. (authors)

  4. A Management Tool Kit on Training Needs Assessment and Programme Design: An Integrated Resource for Management Development in Transition Countries. Companion.

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document presents a management tool kit on training needs assessment and program design for countries in transition to a market economy. Chapter 1 describes the tool's development within the framework of the project called Strengthening of Partnership between Management Training Institutions and Companies, Ukraine-Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan.…

  5. Cross-Cultural Investigation into Cognitive Underpinnings of Individual Differences in Early Arithmetic

    Rodic, Maja; Zhou, Xinlin; Tikhomirova, Tatiana; Wei, Wei; Malykh, Sergei; Ismatulina, Victoria; Sabirova, Elena; Davidova, Yulia; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Kovas, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated 626 5-7-year-old children in the UK, China, Russia, and Kyrgyzstan on a cognitive test battery measuring: (1) general skills; (2) non-symbolic number sense; (3) symbolic number understanding; (4) simple arithmetic--operating with numbers; and (5) familiarity with numbers. Although most inter-population differences were…

  6. Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first…

  7. Regulatory Support Program in Central Asia. Progress and new bilateral project with the State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Republic of Uzbekistan

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    A meeting of the regional regulatory support program in Central Asia (CA) was held in May 25 to 26, 2011 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where parties discussed ongoing bilateral cooperation between the NRPA and the regulatory bodies of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Author)

  8. Kyrgyz Republic : Agricultural Policy Update, Volume 2. Main Report

    World Bank, (WB)

    2011-01-01

    This policy note examines the policy and investment framework between 2003 and 2010, resulting sector performance and the priorities for future development. It draws attention to the need to refocus on completing the fundamental reforms and investments on which Kyrgyzstan's early successes were built. These include further development of land market, building rural finance markets, further...

  9. 75 FR 832 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign Participation in Acquisitions in...

    2010-01-06

    ... South Caucasus/Central and South Asian (SC/CASA) states; and Determination of inapplicability of the... materials) from the SC/CASA states to support operations in Afghanistan. DATES: Comment date: Comments on... South Asian (SC/CASA) states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan,...

  10. The Members of the Agency

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.58) is Kyrgyzstan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2003. The list shows the dates on which the present 137 Member States became Members

  11. 7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.

    2010-01-01

    ... noxious weeds listed in 7 CFR 360.200. Hibiscus spp. (hibiscus, rose mallow) seeds All, with the exception... necessary: Seed/bulb Country/locality Pest(s) for which treatment is required Abelmoschus spp. (okra) seeds..., Hungary, Iran, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, Morocco, Portugal, Serbia...

  12. The emergence of echinococcosis in central Asia.

    Torgerson, P R

    2013-11-01

    SUMMARY Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, there was an increase in the number of cases of human echinococcosis recorded throughout central Asia. Between 1991 and 2001 incidence rates of cystic echinococcosis (CE) increased by 4 fold or more. There also appeared to be increases in prevalence of CE in livestock and prevalences of Echinococcus granulosus reported in dogs. The increase in human echinococcosis was associated with changes in livestock husbandry, decline in veterinary public health services, increases in dog populations and increased poverty, all of which served to promote transmission of E. granulosus. A few years after reports of increased transmission of E. granulosus, the first reports of E. multilocularis infection in dogs were recorded. Further studies indicated that in both Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan prevalences of up to 18% were present. Recently there has been a dramatic increase in the number of cases of human alveolar echinococcosis recorded in Kyrgyzstan with over 60 cases reported in 2011. PMID:23659353

  13. Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone and the Collective Security Treaty

    In February 1997 Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan decided to establish Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone (CANWFZ). As a matter of fact, negotiations on establishing that zone started in 1998 when Kyrgyzstan proposed draft basic element of a treaty on CANWFZ. After almost two years rather successful work on drafting the treaty, since April 2000 no meetings take place between diplomats of the five Central Asian states. It is recognized by many experts that it is the Tashkent 1992 Collective Security Treaty (CST) which caused a deadlock. Usually CST is interpreted as allowing the deployment of Russian nuclear weapons on the territory of the CST member states, for example, of Kazakhstan. However, more detailed analysis shows, that CST cannot a serious obstacle for creating CANWFZ

  14. Rural non-farm activities in Central Asia: a regional analysis of magnitude, structure, evolution and drivers in the Kyrgyz Republic

    Atamanov, A.; Berg, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth regional analysis of the rural nonfarm economy in Kyrgyzstan based on three household budget surveys for 2003, 2005 and 2006. Regression analysis reveals that the share of time spent in the commercial rural nonfarm economy was larger in districts with low agricultural potential, indicating that the rural poor are pushed into accessible but not necessarily very profitable nonfarm activities. This ‘push’ scenario is probably strengthened by the low commercialis...

  15. International Conference 'Uranium legacy of Soviet Union in Central Asia: problems and way forward' Proceedings

    The goal of the conference is to discuss safe management of uranium mill tailings, remediation activities foreseen under Eurasian Economic Community in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, existing problems and ways forward. A conference on this topic in Tajikistan with the support of the International Science and Technology Center and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority is relevant and very important taken into account foreseen remediation activities starting from 2013.

  16. Rediscovery Of Tephritis kogardtauica (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Korneyev S. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A species, previously known from a short description based on the holotype lost in the bombing of Hamburg before description, T. kogardtauica Hering, 1944, was collected recently in great numbers in the Middle East, from Iran to Kyrgyzstan; it is redescribed, and the neotype is designated. Th e flies were found to infest flower heads of Inula stenocalathia (Rech. f. Soldano, I. peacockiana (Aitch. & Hemsl. Korovin, and I. grandis Schrenk ex Fisch. & C. A. Mey.

  17. The impact of the global financial crisis on public expenditures on education and health in the economies of the former Soviet Union

    Chubrik, Alexander; Dabrowski, Marek; Mogilevsky, Roman; Sinitsina, Irina

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of public expenditures on education and healthcare in Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine and some other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the global financial crisis. Before the crisis, the governments of these countries were substantially increasing spending on education and health. The crisis adversely affected the FSU countries and worsened their fiscal situation. The analysis indicates that during the crisis, despite...

  18. An Assessment of Antibiotics Prescribed at the Secondary Health-Care Level in the Kyrgyz Republic

    JUNICHI SAKAMOTO; MD. HARUN-OR-RASHID; ZURDINOV ASHIRALI; BOZGUNCHIEV MARAT; KAMBARALIEVA BAKTYGUL

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions in a secondary health care setting in Kyrgyzstan. A retrospective analysis was performed of antibiotic prescriptions in 251 inpatient records of patients admitted to the Sokuluk Territorial Hospital. A total of 19 different antibiotics were prescribed. Penicillin G (24.9%), gentamicin (16.1%), metronidazole (15.6%) and cefazolin (14.5%) were those most frequently prescribed. The major indications for antibiotics wer...

  19. Income and Distribution Effects of Migration and Remittances: an Analysis Based on CGE Models for Selected CIS Countries

    Atamanov, Aziz; Luecke, Matthias; Omar Mahmoud, Toman; Mogilevsky, Roman; Tereshchenko, Kseniya; Tourdyeva, Natalia A.; Uzagalieva, Ainura; Vavryschuk , Vitaly

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the direct and indirect income effects of international labor migration and remittances in selected CIS countries. The analysis is based on computable general equilibrium (CGE) models for Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia. All net emigration countries would experience a sharp contraction of private consumption in the absence of remittances. In Russia, the main effect of immigration has been to hold down the real wage (as potential capital stock adjustments ...

  20. Tam Sayı (PDF)

    Editörden

    2014-01-01

    The Central Asia, owing to its location at the crossroad of Europe and Asia has strategic importance. When great importance of the region for EU in terms of energy resources, has been apprehended, EU Member States started to pay attention to Central Asia. Partnership and Cooperation Agreements which have been made with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have been put into effect in 1999.The purpose of the study is to analyze relations of EU-Central Asian Countries and role of Central Asia ...

  1. Using transient conservative and environmental tracers to study water exchange in Lake Issyk-Kul

    Kipfer, Rolf; Peeters, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Mixing and transport processes are of major importance for the ecology of lakes [1]. In particular, deep-water renewal determines to a large extent the distribution of nutrients and dissolved oxygen in deep lakes such as Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). The characterization and quantification of deep-water exchange is therefore essential for the understanding of the functioning of such lake ecosystems. Rates of vertical water exchange can be estimated from concentrations of transient tracers, whe...

  2. The Impact of Turkey’s Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how Turkey's domestic resources, which are Turkey's historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey's economic interests in the region, affect Turkey's foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics' interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic ...

  3. Long-run validity of purchasing power parity and rank tests for cointegration for Central Asian Countries

    Liew, Venus Khim-Sen; Chia, Ricky Chee-Jiun; Ling, Tai-Hu

    2009-01-01

    This study finds that Purchasing Power Parity holds in the long-run for Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, based on Breitung’s (2001) rank tests for cointegration. Results from further analysis indicates that nominal exchange rates and relative prices are nonlinearly interrelated. Trade barriers, transportation costs and government intervention in the pricing system in these countries may have resulted in the establishment of the above-mentioned nonlinear relationship.

  4. CENTRAL ASIA: ECONOMIC COOPERATION POTENTIAL

    Rakhmatullina, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The Central Asian republics are rich in energy resources: three of them (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan) can boast of oil and gas deposits, while the other two (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have vast hydropower potential. This means that harmonized energy policy designed to meet their demands in energy, energy exports, and stronger positions in ensuring international energy security makes sense. By the same token, these countries can, potentially, develop metallurgy, machine building,...

  5. Analysis of China's Agricultural Exports to Five Central Asian Countries

    Buwajian Abula; Chen, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the statistical description and the constant market share model to analyze the Chinese agricultural product export to Central Asian countries. It discovered that the establishments the SCO Shanghai cooperation organization and cooperation process promote agricultural exports; agricultural products from China to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan is mainly attributed to the scale factor; in recent years, competition factor becomes the more important one. Owing to the market ...

  6. Identifying Changing Snow Cover Characteristics in Central Asia between 1986 and 2014 from Remote Sensing Data

    Dietz, Andreas; Conrad, Christopher; Künzer, Claudia; Gesell, Gerhard; Dech, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Central Asia consists of the five former Soviet States Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, therefore comprising an area of ~4 Mio km2. The continental climate is characterized by hot and dry summer months and cold winter seasons with most precipitation occurring as snowfall. Accordingly, freshwater supply is strongly depending on the amount of accumulated snow as well as the moment of its release after snowmelt. The aim of the presented study is to identify possi...

  7. Banking system in Kyrgyz Republic

    Sagbansu, Lutfu

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concepts are essential for avoiding harmful problems, development stable and solvent banking system. These developments include the more effective regulation of the entry and exit of banks, removal of ob...

  8. The diffusion of Revolutions. A Comparison of regime turnovers in 5 Countries

    Fenger, Menno

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The recent wave of revolutions or near-revolutions in Serbia, Georgia, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine shared the following characteristics: they were triggered by stolen elections, they were the result of massive but non-violent demonstrations, and the opposition united behind a single, often charismatic, leader. This article combines two theoretical perspectives on the recent revolutions in South-Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a state failure perspective that focuses ...

  9. Factors Influencing Portfolio Yield of Microfinance Institutions in Central Asia

    JANDA, Karel; Turbat, Batbayar

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of portfolio yield of microfinance institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Mongolia, Afghanistan, and China over the period 1998-2011. We confirm that targeting women borrowers improves the financial results of microfinance institutions whereas the effectiveness of group lending or advantages of rural lending, in contrast to the initial expectations, were not confirmed. We also consider the contributions of different governance f...

  10. The diffusion of Revolutions. A Comparison of regime turnovers in 5 Countries

    Fenger, Menno

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The recent wave of revolutions or near-revolutions in Serbia, Georgia, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine shared the following characteristics: they were triggered by stolen elections, they were the result of massive but non-violent demonstrations, and the opposition united behind a single, often charismatic, leader. This article combines two theoretical perspectives on the recent revolutions in South-Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a state failure perspective that focuses on the domes...

  11. Assessment of radon and gamma in Kurday mining site, Kazakhstan.

    Pandey, Uddav

    2012-01-01

    The present work is based on the data obtained from expeditions to Kurday, Kazakhstan in 2006 performed by Joint Norwegian- Kazakhstan – Kyrgyzstan- Tajikistan project in collaboration with the NATRO RESCA project. The former uranium mining and processing site Kurday, located in Zambyl region in southern Kazakhstan is rich in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) and technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORMs). It has been recognized...

  12. STRAIN LOCALIZATION PECULIARITIES AND DISTRIBUTION OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION SOURCES IN ROCK SAMPLES TESTED BY UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION AND EXPOSED TO ELECTRIC PULSES

    V. A. Mubassarova; L. M. Bogomolov; A. S. Zakupin; I. A. Panteleev; O. B. Naimark

    2015-01-01

    Results of uniaxial compression tests of rock samples in electromagnetic fields are presented. The experiments were performed in the Laboratory of Basic Physics of Strength, Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Ural Branch of RAS (ICMM). Deformation of samples was studied, and acoustic emission (AE) signals were recorded. During the tests, loads varied by stages. Specimens of granite from the Kainda deposit in Kyrgyzstan (similar to samples tested at the Research Station of RAS, hereafter...

  13. Proceedings of the International Conference and Young Researchers’ Forum - “Natural resource use in Central Asia: Institutional challenges and the contribution of capacity building” held in Giessen, 1st October 2013

    Ahmed, Mirza Nomman; Pawlowski, Ira (Ed.)

    2013-01-01

    [LIST OF CONTENT] SH. KENJABAEV, I. FORKUTSA, M. BACH, H.G. FREDE: Performance evaluation of the BUDGET model in simulating cotton and wheat yield and soil moisture in Fergana valley ... 1 / KANAYIM TESHEBAEVA, HENRIETTE SUDHAUS, H.-U. WETZEL, SIGRID ROESSNER, HELMUT ECHTLER AND ALEXANDER ZUBOVICH: Radar remote sensing for surveying and monitoring of earthquakes and mass movements in Southern Kyrgyzstan ... 15 / DAVRON ABSALYAMOV: Efficiency of wheat and cotton producing farms in Uzbekistan: ...

  14. Drivers of Exchange Rate Dynamics in Selected CIS Countries: Evidence from a FAVAR Analysis

    Dreger, Christian; Fidrmuc, Jarko

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the likely sources of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) over the last dec-ade (1999-2010). Evidence is based on country VARs augmented by a regional com-mon factor structure (FAVAR model). The models include nominal exchange rates, the common factor of exchange rates in the CIS countries, and international drivers such as global trade, share prices, and oil price. Global, regional and idiosyncrati...

  15. Inanspruchnahme von Impfungen bei Eltern in Kirgisistan : Empfehlungen für die Impfpolitik

    Manas K. Akmatov

    2009-01-01

    - Background Vaccination is one of the most successful and effective tools for preventing infectious diseases. However, despite the well-established benefits of vaccinations many children in different regions of the world remain unvaccinated. - Objectives The aim of this dissertation was to describe a vaccination process in a transitional country, using the example of Kyrgyzstan. Among the specific aims of this dissertation was an analysis of factors associated with children's vaccin...

  16. Communication received from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation to the Agency concerning a statement of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation

    The Agency has received a communication dated 30 August 2005 from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation, attaching a statement by the heads of State of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan adopted at the Moscow session of the Collective Security Council of the Collective Security Treaty Organization on 23 June 2005. The communication from the Russian Federation and, as requested therein, its attachment, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  17. The Impact of Turkeys Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how Turkeys domestic resources, which are Turkeys historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkeys economic interests in the region, affect Turkeys foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey ...

  18. Music Piracy in Transitional Post-Soviet Economies: Ethics, Legislation, and Expertise

    Liza Rybina

    2011-01-01

    The growing development of Internet technologies in the world has created vast opportunities for illegal downloading and pirating of music. The purpose of the study is to examine the influence of social norms and ethics, perceived risk of personal harm, and consumer expertise of file-sharing on digital piracy in post-Soviet economies. A total sample of 226 respondents from Russia, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan is used to examine factors influencing intentions to pirate digital music. The study r...

  19. Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among turkish speaking countries

    Full text: Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 Nuclear Power Plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non proliferation of nuclear weapons, great affords were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides the co operations with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. The joint activities carried out are given as follows: '1st Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Applications' organized in Turkey on 23-27.10. 2000 by TAEK with co organizers from the related organizations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and sponsored by IAEA and OECD/NEA, '2nd Eurasia Conference' organized at Almaty on 16-19.09.2002 by Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan with the related organizations of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan as co organizers, NATO Workshop on Environmental Protection Against Radioactive Pollution by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan at Almaty on 16-19.09.2002, joint 'Eurasia Nuclear Bulletin' covering activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy in these countries published in August 2002. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (Cabot). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

  20. Outlook on non-proliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkish speaking countries

    Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 nuclear power plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, great efforts were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the first Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join to European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasian Region. So, there are significant developments in cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owning to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's TAEK, besides the cooperation with various countries, has involved to cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. These protocols enable parties to organize join projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the join studies and make join efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. The joint activities carried out are given as follows: '1st Eurasia Conference of Nuclear Science and its Application' organized in Turkey on 23-27 October 2000 by TAEK with co-organizers from the related organizations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan and sponsored by IAEA and OECD/NEA; '2nd Eurasia Conference of Nuclear Science and its Application' will be organized at Almaty on 16-19 September 2002 by Nuclear Physics Institute of National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan with the related organizations of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan as co-organizers; joint Eurasia Nuclear Bulletin' covering activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy in these countries will be published in mid 2002. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban treaty (CTBT). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

  1. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so called 'Threat assessment' in each CA country which revealed additional problems in the existing regulatory documents beyond those described at the start of our ongoing bilateral projects in Kazakhstan, Kirgizistan Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. (authors)

  2. Perapion connexum (Schilsky, 1902 (Coleoptera, Apionidae in Central Europe, a case of plant expansion chase

    Marek Wanat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Perapion connexum (Schilsky is recorded for the first time from Hungary and Kyrgyzstan, and new distribution data from Ukraine and Russia are provided. Preliminary placements of this weevil in faunal checklists for Poland and Slovakia are here documented with detailed data. Its occurrence in Austria based on older evidence, is discussed. The neophytic and invasive in Central Europe sorrel Rumex confertus Willd. is confirmed to be its unique host plant in Poland. Morphology of the newcoming weevil is described and illustrated, and the key to all Central European species of Perapion is presented.

  3. Perapion connexum (Schilsky, 1902) (Coleoptera, Apionidae) in Central Europe, a case of plant expansion chase.

    Wanat, Marek; Podlussny, Attila; Schn, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Perapion connexum (Schilsky) is recorded for the first time from Hungary and Kyrgyzstan, and new distribution data from Ukraine and Russia are provided. Preliminary placements of this weevil in faunal checklists for Poland and Slovakia are here documented with detailed data. Its occurrence in Austria based on older evidence, is discussed. The neophytic and invasive in Central Europe sorrel Rumex confertus Willd. is confirmed to be its unique host plant in Poland. Morphology of the newcoming weevil is described and illustrated, and the key to all Central European species of Perapion is presented. PMID:22451784

  4. A major stage of convergence in the Issyk-Kul basin (Northern Tien-Shan) at the end of the Neogene

    Buslov, M.; Abrakhmatov, K.; De Batist, M.; D. Delvaux; Dehandschutter, B.; Klerkx, J.

    2001-01-01

    The structural features the northern Tien-Shan mountain belt in Kyrgyzstan, including the Issyk-Kul basin, indicate a complex Cenozoic deformation, associated to the Indian-Eurasian collision. The collision caused deformation to propagate inside the continent, resulting in crustal thickening and mountain growth. The present-day shortening occurs at a rate of about 10-15 mm/yr and is oriented roughly N-S in the southern Tien-Shan and up to 2-6 mm/yr and variably oriented in the northern Tien-S...

  5. Slope stability monitoring from microseismic field using polarization methodology

    Yu. I. Kolesnikov

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of seismoacoustic emission (SAE associated with fracturing in zones of shear stress concentration shows that SAE signals are polarized along the stress direction. The proposed polarization methodology for monitoring of slope stability makes use of three-component recording of the microseismic field on a slope in order to pick the signals of slope processes by filtering and polarization analysis. Slope activity is indicated by rather strong roughly horizontal polarization of the respective portion of the field in the direction of slope dip. The methodology was tested in microseismic observations on a landslide slope in the Northern Tien-Shan (Kyrgyzstan.

  6. Market analysis of some mercury-containing products and their mercury-free alternatives in selected regions

    Uram, Eric [International POPs Elimination Network (IPEN), Goeteborg (Sweden); Bischofer, Barbara P.; Hagemann, Sven [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The goal of the study was to gather information on certain mercury containing products from selected developing countries (DCs) with economics in transition (CiZs) from four UN regions. Then countries involved in surveys were Kenya and Senegal (Africa), China and India (Asia), Kyrgyzstan and Russia (Eastern Europe), Brazil and Mexico (Latin America). The study gives an overview about selected mercury-containing products and their mercury-free alternatives in these countries: thermometers and blood pressure maters used in hospitals and medical practices, thermometers for use at home, skin-lightening products, common batteries and dental materials. Information was gathered from local retailers, health care workers, professionals and consumers.

  7. Studying the effect of radioactive wastes at the Ak-Tyuz deposit on radionuclide and elemental composition of water objects of Kichi-Kemin River.

    Solodukhin, V; Poznyak, V

    2015-06-01

    This article reports on radionuclide and elemental composition studies of water and bottom sediment samples taken from Kichi-Kemin River in vicinity of the industrial area of the Ak-Tyuz thorium deposit in Kyrgyzstan near the border with Kazakhstan. The methods used included instrumental γ-spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescent analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained results demonstrated the pronounced negative anthropogenic impact of this area on the quality of water in the Kichi-Kemin River imposing radiological hazards on this tributary of the trans-boundary Shu River. PMID:25971344

  8. Preliminary geodetic results from a sparse Central Asian geodetic network

    Mohadjer, S.; Ischuk, A.; Schelochkov, G.; Wasy, A.; Kakar, D.; Lodi, S.; Bendick, R.; Bilham, R.

    2008-05-01

    A sparse network of six continuous and two campaign sites in western Pakistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and northern Afghanistan establish bounds on the modern strain rate across several large fault systems in the region, including the Chaman, Darvaz-Karakul and Herat faults. Prior estimates of slip rate on these faults from a variety of field and remote techniques range over more than an order of magnitude. Thus, their role in accommodating the western India-Asia collision may be clarified by these and future geodetic observations.

  9. Communication dated 11 September 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 11 September 2006, from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the IAEA regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006 in Semipalatinsk by the leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the enclosed information regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  10. Studying the effect of radioactive wastes at the Ak-Tyuz deposit on radionuclide and elemental composition of water objects of Kichi-Kemin river

    This article reports on radionuclide and elemental composition studies of water and bottom sediment samples taken from Kichi Kemin River in vicinity of the industrial area of the Ak-Tyuz thorium deposit in Kyrgyzstan near the border with Kazakhstan. The methods used included instrumental γ-spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescent analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained results demonstrated the pronounced negative anthropogenic impact of this area on the quality of water in the Kichi-Kemin River imposing radiological hazards on this tributary of the trans-boundary Shu River. (authors)

  11. The 234U/238U concentration ratio reflects migration of contaminants from uranium mining areas in Central Asia

    Burkitbayev, M.; Uralbekov, B.M.; Stegnar, P.; Salbu, B.; Tolongutov, B.M.; Shishkov, I.A.

    2008-07-01

    New data are presented on the concentrations and isotopic composition of uranium in surface and ground water from the former Kurdai (Kazakhstan) and Shekaphtar (Kyrgyzstan) uranium mining ; sites. The results show that the uranium concentrations in surface waters within the Kurdai site . are in the range 25-1888 microgramdm-3, which are higher than the international accepted drinking water level (EPA). The uranium concentrations in waters at the Shekaphtar site are in the range of 2-24 microgram dm-3. The 234U/238U isotope ratio has been used to characterize the influence of the mining activity on the downstream river systems. (author)(tk)

  12. The closed Lake Issyk-Kul as an indicator of global warming in Tien-Shan

    Vladimir V. Romanovsky; Saadat Tashbaeva; Jean-François Crétaux; Stephane Calmant; Vanessa Drolon

    2013-01-01

    Lake Issyk-Kul is the seventh deepest lake in the world situated inCentral Asiain theTien-ShanMountainsat the elevation of 1607 m above sea level. This area belongs toKyrgyzstan. From 1927 to 1997 the water level decreased by 3.4 m, and increased by 0.93 m from 1997 to 2011. The article analyzes the impact of the global warming on the Lake Issyk-Kul thermal regime and the components of its water balance: river discharge, precipitation, evaporation and lake level variations. It shows that the ...

  13. Foregoing medicines in the former Soviet Union: changes between 2001 and 2010.

    Footman, Katharine; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Alimbekova, Gulzhan; Pachulia, Merab; Rotman, David; Gasparishvili, Alexander; McKee, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Pharmaceutical costs dominate out-of-pocket payments in former Soviet countries, posing a severe threat to financial equity and access to health services. Nationally representative household survey data collected in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine were analysed to compare the level of population having to forego medicines in 2001 and 2010. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess differences between populations of different economic status, and rural and urban populations. A substantial proportion of the population did forego medicines in 2010, from 29.2% in Belarus to 72.9% in Georgia. There was a decline in people foregoing medicines between 2001 and 2010; the greatest decline was seen in Moldova [rate ratio (RR)=0.67 (0.63; 0.71)] and Kyrgyzstan [RR=0.63 (0.60; 0.67)], while very little improvement took place in countries with a higher Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and greater GNI growth over the decade such as Armenia [RR=0.92 (0.87; 0.96)] and Georgia [RR=0.95 (0.92; 0.98)]. Wealthier, urban populations have benefited more than poorer, rural households in some countries. Countries experiencing the greatest improvement over the study period were those that have implemented policies such as price controls, expanded benefits packages, and encouragement of rational prescribing. Greater commitment to pharmaceutical reform is needed to ensure that people are not forced to forego medicines. PMID:25263591

  14. Problem of risk modeling: influence of uranium storage on environment

    Full text: Radiological safety on the territory of Kyrgyz republic is caused by natural factors and by activity of the enterprises on extraction and processing of the raw material which contained natural radionuclides. The territory of republic has specific climatic condition with the highest degree of natural hazards. From general area 199 900 km of republic only 20% is concerned to be zone of comfortable residing. After the termination of uranium extraction in the republic there are formed 49 storages and more than 80 piles. After collapse of the USSR the works on maintenance of safety and recultivation of storages practically were not carried out, that significantly increased the risk of people disease who live in the given territories. Increase of level of underground waters, high waters, landslides, high seismicity - are resulted the storage destruction, that present threat on ecology not only of Kyrgyzstan, but also on ecology of Central Asia. The resolution of radiological problems of Kyrgyzstan may be only with the complex approach of all neighboring countries and with attraction of foreign experts from donor countries

  15. Robust Automated Image Co-Registration of Optical Multi-Sensor Time Series Data: Database Generation for Multi-Temporal Landslide Detection

    Robert Behling

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliable multi-temporal landslide detection over longer periods of time requires multi-sensor time series data characterized by high internal geometric stability, as well as high relative and absolute accuracy. For this purpose, a new methodology for fully automated co-registration has been developed allowing efficient and robust spatial alignment of standard orthorectified data products originating from a multitude of optical satellite remote sensing data of varying spatial resolution. Correlation-based co-registration uses world-wide available terrain corrected Landsat Level 1T time series data as the spatial reference, ensuring global applicability. The developed approach has been applied to a multi-sensor time series of 592 remote sensing datasets covering an approximately 12,000km2 area in Southern Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia strongly affected by landslides. The database contains images acquired during the last 26 years by Landsat (ETM, ASTER, SPOT and RapidEye sensors. Analysis of the spatial shifts obtained from co-registration has revealed sensor-specific alignments ranging between 5m and more than 400m. Overall accuracy assessment of these alignments has resulted in a high relative image-to-image accuracy of 17m (RMSE and a high absolute accuracy of 23m (RMSE for the whole co-registered database, making it suitable for multi-temporal landslide detection at a regional scale in Southern Kyrgyzstan.

  16. How accreditation stimulates business school change: evidence from the Commonwealth of independent states

    Yelena Istileulova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is scarce or almost non-existing research on changes that take place in business schools in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS. Changes in CIS business schools (B-schools are influenced by different external factors (e.g. socioeconomic system, market forces, financial crisis, demographic problems, changes in policies of higher education; influence of the Bologna process. On the other hand, B-schools in the CIS need to make internal changes to gain the external accreditation. We look into the nature of change processes taking place in CIS B-schools, observing them through the prism of ongoing external accreditation processes. The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of the accreditation process on CIS B-school changes. We used a comparative analysis based on the study of 22 Bschools from four countries (Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. We discovered that these changes refer to introducing more strict entrance requirements, strengthening financial resources, and improving efforts to reach the accreditation standards. Moreover, schools have to review their mission, decrease their student-to-faculty ratio, introduce measurement metrics for learning goals, and internationalise their programs. The advanced B-schools in Russia and Kazakhstan usually start with an international programme accreditation, and then move to an institutional one. The trend has begun spreading to schools from non-Bologna countries like Belarus, but it is still a long-time agenda item for Kyrgyzstan.

  17. A survey of East Palaearctic Hersiliola Thorell, 1870 (Araneae, Hersiliidae, with a description of three new genera

    Yuri Marusik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new genera and eight new species of Hersiliidae are described from the East Palaearctic (Afganistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The genus Hersiliola Thorell, 1870 (Araneae: Hersiliidae is revised, and four new species are described. The genus includes nine species: H. afghanica Roewer, 1960 (Afghanistan; H. esyunini sp. n. (Uzbekistan; H. foordi sp. n. (Iran; H. lindbergi sp. n. (Afghanistan; H. macullulata (Dufour, 1831 (type species; from Spain and Algeria to Israel and Yemen; H. simoni (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872 (from Spain and Morocco to Israel; H. sternbergsi sp. n. (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; H. versicolor (Blackwall, 1865 (Cape Verde; and H. xinjiangenis (Liang & Wang, 1989 (Xinjiang, China. A new genus Duninia gen. n. is described, with two new species, Duninia baehrae sp. n. (type species; Turkmenistan and D. rheimsae sp. n. (Iran. A new genus Deltshevia gen. n. is described, with two new species, Deltshevia danovi sp. n. (type species; Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and D. gromovi sp. n. (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan. The widely ranging Central Asian Hersiliola pallida Kroneberg, 1875 (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan is transferred to a new monotypic genus, Ovtsharenkoia gen. n.

  18. Cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasian and Central Asian countries

    Full text: On the first call for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and became the member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in the same year. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with other countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides building cooperation with various countries, has involved in cooperating with related institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. The joint activities carried out mainly are given as follows: Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Application - First Conference organized in the year 2000 in Turkey, Second Conference at Almaty? in 2002 and Third Conference at Tashkent in 2004, sponsored by international organizations as IAEA and (OECD/NEA), NATO. Training Course on Industrial Application of Irradiation Technology organized by TAEK and Academy of Science of Azerbaijan and sponsored by IAEA at Baku in 2003. Joint Eurasia Nuclear Bulletincovering activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy in these countries published yearly since 2002. After 2006 Baku Conference the bulletin will be published in two years in parallel with Conference organization. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and have become members to IAEA

  19. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so called 'Threat assessment' in each CA country which revealed additional problems in the existing regulatory documents beyond those described at the start of our ongoing bilateral projects in Kazakhstan, Kirgizistan Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. (authors)

  20. Climate- vs. Earthquake-induced Rock-Glacier Advances in the Tien Shan: Insights from Lichenometry

    Rosenwinkel, Swenja; Landgraf, Angela; Korup, Oliver; Sorg, Annina

    2014-05-01

    Rock glaciers have been traditionally used as landform proxies of the distribution of sporadic alpine permafrost. In the northern Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan, most distinct lobes of >200 rock glaciers that we mapped from satellite imagery occur at two major elevation levels. However, a number of particularly low-lying lobes seem difficult to reconcile with palaeoclimatic fluctuations and commensurate changes of permafrost patterns: The minimum elevation of the majority of rock-glacier snouts lies between ~2500 up to ~3700 m a.s.l., but some 10% of rock-glaciers extend down to well below 3000 m a.s.l. We hypothesize that some of the rock glaciers in this area may have formed following strong earthquakes that could have triggered massive supraglacial rock-slope failures, which would have subsequently created sediment-rich rock glaciers from clear-ice glaciers. Our hypothesis is based on the observation that the tectonically active northern Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan was affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and earliest 20th centuries, e.g. in 1885 (Ms 6.9), 1887 (Ms 7.3), 1889 (Ms 8.3), and 1911 (Ms 8.1). All of these earthquakes had triggered numerous landslides in the northern Tien Shan. It is also likely that similarly strong earthquakes had happened before, but their recurrence intervals are long and more palaeoseismological work is in progress. We test whether lichenometry of rock-glacier surfaces together with morphometric analysis are suitable methods to testing our hypothesis. We focus on assessing the possibility of earthquake-triggered rock-glacier advances, and use lichenometry to resolve age patterns of different rock-glacier lobes. We use a dataset of several thousand lichen diameter measurements encompassing seven different species calibrated by gravestones and dated mass-movement deposits. Data on four single and two merging rock glaciers in four selected valleys in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan support the notion that Tien Shan rock glaciers do not record a consistent palaeoclimatic signal. We discuss whether distinct peaks of comparable lichen sizes and associated distributions of surface velocities for a given rock-glacier lobe result from rapid climate-driven advances or high lateral material input provided by seismically-induced slope instability instead. We compare our field data to advance-rate estimates from ground surveys and remote sensing (1 to >10 m/a), and dendrogeomorphic constraints obtained from trees growing on the rock glaciers. We conclude by highlighting a number of constraints that may limit the use of lichenometry for dating rock-glacier advances, and scope for future research on seismic triggers.

  1. Ekonomik Büyümenin Belirleyicileri ve 2008 Krizi: Orta Asya Ülkeleri ve Türkiye Ekonomisi İçin Panel Veri Analizi(The Determinats of Economic Growth and 2008 Crisis: Panel Data Analysis for Central Asia Countries and Turkey’s Economy

    Mehmet MERCAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the determinants of economic growth and the effects of 2008 global economic crisis on growth were analysed by using 1990-2012 periods’ annual data in the sample of Turkey and Central Asia Countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The 2008 crisis started in the USA in mid-2008 in mortgage markets and also affected the financial markets and the reel sector and it spread all over European Countries (EU and the world from September 2008 and it caused a shrink in world economy by 2.3 % and distorted the macroeconomic balances of countries including in particular the economic growth. According to the empirical findings of the analysis the government expenditures, the export and the private consumption expenditure in order made the most contribution to the countries’ economic growth. Effect of the crisis on economic growth was negative and statistically significant.

  2. Verification of the open package OpenFOAM on dam break problems

    Zhainakov, A. Zh.; Kurbanaliev, A. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The work presents the results of mathematical modeling of large-scale flows in areas with a complex topographic relief. The Reynolds-averaged Navier—Stokes equations constitute the basis of the three-dimensional unsteady modelling. The well-known Volume of Fluid method implemented in the solver interFoam of the open package OpenFOAM 1.7.1 is used to track the free-boundary location. The mathematical model adequacy is checked by comparing with experimental data. The efficiency of the applied technology is illustrated by the example of modeling the breakthrough of the dams of the Andijan (Uzbekistan) and Papan (near the Osh town, Kyrgyzstan) reservoirs.

  3. Tectono-Stratigraphic framework and Palaeozoic evolution of the Chinese South Tianshan

    Alexeiev, D. V.; Biske, Yu. S.; Wang, Bo; Djenchuraeva, A. V.; Getman, O. F.; Aristov, V. A.; Kröner, A.; Liu, Hongsheng; Zhong, Linglin

    2015-03-01

    A stratigraphic and structural study was carried out in the central part of the Chinese South Tianshan (STS) within a 50-100 km-wide transect centered on the Dushanzi-Kuqa road (83°-85° E). Our data elucidate the tectonic structure and evolution of the Palaeozoic sedimentary basin, document overthrust structures in the late Carboniferous-early Permian orogenic belt and suggest correlations between the western and eastern segments of the STS in Kyrgyzstan and China. We recognise a series of lithotectonic units in the study area that have different stratigraphic characteristics and were formed within (a) continental margin and slope of the Kazakhstan continent, (b) Turkestan (South Tianshan) ocean, (c) intra-oceanic carbonate sea-mounts, which at least partly evolved on top of an extinct island arc, (d) a back-arc oceanic-crust basin, (e) external deeper marine and internal shallow-marine areas of the Tarim shelf and (f) Tarim craton. The overall structure of the basin was similar within Kyrgyzstan and China. The main distinction of the western areas is a lack of ophiolites on the southern flank of the belt, a poorly expressed arc in the axial part, and a more complicated facial setting of the central area, where carbonate banks were separated by deeper marine depressions with cherty deposits. The eastern sector is defined by a continental arc that evolved on the northern margin of the Tarim craton in the Silurian and became separated from the continent in the latest Silurian-early Devonian. There is also a middle Palaeozoic metamorphic belt on the southern flank of the STS. A pre-Carboniferous unconformity, previously assumed throughout the study area, is only confirmed within the continental massifs of Kazakhstan and Tarim. As in the western areas, the unconformity does not exist within the STS. Continuous sedimentation in the STS occurred from the Early Devonian to the early Bashkirian in marginal parts of the belt and up to Gzhelian age in the axial part. Convergence began in the Bashkirian (320-315 Ma) and caused subduction of oceanic crust in the northern and southern areas of the STS to the north and south, respectively. A back arc basin in the south was closed in the Moscovian, and since that time top-to-the-south thrusting and overthrusting prevailed throughout the STS. The time of onset of collision of Kazakhstan with Tarim was not younger in age than Kasimovian, based on the age of initiation of a turbidite foreland basin on the northern margin of Tarim. Thrust deformation during the Late Pennsylvanian to early Permian was synchronous within Kyrgyzstan and China; it occurred in a collisional setting and was accompanied by accumulation of turbidites and olistostromes. Broad termination of thrusting, followed by folding and uplift of the area in the middle Asselian indicates the beginning of a rigid collisional phase. Emplacement of early Permian stitching granite plutons in the STS and adjacent areas of Kazakhstan and Tarim completes the formation of the collisional orogen within Kyrgyzstan and northwestern China.

  4. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic

    Petr Dolejš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies, of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereua wilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobius alenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobius corrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; L. creticus Dobroruka, 1977; L. erythrocephalus mohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; L. evae Dobroruka, 1958; L. magurensis Dobroruka, 1971; L. purkynei Dobroruka, 1957; L. tatricus Dobroruka, 1958; L. tatricus monounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobius homolaci Dobroruka, 1971; M. krali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymerium dilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; P. hanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendra aztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamia olympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan. The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid.

  5. FEATURES OF SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT IN THE CIS COUNTRIES: DOES INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT AFFECT

    Nataliia Viktorovna Ostapenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of small businesses at the national level through a comparative analysis between the former Soviet countries – Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan. These countries are comparable by the previous path dependence (the period of the USSR, communism, by the position of the geographical location, as well as by similarity of cultural development. As can be seen from the analysis, which was conducted in article, the quantitative characteristics of small business development in the above countries are similar, based on the dependence on foreign markets and conditions in national economies. However, qualitative indicators of small business development in these countries are different. These differences can be attributed to the activities of the institutional environment (formal and informal institutions and its impact on the national economy. Conclusions about the effectiveness of quality of development of small business sector through the analysis of its contribution to the national economy are done.

  6. Studying the radionuclide and elemental composition of water objects in the rivers of the Tasotkel water storage reservoir basin

    Full text : Considering the complicated radiation and ecological situation on the Shu and Karabalta rivers areas located at the border with Kyrgyzstan, revealed as the result of monitoring transboundary rivers in Kazakhstan, it was assigned the task to perform the comprehensive survey of the water basin at the Tasotkel water storage reservoir in Zhambyl region. Determination of radionuclide and elemental compositions of the environment objects was made using the methods of instrumental gamma-ray spectrometry. The detected anomalies in composition of the environmental objects may have both natural and anthropogenic origin. It is necessary to perform the additional studies to identify the sources and the mechanisms of the Tasotkel water storage reservoir basin contamination

  7. Central Asia earthquake catalogue from ancient time to 2009

    Natalya N. Mikhailova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the seismic catalogue compiled for Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan in the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA project. The catalogue from 2000 B.C. to 2009 A.D. is composed by 33,034 earthquakes in the MLH magnitude (magnitude by surface waves on horizontal components widely used in practice of the former USSR countries range from 1.5 to 8.3. The catalogue includes both macroseimic and instrumental constrained data, with about 32,793 earthquake after 1900 A.D. The main sources and procedure used to compile the catalogues are discussed, and the comparison with the ISC-GEM catalogue presented. Magnitude of completeness analysis shows that the catalogue is complete down to magnitude 4 from 1959 and to magnitude 7 from 1873, whereas the obtained regional b value is 0.805.

