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1

Coup in Kyrgyzstan: Developments and Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kyrgyzstan is a small and poor country that gained independence in 1991 with the breakup of the Soviet Union. It was long led by Askar Akayev - who many observers warned was becoming increasingly autocratic - but the country was still considered 'the most...

J. Nichol

2005-01-01

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HIV-1 genetic variants in Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available Objectives: During the last two decades, HIV-1 has been spreading rapidly in former Soviet Union republics including Kyrgyzstan. The current molecular monitoring of HIV-infection epidemic is carried out in Russia only with no or limited data from the other FSU countries. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic variants circulating in Kyrgyzstan. Methods: Blood collection from the HIV-infected patients was carried out by local specialists with the informed consent and the questionnaire was answered by each of the patients. The total number of samples was 100. The washed cell pellets were transferred to Moscow following with proviral DNA extraction, PCR amplification and gag, pol and env genes sequencing. The phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences using neighbor-joining method was carried out by MEGA 3 program. The preliminary data were obtained in 22 samples isolated from PBMC of HIV-infected patients from Kyrgyzstan. Results: Among the samples studied 6 (27.3% samples belonged to a subtype CRF02_AG, 16 samples - to subtype A (A1. One of the samples belonging to CRF02_AG, probably, is a recombinant between CRF02_AG and A1. There was no major drug resistance mutations in the samples studied. The minor mutations were presented in small proportions: 1 in PR (L10I, 6 in RT (A62V - in 3 samples, V108G, E138A, Y181F, M184I, L210M - on one sample and 1 in IN (L74M. It was impossible to associate the distribution of mutations with HIV-1 genetic variant. The V3 loop (env gene in 17 samples was analyzed for tropism using geno2pheno program; all samples were found to be R5-viruses. Conclusion: The HIV-1 subtype A seems to dominate in Kyrgyzstan like in other FSU countries. The recombinant CRF02_AG epidemiologically linked to Uzbekistan is quite widespread. The rest of Kyrgyzstan collection is under investigation and the data will be refined soon.

V Laga

2012-11-01

3

The cyanide accident in Barskoon (Kyrgyzstan)  

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On May 20, 1998, a truck with 20 tons of sodium cyanide crashed and fell into the Barskoon River (Kyrgyzstan). This small stream, used by the local population for irrigation and drinking water purposes, flows into Lake Issyk-Kul, a major tourist resort. As a result of the accident, some 1700 - 1800 kg of sodium cyanide (NaCN) was released directly into the river, some 8 km upstream the village of Barskoon. The cyanide spill evoked a strong commotion among the population and ...

Rfmj, Cleven; Bruggen M van

2007-01-01

4

New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan.  

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A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemisruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambeorientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salviaaethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodiumvulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldiaincana (Brassicaceae) in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragusracemosus (Poaceae) is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherumelatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaureasolstitialis (Asteraceae) and an ephemerous occurrence of Glauciumcorniculatum (Papaveraceae) are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24855435

Lazkov, Georgy; Sennikov, Alexander

2014-01-01

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New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan  

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Abstract A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae) in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae) is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae) and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae) are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan.

2014-01-01

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Marriage, childbearing, and migration in Kyrgyzstan : Exploring interdependences  

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In this study, we investigate interdependences between entry into a marital union, childbearing, and migration. We apply event-history techniques to retrospective data on women aged 18-29 from a survey conducted in northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to examine how these events can influence one another, with a special focus on the effects of duration of exposure. In our analysis, we account for several duration dependences (‘clocks’). The results illustrate that months since marriage formation i...

Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Agadjanian, Victor

2010-01-01

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Marriage, childbearing, and migration in Kyrgyzstan: Exploring interdependencies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In our study we investigate interdependencies between entry into a marital union, childbearing, and migration. We apply event-history techniques to retrospective data on women aged 18-29 from a survey conducted in northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to examine how these events can influence one another, with a special focus on the effects of duration of exposure. In addition we analyze the impact of some individual characteristics on the propensity to get married, to become a mother, and to migrate. ...

2010-01-01

8

Marriage, childbearing, and migration in Kyrgyzstan: Exploring interdependencies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In our study we investigate interdependencies between entry into a marital union, childbearing, and migration. We apply event-history techniques to retrospective data on women aged 18-29 from a survey conducted in northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to examine how these events can influence one another, with a special focus on the effects of duration of exposure. In addition we analyze the impact of some individual characteristics on the propensity to get married, to become a mother, and to migrate. In our analysis we account for several duration dependences ('clocks'. The results illustrate that months since marriage formation is the most important duration variable in the first-birth propensities model. Out-of-wedlock conception is associated with increased marriage risks. Migration is often a part of the family building process: high first-birth propensities of recent migrants as well as high migration risks among pregnant women are due to marriage-related migration.

Lesia Nedoluzhko

2010-02-01

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Lipids and leptin level in natives of Kyrgyzstan.  

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Objectives: A possible link between obesity and impaired lipid metabolism is leptin, the 167-amino acid protein, secreted by adipocytes. The content of leptin in the body is closely associated with body mass index (BMI). Data obtained from studies on the association of leptin with dyslipidemia are contradictory. The level of leptin has not been studied in the ethnic Kyrgyz population previously. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leptin and lipid parameters in a group of ethnic Kyrgyz. Study design: The study included 322 ethnic Kyrgyz (145 males, 177 females) aged ?30 years, living in Kyrgyzstan. Measurement of anthropometric parameters (height, weight, waist circumference [WC], hip circumference [HC]) and blood pressure (BP) was done. Laboratory tests included blood glucose (fasting) in plasma, lipid profile (total cholesterol [TC], triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol), and serum leptin. Results: Leptin was positively correlated with BMI, WC and TG in both sexes and with TC in males. Conclusion: Leptin is associated with BMI, WC and TG in both sexes of Kyrgyz and with TC in Kyrgyz males. PMID:24769817

Mirrakhimov, Erkin; Kerimkulova, Alina; Lunegova, Olga; Mirrakhimov, Aibek; Alibaeva, Nazira; Nabiev, Malik

2014-04-01

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Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales  

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Full Text Available Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was developed using GAMS 2.25 software. Application of the model to the Akbura River basin indicated efficiencies in the proposed institutional rules especially in low water years.

Nazir Mirzaev

2010-08-01

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Vegetation history of the walnut forests in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia): natural or anthropogenic origin?  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive forests of common walnut ( Juglans regia L.) occur in the mountains of the Fergana and the Chatkal Ranges of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia), where they form a rich cultural landscape with a mosaic of natural and planted forest stands, fields, pastures, and drier open areas. These remote forests are likely to be an important genetic resource for J. regia, not only for in situ conservation but also as a resource for tree breeding. Pollen and charcoal analyses of the sediments of four lakes and two peat bogs in the core regions of the walnut forests provide new data to infer the vegetation history of the last 6800 years in the Fergana and Chatkal Ranges in Kyrgyzstan. Our results suggest that the potential natural forests or woods in the modern walnut forest region were dominated by Juniperus together with trees of Betula, Fraxinus, Rosaceae, and possibly Acer. A special focus was put on the vegetation history of J. regia, as it has been suggested that the walnut forests of Kyrgyzstan might be a refuge for this tree. However, our results suggest that the stands of J. regia are at the most 2000 years old, most of them even only about 1000 years old and probably of anthropogenic origin, confirming an old legend that is still orally transmitted in Kyrgyzstan. As with other old and widespread cultivated plants, it is not easy to reconstruct the original distribution and determine the borders of the past natural ranges. A review of paleoecological data points to refugia in southern Europe, Syria, Kyrgyzstan, China, and the Himalaya, where Juglans possibly outlived the last glaciation.

Beer, Ruth; Kaiser, Franziska; Schmidt, Kaspar; Ammann, Brigitta; Carraro, Gabriele; Grisa, Ennio; Tinner, Willy

2008-03-01

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Bayesian estimation of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new cases of human brucellosis per 100,000 inhabitants in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences in the world. However, because this number is based on official records, it is very likely that the incidence is underreported. The diagnostic tests most commonly used in Kyrgyzstan are the Rose Bengal test in ruminants and the Huddleson test in humans. The sensitivity and specificity of these tests have never been evaluated under field conditions in Kyrgyzstan, where the strains circulating in livestock and humans are unknown. Therefore, a representative national cross-sectional serological study was undertaken in humans, cattle, sheep and goats to assess the true seroprevalence and to compare different serologicaltests. In the year of study (2006), few animals were vaccinated against brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan. A total of 5,229 livestock sera and 1,777 human sera from three administrative regions were collected during spring 2006 and submitted to a range of serological tests. The true seroprevalence of brucellosis, estimated using Bayesian methodology, was 7% (95% credibility interval 4%-9%) in humans, 3% (1%-5%) in cattle, 12% (7%-23%) in sheep and 15% (7%-30%) in goats. The Rose Bengal test was confirmed as a useful screening test in livestock and humans, although its sensitivity was lower than that of other tests. The estimates of specificity of all tests were significantly higher than those for sensitivity. The high seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans, cattle and small ruminants in Kyrgyzstan was confirmed. Bayesian statistical approaches were demonstrated to be useful for simultaneously deriving test characteristics and true prevalence estimates in the absence of a gold standard. PMID:24761732

Dürr, S; Bonfoh, B; Schelling, E; Kasymbekov, J; Doherr, M G; Toktobaev, N; Schueth, T; Zinsstag, J

2013-12-01

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Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86 ?g/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD 13.5 (3.6 hours a day and 5.8 (1.4 days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS.

Ana Navas-Acien

2010-03-01

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Eager to Leave? Intentions to Migrate Abroad among Young People in Kyrgyzstan  

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This study examines young people’s intentions to migrate abroad in Kyrgyzstan, focusing in particular on differences between Asian and European-origin ethnic groups. The multivariate analyses of recent survey data show that even after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and social embeddedness Europeans are significantly more inclined to migrate than Asians. Whereas no gender differences in migration intentions among either group are detected, marriage, childbearing, and social ca...

Agadjanian, Victor; Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Kumskov, Gennady

2008-01-01

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Rapid deep-water renewal in Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) indicated by transient tracers  

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Simultaneous profiles of the transient tracers sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), 3H-3He, and the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 and CFC-12 were measured in Lake Issyk-Kul, a large, deep lake in Kyrgyzstan. Apparent water ages derived from these measurements suggest rapid mixing, with a deepwater renewal rate > 10% yr21 at 650 m depth. SF6 and 3H-3He ages agree reasonably well, whereas CFC ages are significantly greater. The discrepancy is explained by the nonlinear relationship between tracer age and tr...

Hofer, Markus; Peeters, Frank; Aeschbach-hertig, Werner; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Holocher, Johannes; Livingstone, David M.; Romanovski, Vladimir; Kipfer, Rolf

2002-01-01

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Situation analysis in the field of control and management of uranium tailings in Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is devoted to situation analysis in the field of control and management of uranium tailings in Kyrgyzstan. The basic sites for control in Kyrgyzstan are: HMP P C 'KGRK', specialized on uranium oxide production (status operating) RSH; storage for low-activity waste (tailings and rock piles) former uranium industry; site for disposal of ionizing radiation sources and radioactive waste in Bishkek city; ionizing radiation sources; medical institutions (X-rays diagnostics, radiotherapy); natural anomaly (local sites with high radiation background). It was concluded that: in existing legislative basis there is a necessity to amend requirements for accepting regulatory provisions on radiation safety; it is necessary to continue working on combination of country's policy and strategy with Fundamental Safety Principles and with International instruments, agreements, codes which were ratified by State; legislative basis documental hierarchy on radiation safety issues is not a complete system, significant number of gaps are defined (more than 60 % from the whole system), basically, related to low stages of hierarchical structure (rules, norms, regulations, instructions and etc.); it is necessary to review existing leading documents with the purpose of inaccuracy correcting, especially in the field of safety statements (especially, it relates to new basic regulation on radiation safety, where contradicting to each other criteria are available, mixing to one 'pile' the concepts of 'dose threshold' and 'dose limits', incomplete and scrappy Radioactive Wastes classification, absence of instructions on ionizing radiation sources categorization and etc.

2012-11-20

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Bismarck meets Beveridge on the Silk Road: coordinating funding sources to create a universal health financing system in Kyrgyzstan  

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Options for health financing reform are often portrayed as a choice between general taxation (known as the Beveridge model) and social health insurance (known as the Bismarck model). Ten years of health financing reform in Kyrgyzstan, since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, provide an excellent example of why it is wrong to reduce health financing policy to a choice between the Beveridge and Bismarck models. Rather than fragment the system according to the insu...