  8. Health conditions among workers who participated in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident

    People who took part in the Chernobyl accident cleanup have been registered upon their return to Kyrgyzstan since 1991, and their children since 1992. Later, citizens affected by the Semipalatinsk and Chelyabinsk contamination incidents were included for registration and health care purposes. The effects of the nuclear waste depositories in the Mailuu-Suu region were examined with the assistance of the Kansas University Medical Center (United States of America). All these investigations of affected people indicated apparent increases in a number of symptoms and illnesses when compared to the rest of the population. Samples sizes ranged from several hundred to several thousand. Above-normal radiation levels and/or the stress and fear of living in contaminated areas can lead to significant increases in nervous disorders, cardiovascular diseases and other problems. The most significant increase was in the suicide rate. 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  9. Current problems of power supply and energy policy in Central Asia; Aktuelle Probleme der Energiewirtschaft und Energiepolitik in Zentralasien

    Trouchine, A. [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Internationale Entwicklungs- und Umweltforschung; Giese, E. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geographie

    2006-02-15

    Power supply is an increasing problem in Central Asia. Ever since the republics of Central Asia overcame the recession of the nineties, economic growth had a steady rate of 5-10 percent. This causes increased energy demand. The second problem is the unbalanced distribution of energy sources and the fact that, in contrast to the times of the Soviet Union, there is no regional balancing in the form of competence trading. For example, Kyrgyzstan and Tadzhikistan have a lack of energy sources and also a lack of foreign currency which prevents energy imports. In consequence, there are attempts to make better use of the available hydroenergetic potential by constructing hydroelectric power plants and dams on the big rivers Amudarja and Syrdarja. The sufferers will be Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both countries need the water of the big rivers for watering their fields in the summer season. The third problem is the adverse ecological effect of dam and hydroelectric power plant construction. (orig.)

  10. HOLY KYRGZS’S CALPACK / KUTSAL KIRGIZ KALPAĞI

    Dr. Metin ARIKAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Calpack, in today’s Kyrgyzstan, is not only defined as a head craftwore in towns which is remembered barely during national and religiousbairams but also it emerged as a concrete sample of Kyrgyz nationalphilosophy, which has been kept alive from mythological era to epic era andfrom epic era to present day by the colors it involved and the motifs itcarried. Irregardless of the social statues, calpacks can be observed on nearlyall Kyrgyz men’s heads and even this particular feature of calpack makes itan important element to analyze not only for Kyrgyz culture but also for thecommon Turkish culture. Our aim is to determine the various values ofcalpack which have been survived from past to present.

  11. Archaeoseismological studies and structural position of the medieval earthquakes in the South of the Issyk-Kul depression (Tien Shan)

    Korzhenkov, A. M.; Kol'chenko, V. A.; Luzhanskii, D. V.; Abdieva, S. V.; Deev, E. V.; Mazeika, J. V.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Rodina, S. N.; Rodkin, M. V.; Fortuna, A. B.; Charimov, T. A.; Yudakhin, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    We carried out archaeoseismological studies in the Southern Issyk-Kul region (Kyrgyz Tien Shan) and obtained radiocarbon datings of the collected samples. These data suggest that the sources of strong earthquakes have occurred in this territory in the 11th and (probably) 16th centuries. These earthquakes had magnitude M ≥ 7 and seismic intensity of at least I ≥ 9. The sources of these earthquakes were associated with the local adyr (piedmont) faults—components of the Pre-Terskei border fault. Our results demonstrate considerable underestimation of the seismic hazard for the South Issyk-Kul region in the latest Seismic Zoning Map of Kyrgyz Republic (2012), which should be taken into account in the construction of the new seismic zoning map for Kyrgyzstan.

  12. Political Regimes in Central Asia: Crisis of Legitimacy, Political Violence and Uncertain Prospects

    Mohammad-Reza Djalili

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the present-day transition and political context of each of the states that comprise the former Soviet region of Central Asia since their independence: the internal changes they have undergone, the creation of their own institutions and regional and international relations. This evolution, especially with regard to the deficiencies in democracy and legitimacy of the majority of the current governments, based, in many cases, on personalist, authoritarian regimes, points to an uncertain future for a region in which, too frequently, its rulers have used all the means at their disposal (persecution of political opposition, disregard for human rights, constraint of the mass media and NGOs, etc. to guarantee their continuance in power. This article also includes an analysis of the most recent events, such as the Andijan (Uzbekistan massacre, the‘revolution’ without changes in Kyrgyzstan, and the authoritarian drift of Turkmenistan, which leads to conclusions filled with uncertainties for future political scenarios.

  13. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries.

    Sharov, Petr; Dowling, Russell; Gogishvili, Megi; Jones, Barbara; Caravanos, Jack; McCartor, Andrew; Kashdan, Zachary; Fuller, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Using a global database of contaminated sites, toxic hotspots in eight former Soviet countries were analyzed to identify the prevalence, types and sources of toxic pollution, as well as their associated potential public health impacts. For this analysis, polluted sites in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were compiled and analyzed. The levels of contamination of seven key pollutants were assessed in each country. 424 contaminated sites were identified using data from Blacksmith Institute. Pesticides, lead (Pb), radioactive metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly identified key pollutants. Collectively, these sites pose health risks to an estimated 6.2 million residents. The existing data on toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries likely captures only a small percentage of actual contaminated sites, but suggests potentially severe public health consequences. Additional assessments are needed to understand the risks posed by toxic pollution in the region. PMID:26796744

  14. Empowerment Perceptions of Employees in Hotel Enterprises

    ?enol AVU?

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of empowerment, which is applicable for any social group that the person belongs to, is an essential phenomenon for continuity and success of the organization. The main purpose of this study is to determine the empowerment perceptions of employees in hotel industry. The research was conducted in four and five star hotels that operate in the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, and 170 employees were reached at those hotels. Empowerment perceptions of the employees were measured using the scales Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, CWEQ-II and Psychological Empowerment Scale, PES. As a result of factor analysis made on the scales, it was observed that structural empowerment and psychological empowerment perceptions were grouped into three sub-dimensions. And in comparisons based on demographic factors; it was ob served that perceptions of empowerment have clearly differentiated according to level of education, level of income, hotel class, tourism education position, employee position.

  15. Empowerment Perceptions of Employees in Hotel Enterprises

    ?enol avu?

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of empowerment, which is applicable for any social group that the person belongs to, is an essential phenomenon for continuity and success of the organization. The main purpose of this study is to determine the empowerment perceptions of employees in hotel industry. The research was conducted in four and five star hotels that operate in the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, and 170 employees were reached at those hotels. Empowerment perceptions of the employees were measured using the scales Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, CWEQ-IIand Psychological Empowerment Scale, PES. As a result of factor analysis made on the scales, it was observed that structural empowerment and psychological empowerment perceptions were grouped into three sub- dimensions. And in comparisons based on demographic factors; it was ob served that perceptions of empowerment have clearly differentiated according to level of education, level of income, hotel class, tourism education position, employee position

  16. HOLY KYRGZSS CALPACK / KUTSAL KIRGIZ KALPA?I

    Dr. Metin ARIKAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Calpack, in todays Kyrgyzstan, is not only defined as a head craftwore in towns which is remembered barely during national and religiousbairams but also it emerged as a concrete sample of Kyrgyz nationalphilosophy, which has been kept alive from mythological era to epic era andfrom epic era to present day by the colors it involved and the motifs itcarried. Irregardless of the social statues, calpacks can be observed on nearlyall Kyrgyz mens heads and even this particular feature of calpack makes itan important element to analyze not only for Kyrgyz culture but also for thecommon Turkish culture. Our aim is to determine the various values ofcalpack which have been survived from past to present.

  17. Toward a New Policy for Scientific and Technical Communication: the Case of Kyrgyz Republic

    Djenchuraev, N

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this policy paper is to formulate a new policy in the field of scientific and technical information (STI) in Kyrgyz Republic in the light of emergence and rapid development of electronic scientific communication. The major problem with communication in science in the Republic is lack of adequate access to information by scientists. An equally serious problem is poor visibility of research conducted in Kyrgyzstan and, as consequence, negligible research impact on academic society globally. The paper proposes an integrated approach to formulation of a new STI policy based on a number of policy components: telecommunication networks, computerization, STI systems, legislation & standards, and education & trainings. Two alternatives were considered: electronic vs. paper-based scientific communication and development of the national STI system vs. cross-national virtual collaboration. The study results in suggesting a number of policy recommendations for identified stakeholders.

  18. A Comparison of Foreign Direct Investments in Eurosian Countries to World Trend in the Period of 1995 - 2011

    Hayri Tuzla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The world which rapidly globalizes and where the boundaries diminish day by day, the foreign direct investments affect many diverse macroeconomic variables, specifically economic growth and unemployment. Most current studies support that there exists a strong causality relationship between foreign direct investments and economic growth.On the other hand, there exists a weaker positive causality relationship between economic growth and foreign direct investments. Moreover, it is an undeniable fact that the economic growth leads to a decline in unemployment. This study aims to compare the foreign direct investment trends of seven Eurasian countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan in the period of 1995 and 2011. The results are compared to both the world foreign direct investment trend and the other Central Asian countries.

  19. Facts and Perspectives of Water Reservoirs in Central Asia: A Special Focus on Uzbekistan

    Shavkat Rakhmatullaev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The political transformation of the Central Asian region has induced the implosion of the interconnected physical hydraulic infrastructure and its institutional management system. Land-locked Central Asian countries, with their climatic conditions and transboundary water resources, have been striving to meet their food security, to increase agricultural production, to sustain energy sectors, and to protect the environment. The existing water reservoirs are strategic infrastructures for irrigation and hydropower generation. Upstream countries (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan favor the reservoirs operation for energy supply, while downstream countries (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan push for irrigation use. This paper provides an overview of the current challenges and perspectives (technical, institutional, and legal regulations and presents recommendations for the sustainable management of man-made water reservoirs in Uzbekistan.

  20. Revision of the genus Hemisaprinus Kryzhanovskij, 1976 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae

    Tom Lackner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The monophyletic genus Hemisaprinus Kryzhanovskij in Kryzhanovskij & Reichardt, 1976 is revised herein. All three species Hemisaprinus subvirescens (Mntries, 1832, H. lutshniki (Reichardt, 1941 and H. cyprius (Dahlgren, 1981 are found to be correctly assigned to the genus and their monophyly is supported by the synapomorphy of the presence of prosternal foveae. The three species are re-described and supplemented with colour photographs as well as SEM micrographs outlining their differences. Male genitalia drawing of H. subvirescens and H. lutshniki are provided and a key to the species is given. Hemisaprinus subvirescens (Mntries, 1832 is newly reported from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Jordan, Cyprus and Mongolia. The lectotypes and paralectotypes of the following species are designated herein: Saprinus foveisternus Schmidt, 1884, Saprinus syriacus Marseul, 1855 and Saprinus viridulus Marseul, 1855.

  1. Seismic monitoring of Central Asia territory in KNDC.

    Mukambayev, Aidyn; Mikhailova, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    The Central Asia territory includes the territory of five post-Soviet countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Every country has its own independent network of seismic observations and Data Processing Center aimed at every day seismic monitoring of one country territory. However, seismic hazard of Central Asia territory is stipulated by one geodynamic system that generates simultaneous large earthquakes on the territory of different countries. Thus, it is necessary to observe seismic situation for the whole region for emergency situations and for compilation of joint seismic bulletins of Central Asia region. A new contemporary network of seismic observations operated by the Institute of Geophysical Researches has been installed in Kazakhstan during last 15 years. Mainly, these are seismic arrays located throughout the country perimeter. The arrays were constructed under support of the CTBTO, and AFTAC. There are also IRIS and CAREMON stations. All data arrive to KNDC (Kazakhstan National Data Center) in real time mode. In addition, KNDC receives data in real time from stations Zalesovo (Russia), Alibek (Turkmenistan), Ala-Archa and Tokmak (Kyrgyzstan). Arrival times in the form of tables are received with 24-hours delay from almost 20 Kazakhstan stations belonging to SEME MES RK. This observation system allows monitoring the Central Asian seismicity by earthquakes with representative magnitude more than 3.5. In some regions, the events with magnitude 1.5 are recorded. As result, different products with different operativity are created for Central Asia territory: -bulletin of urgent alerts; -automatic seismic bulletin; -interactive seismic bulletin; -joint seismic operative bulletin by data arrived on-line and in table form. After that, in retrospective mode, the events nature is identified to discriminate mining explosions (up to 4000 per year) and natural earthquakes (up to 15000 per year). The results are available at KNDC web-site (www.kndc.kz), and are sent to Data Centers of different countries via e-mail. In addition, processing data are submitted to EMSC, ISC, and GSRAS.

  2. Quantifying landscape resilience using vegetation indices

    Eddy, I. M. S.; Gergel, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape resilience refers to the ability of systems to adapt to and recover from disturbance. In pastoral landscapes, degradation can be measured in terms of increased desertification and/or shrub encroachment. In many countries across Central Asia, the use and resilience of pastoral systems has changed markedly over the past 25 years, influenced by centralized Soviet governance, private property rights and recently, communal resource governance. In Kyrgyzstan, recent governance reforms were in response to the increasing degradation of pastures attributed to livestock overgrazing. Our goal is to examine and map the landscape-level factors that influence overgrazing throughout successive governance periods. Here, we map and examine some of the spatial factors influencing landscape resilience in agro-pastoral systems in the Kyrgyzstan Republic where pastures occupy >50% of the country's area. We ask three questions: 1) which mechanisms of pasture degradation (desertification vs. shrub encroachment), are detectable using remote sensing vegetation indices?; 2) Are these degraded pastures associated with landscape features that influence herder mobility and accessibility (e.g., terrain, distance to other pastures)?; and 3) Have these patterns changed through successive governance periods? Using a chronosequence of Landsat imagery (1999-2014), NDVI and other VIs were used to identify trends in pasture condition during the growing season. Least-cost path distances as well as graph theoretic indices were derived from topographic factors to assess landscape connectivity (from villages to pastures and among pastures). Fieldwork was used to assess the feasibility and accuracy of this approach using the most recent imagery. Previous research concluded that low herder mobility hindered pasture use, thus we expect the distance from pasture to village to be an important predictor of pasture condition. This research will quantify the magnitude of pastoral degradation and test assumptions regarding sustainable pastoral management. As grazing is the most extensive land use on Earth, understanding the broad-scale factors that influence the resilience of pastoral systems is an important issue globally.

  3. Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?

    Anar Ulikpan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design: Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings: The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context.The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions: The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development cooperation and improved health outcomes; arguably, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have made slower progress in their health and socio-economic indices because of their resistance to open and accountable development relationships.

  4. Socio-cultural and town-planning continuity development of the cities of Chujskaya valley of Kyrgyzstan in XIX—XX centuries — the second revival (tendencies and prospects / Социо-культурная и градостроительная преемственность развития городов Чуйской долины Кыргызстана в XIX—XXI вв. — второе возрождение (тенденции и перспективы

    Tonkoy I.V. / Тонкой Игорь Васильевич

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth of the cities of Chujskaya valley in XX century defines the important stage of accumulation of town-planning experience, which use, incorporating to experience of the middle ages, will allow to create strategic regional models of town-planning objects of any level. / Бурный рост городов Чуйской долины в XX в. определяет важный этап накопления градостроительного опыта, который в соединении со средневековыми традициями строительства городов на Великом шелковом пути позволит создавать стратегические региональные модели градостроительных объектов любого уровня.

  5. Active Seismicity and Tectonics in Central Asia from Seismological Data Recorded in the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountain Ranges

    Sippl, Christian; Schurr, Bernd; Schneider, Felix M.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mechie, James; Minaev, Vladislav; Abdybachaev, Ulan A.; Gadoev, Mustafo; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon

    2010-05-01

    Active tectonics in the Pamir mountains in central Asia, the westernmost part of the India-Eurasia collision zone, are controlled by ongoing convergence (about 20 mm/yr), causing substantial crustal shortening and compressional deformation. This leads to high seismicity rates throughout the region. Whereas seismic activity along the rim of the Pamir plateau is mostly compressional and concentrated along the Main Pamir Thrust, the distribution and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in its interior are more diffuse, with extensional events occurring along North-South trending rift zones (Kara Kul, Wachan). Seismicity in the south-western Pamir and in the Hindu Kush features frequent intermediate-depth earthquakes, reaching hypocentral depths of 300 km, which is rare for regions not obviously related to active subduction of oceanic lithosphere. These mantle earthquakes, which are not observed beneath the Himalayas and Tibet further east, form a rather well-defined Wadati-Benioff zone that was readily interpreted as subducted lithosphere present below the current collisional orogen. Earlier seismological studies showed the presence of a northward-dipping lithospheric slab under the Hindu Kush and a southward-dipping one beneath the Pamirs, with a small seismic gap in-between. Different hypotheses concerning the nature of these slabs (oceanic or continental lithosphere) and tectonic geometry in general (two slabs subducting in opposite directions or a single, hugely contorted slab) have been proposed in literature. Political instability in the region in the last two decades hampered on-site studies and field work, leaving many key issues poorly understood. In the framework of the multidisciplinary project TIPAGE (Tien Shan Pamir Geodynamic Programme), for the first time, new field campaigns collecting high quality data have been made possible. Local seismicity in the Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan) is currently being recorded by a temporary installation of 40 seismic stations, 30 in Tajikistan and 10 in Kyrgyzstan, for a total time of two years starting summer 2008. In 2009, the configuration of the stations was changed from a 24-station North-South profile plus 16 additional stations distributed throughout the Pamirs to a 40-station 2D setup evenly covering the whole study region. Moreover, the first half of the data was retrieved, for which we will present preliminary results. The high density of seismic stations allows precise location of earthquake hypocenters and determination of source mechanisms for selected events. So far we detected some 10,000 events, a significant proportion of which are related to aftershocks of a Mw 6.6 earthquake that occurred in October 2008 in the border triangle of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and China, directly beneath one of our stations. The hypocenter distribution of a selection of detected events provides a good indication on active faults in the region, thus enabling us to interpret ongoing tectonic activity. We will also present seismicity cross-sections through interesting subparts of the study region that will shed a new light on the complex geometry of mantle deformation.

  6. Co-Evolutions of Ecosystems, Societies, and Economy in Dryland Asia

    Chen, Jiquan; Ouyang, Zutao; John, Ranjeet; Dong, Gang; Fan, Peilei

    2015-04-01

    This presentation aims at the interactive changes of the natural system (NS) and the human system (HS) as well as the feedbacks in time and space for dryland Asia where multiple administrative units from several countries experience similar climates, ecosystems, cultures, and traditions but different governments, land uses, economic development, and demographic changes (e.g., ethnical composition). We compiled and examined the changes in major measures for ecosystems (e.g., PAR, LAI, GPP, ET), economy (GDP, export/import, EGS), and human demography (e.g., population, health, education) between 1981 through 2011 (30+ variables) for six Central Asian countries (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan) and two East Asian countries (Mongolia and China). Particular attention was made to understand the co-evolutions of the ratios between the elements of HS and NS, such as: GDP: GPP, PET: FWW, R: PDSI, EGS: GPP, etc., so that feedbacks and interactions can be empirically studied. Spatial and temporal changes of each measure, as well as their ratios, were quantified to highlight the relative contributions of human activities (e.g., policy) and biophysical changes (e.g., climate). We found some tight connections between the HS and NS variables, but the co-evolutions have to be understood in the context of governments, policy, and other major institutional shifts.

  7. Sustainable Land Management in the Pamir Alai Region

    Kenesh Shapakov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on identifying of possible opportunities for local people, living in Pamir Alai region of Kyrgyzstan, particularly in Kashka Suu and Alaiku, by conducting analysis of such value chains as wool production and collection of berries and medicinal herbs. Identification of key features of these two value chains provides insight into which entities benefit from the value of products, and provides the basis for projecting possible additional income to the populations in the areas. Economic opportunities available for local population in Kashka Suu and Alaiku are very limited. Lack of opportunities linked to harsh terrain and climatic conditions makes livestock, including wool production, and collection of wild resources, are the most available sources of income for local communities. Population, living in Kashka Suu and Alaiku, is unable to produce good quality wool competitive even on domestic market, but investments in wool sector could help to improve livelihoods. Berries also play an important role in generating income, especially in off agricultural season. Income from berries is managed by women, and used for purchasing goods for family. Medicinal and aromatic plants and herbs sub sector is totally undeveloped and plays important role only for subsistence purposes.

  8. Temporary clustering of strong earthquakes or lack of data?

    Dzhumabaeva, Atyrgul; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek; Landgraf, Angela; Rosenwinkel, Swenja

    2015-04-01

    The Issyk-Ata fault is a major thrust that coincides with the northern boundary of the Tien Shan mountains in Kyrgyzstan. The fault separates the Kyrgyz range from the Chu (foreland) basin. Abundant evidence of surface ruptures, as well as secondary structures, like cracks and rock slides, exist in the southern Chu basin. Combined, they indicate that at least 4 strong earthquakes occurred during the last 5 ka along the Issyk-Ata fault and neighboring Chonkurchak fault. In addition, age dating of large landslides that might be seismically triggered provide a time window for activity between 11 and 15 ka. To date, no indicator for seismic activity exist for the time in between. Does the lacking evidence of strong earthquakes between 5 and 11 ka indicate a temporary clustering of events along the Issyk-Ata and surrounding faults? Or is the gap in knowledge rather reflecting the limited data? Here, we present an overview of primary and secondary paleoseismic evidence together with a quality rating for their usefulness in addressing the paleoearthquake timing. Such an assessment is especially important with regard to a recent earthquake cluster that started along the Issyk-Ata fault (AD1770, M6.6; AD1885, M6.9) and culminated in two M>8 events further east and that could possibly be the beginning of a next cluster or the end of the previous.

  9. Climate Change Increases Drought Stress of Juniper Trees in the Mountains of Central Asia.

    Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935-2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia. PMID:27100092

  10. Addressing global change challenges for Central Asian socio-ecosystems

    Qi, Jiaguo; Bobushev, Temirbek S.; Kulmatov, Rashid; Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik

    2012-06-01

    Central Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions on the planet earth to global climate change, depending on very fragile natural resources. The Soviet legacy has left the five countries (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) with a highly integrated system but they are facing great challenges with tensions that hinder regional coordination of food and water resources. With increasing climate variability and warming trend in the region, food and water security issues become even more crucial now and, if not addressed properly, could affect the regional stability. The long-term drivers of these two most critical elements, food and water, are climate change; the immediate and probably more drastic factors affecting the food and water security are land uses driven by institutional change and economic incentives. As a feedback, changes in land use and land cover have directly implications on water uses, food production, and lifestyles of the rural community in the region. Regional and international efforts have been made to holistically understand the cause, extent, rate and societal implications of land use changes in the region. Much of these have been understood, or under investigation by various projects, but solutions or research effort to develop solutions, to these urgent regional issues are lacking. This article, serves as an introduction to the special issue, provides a brief overview of the challenges facing the Central Asian countries and various international efforts in place that resulted in the publications of this special issue.

  11. Seismic triggering of landslides. Part B: Simulation of dynamic failure processes

    H.-B. Havenith

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From field observations it is possible to establish correlations between geological conditions and landslide occurrence. However, in general, it is difficult to assess the affect of individual factors on slope instability because of their mutual interaction. In addition, the dynamic effect of propagating seismic waves significantly increases the complexity of the slope stability problem. Wave diffraction, reflection and focusing effects are dependent on local geological conditions and make it difficult to analyse dynamic sliding mechanisms using field observations alone. As a consequence, in order to examine the influence of various geological and seismic factors on slope movements, it is often necessary to produce numerical models. This paper describes the results of such models as applied to two case studies in Kyrgyzstan: the Ananevo rockslide, located in granite, and the Suusamyr debris slump-flow, situated within soft sediments (see Part A: Havenith et al., 2003. Discrete element modelling (UDEC, adapted both to the discontinuous character of fractured rock and to the heterogeneity of layered mediums, was used. This permitted simulation of deformation mechanisms, including seismically induced bending, block tilting, and slip. Particular attention was paid to the interaction between deformation mechanisms, site-specific amplification effects, and subsurface structure.

  12. A graphical study of tuberculosis incidence and trends in the WHO's European region (1980-2006).

    Ros, Martn; Monlen-Getino, Toni

    2009-01-01

    A graphical output was obtained using classical principal component analysis techniques in order to analyse tuberculosis trends in Europe over a 27-year period (1980-2006). Taxonomic methods were used to better define the interrelationship between the data in the 52 countries studied. Data were provided by the World Health Organization. Differences in the overall incidence and trends were identified during the 1980-2006 period. The highest rates of incidence were reported in Kazakhstan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania and Kyrgyzstan. High and moderately high rates were reported in the former Soviet Union, the former Yugoslavia, some countries from the former Eastern Bloc, Turkey and Portugal. The lowest rates were reported in the eastern Mediterranean, Scandinavia and Iceland. Risk of infection was determined by social conditions, intravenous drug use, HIV infection and immigration from countries where tuberculosis is endemic. As regards development of tuberculosis in Europe, 1992 represents the change in the decreasing trend in the incidence observed from 1980, when the incidence presented a minimum general trend and started to increase. The linear model calculated to project the rate of increase from 2006 to 2015, reveals the tuberculosis rates observed during the 1980s. PMID:19452128

  13. Remediation project planning at the uranium production legacy sites. Lesson learned from the best international practice and challenges for developing countries - 59043

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The former Soviet Union countries such as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine, where uranium production legacy sites are located (such as mines, waste rock piles, pits, chemical and hydrometallurgical plants, tailing dumps, etc.) are currently facing the challenge of making these objects environmentally safe. These countries share a common history of the uranium mining and milling industry, similar regulatory shortcomings and uncertainties regarding the strategy justification for such remediation projects. They also have to deal with scarcity of financial resources for long-term remediation programmes, and lack of experience with planning and management of environmental remediation projects at former uranium production sites. In the recent years, IAEA-supported programmes of international technical co-operation (the projects RER/0986 and RER/3010) were advancing actively, as well as those sponsored by the UNDP, EurAsEC and others, all aiming to assist with the preparedness and performance of future remediation projects. As demonstrated by analysis, effectiveness of the many programmes largely depends on the nations' level of preparedness to carry out remediation projects in accordance with the international standards. This paper presents the lessons learned from analyses of the different type of projects, which were already implemented or which are still in plan in different countries

  14. Climate Change Increases Drought Stress of Juniper Trees in the Mountains of Central Asia

    Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935–2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia. PMID:27100092

  15. Management of environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia

    Sustainable waste management and disposal is a societal challenge in terms of economics, public health and environmental impact. The situation in developing countries, and in particular those subject to extreme natural hazards, results in increased overall risk as governments prioritize investments to issues of perceived higher economic importance. This dissertation investigates environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia. Environmental risk from municipal solid waste landfill sites encompasses a wide range of topics within socio-economics, physical sciences and engineering and therefore necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach. The underlying study is an accumulative result of a three-year collaborative research project (Contract No. INCO-CT-2005-516732) funded within the Eu Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). The international cooperation involved European, Russian and Central Asian research partners forming a multi-disciplinary consortium covering: GIS technologies, geology / hydrogeology geophysics and geotechnical engineering; landfill design and operation and waste management. understanding the relevant socio-economic aspects and legislative frameworks was necessary to prepare results and recommendations to address stakeholders in the Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and uzbekistan. (author)

  16. Exposure Estimation from Multi-Resolution Optical Satellite Imagery for Seismic Risk Assessment

    Jochen Zschau

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Given high urbanization rates and increasing spatio-temporal variability in many present-day cities, exposure information is often out-of-date, highly aggregated or spatially fragmented, increasing the uncertainties associated with seismic risk assessments. This worktherefore aims at using space-based technologies to estimate, complement and extend exposure data at multiple scales, over large areas and at a comparatively low cost for the case of the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. At a neighborhood scale, an analysis of urban structures using medium-resolution optical satellite images is performed. Applying image classification and change-detection analysis to a time-series of Landsat images, the urban environment can be delineated into areas of relatively homogeneous urban structure types, which can provide a first estimate of an exposed building stock (e.g., approximate age of structures, composition and distribution of predominant building types. At a building-by-building scale, a more detailed analysis of the exposed building stock is carried out using a high-resolution Quickbird image. Furthermore, the multi-resolution datasets are combined with census data to disaggregate population statistics. The tools used within this study are being developed on a free- and open-source basis and aim at being transparent, usable and transferable.

  17. Reduction of Radiometric Miscalibration—Applications to Pushbroom Sensors

    Sigrid Roessner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework—Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME—considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data.

  18. Building monitoring in Bishkek and Dushanbe by the use of ambient vibration analysis

    Bojana Petrovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the EMCA - Earthquake Model Central Asia - project, the cities of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan and Dushanbe (Tajikistan were selected for building monitoring using measurements of seismic noise to obtain the dynamical properties of the buildings. Eight buildings of different construction types, date of construction and building height, both, Soviet-era and recently constructed buildings, were instrumented for a period of a few hours. In this study, an overview of the experiment is given, including a short description of each monitored building’s structure and the performed installation. Preliminary results for a representative Soviet-era residential building in Dushanbe are presented. Modal analysis is performed using the Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD method to estimate the natural frequencies and the mode shapes. The wave propagation velocities in the two directions along the building axes are determined by an interferometric approach. Although the experimental set-up was not the optimal, valuable information about the dynamical characteristics of the buildings were still obtained.

  19. Integrating Alpine Adventure and Citizen Science in the Greater Himalaya

    Mix, H.

    2014-12-01

    As earth scientists, we are drawn together by our fascination with the natural world. On alpine climbing expeditions in the Greater Ranges of Asia during 2012-14, I had the opportunity to contribute to the scientific understanding and stewardship of the places I visit for personal fulfillment. Using the "matchmaking" services of Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation, I was connected with researchers to conduct field studies in some of the world's highest and most remote mountains. Here, I present work from two projects: 1) Assessing the role of biological weathering in shaping high altitude landscapes in the Pamir Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and 2) Understanding the effects of anthropogenic biomass burning on glacial thinning in the Everest Region, Nepal. Both collaborative efforts succeeded in collecting valuable data from challenging environments using a small research budget. As a scientist with expertise in terrestrial paleoclimate and stable isotope geochemistry, these projects served to expand my research horizons and areas of professional interest. Citizen science can not only add a sense of value to otherwise selfish endeavors such as high altitude climbing, but also serve to connect scientists with the communities who appreciate their efforts most.

  20. Vulnerability to Poverty in select Central Asian Countries

    Raghbendra Jha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the extant literature either income or consumption expenditures as measured over short periods of time have been regarded as a proxy for the material well-being of households. However, economists have long recognized that a household's sense of well-being depends not just on its average income or expenditures, but also on the risks it faces and its ability to deal with these risks. Hence vulnerability is a more satisfactory measure of welfare. In this study we used the concept of vulnerability as expected poverty to assess the household vulnerability to poverty in four Central Asian countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Except for Tajikistan, headcount poverty and vulnerability rates are significantly different. We also find that vulnerability differs significantly across households by location and selected household characteristics. In this paper we use a simple empirical measurement that allows estimating the headcount vulnerability to poverty using cross-section data. This measurement is based on the strong assumption that households have the same conditional distribution of consumption in a stationary environment. While this approach cannot capture all dimensions of vulnerability, it at least begins to raise the policy issue that vulnerability should be considered alongside poverty.

  1. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases

    T. Schöne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  2. PREFACE: International Scientific Conference on Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials 2015 (RTEP2015)

    2016-02-01

    The International Scientific Conference "Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials" is a traditional representative forum devoted to the discussion of fundamental problems of radiation physics and its technical applications. The first nine conferences were held fourfold in Tomsk, Ulan-Ude (Russia), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), Tashkent (Uzbekistan), Sharm El Sheikh (Egypt), the island of Cyprus. The XI conference was held in Tomsk, Russia. The program of the Conference covers a wide range of technical areas and modern aspects of radiation physics, its applications and related matters. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: • Physical and chemical phenomena in inorganic materials in radiation, electrical and thermal fields; • Research methods and equipment modification states and properties of materials; • Technologies and equipment for their implementation; • The use of radiation-thermal processes in nanotechnology; • Adjacent to the main theme of the conference issues The conference was attended by leading scientists from countries near and far abroad who work in the field of radiation physics of solid state and of radiation material science. The School-Conference of Young Scientists was also held during the conference. The event was held with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects № 15-02-20616.

  3. National independence and nonproliferation in the new states of Central Asia

    Gleason, G.

    1993-12-01

    Five independent states emerged in Central Asia from the breakup of the USSR. One of these states, Kazakhstan, possesses nuclear weapons. The other four of these states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are not known to possess nuclear weapons, however they occupy a geostrategic position which makes them important to non-proliferation efforts. The present report profiles the capabilities and intentions of these four Central Asian states. The analysis of capabilities suggests that none of these states has the capability to develop a usable nuclear weapon. However, all of these countries-- especially Uzbekistan--have components of the old Soviet nuclear weapons complex which are now orphans. They have no use for these facilities and must either re-profile them, destroy them, or transfer them. The analysis of intentions suggests that the dynamics of national independence have created a situation in which Uzbekistan has hegemonic designs in the region. Implications for retarding nuclear proliferation in the Central Asian region are examined. Opportunities for outside influence are assessed.

  4. Gazprom: Russia's strategy

    Seventeen years after the splitting up of the Soviet empire, Russia is looking again for huge international ambitions. Its main advantage in this power search will is its energy resources. Production area, but also transit area between Asia, central Asia, Caucasus and Europe, Russia is an inevitable partner and wishes to take advantage of this strategic position. Gazprom, the hugest gas company in the world, is totally under the control of the government. Therefore, the Kremlin has made gas its main political and diplomatic weapon. Such an energetic imperialisms has strong economical and political consequences on the rest of Europe as illustrated by the recent Ukrainian crisis. The reconstruction of an energy empire similar to the one of the hottest days of the cold war worries also the USA. This study is a collective work carried out by students of the Sciences Po school of Paris in the framework of the 'international organizations' seminar given by by A.M Lizin, president of the Belgium senate and chairwoman of the human rights commission of the organization for European security and cooperation. Content: Gazprom's international strategy, Gazprom: an omnipotent gas company, Gazprom's international strategy at the service of the Russian foreign policy, Gazprom's energy stake and strategies, Gazprom and Armenia, Gazprom and Azerbaijan, Gazprom and Belgium, Gazprom and Bielorussia, Gazprom and Iberia, French position in energy stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's difficulties in Hungary, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in front of Gazprom, Gazprom and the US strategy. (J.S.)

  5. Music as Illness; Music as Healing.

    Pritchard, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    Throughout the Soviet Union, the arts became tied to ethnicity through the project of Socialist Realism. When, in 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic became independent from the Soviet Union, its national narrative continued to be built upon tropes of Kyrgyz ethnicity. Through their engagement with images of the ethno-national self, the arts provide a great source of beauty. Defining beauty as a representation of the self that is pure whole, and stable, Julia Kristeva asserts that beauty and suffering are part of the same phenomena. Arthur Kleinman argues that suffering is best understood as existing within the triangulated relationship of cultural representation, collective experience, and subjectivity. Music too is part of this triangulated relationship, and therefore, a part of suffering. Drawing upon ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in Kyrgyzstan, this article explores the illness experience of a single Kyrgyz musician. In doing so, it illustrates music's role in self-formation and the development of social, economic, and political ties and the shifts that occur in these during illness. In drawing forth the role of music in the construction of racialized ethnicities, this article demonstrates how the experience of transformative beauty can coexist with turmoil, marginalization, and violence. PMID:25394694

  6. High incidence of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in the republics of Central Asia.

    Omurzakova, Nazgul A; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Saatova, Guli M; Mirzakhanova, Mavliuda I; Shukurova, Surayo M; Kydyralieva, Ryskul B; Jumagulova, Aynagul S; Seisenbaev, Askar Sh; Nishioka, Kusuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2009-07-01

    The epidemiological situation involving rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) not only remains unresolved but is also a cause of serious concern due to the rapid increase in the incidence of RF/RHD in many developing countries. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the republics of Central Asia experienced an economic decline that directly affected the public health sector of this region. This is the main cause of the high prevalence of many infectious diseases in Central Asia, including streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis, which carries the risk of complications such as RF. The difficulty involved in early diagnosis of RF and the development of RHD among children and adolescents causes early mortality and sudden death, leading to economic damage in these countries due to the loss of the young working population. Among all the developing countries, Kyrgyzstan, which is located in the heart of Central Asia, has the highest prevalence of RF/RHD. The increase in the prevalence of RF in Central Asia can be attributed to factors such as the low standard of living and changes in the virulence of streptococci and their sensitivity to antibiotics. PMID:20374323

  7. The specter of post-communism: women and alcohol in eight post-Soviet states.

    Hinote, Brian Philip; Cockerham, William C; Abbott, Pamela

    2009-04-01

    Because men have borne the heaviest burden of premature mortality in the former Soviet Union, women have for the most part been overlooked in studies of the health crisis in this part of the world. A considerable body of research points to alcohol consumption among males as a primary lifestyle cause of premature mortality. However, the extent to which alcohol use has penetrated the female population following the collapse of communism and how this consumption is associated with other social factors is less well-understood. Accordingly, this paper investigates alcohol consumption in eight republics of the former USSR - Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine using data collected in 2001. More specifically, discussion of gender role transformations and the historical experiences of women during the Soviet era emphasize two potentially important social influences examined in this analysis: psychological distress and Soviet political ideology. Findings suggest that distress is only weakly statistically associated with frequent drinking behavior among women, but results for political ideology show that this factor is statistically and significantly associated with drinking behaviors. Alcohol consumption was not particularly common among women under communism, but trends have been changing. Our discussion suggests that, after the collapse of the Soviet state, women are more able to embrace behavioral practices related to alcohol, and many may do so as an overt rejection of traditional Soviet norms and values. Findings are also discussed within the context of current epidemiological trends and future research directions in these eight republics. PMID:19233533

  8. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries.

    Coman, Alexandru; Chereche?, R?zvan M; Ungureanu, Marius I; Marton-Vasarhelyi, Emanuela O; Valentine, Marissa A; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Gray, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance. PMID:25963604

  9. Rapid advance of two mountain glaciers in response to mine-related debris loading

    Jamieson, Stewart S. R.; Ewertowski, Marek W.; Evans, David J. A.

    2015-07-01

    Rapid glacier advance is known to occur by a range of mechanisms. However, although large-scale debris loading has been proposed as a process for causing rapid terminus advance, it has rarely been observed. We use satellite remote sensing data to observe accelerated glacier terminus advance in response to massive supraglacial loading on two glaciers in Kyrgyzstan. Over a 15 year period, mining activity has led to the dumping of spoil of up to 180 m thick on large parts of these valley glaciers. We find that the termini of these glaciers advance by 1.2 and 3.2 km, respectively, at a rate of up to 350 m yr-1. Our analysis suggests that although enhanced basal sliding could be an important process, massive supraglacial loads have also caused enhanced internal ice deformation that would account for most, or all, of the glacier terminus advance. In addition, narrowing of the glacier valley and mining and dumping of ice alter the mass balance and flow regime of the glaciers. Although the scale of supraglacial loading is massive, this full-scale experiment provides insight into glacier flow acceleration response where small valley glaciers are impacted by very large volumes of landslide debris.

  10. Identifying Changing Snow Cover Characteristics in Central Asia between 1986 and 2014 from Remote Sensing Data

    Andreas J. Dietz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia consists of the five former Soviet States Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, therefore comprising an area of ~4 Mio km2. The continental climate is characterized by hot and dry summer months and cold winter seasons with most precipitation occurring as snowfall. Accordingly, freshwater supply is strongly depending on the amount of accumulated snow as well as the moment of its release after snowmelt. The aim of the presented study is to identify possible changes in snow cover characteristics, consisting of snow cover duration, onset and offset of snow cover season within the last 28 years. Relying on remotely sensed data originating from medium resolution imagers, these snow cover characteristics are extracted on a daily basis. The resolution of 500–1000 m allows for a subsequent analysis of changes on the scale of hydrological sub-catchments. Long-term changes are identified from this unique dataset, revealing an ongoing shift towards earlier snowmelt within the Central Asian Mountains. This shift can be observed in most upstream hydro catchments within Pamir and Tian Shan Mountains and it leads to a potential change of freshwater availability in the downstream regions, exerting additional pressure on the already tensed situation.

  11. The Silk Road Health Project: How Mobility and Migration Status Influence HIV Risks among Male Migrant Workers in Central Asia

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Shaw, Stacey A.; Mergenova, Gaukhar; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Primbetova, Sholpan; Ma, Xin; Chang, Mingway; Ismayilova, Leyla; Hunt, Tim; West, Brooke; Wu, Elwin; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether mobility, migrant status, and risk environments are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV risk behaviors (e.g. sex trading, multiple partners, and unprotected sex). Methods We used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) to recruit external male migrant market vendors from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan as well internal migrant and non-migrant market vendors from Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to examine the effects of mobility combined with the interaction between mobility and migration status on STIs and sexual risk behaviors, when controlling for risk environment characteristics. Results Mobility was associated with increased risk for biologically-confirmed STIs, sex trading, and unprotected sex among non-migrants, but not among internal or external migrants. Condom use rates were low among all three groups, particularly external migrants. Risk environment factors of low-income status, debt, homelessness, and limited access to medical care were associated with unprotected sex among external migrants. Conclusion Study findings underscore the role mobility and risk environments play in shaping HIV/STI risks. They highlight the need to consider mobility in the context of migration status and other risk environment factors in developing effective prevention strategies for this population. PMID:26967159

  12. New records of Lophoproctus coecus Pocock, 1894 (Diplopoda, Polyxenida, Lophoproctidae extend the range of the genus Lophoproctus

    Megan Short

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of the genus Lophoproctus Pocock, 1894 has greatly expanded with new records of the species Lophoproctus coecus Pocock, 1894, together with the reassignment of a number of millipedes formerly identified as Lophoproctus lucidus (Chalande, 1888. L. coecus was found to be the sole representative of the family Lophoproctidae in collections examined from Crimea and the Caucasian region. The species was also identified from Iran and Kyrgyzstan. Lophoproctus specimens collected in Italy by Verhoeff were reassigned as L. coecus with the exception of one specimen of L. jeanneli (Brölemann, 1910 from Capri. These data were combined with all available information from the literature to look at the pattern of distribution of the four species in the genus. The range of the genus Lophoproctus extends from Portugal to Central Asia. Lophoproctus coecus is widespread from Italy eastward, while the morphologically very similar species L. lucidus is confined to France and northern Africa. The two species have a narrow overlap in the Alpes Maritimes region of France. L. jeanneli has a scattered coastal distribution around the Mediterranean Sea. The troglobitic species L. pagesi (Condé, 1982 has only been recorded from a cave on Majorca, Spain.

  13. New records of Lophoproctuscoecus Pocock, 1894 (Diplopoda, Polyxenida, Lophoproctidae) extend the range of the genus Lophoproctus.

    Short, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of the genus Lophoproctus Pocock, 1894 has greatly expanded with new records of the species Lophoproctuscoecus Pocock, 1894, together with the reassignment of a number of millipedes formerly identified as Lophoproctuslucidus (Chalande, 1888). Lophoproctuscoecus was found to be the sole representative of the family Lophoproctidae in collections examined from Crimea and the Caucasian region. The species was also identified from Iran and Kyrgyzstan. Lophoproctus specimens collected in Italy by Verhoeff were reassigned as Lophoproctuscoecus with the exception of one specimen of Lophoproctusjeanneli (Brölemann, 1910) from Capri. These data were combined with all available information from the literature to look at the pattern of distribution of the four species in the genus. The range of the genus Lophoproctus extends from Portugal to Central Asia. Lophoproctuscoecus is widespread from Italy eastward, while the morphologically very similar species Lophoproctuslucidus is confined to France and northern Africa. The two species have a narrow overlap in the Alpes Maritimes region of France. Lophoproctusjeanneli has a scattered coastal distribution around the Mediterranean Sea. The troglobitic species Lophoproctuspagesi (Condé, 1982) has only been recorded from a cave on Majorca, Spain. PMID:26257544

  14. Feast or famine: 1992 spot market review

    There was nothing temperate about the uranium spot market in 1992. It was a year of extremes. Demand took off at a brisk pace early in the year as utilities, enticed by low U3O8 prices and interest rates, stepped up their discretionary purchases. With the NUKEM price range sinking to an all-time low of US$6.75-7.70 in November 1991, utilities reckoned that prices had bottomed out and decided to buy and hold material. Indeed, the upper end of NUKEM's range remained below $8.00 per lb for much of the first half of 1992. The main cause of low prices was the flood of imports from the crumbling Soviet Union and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]. The CIS republics quickly embraced a free-market philosophy to boost their faltering economies, and several hoped to use uranium as a source of badly-needed hard currency. But they were about to get a harsh introduction to capitalism. It came in the form of government intervention, in both the US and Europe. In May, the US Department of Commerce made its preliminary determination that the uranium-producing republics of the CIS were selling material in the US at less than fair market value. The antidumping case was eventually settled in October when the CIS republics [Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan] signed suspension agreements subjecting CIS origin uranium to price and quantity quotas in the US

  15. After dumping agreement: A two-tiered market?

    In its largest increase since July 1990, the NUKEM price range for this month ended up at $9.50-$10.50. On October 16th, destined to become a landmark date in uranium industry history, the republics of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine and the Russian Federation signed quantitative restraint agreements with the US Department of Commerce. Predictably, prices jumped significantly as sellers withdrew from the market. With Commerce's initial calculation of a $7.95 market price for determining the level of CIS imports over the next six months, it appears quite certain that prices for non-CIS origins will continue to rise. (CIS imports can only begin when Commerce determines that the market price has hit $13). There is the possibility that a two-tiered market could emerge in the future with lower prices being paid for CIS origins by those utilities not affected by Euratom or Commerce restrictions. However, at this point, most potential buyers falling into this category have opted to maintain a wait-and-see approach

  16. 10 points about buying C.I.S

    On October 16, 1992, the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) settled the antidumping case against the CIS republics by imposing price and volume quotas on CIS uranium imported into the United States. Bound by a suspension agreement, each of the six uranium-producing CIS republics is responsible for restricting the flow of imports to the US-either directly or indirectly. (As the NUKEM Market Report went to press, the Ukraine government notified the DOC of its intent not to terminate the suspension agreement.) This action is to prevent undercutting price levels in the US domestic uranium markets. What follows are ten points about everything you should know about importing uranium from the uranium-producing CIS republics- Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Newcomers to the CIS scene should follow this simple roadmap and be aware of the issues they face as importers in terms of Commerce/Customs requirements and documentation and where to get them, when to buy the material and how to transport it, how to deal effectively with CIS exporters, and how to avoid unnecessary complications when buying CIS

  17. Transition in Central Asia: Growth with Increasingly Greater Inequality?

    Max Spoor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the economic evolution of the former Soviet states of Central Asia since their independence, especially in regard to growth and in comparison with growing inequality. The following topics are considered: first of all, the initial conditions in whichthe economic transition of these countries began; secondly, the transformations of widely varying scope (different “routes of transition” that these economies have experienced, from an almost non-reform (Turkmenistan or a gradual or partial reform (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, to a large-scale reform (Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan; and thirdly, the economic performance of the Central Asian states, which, with the exception of Uzbekistan, has been quite poor and has generated what we could call two kinds of “duality”: one which is generated by the expansion of extracting industries (oil, gas and metals, to the detriment of other sectors fundamental to the countries’ development, and another one originating from the growingunequal distribution of income among the population. While the first of these “dualities” cannot be maintained as a long-term development strategy, the second one could culminate in social agitation and instability, even in the medium term, which could contribute to thedestabilisation of the already fragile and volatile region of Central Asia.

  18. Investigation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central Asia and Caucasus

    Full text: Various threats to civilization such as natural and man-induced catastrophes, international terrorism, ecological imbalance, global climate change and others hazards have been recently increased in number. Today catastrophic processes are notable for a high degree of organization The humankind has faced the majority of hazards for the first time; therefore, there are no analogues and recipes to be used for their solving. Catastrophe risk have increased so much and joint efforts of the entire world immunity are required. One of the most effective ways to solve the issue can be estimation of risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes. Here we pay attention to the main regions, having the high seismic activities, where it is possible to stimulate natural calamities in this way or cause man-induced catastrophes with huge negative effects of international scale in Central Asia and Caucasus: Uranium, antimony and mercury tailing storages in Tian-Shan mountains. The possible terrorism acts here create the serious danger for Russian and USA military air bases, functioned near large Kyrgyzstan capital Bishkek city. The large Hydroelectric Stations with their huge dams and reservoirs, located near big industrial cities, different natural mines tailing storages, including Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Polygon in East Kazakhstan

  19. Genomic Characterization of Yogue, Kasokero, Issyk-Kul, Keterah, Gossas, and Thiafora Viruses: Nairoviruses Naturally Infecting Bats, Shrews, and Ticks.

    Walker, Peter J; Widen, Steven G; Firth, Cadhla; Blasdell, Kim R; Wood, Thomas G; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2015-11-01

    The genus Nairovirus of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses includes the important emerging human pathogen, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), as well as Nairobi sheep disease virus and many other poorly described viruses isolated from mammals, birds, and ticks. Here, we report genome sequence analysis of six nairoviruses: Thiafora virus (TFAV) that was isolated from a shrew in Senegal; Yogue (YOGV), Kasokero (KKOV), and Gossas (GOSV) viruses isolated from bats in Senegal and Uganda; Issyk-Kul virus (IKV) isolated from bats in Kyrgyzstan; and Keterah virus (KTRV) isolated from ticks infesting a bat in Malaysia. The S, M, and L genome segments of each virus were found to encode proteins corresponding to the nucleoprotein, polyglycoprotein, and polymerase protein of CCHFV. However, as observed in Leopards Hill virus (LPHV) and Erve virus (ERVV), polyglycoproteins encoded in the M segment lack sequences encoding the double-membrane-spanning CCHFV NSm protein. Amino acid sequence identities, complement-fixation tests, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses cluster into three groups comprising KKOV, YOGV, and LPHV from bats of the suborder Yingochiroptera; KTRV, IKV, and GOSV from bats of the suborder Yangochiroptera; and TFAV and ERVV from shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae). This reflects clade-specific host and vector associations that extend across the genus. PMID:26324724

  20. International Scientific Conference on "Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials"

    2015-04-01

    The International Scientific Conference on "Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials" is a traditional representative forum devoted to the discussion of fundamental problems of radiation physics and its technical applications. The first nine conferences were held four times in Tomsk, then in Ulan-Ude (Russia), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), Tashkent (Uzbekistan), Sharm El Sheikh (Egypt), and the island of Cyprus. The tenth conference was held in Tomsk, Russia. The program of the Conference covers a wide range of technical areas and modern aspects of radiation physics, its applications and related matters. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: Physical and chemical phenomena in inorganic materials in radiation, electrical and thermal fields; Research methods and equipment modification states and properties of materials; Technologies and equipment for their implementation; The use of radiation-thermal processes in nanotechnology; Adjacent to the main theme of the conference issues The conference was attended by leading scientists from countries near and far abroad who work in the field of radiation physics of solid state and of radiation material science. The School-Conference of Young Scientists was held during the conference. The event was held with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects No. 14-38-10210 and No. 14-02-20376.

  1. Uluslararası Güvenlik: Olmak ya da Olmamak (International Security: To Be or Not To Be

    Inar Gitsba

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Three Greats (USA, USSR and GB fixed their areas of influence during the Postdam Conference, which paved the end of the WW II. But the rivalry especially between the USA and USSR brought about emergence of the bipolar world. The Cold War that longed by the collapse of the USSR determined geopolitical and strategical strugles of the Great Powers in Europe and other places. Though there established a relatively peaceful environment in Europe for about 50 years, the USA and its independent allies experienced a serial of military interventions from 1948 on. After the September 11, 2001, the USA opened military bases in Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan and Uzbekistan, with the approval of the Russian Federation, and thus gained geopolitic success. After the collapse of the USSR, Russian troops intervened in some events in various places for peace keeping or struggle with terrorism. In this way, a "relative peace" was established after about 50 years from the WW II. This essay focuses on the critical developments after the end of the bipolar world.

  2. Seismoacoustic responses to high-power electric pulses from well logging data at the Bishkek geodynamical test area

    Zakupin, A. S.; Bogomolov, L. M.; Mubassarova, V. A.; Il'ichev, P. V.

    2014-09-01

    The results of recording seismoacoustic emission (SAE) in the boreholes of the Bishkek geodynamical test area in Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, are presented. The spectral structure of SAE signals and the pattern of variations in SAE intensity during electromagnetic (EM) sounding of the Earth's crust by the highpower ERGU-600-2 generator unit are studied. The statistical methods for SAE data processing are adjusted for the problem of revealing the correlations between SAE responses and pulsed electrical impacts (i.e., energy input into the medium). The response of the medium to EM soundings, which are conducted for monitoring the apparent resistivity of the rocks, is revealed. The response of the medium manifests itself as the increase in SAE intensity (the responses to the electric current pulses generated during the soundings). The SAE responses belong to the same group of the effects (the signs of external forcing of rock destruction) as the variations in seismicity during the runs of the geophysical magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) generators in 1983-1989 or experimental soundings in 2000-2005. The sources of SAE signals are located at shallow depths, near the geophone installation place. This accounts for the difference between the variations in SAE intensity and microseismicity in response to the same impact.

  3. Central Asia: A major emerging energy player in the 21st century

    Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term. (author)

  4. The Impact of Turkey's Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Turkey's domestic resources, which are Turkey's historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey's economic interests in the region, affect Turkey's foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics' interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic states are the closer the foreign relations are between Turkey and the Turkic states is applicable to all five republics. In the field of business the study finds that Turkish economy follows a similar pattern in its relations with the Azerbaijani and the Central Asian market. Common policy goals of Turkey and the five states led Turkey to establish close foreign relations with these five regional countries. The hypothesis that the more Turkey has business interests in the Caspian Sea Region the more Turkey will have closer foreign relations with Turkic states is mostly apparent in the case of Azerbaijan. In the area of energy politics Turkey has its strongest link with Azerbaijan. Besides being strong economic partners Turkey is Azerbaijan's biggest supporter in the region against Armenia.

  5. Central Asia: A major emerging energy player in the 21st century

    Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term

  6. Cooperação e poder: a Organização de Cooperação de Shangai como expressão da política externa chinesa para a Ásia Central

    Andréa Freire Lucena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan established the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. This international organization represents the first Chinese initiative in building an international security organization. This article aims to study the Chinese Foreign Policy for Central Asia from the perspective of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. We seek to answer how this international organization enables the Chinese state to achieve its interests in Central Asia. / No início do século XXI, Cazaquistão, China, Quirguistão, Rússia, Tajiquistão e Uzbequistão criaram a Organização de Cooperação de Shangai. A proeminência dessa organização internacional está no fato de ela representar a primeira iniciativa chinesa na construção de um organismo internacional de segurança. O presente artigo tem por objetivo estudar a Política Externa Chinesa para a Ásia Central sob a ótica da Organização de Cooperação de Shangai. Como problemática, busca- se responder de que maneira essa organização internacional possibilita ao Estado chinês atingir seus interesses na região centro asiática.

  7. The Impact of Turkey’s Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Turkey’s domestic resources, which are Turkey’s historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey’s economic interests in the region, affect Turkey’s foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics’ interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic states are the closer the foreign relations are between Turkey and the Turkic states is applicable to all five republics. In the field of business the study finds that Turkish economy follows a similar pattern in its relations with the Azerbaijani and the Central Asian market. Common policy goals of Turkey and the five states led Turkey to establish close foreign relations with these five regional countries. The hypothesis that the more Turkey has business interests in the Caspian Sea Region the more Turkey will have closer foreign relations with Turkic states is mostly apparent in the case of Azerbaijan. In the area of energy politics Turkey has its strongest link with Azerbaijan. Besides being strong economic partners Turkey is Azerbaijan’s biggest supporter in the region against Armenia.

  8. Asian republics: the gas industry of the southern FSU [former Soviet Union

    The central Asian and Caucasian states of the former Soviet Union differ widely in terms of natural gas production, reserves and future potential but have two features in common. Firstly, they have a form of ''common gas market'' with Turkmenistan largely supplying the gas demand of the whole region. Secondly, these states are land-locked and present gas transport routes all across Russian territory. Alternative routes to the western European market which by-pass Russia are being sought by Turkmenistan whose exports compete with those of the Russian Federation. Turkmenistan is the second largest producer of gas in the former Soviet Union after Russia. There is currently a crisis in the Turkmen gas industry, though, caused by technical problems and difficulties in attracting foreign investment for exploration. Of these southern states, Uzbekistan is the only one to have expanded production since the break-up of the Soviet Union by the timely replacement of depleting fields by new ones. Kazakhstan's production is falling rapidly and further development is dependent on Russian infrastructure and benevolence as 75% of known reserves are on the Russian border, Gas production in Azerbaijan, which is also declining, is largely associated gas from offshore fields. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan produce only small amounts of associated gas and prospects for expansion of output are slim. (2 tables) (UK)

  9. Eastern Europe and Community of Independent States.

    Axmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslavian countries; and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. There is little in-depth research on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. After the collapse of the USSR, the opening up of borders presented greater options for the spread of HIV. During 1991-1996, HIV-infected persons increased from 0.3/100,000 to 7.8/100,000. Syphilis and gonorrhea also spread in the 1990s. The increased prevalence is attributed to changes in sexual behavior due to increased travel and migration, disruption among families, and changes in sexual mores; and changes in the structure, availability, and effectiveness of health services. Many migrants in the CIS are young people. Mobile populations in the CIS include labor migrants, refugees, persons displaced by armed conflicts, repatriates, forced migrants, resettlement of formerly deported persons, and ecological migrants. It is general knowledge that migrants are poorly informed about HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not readily available in the CIS. Eastern Europe has high rates of HIV among migrant sex workers. PMID:12295097

  10. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region. PMID:26254293

  11. The Impacts of Political Terrorism on Gross Domestic Product in Eurasia: A Spatial Data Analysis

    Huseyin ALTAY

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate impact of political terrorism on GDP for Eurasia region countries by using spatial statistics in the period of 1996-2013. For this purpose, quantile maps, Morans Scotterplots, LISA (Local Indicators of Spatial Association statistics are performed. We firstly found that there are the negative impacts of political terrorism on GDP. Secondly, countries as Iceland, Ireland, UK, Portugal, Spain, Norway, Sweden, Italy, Austria, Czech Rep., Denmark, Slovenia, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxemburg, Switzerland, Finland, and Netherland are determined as the strongest positive attraction centers in all Europe countries. Thirdly, Asian countries as India, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Tajikistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar are obtained as the strongest negative attraction centers for Asia. The rest of countries in Asia have been negatively affected by these negative attraction centers. Finally, for the big part of Asia (exclude countries as Japan, South Korea regions, political terrorism is one of the biggest factors of poorness and weakness of per capita GDP

  12. Nuclear science and its application. Book of abstracts

    The specialists and scientists from the following countries - Azerbaijan, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Austria, USA, Tajikistan, Russia took part at the Fourth Eurasian Conference devoted to Nuclear Science and its application, held in Baku during 31 Oct - 03 Nov 2006. The main activity of this conference has covered a wide range of topics that are of a great importance for countries in Eurasia. The fields which were considered included present state and prospective of nuclear energy development, fundamental issues of nuclear sciences, regional environmental problems and application of nuclear technologies. The special attention is given to problems of non-proliferation and prevention of illicit trafficking. This book consists of 4 sections, one part of plenary reports, then the author indexes are given here and at the end of this book there is a shift of addresses of all the participants. Section 1 is devoted to consideration of using the nuclear energy. Section 2 is devoted to solving of the basic problems of nuclear physics. Radiation ecology considered in section 3. Section 4 is devoted to consideration of application of nuclear technologies in industry, medicine and agriculture

  13. Euroasian Integration Process and Effective Institutional Mechanism Creation Problems

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article "Euroasian Integration Process and Effective Institutional Mechanism Creation Problems" author investigates the problem of effective and balanced decision-making mechanism in the integration communities creation. Process of the Customs union creation on the Euroasian space began relatively long ago. Creation of such union was started by the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in the 1995. The same year Republic of Kazakhstan joined an integration process. A little later Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan joined the Customs union – in 1996 and in 1999 respectively. Author on the basis of careful study of the decision-making mechanisms in the Customs union, CIS, EurAsEC and EU, carries out the comparative analysis of the specified mechanisms. Author conducts detailed analytics, gives opinions of jurists, state and public figures, proves own opinions. On the basis of the comparative research conducted by the author the criteria of legal mechanism of decision-making in the integration process efficiency are researched and discussed, what allows to speak about the integration of the legal system. At the end of the article author draws a conclusion that coordination of sovereign desires of states in the integration community represents difficult and many-sided process which has to be based on the balanced decision-making mechanism, which is a main criterion of the institutional mechanism of integration efficiency.

  14. State-Propagated Narratives about a National Defender in Central Asian States

    Erica Marat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between narratives propagated by the state about a historical national hero and a contemporary soldier's professional ideology in the post-Soviet Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. It argues that while elite-maintained mass publishing of cohesive narratives about a vividly drawn historical persona, male and warrior, trigger at raising a loyal soldier unified with his compatriots on the basis of cultural values and objects of loyalty, state elites seek to link a contemporary army recruit with his historical predecessors who fought for unity, integrity, and dominance of the nation. But the link inevitably merges with ethno-centric ideas of protecting the cultural community identified with the narrative, as opposed to a physical entity within the state borders. State elites reinforce the significance of military experience of the titular ethnic entity in accordance with their own political interests. Narratives about a national defender articulate what the political elites expect from the military service but are restrained from depicting in official policy documents. In order to reach effective results, the Central Asian states retained the same Soviet tools of cultivating patriotism as the basis for the army's internal discipline, but primordial characters have also been incorporated into the indoctrination.

  15. Los retos de la cooperacin regional en Asia central: Ms sombras que luces en la gestin de los recursos hdricos compartidos

    Mar Campins Eritja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the situation in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tayikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan is an interesting excercice in order to analyze the evolution of the international environmental security concept. As an exemple of how environmental changes may come to acquire an entity such as to be perceived as a threat when they combine with inequitable allocation of resources, we focus on shared water resources management. The framework at international level should be the two main instruments in this field, the 1992 Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes and the 1997 Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. On the one hand, Central Asian States have shown only a weak commitment to these international regimes. On the contrary, they have prioritized the former URSSs model of water and energy exchange. This model, as being unsustainable and inequitable, favors the extreme dichotomy between the two major competing uses of water in the region (irrigation and hydropower production. On the other hand, some sub-regional institutions served to clarify the articulation of water management structures. However, because of important issues on their internal organization, they have not been able to achieve their mission and their efforts seems to be directed to seek stability and the status quo in Central Asia.

  16. Towards a cross-border exposure model for the Earthquake Model Central Asia

    Marc Wieland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work provides an insight into the development of the first harmonized exposure model for Central Asia. The model was derived in the frame of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA project, which is the regional initiative for Central Asia to the Global Earthquake Model (GEM. The EMCA exposure model combines commonly used data sources and acquisition techniques (e.g., rapid visual screening with novel rapid assessment approaches (e.g., satellite remote sensing and omnidirectional imaging in the framework of an integrated sampling scheme and stores the data in a multi-resolution spatio-temporal database. The exposure model implements a newly developed building typology, harmonized for the five Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan and follows the international building taxonomy of the GEM. Emphasis is given to the multi-scale nature and the temporal dynamics of exposure data. Results from a selected urban area are provided to illustrate the current state of the continuously updated exposure model.

  17. Procesos sociales y culturales en el mundo turco

    Ott Kurs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of this article describres the distribution and lingustic groups of the Turkic population and thereafter characterised the latest social and cultural developments in each Turkic states. Turkey, as the most developed state, supplies material and cultural help to the other Turkic states situated in the interior of Eurasia. The best results in this all-Turkic co-operation appear not insomuch in the partnership with nearby Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan, which are influenced by neighbouring Iran, but with easternmost Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakstan. All these states belong to the OSCE. Thus, Mediterranean Turkey, with its experience in democratic development, is the gateway of Mediterranean countries to Central Asia. At the same time, the eastern Turkic states export raw materials and some elements of their ancient folk culture to penisular Turkey. The all-Turkic co-operation is a good example of mutually-useful relations between the Eurasian Heartland and Rimland, considered in the classical theory of geopolitics by some antagonists.

  18. Nuclear material in the NIS. Experience and progress in enhancing security

    The break-up of the former Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in the creation of 14 newly independent States (NIS), besides the Russian Federation. Eleven States are known to have nuclear activities (including mining activities). These are Armenia, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Three other States are known to have no nuclear activity or mining activity. These are Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Turkmenistan. All 14 States have acceded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Safeguards agreements have been signed with 12 of the States. There are nine States where a safeguards agreement is in force: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, and three States - Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia - have signed safeguards agreements which are pending ratification. Azerbaijan was the latest State to sign a safeguards agreement, in 1999. Eight States have signed the Additional Protocol. The Additional Protocol has entered into force in four of the NIS: Azerbaijan, Latvia, Lithuania, and Uzbekistan. Long before the individual NIS ratified the NPT and signed the safeguards agreements, IAEA experts and safeguards staff went on technical visits to locations where the State informed the Agency that there was nuclear material. The purposes of these visits were to advise the country on the initial inventory declarations and possible safeguards activities for each facility, to explain these activities to facility and State representatives, and to demonstrate safeguards equipment that would be used, thereby preparing the facility for eventual inspections. A wide variety of different types of nuclear facilities (uranium mining, fuel fabrication plant, commercial nuclear power plants, research reactors, and storage facilities) are located in the NIS. With most NIS becoming parties to the NPT as non-nuclear weapon States, there has been an acute need in these States for considerable assistance for the establishment of the necessary structure and resources to ensure that their commitments to non-proliferation are fully implemented in a timely manner. A number of IAEA Member States (donor States) offered and provided assistance to the NIS on a bilateral level to set up an appropriate State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) which includes Import/Export Control and Physical Protection of Nuclear Material in each State. The IAEA and these donor States established the Coordinated Technical Support Programme (CTSP) to ensure that the support given to the NIS was done in a coordinated and transparent manner and to avoid duplication of effort. The IAEA has played a coordinating role for the past eight years by helping to identify detailed needs in individual States, by providing a platform for Member States to identify areas where they could provide the optimum support, and in developing and preparing the Coordinated Technical Support Plans. The donor and recipient countries regularly meet in Vienna to review the focus and implementation status of the coordinated technical support activities in the NIS

  19. Atmospheric Transport of Arid Aerosol from Desert Regions of Central Asia

    Chen, Boris; Solomon, Paul; Sitnov, Sergei; Grechko, Evgeny; Maximenkov, Leonid; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    Investigation of atmospheric transport of arid aerosol from Central Asia was held within the ISTC project 3715. Particular attention was paid to the removal of aerosol from the Aral Sea region and its further transport, because aerosol and pollutants emission from Central Asia affect the airspace of the entire Asian continent. At the same time measurements of aerosols in the atmosphere of Central Asia are holding in a small number of stations, and currently available data are insufficient to define the initial conditions and/or verification of models of long-range transport. To identify sources of pollution transported from Central Asia, in Kyrgyzstan measurement and sampling of air were organized: at the station on the northern slope of the Kirgiz Range, 30 km south of Bishkek, at an altitude of 1700 m above sea level (Bishkek Site, 42,683N; 74,694E ), and on permanent alpine Teploklyuchenka lidar station in the Central Tien Shan at an altitude of 2000 m above sea level (Lidar Site, 42,467N; 78,533E). The chemical analysis of collected aerosol and soils samples was carried out. Measurements of aerosol at these stations have been merged with the simulation of the trajectories of air masses in the study region and with the satellite (the Terra and Aqua satellites) observations of aerosol optical thickness in this region. Satellite data for the region 43-47 N, and 58-62 E (Aral Sea) from April 2008 to September 2009 were analyzed. The moments were selected, when the value of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was greatest (more than 0.5), and the transport from the Aral Sea region to the observation sites took place. For each of these days, the forward trajectories, which started at 6 points within the region, were calculated using the HYSPLIT model. The days, on which the trajectories reached the BISHKEK and LIDAR sites, were determined from the data obtained. Calculations on the basis of the RAMS model were performed for these days. These calculations were performed using a grid of 160*120*30 points. The obtained meteorological fields were used in the HYPACT model; the source of Lagrangian particles was located over the Aral Sea region. As the result for 2008 11 days were detected when aerosol from the Aral Sea was actively transported to the observation sites. Comparative chemical analysis of aerosol samples at the stations of observation and soil samples from the Aral Sea region would confirm the presence of emissions and regional transport. It should be noted that the main source of aerosol in Central Asia is Taklamakan desert. Average value and AOT variability over it several times higher than corresponding AOT values over the rest of the region. The greatest variability aerosol over Taklamakan observed from late March to mid-May. For example, on April 22, 2008 average of the AOT in cell 5° x 5° over the western part of Taklamakan - value reached 3,171. AOT virtually throughout the region positively correlated with AOT over Taklamakan desert. The most noticeable effect makes an aerosol of Taklamakan found in the south-east Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan in the east and north of the Tibetan highlands. The impact of the Aral Sea area is restricted significantly less. In doing so, AOT in the central part of the region reveals a weak negative correlation with the AOT over the Aral Sea.

  20. Discrimination between induced and natural seismicity by means of nonlinear analysis

    Turuntaev, S. B.; Melchaeva, O. Yu.; Vorohobina, S. V.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of human activity on the Earth's interior often causes activation of seismic processes, i.e., generates induced seismicity. Nowadays, the problem of distinguishing between the natural and induced seismicity have become important. The increasing interest to this problem is caused by the issues which seem to be far from related to seismicity, for examples, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere through the transition to the so-called green energy sources (such as hydrothermal power plants). Some geothermal power plants are located in the seismically active regions, which impedes referring the increase in seismic activity to the induced effects or natural variations. Efficient methods for analyzing the behavior of complex dynamical systems (to which the geophysical systems pertain) were developed in the field of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, these methods allow one to identify the changes in the state of the system, which are caused by external action. If a system exposed to some impact has changed its state, the processes in this system will contain a deterministic component defined by the external factor. The appearance of the deterministic component should decrease the fractal dimension of the attractor in the phase space of the system states (if such attractor is distinguished) and decrease the dimension of the embedding space (the number of the key parameters required for describing the behavior of the system). The Grassberger-Procaccia method is the widest-adopted approach for estimating the dimensions of the attractor and the embedding space. In the presented work, we use this method for analyzing the seismicity in several regions that suffered from technogeneous impacts. In some cases considered, the seismicity was not obviously induced. Four data sets were analyzed: (1) the seismicity in the region of the Romashkino oil field, Russia; (2) the seismic activity before and after the large-scale explosions on Burlykiya and Uch-Terek Rivers in Kyrgyzstan; (3) the seismicity in the region of the Geysers geothermal complex in California, US; (4) the seismicity in the region of Bishkek geophysical test site, Kyrgyzstan, recorded before and after strong electromagnetic discharges. The nonlinear analysis of the data sets on seismicity showed that technogeneous action on the geophysical medium increases the regularity of the seismic regime. It looks like the formation of stable states characterized by a finite fractal dimension of the attractor and reasonable small dimension of the embedding space. The presence of the stable states opens the possibility of forecasting the development of induced seismic activity. We also present the results of nonlinear analysis of the rate-and-state model, which allows us to describe the mechanics of the studied phenomenon. In this context, the model of motion in the fault zones that obey the two-parameters friction law suggests that if the external action causes the critical stresses to decrease e.g. due to the growth of the pore pressure or due to heating of the fault zone, we should expect the deterministic component of the seismic process to increase.

  1. Shifting mountain snow patterns in a changing climate from remote sensing retrieval.

    Dedieu, J P; Lessard-Fontaine, A; Ravazzani, G; Cremonese, E; Shalpykova, G; Beniston, M

    2014-09-15

    Observed climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on environmental systems and society. In this context, many mountain regions seem to be particularly sensitive to a changing climate, through increases in temperature coupled with changes in precipitation regimes that are often larger than the global average (EEA, 2012). In mid-latitude mountains, these driving factors strongly influence the variability of the mountain snow-pack, through a decrease in seasonal reserves and earlier melting of the snow pack. These in turn impact on hydrological systems in different watersheds and, ultimately, have consequences for water management. Snow monitoring from remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to address the question of snow cover regime changes at the regional scale. This study outlines the results retrieved from the MODIS satellite images over a time period of 10 hydrological years (2000-2010) and applied to two case studies of the EU FP7 ACQWA project, namely the upper Rhone and Po in Europe and the headwaters of the Syr Darya in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia). The satellite data were provided by the MODIS Terra MOD-09 reflectance images (NASA) and MOD-10 snow products (NSIDC). Daily snow maps were retrieved over that decade and the results presented here focus on the temporal and spatial changes in snow cover. This paper highlights the statistical bias observed in some specific regions, expressed by the standard deviation values (STD) of annual snow duration. This bias is linked to the response of snow cover to changes in elevation and can be used as a signal of strong instability in regions sensitive to climate change: with alternations of heavy snowfalls and rapid snow melting processes. The interest of the study is to compare the methodology between the medium scales (Europe) and the large scales (Central Asia) in order to overcome the limits of the applied methodologies and to improve their performances. Results show that the yearly snow cover duration increases by 4-5 days per 100 m elevation during the accumulation period, depending of the watershed, while during the melting season the snow depletion rate is 0.3% per day of surface loss for the upper Rhone catchment, 0.4%/day for the Syr Darya headwater basins, and 0.6%/day for the upper Po, respectively. Then, the annual STD maps of snow cover indicate higher values (more than 45 days difference compared to the mean values) for (i) the Po foothill region at medium elevation (SE orientation) and (ii) the Kyrgyzstan high plateaux (permafrost areas). These observations cover only a time-period of 10 years, but exhibit a signal under current climate that is already consistent with the expected decline in snow in these regions in the course of the 21st century. PMID:24842410

  2. Tien Shan Geohazards Database: Earthquakes and landslides

    Havenith, H. B.; Strom, A.; Torgoev, I.; Torgoev, A.; Lamair, L.; Ischuk, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present new and review already existing landslide and earthquake data for a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions have been presented previously. They were compiled and new data were added to fill the gaps between the databases. Major new inputs are products of the Central Asia Seismic Risk Initiative (CASRI): a tentative digital map of active faults (even with indication of characteristic or possible maximum magnitude) and the earthquake catalogue of Central Asia until 2009 that was now updated with USGS data (to May 2014). The new compiled landslide inventory contains existing records of 1600 previously mapped mass movements and more than 1800 new landslide data. Considering presently available seismo-tectonic and landslide data, a target region of 1200 km (E-W) by 600 km (N-S) was defined for the production of more or less continuous geohazards information. This target region includes the entire Kyrgyz Tien Shan, the South-Western Tien Shan in Tajikistan, the Fergana Basin (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) as well as the Western part in Uzbekistan, the North-Easternmost part in Kazakhstan and a small part of the Eastern Chinese Tien Shan (for the zones outside Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, only limited information was available and compiled). On the basis of the new landslide inventory and the updated earthquake catalogue, the link between landslide and earthquake activity is analysed. First, size-frequency relationships are studied for both types of geohazards, in terms of Gutenberg-Richter Law for the earthquakes and in terms of probability density function for the landslides. For several regions and major earthquake events, case histories are presented to outline further the close connection between earthquake and landslide hazards in the Tien Shan. From this study, we concluded first that a major hazard component is still now insufficiently known for both types of geohazards - and even totally unknown for most giant landslides: the time information. Thus, dating rockslides and any large mass movement is a crucial factor in order to better constrain related hazards. Second, we highlight the role of coupled hazards in the Tien Shan - inside the mountain range the largest disasters were caused by earthquake-triggered landslides and massive earth flows. Therefore, it is of prime importance for these mountain regions to complement single hazard assessment by coupled hazard scenarios. On the basis of these scenarios, risk evaluations may then be completed considering direct impacts on artificial dams, hydropower schemes, mining and road infrastructure as well as remote effects from possible dam breaches and mobilisation of mining and nuclear waste storages. Basic hazard and risk components are partly analysed in this paper and partly in a companion paper 'Tien Shan geohazards database: Landslide susceptibility and impacts'.

  3. Alternative Organizations by which Russia is Trying to Impose on the International Stage

    Florinel Iftode

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Security or insecurity dominates the current context of international relations. It is a situation generated by the collapse of the Eastern European communist bloc and the USSR in the late 80s and early 90s, or the resistance impact to the New World Order fueled by the negative phenomena of globalization. One of the concerns of any policymakers is to know well the power relations at global and regional levels, as from their substance they will know which are the margins of action, towards one direction or another. Therefore, it will always seek to find out who is stronger and who could take domination on the scenes of international politics. Therefore, we will briefly review the factors that make the countries Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa unable to defeat the global dominance of the US and its major allies, only to budge it a little. Vladimir Putin has created two organizations competing to G7 and NATO. Two summits were held in Ufa, Russian Federation: the Summit of the Organization of Shanghai Cooperation (comprised of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan and the group BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. At the summit the organization was invited Belarus president, Alexander Lukashenko, as the leader of a country member in the Eurasian Economic Union countries. The Kremlin is trying to play the leading role in these organizations, but according to the International experts, such attempts did not succeed because Moscow cannot go beyond the shadow of Beijing's de facto leader of both structures.

  4. Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan

    Polonium-210 in water and 210Pb and 210Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of 210Pb and 210Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of 210Po was higher than for 210Pb, and the accumulation of 210Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg−1 ww). Although the average activity concentration of 210Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25–327 Bq kg−1 ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported 210Po into the liver, and that the distributions of 210Po and 210Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for 210Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 105, >2.5 × 104 and >1.4 × 104, respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log 210Po in liver and δ15N could indicate biomagnification of 210Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for 210Po, the concentration of 210Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake

  5. [Legislation concerning reproductive health in Central and Eastern Europe: new facts].

    Fluss, S S

    1994-05-01

    In this article, WHO reports on certain laws promulgated in different central and eastern European countries in the early 1990s. Russia has passed a law creating a Coordinating Committee on Problems of the Family, Motherhood, and Childhood. It brings together governmental agencies, public organizations, and citizens to identify ways to improve women's status and protection of maternal and child health. Russia has also adopted Legislative Orientations of the Russian Federation concerning the Sanitary Protection of Citizens. For example, this law guarantees pregnant women the right to work under conditions adapted to their physiological and sanitary state. A whole chapter is dedicated to family planning and regulation of human procreation. Only women have the right to decide whether to terminate or continue their pregnancy. A law in Kyrgyzstan states that every woman has the right to make her own decisions concerning motherhood. With their consent, women also have the right to modern contraceptive methods. Sterilization can only be done with the consent of the woman or for medical reasons. The Counsel of Ministers in the Ukraine adopted a program aiming to improve the condition of women and the family and to protect mothers and children. A Hungarian law does not consider abortion to be a family planning method or a means of fertility control. At the same time, it considers family planning to be a right and a duty of parents. It calls for considerable education on the value of health and life, the healthy life, responsibilities accompanying relations between partners, a family life compatible with human dignity, and contraceptive methods. Albania first approved family planning activities in May 1992. Romania approved technical norms relative to hormonal contraceptives and to IUDs. In January 1993, Poland passed a law restricting abortion to cases of medical indications, fetal death, a grave abnormality, and illicit acts. PMID:12222255

  6. Automated complex of radiation control of movement of fissile and other radioactive materials

    Full text: In the frame of grant FA-A11-F072 automated radiation control complex on the basis of multi-detector system was elaborated. The following problems were solved during the study: system configuration including standards, elemental basis, interfaces, information exchange protocols, signals, power supply units, construction details and so on. The functional schemes of constituent pars and the complex as a whole were elaborated including software algorithms and the construction of radiation monitor. In 2010 the experimental prototype of radiation control complex was manufactured and software for microcontrollers was elaborated. Long time laboratory tests of the system including temperature ones were fulfilled and the scientific technical documentation was prepared. The experimental sample of detection system of fissile and other radioactive materials was installed at Bekabad UZMETKOMBINAT enterprise. Installed system comprises two pillars of radiation portal monitor with 8 gamma detectors, power supply unit, data processing unit, commutation and interface transformation unit, indication and alarm elements, server on IBM PC basis and software. Installed system was officially commissioned in May 2011 at railway scales of enterprise, where the initial radiation control of incoming metal scrap rakes place. From this time up to now a lot of cases of elevated radiation level in the scrap coming from Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan were detected by radiation control system, the most frequent cause of alarms being 226Ra radionuclide. In all cases of alarms caused by radioactive materials in contaminated scrap the performers of the present project of INP AS RU conducted additional radiation research and issued expertise conclusions. Thus the radiation control system elaborated and manufactured in INP proved its reliability in detection of radioactive substances and in prevention of radiation contamination of metal products. (author)

  7. Ionizing radiation sources management in the Commonwealth of Independent States - CIS

    Ionizing radiation sources cover a broad band of power: from powerful NPP reactors and research reactors to portable radioisotope ionizing radiation sources applied in medicine, agriculture, industry and in the energy supply systems of remote facilities. At present, scales and use field of radionuclide sources in the CIS have the tendency to increase. In this connection, the issues of ionizing radiation sources management safety at all stages of their life cycle, from production to treatment, have been of a great importance. The materials on ionizing radiation sources inventory and treatment in the CIS (Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Ukraine) are presented in the report. It is shown that in some republics, there is difficulty in ionizing radiation sources accounting and control system; the national regulatory and legal framework bases regulating activity on radioactive sources use, localization and treatment require update. Many problems are connected with the sources beyond state accounting. The problem of ionizing radiation sources use safety is complicated by the growing activity of various terrorist groups. The opportunity to use ionizing radiation sources with terrorism goals requires the application of defined systems of security and physical protection at all stages of their management. For this purpose a collective, with all CIS countries, organization of radioactive sources accounting and control as well as countermeasures on their illegal transportation and use are necessary. In this connection, the information collection regarding situation with providing of ionizing radiation sources safety, conditions of equipment and storage facilities, radioactive materials accounting and control system in the CIS countries is vitally needed

  8. Missing Millions and Measuring Progress towards the Millenium Development Goals with a focus on Central Asian States

    Roy Carr-Hill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In developing countries, population estimates and assessments of progress towards the Millenium Development Goals are based increasingly on household surveys.  It is not recognised that they are inappropriate for obtaining information about the poorest of the poor..  This is because they, typically, omit by design: those not in households because they are homeless; those who are in institutions; and mobile, nomadic or pastoralist populations.  In addition, in practice, because they are difficult to reach, household surveys will typically under-represent: those in fragile, disjointed or multiple occupancy households; those in urban slums, and may omit certain areas of a country deemed to pose a security risk. Those six sub-groups constitute a pretty comprehensive ostensive definition of the ‘poorest of the poor’. Methods This paper documents these omissions in general, drawing on worldwide literature about the theory and practice fo implementing censuses and household surveys; and shows how substantial proportions are missing from both censuses and the sample frames of surveys. Results This paper suggests that between 300 and 350 million will effectively be missed worldwide from the sampling frames of such surveys and from most censuses.  The impact on the health MDGs is illustrated for the five republics of the former Soviet Union making up Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan Conclusions It is impossible to assess progress towards or away from the MDGS in both the Central Asian Republics and worldwide.  It is urgent to find solutions to the problem of the ‘missing ‘ poor population sub-groups.