Kutzin, Joseph; Ibraimova, Ainura; Jakab, Melitta; O’dougherty, Sheila

2009-01-01

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Seasonal migrations of four individual bar-headed geese Anser indicus from Kyrgyzstan followed by satellite telemetry  

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Abstract The Kyrgyz population of the bar-headed goose Anser indicus has declined dramatically during the past decades. Human persecution during migration and habitat loss at stopover and wintering sites are commonly regarded as most serious threats. However, little is known about seasonal movements, migration routes, and wintering sites of the bar-headed geese from Kyrgyzstan, which represent the westernmost geographical population of the species. As part of a conservation project...

2010-01-01

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The Inylchek Glacier in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia: Insight on Surface Kinematics from Optical Remote Sensing Imagery  

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Full Text Available Mountain chains of Central Asia host a large number of glaciated areas that provide critical water supplies to the semi-arid populated foothills and lowlands of this region. Spatio-temporal variations of glacier flows are a key indicator of the impact of climate change on water resources as the glaciers react sensitively to climate. Satellite remote sensing using optical imagery is an efficient method for studying ice-velocity fields on mountain glaciers. In this study, temporal and spatial changes in surface velocity associated with the Inylchek glacier in Kyrgyzstan are investigated. We present a detailed map for the kinematics of the Inylchek glacier obtained by cross-correlation analysis of Landsat images, acquired between 2000 and 2011, and a set of ASTER images covering the time period between 2001 and 2007. Our results indicate a high-velocity region in the elevated part of the glacier, moving up to a rate of about 0.5 m/day. Time series analysis of optical data reveals some annual variations in the mean surface velocity of the Inylchek during 2000–2011. In particular, our findings suggest an opposite trend between periods of the northward glacial flow in Proletarskyi and Zvezdochka glacier, and the rate of westward motion observed for the main stream of the Inylchek.

Mohamad Nobakht

2014-01-01

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Development of Triad approach based system for ecological risk assessment for contaminated areas of Kyrgyzstan  

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This research is aimed to develop a high-effective system of an ecological risk assessment and risk-based decision making for anthropogenic ecosystems, with particular focus on the soils of the Kyrgyz Republic. The study is focused on the integration of Triad data including chemical, biological and ecotoxicological soil markers to estimate the potential risk from soils of highly anthropized areas impacted by deposition of different pollutants from mining operation. We focus on technogenic areas of Kyrgyzstan, the former uranium-producing province. Triad-based ecological risk assessment for technogenic sites are not currently used in Kyrgyzstan. However, the vitality of such research is self-evident. There are about 50 tailing dumps and more than 80 tips of radioactive waste which are formed as a result of uranium and complex ores (mercury, antimony, lead, cadmium and etc) mining around the unfavorable aforementioned places. According to the Mining Wastes' Tailings and Fills Rehabilitation Centre established in 1999 by a special Government's Resolution, one of the most ecologically dangerous uranium tailings resides in Kadzhi-Say. Although uranium processing is no longer practiced in Kadzhi-Say, a large number of open landfills and uranium ore storages still remain abandoned at the vicinity of this settlement. These neglected sites have enormous problems associated with soil erosion known as "technogenic deserts". The upper soil horizons are deprived of humus and vegetation, which favor the formation of low-buffer landscapes in the zones of maximum contamination. As a result, most of these areas are not re-cultivated and remain in critical environmental condition (Bykovchenko, et al., 2005; Tukhvatshin, 2005; Suranova, 2006). Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites will be integrated. The following Triad-based parameters will be employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous substances), 2) ecological parameters (assessing changes in microorganism's community structure and functions, bioindication); and 3) toxicological bioassays (utilizing classical endpoints such as survival and reproduction rates, genotoxicity). The output will be consisted of 3 indexes: 1) Environmental Risk Index, quantifying the level of biological damage at population-community level, 2) Biological Vulnerability Index, assessing the potential threats to biological equilibria, and 3) Genotoxicity Index, screening genotoxic effects. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) will be used to integrate a set of environmental Triad data to be obtained during the project, which will be carried out in order to estimate the potential risk from soil contamination of the highly anthropized areas of Kadzhi-Say, which have been impacted by deposition of heavy metals. The basis of the development under this research is studies with a particular focus concerning the biocenosis mapping of Kyrgyz soils (Mamytova et al., 2003, 2010), investigations on interaction of humic substances with soil contaminants (Jorobekova, Kydralieva, Khudaibergenova, 2004; Khudaibergenova, 2005, 2007), and in addition, technical approach for ecotoxicological assessment of soils (Terekhova, 2007, 2011). Soil ecotoxicological estimation has been studied with a battery of tests using test-organisms of many trophic levels. Currently, bioindication of soils with various humus states is under study (Senesi, Yakimenko 2007; Yakimenko, et al., 2008).

Kydralieva, Kamilia; Uzbekov, Beksultan; Khudaibergenova, Bermet; Terekhova, Vera; Jorobekova, Sharipa

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Prevalence of health risk behaviors and their associated factors among university students in Kyrgyzstan.  

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Abstract Background: With the advancements in knowledge about health promotion, public health professionals have been seeking determinants of personal health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of health risk behaviors and its associated factors in a sample of Kyrgyz university students. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, health risk behaviors among a sample of randomly selected university students were assessed. The sample included 837 university students from health sciences undergraduate courses of the State Medical Academy in Kyrgyzstan. The students were 358 (42.8%) males and 479 (57.2%) females in the age range of 18-29 years (Median age=21.3 years, SD=1.5). Results: On average, students engaged in 9.4 (SD=2.3) out of 23 health risk behavior practices (range, 3-18). Generally, there was a high rate of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake (86.4%), eating red meat at least once a day (62%), usually adding salt to meals (78.3%), skipping breakfast (50.5%), current tobacco use (49.7%) and two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (46.1%) among men, and never using a condom with a primary partner in the past 3 months (90.9%) among women. Furthermore, 60.8% of the women were physically inactive. In bivariate analysis among men, the lack of perceived benefits was associated with health risk behavior. In multivariate analysis among women, poorer family background, being Russian, high personal constraints or stress, and better subjective health were associated with the health risk behavior index. Conclusions: Students had a high proportion of health risk behavior practices. Several high health risk practices were identified, including poor dietary behavior, physical inactivity, sexual risk behavior, and tobacco use. Gender specific predictors identified included sociodemographic characteristics and social and health variables, which can be utilized in health promotion programs. PMID:23807671

Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M

2014-01-01

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Phased Remediation Approach for Prevention of Risks Linked with Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of the town of Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals from tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, we evaluated measures to be taken by the authorities to reduce the radiological exposure of the population and to prevent environmental pollution by radionuclides and heavy metals in case of loss of tightness of dams and damage to dumps and heaps from mining and milling by land and mudslides and proposed sustainable remedial options, accepted by the public. A radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu-Suu, located downstream of the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine-waste dump. The actual external exposure is around 1.2 mSv a-1 at both locations and exposure from radon is around 3 mSv a-1 at Mailuu-Suu and around 10 mSv a-1 at Kara Agach. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu-Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the very conservative hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (?10-30 mSv a-1). Additional dose from irrigation with Mailuu-Suu river water is small in actual conditions (o 3, the potential of such a disaster to occur is non-negligible. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options are evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilization and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu-Suu River valley are studied (translocation of other tailings, tunnel to deviate river, partial protection of river from landslide blockage). It was proposed to acquire a phased approach in time performing urgent limited stabilization options for Tailing No 3, improve the stability of the Tailing No 3 by COLMIX-columns in the medium-term, while investigating and evaluating further two long term remedial options: the translocation of the tailings and the long-right-bank river diversion tunnel. (author)

2011-09-01

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Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1949–1967, a U mine, a coal-fired thermal power plant and a processing plant for the extraction of U from the produced ash were operated at the Kadji Sai U mining site in Tonsk district, Issyk-Kul County, Kyrgyzstan. The Kadji Sai U legacy site represents a source of contamination of the local environment by naturally occurring radionuclides and associated trace elements. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals at the site, field expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2008 by the Joint collaboration between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (JNKKT) project and the NATO SfP RESCA project. In addition to in situ gamma and Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water and sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of radionuclides and trace metals in water from Issyk-Kul Lake were in general low, but surprisingly high for As. Uptake of U and As was also observed in fish from the lake with maximum bioconcentration factors for liver of 1.6 and 75, respectively. The concentrations of U in water within the Kadji Sai area varied from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L, except for downstream from the mining area where U reached a factor of 10 higher, 0.2 mg/L. Uranium concentrations in the drinking water of Kadji Sai village were about the level recommended by the WHO for drinking water. The 234U/238U activity ratio reflected equilibrium conditions in the mining pond, but far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching 2.3 for an artesian well). Uranium, As and Ni were mainly present as low molecular mass (LMM, less than 10 kDa) species in all samples, indicating that these elemental species are mobile and potentially bioavailable. The soils from the mining sites were enriched in U, As and trace metals. Hot spots with elevated radioactivity levels were easily detected in Kadji Sai and radioactive particles were observed. The presence of particles carrying significant amount of radioactivity and toxic trace elements may represent a hazard during strong wind events (wind erosion). Based on sequential extractions, most of the elements were strongly associated with mineral matter, except for U and As having a relatively high remobilization potential. Low Kd was obtained for U (3.5 × 102 L/kg d.w.), intermediate Kds (?3 × 103 L/kg d.w.) were obtained for 226Ra, As and Ni, while a high Kd (2.2 × 105 L/kg d.w.) were obtained for Pb. The accumulation of metals in fish gills reflected the LMM species in the Issyk-Kul water, and did not show any bioaccumulation. The muscle Hg concentrations in all fish species were low and did not represent any health risk even for groups at risk. Total gamma and Rn dose rate to man amounted to about 12 mSv/y, while the highest calculated dose rate for non-human species based on the ERICA Assessment Tool were obtained in terrestrial plants (164 ?Gy/h) due to the Ra exposure. The results obtained showed that radiation doses to resident public at all of the investigated sites in the Kadji Sai area were in general relatively low. Low radiological risk and no detrimental health impact on resident public can be expected at these sites. However, exposure to Rn and Tn in the living environment can be further reduced by implementing simple countermeasures such as ventilation of dwelling cellars. More focus in the Kadji Sai area should probably be put on trace elements, especially the As uptake in fish in Lake Issyk-Kul

2013-09-01

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Bismarck meets Beveridge on the Silk Road: coordinating funding sources to create a universal health financing system in Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Options for health financing reform are often portrayed as a choice between general taxation (known as the Beveridge model) and social health insurance (known as the Bismarck model). Ten years of health financing reform in Kyrgyzstan, since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, provide an excellent example of why it is wrong to reduce health financing policy to a choice between the Beveridge and Bismarck models. Rather than fragment the system according to the insurance status of the population, as many other low- and middle-income countries have done, the Kyrgyz reforms were guided by the objective of having a single system for the entire population. Key features include the role and gradual development of the compulsory health insurance fund as the single purchaser of health-care services for the entire population using output-based payment methods, the complete restructuring of pooling arrangements from the former decentralized budgetary structure to a single national pool, and the establishment of an explicit benefit package. Central to the process was the transformation of the role of general budget revenues – the main source of public funding for health – from directly subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services on behalf of the entire population by redirecting them into the health insurance fund. Through their approach to health financing policy, and pooling in particular, the Kyrgyz health reformers demonstrated that different sources of funds can be used in an explicitly complementary manner to enable the creation of a unified, universal system.

Ibraimova, Ainura; Jakab, Melitta; O'Dougherty, Sheila

2009-01-01

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Regional vegetation patterns at lake Son Kul reveal Holocene climatic variability in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia)  

Science.gov (United States)

A multiproxy study was conducted on Holocene sediments from the alpine lake Son Kul (3010 m a.s.l, 41°48?33N/75°07?38E) in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan). The combination of high-resolution pollen, palynofacies and magnetic susceptibility data allowed reconstruction of changes in sedimentary and vegetation dynamics regionally at Son Kul between 8350 and ca 2000 cal. BP. Using pollen data to quantify climatic parameters, a quantitative reconstruction of climatic conditions was performed using the "Modern Analogue Vegetation types" (MAV) method and a ranged index of seasonality. The most temperate (e.g. moister) climate conditions occurred between 8350 and 5000–4500 cal. BP when alpine meadow vegetation was enriched in plants requiring moister conditions and trees developed regionally. Conversely, more continental and arid conditions prevailed after 4500 cal. BP with the decline of arboreal vegetation (especially Juniperus) and the extension of an alpine steppe-meadow along with a regional decrease in Poaceae. This climate transition was associated with a change in seasonality as the continentality greatly intensified after 5000–4500 cal. BP. Our results are consistent with other records from the Tien Shan range and the Chinese Province Xinjiang showing that relatively wet conditions prevailed regionally before 5000 cal. BP, whereas reduced moisture conditions were established after that time. From a more global perspective, we highlight that regional rainfall in central Tien Shan and western Central Asia is likely to be predominantly controlled by the Eastern Mediterranean cyclonic system and North Atlantic climate, as based on the close correspondence between climatic archives from western Central Asia, the Levant, the Eastern Mediterranean and Caspian Sea regions. However, the effect of monsoonal dynamics on the regional climatic system in central Tien Shan still remains dubious, since recent modelling studies have shown that no dynamic link exists between humidity in Central Asia and the Indian Summer Monsoon. This study pinpoints the need to explore the effect of remote Eurasian atmospheric circulation patterns on past climate variability in Central Asia.