  9. Information Management Systems for Cultural Heritage and Conservation of World Heritage Sites. The Silk Roads Case Study

    Ona Vileikis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of Information Management Systems (IMS in cultural heritage. IMS offer a set of tools for understanding, inventorying and documenting national, regional and World Heritage properties.  Information Management Systems can assist State Parties, stakeholders and heritage site managers involved in cultural heritage management and conservation by easily mining, sharing and exchanging information from multiple sources based on international standards. Moreover, they aim to record, manage, visualize, analyze and disseminate heritage information. In close collaboration with five Central Asian countries, namely, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan; a Belgian consortium headed by the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC, K.U.Leuven is developing the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (CHRIS. This Web-based Information Management System supports the preparation of the Central Asia Silk Roads serial and transnational nominations on the UNESCO World Heritage list. The project has been set up thanks to the financial support of the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO and in collaboration with UNESCO World Heritage Centre in conjunction with the People’s Republic of China and the Japanese Funds-in-Trust UNESCO project. It provides a holistic approach for the recording, documenta tion, protection and monitoring tasks as part of the management of these potential World Heritage Properties. The Silk Roads CHRIS is easily accessible to the general user, presented in a bilingual English and Russian frame and interoperable, i.e. open for other applications to connect to. In this way, all information for the nomination dossiers is easily verified regarding consistency and quality and ready for managing, periodic reporting and monitoring processes in the respect to the property listed. Fina lly, this study provides a general framework to establish the effectiveness and limits of the use of information systems for serial transnational nominations of World Heritage Properties and to demonstrate the potentials of an improved heritage documentation system.

  10. Good Health at Low Cost 25 years on: lessons for the future of health systems strengthening.

    Balabanova, Dina; Mills, Anne; Conteh, Lesong; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Banteyerga, Hailom; Dash, Umakant; Gilson, Lucy; Harmer, Andrew; Ibraimova, Ainura; Islam, Ziaul; Kidanu, Aklilu; Koehlmoos, Tracey P; Limwattananon, Supon; Muraleedharan, V R; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Palafox, Benjamin; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; McKee, Martin

    2013-06-15

    In 1985, the Rockefeller Foundation published Good health at low cost to discuss why some countries or regions achieve better health and social outcomes than do others at a similar level of income and to show the role of political will and socially progressive policies. 25 years on, the Good Health at Low Cost project revisited these places but looked anew at Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Thailand, and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which have all either achieved substantial improvements in health or access to services or implemented innovative health policies relative to their neighbours. A series of comparative case studies (2009-11) looked at how and why each region accomplished these changes. Attributes of success included good governance and political commitment, effective bureaucracies that preserve institutional memory and can learn from experience, and the ability to innovate and adapt to resource limitations. Furthermore, the capacity to respond to population needs and build resilience into health systems in the face of political unrest, economic crises, and natural disasters was important. Transport infrastructure, female empowerment, and education also played a part. Health systems are complex and no simple recipe exists for success. Yet in the countries and regions studied, progress has been assisted by institutional stability, with continuity of reforms despite political and economic turmoil, learning lessons from experience, seizing windows of opportunity, and ensuring sensitivity to context. These experiences show that improvements in health can still be achieved in countries with relatively few resources, though strategic investment is necessary to address new challenges such as complex chronic diseases and growing population expectations. PMID:23574803

  11. Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan

    H.-B. Havenith

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

  12. A plan for location calibration of IMS stations and near Kazakhstan

    For purposes of monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, it is desirable to be able to locate seismic events routinely to within an uncertainty not greater than 1000 square km. From more than five years of experience with publication of the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) by the Prototype International Data Centre (PIDC), resulting in estimated locations for more than 100,000 seismic events, it is apparent that improved location accuracy is needed in order to reduce uncertainties below 1000 square km. In this paper, we outline a three-year program of applied research which commenced in March 2000 and which has the goal of achieving improved REB locations based upon data to be contributed to the International Data Centre from 30 IMS stations in Eastern Asia. Our first efforts will focus on the four IMS seismographic stations in Kazakhstan (AKT, BRV, KUR, MAK), together with IMS stations ZAL in Russia and AAK in Kyrgyzstan. Following the recommendations of two 'IMS Location Calibration Workshops' held in Oslo, Norway, in 1999 and 2000, our approach is to generate station-specific travel times for each observable seismic phase, as a function of distance and azimuth (and depth, where possible). Such travel times are obtained on the basis of (i) early studies based mainly on earthquake data (e.g. Nersesov and Rautian, 1964), (ii) Deep Seismic Sounding, and (iii) recent studies of nuclear and chemical explosions. We are also using (iv) an empirical approach in which phases are picked at IMS stations, for so-called Ground Truth events whose location is known quite accurately on the basis of additional data, obtained for example from local and regional networks. (author)

  13. Navruz Project: Sharing radioactivity data for the rivers of Uzbekistan

    The Navruz Project is an international, collaborative, transboundary data collection and data sharing project for rivers in the Aral Sea basin engaging scientist and water managers from Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tadjikistan, Uzbekistan and the United States. Standardized sampling and data collection methods assure that data are comparable across international borders, and data are shared among all partners and public through a website at http://ironside.sandia.gov/Central/centralasia.html. As a result of measurement of pollution of water and bottom sediments, the areas with high concentration of radionuclides are revealed. In particular, the Akhangaran and Syr-Darya rivers were studied and it was shown that the beta- and an alpha-activity of Akhangaran river water is significant in the sampling point 19 (former uranium mine). Migration of uranium series radionuclides up to a water deposit (point 21) is observed. At the inflow to the water deposit a small aura of uranium salts was formed due to migration of soluble salts of uranium. However, at confluence of Akhangaran and Syr-Darya the increase of both total beta- and alpha-activity is observed occurring, apparently, due to drainage waters. The beta- and alpha-activity of Syr-Darya river water gradually grows and reaches 1.02 and 0.65 Bq/L, respectively. This increase is possibly caused by the human technogenic activity. Thus, it is necessary to note that the alpha-activity level of water exceeds permissible level for drinking water in practically all investigated points. For the Akhangaran river, alpha-activity of bottom sediments is significant and subjected to seasonal fluctuations (autumn - increase, spring - decrease). Migration of radionuclides in bottom sediments can be observed at the distance up to 60 km from the point where the pollution source is located, which is especially pronounced for uranium series nuclides. This demonstrates the geochemical properties of uranium, and shows that salts of uranium are more mobile, than salts of thorium. (author)

  14. Development and evaluation of a water level proportional water sampler

    Schneider, P.; Lange, A.; Doppler, T.

    2013-12-01

    We developed and adapted a new type of sampler for time-integrated, water level proportional water quality sampling (e.g. nutrients, contaminants and stable isotopes). Our samplers are designed for sampling small to mid-size streams based on the law of Hagen-Poiseuille, where a capillary (or a valve) limits the sampling aliquot by reducing the air flux out of a submersed plastic (HDPE) sampling container. They are good alternatives to battery-operated automated water samplers when working in remote areas, or at streams that are characterized by pronounced daily discharge variations such as glacier streams. We evaluated our samplers against standard automated water samplers (ISCO 2900 and ISCO 6712) during the snowmelt in the Black Forest and the Alps and tested them in remote glacial catchments in Iceland, Switzerland and Kyrgyzstan. The results clearly showed that our samplers are an adequate tool for time-integrated, water level proportional water sampling at remote test sites, as they do not need batteries, are relatively inexpensive, lightweight, and compact. They are well suited for headwater streams - especially when sampling for stable isotopes - as the sampled water is perfectly protected against evaporation. Moreover, our samplers have a reduced risk of icing in cold environments, as they are installed submersed in water, whereas automated samplers (typically installed outside the stream) may get clogged due to icing of hoses. Based on this study, we find these samplers to be an adequate replacement for automated samplers when time-integrated sampling or solute load estimates are the main monitoring tasks.

  15. National Legislation and Regulations in the Uranium Legacy Radiation Safety of the Former USSR

    There are many uranium legacy sites in Russia and ex-Soviet republics in the Central Asia, which are decommissioned now. In Russia, there is a number of operating uranium mines and ore milling facilities to be decommissioned after termination of their life cycle. Today, the list of Russian subsoil areas of the federal significance includes 135 uranium deposits. The uranium legacy management is accompanied with the environmental impact. The intensity of such impact depends on the amount of generated waste, degree of its confining and dispersion in the environment. The whole question reduces itself to the following: to what extent this impact is harmful to the environment and human health. The proper regulation of this problem is a criterion for the safe work. Today, the advanced guidance document is under development 'Health-care requirements for design and operation of facilities for uranium ore mining and milling'. In order to enhance the regulatory framework, the following tasks are urgent: introduction of the existing exposure situation in the national laws and regulations in compliance with the ICRP statutory system; development criteria for remediation of sites and their gradual return to uncontrolled use. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary SNF and Radioactive Wastes storage; review of possibilities and methods for optimization of the remediation strategies under development; identification of the special category - R W originated from the uranium ore mining and milling. Some regulatory problems assume to be solved under the Eurasian Economic Community inter-state target programme 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines'. Within this programme, by examples of the uranium legacy facilities in Kyrgyzstan and in Tajikistan, posed to trans-border disasters and required urgent remediation, the experience will be gained to be applied in other Eurasian Economic Community member states. Harmonization of national legislation and regulations in radiation safety is provided for.

  16. Criminal victimisation and health: examining the relation in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Previous research suggests that criminal victimisation can impact negatively on both physical and psychological health. However, as yet, little is known about crime and its effects on population health in the former Soviet Union (fSU) - despite a sharp growth in crime rates in the countries in this region after the collapse of the communist system. Given this gap in current knowledge, this study examined two forms of crime, theft and violent victimisation, in nine fSU countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Using nationally representative data from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study collected from 18,000 respondents in 2010/11, the study had two main objectives: (1) to identify which demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with being a victim of crime; (2) to examine the relation between criminal victimisation and two health outcomes - self-rated health and psychological distress. We found that similar factors were associated with experiencing both forms of crime among respondents. Those who were younger, not married and who consumed alcohol more frequently were at increased risk of victimisation, while greater social capital was associated with lower odds for victimisation. Low education increased the risk of experiencing violence by 1.5 times. Victimisation was strongly associated with poorer health: victims of violence were 2.5 and 2.9 times more likely to report poor self-rated health and psychological distress, respectively, while the corresponding figures for theft victimisation were 1.9 and 1.8. The strong association we observed between criminal victimisation and poorer individual health suggests that, in addition to policies that reduce rates of crime, more research is now urgently needed on victimisation. Specifically, researchers should ascertain whether the association with poor health is causal, determine its potential mechanisms, and evaluate interventions that might mitigate its impact on health that are contextually appropriate in the fSU. PMID:23849241

  17. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 19952000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  18. Uzbekistan - nonproliferation and continuous activities on countering nuclear materials and other radioactive sources illicit trafficking

    Full text: Countering illicit trafficking of nuclear weapon and its components is an important task in the modern world. For this reason, at the borders and customs points the control of transportation is to be conducted in order to determine radioactive and fissile materials in them. This report presents the results of works performed in the period of 2001 - 2005 years on the program for development of radiation monitors and equipping the Uzbekistan border customs points with them, in order to fight the smuggling of nuclear and radioactive materials. The Republic of Uzbekistan is located on the transit transportation crossroad, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Western Europe - to the North, and Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and others - to the South. Therefore, this program is important for saving peace in the world and fighting any attempts to create nuclear weapon in the region. The radiation monitoring equipment is installed at the border customs points through which the transportation enters the Uzbekistan and at the Tashkent International Airport where passengers arrive by air. Also, the customs points are equipped through which the transportation quits for South and international passenger depart. The radiation portal monitors are designed by CIS Aspect (Dubna, Moscow region), however, we develop our own portal monitoring system which can be produced after certification. The Institute of Nuclear Physics provides the technical expertise that includes installation, calibration, maintenance, and secondary alarm response; mobile response units are being developed to rapidly and accurately identify seized material and recommend handling procedures. At present we are accumulating information on the alarm from the Yantar - type radiation monitor at the customs check-points and examining characteristics of the system to improve the results of our research

  19. Complex Seismic Anisotropy in the Earth's Inner Core Beneath Africa

    Yu, W.; Wen, L.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic anisotropic velocity structure plays an important role in understanding the geodynamics and mineral physics in the Earth's inner core. Previous seismic studies using the PKiKP-PKIKP phase pairs have suggested no evidence for the presence of anisotropy in velocity in the top 80 km of the inner core. However, the sampling coverage of the PKiKP-PKIKP phase pairs in previous studies was limited, especially along the polar paths. Here we expand our PKiKP-PKIKP dataset by collecting the PKiKP-PKIKP waveforms sampling the inner core globally and along various sampling directions. Our data are selected from the Global Seismographic Network and many regional seismic networks: GEOSCOPE, GEOFON, the Canadian National Seismic Network (CNCN), the Oceanographic Hemisphere Project (OHP), Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. Our seismic observations show that there is indeed no difference in PKiKP-PKIKP differential travel time residual between the polar and equatorial paths in most regions of the inner core, suggesting no anisotropy in velocity in the top 80 km of the inner core in most regions. Our expanded collection of the PKiKP-PKIKP phases, however, reveals a clear polar-equatorial difference in differential travel time residual in a localized region in the western hemisphere beneath Africa. The PKiKP-PKIKP data sampling along the polar paths in this area of the inner core also exhibit strong lateral variations, requiring the thickness of isotropic layer varying from 10 km or less beneath Uganda and western Africa to 50 km beneath Cameron and Congo. We will show the seismic data grouped according to their sampling regions in the inner core and anisotropic velocity models in each of these regions by waveform modeling the PKiKP-PKIKP data, the PKP data observed at the caustics distance range (141-145), and the PKPbc-PKIKP data recorded at larger distances.

  20. Marriage formation as a process intermediary between migration and childbearing

    Lesia Nedoluzhko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In studies of differences in fertility between migrants and non-migrants, marriage interferes because migration can be motivated by an impending marriage or can entail entry into a marriage market with new opportunities. One would therefore expect elevated fertility after migration, although a competing theory states that on the contrary fertility ought to be reduced in the time around the move because migration temporarily disturbs the life of the migrant. In any case marriage appears as a process that is intermediary between migration and childbearing. To handle such issues it pays to have a technique that allows the analyst to separate any disruptive effects of migration from any boosting effects of marriage in studies of childbearing. The purposes of the present paper are (i to remind us that such a technique is available, in fact is straightforward, and (ii to apply the technique to further analyze a set of data on migration and first-time parenthood in Kyrgyzstan recently used by the second author and Gunnar Andersson. The technique has the neat feature that it allows us to operate with several "clocks" at the same time. In the analysis of first births we keep track of time since migration (for migrants and time since marriage formation (for the married beside the respondent's age (for women at childbearing ages; in other connections there may be more clocks. For such analyses we make use of a flexible graphical housekeeping device that allows the analyst to keep track of a feature like whether migration occurs before or after marriage, or at the same time. This is a half-century-old flow chart of statuses and transitions and is not much more complex than the famous Lexis diagram, which originated with Gustav Zeuner, as we now know. These reflexions were first presented at a symposium dedicated to Professor Zeuner.

  1. The Costs of Benefit Sharing: Historical and Institutional Analysis of Shared Water Development in the Ferghana Valley, the Syr Darya Basin

    Ilkhom Soliev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions on water-energy-food nexus generally lack a historical perspective and more rigorous institutional analysis. Scrutinizing a relatively mature benefit sharing approach in the context of transboundary water management, the study shows how such analysis can be implemented to facilitate understanding in an environment of high institutional and resource complexity. Similar to system perspective within nexus, benefit sharing is viewed as a positive sum approach capable of facilitating cooperation among riparian parties by shifting the focus from the quantities of water to benefits derivable from its use and allocation. While shared benefits from use and allocation are logical corollary of the most fundamental principles of international water law, there are still many controversies as to the conditions under which benefit sharing could serve best as an approach. Recently, the approach has been receiving wider attention in the literature and is increasingly applied in various basins to enhance negotiations. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the costs associated with benefit sharing, particularly in the long run. The study provides a number of concerns that have been likely overlooked in the literature and examines the approach in the case of the Ferghana Valley shared by Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan utilizing data for the period from 1917 to 2013. Institutional analysis traces back the origins of property rights of the transboundary infrastructure, shows cooperative activities and fierce negotiations on various governance levels. The research discusses implications of the findings for the nexus debate and unveils at least four types of costs associated with benefit sharing: (1 Costs related to equity of sharing (horizontal and vertical; (2 Costs to the environment; (3 Transaction costs and risks of losing water control; and (4 Costs as a result of likely misuse of issue linkages.

  2. Eurasian Union: A Utopia, a Dream or a Coming Reality?

    Tuğçe Varol SEVIM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years passed after the dissolution of the USSR and the re-birth of Russian Federation and Central Asian states in the world arena in such a unipolar world. Since the rise of Vladimir Putin to power Russia resists on unipolar system and sees that as a treat to its security. Hence, Kremlin perceives that the economic strength is the sine qua non for the future of Russia in order to sustain a Big Power status not only in its region but also in the world. In 2011, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan have achieved to form a Customs Union among them and invited all the states in the region to join the organization. There were thesis which mainly argued that Russia would no longer be a “power” in the Central Asia and could only be a regional power just in case of maintaining of its own unity. However, the circumstances have changed in the region accordingly Russian weight as a result of the new conjuncture. In 2012, Russia had a new presidential election and Putin returned to Kremlin as President himself. It has been understood from his words that Kremlin's new strategy to be focused on creating a Eurasian Union including Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan at the first stage. It is aimed to analyze in this study that whether this project could be successful and if so, what could be the impacts on world order in terms of competition between Russia, the United States and China also. And finally, what could be the result of such an organization for the Russia.

  3. Mid-twentieth century increases in anthropogenic Pb, Cd and Cu in central Asia set in hemispheric perspective using Tien Shan ice core

    Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V.; Kreutz, K.; Wake, C. P.; Aizen, E.; Kang, S.; Maasch, K. A.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution major and trace element (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Ti, and V) ice core records from Inilchek glacier (5120 m above sea level) on the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau provide the first multi-decadal ice core record spanning the period 1908-1995 AD in central Tien Shan. The trace element records reveal pronounced temporal baseline trends and concentration maxima characteristic of post-1950 anthropogenic emissions. Examination of Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations, along with non-crustal calculation estimates (i.e. excess (ex) and enrichment factor (EF)), reveal that discernable anthropogenic inputs began during the 1950s and rapidly increased to the late-1970s and early 1980s, by factors up to of 5, 6 and 3, respectively, relative to a 1910-1950 means. Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations between the 1950s-1980s are reflective of large-scale Soviet industrial and agricultural development, including the growth of production and/or consumption of the non-ferrous metals, coal and phosphate fertilizers. NOAA HYSPLIT back-trajectory frequency analysis suggests pollutant sources originating primarily from southern Kazakhstan (e.g. Shymkent and Balkhash) and the Fergana Valley (located in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Inilchek ice core Pb, Cd and Cu reveals declines during the 1980s concurrent with Soviet economic declines, however, due to the rapid industrial and agricultural growth of western China, Pb, Cd and Cu trends increase during the 1990s reflecting a transition from primarily central Asian sources to emission sources from western China (e.g. Xinjiang Province).

  4. 2D dynamic studies combined with the surface curvature analysis to predict Arias Intensity amplification

    Torgoev, Almaz; Havenith, Hans-Balder

    2016-01-01

    A 2D elasto-dynamic modelling of the pure topographic seismic response is performed for six models with a total length of around 23.0 km. These models are reconstructed from the real topographic settings of the landslide-prone slopes situated in the Mailuu-Suu River Valley, Southern Kyrgyzstan. The main studied parameter is the Arias Intensity (Ia, m/sec), which is applied in the GIS-based Newmark method to regionally map the seismically-induced landslide susceptibility. This method maps the Ia values via empirical attenuation laws and our studies investigate a potential to include topographic input into them. Numerical studies analyse several signals with varying shape and changing central frequency values. All tests demonstrate that the spectral amplification patterns directly affect the amplification of the Ia values. These results let to link the 2D distribution of the topographically amplified Ia values with the parameter called as smoothed curvature. The amplification values for the low-frequency signals are better correlated with the curvature smoothed over larger spatial extent, while those values for the high-frequency signals are more linked to the curvature with smaller smoothing extent. The best predictions are provided by the curvature smoothed over the extent calculated according to Geli's law. The sample equations predicting the Ia amplification based on the smoothed curvature are presented for the sinusoid-shape input signals. These laws cannot be directly implemented in the regional Newmark method, as 3D amplification of the Ia values addresses more problem complexities which are not studied here. Nevertheless, our 2D results prepare the theoretical framework which can potentially be applied to the 3D domain and, therefore, represent a robust basis for these future research targets.

  5. Late Palaeozoic to Mesozoic kinematic history of the Talas-Ferghana strike-slip fault (Kyrgyz West Tianshan) as revealed by 40Ar/39Ar dating of syn-kinematic white mica

    Rolland, Yann; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Krner, Alfred; Corsini, Michel; Loury, Chlo; Moni, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    The NW-trending Talas-Ferghana Fault (TFF) in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, is one of the largest intracontinental strike-slip faults in the world. It extends over a distance of more than 2000 km from southern Tourghai to western Tarim and exhibits a maximum dextral offset of 200 km during the late Palaeozoic to present. The history of the fault provides important insights for the understanding of the evolution of southern Central Asia but remains poorly constrained due to lack of reliable geochronological data. We present new Ar-Ar ages and structural data from the Kyrgyz West Tianshan, that elucidate the kinematic history of the TFF in the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic. 40Ar/39Ar ages on mylonitic white micas document a deformational history consisting of several episodes. A late Carboniferous age of 312 4 Ma point to initiation of top-to-the-south and dextral transpressional deformation during a metamorphic overprint in Precambrian and Palaeozoic rocks along the northern compartment of the TFF. The main phase of dextral motion along the entire fault occurred in the Permian as suggested by minimum ages of 260-290 Ma obtained at two different locations in the NW and central parts of the TFF. Partial isotopic resetting occurred between 240 and 210 Ma and younger ages of Jurassic times. The Jurassic trans-tensional phase is featured by emplacement of 195 3 Ma pegmatitic dykes. The Ar-Ar mineral ages and structural data argue for a major phase of dextral shearing, affecting the entire region from the West Tianshan to Mongolia in the late Permian and leading to formation of almost equally spaced major NW-trending dextral strike-slip faults. The uniform character of this deformation indicates that the process of amalgamation in this part of the CAOB ended prior to the late Permian, and Central Asia evolved as a single coherent continental block since that time.

  6. AN ASSESSMENT OF ANTIBIOTICS PRESCRIBED AT THE SECONDARY HEALTH-CARE LEVEL IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    BAKTYGUL, KAMBARALIEVA; MARAT, BOZGUNCHIEV; ASHIRALI, ZURDINOV; MD. HARUN-OR-RASHID; SAKAMOTO, JUNICHI

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to evaluate the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions in a secondary health care setting in Kyrgyzstan. A retrospective analysis was performed of antibiotic prescriptions in 251 inpatient records of patients admitted to the Sokuluk Territorial Hospital. A total of 19 different antibiotics were prescribed. Penicillin G (24.9%), gentamicin (16.1%), metronidazole (15.6%) and cefazolin (14.5%) were those most frequently prescribed. The major indications for antibiotics were diseases of the respiratory system (28.0%), injury, poisoning and certain other consequences from external causes (25.5%), and diseases of the digestive system (14.3%). Almost three-quarters of the antibiotics were used parenterally, 252 of which (58.9%) were administered intramuscularly and 70 (16.4%) intravenously. Forty-five percent of the patients received two antibiotics, and 12.0% received three antibiotics during their stay at the hospital. Antibiotic therapy proved inappropriate for 184 patients (73.3%). The most common reason given for inappropriateness was the unjustified (not indicated) use of antibiotics in 143 (48.6%) cases. There was a significantly higher inappropriate choice of antibiotics in gynecology (OR=2.70, 95% CI=1.02–7.69) when compared with that in other wards. Although antibiotics were prescribed in all cases post-operatively, none of those patients were given pre-operative prophylactic antibiotics when indicated. We concluded that antibiotic prescriptions were seriously inappropriate in the Kyrgyz Republic with prescribing patterns failing to strictly adhere to the national guidelines. Adoption of an international standard and locally conformable guidelines of antibiotic use can help correct such problems. PMID:21928697

  7. WRITTEN “BATTALNAME”S IN TURKIC KAZAKH AND A REVIEW OF “TYNYSHLYKOULU’S BATTALNAME

    Nurullah CİCİOĞLU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Battal Gazi is a Muslim commander showing great heroism in Umayyad-Byzantine wars in the process of spreading Islam. During intensifying Turkish-Byzantine struggles after the conquest of Anatolia by the Turks, it is seen that this unforgettable hero was symbolized in the struggles of the Turks with the same feelings and purposes like their ancestors. Containing epics occurring around the personality of his historical-epic story “Battalname” gains a special importance as an example of the most common post Islamic legends which are formed on the basis of Turkish epic saga tradition. Seyyid Battal Gazi is the first Turkish epic that emerged in Anatolia. This epic began to be transferred to writing starting from the 11-12th century and many copies of the epic which were written on various dates in verse and prose have survived to the present day. In our study, it was determined that the span of this epic is not limited only with Anatolia, it has a span of all Turkish world geography. It was revealed that many other written copies of the epic in different Turkish dialects are available in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tatarstan, different from the written copies of Anatolia. In this study, information was given about the epic of Seyyid Battal Gazi which contains the texts of the Kazakh Turkic manuscripts and printed copies and among those identified ones a review about Tynyshlykoulu copy (Tınışlıkoğlu that is prominent in terms of the volume and scope was presented.

  8. Exhumation of Basement-cored Uplifts: Example of the Kyrgyz Range Quantified with Apatite Fission-track Thermochronology

    Sobel, Edward R.; Oskin, Michael; Burbank, Douglas; Mikolaichuk, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The Kyrgyz Range, the northernmost portion of the Kyrgyzstan Tien Shan, displays topographic evidence for lateral propagation of surface uplift and exhumation. The highest and most deeply dissected segment lies in the center of the range. To the east, topography and relief decrease, and preserved remnants of a Cretaceous regional erosion surface imply minimal amounts of bedrock exhumation. The timing of exhumation of range segments defines the lateral propagation rate of the range-bounding reverse fault and quantifies the time and erosion depth needed to transform a mountain range from a juvenile to a mature morphology. New apatite fission-track (AFT) data from three transects from the eastern Kyrgyz Range, combined with published AFT data, demonstrate that the range has propagated over 110 km eastwards over the last 7-11 Myr. Based on the thermal and topographic evolutionary history, we present a model for a time-varying exhumation rate driven by rock uplift and changes in erodability and the time scale of geomorphic adjustment to surface uplift. Easily eroded, Cenozoic sedimentary rocks overlying resistant basement control early, rapid exhumation and slow surface upliftrates. As increasing amounts of resistant basement are exposed, exhumation rates decrease while surface uplift rates are sustained or increase, thereby growing topography. As the range becomes high enough to cause ice accumulation and develop steep river valleys, fluvial and glacial erosion become more powerful and exhumation rates once again increase. Independently determined range-noma1 shortening rates have also varied over time, suggesting a feedback between erosional efficiency and shortening rate.

  9. Problem of positioning Paleogene Eurasia: A review. Efforts to resolve the issue. Implications for the India-Asia collision

    Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.

    Limitations with the `stable Eurasia' paleomagnetic database (temporal and geographic coverage) create problems for tracing the Paleogene and Cretaceous position of Earth's largest continental plate. Consequently, modeling its punctuated growth and assessing the associated tectonic processes, including basin formation along the southeastern and eastern margins, is hampered. A solution is presented in the form of a hybrid early Paleogene paleomagnetic pole (72.0°N, 177.9°E, A95 = 7.9°) derived from three sets of newly generated data; 58-55 Ma and 50±15 Ma basaltic lavas respectively from the Faroe Islands and Kyrgyzstan, and ˜52 Ma sedimentary rocks from southern England. The India-Asia collision model is reviewed in light of the new stable Eurasia pole, seismic tomography data from the mantle below the Indian Ocean-Central Asia region, and recently published, largely field-based, data from the Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone, Tibet. We suggest firstly that between 65-55 Ma India collided with an equatorially located intra-oceanic arc. Secondly, India continued to move north, although at a slower rate, eventually colliding with Eurasia ˜30 Ma. Thirdly, as a result of the collision, maximum shortening in Tibet was probably around 700 km. The principal benefit of a late Paleogene India-Asia collision concerns the reduced time between causal-event and orogenic response in East-SE Asia (the early-contact model, has a delay of >20 m.y., for example initiation of the Red River Fault). The late-collision scenario overcomes this problem, the response time being more similar to the young-active orogens operating today (e.g., Central Japan, Taiwan, New Guinea and Timor).

  10. Micro-analytical characterisation of radioactive heterogeneities in samples from Central Asian TENORM sites

    The present work focuses on the use of micro-analytical techniques to demonstrate the heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides and metals in soils collected at Former Soviet Union mining sites in Central Asia. Based on digital autoradiography, radionuclides were heterogeneously distributed in soil samples collected at the abandoned uranium mining sites Kurday, Kazakhstan, Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan and Taboshar, Tajikistan. Using electron microscopy interfaced with X-ray microanalysis submicron – mm-sized radioactive particles and rock fragments with U, As, Se and toxic metals on the surfaces were identified in Kurday and Kadji Sai samples. Employing scanning and tomographic (3D) synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF) and synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-SRXRD) allowed us to observe the inner structure of the particles without physical sectioning. The distribution of elements in virtual crosssections demonstrated that U and a series of toxic elements were rather heterogeneously distributed also within individual radioactive TENORM particles. Compared to archived data, U in Kadji Sai particles was present as uraninite (U4O9+y or UO2+x) or Na-zippeite ((Na4(UO2)6[(OH)10(SO4)3]·4H2O), i.e. U minerals with very low solubility. The results suggested that TENORM particles can carry substantial amount of radioactivity, which can be subject to re-suspension, atmospheric transport and water transport. Thus, the potential radioecological and radioanalytical impact of radioactive particles at NORM and TENORM sites worldwide should be taken into account. The present work also demonstrates that radioecological studies should benefit from the use of advanced methods such as synchrotron radiation based techniques

  11. The Virtual Silk Highway -- Connectivity for Central Asia and the Caucasus

    Frese, Hans

    2007-04-01

    This presentation focuses on Internet for research and education communities in the countries along the Great Silk Road, eight republics of the Former Soviet Union (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia) and Afghanistan. When the Internet became a standard science tool in the nineties, connectivity to this area was limited to analog telephone lines. The TAE fiber was installed from Istanbul via Tashkent to Shanghai, but it was based on international ISDN telephone calls at 10 per minute, unaffordable to communities with salaries of 300 per month. Satellites offered connectivity on short notice at better prices but funding by the communities was out of the question. Aid programs stepped in, connecting individual institutes across the area to the outside world. ISPs catered to those who could afford it, such as universities selling MBA courses, but Internet for research and education was lacking. In 2001, the NATO Science Programme added to its grants to institutes a multi-year program of providing a shared satellite service for international connectivity to all the countries above. National connectivity and solving the ``last mile problem'' was also funded, provided that a National Research and Education Network (NREN) organization was created in the country. SILK-1 ran 2002-6 for 3.5m providing 30Mbps west->east and 6Mbps east->west. QOS was implemented for video and audio conferencing. Co-funding by NRENs and others was established, but sustainability is still outstanding. Only recently, affordable fiber (SILK-2 in 2006 was issued in a technology-neutral way. No fiber bids were received, but a cheaper satellite service providing a total of 120/30Mbps for 3.5m in 2007-8. With fiber initiatives under way, it is hoped that part of SILK-2 can switch to fiber in 2009.

  12. The Case of NRENs in Central Asia

    Robert Franciscus Janz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available National Research and Education Network organizations (NRENs provide advanced information and communication technology (ICT services for the academic community of their country. Their focus is often on providing affordable high speed bandwidth amongst their members and to other research networks, but NRENs also provide other advanced services such as electronic repositories, educational environments and supercomputing facilities. Higher Education and Research institutions have to play an active role in the transformation to the “Knowledge Society”. A recent (2010 report of the International Telecommunication Union has identified NRENs as important vehicles in reaching the goals of the World Summit of the Information Society. It is also demonstrated that the Central Asian countries score very low in the Networked Readiness Indices of the World Economic Forum, including areas where strong NRENs could improve the status quo. NRENs therefore have a role that is also important for the nation itself and therefore claims for government support are legitimate. About 62% of the countries of the world already have an NREN and there are four characteristics that are common to these NRENs. In nearly all of the cases the NREN is a not-for-profit organization that not only serves the academic community, but is also owned by the same community. Four out of five Central Asian countries have an active NREN and these NRENs all participate in the EC funded CAREN project that aims to set up a sustainable regional network for the academic communities in the participating countries. Today, the Central Asian Research and Education Network (CAREN is upgrading the ancient Silk Road to a 21st-century high-speed internet highway for research and educational institutions through the region. Operational since July 2010, CAREN currently interconnects scientists and students from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.

  13. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with relation to big infrastructure projects.

  14. Malaria Status in Economic Cooperation Countries; Achievement and Gaps Toward United Nations Millennium Development Goals

    A Mirzazadeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluating the malaria status of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO member countries relation to goal 6 of 3rd Millennium Development Goals (MDGs which includes have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria.Methods: By 2009, we reviewed the MDGs reports, extracted the data from surveillance system, published, and unpublished data. The main stakeholders, from both governmental and international organizations in the country have been visited and interviewed by the research team as part of the data validation process.Results: The malaria incidence is very heterogeneous among ECO countries, which differ less than 200 cases in total country in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan to 82,564 cases (2,428/100,000 in Afghanistan and 59,284 cases (881/100,000 in Pakistan and about 18/100,000 in Iran in 2008. Malaria has been a major public health problem in Pakistan and Afghanistan and will continue to pose serious threat to millions of people due to poor environmental and socioeconomic conditions conducive to the spread of disease. The main malaria endemic areas of Iran are in southeastern part of the country; consist of less developed provinces that are bordered in the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan. There are little valid information about proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures indicators.Conclusion: All ECO countries could achieve MDGs malaria indicators by 2015 except Pakistan and Afghanistan, unless preparing urgent intervention programs to fulfill the goals.

  15. Absolute calibration of Saral/altiKa on Lake Issykkul from GPS field

    Crtaux, Jean-Francois; Calmant, Stephane; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Bonnefond, Pascal; Tashbaeva, Saadat; Berge-Nguyen, Muriel; Maisongrande, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Within the framework of Jason-2 mission, a Cal-Val project including continental waters (Rivers and lakes) had been setup in 2007. It includes installation of permanent site (meteo station, limnigraphs, GPS reference point) and regular field campaign for the whole lifetime of the satellite. The lake Issykkul in Kyrgyzstan has been chosen as site dedicated to lakes following a preliminary project in 2004 on this lake. It is funded by CNES. Over the last decade more and more scientific studies were using satellite altimetry to monitor inland waters. However, same as for ocean studies, linking time series from different missions require to accurately monitoring the biases and drifts for each parameter contributing to the final estimate of the reflector height. Moreover there is clear evidence that the calibration of satellite altimetry over ocean does not apply to inland seas (e.g., corrections, retracking, geographical effects). Regional Cal/Val sites supply invaluable data to formally establish the error budget of altimetry over continental water bodies, in addition to the global mission biases and drift monitoring. Moreover the variety of calibration sites for altimetry had to be enlarged in order to have more global distribution and more robust assessment of the altimetry system, and to check if specific conditions lead to different estimation of absolute bias of the instruments. Calibration over lakes surfaces for example has interesting characteristics with respect to ocean surface: wave and ocean tides are generally low, and to summarize, dynamic variability is much smaller than in the oceanic domain. CAL/VAL activities on the oceanic domain have a long history and protocols are well established. CAL/VAL activities on lakes are much recent but in turn they address other problems such as the performance of the various tracking/retracking algorithms and more globally assess the quality of the geophysical corrections. This is achievable when measurements of specific and numerous field campaigns and ground permanent network of level gauges and meteo stations are processed to detect biases, errors in the geophysical corrections, etc. 10 campaigns with GPS receivers have been conducted on Issykkul lake (2004, 2005, 2008 2 in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014), with receivers installed on a boat, and receivers on the shore. Cruise with GPS data along the ground track of each satellite were conducted. They allow estimating absolute bias of each altimeter, and relative bias between them. Cruise also allowed mapping the profile of the mean lake surface which is very steep in the case of the Lake Issykkul. We present here the results obtained from the last 2 campaign dedicated to the cal/val of the altKa altimeter onboard the Saral mission.

  16. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    Skipperud, L.; Rosseland, B.O.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU (Norway); Stegnar, P. [Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Yunusov, M. [IA Vostokredmet (Tajikistan); Burkitbaev, L.M. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered mobile and potentially bioavailable. Looking at fish, high BCF (L/kg) especially for {sup 210}Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of {sup 210}Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. A linear correlation between log {sup 210}Po in liver and δ{sup 15}N could indicate bio-magnification of {sup 210}Po in liver of C. auratus. These legacy sites, containing enhanced levels of natural radioactive material as well as heavy metals, may represent a hazard having a potential radiological and chemical impact on man and the environment, and measures should be taken to reduce the environmental risk to man and biota. (authors)

  17. Change detection over Sokolov open-pit mining area, Czech Republic, using multi-temporal HyMAP data (2009-2010)

    Adar, S.; Notesco, G.; Brook, A.; Livne, I.; Rojik, P.; Kopackov, V.; Zelenkova, K.; Misurec, J.; Bourguignon, A.; Chevrel, S.; Ehrler, C.; Fisher, C.; Hanus, J.; Shkolnisky, Y.; Ben Dor, E.

    2011-11-01

    Two HyMap images acquired over the same lignite open-pit mining site in Sokolov, Czech Republic, during the summers of 2009 and 2010 (12 months apart), were investigated in this study. The site selected for this research is one of three test sites (the others being in South Africa and Kyrgyzstan) within the framework of the EO-MINERS FP7 Project (http://www.eo-miners.eu). The goal of EO-MINERS is to "integrate new and existing Earth Observation tools to improve best practice in mining activities and to reduce the mining related environmental and societal footprint". Accordingly, the main objective of the current study was to develop hyperspectral-based means for the detection of small spectral changes and to relate these changes to possible degradation or reclamation indicators of the area under investigation. To ensure significant detection of small spectral changes, the temporal domain was investigated along with careful generation of reflectance information. Thus, intensive spectroradiometric ground measurements were carried out to ensure calibration and validation aspects during both overflights. The performance of these corrections was assessed using the Quality Indicators setup developed under a different FP7 project-EUFAR (http://www.eufar.net), which helped select the highest quality data for further work. This approach allows direct distinction of the real information from noise. The reflectance images were used as input for the application of spectral-based change-detection algorithms and indices to account for small and reliable changes. The related algorithms were then developed and applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to map spectral changes over the space of a year. Using field spectroscopy and ground truth measurements on both overpass dates, it was possible to explain the results and allocate spatial kinetic processes of the environmental changes during the time elapsed between the flights. It was found, for instance, that significant spectral changes are capable of revealing mineral processes, vegetation status and soil formation long before these are apparent to the naked eye. Further study is being conducted under the above initiative to extend this approach to other mining areas worldwide and to improve the robustness of the developed algorithm.

  18. Recent development of glacier complex Adygine and resulting risks

    Falatkova, Kristyna; Sobr, Miroslav; Engel, Zbynek; Jansky, Bohumir

    2015-04-01

    Recent development of glacier complex Adygine and resulting risks Falátková, K., Šobr, M., Engel, Z., Janský, B. Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Prague, Czech republic Glacier complex Adygine (3,400-4,200 m asl) is situated on the northern flank of the Kyrgyz Range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. The valley downstream is part of National Park Ala Archa, which is popular with tourists, and is heading towards the country's capital - Bishkek. At the study site there is a glacier which is observed since 1960's. The glacier has been monitored by satellite imagery and in last 10 years by on-site geodetic measurement as well. Due to glacier shrinkage several glacial lakes of different genetic types (moraine-dammed, moraine- and rock-dammed, termokarst) have appeared at the site. Nowadays, the lakes are situated on three levels in front of the glacier's terminus and form a cascade, they are also hydrologically connected. The lakes were subjected to detailed bathymetric measurement and some parts of the dams were surveyed by geophysical methods. Especially the newest lakes in proximity of the terminus has been undergoing dynamic changes and may pose a threat in the near future. The risks arising together with changing climatic conditions and retreat of the glacier are associated with mainly three of the lakes. The largest one with area of 3.2 ha is dammed by a rock step overlaid by a moraine. Geophysical research of the dam revealed buried ice and seepage channels in its western part. It is the capacity of these subsurface channels, which are draining the lake throughout the year that represents a weak point in terms of dam stability. The second lake, a termokarst one, is a similar case but drained solely by subsurface channels. Very steep slopes of the lake basin are covered with loose material which could slide down and block the drainage channels. The lake would then fill all the basin (approx. 50,000 m3) very quickly as it is supplied with water from the large upper lake. The third lake is in contact with glacier terminus and has been enlarging substantially in last years. In case of outburst, this lake would drain to the mentioned termokarst lake. The valley beneath this complex was mapped by geodetic station and this data should serve as a base for flood modelling which is being prepared. Large amount of loose material (older part of moraine) is available on the valley floor and would be entrained by the flow. Therefore there is a possibility that the flood could be transformed into a debris flow.

  19. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia.

    Walker, Robert; Blackburn, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Improving human welfare is a critical global concern, but not always easy to achieve. Complications in this regard have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union, where socialist-style economic institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow in coming. Lack of capital, ethnic conflict, and political instability have at times undermined the institutional reform that would be necessary to enable economic efficiency and development. Nowhere are such challenges more pronounced than in the new nation states of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by lack of infrastructure, low levels of human capital, and a scarcity of financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asian states are landlocked, far from centers of market demand and capital availability. Despite these daunting barriers, development potential does exist, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia's pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, the most significant existing impediment to realizing the full market potential of the region's animal products. Next, it provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD), which greatly impacts livestock and prohibits export, and Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis with high incidence in both humans and livestock in the region. Included is an important success story involving the FMD eradication programs in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers the role of wildlife in acting as a possible disease reservoir, which presents a conservation issue for the Kazakhstani case. This is followed by a discussion of the role of science in threat reduction, particularly with respect to the potential offered by geospatial technologies to improve our epidemiological knowledge base. The article concludes with an assessment of the research that would be necessary to identify feasible pathways to develop the economic potential of central Asian livestock production as changes in policy are implemented and livestock health improves. PMID:26779468

  20. National Legislation and Regulations in the Uranium Legacy Radiation Safety of the Former USSR

    There are many uranium legacy sites in Russia and ex-Soviet republics in the Central Asia, which are decommissioned now. In Russia, there is a number of operating uranium mines and ore milling facilities to be decommissioned after termination of their life cycle. Today, the list of Russian subsoil areas of the federal significance includes 135 uranium deposits. The uranium legacy management is accompanied with the environmental impact. The intensity of such impact depends on the amount of generated waste, degree of its confining and dispersion in the environment. The whole question reduces itself to the following: to what extent this impact is harmful to the environment and human health. The proper regulation of this problem is a criterion for the safe work. Today, the advanced guidance document is under development 'Health-care requirements for design and operation of facilities for uranium ore mining and milling'. In order to enhance the regulatory framework, the following tasks are urgent: introduction of the existing exposure situation in the national laws and regulations in compliance with the ICRP statutory system; development criteria for remediation of sites and their gradual return to uncontrolled use. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary SNF and Radioactive Wastes storage; review of possibilities and methods for optimization of the remediation strategies under development; identification of the special category - R W originated from the uranium ore mining and milling. Some regulatory problems assume to be solved under the Eurasian Economic Community inter-state target programme 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines'. Within this programme, by examples of the uranium legacy facilities in Kyrgyzstan and in Tajikistan, posed to trans-border disasters and required urgent remediation, the experience will be gained to be applied in other Eurasian Economic Community member states. Harmonization of national legislation and regulations in radiation safety is provided for.

  1. Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis

    Janevic Teresa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS, countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. Methods Using 2005–2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, we examined associations between individual and community socioeconomic status with current modern contraceptive use (MCU among N = 55,204 women aged 15–49 married or in a union. Individual socioeconomic status was measured using quintiles of wealth index and education level (higher than secondary school, secondary school or less. Community socioeconomic status was measured as the percentage of households in the poorest quintile of the nationals household wealth index (0%, 0–25%, or greater than 25%. We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate associations adjusted for age, number of children, urban/rural, and socioeconomic variables. Results MCU varied by country from 14% (in Azerbaijan to 62% (in Belarus. Overall, women living in the poorest communities were less likely than those in the richest to use modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.76, 0.89. Similarly, there was an increasing odds of MCU with increasing individual-level wealth. Women with a lower level of education also had lower odds of MCU than those with a higher level of education (aOR = .75, 95%CI = 0.71, 0.79. In country-specific analyses, community-level socioeconomic inequalities were apparent in 4 of 10 countries; in contrast, inequalities by individual-level wealth were apparent in 7 countries and by education in 8 countries. All countries in which community-level socioeconomic status was associated with MCU were in Central Asia, whereas at the individual-level inequalities of the largest magnitude were found in the Caucasus. There were no distinct patterns found in Eastern European countries. Conclusions Community-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in Central Asian countries, whereas individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in the Caucasus. It is important to consider multilevel contextual determinants of modern contraceptive use in the development of reproductive health and family planning programs.

  2. Underground gas storage in the World - 2013 (fifth Edition)

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. 'Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013' builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. The Survey includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries surveyed, 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned. The document includes 70 tables, 72 charts and figures, 44 country maps. The countries surveyed are: Europe : Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom. North America: Canada, USA. CIS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Asia/Oceania: Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Korea, Taiwan. Rest of the World: Argentina, Mexico, Iran

  3. GREAT REBELLION OF 1916 in KYRGYZ: URKÜN 1916 KIRGIZ BÜYÜK İSYANI: ÜRKÜN

    Füsun KARA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The revolution in 1916 was one of the biggest tragedies in the politics of the Russian Empire was to have Kyrgyzstan as its colony. For instance, the best places were given to russians, local people were forced to move to rural area. The main reason was a call for men into Russia’s Central Asian colonies to serve in the Tsarist army fighting in World war I. The first uprising was in Khojent on july 4 th 1916 and the movement spread to other parts of Turkestan. Kyrgyz Turks were killed by the Russian forces and settlers. Kyrgyz population from the North of the country were killed. And another 120.000 fled across the border to China 1916 İsyanı Kırgız tarihinin en büyük trajedilerinden biridir. Bu olay Kırgızistan’da Ürkün olarak bilinir. Rus İmparatorluğu Kırgızistan’da koloni politikası uygulamıştır. En iyi yerler Ruslara verilmiş yerli halk kendi toprağından edilerek kırsal alanlara göç ettirilmiştir. Ayaklanmanın temel nedeni ise I. Dünya Savaşında Çarlığın Rusya’nın geri hizmetlerinde çalışmak üzere Türkistanlıları çağırması olmuştur. Ayaklanma 4 Temmuz 1916’da Hocent’te başlamıştır daha sonra Türkistan’ın diğer kısımlarına yayılmıştır. Kırgız Türkleri Rus askerleri ve Rus yerleşimciler tarafından öldürülmüştür. Ülkenin kuzeyindeki ayaklanmacılar öldürülmüş diğer 120 bini Çine kaçmıştır.

  4. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia

    Walker, Robert; Blackburn, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Improving human welfare is a critical global concern, but not always easy to achieve. Complications in this regard have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union, where socialist-style economic institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow in coming. Lack of capital, ethnic conflict, and political instability have at times undermined the institutional reform that would be necessary to enable economic efficiency and development. Nowhere are such challenges more pronounced than in the new nation states of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by lack of infrastructure, low levels of human capital, and a scarcity of financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asian states are landlocked, far from centers of market demand and capital availability. Despite these daunting barriers, development potential does exist, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia’s pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, the most significant existing impediment to realizing the full market potential of the region’s animal products. Next, it provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD), which greatly impacts livestock and prohibits export, and Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis with high incidence in both humans and livestock in the region. Included is an important success story involving the FMD eradication programs in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers the role of wildlife in acting as a possible disease reservoir, which presents a conservation issue for the Kazakhstani case. This is followed by a discussion of the role of science in threat reduction, particularly with respect to the potential offered by geospatial technologies to improve our epidemiological knowledge base. The article concludes with an assessment of the research that would be necessary to identify feasible pathways to develop the economic potential of central Asian livestock production as changes in policy are implemented and livestock health improves. PMID:26779468

  5. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources from Europe; South, East, and Central Asia; and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.

  6. Central Asia Water (CAWa) - A visualization platform for hydro-meteorological sensor data

    Stender, Vivien; Schroeder, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Water is an indispensable necessity of life for people in the whole world. In central Asia, water is the key factor for economic development, but is already a narrow resource in this region. In fact of climate change, the water problem handling will be a big challenge for the future. The regional research Network "Central Asia Water" (CAWa) aims at providing a scientific basis for transnational water resources management for the five Central Asia States Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. CAWa is part of the Central Asia Water Initiative (also known as the Berlin Process) which was launched by the Federal Foreign Office on 1 April 2008 at the "Water Unites" conference in Berlin. To produce future scenarios and strategies for sustainable water management, data on water reserves and the use of water in Central Asia must therefore be collected consistently across the region. Hydro-meteorological stations equipped with sophisticated sensors are installed in Central Asia and send their data via real-time satellite communication to the operation centre of the monitoring network and to the participating National Hydro-meteorological Services.[1] The challenge for CAWa is to integrate the whole aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations in a proper design of a monitoring infrastructure. The use of standardized interfaces to support data transfer and interoperability is essential in CAWa. An uniform treatment of sensor data can be realized by the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) , which makes a number of standards and interface definitions available: Observation & Measurement (O&M) model for the description of observations and measurements, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) for the description of sensor systems, Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for obtaining sensor observations, Sensor Planning Service (SPS) for tasking sensors, Web Notification Service (WNS) for asynchronous dialogues and Sensor Alert Service (SAS) for sending alerts. An OpenSource web-platform bundles the data, provided by the SWE web services of the hydro-meteorological stations, and provides tools for data visualization and data access. The visualization tool was implemented by using OpenSource tools like GeoExt/ExtJS and OpenLayers. Using the application the user can query the relevant sensor data, select parameter and time period, visualize and finally download the data. [1] http://www.cawa-project.net

  7. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered mobile and potentially bioavailable. Looking at fish, high BCF (L/kg) especially for 210Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. A linear correlation between log 210Po in liver and δ15N could indicate bio-magnification of 210Po in liver of C. auratus. These legacy sites, containing enhanced levels of natural radioactive material as well as heavy metals, may represent a hazard having a potential radiological and chemical impact on man and the environment, and measures should be taken to reduce the environmental risk to man and biota. (authors)

  8. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in other products such as batteries and computer electronics is not recycled and may ultimately be released to the environment.

  9. Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the Russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010

    L. Mei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of wildfires broke out in Western Russia starting in late July of 2010. Harmful particulates and gases released into the local Russian atmosphere have been reported, as have possible negative consequences for the global atmosphere. In this study, an extremely hazy area and its transport trajectory on Russian wildfires were analysed using aerosol optical depth (AOD images retrieved via the synergy method from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. In addition, we used trace gases (NO2 and SO2 and CO2 products measured using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI data, vertical distribution of AOD data retrieved from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO data, the mass trajectory analyses, synoptic maps from a HYSPLIT model simulation and ground-based data, including AERONET (both AOD and Ångström exponent data and PM2.5. First, an Optimal Smoothing (OS scheme was used to develop more precise and reliable AOD data based on multiple competing predictions made using several AOD retrieval models; then, integrated AOD and PM2.5 data were related using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, and the integrated AOD and visibility data were related using the 6S radiative transfer code. The results show that the PM2.5 concentration is enhanced by a factor of 3–5 as determined from both satellite and in situ observations with peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 500 μg m3. Also, the visibility in many parts of Russia, for instance in Moscow, was less than 100 m; in some areas, the visibility was less than 50 m. Additionally, the possible impact on neighbouring countries due to long-transport was analysed for 31 July and 15 August 2010. A comparison of the satellite aerosol products and ground observations from the neighbouring countries suggests that wildfires in Western Russian had little impact on most european and asian countries, the exceptions being Finland, Estonia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. However, a possible impact on the Arctic region was identified; such an effect would have a serious influence on the polar atmospheric enviroment, and on animals such as polar bears.

  10. Projected impacts of climate change on hydrology, water resource use and adaptation needs for the Chu and Talas cross-border rivers basin, Central Asia

    Shamil Iliasov, Shamil; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Lipponen, Annukka; Novikov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    The observed long-term trends, variability and projections of future climate and hydrology of the Chu and Talas transboundary rivers basin were analysed using a common approach for Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan parts of the basin. Historical, current and forecasted demands and main uses of water in the basin were elaborated by the joint effort of both countries. Such cooperative approach combining scientific data, water practitioners' outlook with decision making needs allowed the first time to produce a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on water resources in the Chu-Talas transboundary rivers basin, identify future needs and develop the initial set of adaptation measures and recommendations. This work was carried out under the project "Promoting Cooperation to Adapt to Climate Change in the Chu and Talas Transboundary Basin", supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Climate change projections, including air temperatures and rainfall in the 21st century were determined with a spatial resolution 0.5 degrees based on the integration of 15 climate change model outputs (derived from IPCC's 4th Assessment Report, and partially 5th Assessment Report) combined with locally-designed hydrology and glacier models. A significant increase in surface air temperatures by 3-6°C may be expected in the basin area, especially in summer and autumn. This change is likely to be accompanied by rainfall increase during the cold season and a decrease in the warm half of the year. As a result, a deterioration of moisture conditions during the summer-autumn period is possible. Furthermore, milder winters and hotter summers can be expected. Mountains will likely receive more liquid precipitation, than snow, while the area and volume of glaciers may significantly reduce. Projected changes in climate and glaciers have implications for river hydrology and different sectors of the economy dependent on water use. Assessment of agricultural sector vulnerability, which is the key water user in the basin, led to identification of the potential adaptation measures and discussion with relevant national and river basin authorities and the major stakeholders. Proposed adaptation measures range from technical - such as rehabilitation of irrigation systems to reduce water losses, modernize water reservoirs and adjust river regulation to environmental flow needs, changing land use and crop diversification - to policy and finance measures, including revision of subsidies, economic consideration of ecosystem services, etc. Next steps include a more detailed assessment of economics, effectiveness and feasibility of the initially proposed adaptation measures and additional research.

  11. Swedish support programme on nuclear non-proliferation in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    At the request of the Swedish Government, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has established a support and co-operation programme in the area of nuclear non-proliferation with Russia and several of the republics of the former Soviet Union. The Programme was initiated in 1991 and an overall goal is to accomplish national means and measures for control and protection of nuclear material and facilities, in order to minimise the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The objective of the Swedish Support Programme is to help each, so called, recipient State to be able to, independently and without help from outside, take the full responsibility for operating a national non-proliferation system and thereby fulfil the requirements imposed through the international legal instruments. This would include both the development and implementation of a modern nuclear legislation system, and the establishment of the components making up a national system for combating illicit trafficking. The support and co-operation projects are organised in five Project Groups (i.e. nuclear legislation, nuclear material control, physical protection, export/import control, and combating of illicit trafficking), which together cover the entire non-proliferation area. Up till June 2000, support and co-operation projects, completed and on-going, have been carried out in ten States, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, programmes have been initiated during the first part of 2000 with Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In addition, assistance has been given to Poland on a specific nuclear material accountancy topic. All projects are done on request by and in co-operation with these States. The total number of projects initiated during the period 1991 to June 2000 is 109, thereof 77 have been completed and 32 are currently on-going. It is the convinced understanding and opinion of the Swedish Support Programme Management that the States in question are seriously motivated and are carrying out an ambitious work to develop and improve their national non-proliferation regimes, in spite of their shortcomings concerning financial and human resources. For those States, with which Sweden has established support and co-operation programmes with 'full-scope' non-proliferation objectives, it is judged that the goals reached, up till now, are very satisfactory, and that the States in question have come a long way towards the fulfilment of international requirements. The Programme is now entering a third phase and the future Programme plans are currently under consideration. A broad outlook of the future activities is made in chapter D of this report

  12. Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010

    L. Mei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of wildfires broke out in western Russia starting in late July of 2010. Harmful particulates and gases released into the local Russian atmosphere have been reported, as have possible negative consequences for the global atmosphere. In this study, an extremely hazy area and its transport trajectory on Russian wildfires were analysed using aerosol optical depth (AOD images retrieved via the synergy method from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. In addition, we used trace gases (NO2 and SO2 and CO2 products measured using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI data, vertical distribution of AOD data retrieved from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO data, the mass trajectory analyses, synoptic maps from a HYSPLIT model simulation and ground-based data, including AERONET (both AOD and ngstrm exponent data and PM2.5. First, an Optimal Smoothing (OS scheme was used to develop more precise and reliable AOD data based on multiple competing predictions made using several AOD retrieval models; then, integrated AOD and PM2.5 data were related using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, and the integrated AOD and visibility data were related using a 6S model. The results show that the PM2.5 concentration is 35 times the normal amount based on both satellite data and in situ values with peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 500 ?g m?3. Also, the visibility of many parts of Russia, even Moscow, was less than 100 m; in some areas, the visibility was less than 50 m. Additionally, the possible impact on neighbouring countries due to the long-transport effect was also analysed during 31 July and 15 August 2010. A comparison of the satellite aerosol products and ground observations from the neighbouring countries suggests that wildfires in western Russian have had little impact on most European and Asian countries, the exceptions being Finland, Estonia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. However, a possible impact on the Arctic region was also identified; such an effect would have a serious influence on the polar atmospheric environment and on animals such as polar bears.

  13. Drinking and Driving among University Students in 22 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries

    Karl PELTZER

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was investigate drinking, driving, and socio-behavioral factors among university students in low and middle income and emerging economy countries.Methods: Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 18476 university students, of which 15151 (82.0% were drivers of a car or motorcycle (41.3% men and 58.7% women, with a mean age of 20.7 years (SD=2.9, from 22 countries across Africa, Asia and Americas.Results: Overall, 17.3% reported to have been driving a car or motorcycle after having had too much to drink in the past 12 months, ranging from below 5% in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Kyrgyzstan to above 35% in China, Singapore and Thailand. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, among both men and women, earlier year of study, living in an upper middle income or high income country (OR=3.58, CI=3.00-4.27 and OR=2.95, CI=2.52-3.46, low intrinsic religiosity (OR=0.67, CI=0.54-0.83 and OR=0.34, CI=0.28-0.42, injury from motorcycle accidents (OR=4.29, CI=2.69-6.82 and OR=3.24, CI=2.26-4.63, and weak belief in the importance of not drinking (OR=1.78, CI=1.50-2.11 and OR=1.61, CI=1.37-1.88 and driving were associated with drinking and driving. Further, among men, older age (OR=1.04, CI=1.01-1.07, binge drinking (OR=1.53, CI=1.27-1.86 and illicit drug use (OR=1.22, CI=1.01-1.47, and among women, younger age (OR=0.95, CI=0.97-0.98, and a lower country BAC limit (OR=0.01, CI=0.001-0.18 was associated with drinking and driving. Conclusion: This study confirms low to high levels of drinking and driving in different cultures across Africa, Asia and the Americas. Various factors identified can be used to guide interventions to reduce drinking and driving among university students.Keywords: Drink driving, Health behaviour, Health beliefs, University students, Multi-country

  14. CITIZENSHIP OF THE TURKIC WORLD PROJECT/TRK DNYASI VATANDA?LI?I PROJES?

    Semra ALYILMAZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan gained their independence in 1991 and took their place on the international arena as the Newly Independent Turkic Republics. New Turkic Republics signed agreements on various fields with many countries, notably Turkey, Russia and China. These agreements New Turkic Republics signed generally have economic bases. Agreements with a priority of education and teaching, directed by common academic programs and common purposes, have not yet been implemented. To compensate for this shortcoming, a project with a final objective of Turkic World Citizenship was prepared and put into effect in 2013 under the arch of Atatrk University Middle East and Central Asia Caucasus Research and Administration Center within the scope of Scientific Research Projects (BAP. In this article, information about the scope and objectives of Citizenship of the Turkic World Project, which was started by Atatrk University and was participated by other institutions and organizations later on, is presented. Sovyetler Birli?inin da??lmas?ndan sonra 1991 y?l?nda Azerbaycan, Trkmenistan, zbekistan, K?rg?zistan ve Kazakistan ba??ms?zl?klar?n? kazanm?? ve uluslararas? arenada Ba??ms?z Yeni Trk Cumhuriyetleri olarak yerlerini alm??lard?r. Yeni Trk Cumhuriyetleri ba?ta Trkiye, Rusya ve in olmak zere pek ok lke ile farkl? alanlarda anla?malar imzalam??lard?r. Yeni Trk Cumhuriyetlerinin imzalad?klar? bu anla?malar genelde ekonomik temellere dayanmaktad?r. Ortak ders programlar?n?n ve ortak amalar?n yn verdi?i; nceli?i e?itim ve ?retim olan anla?malar ise gerekle?tirilememi?tir. Bu eksikli?i telafi etmek iin Atatrk niversitesi Orta Do?u ve Orta Asya Kafkaslar Ara?t?rma ve Uygulama Merkezi bnyesinde Bilimsel Ara?t?rma Projeleri (BAP kapsam?nda 2013 y?l?nda nihai hedefi Trk Dnyas? Vatanda?l??? olan bir proje haz?rlan?p uygulamaya konulmu?tur. Bu makalede Atatrk niversitesinde ba?lat?lan ve daha sonra baz? kurum ve kurulu?lar?n da payda? olduklar? Trk Dnyas? Vatanda?l??? Projesi, kapsam? ve hedefleri hakk?nda bilgi verilmektedir.

  15. Trans-Continental Transport of Air Pollution from Central Asia

    Granberg, I.; Chen, B.; Carmichael, G.; Solomon, P.; Sofiev, M.; Sitnov, S.; Rubinstein, K.; Maximenkov, L.; Artamonova, M.; Pogarski, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the frames of ISTC project #3715 for an overview of the year evolution of aerosol in Central Asia the analysis of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was producing. Monitoring of AOT was making on the base of AOT satellite observation by MODIS devices, located on board of the Terra and Aqua satellites. The region was 34-51 N, and 54-96 E for the year 2007. The analysis revealed that AOT in the region is characterized by pronounced annual pace with the rapid growth of AOT winter, spring peak (τ ~ 0,4), the slow decline of ALO spring to autumn and autumn minimum (τ ~ 0,2). In August a weak secondary maximum of AOT took place. In mid-June and in the first decade of July and August in the region had increased the value of AOT, accompanied by significant increase in AOT volatility. In particular, 8 and 9 August, the average for the region AOT exceeded 0.6. Diagnosis of aerosol emissions was based on an analysis of the spatial and temporal changes of AOT field. Obviously, the spatial scale of data and data discretization in time determines the emissions of power can be diagnosed. The spatial AOT distribution shows that aerosol plumes from the area of the Aral Sea in 2007 were carried out mainly by southeastern and eastern fronts. In the region, there are two major sources of aerosol emissions: one of them located in the south of the Aral Sea and the Kara-Kum desert, and a second, more powerful - over Taklamakan desert. Particularly, data were obtained on the dust storms occurrence of December 15, 2007 in the southern Aral Sea region. In order to detect its influence on the Kyrgyzstan stations dust measurements, simulations of the dust plume from the area of Aral Sea were produced by SILAM model of Finnish Meteorological Institute. Two sets of runs have been performed: forward simulations for estimation of the area affected by the dust elevated by the wind during the storm from the area of Aral Sea. The model has evaluated 5-day dispersion of the plume. The second run was made in adjoint mode, aiming at evaluation of the footprint of the two observations sites - Bishkek and Lidar stations. Here the footprint is the area, which sources affected the observations within the selected period. The analysis of carry of aerosol particles on Central Tien-Shan and further on the basis of construction 4- day time back and direct trajectories is carried out, which were calculated for all days of realization of lidar measurements. The resulting trajectory air mass and density distribution of impurities, which is regionally polluted continental (RPC) air masses transported from Western air flow from Central Asia contributed significantly to the level of pollution at Japanese station Happo. Measuring the content of aerosols in the atmosphere in Central Asia held in a small number of items, and currently available data are insufficient to specify the initial conditions and / or verification of long-range transport models. It should be noted that the main source of aerosol in Central Asia is Taklamakan desert. Average value and AOT variability over it several times higher than corresponding AOT values over the rest of the region. The greatest variability aerosol over Taklamakan observed from late March to mid-May. For example, on April 22, 2008 average of the AOT in cell 5° x 5° over the western part of Taklamakan - value reached 3,171. AOT virtually throughout the region positively correlated with AOT over Taklamakan desert. The most noticeable effect makes an aerosol of Taklamakan found in the south-east Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan in the east and north of the Tibetan highlands. The impact of the Aral Sea area is restricted significantly less. In doing so, AOT in the central part of the region reveals a weak negative correlation with the AOT over the Aral Sea.

  16. Kyrgyz Libraries Community – Co-Operation for Development: New Challenges and New Approaches = Kırgız Kütüphane Topluluğu – Gelişim İçin İşbirliği: Yeni Fırsatlar ve Uygulamalar

    Battalova, Sania

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available “Kyrgyz Libraries Information Consortium”, one of the largest library associations in the country, celebrates its 10th anniversary. The Consortium was established in 2002 and through membership, it comprises more than 400 libraries within Kyrgyzstan, including the National Library, the State Patent and Technical Library, the Library of the Academy of Science, and many other academic and regional libraries. The Consortium’s creation was an answer to the challenges the country faced: lack of information, very low level of technological development, no budget for collection development, lack of cooperation and collaboration between libraries in the country as well as with the international library community. The history and development of the Consortium, the Consortium mission, its goals, its main initiatives and the strategic directions to be taken are presented in the article. The importance of library development and how libraries in developed countries established strong and effective organizations are reviewed and analyzed here. This paper also presents the challenges and approaches that must be taken for future development of libraries in Kyrgyzstan. / “Kırgız Kütüphaneleri Bilgi Konsorsiyumu” ülkedeki en büyük kütüphanecilik derneklerinden biridir ve kuruluşunun onuncu yıl dönümünü kutlamaktadır. Bu Konsorsiyum 2000 yılında kurulmuş olup, üyelik sayısı sonucu Kırgızistan içinde toplam 400'den fazla kütüphaneyi kapsamaktadır. Konsorsiyum içinde Milli Kütüphane (The National Library, Devlet Patent ve Teknik Kütüphanesi (State Patent and Technical Library, Bilim Akademisi Kütüphanesi (Library of the Academy ofScience, ile bunların yanısıra çok sayıda akademik ve bölgesel kütüphaneler de yer almaktadır. Konsorsiyum’un kuruluşu ülkede karşılaşılan güçlüklere bir karşı çıkış olmuştur: yetersiz bilgi, çok düşük düzeyli teknik gelişmeler, koleksiyon geliştirmek için bütçe ayrılmaması, ülkedeki kütüphaneler arası işbirliği ve beraber çalışma alışkanlığının olmaması gibi sorunların yanı sıra,uluslararası kütüphanelerle ilişkilerin de kopuk olması gibi güçlükler sayılabilir. Konsorsiyum’un tarihi ve gelişim süreci olduğu kadar, misyonu, amaçları, girişimleri ve izlenecek stratejik hedefleri bu makalede ele alınmıştır. Gelişmiş ülkelerde kütüphanelerin önemi ve bunların nasıl güçlü ve etkin kurumlar olarak geliştikleri incelenerek burada sunulmuştur. Makalede ayni zamanda Kırgızıstan’da kütüphanelerin geliştirilmesi için karşılaşılan güçlükler ve gelecek için izlenmesi gereken yaklaşımlar üzerinde durulmaktadır.

  17. United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs): Helping to Ensure the Integration of Nuclear Techniques with other Development Initiatives and Plans

    The IAEA and the Department of Technical Cooperation in particular, rely on harmonious and collaborative work with numerous partners over a broad range of policy levels to promote peace and development through the peaceful application of nuclear science and technology. The Strategy and Partnership Section (TCSPS) of the Division of Programme Support and Coordination is at the forefront of developing and maintaining successful partnerships with the IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation. Part of the work of TCSPS involves streamlining the Country Programme Framework (CPF) process and building networks that support the United Nations one house approach. Country Programme Frameworks are programming tools that provide a frame of reference for technical cooperation between the IAEA and its Member States in the medium term (4-6 years). They provide a concise framework for national development needs or problems that can be addressed using nuclear science and technology. In support of the IAEA's efforts to align and provide leverage for its technical cooperation activities within the larger development context, the CPF preparation process now makes extensive use of national development plans and United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs). UNDAFs are the planning framework for the development operations of the UN system at the country level and not only help to ensure that the application of nuclear techniques is integrated with existing development initiatives and plans, but also assist identifying areas where such techniques might be usefully deployed. In the past two years, 13 UNDAFs have been signed, reflecting the IAEA's focus on optimizing development activities at the country level. Currently the Secretariat is engaged in 22 ongoing UNDAF processes to ensure that the TC programme is aligned with the national development priorities reflected in these frameworks. One outstanding example of the work that is possible within the UNDAF framework is demonstrated in a soil conservation project in Tajikistan (TAD5005) entitled 'Developing Soil Conservation Strategies for Improved Soil Health', part of a technical cooperation effort that began with the assessment of soil erosion and sedimentation for land use. In former years limited capacity to monitor national resources has led to poverty due to widespread soil erosion that has affected agricultural lands. A lack of essential soil redistribution information made it impossible for the nation to assess, monitor and address the processes of accelerated natural resource degradation. The technical cooperation project was developed as a result of Tajikistan's identified need for improved national capacities and facilities to provide the basis for soil erosion modelling and land use planning. The IAEA is providing expert advice in field sampling design, laboratory set-up and data interpretation and training, to contribute to a better understanding of the main factors affecting Tajikistan's soil redistribution. As a result of this assistance, sustainable natural resource management will be possible, based on the identification of cost-effective soil conservation measures. This project has become associated with the project on Sustainable Land Management in the High Pamir and Pamir-Alai Mountains (PALM), an integrated transboundary initiative of the governments of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan and has involved numerous partners: - The Global Environment Facility (GEF), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and other donors who provided financial support to PALM; - The State agencies for environment protection and forestry in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; - Partnerships were established with the University of Bern's Centre for Development and Environment through the National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, and with scientists from Moscow State University; - GEF directed complementary resources to the project through the PALM mechanism; - The United Nations University (UNU) helped to coordinate project activities. These partners are working with the same Tajik counterparts as the IAEA, in particular the Tajik Soil Science Institute and the Tajik Academy of Agricultural Science, to offer complementary services and assistance. Increased awareness of Tajik soil erosion trends and the appropriate mitigation and control options will provide the basis for land use planning and decision making and will promote soil and water conservation techniques for sustainable agriculture development in Tajikistan. The establishment of capacity and facilities for efficient and accurate soil erosion assessment in Tajikistan will support soil erosion surveillance not only within the country, but also in the vast mountainous territories of Central Asia. The collaborative work of this project is an example of how partnerships can optimize land resource use to benefit the socioeconomic development of a country and a region. More information on the PALM project can be found at http://www.ehs.unu.edu/palm/

  18. Mouvements migratoires entre la Turquie et les Républiques turcophones du Caucase et d’Asie centrale Migratory movements between Turkey and the Turkish-speaking republics of Caucasia and Central Asia. Religious impacts

    Bayram Balci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Forte de ses liens de parenté culturelle avec les Républiques turcophones d’Asie centrale – Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan, Ouzbékistan, Turkménistan et Tadjikistan –, la Turquie a été le point départ d’un important mouvement migratoire en direction de ces États à partir du début de la décennie 1990, au moment où les États en question recouvraient leur indépendance survenue avec la fin de l’Union soviétique. Multiforme, cette migration a véhiculé un important message religieux, dans les deux sens, mais surtout en provenance de Turquie et à destination des principales villes d’Asie centrale. C’est le principal sujet d’investigation de cette étude. Le commerce et la coopération éducative furent les principaux outils déployés par les migrants turcs partis souvent en tant que missionnaires pour ré-islamiser l’Asie centrale, que de nombreux mouvements islamiques turcs jugeaient devoir être remise dans le giron de la civilisation islamique après plus de soixante-dix ans d’une domination soviétique caractérisée par une politique antireligieuse prononcée. Quatre principaux mouvements islamiques turcs se sont fait remarquer en Asie centrale dans cette œuvre de prosélytisme. Le plus important est sans conteste celui fondé par Sait Nursi dont les disciples ont été très actifs dès 1990 dans l’envoi de littérature islamique en Asie centrale. Par ailleurs, un disciple de Sait Nursi, Fethullah Gülen, a fondé un vaste réseau éducatif animé par des jeunes éducateurs partis d’Anatolie pour s’investir dans différentes villes d’Asie centrale. Une autre mouvance, dite suleymanci, du nom de son fondateur Suleyman Tunahan, a, par le biais de la migration turque, ouvert plusieurs petites madrasas dans divers États d’Asie centrale. Enfin, des disciples de la confrérie dite nakshibendiyya, du nom de son fondateur Bahaduddin Nakshibend, un mystique du xve siècle originaire de Boukhara, ont également envoyé des milliers de migrants turcs dans le cadre de plusieurs projets missionnaires. Amenée à s’enraciner dans ses villes d’expatriation en Asie centrale, cette migration turque a déjà très nettement marqué de son empreinte l’islam de ces pays, plus particulièrement au Turkménistan, au Kazakhstan et au Kirghizstan qui ont d’excellentes relations politiques avec la Turquie. Ainsi, bon nombre de nouvelles élites religieuses dans ces pays ont été formées dans le cadre de la coopération avec les mouvements missionnaires turcs et leurs disciples qui ont immigré en Asie centrale. S’inscrivant en marge de la politique officielle turque de coopération en matière religieuse avec les pays d’Asie centrale, les migrants turcs n’en rendent pas moins un grand service à la diplomatie d’Ankara dans la région en l’aidant indirectement à se constituer une sphère d’influence dans cet espace turcophone qui occupe une place notable dans la nouvelle politique extérieure de la Turquie.With the fall of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, a wave of migrants left Turkey for the newly independent Turkish-speaking Central Asian republics with which the country had strong cultural ties – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. As a result of this multiform movement, an important religious message travelled in both directions, but especially from Turkey to the main Central Asian cities. This article focuses on this message. Turkish migrants, who were often missionaries, used commerce and cooperation initiatives in education as two main tools to re-Islamise Central Asia. For many Turkish Islamic movements, it was important to bring this region back into the fold after over 70 years of domination by a Soviet government with a strongly anti-religious policy. As part of this proselytizing, four key Turkish Islamic movements became visible in Central Asia. The largest was undoubtedly that founded by Said Nursi, whose disciples were active in sending Islamic literature to Central Asia from 1990. One of Said Nursi’s disciples, Fethullah Gülen, founded an extensive educational network, involving young instructors from Anatolia who moved to different Central Asian cities. A second group, the Suleymanci, named for its founder Suleyman Tunahan, used Turkish migration to open several small madrasas in different Central Asian countries. Finally, disciples of the Naqshbandiyya brotherhood, named after its founder Bahauddin Naqshband, a 15th century mystic from Bukhara, also sent thousands of Turkish migrants to the region to carry out missionary projects. After settling in these Central Asian cities, Turkish migrants have had a significant effect on Islam in the region. This is especially true in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, which have excellent political relationships with Turkey. As a result, many of these countries’ new religious elites have formed as a result of cooperation with Turkish missionary movements and their disciples who immigrated to Central Asia. Turkish migrants are not part of Turkey’s official policy on religious cooperation with Central Asia. However, they support Ankara’s diplomatic efforts in the region by indirectly creating a field of influence in this Turkish-speaking region, which is of considerable importance in Turkey’s new foreign policy.

  19. Late Paleozoic tectonomagmatic evolution of the western southern Tian Shan, Tajikistan

    Worthington, James R.; Kapp, Paul; Minaev, Vladislav; Chapman, James B.; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gadoev, Mustafo

    2015-04-01

    The 2500-km-long Tian Shan orogenic belt constitutes a dominantly Paleozoic amalgmation of Eurasia that has been overprinted by the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Cimmerian and Indo-Eurasian collisions. This southernmost unit of the Central Asian Orogenic System (CAOS) is divided N-S by discontinuous suture zones that reflect its complex assemblage and E-W by the Talas-Fergana dextral (modern kinematics) fault zone. The western southern Tian Shan in Tajikistan/Uzbekistan is poorly studied compared to the rest of the orogen in Kyrgyzstan/China, but a dominant signal of late Paleozoic magmatism synchronous to widespread magmatism documented along strike provides an intriguing opportunity to investigate regional tectonic processes at this time. The late Carboniferous-early Permian Gissar batholith is the southern Tian Shan's southernmost lithotectonic unit. Zircon U-Pb weighted-mean crystallization ages for Gissar granitoids range from ~310-290 Ma, are youngest in the east, and define a primary stage of arc magmatism related to closure of the Turkestan ocean. A ~280 Ma crystallization age was obtained for a Ne syenite, which corresponds to small, 'post-collisional,' alkaline intrusions in 1:200,000 Soviet geologic maps. Zircon ɛHf in Gissar granitoids generally decreases with decreasing zircon U-Pb age from +5'10. Zircon ɛHf in the young Ne syenite is +1-+6. Taken together, these trends indicate a progressive shift from juvenile to intermediate magmatism over 20 Myr, followed by a marked return to juvenile magmatism within 10 Myr. The Garm 'metamorphic' massif is situated within the eastern Gissar batholith and is derived from greater depths than the rest of the batholith, as indicated by its defining features: (i) Discontinuous outcrops of Bt+Grt quartzofeldspathic gneisses/schists; and (ii) Presence of igneous garnet in granitoids. Zircons from the Garm quartzofeldspathic gneisses/schists exhibit pronounced Pb-loss discordia that are consistent with ~amphibolite-facies metamorphism; crystallization ages are early Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic, suggesting peri-Gondwanan affinity. Metamorphic (consistently low Th/U) rims of zircons from a Garm Bt+Grt quartzofeldspathic gneiss span 324-284 Ma and define a protracted episode of amphibolite-facies metamorphism for the Garm massif that overlaps with both main-stage Gissar and post-collisional magmatism. This overlap favors delamination over post-orogenic extension as a mechanism for producing the 'post-collisional,' juvenile magmatism. The Zerafshan unit (north of the Gissar-Garm unit) comprises a Paleozoic volcano-sedimentary sequence that has been metamorphosed to ~greenschist facies. Chl±Bt schists exhibit zircon U-Pb age spectra similar to those in the Garm massif but with subordinate Paleoproterozoic peaks. Pb-loss discordia are present but weak for Zerafshan zircons, consistent with ~greenschist-facies metamorphism. Detrital-zircon U-Pb age spectra for modern river sands (which drain the Garm massif and Zerafshan unit) and Cretaceous sandstones (which unconformably overlie the Garm massif) reproduce the main and 'post-collisional' stages of magmatism found in the igneous rocks, as well as the Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic ages found in the metasedimentary rocks. A match between a 450 Ma Zerafshan meta-andesite and a peak in a Cretaceous sandstone, taken together with consistency between detrital- and igneous-zircon ɛHf values, suggests that the Cretaceous sandstones were sourced from the Tian Shan rather than age-equivalent terranes in the Pamir. Overall, the igneous and detrital U-Pb and Hf datasets document a late Paleozoic tectonomagmatic evolution of the Gissar arc that is consistent with development of an Andean-style active continental margin followed by ocean closure, continental collision and delamination.

  20. Building momentum to minimize highly enriched uranium use, improve nuclear security and combat nuclear terrorism

    Full text: Much has been done to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism under the auspices of international programs such as the G-8 Global Partnership, the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism, and the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. Despite the practical progress in removing the threat that terrorist groups could obtain the fissile material for an improvised nuclear device, however, much more work remains. In 1980, the 59 states participating in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation agreed that the civilian use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) should be minimized. Decades later, and despite dramatic new threats to world peace, the pledge to forego the use of HEU is not yet universal or legally binding. Nor have improvements to the physical security of this material been sufficient in many locations. This paper surveys the international measures that have been taken towards the formation of an international norm to minimize BEU risks through established mechanisms and suggests several additional approaches that may help to solidify support for practical measures and accelerate the process of civil HEU minimization and improved security globally. HEU reduction requires global cooperation: eliminating a small holding of HEU at a single facility or upgrading its security does not greatly reduce terrorist risks overall. Policymakers must be sure that their counterparts in other states arc engaged in similar efforts. A global HEU minimization norm would validate each nation's efforts, no matter how small, and provide a disincentive for inaction. Clearer standards for the security of this material and commitments to meet these standards would serve the same purpose. While each failure 10 act poses its own risks, it also erodes the usefulness of HEU elimination programs elsewhere and sends the wrong political message to the rest of the world. Moreover, it is technically impossible to minimize the largest REU holdings-those at fuel cycle facilities-until the end users of HEU no longer demand this material. And it should be noted that nearly all HEU trafficking cases involve material originating from fuel cycle facilities. Both practical and political considerations demand greater high level attention to minimizing HEU and improving its security. Great technological progress has been made since programs were initiated to convert reactors and medical isotope production processes, remove and reduce nuclear materials worldwide, and protect at-risk nuclear materials from theft and sabotage. The new technical capabilities have not been translated into significant reductions in HEU use, however, due to a lack of overarching political solutions. To date, only a few countries have indicated formally their support for HEU minimization, among them Iceland, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden in the context of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons review process, though there have been international calls for HEU minimization in other fora, including the G-8 'Action Plan on Nonproliferation' issued at the Sea Island summit of 2004 and the 2007 Astana joint statement of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. New measures are needed, however, to make these commitments real. With this in mind, the James Martin Center for Non-proliferation Studies has led an effort to draft HEU guidelines, modeled in part on the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (INFCIRC/549). There is international interest in such guidelines. France, for example, called for the adoption of HEU guidelines at the 2007 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2010 NPT Review Conference. HEU guidelines would codify best management practices, allow states to commit to national management strategies, and provide updated security recommendations, as this paper discusses in detail. While HEU guidelines are voluntary measures aimed at states, there are also ways that nuclear enterprises and other stakeholder groups can move the policy process forward. The adoption of resolutions by such groups can be good for business and

  1. Traditional applications and novel approaches in Lu-Hf geochronology

    Herwartz, D.; Nagel, T. J.; Sandmann, S.; Vitale Brovarone, A.; Rexroth, S.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Froitzheim, N.; Krner, A.; Skublov, S. G.; Mnker, C.