Mathis, Marie; Sorrel, Philippe; Klotz, Stefan; Huang, Xiangtong; Oberhänsli, Hedi

2014-04-01

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Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007. Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative financial experiences of pharmacy initiatives to inform future projects and advance access to medicines goals.

Maddix Jason

2010-07-01

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Case study: Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT The paper discusses the importance of Open Source (OS hereinafter technology for national Information Communication Technology (ICT hereinafter development and E-Government for developing countries as a general strategy for overcoming the digital divide. The paper highlights the opportunities presented to the developing countries by the growing world-wide movement for use of OS systems, namely, the ability to promote the transfer of technological know-how and the growth of local IT professionals, the possibility of providing IT solutions within the limited financial means of a developing country, and the ability to strengthen the legal use of software. The paper

Baktybek Abdrisaev

2005-12-01

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'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84, service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58 and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86. Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector.

Harmer Andrew

2011-07-01

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'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV\\/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV\\/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV\\/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector.

Spicer, Neil

2011-07-13

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Ideal climatic variables for the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, derived from GPS data and energy-mass balance measurements  

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Full Text Available We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007 of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Differential GPS surveys reveal a vertical surface deletion at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the modern state are 289 mm and ?3.85 °C at the glacier summit (4600 m above sea level, a.s.l., respectively. The good agreement between the long-term estimated and observed precipitation at a nearby station in the Tien Shan (292 mm at 3614 m a.s.l. for the period 1930–2002 suggests that the glacier dynamics have been regulated by the long-term average accumulation. The glacier mass-balance, reconstructed based on meteorological data from the Tien Shan station for the past 80 yr, explains the observed fluctuations in glacier extent, particularly the negative mass balance in the 1990s.

K. Fujita

2011-03-01

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Disequilibrium between uranium and its progeny in the Lake Issyk-Kul system (Kyrgyzstan) under a combined effect of natural and manmade processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kadji-Sai abandoned field of U-bearing brown coal on the southern coast of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) poses a threat of radioactive pollution to the world's fifth deepest and second largest pristine highland lake. The valleys of ephemeral streams in the lake catchment are filled with coarse-grained sand and clay, with a background U-Ra activity of 35-55 Bq kg{sup -1}. High activity areas vs. this background come from three sources: (1) scarce outcrops of uraniferous brown coal and mining wastes containing fragments of this coal with U-238/Ra-226 ratios of 0.8 due to uranium losses through weathering; (2) manmade anomalies caused by a radioactive waste dump, where U was extracted from the ash of coal burnt at a coal-fired power plant; (3) six catch pools terraced below the mine, where U activity decreases downslope. Sedimentation rate in the lake center for the past century, found from Pb-210, was 0.32 mm yr{sup -1}. U-238/Ra-226 in deep-water sediments was about 3. The flux of dissolved U to the bottom sediments was estimated as 2.07 x 10{sup -7} g cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. The upper section of near-shore deposits was disturbed by currents, with Cs-137 and Pb-210(atm) more or less uniformly distributed in this layer. Peaks of Ra-226 and Pb-210 occur at different depths from 5 to 20 cm below the sediment surface, with U-238/Ra-226 ratios 0.28-0.44. The presence of mullite in these sediments indicated that radioactive ash penetrated into the lake in the past. At present, Ra-226 in the ash is buried under a non-radioactive cap.

Gavshin, V.M.; Melgunov, M.S.; Sukhorukov, F.V.; Bobrov, V.A.; Kalugin, I.A.; Klerkx, J. [Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2005-07-01

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The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF occurred at the western (w- Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, and ALOS/AVNIR-2 reveal that the flood reduced the lake area from 0.0422 km2 to 0.0083 km2, discharging 437 000 m3 of water. This glacier lake was not present in a Landsat 7 ETM+ image taken on 26 April 2008. It formed rapidly over just two and half months from early May to the late July, when large amounts of snow and glacier melt water became trapped in a basin in the glacier terminus area, blocked by temporary closure of the drainage channel through the terminal moraine that included much dead-ice. In the same mountain region, most other glacier-lake expansions were not particularly large during the period from 1999–2008. Although events like the w-Zyndan glacier lake outburst occur infrequently in the high Central Asian mountains, such fast developing, short-lived lakes are particularly dangerous and not easy to monitor using satellite data. Appropriate measures to protect against such lake outburst hazards in this region include educating residents on glacier hazards and monitoring techniques, providing frequently updated maps of glacier lakes, and planning and monitoring land-use, including house locations.

C. Narama

2010-04-01

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The cyanide accident in Barskoon (Kyrgyzstan)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bij een ongeval op 20 mei 1998 kwam 1700-1800 kg NaCN in de Barskoon Rivier terecht, ongeveer 8 km stroomopwaarts van het dorpje Barskoon. De cyanidelozing veroorzaakte grote commotie onder de bevolking en de autoriteiten van Kirgizie, vanwege het potentiele gevaar voor gezondheid en milieu, mede door het laat melden van het ongeval door het betrokken bedrijf. Op 25 mei 1998 vroeg de WHO in Kopenhagen het RIVM om bijstand, om de milieugevolgen van het ongeval te beoord...

Rfmj, Cleven; Bruggen M van

2012-01-01

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The EU strategy for Central Asia and Kyrgyzstan foreign policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[Introduction] The change of the strategic significance of Central Asia in last two decades had considerable consequences on the domestic and foreign policies in the region. The newly independent Central Asian states became a target of interplay between political and economic interests of several countries. The formation of the foreign policies in Central Asian states takes place under extremely difficult conditions and aims to balance between different powers. Historically, Central Asia has ...

Momosheva, Nazira

2010-01-01

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INTELLIGENTSIA PERSONNEL TRAINING IN KYRGYZSTAN IN GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR  

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Full Text Available During Great Patriotic War, despite all the difficulties of wartime the Republic trained intelligentsia personnel, who had to fulfill the task of seamless combination of ideologic impact, cultural and educational work with specific military-administrative activities

Gulnara D. Dzhunushalieva

2011-01-01

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Designing Social Inquiry in Central Asia - A Case Study of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Central Asia offers a potential smorgasbord for researchers engaged in comparative analysis. Common shared characteristics of these states have provided and continue to provide opportunities for advances in our understanding of political and social phenomena of global importance, including state building, democratisation, nationalism and economic development. However, in conducting comparative case study research in Central Asia, researchers should be aware of the strengths and weaknesse...

2013-01-01

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[Morphological variablility in the chigger mite species Neotrombicula sympatrica (Acariformes: Trombiculidae) from Kyrgyzstan].  

Science.gov (United States)

Aberrations (quantitative chaetotactic deviations, i.e. decreasing or increasing of setae numbers and variations in arrangement of setae) and anomalies (qualitative chaetotactic deviations, for example, partial reduction of scutum, shortening of a seta more than 1.5-2 times, merging of setae) were recorded for 13 taxonomically important morphological structures in the chigger mite species Neotrombicula sympatrica Stekolnikov, 2001. 3308 specimens were studied as a total. 17.2% of them had various morphological deviations. The most common types of aberrations were observed in the number and positions of genualae I (94 specimens), AM seta (79 spec.) and sternal setae (77 spec.). The aberrations of sternal and coxal setae were usually interrelated: the sternal seta was "transferred" from the sternal area onto the coxa, or the other way round take place. The specimens having aberrations of sternal setae were twice as numerous as the specimens with aberrations of coxal setae (77 against 35). The specimens with aberrations of dorsal setae and mastitarsala were very rare (2 spec. each). Among anomalies, the presence of nude galeal seta (91 spec.) and scutal anomalies (66 spec.) were prevalent. The most frequently one form of deviation only was observed in one specimen of N. sympatrica. Nevertheless, the specimens simultaneously having several aberrations or anomalies were also found. 17 types of such combinations were observed, that counts 20.6% of all specimens with deviations. Symmetric deviations, namely the presence of two nude galeal setae (31 spec.), presence of 2 genualae on both legs I (4 spec.), presence of 2 AM (2 spec.) and symmetric reduction of scutal angles (1 spec.), sometimes cause troubles in diagnostics. The quarter of variance in N. sympatrica and in the species N. monticola Schluger et Davydov, 1967 formerly studied by the author turned out as almost identical. The specimens with deviations counted 14.5% of all studied specimens in the latter species. However, the structures of variance in these species is different. In N. monticola, the aberrations of humeral setae were dominant (71.6%) (Kharadov, Chirov, 2001), while in N. sympatrica, the aberrations of other structures were prevalent: genualae I (24.8%), AM (20.9%) and sternal setae (20.4%). PMID:12481606

Kharadov, A V

2002-01-01

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Measurements of radiatively active tropo-stratospheric constituents over the northern Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan)  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of long-term (from 15 to 22 years) continuous measurements of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and carbon dioxide total contents in the atmosphere; and of its spectral transparency in the visible range and aerosol optical depth are presented. The measurements were carried out on Issyk Kul station (42.6 N, 77 E, 1650 m a.s.l.) in center of the Eurasian continent (Northern Tien Shan, the Issyk Kul lake) by the spectroscopic method with the use of the sun as a radiation source. Issyk Kul station belong NDSC complementary network. Total ozone is determined by the multiwave method according to the results of solar radiation absorption measurements at 6 wave lengths: 303.3; 305.2; 308.6; 311.0; 313.8 and 315.0 nm coinciding with maxima in the spectrum having a quasilinear structure. The method of CO2 measurements is based on the measurement of solar radiation transmission through the atmosphere with a mean spectral resolution of about 3 cm-1 in the carbon dioxide absorption band with the center near 2.06 micron. The measurement results obtained by this method have low sensitivity to CO2 local sources-sinks. To control water vapor content by the spectroscopic method a narrow section (about 2.04 micron) of the atmospheric spectrum was registered in the wing of CO2 absorption band with the center at about 2.06 micron. Such a choice of the spectrum section provides simultaneous determination of H2O and CO2 contents with one and the same record of a solar radiation spectrum. The measurements of total nitrogen dioxide were carried out with the use of the spectroscopic instrumentation set by the three-wave-length twilight method. For determining NO2 the intensity of the solar radiation at the wave lengths of 437.6, 439.8 and 442.0 nm scattered in the atmosphere were registered at the zenith angles of 85-92 degrees at sunrise and sunset. The changes of mean monthly and annual values of the atmospheric components studied were considered. Seasonal and other variations with different periods and trends were revealed: positive for total carbon dioxide (0.45+/-0.01)% a yr, total water vapor (0.8+/-0.5)% a yr, total nitrogen dioxide (1.44+/-0.08)% yr and for spectral transparencies (0.37+/-0.07)% a yr; and negative for total ozone (0.44+/-0.08)% a yr. The measurements results were compared to one another and to some meteorological and geophysical parameters and phenomena. The studies have been carries out under a financial support of the International Science and Technology Center (Grant ISTC Kr-763.

Semenov, V.; Sinyakov, V.; Aref'ev, V.; Kashin, F.; Kamenogradsky, N.

2003-04-01

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Trace fossils from Silurian and Devonian turbidites of the Chauvay area, southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available The siliciclastic turbidite successions (Pul’gon and Dzhidala Formations that crop out in the eastern part of the Chauvay River valley, are marked on geological maps as a belt of terrigenous deposits of Silurian–Devonian age. They resemble deposits of overbank areas and depositional lobes of deep sea fans, and display common trace fossils particularly on lower surfaces of sandstone beds. Sixteen ichnotaxa representing four morphological groups have been distinguished. The trace fossil assemblages suggest their affiliation to the Nereites ichnofacies. Various branched, preturbidite forms predominate in both examined units, although the assemblages of individual units differ slightly in composition. In the Pulg’on Formation, small, densely distributed burrows commonly occur on lower surfaces of sandstone beds. Shallow burrowing depth together with relatively low diversity trace fossil assemblages indicate lowered oxygenation of the sea floor.

Micha? WARCHO?