    2012-04-01

    Lutetium-Hf geochronology is currently becoming a routine method for dating metamorphism of garnet bearing rocks, such as eclogites. Prograde garnet growth ages are mostly preserved because blocking temperatures exceed 630 C [1] and prograde Lu zoning patterns have even been observed in samples that were exposed to temperatures above 800 C [2]. Here we discuss Lu-Hf ages from various eclogite localities, such as the Northern Tianshan, Kyrgyzstan (~ 470 Ma), the Kola Peninsula, Russia (~ 1900 Ma) [3], Cuba (~70 Ma and ~124 Ma), Alpine Corsica (~ 34 Ma) and the Tauern Window (~32.7 Ma). Age precisions are in the order of 0.1 to 1 % and all ages can be safely attributed to the timing of garnet growth. Some samples, however, contain two garnet populations which complicates Lu-Hf geochronology. In the Adula Nappe (Central Alps) relict garnet has survived a second orogenic cycle, including subduction to mantle depth. By carefully separating the two garnet populations present within the same eclogite sample we obtained a minimum Variscan age of 333 Ma and a maximum Alpine age of 38 Ma [4]. A similar relationship is now evident in samples from the Tauern Window (Eastern Alps), where only one population of garnet generation is visible macroscopically. However, few relics of Variscan garnet inside Alpine garnet are observed in electron microprobe element maps and are also evident from isotopic heterogeneity in 176Lu/177Hf vs. 176Hf/177Hf space. Garnet relics stemming from previous metamorphic events are frequently observed in HP units around the world and the Lu-Hf system is a promising tool to resolve the respective growth ages. Apart from garnet, lawsonite Lu-Hf geochronology was recently identified as a new tool to investigate subduction processes [5]. Here we present a lawsonite Lu-Hf isochron 37,6 1.4 Ma (MSWD = 0.30; n =5) from a lawsonite blueschist from Alpine Corsica. The lawsonite slightly predates the timing of garnet growth (~34 Ma) in three eclogite samples, collected from other paleogeographic units of Alpine Corsica. The age discrepancy between lawsonite and garnet could be used to calculate subduction rates. Most importantly however, the Lu-Hf system provides virtually the first reliable tool for dating low grade blueshist assemblages. [1] Skora, S., Baumgartner, L.P., Mahlen, N.J., Lapen, T.J., Johnson, C.M. and Bussy, F. (2008) Estimation of a maximum Lu diffusion rate in a natural eclogite garnet. Swiss J. Geosci. DOI: 10.1007/s00015-008-1268-y. [2] Schmidt A., Mezger K. and O'Brien P.J. (2011) The time of eclogite formation in the ultrahigh pressure rocks of the Sulu terrane. Constraints from Lu-Hf garnet geochronology. Lithos. DOI: 10.1016/j.lithos.2011.04.004. [3] Herwartz D., Skublov S.G., Berezin A.V. and Melnik A.E. (accepted) First Lu-Hf garnet ages of eclogites from the Belmorian Mobile Belt, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Doklady Earth Sciences [4] Herwartz D., Nagel T. J., Mnker C., Scherer E. E. and Froitzheim N. (2011) Tracing two orogenic cycles in one eclogite sample by Lu-Hf garnet chronometry. Nature Geoscience 4, 178-183. [5] Mulcahy S.R., King R.L. and Vervoort J. D. (2009) Lawsonite Lu-Hf geochronology: A new geochronometer for subduction zone processes. Geology 37, 987-990.

  2. Natural and anthropogenic multi-type hazards for loess territories

    Mavlyanova, Nadira; Zakirova, Zulfiya

    2013-04-01

    Central Asia (CA) is an extremely large region of varied geography from plains to high, rugged mountains (the region belongs to the Tien-Shan and Pamirs mountain system), vast deserts (Kara Kum, Kyzyl Kum, Taklamakan). The area of the CA region is including the territories of following countries: of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. CA is particularly exposed to natural hazards like earthquakes, landslide, rockfalls, avalanches, mudflows, flooding, high mountains lakes, sub flooding, and debris flow. This region is one of the most seismically active in the world. In XX century almost in each of five countries have occurred strong earthquakes with magnitude more than 7, led to human victims. Loess soils are widespread in this region in foothills, foothill plains and intermountain depressions. Loess can cause a number of engineering problems because loess undergoes structural collapse and subsidence due to saturation when both the initial dry density and initial water content are low. By comparison of the map of seismic zoning to a map of distribution of loess soils it is easy to be convinced that the territory of the majority of seismic areas are covering by collapsible loess soils with significant thickness (50-150 m). The natural hazards leads to a disaster, if it develops in an urbanized or industrial areas and directly affects people and economic objects. In this case, risk takes place with all its consequences especially on loess soil. In the past a formation of natural hazards was connected generally with two main groups of factors: geological structure and climatic conditions. Now to them the third factor - of human made influence was added. Intensive influence of human activity to the loess territories in CA for last 60 years is destruction of nature balance and changing in environment of loess land in zone with high seismic hazard. This processes primarily associated with following: 1) irrigation of new lands; 2) the developing of mining manufactures and their waste located in the foothill areas with high seismic risk and where manifested of dangerous geological processes as landslide, collapse, mud stream, rock falls and toxic contamination; 3) development of urbanization with manifestation of difference engineering geological processes in loess soil on the based of constructions in cities (collapse, liquefaction). That example of cascade effects when natural and anthropogenic multi type hazards in loess was the Gissar earthquake (1989) in Tajikistan when the earthquake of rather moderate intensity (M=5.2; H=5-7 km; I=7 - MSK scale) was triggered several landslides and mudslides connected with liquefaction of wetted loess and can cause a large number of human victims. In the pre 20 years steady irrigation of the slope area occurred for cotton field. This moistening has increase and the water content of the soil to wet 24-28%, up to a depth of 20-30 m that increased the vulnerability of this territory. The interactions between different natural hazards, include triggered, especially earthquakes, landslides, collapses, liquefaction in loess soil with taking account of anthropogenic hazard influence was investigate.

  3. Resistance to implementing policy change: the case of Ukraine / Rsistance la mise en uvre du changement politique: cas de lUkraine / Resistencia a aplicar los cambios de poltica: el caso de Ucrania

    Rifat, Atun; Igor, Olynik.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis constituye un importante problema de salud pblica en Europa oriental. Desde 1990, la incidencia de la enfermedad ha seguido aumentando en Belars, la Federacin de Rusia y Ucrania, as como en las repblicas asiticas centrales de Kazajstn, Kirguistn, Tayikistn y Uzbekistn. Euro [...] pa oriental, y en particular la Federacin de Rusia y Ucrania, afrontan adems el reto de salud pblica que supone la rpida extensin de la epidemia de tuberculosis multirresistente (MDR-TB). De los 17 283 casos mundiales de tuberculosis multirresistente notificados en 2004, ms del 60% (10 595) se dieron en la Regin de Europa, la gran mayora de ellos en Europa oriental, incluidos los estados blticos de Estonia, Letonia y Lituania. Un dato especialmente preocupante es que, al igual que en frica, el xito del tratamiento DOTS en Europa oriental es sustancialmente inferior a la media en comparacin con otras regiones del mundo, y la cobertura DOTS y la tasa de deteccin de casos bacilferos siguen siendo los menores del mundo. Globalmente, estos problemas que, como frica, sufre Europa oriental siguen siendo el principal obstculo para alcanzar los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio relacionados con la tuberculosis en Europa. Ucrania presenta unas epidemias cada vez ms graves de tuberculosis, tuberculosis multirresistente y VIH, con el teln de fondo de las epidemias de enfermedades de transmisin sexual y de consumidores de drogas inyectables. Pese a los intentos realizados, Ucrania no ha logrado implementar su poltica de tratamiento DOTS, debido a los problemas de organizacin de los sistemas de salud y a unos mecanismos de financiacin y pago a los proveedores que han creado desincentivos para aplicar los cambios, y por aadidura la oposicin que la estrategia DOTS ha encontrado entre los altos funcionarios y los mdicos ha dificultado las actividades de implementacin. Abstract in english Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in eastern Europe. Since 1990, the incidence rates of TB have continued to increase in Belarus, the Russian Federation, the Ukraine and the central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Eastern Europe, and in particul [...] ar the Russian Federation and the Ukraine, also face the public health challenge of an escalating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemic. Of the 17 283 global MDR-TB cases reported in 2004, over 60% (10 595) were from the European region and the vast majority of these from eastern Europe, including the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Of particular concern is the fact that, along with Africa, treatment success for DOTS in eastern Europe is substantially below average when compared with other regions of the world, and DOTS coverage and smear-positive case detection rate remain the lowest in the world. Collectively, along with Africa, these problems in eastern Europe remain the principal obstacle to meeting the Millennium Development Goals for TB in Europe. The Ukraine has worsening epidemics of TB, MDR-TB and HIV, against a background of epidemics of sexually transmitted illness (STI) and injecting drug users (IDUs). The TB and HIV epidemics are converging. In spite of attempts, the Ukraine has failed to implement DOTS policy due to health systems organization, financing and provider payment systems that created disincentives to change while opposition by policy-makers and clinicians to DOTS strategy hindered implementation efforts.

  4. Tectonics and distribution of gold deposits in China - An overview

    Zhou, T.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Phillips, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    Gold exploration in China has expanded rapidly during the last two decades since a modern approach to economic development has become a national priority. China currently produces 180 tonnes (t) of gold annually, which is still significantly less than South Africa, USA, and Australia. However, China is now recognized as possessing significant gold resources in a wide range of mineral deposit types. Present estimates of gold resources in China exceed 4,500 t, which comprise 60% in gold-only deposits, more than 25% in base metal-rich skarn, porphyry, and vein deposits, and more than 10% in placer accumulations. The major gold provinces in China formed during the main episodes of Phanerozoic tectonism. Such tectonism involved interaction of China's three major Precambrian cratons, North China, Tarim, and Yangtze (or South China when combined with Cathysia block), with the Angara (or Siberian), Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan, and Indian cratons. Resulting collisions included deformation of accreted oceanic sequences between the cratonic blocks. The most important ore-forming orogenies were (1) the late Paleozoic Variscan (405-270 Ma), which led to amalgamation of the Angara, North China and Yangtze cratons, (2) the Indosinian (270-208 Ma), which led to the collision of North China and South China cratons, (3) the Yanshanian (208-90 Ma), which was largely influenced by the subduction of the Izanagi-Pacific plates beneath eastern China, and (4) the Himalayan (China, mainly because of reworking of exposed Precambrian rocks by these younger orogenies, but there are a few Caledonian (600-405 Ma) gold-bearing system in northern Xinjiang. Most of China's orogenic, epithermal, and Carlinlike gold deposits are in the reworkerd margins of major cratonic blocks and in metasedimentary rock-dominated fold belts adjacent to these margins. Accordingly, the major gold provinces are present along the northern, southeastern and southern margins of the North China craton, along the southwestern and northwestern margins of the Yangtze craton, in the Tianshan and Altayshan orogenic belts in northern Xinjiang, and throughout the southeastern China fold belt. Gold-placer deposits derived from these primary deposits are concentrated in the northernmost part of northeastern China and along the northerwestern margin of the Yangtze craton. The major provinces with significant gold in porphyry-related copper systems and base metal skarns are present in the Yangtze River area along the northeastern and southeastern margin of the Yangtze craton, in the fold belt in southwestern China, and scattered through northern China. Three-quarters of the Chinese gold-only deposits occur within the North China craton margins. Half are located in the uplifted Precambrian metamorphie rocks and most of the remainder are hosted in the Phanerozoic granitoids that intruded the reworked Precambrian terranes. The abundance of granite-hosted gold contrasts the North China craton with other Precambrian cratons, such as those in Western Australia, central Canada, and Zimbabwe, where gold is mainly hosted in the Archean greenstone belts. This difference may be explained by the multiple episodes of Phanerozoic tectonism along the North China craton margins resulting from the collision of the Angara, North China, and South China cratons, and from subduction of the Izanagi-Pacific oceanic plates underneath the eastern China continent.

  5. Assembly of the Pamirs: Age and origin of magmatic belts from the southern Tien Shan to the southern Pamirs and their relation to Tibet

    Schwab, M.; Ratschbacher, L.; Siebel, W.; McWilliams, M.; Minaev, V.; Lutkov, V.; Chen, F.; Stanek, K.; Nelson, B.; Frisch, W.; Wooden, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Magmatic rocks and depositional setting of associated volcaniclastic strata along a north-south traverse spanning the southern Tien Shan and eastern Pamirs of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan constrain the tectonics of the Pamirs and Tibet. The northern Pamirs and northwestern Tibet contain the north facing Kunlun suture, the south facing Jinsha suture, and the intervening Carboniferous to Triassic Karakul-Mazar subduction accretion system; the latter is correlated with the Songpan-Garze-Hoh Xi system of Tibet. The Kunlun arc is a composite early Paleozoic to late Paleozoic-Triassic arc. Arc formation in the Pamirs is characterized by ???370-320 Ma volcanism that probably continued until the Triassic. The cryptic Tanymas suture of the southern northern Pamirs is part of the Jinsha suture. A massive ??????227 Ma batholith stitches the Karakul-Mazar complex in the Pamirs. There are striking similarities between the Qiangtang block in the Pamirs and Tibet. Like Tibet, the regional structure of the Pamirs is an anticlinorium that includes the Muskol and Sares domes. Like Tibet, the metamorphic rocks in these domes are equivalents to the Karakul-Mazar-Songpan-Garze system. Granitoids intruding the Qiangtang block yield ???200-230 Ma ages in the Pamirs and in central Tibet. The stratigraphy of the eastern Pshart area in the Pamirs is similar to the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone in the Amdo region of eastern central Tibet, but a Triassic ocean basin sequence is preserved in the Pamirs. Arc-type granitoids that intruded into the eastern Pshart oceanic-basin-arc sequence (???190-160 Ma) and granitoids that cut the southern Qiangtang block (???170-160 Ma) constitute the Rushan-Pshart arc. Cretaceous plutons that intruded the central and southern Pamirs record a long-lasting magmatic history. Their zircons and those from late Miocene xenoliths show that the most distinct magmatic events were Cambro-Ordovician (???410-575 Ma), Triassic (???210-250 Ma; likely due to subduction along the Jinsha suture), Middle Jurassic (???147-195 Ma; subduction along Rushan-Pshart suture), and mainly Cretaceous. Middle and Late Cretaceous magmatism may reflect arc activity in Asia prior to the accretion of the Karakoram block and flat-slab subduction along the Shyok suture north of the Kohistan-Ladakh arc, respectively. Before India and Asia collided, the Pamir region from the Indus-Yarlung to the Jinsha suture was an Andean-style plate margin. Our analysis suggests a relatively simple crustal structure for the Pamirs and Tibet. From the Kunlun arc in the north to the southern Qiangtang block in the south the Pamirs and Tibet likely have a dominantly sedimentary crust, characterized by Karakul-Mazar-Songpan-Garze accretionary wedge rocks. The crust south of the southern Qiangtang block is likely of granodioritic composition, reflecting long-lived subduction, arc formation, and Cretaceous-Cenozoic underthrusting. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Glacial Retreat and Associated Glacial Lake Hazards in the High Tien Shan

    Smith, T. T.

    2013-12-01

    A number of studies have identified glacial retreat throughout the greater Himalayan region over the past few decades, but the Karakorum region remains an anomaly with large stagnating or advancing glaciers. The glacial behavior in the Tien Shan is still unclear, as few studies have investigated mass balances in the region. This study focuses on the highest peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range, in the region of Jengish Chokusu along the Kyrgyzstan-China-Kazakhstan border. In a first step, a 30-year time series of Landsat imagery (n=27) and ASTER imagery (n=10) was developed to track glacial growth and retreat in the region. Using a combination of spectral and topographic information, glacial outlines are automatically delineated. As several important glaciers in the study region contain medium to high levels of debris cover, our algorithm also improves upon current methods of detecting debris-covered glaciers by using topography, distance weighting methods, river networks, and additional spectral data. Linked to glacial retreat are glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) that have become increasingly common in High Mountain Asia over the last few decades. As glaciers retreat, their melt water is often trapped by weakly bonded moraines. These moraines have been known to fail due to overtopping caused by surge waves created by avalanches, rockslides, or glacial calving. A suite of studies throughout High Mountain Asia have used remotely-sensed data to monitor the formation and growth of glacial lakes. In a second step of the work, lake-area changes over the past 15 years were tracked monthly and seasonally using dense Landsat/ASTER coverage (n=30) with an automatic procedure based on spectral and topographic information. Previous work has identified GLOFs as a significant process for infrastructural damage in the southern Tien Shan/northern Pamir, as well as in the better studied Himalaya region. Lake identification and quantification of lake-growth rates is a valuable first step to identifying potential flooding hazards in the region. In a third step, ASTER imagery is used for mass balance estimates from stereogrammetry over the last 10 years (n=10). These mass balance estimates are some of the first in the region, and provide valuable context on the rate of retreat identified using Landsat imagery. By combining glacial retreat rates with lake-change rates, a preliminary hydrological budget was derived for the region. This budget provides a basis for estimating GLOF risk in the region, by combining risk factors such as lake-growth rate and glacial retreat rate with glacier slope and other near-lake risk factors, such as propensity for landslides, likely to cause overtopping in lakes and downstream flooding. Following the identification of dangerous lakes, elevation models were used for flow routing, to assess total downstream area that would be affected by a GLOF. In combination with infrastructure and demographic information, the algorithm can estimate potential downstream impacts on local communities. This work provides an integrated picture of glacial lake hazards in a previously unstudied region of the Tien Shan, as well as valuable mass balance and glacial retreat rate estimates.

  7. Mineral chemistry and thermobarometry of peridotite xenoliths from Central Tien Shan basalts

    Egorova, V.; Batalev, V.; Simonov, V.; Bagdassarov, N.; Litasov, Yu.

    2009-04-01

    Meso-Cenozoic basaltoids were revealed in the Tien Shan on a vast area (>285.000 km2), from the mountainous framing of the Fergana basin in the west to the Dzhungar Alatau spurs in the east. They occur as dikes and stocks among the Paleozoic Tien Shan complexes. Basaltic flows and sills were found among the deposits of the Suluterek Formation localized in the basement of the section of continental sediments filling the Tien Shan neotectonic depressions. In the Toyun basin in China and in the Fergana valley, basaltic flows and sills occur among Cretaceous-Paleogene marine deposits. Meso-Cenozoic effusive bodies are mainly olivine and plagioclase basalts. The trace- and rare-earth-element compositions of rocks show that most of the studied basaltic series in the Tien Shan formed in within-plate magmatic systems related to mantle plume sources. Spinel lherzolite xenoliths were found in basalts from Ortosuu sites located in Kyrgyzstan. New basalt sites with ultramafic xenoliths have high significance for reconstruction of the composition, structure and evolution of the upper mantle of Tien Shan and geodynamic processes in Central Asia. Spinel lherzolite xenoliths are characterized by an anhydrous four-phase mineral assemblage: olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and brown Cr-spinel. Peridotite textures are largely protogranular. Rock forming minerals have high Mg# = 0.87-0.91 in Ol, 0.87-0.91 in Opx, 0.88-0.91 in Cpx, and 0.75-0.77 in Sp. NiO content in olivine reaches 0.4 wt.%. Clinopyroxenes are Cr-diopside and characterized by high Al2O3 (4.6-7.5 wt%), Cr2O3 (0.7 - 1.11 wt%), Na2O (1.4-1.7 wt%) contents and 0.44-0.5 Ca/(Ca+Mg) ratio. Cr/(Cr+Al) ratio in spinel is equal to 0.09-0.18. Temperatures of equilibration for spinel lherzolites range from 920 to 1150C for Opx-Cpx thermometer and from 920 to 1070C for Ca-in-opx thermometer of Brey, Kohler (1990) and 912-1080C for Opx-Cpx thermometer of Wells (1977). Pressures calculated from Cpx barometer of Nimis (1999) are in the range 14 to 17 kbar. The spinel lherzolite xenoliths represent the uppermost mantle beneath Central Tien Shan. Based on these calculated P-T conditions, spinel lherzolite types closely match a local geotherm substantially hotter (~ 70-80 mW/m2) than that the lithospheric mantle beneath the Siberian platform (45mW/m2) and close to estimates of thermal flow for the Baikal rift zone and South-eastern Australia (70 mW/m2). The relatively high equilibration temperatures of the mantle xenoliths in Ortosuu basalts are largely attributable to the plume occurring beneath Central Tian Shan in Meso-Cenozoic.

  8. OH CHARACTERS OF AMAN SASPAEV STORIES AMAN SASPAEV?N YKLER?NDE K???LER DNYASI

    Chinara SASYKULOVA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aman Saspayev who started his writer's life at China and is one of the today's Kyrgyz literature writers, his stories hold a peculiar place in a technical organization and also in terms of expression at Kyrgyz storytelling. First stories of writer published at 1966 with the name of Glkay?r (Ebegmeci after he had returned from China to Kyrgyzstan. Aman Saspayev who used a symbolic language, had fronted to status storytelling more than event storytelling. Probably for this reoson people's world at stories consist of ordinary people, objects and assets.In this study, through people at stories of Aman Saspayev, we will try to analyze the technic of writer. In this study also we will give place to some elements which reflected from writer's life to his stories.Such that to determined Kyrgyz and Uyghurs as a story heros of his stories that he had written at China to give ordinary occurrence also has thematic contents. Aman Saspayev, although he had written many stories during Soviet Union, he avoid bad discourses or good discourses about Union.In our article also it will be given a place about the writer's stance against the Soviet system using his stories. Yazarl?k hayat?na inde ba?layan ve K?rg?z edebiyat?n?n gnmz yazarlar?ndan birisi olan Aman Saspayevin ykleri, gerek teknik kurulu? ve gerekse anlat? bak?m?ndan K?rg?z ykcl?nde kendine mahsus bir yer tutar. Yazar?n ilk ykleri inden K?rg?zistana dndkten sonra 1966da Glkay?r (Ebegmeci ad?yla yay?mlan?r. ?lk yklerinden itibaren sembolik bir dil kullanan Aman Saspayev, olay ykcl?nden daha ok durum ykcl?ne ynelmi?tir. Bu sebeple olsa gerek yklerdeki ki?iler dnyas? s?radan insanlar, nesneler veya varl?klardan olu?ur. Bu al??mada Aman Saspayevin yklerindeki ki?iler arac?l??? ile yazar?n yk tekni?ini zmlenmeye al???lacakt?r. Yazar?n hayat?ndan yklere yans?yan kimi unsurlara da bu al??mada yer verilecektir. yle ki inde yazd??? yklerinde s?radan olu?u vermek iin yazar?n buradaki K?rg?zlar? ve Uygurlar? yk kahramanlar? olarak belirlemi? olmas? dahi tematik bir ieri?e sahiptir. Aman Saspayev, eserlerinin o?unu Sovyetler Birli?i zaman?nda yazmas?na ra?men, Sovyet sistemine ili?kin olumlayan ya da olumsuzlayan sylemlerden ka?n?r. Makalede yazar?n Sovyet sistemi kar??s?ndaki duru?una da yklerinden hareketle yer verilmi?tir.

  9. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many of these toxic dumps are vulnerable to seismically induced landsliding, release of reservoir water and breaching of very large (up to several km3) landslide-dammed lakes within the deep mountain valleys typical of the fault zone. The May 2008 earthquake in neighboring Sichuan, in which some 30 landslide-dammed lakes were created, may be useful in refining hazard scenarios developed from the multi-pronged analysis employed in our study. This analysis involves compiling all relevant existing data, such as seismic archives held in paper format, within the project GIS. Spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by these compiled data, together with focal mechanism determinations where possible, are combined with data on the distribution and nature of geological units to provide estimates of peak ground acceleration and the likely incidence of seismically-triggered slope instability. This compilation also identifies data deficiencies to be targeted using a portable seismometer network, geophysical and geodetic surveys, InSAR and other remote sensing data; all combined with geotechnical and palaeoseismological fieldwork. Initial results from this approach confirm the ground-shaking potential of Talas-Fergana rupture events, suggest a long-term slip rate as high as 15 mm a-1, and the occurrence of the last ground-rupturing event some 4-500 years BP. The lack of significant activity since that event suggests the Talas-Fergana structure may comprise a seismic gap within the Tien-Shan, highlighting the importance of hazard scenarios in proposing mitigation measures against potentially catastrophic threats, such as extensive pollution of irrigated lands in the Fergana Valley downstream from Toktogul on which some 10 million people depend.

  10. Applications of remote sensing and GIS in surface hydrology: Snow cover, soil moisture and precipitation

    Wang, Xianwei

    Studies on surface hydrology can generally be classified into two categories, observation for different components of surface water, and modeling their dynamic movements. This study only focuses on observation part of surface water components: snow cover, soil moisture, and precipitation. Moreover, instead of discussion on the detailed algorithm and instrument technique behind each component, this dissertation pours efforts on analysis of the standard remotely sensed products and their applications under different settings. First in Chapter 2, validation of MODIS Terra 8-day maximum snow cover composite (MOD10A2) in the Northern Xinjiang, China, from 2000-2006, shows that the 8-day MODIS/Terra product has high agreements with in situ measurements as the in situ snow depth is larger or equal to 4 cm, while the agreement is low for the patchy snow as the in situ snow depth less than 4 cm. According to the in situ observation, this chapter develops an empirical algorithm to separate the cloud-covered pixels into snow and no snow. Continued long-term production of MODIS-type snow cover product is critical to assess water resources of the study area, as well as other larger scale global environment monitoring. Terra and Aqua satellites carry the same MODIS instrument and provide two parallel MODIS daily snow cover products at different time (local time 10:30 am and 1:30 pm, respectively). Chapter 3 develops an algorithm and automated scripts to combine the daily MODIS Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) snow cover products, and to automatically generate multi-day Terra-Aqua snow cover image composites, with flexible starting and ending dates and a user-defined cloud cover threshold. Chapter 4 systematically compares the difference between MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products within a hydrologic year of 2003-2004, validates the MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products using in situ measurements in Northern Xinjiang, and compares the accuracy among the standard MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products, and the new combined daily and multi-day composite from both MODIS Terra and Aqua daily products. In Chapter 5, utilizing the new cloud-low multi-day composite of MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products, several new methods are developed to study the spatiotemporal variation of snow cover conditions from different aspects at the Northern Xinjiang and on the Central Tianshan Mountains, mainly in China, partly covering Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Secondly, Chapter 6 investigates the feasibility to indirectly map root-zone soil moisture using optical remote sensing techniques and in situ measurements. Specifically, covariation of root-zone soil moisture with the normalized difference of vegetation index (NDVI) from MODIS observation is studied at three sites (New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas). The three sites represent two types of vegetation (shrub and grass) and two types of climate conditions: arid/semi-arid (New Mexico and Arizona) and humid (Texas). Results show that the root-zone soil moisture has significant linear correlation with vegetation (NDVI). Finally, Chapter 7 validates and compares the NEXRAD Stage III and MPE precipitation products using a high density rain gauge network on the Upper Guadalupe River Basin of the Texas Hill Country in 2001 and 2004. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Anavatanlar?ndan Sekiz lkeye Da??t?lm?? Bir Halk: Ah?ska Trkleri A People Scattered From Their Native Land to Eight Countries: Ahiska (Meskhetian Turks

    Erdin DEM?RAY

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahiska or Meskhet Turks definations are geographical denominations, not etnic ones. Ahiska region and Turks living in this region was a natural part of Anatolian Turks as geopraphical and demographic. The precense of the Turks in this region known as Meskhetia in the history is based on ancient times. In the 11th century Seljuk conquests and then in the 12th century settlement of the Kipchak Turks, who came the region at the invitation of the Georgian king David who failed in fighting against Seljuks, enhanced the Turkish population at once. Thus, the Turks effectuated a full domination on the area in terms of the populatin. After a short time, in the middle 13th century Kipchaks declared their independence and founded their state named Atabekler Devleti. In history, this land dominated by The Kipchaks is known and displayed as Sa-Atabago (land of Atabegs by Georgians, too. The Atabegs Principality was captured by Ottoman State towards the end of 16th century and this principality was reorganized as Cildir Shire and Ahiska was done its capital city. In this region people have the same cultural codes with Anatolian Turks living on northeastern provinces of Turkey. Meskhetian Turks were exiled to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in 1944 when they lived in a province located in the southwest of Georgia and northeast of Turkey, and known as Samtshe-Cavaheti under the administrational umbrella of Georgia. Having not been allowed turning back to their hometowns, Meskhetian Turks live mostly in eight countries now and keep the characteristics of their dialect to a great extent which can be regarded as the following of Eastern Anatolian dialects. Ah?ska ya da Mesket Trkleri tan?mlar? etnik de?il co?rafi bir adland?rma olup, Ah?ska blgesi ve Trkleri Anadolu Trkl?nn co?rafi ve demografik bak?mdan tabii devam?d?r. Tarihte Meskhetia olarak da bilinen blgedeki Trk varl??? ok eski devirlere dayanmakta olup, 11. yzy?ldaki Seluklu fetihleri ve Seluklularla mcadelede yetersiz kalan Grc kral?n?n daveti ile 12. yzy?lda K?pak Trklerinin de blgeye gelerek yerle?mesi blgeyi tamamen Trkle?tirmi?tir. Grc Krall??? iinde glenen K?paklar 13. yzy?l ortalar?nda ba??ms?zl?klar? ilan etmi?ler ve hkim olduklar? bu blgeler tarihte, Grcler taraf?ndan da, Atabek Yurdu olarak an?lm??t?r. Akkoyunlu, Karakoyunlu, Safev Trk devletleri himayesinde varl???n? srdren Atabekler Devleti 16. yzy?l?n sonlar?na do?ru Osmanl? Devletine kat?lm?? ve merkezi Ah?ska olan ?ld?r Eyaleti olarak yeniden dzenlenmi?tir. Blgede K?pak ve O?uz Trklerinin kayna?mas? ile olu?an topluluk, Artvin ve Erzurum illerimizin oruh nehri ve kollar? etraf?nda ve Ardahan ilimizin Posof ilesi ve evresinde ya?ayan Trklerle tarih boyunca dil ve kltr bak?m?ndan ayn? kodlara sahip olmu?tur. Ah?ska Trkleri, Grcistan?n Gney-Bat?s?nda, Trkiyenin Kuzey-Do?usunda yer alan, gnmzde Grcistan?n idari yap?s? iinde Samtshe-Cavaheti olarak adland?r?lan vilayette ya?arken 1944 y?l?nda zbekistan, Kazakistan ve K?rg?zistana srgn edilmi?tir. Geen 68 y?l iinde, srgn edildikleri topraklara dn?lerine imkn tan?nmayan Ah?ska Trkleri gnmzde ba?l?ca sekiz lkede ya?amakta ve Do?u Anadolu a??zlar?n?n bir devam? niteli?indeki a??z zelliklerini byk lde korumaktad?rlar.

  12. Prevention of goiter in children who consume water contaminated with radionuclides (Uranium and Thorium)

    Full text: Background. Since the thyroid gland is the most susceptible to radiation (Buldakov L.A., Kalistratova V.S., 2003), the incidence of goiter is very high (32-37%) among the adolescents who live in the uranium biogeochemical areas and consume water contaminated with uranium and thorium. For these reasons, elaboration of measures for prevention of goiter in children who consume water contaminated with radionuclides is of great importance. Objective. Elaboration of measures for prevention of goiter in children who consume water contaminated with radionuclides. Materials and Methods. A total of 55 school children who reside in 10-15 km downstream the uranium biogeochemical provinces and consume the water from the river of Mayluu-Suu were subject to observation. The concentration of radionuclides in water was measured by standard Y-spectrometric device with a detector. To evaluate the efficacy of the preventive measures clinical methods were applied. All children under observation were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 71 children and Group II - 72 children. Prevention measures were first undertaken in 1995 - 1997 when the children were at the age of 1 - 2 years. By the time of the present study their age is about 16-18 years. Results. Concentration of uranium and thorium in water and silt of the river of Mayluu-Suu fluctuated depending on the season. In 2003-2004 uranium concentration in water ranged from 2.8 to 9.6 μg / l, in silt - from 2.67 and 3.46 μg/g. Thorium concentration - 0.025 and 0.097 μg / l and 2.8 - 3.46μg / g, respectively; Cesium concentration in silt ranged from 86 and 98 Bq / kg. In group I all children administered tea concentrate produced from fruits and plants rich in vitamins and biologically active substances, trace elements, pectins which possess bile-and diuretic properties and sorbent properties with regards to radionuclides as well. To 2 teaspoons brewed in 400 ml of boiled water, before use of agitated, allowed to drink during the day. The term does not restrict the use of tea. Rhodiola rosea tincture and iodized salt were also administered alongside with the concentrates. In Group II (control group) children administered an iodized salt. The results of preventive measures were evaluated in March 2012. In Group I goiter was reported only in 2 (2.8%) of 71 children as compared to 23 (31.9%) out of 72 in Group II. Thus, for the prevention of goiter in children who consume water contaminated with radionuclides (uranium and thorium) in conditions of Mayluu-Suu it is recommended to administer therapeutic concentrates obtained from the herbs and fruits growing in Kyrgyzstan, and tinctures of Rhodiola rosea alongside with the iodized salt of high quality. Prevention of goiter may be initiated in early childhood. (author)

  13. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal Maoist insurgency. (5) Glacier lakes are in many cases very fragile and their natural dams routinely rupture, causing devastating floods. A rising regional terrorist threat in several countries could target these dams and precipitate calamitous and terrifying results. (6) Over the next century, retreating glaciers may open new corridors for trade and human migration across the Himalaya and pave the way for possible new economic, military and political alliances in the region. (7) Glacier retreat might open new sanctuaries for terrorists and open new corridors for possible ground-based military offensive action across the HKH ranges. The documentation of glacier characteristics that may influence their trafficability, and projections of future glacier extent and behavior are relevant to wide ranging concerns of the region's inhabitants. Satellite remote sensing and mapping of glaciers is one approach to defining and monitoring the problems and opportunities presented by HKH glaciers. Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) is a joint USGS/NASA Pathfinder project that has formed a global consortium of glaciologists in several regional centers that are mapping and monitoring the HKH glaciers using repeat-pass ASTER and Landsat ETM+ data. We are currently building a comprehensive satellite multispectral image and GIS database that is providing detailed information on the state and rates of change of each glacier in the HKH region and other areas of the world. Merging these results with DEMs allows a predictive capability that could be useful in policy development and security planning.

  14. [Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among patients with chronic hepatitis C infection in Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey: a five-year evaluation].

    Sağlik, İmran; Mutlu, Derya; Öngut, Gözde; İnan, Dilara; Öğünç, Dilara; Can Sarinoğlu, Rabia; Özhak Baysan, Betil; Gültekin, Meral; Çolak, Dilek

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis. It is important to know the genotypes of HCV in the decision of the HCV related chronic hepatitis therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HCV genotypes determined at the Microbiology Laboratory of Akdeniz University Hospital, and to evaluate the changes in the distribution of the genotypes within the last five years. A total of 422 blood samples from HCV-RNA positive chronic hepatitis C patients (219 male, 203 female; age range: 8-79 yrs, mean age 46.3 ± 15.5 yrs) which were sent to our laboratory for genotyping between 2009-2013 period, were analyzed retrospectively. HCV-RNA extractions were performed in an automated system (EZ1 Virus Mini Kit v2.0, Qiagen, Germany), and a commercial reverse hybridization line probe-based assay (LIPA; GEN-C RT-PCR, Italy) was carried out for genotyping, For viral load determinations, a real-time PCR method (Cobas TaqMan HCV, Roche Diagnostics, Germany) was used. Demographic data of the patients were obtained from the hospital information systems and electronic patients' files. Out of the 422 patients, genotype 1b was detected in 63.3% (n= 267), genotype 1a in 14.7% (n= 62), genotype 3a in 11.1% (n= 47), genotype 2b in 0.9% (n= 4), genotype 4e in 0.2% (n= 1). The subtypes couldn't be determined for 5.4% (n= 23), 2.6% (n= 11) and 1.4% (n= 6) of the patients infected with genotype 1, 2 and 4, respectively. One (0.2%) patient, was coinfected with genotype 1 and 4. Of the patients, 40 were foreign-born (16 cases from Russia; 4 of each from Ukraine and Georgia; 3 of each from Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Germany; one of each from Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Chechnya, Moldova, Switzerland and Romania) and among these patients genotype 3a (19/40; 47.5%) was the most common genotype followed by genotype 1b (17/40; 42.5%). Median values of HCV viral load were 668.500 IU/ml (range: 2.000-9.630.000) in the whole group; while it was 732.000 IU/ml (range: 2.000-9.630.000) in patients infected with genotype 1 and 444.000 IU/ml (range: 2.650- 8.330.000) in patients infected with the other genotypes (p> 0.05). Patients infected with genotype 1 were found to be older than those infected with other genotypes (47 ± 15.7 and 39.5 ± 12.2, respectively; p 0.05). In conclusion, the determination of HCV genotypes is of crucial importance for treatment decision-making of chronic HCV infection. Besides, it also allows monitoring the changes in the epidemiology of HCV. In this study, although genotype 1b was determined as the most common HCV genotype, the detection of other genotypes was remarkable. This finding was attributed to the presence of many foreign national people in Antalya region which was a high capacity tourism area in Turkey. PMID:25052109

  15. Uranium Mining in Paraguay: An opportunity to improve the environmental regulations in mining

    Full text: In many respects uranium mining is much the same as any other mining activity. In Paraguay under the Environmental Law, as well as many other South American countries, projects must have environmental permits prior to commencing, and must comply with all environmental, safety and occupational health conditions applicable. Increasingly, these activities are regulated by international standards, with external audits. The capacity for enforcement varies from the experience and tradition in mining production. Mining in Paraguay is a very recent activity; and as well as the Environmental Authority was recently created in 2000; therefore the environmental legislation for mining is not developed. Once the mining activity is approved, open pits or shafts and drives are dug, waste rock and overburden is placed in engineered dumps. Tailings from the ore processing must be placed in engineered dams or underground. Finally the whole site must be rehabilitated at the end of the project. Meanwhile air and water pollution must be avoided. The nuclear Renaissance in the world is a result of the high prices of oil and governments commitments on reducing the Greenhouse Effect Emissions under the Kyoto protocol: many governments expressed their willingness to increment their uranium predictions as well as the nuclear energy generation. Representatives of the Paraguayan Government after a meeting of the National council of Defense had stated that the issue of uranium exploration and has a strategic significance, and it has requested the preparation of environmental regulations to regulate this activity. The sector development strategy has also been discussed within the National Council of Defense. In this regard upon request of the National Environmental Authority and with support from USAID cooperation a process of preparing regulations for uranium mining has initiated by considering the cases of remediation and liabilities left by uranium mining in Australia - Nabarlek; Gabon-Mounana; Australia - Valle South Alligator; Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Once the uranium mining process and risks were evaluated by the authorities, and taking into considerations that the process is common to all metalliferous mining, and are well recognized and understood, the government decided to prepare an Environmental Regulation for General Mining. Also a particular regulation for uranium mining was prepared and was included in the Standards Protocols and Term of References for Uranium Mining. The proposed regulation states the follow stages of the process: mine site rehabilitation assessment, environmental risk assessment to determine what environmental assets are at greatest risk from multiple threats, assessment of the biophysical impact of mining on people; assessment of the impact of uranium mining and chemical and biological control regimes to ensure that the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are protected from the operation of mines in the region. Finally in the Environmental Management Plan an environmental monitoring is implemented for early detection of effects in the environment, arising from dispersion of mine waters during the rain and wet season. It is expected that with the proposed environmental regulation, uranium mining will be encourage in Paraguay. (author)

  16. Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Turkic Republics and Turkey: Economic and Business Dimensions

    Lutfu Sagbansua

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An ever-increasing globalization in last century is enforcing many countries to come together and create organizations to take advantage of a greater power in the global stage both in political and economic issues. Regional organizations are one form of such organizations. In addition to many of such groups, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO is an intergovernmental mutual-security organization which was founded in 2001 by the leaders of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In a short period of time since then SCO has proved itself to be a powerful organization promising to be an authority in Central Asian region. The research at hand is formed to investigate the development of this organization along with its effect on Turkey as well as the member countries. This effect is also analyzed in two dimensions. The place of SCO in region is analyzed not only in terms of economic side but also the business side. The fact that business and economics are difficult to isolate from each other, makes it a necessity to use this approach, thus, making this study a valuable source. Key words: Shanghai Cooperation Organization; Turkic Republics; Central Asia; Transitional EconomiesRésumé: Une mondialisation en constante croissance dans le siècle dernier oblige de nombreux pays de se réunir et de créer des organisations afin de profiter d'un plus grand pouvoir dans les événements politiques et économiques au niveau international. Les organisations régionales sont une forme de ces organisations. A part de ces groupes, l’Organisation de coopération de Shanghai (OCS est une organisation intergouvernementale de sécurité mutuelle, fondée en 2001 par les dirigeants de la Chine, la Russie, le Kazakhstan, le Kirghizistan, le Tadjikistan et l'Ouzbékistan. Dans un court laps de temps depuis lors, OCS s'est avérée être une organisation puissante promettant d'être une autorité en Asie centrale.La présente recherche est ménée pour enquêter sur le développement de cette organisation ainsi que son effet sur la Turquie et les pays membres. Cet effet est également analysé en deux dimensions. Le statut de l'OCS dans la région est analysé non seulement du point de vue économique mais aussi commercial. Le fait que le commerce et l'économie sont difficiles à isoler l’un de l’autre exige une nécessité d'utiliser cette approche, ce qui rend cette étude une source précieuse. Mots clés: Organisation de coopération de Shanghai; Républiques turques; Asie central; Économies transitionnelles