2009-01-01

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Three Universities in Georgia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan: The Struggle against Corruption and for Social Cohesion  

Science.gov (United States)

Universities may contribute to a nation's social cohesion through both direct and indirect means. In their syllabi they may include techniques necessary for understanding complex social problems. Faculty may model good behaviour in terms of listening and understanding points of view that may contradict their own. University administrators may…

Heyneman, Stephen P.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Threat assessment report. Regulatory aspects of the remediation and rehabilitation of nuclear legacy in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the Soviet period, the uranium mining operations in Central Asia served as one of the main uranium producers for the Soviet Union (SU) military complex. The regulatory standards for exposure and emissions control to all Soviet Republics were administered by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and were the same across the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the former Soviet Republics became independent, but also inherited the legacy in the form of wastes, including those from uranium ore processing and tailings and old Soviet regulatory documents, which are mostly inconsistent with the international standards and guidances and need substantial improvements. Many radioactive waste storage facilities in Central Asia, especially in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, are located in regions of seismic activity, in landslide- and mud flow-prone areas and areas subject to flooding and high ground water levels, and near the banks of the rivers that form the base of the large water basin of the Central Asian region. Many tailings are situated near towns, other populated areas and state borders, and they represent a long-term hazard to health and the environment. In regard to the legal and regulatory framework, it should be noted that none of the Central Asian countries have a National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management developed and approved by the Governments. Existing regulatory documents do not address the issues regarding safety assessments and safety cases or the implementation of long-term institutional control and monitoring of the abandoned dumps with radioactive wastes (RW) or future RW disposal sites, neither during operation nor after their closure. There is also a need to develop safety criteria (reference levels) and determine measures to be taken for existing exposure situations (past practices). In addition, there is a lack of safety requirements for different types of disposal facilities in accordance with the different categories of radioactive waste. Safety criteria and clearance levels are also not established. The NRPA, with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in the Central Asian countries to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and RW management in the Central Asian countries. Based on threat assessments that have been completed in each Central Asian country during the year 2010, this document focuses on the existing regulatory problems at the legacy sites and projects will address the regulatory documents which should be developed first. It is clear that in order to remove the threat connected with radioactive wastes, both that which has already been accumulated as a result of previous activity and that which is currently being generated in significant amounts and will be produced in the future, it is necessary to at least develop and implement: A National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management, including strategies for disposal of each category of the RW, allocation of responsibilities and financial assurance for these activities; Safety requirements on the design, siting, construction, operation, closure and establishment of the institutional control needed for disposal facilities in accordance with the approved national policy and strategy on radioactive waste management; and New classifications of radioactive waste according to the recently published international recommendations, including identification of corresponding categories; In addition, it is clear that in order to remove the threats connected with extensive territories contaminated by radionuclides, the rehabilitation of these areas is required and, accordingly, it is necessary to develop regulations on: Quantitative criteria defining reference levels for existing exposure situations, considering its justification, optimization and

2011-01-01

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Elevation changes of Inylchek Glacier during 1974-2007, Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan derived from remote sensing data  

Science.gov (United States)

Glacier melt is an important source of fresh water for the arid regions surrounding the Tian Shan. Inylchek Glacier (650 km2) is the largest glacier in Tian Shan consisting of two branches (northern Inylchek glacier and southern Inylchek glacier) separated by the regularly draining Lake Merzbacher. However, little is known about volume and mass changes of the last decades. In this study, we investigated the changes of glacier area and glacier surface elevation from 1974 until 2007 and the surface velocity between 2003 and 2011 using multi-temporal remote-sensing data. The main flow direction of Southern Inylchek Glacier tongue showed strong velocities of ?100 m a-1 with a slight decreasing tendency between 2002/03 and 2010/11. The end of the tongue however, is likely stagnant as the main flow is directed towards Lake Merzbacher. The total glacier area increased by 1.3 ± 0.1 km2 (?0.2%) within the studies period though southern Inylchek Glacier shrank consecutive since 1974. The overall area gain was caused by the strong increase of northern Inylchek Glacier of 3.7 ± 0.3 km2 between 1990-1999. A comparison of glacier surface elevation using multi-temporal digital elevation models derived from KH9-Hexagon (1974), SRTM (1999), ALOS (2006) and SPOT5-HRG (2007) revealed an overall elevation difference of Inylchek Glacier of -0.5 ± 0.1 m a-1 for the period of 1974-2007. The northern glacier branch showed on average no significant surface elevation change (0.1 ± 0.1 m a-1) during 1974 and 2007 while a significant lowering of 0.7 ± 0.1 m a-1 was observed for the southern branch. The overall negative values are mainly due to the period 1974-1999. A possible thickening of 0.5 ± 0.5 m a-1 occurred between 1999 and 2007 where a clear thickening was measured in the accumulation area of the southern branch. We also identified the thickening with a maximum of about ?150 m close to the end of the northern Inylchek Glacier tongue for the period 1974-1999. This is possibly due to a surge event which happened between 1990 and 1999 according to the area change data. The ablation region of southern Inylchek Glacier showed considerable lowering rates especially in the distal part of the tongue with low velocity despite thick debris coverage.

Shangguan, D.; Bolch, T.; Ding, Y.; Kröhnert, M.; Pieczonka, T.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Liu, S.

2014-05-01

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Development of a rubella vaccination strategy: contribution of a rubella susceptibility study of women of childbearing age in Kyrgyzstan, 2001.  

Science.gov (United States)

To contribute to the development of a rubella vaccination strategy, we conducted a study to determine age-specific susceptibility among women aged 15-39 years by testing for rubella-specific IgG antibodies. Of 964 women, 13% were found to be susceptible to rubella. Significantly higher susceptibility among women >25 years old was observed. Susceptibility data are important but are not sufficient to develop a vaccination strategy. After considering all available information, we suggested vaccination of women aged <35 years and selective vaccination of older women who were planning pregnancy. PMID:15227627

Malakmadze, Naile; Zimmerman, Laura A; Uzicanin, Amra; Shteinke, Luidmila; Caceres, Victor M; Kasymbekova, Kaliya; Sozina, Irina; Glasser, John W; Joldubaeva, Mira; Aidyralieva, Chinara; Icenogle, Joseph P; Strebel, Peter M; Reef, Susan E

2004-06-15

44

Threat assessment report. Regulatory aspects of the remediation and rehabilitation of nuclear legacy in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the Soviet period, the uranium mining operations in Central Asia served as one of the main uranium producers for the Soviet Union (SU) military complex. The regulatory standards for exposure and emissions control to all Soviet Republics were administered by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and were the same across the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the former Soviet Republics became independent, but also inherited the legacy in the form of wastes, including those from uranium ore processing and tailings and old Soviet regulatory documents, which are mostly inconsistent with the international standards and guidances and need substantial improvements. Many radioactive waste storage facilities in Central Asia, especially in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, are located in regions of seismic activity, in landslide- and mud flow-prone areas and areas subject to flooding and high ground water levels, and near the banks of the rivers that form the base of the large water basin of the Central Asian region. Many tailings are situated near towns, other populated areas and state borders, and they represent a long-term hazard to health and the environment. In regard to the legal and regulatory framework, it should be noted that none of the Central Asian countries have a National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management developed and approved by the Governments. Existing regulatory documents do not address the issues regarding safety assessments and safety cases or the implementation of long-term institutional control and monitoring of the abandoned dumps with radioactive wastes (RW) or future RW disposal sites, neither during operation nor after their closure. There is also a need to develop safety criteria (reference levels) and determine measures to be taken for existing exposure situations (past practices). In addition, there is a lack of safety requirements for different types of disposal facilities in accordance with the different categories of radioactive waste. Safety criteria and clearance levels are also not established. The NRPA, with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in the Central Asian countries to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and RW management in the Central Asian countries. Based on threat assessments that have been completed in each Central Asian country during the year 2010, this document focuses on the existing regulatory problems at the legacy sites and projects will address the regulatory documents which should be developed first. It is clear that in order to remove the threat connected with radioactive wastes, both that which has already been accumulated as a result of previous activity and that which is currently being generated in significant amounts and will be produced in the future, it is necessary to at least develop and implement: A National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management, including strategies for disposal of each category of the RW, allocation of responsibilities and financial assurance for these activities; Safety requirements on the design, siting, construction, operation, closure and establishment of the institutional control needed for disposal facilities in accordance with the approved national policy and strategy on radioactive waste management; and New classifications of radioactive waste according to the recently published international recommendations, including identification of corresponding categories; In addition, it is clear that in order to remove the threats connected with extensive territories contaminated by radionuclides, the rehabilitation of these areas is required and, accordingly, it is necessary to develop regulations on: Quantitative criteria defining reference levels for existing exposure situations, considering its justification, optimization and

Zhunussova, T.; Sneve, M.; Romanenko, O.; Solomatina, A.; Mirsaidov, I.

2011-06-15

45

First paleomagnetic results of mid-to late Holocene sediments from Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan): Implications for paleosecular variation in central Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present new paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data from mid and late Holocene sediments recovered in two gravity cores (C087 and C142a) from Lake Issyk-Kul (central Asia), for which independent radiocarbon-based age models are available. Our results indicate that sediments from core C087 are characterized by fine (pseudo single domain) magnetite grains and are reliable recorders of Holocene geomagnetic paleosecular variation (PSV) in central Asia, which is a region with poor data coverage. S...

Go?mez-paccard, M.; Larrasoaa, J. C.; Giralt, Santiago; Roberts, A. P.

2012-01-01

46

77 FR 68699 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...  

Science.gov (United States)

...on your attached document. Email: dfars@osd.mil. Include...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Amy Williams, Defense...Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan...Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan,...

2012-11-16

47

47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Japan, Kazakhstan, Lesotho, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Philippines, Kyrgyzstan, the...Japan, Kazakhstan, Lesotho, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, the Philippines,...

2010-10-01

48

47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation...Hungary, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Nigeria, Uzbekistan...Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Malta, Moldova, Norway, Uzbekistan,...

2010-10-01

49

ec 1418 - 2007 green list regulations  

...Kong (China), India, Indonesia, Israel, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Macau (China), Malawi, Mali, Malaysia, Moldova, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Seychelles...

50

GNF - Lake Issyk-Kul  

...m in the high mountain range of Tien-Shan (Heaven’s mountains) in the north of Kyrgyzstan. Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan, Living Lakes, Tien-Shan,...syrts, mats, flower-bloom, Brown Bear, Siberian Roe Deer, Lynx, Steppe Sheep, Marco-Polo-Sheep, Tien- Shan Squirrel, Pika, Snow Leopard, Markhor,...in the high mountain range of Tien-Shan (Heavenrsquo;s mountains) in the north of Kyrgyzstan. It is after Lake Titicaca in South America ... In these spruce forests of the north slopes live Brown Bear, Siberian Roe Deer and Lynx. In the high mountain steppes ...

51

Taxonomic study of Central Asian species of the genus Macropsis Lewis, 1836 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae). II: Redescriptions of poorly known species, new synonyms, and description of a new willow-dwelling species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Macropsis validiuscula Dubovsky, 1966, M. vicina (Horvath, 1897) = M. populicola Dubovsky, 1966 = M. albinata Dubovsky, 1966, syn. n. = M. albidula Dubovsky, 1966, syn. n., M. iliensis Mityaev, 1971 and M. elaeagnicola Dubovsky, 1966 are redescribed and illustrated based on material from Tien Shan Mts. (Kyrgyzstan) and Ferghana Valley (Uzbekistan), M. tienschanica Tishetshkin sp. n. from West Tien Shan Mts. (Kyrgyzstan) is described. M. iliensis Mityaev, 1971 is recorded from Kyrgyzstan for the first time. Data on host plants and male vibrational calling signals for all species considered are provided. PMID:24943603

Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

2014-01-01

52

Electricity in Central Asia: Market and investment opportunity report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.

NONE

2007-09-15

53

Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Origins and Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis examines the origins and implications of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) established in 2001 by China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It analyzes the organization from the Chinese, Russian, and Central A...

T. Craig

2003-01-01

54

Notes on some Lepidoptera Tortricidae from Central Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Faunistic data of some Lepidoptera Tortricidae collected in mountainous localities of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenija, are reported. The total number of species recorded is 69; some of them are of special biogeographical interest.

Pasquale Trematerra

2012-01-01

55

77 FR 30355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2012-D025'' on your attached document. Email: dfars@osd.mil. Include DFARS Case...submitted by mail). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Amy Williams, Defense Acquisition...Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, or...

2012-05-22

56

8 CFR 236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.  

Science.gov (United States)

...scheduled proceeding (including any appearance required by the Service or EOIR) in...which event the alien may be taken into physical custody and detained. If detained...Kazakhstan Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Malta Mauritius Moldova...

2010-01-01

57

8 CFR 1236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.  

Science.gov (United States)

...scheduled proceeding (including any appearance required by the Service or EOIR) in...which event the alien may be taken into physical custody and detained. If detained...Kazakhstan Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Malta Mauritius Moldova...

2009-01-01

58

Uranium Deposits Radioactive Hazards  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Assessment of Radioactive Hazard of Developed Jilskiy (Kyrgyzstan), Adrasman and Taboshar (Tajikistan) Uranium Deposits, Development and Typification of Actions on Rehabilitation of the Areas and Facilities for the Central Asia Region

59

Central Asia and the United States 2004-2005: Moving Beyond Counter-Terrorism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The independence in 1991 of Central Asian states here defined as the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan raised serious hope in the West that after decades of authoritarianism the countries of the re...

R. Azizian

2005-01-01

60

Commentary - The Early Days of Central Asian Military Integration: the Kyrgyz National Division of the Red Army in 1927-1928  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the sociology of a national division of the Red Army in the early days of its formation in Kyrgyzstan, as described in two documents about soldiers of Kyrgyz nationality in 1927 and 1928. At that time the Soviet Army was not seeking to substantially increase its numbers but rather recruiting in line with the intentions of the nationality policy, by integrating ethnic groups and regions that had been ignored by the high command. Kyrgyzstan is a striking exampl...

Isabelle Ohayon

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Water and energy problems of the central asia and the place of the republic of Tajikistan in solving these problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An important feature of Central Asia is the fact that two of its countries, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, are located in the zone of water runoff, and the rest of the republic are in the dispersement zone. For Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan - is to use water mainly for hydropower development, and for Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - for irrigated agriculture. In Tajikistan, formed 64 km3 of water runoff from the total volume of the Aral Sea 115km3. Taking into account the flowing river o...

Higmatillo, Goibnazarov

2010-01-01

62

Faculty Development and Quality Assurance in the EU ERAMIS Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the ERAMIS project is to create a
network of Masters degrees “Informatics as a Second
Competence” in nine beneficiary universities of Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan and Russia. This contribution presents how
faculty development is organized and quality assurance
implemented inside this project.

Agathe Merceron; Jean-Michel Adam; Sergio Luján-Mora; Marek Milosz; Arto Toppinen

2012-01-01

63

The Members of the Agency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.58) is Kyrgyzstan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2003. The list shows the dates on which the present 137 Member States became Members

2003-09-10

64

Planned Transitions from Education into Employment in a Managed Post-Communist Market Economy: A Case Study in Samarkand  

Science.gov (United States)

This article arises from case studies in 2006 of 20 businesses in Samarkand (Uzbekistan), surveys of their up to 30-year-old employees (r = 419), follow-up interviews with eight of these employees, and matched samples in Almaty (Kazakhstan) and Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan). The main difference between education in Samarkand (and Uzbekistan in general) and…

Roberts, Ken; Teshmatullo, Akhamadov; Firdavsiy, Kurbanov; Sarateppo, Boltaev; Tholen, Jochen

2007-01-01

65

Skills Needs Analysis. Conference on Continuing Vocational Training (Turin, Italy, November 9-10, 1998). Conclusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participants in the Conference on Continuing Vocational Training (CVT) represented 13 countries from Central and Eastern Europe, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Uzbekistan, European Union (EU) countries, European Commission, and European Training Foundation. The conference aimed to increase awareness among policymakers and social partners on CVT's…

European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

66

Seminar 'Current state of Tajikistan water resources-problems and perspectives of rational using' Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim and object of carrying out of seminar Current state of Tajikistan water resources-problems and perspectives of rational usingis the analyse of current state of Tajikistan water resources, to determine the strategy of effective measures of solving regional problems of water resources. Besides of this in this collection the thesis of experts from Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan are included

2003-05-13

67

76 FR 14725 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Open Competition...  

Science.gov (United States)

...I.7a.2. East Asia and Pacific...7a.5. Near East/North Africa (NEA...Bangladesh, India, Kazakhstan...Kyrgyzstan, India, Nepal, Pakistan...I.7c.1. East Asia and Pacific...2. Near East/North Africa...

2011-03-17

68

Mining in the former USSR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article describes minerals mining in countries of the former USSR (i.e. Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Moldova and the Baltic states). Minerals covered include coal, natural gas, oil, iron ore, non-ferrous metals and limestone.

Levine, R.M. (US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Division of International Minerals)

1993-07-01

69

Russia insists on a slice of the action  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses the oil production in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, the oil pipeline network in the Central Asian republics, and disagreements with Russia over exports to Europe. Construction of new pipelines, trade with China and Pakistan, and gas production are considered. (UK)

Bamber, D.

1995-03-01

70

Empirical Analysis of Kyrgyz Trade Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Being naturally located between two big markets in Europe and Asia, Kyrgyzstan together with other Central Asian countries does not have a direct access to sea ports. Landlockedness limits volumes of international trade and creates obstacles for economic growth. Results of statistical analysis show that Kyrgyz trade neither follows Heckscher-Ohlin model nor intra-industry trade model. Another finding is that open and liberal trade policy of Kyrgyzstan has a large positive effect on trade volumes, suggesting that bilateral trade will expand markedly if country continues liberalization of its trade policy with other countries. Quality of infrastructure and transportation costs play a crucial role for landlocked countries and a free trade agreement with other countries looks like a good opportunity to overcome natural barriers and diversify their trade.

Elvira KURMANALIEVA

2008-05-01

71

By Country - OECD  

...Islamic Republic of Iran Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestinian Administered Areas Panama Papua ...Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestinian Administered Areas Panama ...

72

By Country - OECD  

...Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestinian Administered Areas Panama Papua New Guinea ...Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestinian Administered Areas Panama ...

73

Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone and the Collective Security Treaty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In February 1997 Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan decided to establish Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone (CANWFZ). As a matter of fact, negotiations on establishing that zone started in 1998 when Kyrgyzstan proposed draft basic element of a treaty on CANWFZ. After almost two years rather successful work on drafting the treaty, since April 2000 no meetings take place between diplomats of the five Central Asian states. It is recognized by many experts that it is the Tashkent 1992 Collective Security Treaty (CST) which caused a deadlock. Usually CST is interpreted as allowing the deployment of Russian nuclear weapons on the territory of the CST member states, for example, of Kazakhstan. However, more detailed analysis shows, that CST cannot a serious obstacle for creating CANWFZ

1992-01-00

74

The European Union-Central Asia : in the light of the New Strategy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Central Asia is a region strategically located at the crossroads of the two continents: Asia and Europe. The region is represented by five states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) with different level of economic development and with the population amounting to over 60 million people. The region is rich in energy resources represented by oil, gas, coal and water resources. The thesis analyses, assesses and scrutinises one of the topical issues of the contempora...

Abdulhamidova, Nurangez

2009-01-01

75

Assessment of cattle genetic introgression into domestic yak populations using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hybridization between yak Poephagus grunniens and taurine Bos taurus or indicine B. indicus cattle has been widely practiced throughout the yak geographical range, and gene flow is expected to have occurred between these species. To assess the impact of cattle admixture on domestic yak, we examined 1076 domestic yak from 29 populations collected in China, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and Russia using mitochondrial DNA and 17 autosomal microsatellite loci. A cattle diag...

Qi, X. B.; Jianlin, H.; Wang, G.; Rege, J. E. O.; Hanotte, O.

2010-01-01

76

Towards Equality: Creation of the Disability Movement in Central Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focused on political approach of civic activism in the field of disability. The political approach refers to rights-oriented approach that challenges existing unequal power structure so that ultimate goal of equality is fulfilled. This approach was elaborated through a project investigation of a Finnish disabled people’s organisation in Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. In order to understand this organisational reality, its background...

Katsui, Hisayo

2005-01-01

77

Atmospheric noble gases in lake sediment pore water as proxies for environmental change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lake sediment pore water has been proposed as a noble gas archive for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, but appropriate experimental techniques have not been available until recently. Here we present noble gas concentrations measured in the sediment pore water of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) which demonstrate for the first time the value of the sediment pore water archive for paleoclimate reconstruction. The noble gas profiles in the sediment indicate that the salinity of the lake water durin...

Brennwald, Matthias S.; Peeters, Frank; Imboden, Dieter M.; Giralt, Santiago; Hofer, Markus; Livingstone, David M.; Klump, Stephan; Strassmann, Kuno; Kipfer, Rolf

2004-01-01

78

Using transient conservative and environmental tracers to study water exchange in Lake Issyk-Kul  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mixing and transport processes are of major importance for the ecology of lakes [1]. In particular, deep-water renewal determines to a large extent the distribution of nutrients and dissolved oxygen in deep lakes such as Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). The characterization and quantification of deep-water exchange is therefore essential for the understanding of the functioning of such lake ecosystems. Rates of vertical water exchange can be estimated from concentrations of transient tracers, whe...

Kipfer, Rolf; Peeters, Frank

2002-01-01

79

1,000-year environmental history of Lake Issyk-Kul  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lake Issyk-Kul constitutes one of the most important economic resources in the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, with more than 100 recreational centers along its shore. Some 370,000 holidaymakers visit the lake annually, and this number is expected to increase in the near future given the growing interest in natural environments (Romanovsky, 1990; Savvaitova and Petr, 1992). Thus, a fuller understanding of the past and present evolution of this ecosystem is essential for promoting and sustaining this ...

Giralt, Santiago; Ramon, Julia; Klerkx, Jean; Riera, Santiago; Leroy, Suzanne; Buchaca, Teresa; Catalan, Jordi; Batist, Marc; Beck, Christian; Brennwald, Matthias; Kipfer, Rolf; Peeters, Frank

2004-01-01

80

Natural resource institutions in transformation: the tragedy and glory of the private  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present article focuses on continuity and change in natural resource institutions in post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan. Two main trends have characterised the management of water, agricultural land and pastures since the country became independent in 1991. First, while natural resources were collective and state-owned during the Soviet period, they are now being gradually pri- vatised and passed into individual or group ownership. Second, by contrast with central administration under the Soviet regi...

Bichsel, C.; Fokou, G.; Ibraimova, A.; Kasymov, U.; Steimann, B.; Thieme, S.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Proceedings of the International Conference and Young Researchers' Forum: 'Natural resource use in Central Asia: institutional challenges and the contribution of capacity building'. Held in Giessen, 1st October 2013  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[LIST OF CONTENT] SH. KENJABAEV, I. FORKUTSA, M. BACH, H.G. FREDE: Performance evaluation of the BUDGET model in simulating cotton and wheat yield and soil moisture in Fergana valley ... 1 / KANAYIM TESHEBAEVA, HENRIETTE SUDHAUS, H.-U. WETZEL, SIGRID ROESSNER, HELMUT ECHTLER AND ALEXANDER ZUBOVICH: Radar remote sensing for surveying and monitoring of earthquakes and mass movements in Southern Kyrgyzstan ... 15 / DAVRON ABSALYAMOV: Efficiency of wheat and cotton producing farms in Uzbekistan: ...

Ahmed, Mirza Nomman; Pawlowski, Ira

2013-01-01

82

Comparative quantitative and qualitative content analyses of coverage of Hizb ut-Tahrir in German, British and Kyrgyz quality newspapers in 2002-2007  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation studies coverage of Hizb ut-Tahrir al Islami, the “Party of Islamic Liberation”, in German, British and Kyrgyz quality newspapers between 2002 and 2007. This Islamist organization is trans-national in its scope of influence and radical in its core ideology. In 2003 HT was banned in Germany for its anti-Semitic slogans and in Kyrgyzstan for instigating inter-ethnic conflicts. However, as of today HT operates legally and maintains its international headquarters in Gre...

Volf, Irina

2011-01-01

83

Researching the future of pastoralism in central Asia's mountains: examining development orthodoxies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper synthesizes research findings on contemporary mountain pastoralism in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, based on a longer review characterizing mountain agropastoralism in Central Asia. We focus here on the principal issues that have been emphasized over the past two decades in policy, programs, and projects regarding pastoralism in Central Asia's mountains. We conclude that this emphasis has largely been driven by two unproven orthodoxies about The extent and causes of pasture degra...

Kerven, Carol; Steimann, Bernd; Dear, Chad; Ashley, Laurie

2012-01-01

84

Drivers of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries: evidence from a FAVAR analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the likely sources of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) over the past decade (1999-2008). The analysis is based on country VAR models augmented by a regional common factor structure (FAVAR model). The models include nominal exchange rates, the common factor of exchange rates in the CIS countries, and global drivers such as gold, oil and share prices. Global, regional and idiosyncratic shocks are i...

Dreger, Christian; Fidrmuc, Jarko

2009-01-01

85

Macao (China):- OECD reveals evolving social trends in Asia-Pacific - OECD  

... High rates of diabetes are not confined to high-income OECD countries. In 2006 the average prevalence of diabetes for 14 Asian countries ... Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong-China had the highest cases of diabetes, with 8% or more of the population aged 20-79, ...Indonesia Iraq Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's ...