  17. Estimation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central asia and the Caucasus

    Full text: It is our international Program with the participation of 6 countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. For all presented regions we single out the following typical factors that significantly increase a risk of implementing natural and man-induced catastrophes: (1) these regions are located in the mountain areas with the high seismic level (5- 9 grades by Richter scale); (2) the largest mountain rivers have cascades of powerful hydroelectric stations with their sizeable reservoirs and huge high dams (>100m); (3) on the regions' densely populated lands there are plenty of mines for extraction of metals/minerals, industrial facilities and plants with U-tailing dumps and burrows of varied pollutants with using the different radioactive, toxic and poisonous substances in their technologies; (3) the man-induced activity here increases probabilities for occurrence of not only severe man-induced catastrophes, but also natural ones; (4) An especially grave situation has been created on trans boundary lands of these continue, due to the lack of common ecological and geochemical monitoring systems, that increases political and economic tension between the countries and generating negative migration processes; (5) risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes are not only regional but also global by nature, since they entail contamination of vast lands, the basins of the Black, Caspian and Kara Seas, that of the Arctic Ocean and, consequently, the entire World Ocean; (6) opportunity to perform deliberate attacks of terrorists with the using of explosives, that are able to cause man-induced catastrophes and stimulate natural calamities (earthquakes, mud flows, landslips, etc.). It is easier to implement attacks of terrorists there due to the intersection of main lines, an available border with current centers of international terrorism, located in Chechnya, Afghanistan and some others. The hazard is especially great for new independent states, where the system of safety, boundary and customs control, that of strict visa control and other state safety measures have not yet been formed. Consequences of terrorist attacks in the regions will be followed by major human and huge material losses, and extremely negative irreversible global scale environmental effects. The humankind has faced the majority of the above issues for the first time and, therefore, there are no good suitable methods provided for their solving. A purposeful activity of all countries of the world community is required. Program's results of Program 3 will be used in the following: (1) When developing a methodology/strategy to regulate and manage risks in emergencies; (2) when mapping risk allocation by various lands; (3) when developing a common system for emergency prevention/elimination. Our Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAS) has own experience in these scientific directions (http://www.ibrae.ac.ru). This Program will promote the realization of concept of substantial development with growth of economical cooperation and stability, decreasing of political stress not only for the countries- participants, but also at global scale for all countries, located at the continent. (author)

  18. PREFACE: XVIII International Scientific Symposium in Honour of Academician M. A. Usov: Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development

    2014-08-01

    XVIII International Scientific Symposium in honor of Academician M.A. Usov ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development'' (for students and young scientists) was organized under the guidance of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Being one of the oldest technical higher education institutions which trains specialists who contribute to scientific research in geosciences, The Institute of Natural Resources of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU INR) was chosen to hold the symposium. In 2014 The Institute of Natural Resources celebrated its 113th anniversary. It was founded in 1901 by V.A. Obruchev, the first geologist in Siberia, member of USSR Academy of Sciences, Hero of Socialist Labor, and the first Laureate of the Lenin Prize. He was recognized all over the world as a prominent scientist in the area of geology. INR is the first institute of geological education and geosciences in the Asian part of Russia. Siberian Mining and Geological Schola, established by V.A. Obruchev and M.A. Usov, has been retaining its significance for discovery, exploration and development of mineral resources not only in Siberia, in the Far East and North-East of the country, but also in Central Asia. There are a lot of outstanding scientists, engineers and manufacturers among alumni of The Institute of Natural Resources. The institute is proud of M.A. Usov, the student and first postgraduate of V.A. Obruchev, first professor and academician in Siberia, whose name is associated with the development of the mining industry in Siberia; Academician K.I. Satpaev, the founder and first president of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan; Professor N.N. Urvantsev, the discoverer of the unique Norilsk ore deposits in the north of East Siberia and Professor M.K. Korovin, who considered West Siberia deposits to be prospective for oil-gas exploration. There are over 35 000 graduates of the institute and more than 450 of them became explorers of mineral deposits including one Nobel laureate, 50 laureates of the Lenin and State Prizes, more than 250 researchers with DSc and PhD, 15 academicians and corresponding members of the USSR Academy of Sciences and five Heroes of Socialist Labor. Within the scope of the symposium there were 21 panels and workshop, being held over four days. The symposium was unique because it covered all scientific fields of geology and subsurface development: methods of prospecting and exploration for minerals and hydrocarbons, including space geological research and geoinformation systems in geology, as well as the ecological problems and integrated use of mineral resources, land management, natural resource law and economics. The students and young scientists of Russia, foreign and CIS countries participated in the symposium. The investigations presented at the symposium shed light on the latest achievements made by means of modern techniques and original methods of interpretation; the results of experimental studies and computer technologies in geology, oil and gas production and geoecology; the analysis of theoretical and experimental studies on various geological problems and environmental protection. The reports consider the vital issues and the latest achievements of stratigraphy, paleontology, tectonics, historical and regional geology, mineralogy, geochemistry, petrography, lithology, metallogeny, hydrogeology and engineering geology, geophysics, petroleum geology, oil and gas field development and processing of hydrocarbon and mineral resources, geoinformation systems (GIS) in geology, space geological research, oilfield equipment upgrading, modern techniques of mineral exploration, production, transportation and storage of oil and gas, drilling, mining engineering, geoecology, hydrogeoecology, environmental protection engineering, integrated use of mineral resources, land management, mining and natural resources law, and economical problems of mineral resources sectors in Russia and CIS countries. There is a special panel for those who make reports in English and German. The scientific significance of the reports is explained by new concepts and original ideas suggested by the authors. A number of studies introduce fundamentally new discoveries. The findings of the young scientists' investigations, in both fundamental sciences and experimental studies are significant for practical application, and further investigation might lead to writing a thesis for scientific degree. The authors of some reports gained patents and licenses for their discoveries. Within the scope of XVIII International Scientific Symposium there were 970 reports (including poster presentations) made by 1195 authors, among whom 293 and 90 came from other cities and foreign countries respectively. 90 participants from foreign countries and 293 of those who came from different cities of Russia. There were 1195 students and young scientists from Russia, CIS and foreign countries, who applied for the symposium with 970 reports, including 293 applications sent from other cities. Numbers of foreign participants equaled to 32, made up by representatives of 16 higher education institutions, scientific centres and industrial enterprises of 12 different cities. CIS countries were represented by 58 participants from 30 higher education institutions, scientific centres and industrial enterprises of 20 cities. The total number of Russian participants equaled to 206, who represented 78 higher education institutions, scientific centres and industrial companies of 48 cities. There were 677 reports made by students and researchers from Tomsk, including 647 declared by those of TPU. 73 participants presented their reports in English and German. 970 reports made within the scope of 21 panels and the round table embraced 827 presented by the speakers (including 677 by those from TPU) and 143 poster presentations analyzed by the experts. Nonresidents took an active part in the symposium having presented 150 reports. The reports of the symposium were made by students (655 participants), post-graduate students (180), researchers (82), engineers (30), young teachers (18) and schoolchildren (5). The organizations represented by the participants were higher education institutions (607), Russian Academy of Sciences (22), National Academy of Sciences (8), Research Institutes (18), industrial enterprises (10) and schools (5). The speakers who made 827 reports were students of bachelor and master degree programs (547, including 490 from TPU), post-graduate students and young researchers (130, including 80 from TPU) and five schoolchildren. The amount of those who attended different panels over the four days of the symposium consisted of 2010 people. Nine foreign countries (except for CIS) were represented by 32 reports made by participants from Germany, France, China, Italy, Poland, Ecuador, Iraq, Vietnam and Mongolia. Nine CIS countries were represented by 58 reports made by participants from National Academies of Sciences and Universities of Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Russian participants came from various areas of the country: in the east from Sakhalin, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Vladivostok, Blagoveshchensk, Krasnoyarsk, Chita, Irkutsk to Barnaul, Kemerovo, Novokuznetsk, and etc.; in the north from Mirny, Yakutsk, Neryungri, Magadan, Nizhnevartovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Nefteugansk to Tyumen, Ulan-Ude, Syktyvkar, and etc.; in the west from Minsk, Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg to Samara, Kazan, Ufa, Perm, Novosibirsk; in the south from the cities of the Central Asian republics to Ivano-Frankovsk, Odessa, Novocherkassk, Simferopol, Novorossiysk, Vladikavkaz, Voronezh, Stavropol, Astrakhan, and etc. A great number of young people from Urals, Western and Eastern Siberia took an active part in the Symposium. CIS countries were presented by participants from Uzbekistan (Tashkent), Tajikistan (Dushanbe), Azerbaijan (Baku), Kazakhstan (Almaty, Semipalatinsk, Karaganda, Pavlodar), Belarus (Minsk, Gomel), Armenia (Yerevan, Gyumri), Ukraine (Kiev, Odessa, Ivano-Frankovsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Donetsk, etc.), Kyrgyzstan (Bishkek), Moldova (Chisinau). The students and young scientists from Tomsk representing Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk State University, the Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics (SB RAS) and other organizations and institutions took an active part in the symposium. The scientific results of the symposium were reflected in a special edition consisting of two volumes and available at (www.portal.tpu.ru/science/konf/pgon) The editorial board of the symposium and this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science consider the materials of the symposium to be interesting for researchers and young scientists of universities, research and academic institutes, academies of sciences and their branches, engineering and technical staff of ministries and government departments - for anyone who explores and develops the Earth subsurface. The editors of this volume acknowledge the administration of the Institute of Physics and its publishing house for the publication of the issue and administration of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, represented by the rector, professor P.S. Chubik. Executive Editor XVIII International Symposium ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development'' - 2014, PhD in Geology and Mineralogy, Associate Professor G.M. Ivanova

  19. PREFACE: XIX International Scientific Symposium in honor of Academician M.A. Usov ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development''

    Ivanova, G. M.

    2015-11-01

    XIX International Scientific Symposium in honor of Academician M.A. Usov ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development'' (for students and young scientists) was organized under the guidance of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research within the National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (NR TPU). TPU is one of the oldest technical higher education institutions in Russia, training specialists in the domain of geoscience and enhancing their further research in this area. The Institute of Natural Resources, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (INR TPU) was chosen to hold the International Scientific Symposium. In 2015 the Institute of Natural Resources celebrated its 114th anniversary. It was founded by V.A. Obruchev in 1901, first Siberian geologist, member of USSR Academy of Sciences, Hero of Socialist Labor, and first Laureate of the Lenin Prize. He was recognized as a prominent scientist in the area of geology all over the world. INR is the first institute of geological education and geosciences in Asian Russia. Even today the Siberian Mining and Geological School, established by V.A. Obruchev and M.A. Usov, has retained its significance in the discovery, exploration and development of mineral resources not only in Siberia, the Far East and North-East of Russia, but also in Central Asia. There are numerous outstanding scientists and engineers among alumni of The Institute of Natural Resources. The institute is proud of such outstanding people as: M.A. Usov, student and first postgraduate of V.A. Obruchev, first professor and academician in Siberia, whose name is associated with the mining industry in Siberia; Academician K.I. Satpaev, founder and first president of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan; Professor N.N. Urvantsev, discoverer of the unique Norilsk ore deposits in the North of East Siberia and Professor M.K. Korovin, who, in the 30s of the 20th century, considered West Siberia deposits to be prospective in hydrocarbons. There are over 35,000 graduates of the institute, 450 of whom became explorers of mineral deposits including one Nobel laureate, 50 laureates of Lenin and State Prizes, more than 250 doctors (DSc) and 1600 associate professors (PhD), 15 academicians and corresponding members of the USSR Academy of Sciences and five Heroes of Socialist Labor. Within the framework of the XIX International Scientific Symposium, there were 21 panels and workshops in four days. The Symposium was unique in the fact that it embraced all scientific fields of geology and subsurface development, including mineral and hydrocarbon prospecting and exploration methods, space geological research and geoinformation systems, as well as ecological problems of the planet and humanity, rational utilization of mineral resources, land management, natural resource law and economics. Another important issue was technology application in mineral resource exploitation. The participants were students, post graduates, Master degree students and young scientists from Russia, foreign and CIS countries. The research issues presented at the Symposium highlighted the latest achievements via modern technology and comprehensive interpretation methods; revealed the experimental research results and computer technology in geology and geoecology; provided the analysis of theoretical and experimental research on various geological and environmental protection problems. The reports embraced the vital issues and latest scientific achievements in stratigraphy, paleontology, tectonics, historical and regional geology, mineralogy, geochemistry, petrography, lithology, metallogeny, hydrogeology and engineering geology, geophysics, petroleum geology, oil and gas field development and processing of hydrocarbon and mineral resources, geoinformation systems (GIS) in geology, geospace research, oilfield equipment upgrading; modern technological achievements in mineral exploration, oil and gas production, transportation and storage, drilling, mining engineering, geoecology, hydrogeoecology, environmental protection engineering, rational utilization of mineral resources, land management, mining and natural resources law, and economical problems of mineral resource sectors in Russia and CIS countries. There was a special panel for those who wanted to present reports in English and / or German. The presented reports were of scientific importance due to the fact that new concepts and original ideas were suggested by the authors. A number of research topics introduced fundamentally new discoveries. There is also a practical aspect: the findings of the young scientists' research, both fundamental and experimental, could result in DSc and PhD theses. Some authors were granted patents and licenses for their significant discoveries. Within the framework of the XIX International Scientific Symposium, 1020 reports were presented (including poster presentations), including 262 non-residents from other cities and 52 from foreign countries (22- non-CIS countries and 30-CIS countries, correspondingly). All in all, 1250 students and young scientists from Russia, CIS countries and foreign countries (52 to be exact) participated in this Symposium. More than 262 submission applications were sent from other cities. The number of participants was diverse and numerous: non-CIS countries (12 cities), 22 from 16 universities, R&D organizations; CIS countries (15 cities)- 30 from 30 universities, R&D organizations; Russia (48 cities) - 968, including 210 non-residents from 78 universities, R&D organizations; and Tomsk 758 of which 710 were from TPU. It should be mentioned that 54 participants presented their reports in English and German. Within the 21 different panels and RT 810 reports were presented (including 690 from TPU) of 1020 submitted reports, as well as 210 poster presentations. Nonresidents actively participated in the Symposium - 110 reports. The status of the participants was: students -694, post-graduates- 190, researchers - 80, engineers - 32, young teachers- 20, and 4 school-students. The representatives of different organizations were as follows: higher education institutions - 954, Russian Academy of Science - 24, National Academy of Science -7, R&D Institutes - 20, industrial enterprises -11 and schools -4. Of the 810 presented reports (690 -TPU) there were: 646 students and master degree students (including 608 from TPU), 160 post-graduates and young researchers (including 82 from TPU) and 4 school students. During the 4-day Symposium more than 1900 people attended 21 different panels. Twelve non-CIS countries presented 22 reports: Germany, Great Britain, Netherlands, Switzerland, Mexico, France, China, Italy, Vietnam, Mongolia, New Zealand and Nigeria. Seven CIS countries presented 30 reports: National Academies of Sciences and Universities of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Russian participants came from various areas of the country: in the east from Sakhalin, Petropavlovsk- Kamchatsky, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Vladivostok, Blagoveshchensk, Krasnoyarsk, Chita, Irkutsk to Barnaul, Kemerovo, Novokuznetsk, and etc.; in the north from Mirny, Yakutsk, Neryungri, Magadan, Nizhnevartovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Nefteugansk to Tyumen, Ulan-Ude, Syktyvkar, and etc.; in the west from Minsk, Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg to Samara, Kazan, Ufa, Perm, Novosibirsk;in the south from the cities of the Central Asian republics to Ivano-Frankovsk, Odessa, Novocherkassk, Simferopol, Novorossiysk, Vladikavkaz, Voronezh, Stavropol, Astrakhan, and etc. A great number of young people from Urals, Western and Eastern Siberia took an active part in the Symposium. CIS countries were presented by participants from Uzbekistan (Tashkent), Tajikistan (Dushanbe), Azerbaijan (Baku), Kazakhstan (Almaty, Semipalatinsk, Karaganda, Pavlodar), Belarus (Minsk, Gomel), Armenia (Yerevan, Gyumri), Ukraine (Kiev, Odessa, Ivano-Frankovsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Donetsk, etc.), Kyrgyzstan (Bishkek), Moldova (Chisinau). The students and young scientists from Tomsk representing Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk State University, the Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics (SB RAS) and other organizations and institutions took an active part in the symposium. The research results of the Symposium can be found in a two-volume edition which is available at http://portal.tpu.ru/science/konf/usovma/eng and /or www.usovma.tpu.ru The Editorial Boards of this Symposium and IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science consider that the articles would be of great interest for university researchers and young scientists, research and academic institutes, academies of sciences and their branches, engineering and technical staff of ministries and government departments - for those who explore and develop the Earth subsurface. Many people have contributed in a variety of ways in the preparation of this edition. We would like to thank the administration of the Institute of Physics and Professor P.S. Chubik, Rector of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University.

  20. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water requirement in Afghanistan. (In particular, there is a conflict of interests concerning the functioning of the Toktogul reservoir: Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan are interested in the irrigation regime of operations of reservoir; Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are interested in the energy conditions of its functioning.) In the national diagnostic reports the numerical parameters of the water resources use dynamics for previous years, and also estimation of water resources do not coincide, that complicates development of principles and criteria of the intergovernmental water distribution. It also indirectly influences the solution of the water cost problem. Discrepancy of the specified settlement data is explained, basically, differences of techniques and algorithms of accounts. In the principal theses of national water strategy of all Central Asian states developed in the end of 90s years, it was marked the necessity of development of the uniform methodical approaches for the strong water consumption rates. The perspective water requirements should be estimated proceeding from the national economic programs of each state. In this connection the coordination by all interested states of region both the uniform approach for estimations of the future water consumption and the uniform settlement base for the improving of models and procedures of the intergovernmental water distribution is admitted as an urgent need. One of the corner-stone tasks in the framework of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution is development of the unified method for estimation of irrigation water requirements, because one of the main consumers of water resources in the Central Asian states is irrigation. Last years authors were conducting investigations on development of new modification of the Heat and Water Balances Model (HWBM) and its adaptation to estimation of irrigation water requirements in arid an semi-arid regions in the framework of the INCO-COPERNICUS project "Adaptation of Efficient Water Use Criteria in Marginal Regions of Europe and Middle Asia with Scarce Sources Subject to Environmental Control, Climate Change and Socio-Economic Development". This model can be used to estimation of the crop water consumption and productivity in respect to climate and agrotechnology changes for main crops (including grass, winter wheat and cotton) and assessing the influence of climatic and environmental conditions on crop water consumption subject to environmental constraints. The results obtained show that the observation data from the complex network of the former Soviet republics can be successfully used to develop the uniform calculation schemes which are suitable for describing of hydrological regime both natural and agricultural lands under different climatic and agricultural conditions. The results obtained show that the HWBModel can be used as tool for elaboration of the intergovernmental water distribution procedures in Central Asia. The second corner-stone task for elaboration of the effective water use criteria in Central Asia is development of the scientifically methodological basis for the re-use of return flow. The return flow is additional water resource for irrigation. However it is a main source of the water and environment pollution because of its high mineralisation. About 95% of the total volume of return flow is the irrigation drainage water and the rest part is the industry and municipal wastewater. Traditional irrigation, widely spread in Central Asia, is a surface irrigation ("furrow watering" and "on surface watering"). Though the surface irrigation is accompanied by considerable fresh water losses, it will be a main irrigation technology for a long time because it is necessary to have a considerable finance for introduction of advanced irrigation technologies. But today Central Asian states are in transition period and have financial difficulties. Therefore it is necessary to develop the experimental field works connected with investigation of possibilities to re-use of return flow in irrigation. In 2000 and 2001 the field experiments were conducted to study some aspects of the return flow and municipal treated wastewater reuse for irrigation in Uzbekistan in the framework of the international project. Results of the field experiment by "furrow watering" showed that with other things being equal the soil irrigated by the treated wastewater is more fertile than the same irrigated by natural water. Negative consequences from irrigation of the treated wastewater on the bacteriological conditions of soil were not observed. The municipal wastewater cleaning technology was marked as suitable for irrigation. As to the advanced irrigation technologies, contrary to the widespread opinion, the On-surface Drip Irrigation method (ODI) does not save irrigation water in comparison with the furrow irrigation considering a non-returnable component of water consumption. In other words, with other being equal conditions the total evapotranspiration for the vegetative period does not depend on a method of irrigation. However, under ODI the volume of water dangerous for environment is decreased. Thus, the ODI method is ecological, especially with reference to irrigation systems of Uzbekistan, where the use of furrow irrigation creates the preconditions for formation of zones of ecological disaster. The benefits of furrow irrigation is cheapness, but if to count up all expenses connected to liquidation of ecological consequences of furrow irrigation, it can appear, that the capital and operational expenses for it and on ODI method are commensurable. ODI method should be introduced not on local ("island") areas, but on the upper parts of existing irrigation systems. A layout of ODI systems location within the irrigation systems of Uzbekistan should be developed with the use of all advancements of modern science. Summing up the brief review of experimental researches on the problem of the wastewater re-use for irrigation in Uzbekistan we shall note nevertheless, that everywhere positive results are not the undoubtedly convincing proof of opportunity of use of wastewater in agriculture. The long-term ecological consequences of such use still not clear not only in Uzbekistan. It is necessary regretfully to ascertain, that after collapse of the Soviet Union the intensity of research on this problem has decreased because of has stopped the existence of the Central Asian Basic Item "Raduga" which carried out the experimental field works. Therefore it is necessary to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of reuse and recycling of wastewater.

  1. Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples

    The geotechnical barrier is an important component of a geological repository and consists of compacted bentonite surrounding radioactive waste containers. Its most important functions are, to retard the radionuclide migration into the biosphere and to prevent groundwater contact with containers. lt is therefore of central importance to investigate the bentonite material on its capacity to sorb radionuclides under near-natural chemical and physical conditions. The purpose of this work was to study the adsorption of uranium(VI) on bentonit and on montmorillonite-standards at high uranium concentrations. Thereby, a special account was given to the calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation, which leads to the formation of very stable and mobile uncharged Ca2UO2(CO3)3 complex. Results of batch experiments showed that the dicalcium-uranyl-tricarbonate complexation lowers the uranium(VI) sorption on natural clay (bentonite) by a factor of up to 3. After 21 days of contact time, about 40 % and 20 % of the initial uranium(VI)concentration were sorbed on Na-bentonite and ea-bentonite, respectively, from a solution with Ca2UO2(CO3)3 dominating the uranium(VI) speciation. On the contrary, about 55 % of the initial uranium(VI)-concentration were sorbed on thes clays from the solution, in which (UO2)2CO3(OH)3- complex dominated the uranium(VI) speciation. Thus uranium(VI) sorption is more strongly influenced by the solution composition than by bentonite type. Na-bentonite should be used instead of ea-bentonite as a geotechnical barrier, since calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation may be a realistic scenario. Further SEM-EDX and HREM-EDX studies showed that uranium(VI) sorption occurred predominantly on montmorillonite, which is the main component of bentonite. Uranium(VI) sorption on bentonite's accessory Minerals (pyrite, calcite, mica, and feldspar) was not observed. Investigation of uranium(VI) sorption on four montmorillonite-standard, which are distinguished by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling uranium releases from tailings into the aquatic system. The results showed that uranium(VI) speciation in water samples is controlled by pH as well as bicarbonate and calcium concentrations and is dominated by the very stable aquatic complexes Ca2UO2(CO3)3, (UO2)2CO3(OH)3- and UO2(CO3)34-. Influences of humic substances or phosphate ligands on uranium(VI) complexation were not detected. Uranium association with aquatic colloids in the studied samples as found to be negligible. With the help of a combination of the AREM-EDX method and batch experiments, uraninite (UO2) and brannerite (UTi2O6) could be identified with an occurrence frequency of about 67 % and 33 %, respectively. This combination allowed the conclusion that uranium release from tailing materials is controlled by the dissolution of uraninite, which itself is governed by the dissolution of calcite. Furthermore, a mobilisation of uraninite colloids smaller than 200 nm from tailing material into the used model solutions was observed.

  2. Problems of radiation safety at mined out uranium properties in Uzbekistan

    Republic of Uzbekistan was one of the main uranium production areas in former Soviet Union for more than 40 years. About 150 uranium production facilities have been constructed for that time in connection with hydrothermal and sedimentary-metamorphic deposits of the fold basement and stratal-infiltration deposits of the sedimentary cover. 18 of these facilities are located in Tadzhikistan and Kyrgyzstan along the boundary with Uzbekistan. Exploration and operation activities in the deposits located in the fold basement were in general in form of mining. It was resulted in essential violation of landscape, development of various underground excavations, damps, tailing impoundments, lower grade stockpiles. All these need large volume of radioactive decontamination and restoration activities. 54 sites from 67 (80%) located in the territory of Uzbekistan need radioactive decontamination and restoration now. Very serious radiation settings have occurred in some of these sites nowadays. Radioactive dumps of Cherkesar-I and Cherkesar-II mined out uranium deposits are out of any control in Fergana valley in Pap region of Namangan province. The radioactive materials are collected in dumps covered with neutral ground. The cover is washed out in some places by rains. Intensity of gamma radiation is 300 to 450 μr/h, radon exhalation is up to 7 Bk/m2*sec (while the normal level is up to 1 Bk/m2*sec). Water runs out from mothballed mines and its microelement composition is close to the composition of the technological solution. The water contains a number of very toxic elements (beryllium, manganese, iron, and aluminum). Water concentration of radionuclides is uranium - 23.4 Bk/1 (the normal level is 9.6), radon - 1433 (80), radium - 15.9 (0.94). The same set of the toxicants has been found in bottom sediment of a stream, its total alpha-activity reaches 35 to 81 KBk/kg. The spring water runs to a small valley and then to a village where the water is used for cattle watering and irrigation, that is hazardous for the local people health. Living in stone houses is also hazardous as they have been built of damp material and plastered with sand from Uigursai uranium deposit located in vicinity with the village. 250 living and public buildings have been examined. Gamma-activity level of 60 to 120 μr/h was observed in 50% of them, radon exhalation is 200-500 to 3000 Bk/m3 (normal level is 100). The village habitants suffer from increasing rate of disease of blood, circulation and respiratory organs, urogenital system and oncologic diseases. Similar situation can be seen in other mined-out uranium facilities of the Republic (Yangiabad, Rezak, Shakaptar and others). Radiation setting is happier in the cover mined-out facilities because the underground leaching (UL) technique, which is much more environmentally safer, was used there. However, local contamination of surface of the UL sites and, mainly, underground water of ore-bearing horizon occurs and preserves for a long time using this technique. Main reasons of the contamination are: technologic solution spillings, disbalance of pumping-in and pumping-out, solutions remained in leaching areas, running out of these solutions into neighbouring horizons. Sulphuric acid underground leaching has lead to essential deterioration of environmental condition of ore bearing horizon underground water in the site under operation. The underground water was assayed for 27 components. Major of them noticeably exceeds the ultimate permissible concentrations. These are, before all, the solvent components - sulphate-ions and ions of hydrogen, leached elements - uranium, iron, aluminum, manganese, some heavy metals and other toxic elements, products of technological processing - nitrates and others. The highest contamination rate was observed for sulphates - 20 times and more, aluminum and uranium - hundreds times, iron and beryllium - thousand times. In spite of the fact that areas of contamination in case of underground leaching are rather small and, as a rule, not exceed 100 m - 150 m radius from the UL site, the contamination is hazardous enough if the underground water is used in economics. As regime observations during 8-10 years have shown, the composition of technological solutions in the UL sites does not change essentially within the contour of lower oxide formation, at the same time, areas of underground water contamination expand to some extent. These date do not allow to hope the underground waters will be self-restored soon. So, many tens of the mined-out UL sites in the territory of the Republic need to be reclaimed to restore initial quality of water, especially if water of ore-bearing horizons is fresh one. The underground water reclamation provides restoration of the remaining solutions using to different extent a mechanism of sorption-capacity properties of the ground. The mechanism comprises 3 methods of decreasing underground water contamination within a mined-out block: by pumping out the remaining solutions and replacing them with stratal water ('washing' technique), by displacement of the remaining solutions with compressed air ('displacement' technique), or by intensifying natural demineralization using of increased rates of filtration of contaminated water in local volumes ('drawing' technique). (author)

  3. DGMK/OeGEW spring meeting of the exploration and production department. Proceedings; DGMK/OeGEW-Fruehjahrstagung des Fachbereichs Aufsuchung und Gewinnung. Tagungsbericht

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the spring meeting 2009 of the exploration and production department of the German Society and Coal Science and Technology (DGMK, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Austrian Society of Petroleum Sciences (OeGEW, Vienna, Austria) at 27th and 28th April, 2009, in Celle (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Natural gas for Europe - Where does it come from, and how safe is it?; (2) Fluid dynamics in salt-encased carbonates; (3) Predicting petroleum fluid quality and quantity by using the PhaseKinetic approach for a basin modelling study in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin, offshore Newfoundland, Canada; (4) Models of geomechanical reservoirs for the prognosis of tectonic stresses and crack grids - concept and case study from the Sirte Basin / Libya; (5) A depositional model and sequence stratigraphic correlation for Ordovician glacial deposits, Illizi Basin, Algeria; (6) Palynology of the upper Silurian to Middle Devonian of wells from the Reggane Basin, southern Algeria; (7) Evaluation of heterogeneities in petroleum deposits by mans of asphaltene; (8) Experiments to reactions of n-alkanes with hematite in clastic reservoir rocks; (9) Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen Formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan); (10) Mud Volcanoes of Azerbaijan - Organic chemistry of ejected sediments; (11) Seismoelectric signatures for the determination of depositional parameters; (12) A workflow for the processing and imaging of Reflexion seismic data with CRS attributes; (13) Detection of altitude variations during production of natural gas or petroleum in the area of the San Jorge Basin by means of satellite radar interferometry; (14) (S)PWD - Development of a high resolution system for seismic exploratory work in the deep drilling; (15) Development of a discontinuum mechanics based computer algorithm in the FDM program FLAC3D for Frac dispersion in tigt gas reservoirs; (16) A fresh look at EOR screening criteria; (17) Drilling beyond oil and gas: A discussion about how technology will change to enhance drilling in urban areas; (18) STREICHER deep drilling system VDD 200.1 and its first application at the petroleum deposit Schoenebeek in The Netherlands; (19) Utilization of ultrafine heavy spar in horizontal boreholes illustrated by the drilling Mittelplate MP A 19a; (20) Damage of reservoirs by means of format flushing - causes, treatment and prevention; (21) Cost drivers of 4,000 to 5,000 m drillings in Germany; (22) Utilization of radial drilling in the RAG; (23) Motor driven rotary steerable system - utilization in horizontal storage drillings of RAG; (24) Technical measures for the enhancement of the lifetime of production installations in petroleum fields; (25) Utilization of a water treatment plant in the conveyor plant Aitingen; (26) Common generation of electricity and steam in the petroleum conveyor system Emlichheim with a combined heat and power generation plant; (27) Improved oil recovery in mature oil and gas fields using twin-screw multiphase pumps; (28) Utilization of the casing patch technology in the sealing of existing perforations for the subsequent stimulation of deposits; (29) Foamer applications at EMPG; (30) Use of integrated electronic and sensors to improve plunger lift modelling towards efficient liquid unloading in gas wells; (31) Replacement of the process control sysem at the Grossenkneten desulphurization plant; (32) Never again annular space activities?; (33) Improvement of the capacities of an underground natural gas deposit with sand problems by means of optimized variants of complementation; (34) 'Process Facilities benchmarking' of the OMV natural gas storage station Schoenkirchen-Reyersdorf; (35) Security of investment requires distinct regulations - Proposed solutions at utilization competitions according to underground storage formations; (36) Petrography and reservoir characteristics of upper triassic sandstones from a CO{sub 2} pilot storage site (Stuttgart Formation, Ketzin, Germany); (37) Secondary in-situ stresses resulting from change of pore pressure and their influence on the maximal storage pressure of CO{sub 2} or natural gas in depleted reservoirs; (38) Design and analysis of tests for the determination of gas thresholds in geologic formations; (39) Displacement of salt water, coldness frac and integrity of boreholes at the CO{sub 2} storage - is praezechstone an alternative?; (40) Short service employee process - SEE; (41) Efficient drilling - only with a qualified staff; Internal education program of the RAG; (42) Rescue from heights and depths of land drilling; (43) Application of a protection concept for additives for drilling.

  4. Global nuclear security engagement

    Full text: The Nuclear Security Summits in Washington (2010) and Seoul (2012) were convened with the goal of reducing the threat of nuclear terrorism. These meetings have engaged States with established nuclear fuel cycle activities and encouraged their commitment to nuclear security. The participating States have reaffirmed that it is a fundamental responsibility of nations to maintain effective nuclear security in order to prevent unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials. To that end, the participants have identified important areas for improvement and have committed to further progress. Yet, a broader message has emerged from the Summits: effective nuclear security requires both global and regional engagement. Universal commitment to domestic nuclear security is essential, if only because the peaceful use of nuclear energy remains a right of all States: Nations may someday adopt nuclear energy, even if they are not currently developing nuclear technology. However, the need for nuclear security extends beyond domestic power production. To harvest natural resources and to develop part of a nuclear fuel cycle, a State should embrace a nuclear security culture. Nuclear materials may be used to produce isotopes for medicine and industry. These materials are transported worldwide, potentially crossing a nation's borders or passing by its shores. Regrettably, measures to prevent the loss of control may not be sufficient against an adversary committed to using nuclear or other radioactive materials for malicious acts. Nuclear security extends beyond prevention measures, encompassing efforts to detect illicit activities and respond to nuclear emergencies. The Seoul Communique introduces the concept of a Global Nuclear Security Architecture, which includes multilateral instruments, national legislation, best practices, and review mechanisms to promote adoption of these components. Key multilateral instruments include the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (CPPNM), the 2005 Amendment to the CPPNM, and the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (ICSANT). UN Security Council Resolution 1540 (UNSCR 1540) provides a scope for national legislation, and IAEA Nuclear Security Series documents suggest best practices. The IAEA, member States, and other organizations promote and facilitate adoption of existing nuclear security components. The United Nations 1540 Commission, with a mandate extended until 2021, reviews progress towards implementing UNSCR 1540. But, to meet the threat of nuclear terrorism, the architecture must evolve over time, and this requires participation from all nations. The Seoul Communique recognizes both the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) and the Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction as part of a Global Nuclear Security Architecture. The Global Partnership can aid nations by providing the means to improve their nuclear security. The GICNT identifies gaps in policy and practice, and develops materials to help develop a nation's domestic nuclear security and facilitate international cooperation. Through participation in the GICNT, policy makers, law enforcement, and subject-matter experts learn about nuclear security through sponsored events, and share and develop best practices through workshops and exercises. This year, the GICNT nuclear forensics working group produced 'Nuclear Forensics Fundamentals for Policy Makers and Decision Makers,' a document to educate senior executives about the contributions nuclear forensics makes to nuclear security. Australia, a nation that has not built nuclear power plants, hosted an exercise focused on information sharing in a nuclear smuggling incident. The nuclear detection working group Model Guidelines Document for Nuclear Detection Architectures' and 'Guidelines for Awareness, Training and Exercises' have both passed 120-day reviews by IAEA Member States to be included as part of the IAEA Nuclear Security Series. These documents will help to shape and improve global nuclear security, and it should be recognized that they were developed through the voluntary participation of nations that have endorsed the GICNT Statement of Principles. It is encouraging to note that Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are all partner nations in the GICNT, and that Kazakhstan has hosted five GICNT events since 2007. This further demonstrates the commitment to nuclear security that lead to the Central Asian Nuclear Weapon Free Zone (CANWFZ), and this conference highlights the excellent nuclear science and technology heritage in Central Asia. This shared Central Asian commitment and heritage should be promoted, and a model system could be constructed through the cooperative development of regional nuclear security practices and joint exercises. A regional nuclear security effort would benefit not only Central Asia but also the rest of the world. (author)

  5. Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples; Untersuchungen zur Uransorption an Bentonit bzw. Montmorillonit sowie von Uran in Umweltproben

    Azeroual, Mohamed

    2010-09-22

    The geotechnical barrier is an important component of a geological repository and consists of compacted bentonite surrounding radioactive waste containers. Its most important functions are, to retard the radionuclide migration into the biosphere and to prevent groundwater contact with containers. lt is therefore of central importance to investigate the bentonite material on its capacity to sorb radionuclides under near-natural chemical and physical conditions. The purpose of this work was to study the adsorption of uranium(VI) on bentonit and on montmorillonite-standards at high uranium concentrations. Thereby, a special account was given to the calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation, which leads to the formation of very stable and mobile uncharged Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} complex. Results of batch experiments showed that the dicalcium-uranyl-tricarbonate complexation lowers the uranium(VI) sorption on natural clay (bentonite) by a factor of up to 3. After 21 days of contact time, about 40 % and 20 % of the initial uranium(VI)concentration were sorbed on Na-bentonite and ea-bentonite, respectively, from a solution with Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} dominating the uranium(VI) speciation. On the contrary, about 55 % of the initial uranium(VI)-concentration were sorbed on thes clays from the solution, in which (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}{sup -} complex dominated the uranium(VI) speciation. Thus uranium(VI) sorption is more strongly influenced by the solution composition than by bentonite type. Na-bentonite should be used instead of ea-bentonite as a geotechnical barrier, since calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation may be a realistic scenario. Further SEM-EDX and HREM-EDX studies showed that uranium(VI) sorption occurred predominantly on montmorillonite, which is the main component of bentonite. Uranium(VI) sorption on bentonite's accessory Minerals (pyrite, calcite, mica, and feldspar) was not observed. Investigation of uranium(VI) sorption on four montmorillonite-standard, which are distinguished by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling uranium releases from tailings into the aquatic system. The results showed that uranium(VI) speciation in water samples is controlled by pH as well as bicarbonate and calcium concentrations and is dominated by the very stable aquatic complexes Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}, (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}{sup -} and UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4-}. Influences of humic substances or phosphate ligands on uranium(VI) complexation were not detected. Uranium association with aquatic colloids in the studied samples as found to be negligible. With the help of a combination of the AREM-EDX method and batch experiments, uraninite (UO{sub 2}) and brannerite (UTi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) could be identified with an occurrence frequency of about 67 % and 33 %, respectively. This combination allowed the conclusion that uranium release from tailing materials is controlled by the dissolution of uraninite, which itself is governed by the dissolution of calcite. Furthermore, a mobilisation of uraninite colloids smaller than 200 nm from tailing material into the used model solutions was observed.

  6. Formulation of humic-based soil conditioners

    Amanova, M. A.; Mamytova, G. A.; Mamytova, B. A.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of the study is to prepare soil conditioners (SC) able to carry out the following functions: (i) the chemical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the adjustment of pH, (ii) the balancing of inorganic nutrients, (iii) the physical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the improvement of water permeability, air permeability and water retention properties, and (iv) improvement of the ecological system concerning of useful microorganisms activity in the soil. The SC was made of a mixture of inorganic ingredients, a chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of which promoted improvement of physical characteristic of soil and enrichment by its mineral nutritious elements. In addition to aforesaid ingredients, this soil conditioner contains agronomical-valued groups of microorganisms having the function promoting the growth of the crop. As organic component of SC humic acids (HA) was used. HA serve many major functions that result in better soil and plant health. In soil, HA can increase microbial and mycorrhizal activity while enhancing nutrient uptake by plant roots. HA work as a catalyst by stimulating root and plant growth, it may enhance enzymatic activity that in turn accelerates cell division which can lead to increased yields. HA can help to increase crop yields, seed germination, and much more. In short, humic acids helps keep healthy plants health. The first stage goal was to evaluate mineral and organic ingredients for formulation of SC. Soil conditioners assessed included ash and slag. The use of slags has been largelly used in agriculture as a source of lime and phosphoric acid. The silicic acid of slags reduces Al-acitivity thus, promoting a better assimilation of P-fertilizer by plants. Additionally, silicic acid is also known to improve soil moisture capacity, thus enhancing soil water availability to plants. Physico-chemical characteristics of ash and slag were determined, as a total - about 20 samples. Results include: Chemical composition of (i) ash: 53-54% SiO2; 26-27% Al2O3; 3-5% Fe2O3; 1.7-2.9% CaO; 1.3-2.3% MgO; 0.5-0.8% Na2O; 1.0-1.5% K2O and; (ii), slag: 17-20% SiO2; 15-20% Al2O3; 30-40% CaO; 1-6% Fe2O3; 4-11% MgO. Of all samples assessed, per 5 samples from various regions with various compositions (high, average and low content of metal oxides) were selected and tested as component of SC in vegetative pot and field experiments, i.e., to study the immobilization processes including microorganisms and inorganic ingredients. This study helped to elucidate the influence of ash and slag composition on microbial development. The next stage was (i) to evaluate microbial activity of selected soils from Kyrgyzstan, (ii) to isolate microorganisms exhibiting antagonistic activity against pathogenic microorganisms present in the soil and, (iii) to utilize microbes as nutrient sources. Candidate microbial cultures were isolated from soils/crops and assessed as plant growth promoting microorganisms. The characteristics of the physiological groups of microorganisms were also investigated. Of different physiological groups of microorganisms selected, ca, 3 consortia of agronomical-valued microbial groups from undisturbed soils was selected as component of soil conditioners. Microorganisms, namely oligonitrophils, ammonifiers, nitrifiers, were tested based on beneficial bioactivity including plant biomass and stem length on commercial onion and lettuce crops. Our results demonstrate that all the combinations ash/slag, humic acids and consortium of beneficial agronomical-valued microbial groups into one environmentally friendly soil conditioner possessed equal or higher growth-promoting potential in relation to lettuce. However, our results demonstrated clearly that among studied scope of soil conditioners only one of them could be recommended for further study in terms of practical applications. Namely, it was mixture consisting of humic acids, ash and oligonitrophils as soil conditioning agent. Acknowledgement. This research was supported by the grant of ISTC KR-993.2.