86

Mongolia:- OECD reveals evolving social trends in Asia-Pacific - OECD  

... High rates of diabetes are not confined to high-income OECD countries. In 2006 the average prevalence of diabetes for 14 Asian countries ... Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong-China had the highest cases of diabetes, with 8% or more of the population aged 20-79, ...Indonesia Iraq Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's ...

87

Hong Kong, China:- OECD reveals evolving social trends in Asia-Pacific - OECD  

... High rates of diabetes are not confined to high-income OECD countries. In 2006 the average prevalence of diabetes for 14 Asian countries ... Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong-China had the highest cases of diabetes, with 8% or more of the population aged 20-79, ...Indonesia Iraq Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's ...

88

Chinese Taipei:- OECD reveals evolving social trends in Asia-Pacific - OECD  

... High rates of diabetes are not confined to high-income OECD countries. In 2006 the average prevalence of diabetes for 14 Asian countries ... Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong-China had the highest cases of diabetes, with 8% or more of the population aged 20-79, ...Indonesia Iraq Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's ...

89

Brunei Darussalam:- OECD reveals evolving social trends in Asia-Pacific - OECD  

... High rates of diabetes are not confined to high-income OECD countries. In 2006 the average prevalence of diabetes for 14 Asian countries ... Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong-China had the highest cases of diabetes, with 8% or more of the population aged 20-79, ...Indonesia Iraq Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's ...

90

Book review: Restless valley: revolution, murder and intrigue in the heart of Central Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Restless Valley: Revolution, Murder and Intrigue in the Heart of Central Asia." Philip Shishkin. Yale University Press. May 2013. --- Two revolutions, a massacre of unarmed civilians, a civil war, a drug-smuggling highway, brazen corruption schemes, contract hits, and larger-than-life characters who may be villains…or heroes…or possibly both. In Restless Valley, Philip Shishkin focuses on the powerful and the powerless in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. This is a rare breed of book: informati...

Garland, Lewis

2013-01-01

91

Central Asia: hotspot in the worldwide HIV epidemic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The HIV epidemic in central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) has accelerated since 2000. This expansion in the epidemic is largely attributable to escalating injection drug use, reflecting central Asia's geographic position along major drug trafficking routes. Although up to 75% of cumulative HIV cases have been among injection drug users (IDUs) so far, HIV infections are increasing in other population groups, including female sex workers and their clien...

Thorne, C.; Ferencic, N.; Malyuta, R.; Mimica, J.; Niemiec, T.

2010-01-01

92

Drivers of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries: Evidence from a FAVAR analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the likely sources of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) over the last dec-ade (1999-2010). Evidence is based on country VARs augmented by a regional com-mon factor structure (FAVAR model). The models include nominal exchange rates, the common factor of exchange rates in the CIS countries, and international drivers such as global trade, share prices, and oil price. Global, regional and idiosyncrati...

Dreger, Christian; Fidrmuc, Jarko

2010-01-01

93

The impact of the global financial crisis on public expenditures on education and health in the economies of the former Soviet Union  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides an overview of public expenditures on education and healthcare in Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine and some other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the global financial crisis. Before the crisis, the governments of these countries were substantially increasing spending on education and health. The crisis adversely affected the FSU countries and worsened their fiscal situation. The analysis indicates that during the crisis, despite...

Chubrik, Alexander; Dabrowski, Marek; Mogilevsky, Roman; Sinitsina, Irina

2011-01-01

94

Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flo...

Doolotkeldieva, T. D.

2010-01-01

95

Communication received from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation to the Agency concerning a statement of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Agency has received a communication dated 30 August 2005 from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation, attaching a statement by the heads of State of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan adopted at the Moscow session of the Collective Security Council of the Collective Security Treaty Organization on 23 June 2005. The communication from the Russian Federation and, as requested therein, its attachment, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

2005-08-30

96

The politico-institutional foundation of economic transition in Central Asia: Lessons from China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Central Asia is increasingly the focus of intense international attention because of its geopolitical and economic importance as well as its unsettled transition processes. Central Asian countries, i.e., Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, faced enormous challenges when the Soviet Union disintegrated. Overall, they have made rudimentary progress in opening up to the international community, creating market institutions, and building more inclusive, democratic pol...

Ahrens, Joachim

2009-01-01

97

Assessing development strategies to achieve the MDGs in Asia: Macroeconomic strategies of MDG achievement in the Kyrgyz Republic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper aims at analyzing macroeconomic and financial strategies, which are to ensure achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the Kyrgyz Republic. The paper is based on results of simulations generated through the application of standard MAMS, a computable general equilibrium model adjusted to the country situation and calibrated with data of Kyrgyzstan. MAMS-model-based simulation results indicate that a continuation of the current policies under the baseline scenario wou...

Mogilevsky, Roman; Omorova, Anarkul

2011-01-01

98

Community-Based Associations for Sustainable Tourism Development : Fostering Sustainable Development in Developing Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Community-Based Tourism (CBT) is a bottom-up approach to sustainable developmentused in developing countries to enhance the conservation of natural resources, preservetraditional culture, and generate income at the local level. The study aims to understandthe effectiveness of community associations for CBT development in developingcountries. Ghana is selected as the primary case of this study. Published data on CBTassociations in Namibia, Uganda, Kyrgyzstan and Costa Rica are used as supporti...

Yamashita, Shihomi

2011-01-01

99

A survey of East Palaearctic Hersiliola Thorell, 1870 (Araneae, Hersiliidae), with a description of three new genera  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three new genera and eight new species of Hersiliidae are described from the East Palaearctic (Afganistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan). The genus Hersiliola Thorell, 1870 (Araneae: Hersiliidae) is revised, and four new species are described. The genus includes nine species: H. afghanica Roewer, 1960 (Afghanistan); H. esyunini sp. n. (Uzbekistan); H. foordi sp. n. (Iran); H. lindbergi sp. n. (Afghanistan); H. macullulata (Dufour, 1831) (typ...

Yuri Marusik; Victor Fet

2009-01-01

100

The European Union-Central Asia: in the light of the New Strategy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Central Asia is a region strategically located at the crossroads of the two continents: Asia and Europe. The region is represented by five states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) with different level of economic development and with the population amounting to over 60 million people. The region is rich in energy resources represented by oil, gas, coal and water resources. The thesis analyses, assesses and scrutinises one of the topical issues of the contempora...

Abdulhamidova, Nurangez

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Household survey data for research on well-being and behavior in Central Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper summarizes the micro-level survey evidence from Central Asia generated and analyzed between 1991 and 2012. We provide an exhaustive overview over all accessible individual and household-level surveys undertaken in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - and of all English-language academic papers published using these datasets. We argue that Central Asia is a fascinating region for the study of comparative economics given its dual experience of transition ...

Bru?ck, Tilman; Esenaliev, Damir; Kroeger, Antje; Kudebayeva, Alma; Mirkasimov, Bakhrom; Steiner, Susan

2012-01-01

102

Welfare in transition: trends in poverty and well-being in central Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the impact of the transition on living standards and welfare in the five Republics of former Soviet Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, along with the Republic of Azerbaijan. A broad definition of welfare is taken, including both economic measures and capability-based indicators, reflecting the health and education of the population. The picture that emerges is of a regional population facing severe economic, physical and psycho-s...

Falkingham, Jane

1999-01-01

103

Household survey data for research on well-being and behavior in Central Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper summarizes the micro - level survey evidence from Central Asia generated and analyzed between 1991 and 2012. We provide an exhaustive overview over all accessible individual and household - level surveys undertaken in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - and of all English - language academic papers published using these datasets. We argue that Central Asia is a fascinating region for the study of comparative economics given its dual experience of trans...

Bru?ck, Tilman; Esenaliev, Damir; Kroeger, Antje; Kudebayeva, Alma; Mirkasimov, Bakhrom; Steiner, Susan

2012-01-01

104

Problem of Political Stability in Central Asian States: Challenges and Fundamentals of Stabilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Contemporary Central Asia (CA / Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan) is an internationally important region in economic and security sense. Its biggest problem is the lack of long-term political stability, which became the object of the thesis. Accordingly, the purpose of the thesis was to determine the basic reasons of instability in CA states, to disclose their detailed essence and offer an effective conception to maintain long-term stability in them. Stability w...

Volovoj, Vadim

2012-01-01

105

The European Union-Central Asia : in the light of the New Strategy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Central Asia is a region strategically located on the crossroads of the two continents. The region is represented by five states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) with different level of economic development and with the population amounting to over 60 million people. The region is rich in energy resources, represented by oil, gas, coal and hydropower resources. The thesis analyses, assesses and scrutinises one of the topical issues of the contemporary internat...

Abdulhamidova, Nurangez

2009-01-01

106

Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among turkish speaking countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 Nuclear Power Plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non proliferation of nuclear weapons, great affords were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides the co operations with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. The joint activities carried out are given as follows: '1st Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Applications' organized in Turkey on 23-27.10. 2000 by TAEK with co organizers from the related organizations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and sponsored by IAEA and OECD/NEA, '2nd Eurasia Conference' organized at Almaty on 16-19.09.2002 by Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan with the related organizations of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan as co organizers, NATO Workshop on Environmental Protection Against Radioactive Pollution by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan at Almaty on 16-19.09.2002, joint 'Eurasia Nuclear Bulletin' covering activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy in these countries published in August 2002. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (Cabot). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

2002-10-01

107

Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water 226Ra concentration in springs was measured in regions with high indoor radon: Ural, North Caucasus (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Piestany (Slovakia), and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). This paper presents the results for 226Ra concentration above 0.03 Bq l-1. Radium in water could indicate indoor radon problem in the region and water investigation is useful at the initial stage of radon survey. Even low 226Ra concentration in water (0.1-0.6 Bq l-1) caused high 226Ra activity in travertine (up to 1500 Bq kg-1), which resulted in indoor radon concentration above 2000 Bq m-3 (Niska Banja).

2008-06-22

108

HOLY KYRGZS’S CALPACK / KUTSAL KIRGIZ KALPA?I  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Calpack, in today’s Kyrgyzstan, is not only defined as a head craftwore in towns which is remembered barely during national and religiousbairams but also it emerged as a concrete sample of Kyrgyz nationalphilosophy, which has been kept alive from mythological era to epic era andfrom epic era to present day by the colors it involved and the motifs itcarried. Irregardless of the social statues, calpacks can be observed on nearlyall Kyrgyz men’s heads and even this particular feature of calp...

2008-01-01

109

Perapion connexum (Schilsky, 1902 (Coleoptera, Apionidae in Central Europe, a case of plant expansion chase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Perapion connexum (Schilsky is recorded for the first time from Hungary and Kyrgyzstan, and new distribution data from Ukraine and Russia are provided. Preliminary placements of this weevil in faunal checklists for Poland and Slovakia are here documented with detailed data. Its occurrence in Austria based on older evidence, is discussed. The neophytic and invasive in Central Europe sorrel Rumex confertus Willd. is confirmed to be its unique host plant in Poland. Morphology of the newcoming weevil is described and illustrated, and the key to all Central European species of Perapion is presented.

Marek Wanat

2012-03-01

110

By Date - OECD  

... 23-February-2006 English OECD to work on clarifying VAT/GST application in cross-border trade The OECD is launching a new project aimed at providing guidance for governments on applying Value Added Taxes, or VAT - also called Goods and Services Tax, or GST, in some ...Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar ...

111

The closed Lake Issyk-Kul as an indicator of global warming in Tien-Shan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lake Issyk-Kul is the seventh deepest lake in the world situated inCentral Asiain theTien-ShanMountainsat the elevation of 1607 m above sea level. This area belongs toKyrgyzstan. From 1927 to 1997 the water level decreased by 3.4 m, and increased by 0.93 m from 1997 to 2011. The article analyzes the impact of the global warming on the Lake Issyk-Kul thermal regime and the components of its water balance: river discharge, precipitation, evaporation and lake level variations. It shows that the ...

Romanovsky, Vladimir V.; Saadat Tashbaeva; Jean-François Crétaux; Stephane Calmant; Vanessa Drolon

2013-01-01

112

By Date - OECD  

... 13-November-2012 English Health: men faring worse than women in hospitalisations for diabetes New OECD data show that men are more likely to be ...admitted to hospital as a result of poor management of diabetes than women, even when there are no significant differences in the number ...of men and women living with diabetes. 9-November-2012 English Balance of economic power will shift dramatically over the next 50 years, says ...Indonesia Iraq Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's ...

113

EurActiv | European Union Information Website (EU and Europe)  

...People's Party 07 Mar - It's not only about Libya Manuel Manrique, Junior researcher, FRIDE 04 Mar - Arab Spring reveals EU weakness Edward McMillan-Scott, ...Democratic values and cosy relationships in North Africa Anna Khakee, Associate researcher, FRIDE 15 Feb - Fourth time for Lukashenko: Lessons to learn ...Studies (EKEM) 22 Jul - Belarus: An end to friendship Balazs Jarabik, Associate Fellow , FRIDE 14 Jun - Kyrgyzstan: En route to civil war? ...Jos Boonstra, Senior researcher, FRIDE 03 May - Polarising Politics in Ukraine David Kramer , Senior Transatlantic Fellow , German Marshall Fund ...

114

Libya:- Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Libya - OECD  

...Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Libya Aid for Trade,aid-for-trade,Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009,aid-for-tarde,Libya aid,development aid Libya ... Libya:- Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Libya - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics ...Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Libya › Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Libya Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Libya ...Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives ...

115

Slope stability monitoring from microseismic field using polarization methodology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerical simulation of seismoacoustic emission (SAE associated with fracturing in zones of shear stress concentration shows that SAE signals are polarized along the stress direction. The proposed polarization methodology for monitoring of slope stability makes use of three-component recording of the microseismic field on a slope in order to pick the signals of slope processes by filtering and polarization analysis. Slope activity is indicated by rather strong roughly horizontal polarization of the respective portion of the field in the direction of slope dip. The methodology was tested in microseismic observations on a landslide slope in the Northern Tien-Shan (Kyrgyzstan.

Yu. I. Kolesnikov

2003-01-01

116

Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water (226)Ra concentration in springs was measured in regions with high indoor radon: Ural, North Caucasus (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Piestany (Slovakia), and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). This paper presents the results for (226)Ra concentration above 0.03 Bq l(-1). Radium in water could indicate indoor radon problem in the region and water investigation is useful at the initial stage of radon survey. Even low (226)Ra concentration in water (0.1-0.6 Bq l(-1)) caused high (226)Ra activity in travertine (up to 1500 Bq kg(-1)), which resulted in indoor radon concentration above 2000 Bq m(-3) (Niska Banja). PMID:19853463

Onishchenko, Aleksandra; Zhukovsky, Michael; Veselinovic, Nenad; Zunic, Zora S

2010-01-01

117

Turkmenistan:- Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Turkmenistan - OECD  

...Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Turkmenistan Aid for Trade,aid-for-trade,Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009,aid-for-tarde,Turkmenistan aid,development aid Turkmenistan ... Turkmenistan:- Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Turkmenistan - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics ...Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Turkmenistan › Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Turkmenistan Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Turkmenistan ...Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania ...

118

Robust Automated Image Co-Registration of Optical Multi-Sensor Time Series Data: Database Generation for Multi-Temporal Landslide Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reliable multi-temporal landslide detection over longer periods of time requires multi-sensor time series data characterized by high internal geometric stability, as well as high relative and absolute accuracy. For this purpose, a new methodology for fully automated co-registration has been developed allowing efficient and robust spatial alignment of standard orthorectified data products originating from a multitude of optical satellite remote sensing data of varying spatial resolution. Correlation-based co-registration uses world-wide available terrain corrected Landsat Level 1T time series data as the spatial reference, ensuring global applicability. The developed approach has been applied to a multi-sensor time series of 592 remote sensing datasets covering an approximately 12,000 km2 area in Southern Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia strongly affected by landslides. The database contains images acquired during the last 26 years by Landsat (ETM, ASTER, SPOT and RapidEye sensors. Analysis of the spatial shifts obtained from co-registration has revealed sensor-specific alignments ranging between 5 m and more than 400 m. Overall accuracy assessment of these alignments has resulted in a high relative image-to-image accuracy of 17 m (RMSE and a high absolute accuracy of 23 m (RMSE for the whole co-registered database, making it suitable for multi-temporal landslide detection at a regional scale in Southern Kyrgyzstan.

Robert Behling

2014-03-01

119

A survey of East Palaearctic Hersiliola Thorell, 1870 (Araneae, Hersiliidae, with a description of three new genera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three new genera and eight new species of Hersiliidae are described from the East Palaearctic (Afganistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The genus Hersiliola Thorell, 1870 (Araneae: Hersiliidae is revised, and four new species are described. The genus includes nine species: H. afghanica Roewer, 1960 (Afghanistan; H. esyunini sp. n. (Uzbekistan; H. foordi sp. n. (Iran; H. lindbergi sp. n. (Afghanistan; H. macullulata (Dufour, 1831 (type species; from Spain and Algeria to Israel and Yemen; H. simoni (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872 (from Spain and Morocco to Israel; H. sternbergsi sp. n. (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; H. versicolor (Blackwall, 1865 (Cape Verde; and H. xinjiangenis (Liang & Wang, 1989 (Xinjiang, China. A new genus Duninia gen. n. is described, with two new species, Duninia baehrae sp. n. (type species; Turkmenistan and D. rheimsae sp. n. (Iran. A new genus Deltshevia gen. n. is described, with two new species, Deltshevia danovi sp. n. (type species; Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and D. gromovi sp. n. (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan. The widely ranging Central Asian Hersiliola pallida Kroneberg, 1875 (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan is transferred to a new monotypic genus, Ovtsharenkoia gen. n.

Victor Fet

2009-07-01

120

Problem of risk modeling: influence of uranium storage on environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radiological safety on the territory of Kyrgyz republic is caused by natural factors and by activity of the enterprises on extraction and processing of the raw material which contained natural radionuclides. The territory of republic has specific climatic condition with the highest degree of natural hazards. From general area 199 900 km of republic only 20% is concerned to be zone of comfortable residing. After the termination of uranium extraction in the republic there are formed 49 storages and more than 80 piles. After collapse of the USSR the works on maintenance of safety and recultivation of storages practically were not carried out, that significantly increased the risk of people disease who live in the given territories. Increase of level of underground waters, high waters, landslides, high seismicity - are resulted the storage destruction, that present threat on ecology not only of Kyrgyzstan, but also on ecology of Central Asia. The resolution of radiological problems of Kyrgyzstan may be only with the complex approach of all neighboring countries and with attraction of foreign experts from donor countries

2003-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water {sup 226}Ra concentration in springs was measured in regions with high indoor radon: Ural, North Caucasus (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Piestany (Slovakia), and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). This paper presents the results for {sup 226}Ra concentration above 0.03 Bq l{sup -1}. Radium in water could indicate indoor radon problem in the region and water investigation is useful at the initial stage of radon survey. Even low {sup 226}Ra concentration in water (0.1-0.6 Bq l{sup -1}) caused high {sup 226}Ra activity in travertine (up to 1500 Bq kg{sup -1}), which resulted in indoor radon concentration above 2000 Bq m{sup -3} (Niska Banja)

Onishchenko, Aleksandra [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, S. Kovalevskoy St., 20A, 620219, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: onischenko@ecko.uran.ru; Zhukovsky, Michael [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, S. Kovalevskoy St., 20A, 620219, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Veselinovic, Nenad; Zunic, Zora S. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, ECE LAB, Mike Alasa St., 12-14, 11000, Belgrade (Serbia)

2010-04-15

122

Tax policy analysis - OECD  

...income tax,income,social security, consumption, rates, corporate, wages, tables, tax, revenue, tax database, vat, gst, trends, CIT, PIT, OECD data, OECD Statistics, Thresholds, marginal, average, wedges, country information, member countries, downloads, data, guidelines,... The OECD has therefore calculated a set of ldquo;compulsory payment indicatorsrdquo; which are designed to show the combined impact of taxes and NTCPs net of benefits. The list of indicators which are analogous to the corresponding tax indicators published in the OECD Taxing Wages publication ...Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar ...

123

Publishing - OECD  

...Guidelines for Micro Statistics on Household Wealth - page 11 OECD International Direct Investment Statistics 2013 - all part II country tables and page 232 OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Malaysia 2013 - page 12 OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Tanzania 2013 - page 4 OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators Volume 2012/2 ...79, Part III, Detailed OECD Coal Data Consumption Tax Trends 2008 - VAT/GST and Excise Rates, Trends and Administration Issues: pages 79 Creditor Reporting System on Aid Activities 2008: Page 14 DAC Guidelines and Reference Series - Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth - The Economics and ...Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar ...

124

Luxembourg:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD  

...tax,social security, consumption, rates, corporate, tables, vat, gst, CIT, PIT, OECD data, OECD Statistics, average, country information, member countries, guidelines, methodology, indicators, publications, working party 2, OECD countries Luxembourg:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Luxembourg › Revenue Statistics 2013 Revenue Statistics ...Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue ...

125

New Zealand:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD  

...tax,social security, consumption, rates, corporate, tables, vat, gst, CIT, PIT, OECD data, OECD Statistics, average, country information, member countries, guidelines, methodology, indicators, publications, working party 2, OECD countries New Zealand:- Revenue Statistics 2013 - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › New Zealand › Revenue Statistics 2013 ...Ireland Islamic Republic of Iran Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue ...

126

Cenozoic deformation and exhumation history of the Central Kyrgyz Tien Shan  

Science.gov (United States)

low-temperature thermochronological data from 80 samples in eastern Kyrgyzstan are combined with previously published data from 61 samples to constrain exhumation in a number of mountain ranges in the Central Kyrgyz Tien Shan. All sampled ranges are found to have a broadly consistent Cenozoic exhumation history, characterized by initially low cooling rates (late Miocene. The order of range construction is interpreted to reflect variations in the susceptibility of inherited structures to reactivation. Reactivated structures are also shown to have significance along strike variations in fault vergence and displacement, which have influenced the development and growth of individual mountain ranges. Moreover, the timing of deformation allows the former extent of many intermontane basins that have since been partitioned to be inferred; this can be linked to the highly time-transgressive onset of late Cenozoic coarse clastic sedimentation.

Macaulay, Euan A.; Sobel, Edward R.; Mikolaichuk, Alexander; Kohn, Barry; Stuart, Finlay M.

2014-02-01

127

Health conditions among workers who participated in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

People who took part in the Chernobyl accident cleanup have been registered upon their return to Kyrgyzstan since 1991, and their children since 1992. Later, citizens affected by the Semipalatinsk and Chelyabinsk contamination incidents were included for registration and health care purposes. The effects of the nuclear waste depositories in the Mailuu-Suu region were examined with the assistance of the Kansas University Medical Center (United States of America). All these investigations of affected people indicated apparent increases in a number of symptoms and illnesses when compared to the rest of the population. Samples sizes ranged from several hundred to several thousand. Above-normal radiation levels and/or the stress and fear of living in contaminated areas can lead to significant increases in nervous disorders, cardiovascular diseases and other problems. The most significant increase was in the suicide rate. 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

1996-01-01

128

Bangladesh:- OECD Secretary-General statement on events in Bangladesh - OECD  

... ldquo;OECD supports the Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh. Abandoning production in the country can deprive it of an essential pathway out of poverty and is not a solution. The responsible course is to work with stakeholders to guarantee the safety of workers, improve their working conditions and ensure respect for human rightsrdquo;, OECD Secretary-General Gurría said. Secretary-General Gurría has written to ...Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao (China) Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestinian Administered Areas Panama ...

129

Vulnerability to Poverty in select Central Asian Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the extant literature either income or consumption expenditures as measured over short periods of time have been regarded as a proxy for the material well-being of households. However, economists have long recognized that a household's sense of well-being depends not just on its average income or expenditures, but also on the risks it faces and its ability to deal with these risks. Hence vulnerability is a more satisfactory measure of welfare. In this study we used the concept of vulnerability as expected poverty to assess the household vulnerability to poverty in four Central Asian countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Except for Tajikistan, headcount poverty and vulnerability rates are significantly different. We also find that vulnerability differs significantly across households by location and selected household characteristics. In this paper we use a simple empirical measurement that allows estimating the headcount vulnerability to poverty using cross-section data. This measurement is based on the strong assumption that households have the same conditional distribution of consumption in a stationary environment. While this approach cannot capture all dimensions of vulnerability, it at least begins to raise the policy issue that vulnerability should be considered alongside poverty.