  7. The development of the detailed climatic scenarios for Central Asia region

    Full text: In Tajikistan Republic over 10% of the territory is the zone of everlasting snow and glaciers. This territory requires strategic defence, as global anthropogenic increasing of temperature more perceptibly tells upon the regime of forming the river flow and activation of ice disintegration. Intense glaciers melting causes not only decreasing of the fresh water supply for Central Asia but also the formation of glacial lakes. Therefore there appears the danger of destructive mountain flows, which caused the human victims and land degradation not once. Under modern climatic conditions the area of the Pamirs and Alai's glaciers is decreasing annually by 1.2 sq. km. As a whole on region the tendency of decrease of emission of polluting substances from stationary sources in air pool is observed. If in 1990 the quantity of emission has made of 6793 thousand tons, by 1995 this size has decreased on 2,084 thousand tons. The maximal contribution to total amount of emissions of polluting substances in an atmosphere has of Kazakhstan - 68%. The share of other countries of Central Asia is distributed as follows: Uzbekistan - 18%, Turkmenistan - 10%, Kyrgyzstan - 2% Tajikistan - 2%. In structure of manufacture of the electric power by Kazakhstan on a share of hydroelectric power station is 6-7%, dusty and coil - 79%, gas and fuel - oil - 12-13%. In structure of generating capacities of power stations of Uzbekistan the densities of thermal power stations makes 87.4%, hydroelectric power stations - 12.6%. As power resources for manufacture of energy the share of gas makes 82.6%, black oil - 13%, coil -4.4%. The constant escalating of thermal capacities results in an aggravation of an ecological problem of region. Emissions of harmful substances by boiler of thermal power stations at development 1.0 GWt.h. is: Flying ashes and not burned down fuel - 4.6 thousand tons, oxides of sulfur - 4.4. thousand tons, oxides of nitrogen - 1.0 thousand t., thus are used about 850 thousand tons of atmospheric oxygen. It is necessary to note, that 1.0 tons oxide of nitrogen 1.0 thousand tons of a nitric layer, that results in decrease of absorbability of rigid ultra- violet space radiations. The decrease of absorption results in increase of intensity of rigid ultra-violet radiation in areas UV-AND (400-315 nm) and UV-IN (315-280 nm). The radiation has erythem, carcinogenic, antimythotic (lethal for a crate), mythogenic and other properties. Recently published report on change of a climate prepared within the framework of the convention UNO concerning change of a climate, hydrometeoretical by a service of Uzbekistan, predicts negative consequences of influence of change of a climate on a condition of water resources. According to the given report for the period with 1957 for 1980 the glaciers in Central Asia have decreased in the sizes on 19%. The Aral crisis is most vivid example of an ecological problem with serious socio-economic consequences, to which directly or all states of Central Asia are indirectly connected. The crisis situation caused by drying of the Aral Sea, has developed as a result of an agrarian orientation of economy on the basis of development of irrigation agriculture and growth irrevocable use of water on irrigation. The essential river drain in deltas of Amu Darya and Syrdarya is insufficient for preservation ecological system. Since 1961 the sea level was constantly lowered with growing speed from 20 up to 90 sm. per one year. There is an intensive drainage and salting of grounds in deltas of these rivers, deep degradation of hydromorph ecological system. Former bottom of the sea became a source dusty and salty of carries on change of a temperature is observed. Moreover annually from dried up parts of bottom of the sea by a wind rises in air about 75 mln. tons of salt and sand, which are already found out at top of Pamir glaciers. The observing network in Tajikistan Republic has a unique peculiarity, which differs it from similar networks in other countries. It is situated at the altitudes of 300 to 4,169 m, i.e. i n the troposphere. All those stations were included into the world observing network. In Tajikistan numerous scientific works require proper processing. Today it is necessary to make systematization and scientific analysis of hydrometeological data, accumulated for the last hundred years. The foundation of the stations of the local and global monitoring of the greenhouse gases opens the wide perspective to establish the changing dynamics of green concentration according to the altitudes. It establishes the dependence of the snow and glaciers melting process and the formation of the river flows on the greenhouse gases concentration at the different heights, as well as the influence of the greenhouse gases on the flora and fauna. The results of conducted measurements, observations of the greenhouse gases influencing the environment will generate the research and practical works in developing modern technologies, which provide the essential decrease in the greenhouse gases emission and the wide use of untraditional energy carriers instead of organic fuels. (author)

  8. The development of detailed climatic scenarios for the Central Asia Region

    Full text: In Tajikistan Republic over 10% of the territory is the zone of everlasting snow and glaciers. This territory requires strategic defence, as global anthropogenic increasing of temperature more perceptibly tells upon the regime of forming the river flow and activation of ice disintegration. Intense glaciers melting causes not only decreasing of the fresh water supply for Central Asia but also the formation of glacial lakes. Therefore there appears the danger of destructive mountain flows, which caused the human victims and land degradation not once. Under modern climatic conditions the area of the Pamirs and Alai's glaciers is decreasing annually by 1.2 sq. km. As a whole on region the tendency of decrease of emission of polluting substances from stationary sources in air pool is observed. If in 1990 the quantity of emission has made of 6793 thousand tons, by 1995 this size has decreased on 2084 thousand tons. The maximal contribution to total amount of emissions of polluting substances in an atmosphere has of Kazakhstan - 68%. The share of other countries of Central Asia is distributed as follows: Uzbekistan - 18%, Turkmenistan - 10%, Kyrgyzstan - 2% Tajikistan - 2%. In structure of manufacture of the electric power by Kazakhstan on a share of hydroelectric power station is 6-7%, dusty and coil - 79%, gas and fuel - oil - 12-13%. In structure of generating capacities of power stations of Uzbekistan the densities of thermal power stations makes 87.4%, hydroelectric power stations - 12.6%. As power resources for manufacture of energy the share of gas makes 82.6%, black oil - 13%, coil - 4.4%. The constant escalating of thermal capacities results in an aggravation of an ecological problem of region. Emissions of harmful substances by boiler of thermal power stations at development 1.0 GWt.h. is: Flying ashes and not burned down fuel - 4.6 thousand tons, oxides of sulfur - 4.4. thousand tons, oxides of nitrogen - 1.0 thousand t., thus are used about 850 thousand tons of atmospheric oxygen. It is necessary to note, that 1.0 tons oxide of nitrogen 1.0 thousand tons of a nitric layer, that results in decrease of absorbability of rigid ultra-violet space radiations. The decrease of absorption results in increase of intensity of rigid ultra-violet radiation in areas UV-AND (400-315 nm) and UV-IN (315-280 nm). The radiation has erythem, carcinogenic, antimythotic (lethal for a crate), mythogenic and other properties. Recently published report on change of climate prepared within the framework of the convention UNO concerning change of climate, hydrometeoretical by a service of Uzbekistan, predicts negative consequences of influence of climate change on water resources. According to the given report for the period from 1957 for 1980, the glaciers in Central Asia have decreased by 19% in size. The Aral crisis is most vivid example of an ecological problem with serious socio-economic consequences, to which directly or all states of Central Asia are indirectly connected. The crisis situation caused by drying of the Aral Sea, has developed as a result of an agrarian orientation of economy on the basis of development of irrigation agriculture and growth irrevocable use of water on irrigation. The essential river drain in deltas of Amu Darya and Syrdarya is insufficient for preservation ecological system. Since 1961 the sea level was constantly lowered with growing speed from 20 up to 90 sm. per one year. There is an intensive drainage and salting of grounds in deltas of these rivers, deep degradation of hydromorph ecological system. Former bottom of the sea became a source dusty and salty of carries on change of a temperature is observed. Moreover annually from dried up parts of bottom of the sea by a wind rises in air about 75 million tons of salt and sand, which are already found out at top of Pamir glaciers. The observing network in Tajikistan Republic has a unique peculiarity, which differs it from similar networks in other countries. It is situated at the altitudes of 300 to 4,169 m, i.e. in the troposphere. All tho se stations were included into the world observing network. In Tajikistan numerous scientific works require proper processing. Today it is necessary to make systematization and scientific analysis of hydrometeological data, accumulated for the last hundred years. The foundation of the stations of the local and global monitoring of the greenhouse gases opens the wide perspective to establish the changing dynamics of green concentration according to the altitudes. It establishes the dependence of the snow and glaciers melting process and the formation of the river flows on the greenhouse gases concentration at the different heights, as well as the influence of the greenhouse gases on the flora and fauna. The results of conducted measurements, observations of the greenhouse gases influencing the environment will generate the research and practical works in developing modern technologies, which provide the essential decrease in the greenhouse gases emission and the wide use of untraditional energy carriers instead of organic fuels. (author)

  9. STRAIN LOCALIZATION PECULIARITIES AND DISTRIBUTION OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION SOURCES IN ROCK SAMPLES TESTED BY UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION AND EXPOSED TO ELECTRIC PULSES

    V. A. Mubassarova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of uniaxial compression tests of rock samples in electromagnetic fields are presented. The experiments were performed in the Laboratory of Basic Physics of Strength, Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Ural Branch of RAS (ICMM. Deformation of samples was studied, and acoustic emission (AE signals were recorded. During the tests, loads varied by stages. Specimens of granite from the Kainda deposit in Kyrgyzstan (similar to samples tested at the Research Station of RAS, hereafter RS RAS were subject to electric pulses at specified levels of compression load. The electric pulses supply was galvanic; two graphite electrodes were fixed at opposite sides of each specimen. The multichannel Amsy-5 Vallen System was used to record AE signals in the six-channel mode, which provided for determination of spatial locations of AE sources. Strain of the specimens was studied with application of original methods of strain computation based on analyses of optical images of deformed specimen surfaces in LaVISION Strain Master System.Acoustic emission experiment data were interpreted on the basis of analyses of the AE activity in time, i.e. the number of AE events per second, and analyses of signals’ energy and AE sources’ locations, i.e. defects.The experiment was conducted at ICMM with the use of the set of equipment with advanced diagnostic capabilities (as compared to earlier experiments described in [Zakupin et al., 2006a, 2006b; Bogomolov et al., 2004]. It can provide new information on properties of acoustic emission and deformation responses of loaded rock specimens to external electric pulses.The research task also included verification of reproducibility of the effect (AE activity when fracturing rates responded to electrical pulses, which was revealed earlier in studies conducted at RS RAS. In terms of the principle of randomization, such verification is methodologically significant as new effects, i.e. physical laws, can be considered fully indubitable if they prove stable when some parameters of the experiment are changed. Parameters may be arbitrarily modified within a small range, and randomization is thus another common statistical significance criterion for sample sets obtained at the same conditions. At ICMM, the experiments were conducted in compliance with the principle of randomization [Bogomolov et al., 2011]. In this respect, the material of specimens, loading conditions and characteristics of the electrical pulses source were similar to those in the experiments at RS RAS.As evidenced by the experiments, during electromagnetic field stimulation, the AE activity is manyfold higher than the background activity before the impact. This supports the research results reviewed in [Bogomolov et al., 2011] concerning the AE activity increment of 20 % due to electric pulses in the field twice less strong than that in our experiments at ICMM.The AE energy distribution analysis shows that cumulative distributions of the number of AE signals vs energy (i.e. the number of AE signals which energy exceeds a specified threshold value are power-behaved. This is equivalent to the linear plot of distribution in log units of energy and relative events number, similarly to the case of Gutenberg–Richter law for earthquakes. It is noted that for the logarithmic graphs of distribution by energy, angular coefficients (b-factors are somewhat different in the period of electric impact and in no-impact periods, which shows that the ratio of AE signals with higher energy indicators is increased in case of external impacts. Such a difference is most evident at the near-critical load when compression amounts to 0.94 fracturing stress value.According to data from the AE source location system, it is revealed that impacts of the electric field are accompanied by redistribution of AE sources through the specimen volume when compression is below 0.9 maximum stress value, which corresponds to the stage of diffusive accumulation of defects. The location system can be effectively applied when events with high amplitudes are accumulated in sufficient number. In this regard, clustering of AE sources (defects in the area of a future fault was recorded only during the measuring test when the AE activity was quite high at the constant load.As shown by data from the optical diagnostics set of equipment, LаVision Strain Master System, deformation of a specimen takes place in a non-uniform pattern over its surface, which is manifested as consecutively propagating waves of localized strain. This conclusion contributes to the research results obtained earlier for rock samples under tension and compression [Panteleev et al., 2013b, 2013c, 2013d]. Localized axial strain waves and localized radial strain waves (when material particles move in the direction perpendicular to the compression direction are concurrently observed. Such localized strain waves are ‘slow’ – they propagate at velocities that are by six or seven orders lower than the intrinsic velocity of sound propagation in the material. This observation correlates with the research results obtained earlier in studies of strain localization forms in the course of rock deformation [Zuev, 2011; Zuev et al., 2012].When the loaded specimen is impacted by the electromagnetic field, maximum strain values are slightly decreased in comparison with those in the ordinary case (when only compressive load is applied. This trend seems to be a specific feature of changes in localization of deformation in the loaded rock samples impacted by electric pulses. Besides, the experiments demonstrate that a source of macro-destruction can be induced by the influence of an external electromagnetic field, and the growth of a nucleus of such source can be stabilized during the impact. The above conclusions correlate with the statistical model of a solid body with defects which is developed in ICMM [Panteleev et al., 2011, 2012, 2013a].

  10. K?rg?z Szlkl?nde Husein [Karasayevi] Karasayev Ve Konstantin [Kuzmi] Yudahinin Yeri The Place Of Husein [Karasayevich] Karasayev And Konstantin [Kuzmich] Yudahin In Kyrgyz Lexicography

    Faruk ZTRK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this notification, there will be discussed the Kyrgyzlexicography contribution of K. KARASAYEV and K. K. YUDAHIN.Dictionaries has a very important role in the formation of the standardlanguage. The Kyrgyz writing language has been formed in the XXcentury at the end of the first quarter. K. KARASAYEV and K. K.YUDAHIN has a big effect both in creating the Kyrgyz writing languageand in the Kyrgyz lexicography.In this labor will be analyzed the various prints of the Kyrgyzspelling guide that was done by K. KARASAYEV who helped in formingof dictionaries in Kyrgyzstan and editor of all the variants of the Kyrgyzalphabet,and the Kyrgz-Russian dictionary of K. K. YUDAHIN will bedealed with all the differences of the prints.The Kyrgyz-Russian dictionaries first print was in the year of1940, the second print was in 1965, the third print was in 1985 and thefourth was done in the 1999. YUDAHIN's dictionary has a very bigreputation which shows the Kyrgyz word treasures and the usages ofthe words. Yudahin started the work in 1920 with collecting thematerials like textbooks, newspapers, magazines and folklore. Thisdictionary consists of the Kyrgyz languages word treasure, historicaland etnographic idioms, folklore materials, old idioms andapproximately two thousand idioms and proverbs. This Kyrgyz-Russiandictionary is also an encyclopaedic dictionary because Kyrgyz traditionwith its history and culture has a rich content. Bu makalede Husein [Karasayevi] Karasayev ve Konstantin [Kuzmi] Yudahinin K?rg?z szlkl?ne katk?s? ele al?nm??t?r. Bir standart dilin olu?mas?nda szlklerin rol byktr. K?rg?zca yaz? dili XX. yzy?l?n ilk eyre?inin sonlar?nda olu?mu?tur. Gerek K?rg?zca yaz? dilinin olu?turulmas?nda ve gerekse K?rg?z szlkl?nde K. Karasayev ve K. K. Yudahinin nemli bir yeri vard?r.Bu al??mada K?rg?zistanda szlklerin olu?turulmas?nda nemli rol oynayan ve K?rg?z alfabesinin tm e?itlenmelerini dzenlemi? olan H. K. Karasayev taraf?ndan haz?rlanan K?rg?zca imla k?lavuzunun e?itli bask?lar? incelenmi?, ayr?ca K. K. Yudahinin K?rg?zca-Rusa Szl?nn tm bask?lar? farkl?l?klar?yla birlikte ele al?nm??t?r.K?rg?zca-Rusa Szl?n ilk bask?s? 1940 y?l?nda, ikinci bask?s? 1965 y?l?nda, nc bask?s? 1985 y?l?nda, drdnc bask?s? ise 1999 y?l?nda yap?lm??t?r. K?rg?z dilinin kelime hazinesini tespit eden ve kelimelerin kullan??lar?n? gsteren Yudahinin szl? birok lkede byk n kazanm??t?r. Yudahin, al??mas? iin gerekli malzemeleri 1920 y?llar?nda ders kitaplar?, gazeteler, dergiler ve folklordan derleme?e ba?lam??t?r. Bu szlkte, o dnemdeki K?rg?z dilinin kelime hazinesi, tarih ve etnografya terimler, folklorik malzemeler, eski tabirler, yakla??k olarak iki bin atasz ve deyim yer almaktad?r. K. K. Yudahinin K?rg?zca-Rusa Szl? K?rg?z gelenekleri, tarihi ve kltryle ilgili ok zengin malzeme iermesinin yan?nda ayn? zamanda ansiklopedik bir szlk zelli?ini ta??maktad?r.Ekim Devrimine [24 Ekim 1917] kadar okuryazar K?rg?zlar, a?atayca kullan?yorlard?. Ekim Devriminin ilk y?llar?nda okullarda e?itim dili Kazaka ve Tatarca idi. 1923 y?l?ndan itibaren ilk defa K?rg?zca okul kitaplar? ?kar?lma?a ba?lanm??, bylece K?rg?zca art?k resm dil olarak kullan?lma?a ba?lanm??t?r.

  11. Destan Geleneğinden Tarihi Romana: Tölögön Kasımbek ve Kırılan Kılıç I,II From Legend Tradition to Historical Novels: Tölögön Kasımbek and Broken Sword I,II

    Canan OLPAK KOÇ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Being a social entity, humanity has been searching the ways of transferring their feelings, thoughts, imaginations and impressions to next generations all the time. Before written expressions became widespread, they used to try to accomplish this aim with the help of verbal folk literature. In this sense, epic had become the most significant tool to transfer experiences not only for individuals but also for communities. After written expressions became widespread, epic gave its place to written literature genres like novel and story. However, those narrative genres have been written by individual authors and they have reflected cultures which they had grown in to their works. Kyrgyz have a considerably old past. Interaction between Turkish Literature and Kyrgyz Literature had developed pretty limited because of several reasons. Especially in period when there was no relation with Kyrgyzstan, there had been very few publications about the Kyrgyz Literature. With increasing relations after the year of 1990, Kyrgyz Literature began known. Bringing Kırılan Kılıç I (Broken Sword I and Kırılan Kılıç II (Broken Sword II novels, which are belong to Tölögön Kasımbek, in to Turkish Literature is the product of increasing interest in this period. It is important that how the man understand the story of existance and how he/she tell the existence of the public. Tölögön Kasımbek, in his novels Kırılan Kılıç I ,II (Broken Sword I,II has told the adventure of kyrgyz people and how they’d been destroyed by being defeated by the Russians. The book can be accepted as a legendary historical novel within this aspects. We, in this study, will see how close are the epic motifs of the Tölögön who wrote the history of Kyrgyz, to the reali ty which the historical novels never leaves. Toplumsal bir varlık olarak insan duygularını, düşüncelerini, hayallerini, izlenimlerini her zaman bir sonraki nesle aktarmanın yolunu aramıştır. Yazılı kültür yaygınlaşmadan önce bunu sözlü halk edebiyatı türleri ile yapmaya çalışmıştır. Bu anlamda destanlar sadece bireyin değil milletlerin deneyimlerini aktarmada en önemli araç olmuştur. Yazılı kültürün yaygınlaşması ile birlikte destanların yerini roman, hikâye gibi edebi türler almıştır. Ancak bu anlatı türleri tek bir kişi tarafından yazılmıştır. Fakat yazar içinde yetiştiği toplumun kültürünü yazdığı esere aktarmaktadır. Kırgızların oldukça eskiye dayanan bir geçmişleri vardır. Türk yazınının Kırgız Edebiyatıyla ilişkisi, çeşitli etmenlere dayalı olarak oldukça sınırlı gelişmiştir. Özellikle Kırgızistan ile ilişkilerin olmadığı dönemde Kırgız edebiyatıyla ilgili neşriyat da çok az olmuştur. 1990 yılı sonrasında artan ilişkilerle beraber Kırgız edebiyatı tanınmaya başlar. Tölögön Kasımbek’e ait Kırılan Kılıç I- Kırılan Kılıç II romanlarının Türkiye Türkçesine kazandırılması da bu dönemde artan ilginin bir ürünüdür. İnsanın var oluş öyküsünü nasıl anladığı ve toplumun varlığını nasıl anlattığı önemlidir. Bu çerçeve de Tölögön Kasımbek, destansı özellikler çerçevesinde ve tarihi roman bağlamında değerlendirilecek olan Kırılan Kılıç I ve II romanında Kırgız halkının var oluş serüvenini ve Ruslar karşısında nasıl yenilgiye uğrayıp yıkıldığını anlatmıştır. Tarihi roman henüz kesin olarak tanımı yapılamasa da tarihsel bir bilginin edebi duyarlılıklar eşliğinde romana dönüştürülmesidir diyebiliriz. Biz bu çalışmamızda Kırgızlarının tarihini yazıya döken Tölögön’ün destana ait motifleri tarihi romanın elden bırakmadığı gerçekliğe ne kadar yaklaştırdığını göreceğiz.

  12. Contraband of Falcons

    Elvira G. Nikolenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the criminal proceeding in smuggling of falcons, former employees of the Line Internal Affairs Department in MIA transport, working in Domodedovo airport, were sentenced to large fines  - A. Kurokhtin, D. Gorodenko and A. Kustov, as was reported in Rossiyskaya Gazeta on 19.06.2013. Inspectors of the State Committee for the wild life protection together with employees of the MIA of Khakassia on 15.09.2013 detained two individuals engaged in illegal catching of falcons. On 04.11.2013 in Buryatia perpetrator, which transported 16 falcons, was arrested. On the road Khabarovsk-Chita in the vicinity of the village Nikolayevka in Jewish Autonomous Region (Russia police seized 21 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus, which on 26.11.2013 was reported in STRBC “Dalnevostochnaya”. In the village Lesnoi of Yelizovo district in the Kamchatka Region on 29.11.2013, police arrested two men and seized eight Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus. One Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug seized on 12.12.2013 in the village Staroaleyskoe of Tretyakovo district of the Altai Kray (Russia. On 24.12.2013 in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Russia the police, together with colleagues from the regional FSSD seized 13 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus from two residents of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. On 15.01.2014 in Kamchatka, the 51-year-old resident of the village of Nagorny in Yelizovski District, which kept 8 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus in the garage at his house land plot, was arrested. Prosecution office of Tarbagatay district of East Kazakhstan region (Kazakhstan together with the police and the authorities for the wild life protection found 7 Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug on 06.08.2014. At security control point “Ak-tilek - roadway" (Kazakhstan on 29.08.2014 border guards together with employees of the State Customs Service apprehended a citizen of Kazakhstan, who tried to take from Kyrgyzstan to Kazakhstan 3 young Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug. Supervisors of safety department in Khakassky Reserve prevented the catching of Saker Falcons on the territory of SPNR in Ust-Abakan District on 30.08.2015. In forest-line near Chernogorsk, Republic of Khakassia (Russia employees of the State Committee for wildlife and environment protection found 9 Saker Falcons caught by poachers on 09.09.2014. On 18.09.2014 as a result of operational search activities, employees of Altai Customs and Border Service of FSS of RF in Altai Kray prevented an attempt of illegal export of 18 falcons from Russia via the Republic of Kazakhstan. On 26.09.2014 at “Vnukovo” airport employees of the FCS of Russia prevented smuggling of 4 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus, but also identified two customs officials who assisted smugglers and moved alive goods without customs control. On October 23, 2014 in the Sanctuary of rare birds “Altai-Falcon” (Barnaul, the Altai Kray, Russia 10 falcons were released. On 27.10.2014 employees of Domodedovo Customs terminated an attempt of illegal export of 5 falcons from Russia to Armenia. On 10.30.2014 in Kamchatka officers of the Criminal Investigation Office of Milkovsky Department seized two Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus from poachers. On 02.11.2014 border guards of Kamchatka detained intercoastal ship, where was found hold to transport falcons. On 07.11.2014 batch of 6 falcons was detained by STSI inspectors in Slavgorod in the Altai Kray (Russia at Kazakhstan customs and gave a carrier to border guards. On 05.12.2014 in Chelyabinsk Airport a group of people trying to smuggle 3 Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug from Russia to Armenia, was detained. On 11.12.2014 in Tashkent (Uzbekistan 28 Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug were released, they were seized from poachers. On 12.16.2014 in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Russia 47-year-old citizen was seized two Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus. On 12.27.2014 in Moscow suburbs (Russia, a female Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus was found. In January 2015 two suitcases were found in the toilet in Moscow Sheremetyevo airport, where were 8 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus. On 02.04.2015 the Sanctuary of rare birds “Altai-Falcon” (Barnaul, the Altai Territory, Russia released 14 falcons (7 Saker Falcons Falco cherrug and 7 Peregrine Falcons F. peregrinus, confiscated in autumn 2014. On July 8, 2015 at the “Domodedovo” airport a Bulgarian citizen, who found 25 eggs of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus, was detained. On 08.09.2015 on the territory of the cluster in Khakassky State Nature Reserve “Kamyzyakskaya steppe with lake Ulug Kohl” (Khakassia, two citizens of Syria and one native of Azerbaijan were take while attempting to catch falcons. On 11.09.2015 at Domodedovo airport staff of Rosselkhoznadzor suspended clearance of 8 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus, which was brought to Moscow from the United Arab Emirates. On 18.09.2015 as a result of joint operational-search activities, officers of Altai Customs and Border Service of Russian FSS prevented an attempt of illegal export of 14 falcons from Russia to Kazakhstan. On 14.09.2015 24 Falcons were found during the check of flight № FDV-738 “Shymkent – Dubai” (Karavan.kz. Four members of the organized criminal group, involved in smuggling of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus, were detained at a Moscow airport “Sheremetyevo” on 17.10.2015. Belgorod custom officers were not allowed to take 8 Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug out of Russia  on 20.10.2015. On 10.11.2015 Gosohotsluzhba of The Zabaikalsky Kray (Russia in cooperation with the police in Chernyshevsky District of the Zabaikalsky Kray detained a group of six foreigners (Syrians, Kurds, Azerbaijanian for illegal catching of falcons. On 20.11.2015 in Kamchatka officers of the Criminal Investigation of Kamchatka Police together with colleagues from the FSS regional department detained a resident of Apuka village of Olyutorsky district, which was seized nine Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus. On November, 2015 in Kamchatka two criminal cases were initiated on the illegal transport and keeping of gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus. On November, 2015 in Kamchatka two criminal cases were initiated on the illegal transport and keeping of gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus. On 03.12.2015 in Kamchatka transport police prevented the export of 3 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus by flight to Khabarovsk. On 21.12.2015 in Kamchatka a Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus was withdrawn from a resident of Oktybrski village of Ust-Bolsheretsky district.

  13. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Other”

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN, European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI, with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (MPT, supported by Council of International Neonatal Nurses (COINN, organizing secretariat MCA Scientific EventsPROGRAMME COMMITTEEArtúr Beke (Hungarian Society, Morten Breindahl (ESN, Giuseppe Buonocore (UENPS, Pierre Gressens (ESPR, Silke Mader (EFCNI, Manuel Sánchez Luna (UENPS, Miklós Szabó (Hungarian Society of Perinatology, Luc Zimmermann (ESPR Session “Other”ABS 1. TELEMEDICINE IN NEONATAL HOMECARE • K.G. Holm, A. Brodsgaard, G. Zachariassen, J. ClemensenABS 2. ACCEPTABILITY OF PARENT REPORT QUESTIONNAIRES FOR ROUTINE FOLLOW-UP IN LATE/MODERATELY PRETERM INFANTS • N. Armstrong, S. Johnson, E.M. BoyleABS 3. INTERNATIONAL CARE PRACTICES AROUND AN INFANT’S DEATH IN THE NICU; A SURVEY STUDY • C.M.C. van den Berg, K. Alferink, J.M. Latour, N. Valkenburg, M. van DijkABS 4. ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION OVER TIME, IN MOTHERS OF VERY PRETERM BORN CHILDREN • M. Jeukens-Visser, M. Husson, D. Meijssen, M. Flierman, P. van Schie, K. Koldewijn, A. Wassenaer-van LeemhuisABS 5. LONGITUDINAL CHANGE OF HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE EXPERIENCED OVER TIME BY MOTHER WITH LATE PRETERM INFANT • L.Y. Tsai, S.C. Mu, Y.L. Chen, Y.L. Guo, P.C. ChenABS 6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANXIETY LEVELS AND CLINICAL PRACTICE SKILLS AMONG STUDENTS OF PEDIATRIC NURSING LECTURE • A.S. Kurt, F.T. Arslan, S. Özkan, R. Çelen, D.A. ÇakırABS 7. ACCURACY OF SMARTPHONES FOR REVIEWING TRANSMITTED IMAGES OF NEONATAL X-RAYS • T. Vasko, M. Westberg, J.A. Dawson, L.S. Owen, M. Thio, R. Bhatia, S. Donath, P.G. DavisABS 8. PERCEPTION OF NEONATAL SIMULATION AMONGST DIFFERENT PROFESSIONALS IN A LEVEL 3 NEONATAL UNIT: A 2-YEAR EXPERIENCE IN LUTON AND DUNSTABLE • D. Wari-Pepple, H. Doyle, S. Shanmugalingam, C. Chetcuti-GanadoABS 9. SUCCESS IN NEONATAL SKILLS & SCENARIO TEACHING IN NORTHERN IRELAND • C. Duncan, D. Leemon, D.L. ArmstrongABS 10. STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE LEARNING AT THE INAUGURAL NEONATAL CRANIAL ULTRASOUND WORKSHOP • M.V. Fortier, D.K.L. Chan, V.R. BaralABS 11. FIRST DAYS IN NICU – ARE GRADUATES WELL PREPARED FOR WORK? • P. Ostrogórska, K. Lorenc, A. Dziad, A. Suder, A. Kulig, I. Opach, A. GniadekABS 12. A TWO SECOND VISUAL METRONOME IMPROVES CARDIAC COMPRESSIONS DURING NEWBORN RESUSCITATION SIMULATION • C. Henry, S. Coleman, E. Murphy, S. Tan, C. Tamakloe, P. Blanchfield, D. SharkeyABS 13. A NEW SURVEY IN NEONATAL RESUSCITATION IN SPAIN • M. Izquierdo, M. Iriondo, M. ThioABS 14. UMBILICAL ARTERY INSERTION IN NEWBORN INFANTS: ACCURACY OF 11 AVAILABLE FORMULAE TO GUIDE CATHETER TIP PLACEMENT • W.L. Lean, J.A. Dawson, C. Theda, P.G. Davis, M. ThioABS 15. THE INTEGRATION OF EFFECTIVE PERINATAL AND NEONATAL CARE IN KYRGYZSTAN • S. Abduvalieva, K. Uzakbaev, C. Rakhmanova, A. AskerovABS 16. NEONATAL VIDEOLARYNGOSCOPY AS A TEACHING AID – THE TRAINEES’ PERSPECTIVE • J.E. O’Shea, M. Thio, C.O.F. Kamlin, L. McGrory, C. Wong, M. Campbell, J. John, C. Roberts, C. Kuschel, P.G. DavisABS 17. STANDARDIZED PROCEDURAL SKILLS TRAINING WITH A DOCUMENTED LEARNING OUTCOME • K.J. Kyng, T. Skajaa, R. Kaa, S. Kerrn-Jespersen, K. Bennedsgaard, B. Høst, S. Rubak, T.B. HenriksenABS 18. ACCURACY OF METHODS TO ESTIMATE THE INSERTION LENGTH OF UMBILICAL VENOUS CATHETERS IN NEWBORN INFANTS • W.L. Lean, J.A. Dawson, C. Theda, P.G. Davis, M. ThioABS 19. OXYGEN SATURATION LEVELS IN PRETERM INFANTS IN DELIVERY ROOM • S. Uslu, U. Zubarioglu, S. Sozeri, A. Bulbul, M. Dursun, E. TurkogluABS 20. PRE-HOSPITAL TRANSPORT OF THE NEWBORN: AN UNKNOWN ENTITY? • L. Perkins, J. Matthes, R. LeeABS 21. NEONATAL TRANSPORT IN CENTRAL REGION OF HUNGARY • A. Berenyi, A. Szell, M. Szilagyi Olahne, B. Bundzsity, F. Kohalmi, G. Kovacs, G. Liszkay, I. Kocsis, Zs. SomogyvariABS 22. ROUTINE MONITORING OF RESPIRATORY FUNCTION VARIABLES DURING INTER-HOSPITAL NEONATAL EMERGENCY TRANSPORT – A UK REGIONAL TRANSPORT SERVICE EXPERIENCE • P. Bhat, A. Dhar, C. Jones, S. Kent, R. Chaudhary, S. O’Hare, S. Broster, A. CurleyABS 23. EXTERNAL CARDIAC PACING DURING NEONATAL TRANSFER – A CASE REPORT • K. Swamy, D. Batra, A. Leslie, L. Lee, B. Schoonakker, S. WardleABS 24. NEONATAL TIME CRITICAL TRANSFERS IN THE UK: EXPERIENCE AFTER ONE YEAR OF ITS IMPLEMENTATION • F. Garrido, M. Márquez, I. DadyABS 25. TRANSPORT EXPERIENCE OF EXTREMELY PRETERM INFANTS BY THE ACUTE NEONATAL TRANSFER SERVICE FOR EAST OF ENGLAND UK • D. Wari-Pepple, S. Broster, S. OhareABS 26. A CASE OF CONGENITAL TRACHEAL AGENESIS COMPLICATING INTER-HOSPITAL NEONATAL EMERGENCY TRANSFER • P. Bhat, B. Hennebry, N. Tan, S. Garnell, M. Fiske, S. O’Hare, W. Kelsall, S. BrosterABS 27. IS ECHOGRAPHY USEFUL IN PEDIATRIC MOBILE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT? A 2 MONTHS PRELIMINARY EXPERIENCE • A. Boet, G. Jourdain, P. Quentin, N. Gilmer, C. Peigne, J.L. Chabernaud, D. De LucaABS 28. ASSESSMENT OF THE TREATMENT OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME IN THE PREMATURES BELOW 32 WEEKS OF GESTATION TRANSFERRED VERSUS THE ONES BORN IN THE III LEVEL UNIT. EXPERIENCE FROM A REGIONAL CENTER IN ROMANIA • G. Zaharie, L. Blaga, M. Hasmasanu, V. Obada, T. Zaharie, T.L. Pop, M. MatyasABS 29. MEDICAL STAFF PERCEPTIONS OF THE COST OF CONSUMABLE ITEMS USED IN NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE • A.R. Geoghegan, S. Moore, C.P.F. O’DonnellABS 30. IMPLEMENTATION OF PULSE OXIMETRY SCREENING IN DETECTING CRITICAL CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES IN NEWBORNS. EXPERIENCE OF A TERTIARY NEONATAL CARE UNIT • I. Jańczewska, I. Domżalska-PopadiukABS 31. EVOLUTION TRENDS AND SURGICAL APPROACH IN HYPERTENSIVE DISEASE OF PREGNANCY • G. Noditi, A. Gluhovschi, I. Enatescu, D. Anastasiu, D. Anastasiu, C. Dragomir, M. CrainaABS 32. PULSE OXIMETRY SCREENING IN COMMUNITY MIDWIFERY: ACCEPTABILITY OF MOTHERS AND COMMUNITY MIDWIVES • I.C. Narayen, N.A. Blom, M.S. Bourgonje-Verhart, C. Kolster-Bijdevaate, F. Posthumus, A.A. Kaptein, A.B. te PasABS 33. PERINATAL OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY WITHOUT ANTENATAL CARE • H. OrvosABS 34. DEVELOPMENT OF A TOOL TO CALCULATE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE COT AVAILABILITY • C. PetersABS 35. MONITORING HEART RATE IN PREMATURE INFANTS IMMEDIATELY AFTER BIRTH: PRELIMINARY RESULTS • S. Uslu, S. Sozeri, U. Zubarioglu, A. Bulbul, M. Dursun, E. TurkogluABS 36. PROVIDING IMMEDIATE NEONATAL CARE AND RESUSCITATION AT BIRTH BESIDE THE WOMAN: PARENTS’ VIEWS, A QUALITATIVE STUDY • A. Sawyer, S. Ayers, S. Bertullies, M. Thomas, A.D. Weeks, C.W. Yoxall, L. DuleyABS 37. TRANSITIONAL CARE ON THE POSTNATAL WARD – IS IT TIME FOR A CHANGE? • C. SullivanABS 38. MONITORING OF ANTENATAL STEROIDS, DELAYED CORD CLAMPING AND THERMOREGULATION (MASCoT • S. Mohamed Cassim, L. Beattie, C. Granger, D. AnandABS 39. FEASIBILITY OF AN AGE-APPROPRIATE ADDITION TO A PREVENTIVE POST-DISCHARGE INTERVENTION FOR VERY PRETERM TODDLERS; A PILOT STUDY • M. Flierman, K. Koldewijn, D. Meijssen, A. van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, C. Aarnoudse-Moens, P. van Schie, M. Jeukens-VisserABS 40. NEONATAL HEARING SCREENING: RESULTS IN TBILISI, GEORGIA • T. Devdariani, S. Japaridze, Z. KevanishviliABS 41. PROVIDING IMMEDIATE NEONATAL CARE AND RESUSCITATION AT BIRTH BESIDE THE WOMAN: CLINICIANS’ VIEWS, A QUALITATIVE STUDY • C.W. Yoxall, S. Ayers, A. Sawyer, S. Bertullies, M. Thomas, A.D. Weeks, L. DuleyABS 42. MORTALITY AND SERIOUS MORBIDITY RATES IN OUTBORN COMPARED WITH INBORN 22-27 WEEKS’ GESTATION INFANTS: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY • R. Boland, P. Davis, J. Dawson, L. DoyleABS 43. WELLBEING VERSUS BLOOD TESTING IN NEWBORNS ≥ 35 WEEKS’ GESTATION WITH RISK FACTORS OF EARLY ONSET SEPSIS: A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY • A. Al Omran, S. AL AbdiABS 44. DECREASE OF ADMISSION HYPOTHERMIA AMONG NEWBORNS IN NICU • A. Bystricka, J. Abu Asbeh, M. Qadir, K. Annadurai, J.M. KhanABS 45. LUNG ULTRASOUND TRAINING REDUCES RADIATION EXPOSURE IN NICU-ADMITTED PRETERM NEONATES • G. Escourrou, N. Yousef, A. Debray, C. Boussard, D. De LucaABS 46. POST-DISCHARGE NEONATAL FOLLOW-UP OF HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA BASED ON TRANSCUTANEOUS BILIRUBINOMETRY. RELIABILITY AND EFFICACY IN TERM AND NEAR-TERM INFANTS • A. Juster-Reicher, O. Flidel-Rimon, I. Vexler, I. Rozin, E.S. ShinwellABS 47. DECISION-MAKING FOR EXTREMELY PRETERM INFANTS: A SURVEY ABOUT THE ATTITUDES AND VALUES WITHIN A MULTI-CULTURAL SOCIETY • M. Hendriks, H.U. Bucher, S. Klein, R. Baumann-Hölzle, J.-C. FauchèreABS 48. EFFICACY OF SYSTEMIC FLUCONAZOLE PROPHYLAXIS IN REDUCTION OF SYSTEMIC CANDIDIASIS IN EXTREMELY LOW BIRTHWEIGHT (ELBW INFANTS • V.S. Rajadurai, B. Sriram, P.C. Khoo, J.M. Manuel, P. AgarwalABS 49. DEVELOPING COLLABORATION BETWEEN STAFF AND PARENTS IN THE NICU AT HONVED KORHAZ, BUDAPEST, HUNGARY • Z. Boukydis, C. Nador, B. Schill, A. LengyelABS 50. MACRO- AND MICROANALYSIS OF EARLY MOTHER-PRETERM INFANT INTERACTIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION • E. Kiepura, G. KmitaABS 51. ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION IN MOTHERS AND FATHERS OF A VERY PRETERM BORN CHILD AFTER HOSPITAL DISCHARGE • M. Jeukens-Visser, M. Husson, K. Koldewijn, A. Wassenaer-van Leemhuis, M. Flierman, D. Meijssen, P. van SchieABS 52. TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF SEX-SPECIFIC GONADAL DIFFERENTIATION INVOLVES COOPERATION BETWEEN WT1 AND GATA4 ON FOXL2 AND SOX9 EXPRESSION • C. Dame, L.J. Rudigier, H. Scholz, K.M. KirschnerABS 53. BACTERIOLOGICAL SAFETY IN TRANSPORT, A CONTINUOUS CHALLENGE • G. Jourdain, P. Quentin, V. Derouin, A. Boet, J.L. Chabernaud, D. De LucaABS 54. GUIDELINES FOR NEONATAL SURGERY IN ITALY: WORK IN PROGRESS • I. Bernardini, M. Chiavarini, S. Tesoro, L. Marchesini, D. Bologni, W. Orlandi, M. PioppoABS 55. ADOPTION OF ASEPTIC NON TOUCH TECHNIQUE IN NORTHERN IRELAND’S NEONATAL UNITS • C. Anderson, M. Hogan, C. Carville, U. TolandABS 56. INFLUENCE OF THE THECHNIQUE OF URINE SAMPLING OF URINALYSIS RESULT AND CONTAMINATION RATE IN NEONATAL PERIOD • M. Štimac, D. Kardum, M. Sipl, S. Pušeljić, V. MilasABS 57. SCREENING FOR CONGENITAL CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV INFECTION - ARE WE GETTING IT RIGHT? • M. Parmar, S. Bhayat, P. Dobbs, A. Joshi, S. Parida, C.S. Narayanan, N. Merchant