Raghbendra Jha

2009-06-01

130

10 points about buying C.I.S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On October 16, 1992, the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) settled the antidumping case against the CIS republics by imposing price and volume quotas on CIS uranium imported into the United States. Bound by a suspension agreement, each of the six uranium-producing CIS republics is responsible for restricting the flow of imports to the US-either directly or indirectly. (As the NUKEM Market Report went to press, the Ukraine government notified the DOC of its intent not to terminate the suspension agreement.) This action is to prevent undercutting price levels in the US domestic uranium markets. What follows are ten points about everything you should know about importing uranium from the uranium-producing CIS republics- Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Newcomers to the CIS scene should follow this simple roadmap and be aware of the issues they face as importers in terms of Commerce/Customs requirements and documentation and where to get them, when to buy the material and how to transport it, how to deal effectively with CIS exporters, and how to avoid unnecessary complications when buying CIS

1993-04-01

131

The value of satellite-derived snow cover images for calibrating a hydrological model in snow-dominated catchments in Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

satellite-derived snow cover data for hydrologic model calibration can be a good way to improve model internal consistency. This study applied a multiobjective genetic algorithm to characterize the trade-off curve between model performance in terms of discharge and snow cover area (SCA). Using a Monte Carlo-based approach, we further investigated the additional information content of an increasing number of SCA scenes used in the calibration period. The study was performed in six snowmelt-dominated headwater catchments of the Karadarya Basin in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, using the hydrological model WASA and snow cover data from four melt seasons retrieved from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer). We generally found only small trade-offs between good simulations with respect to discharge and SCA, but good model performance with respect to discharge did not exclude low performance in terms of SCA. On average, the snow cover error in the validation period could be reduced by very few images in the calibration period. Increasing the number of images resulted in only small further improvements. However, using only a small number of images involves the risk that these particular images cause the selection of parameter sets which are not representative for the catchment. It is therefore advisable to use a larger number of images. In this study, it was necessary to include at least 10-16 images.

Duethmann, Doris; Peters, Juliane; Blume, Theresa; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Güntner, Andreas

2014-03-01

132

Combined wind, hydropower and photovoltaic systems for generation of electric power and control of water resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the present day energy consumption and potentialities of utilization of wind- and hydropower resources in some Central and Southern Asian Republics, in particular, in the Republic of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan are presented. The maximum consumption of electric power is observed in winter time when hydropower is the minimum, but wind power is the maximum. At the same time water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those which use water for generation of electric power. It is proposed that the utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy will facilitate the proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia. In the future in Tajikistan, wind power systems with a capacity of 30-100 MW and more will be installed, providing power balance of the country in winter; hence saving water in reservoirs, especially in drought years. This will provide the integration of electricity generated by wind, hydroelectric power and photovoltaic system in the unified energy system of the country. (author)

2010-12-02

133

The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

PASSELL, HOWARD D.; BARBER, DAVID S.; BETSILL, J. DAVID; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.; MOHAGHEGHI, AMIR H.; SHANKS, SONOYA T.; YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV,BAJGABYL; VALENTINA,ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN,VLADIMIR; POZNIAK,VICTOR

2002-04-02

134

Exposure Estimation from Multi-Resolution Optical Satellite Imagery for Seismic Risk Assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Given high urbanization rates and increasing spatio-temporal variability in many present-day cities, exposure information is often out-of-date, highly aggregated or spatially fragmented, increasing the uncertainties associated with seismic risk assessments. This work therefore aims at using space-based technologies to estimate, complement and extend exposure data at multiple scales, over large areas and at a comparatively low cost for the case of the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. At a neighborhood scale, an analysis of urban structures using medium-resolution optical satellite images is performed. Applying image classification and change-detection analysis to a time-series of Landsat images, the urban environment can be delineated into areas of relatively homogeneous urban structure types, which can provide a first estimate of an exposed building stock (e.g., approximate age of structures, composition and distribution of predominant building types. At a building-by-building scale, a more detailed analysis of the exposed building stock is carried out using a high-resolution Quickbird image. Furthermore, the multi-resolution datasets are combined with census data to disaggregate population statistics. The tools used within this study are being developed on a free- and open-source basis and aim at being transparent, usable and transferable.

Jochen Zschau

2012-05-01

135

New Strains of Streptomyces as Producers of Biofungicides and Biological Stimulators for Protection of the Shoots and Seedlings of Tiang-Shang Spruce Fir (Picea Schrenkiana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During this work we detected 5 species of pathogenic fungi that damage seedlings and saplings of the Tiang-Shang spruce fir, which cause a perceptible damage to the coniferous nurseries of Northern Kyrgyzstan and require activities to protect the woods. The biological activity of Streptomyces metabolites for raising the resistance of seedlings to phytopathogenic fungi was tested in laboratory and field conditions during three seasons. In order to evaluate the biological activity of Streptomyces preparations as biological agents, we have soaked the seeds in the suspension of Streptomyces metabolites with the concentrations of 50, 100, 500 mg per liter. In other variant, the seeds were at first processed in the culture of pathogenic fungi as infectious drowning of sprouts (Fusarium, Alternaria, crown rot of sprouts (Sclerotinia graminearum Elen. and grey dew of needles (Hypodermella sulsigena Tub., then they were treated in the suspension of Streptomyces. Also we have used a spraying treatment with the suspension of Streptomyces metabolites of the one-year-old seedlings of Tiang-Shang spruce fir already staggered and dying from infectious drowning. The best results against the Alternaria culture were demonstrated by the use of preparation S. griseogromogenes 2?-8 at the concentration of 500 mgs per liter, which provided the safety of sprouts to 80.2%. Preparations of S. rubrogriseus ??2-5, S. wistariopsis ??3-13 and S. griseogromogenes 2?-8 were effective in protection of sprouts from Fusarium sp. cultures. They provided safety of sprouts to 80% on average.

T. D. Doolotkeldieva

2008-10-01

136

Assessment of contamination of the Issyk-Kul' valley natural waters with uranium mine wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lake Issyk-Kul' of the central Tyan-Shan is characterized by increased natural uranium content. Uranium-carbon deposit situated on the southern bank of the Lake can be the reason of chemical and radioactive contamination of this unique basin by exploitation wastes. In order to estimate possible danger, a project 'Assessment and prognosis of environmental changes in Lake Issyk-Kul' (Kyrgyzstan)' was developed and supported by the Program of the European Commission 'Copernicus-2' (2001-2003). According to this project the water assays were sampled from different depths near the banks of the Lake and from low-debit sources draining the dumping grounds of the uranium-carbon deposit. Elemental and isotopic examinations of these water samples were performed using an ELEMENT HR-ICP-MS (Finnigan Mat). The results obtained are the evidence that the ecological status of the Lake Issyk-Kul'is not damaged at present. Wastewaters from the uranium-carbon mine do not make decisive contribution into the natural radioactive background. (authors)

2003-05-01

137

Assessment of contamination of the Issyk-Kul' valley natural waters with uranium mine wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lake Issyk-Kul' of the central Tyan-Shan is characterized by increased natural uranium content. Uranium-carbon deposit situated on the southern bank of the Lake can be the reason of chemical and radioactive contamination of this unique basin by exploitation wastes. In order to estimate possible danger, a project 'Assessment and prognosis of environmental changes in Lake Issyk-Kul' (Kyrgyzstan)' was developed and supported by the Program of the European Commission 'Copernicus-2' (2001-2003). According to this project the water assays were sampled from different depths near the banks of the Lake and from low-debit sources draining the dumping grounds of the uranium-carbon deposit. Elemental and isotopic examinations of these water samples were performed using an ELEMENT HR-ICP-MS (Finnigan Mat). The results obtained are the evidence that the ecological status of the Lake Issyk-Kul'is not damaged at present. Wastewaters from the uranium-carbon mine do not make decisive contribution into the natural radioactive background. (authors)

Palesski, S.V.; Nikolaeva, I.V.; Saprykin, A.I.; Gavshin, V.M. [The United Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineralogy SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2003-05-01

138

Favorable climatic regime for maintaining the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007 of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Relative carrier-phase GPS surveys reveal a vertical lowering at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the current state are 289 mm and ?3.8 °C at the glacier summit (4600 m a.s.l., respectively. The good agreement between dynamically derived precipitation and the long-term observed precipitation at a nearby station in the Tien Shan (296 mm at 3614 m a.s.l. for the period 1930–2002 suggests that the glacier has been in a near steady-state in terms of mass supply. The glacier mass-balance, reconstructed based on meteorological data from the Tien Shan station for the past 80 yr, explains the observed fluctuations in glacier extent, particularly the negative mass balance in the 1990s.

K. Fujita

2011-07-01

139

Feast or famine: 1992 spot market review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There was nothing temperate about the uranium spot market in 1992. It was a year of extremes. Demand took off at a brisk pace early in the year as utilities, enticed by low U3O8 prices and interest rates, stepped up their discretionary purchases. With the NUKEM price range sinking to an all-time low of US$6.75-7.70 in November 1991, utilities reckoned that prices had bottomed out and decided to buy and hold material. Indeed, the upper end of NUKEM's range remained below $8.00 per lb for much of the first half of 1992. The main cause of low prices was the flood of imports from the crumbling Soviet Union and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]. The CIS republics quickly embraced a free-market philosophy to boost their faltering economies, and several hoped to use uranium as a source of badly-needed hard currency. But they were about to get a harsh introduction to capitalism. It came in the form of government intervention, in both the US and Europe. In May, the US Department of Commerce made its preliminary determination that the uranium-producing republics of the CIS were selling material in the US at less than fair market value. The antidumping case was eventually settled in October when the CIS republics [Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan] signed suspension agreements subjecting CIS origin uranium to price and quantity quotas in the US.

1993-01-01

140

Gazprom: Russia's strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventeen years after the splitting up of the Soviet empire, Russia is looking again for huge international ambitions. Its main advantage in this power search will is its energy resources. Production area, but also transit area between Asia, central Asia, Caucasus and Europe, Russia is an inevitable partner and wishes to take advantage of this strategic position. Gazprom, the hugest gas company in the world, is totally under the control of the government. Therefore, the Kremlin has made gas its main political and diplomatic weapon. Such an energetic imperialisms has strong economical and political consequences on the rest of Europe as illustrated by the recent Ukrainian crisis. The reconstruction of an energy empire similar to the one of the hottest days of the cold war worries also the USA. This study is a collective work carried out by students of the Sciences Po school of Paris in the framework of the 'international organizations' seminar given by by A.M Lizin, president of the Belgium senate and chairwoman of the human rights commission of the organization for European security and cooperation. Content: Gazprom's international strategy, Gazprom: an omnipotent gas company, Gazprom's international strategy at the service of the Russian foreign policy, Gazprom's energy stake and strategies, Gazprom and Armenia, Gazprom and Azerbaijan, Gazprom and Belgium, Gazprom and Bielorussia, Gazprom and Iberia, French position in energy stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's difficulties in Hungary, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in front of Gazprom, Gazprom and the US strategy. (J.S.)

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Improved seismic risk assessment based on probabilistic multi-source information integration  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthquakes threat millions of people all over the world. Assessing seismic risk, defined as the probability of occurrence of economical and social losses as consequence of an earthquake, both at regional and at local scale is a challenging, multi-disciplinary task. In order to provide reliable estimates, diverse information must be gathered by seismologists, geologists, engineers and civil authorities and carefully integrated, keeping into account the different uncertainties and the inherent spatio-temporal variability. An efficient and reliable assessment of the assets exposed to seismic hazard and the structural and social components of vulnerability are of particular importance, in order to undertake proper mitigation actions and to promptly and efficiently react to a possibly catastrophic natural event. An original approach is presented to assess seismic vulnerability and risk based on integration of information coming from several heterogeneous sources: remotely-sensed and ground-based panoramic images, manual digitization, already available information and expert knowledge. A Bayesian approach has been introduced to keep into account collected information while preserving priors and subjective judgment. In the broad perspective of GEM (Global Earthquake Model) and more specifically within EMCA (Earthquake Model Central Asia) project, an integrated, sound approach to seismic risk in countries with limited resources is an important but rewarding challenge. Improved vulnerability and risk models for the capital cities of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and their application in earthquake scenarios will be discussed.

Pittore, M.; Wieland, M.; Duisheev, A.; Yasunov, P.

2012-04-01

142

Feast or famine: 1992 spot market review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There was nothing temperate about the uranium spot market in 1992. It was a year of extremes. Demand took off at a brisk pace early in the year as utilities, enticed by low U3O8 prices and interest rates, stepped up their discretionary purchases. With the NUKEM price range sinking to an all-time low of US$6.75-7.70 in November 1991, utilities reckoned that prices had bottomed out and decided to buy and hold material. Indeed, the upper end of NUKEM's range remained below $8.00 per lb for much of the first half of 1992. The main cause of low prices was the flood of imports from the crumbling Soviet Union and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]. The CIS republics quickly embraced a free-market philosophy to boost their faltering economies, and several hoped to use uranium as a source of badly-needed hard currency. But they were about to get a harsh introduction to capitalism. It came in the form of government intervention, in both the US and Europe. In May, the US Department of Commerce made its preliminary determination that the uranium-producing republics of the CIS were selling material in the US at less than fair market value. The antidumping case was eventually settled in October when the CIS republics [Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan] signed suspension agreements subjecting CIS origin uranium to price and quantity quotas in the US

1993-01-01

143

After dumping agreement: A two-tiered market?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In its largest increase since July 1990, the NUKEM price range for this month ended up at $9.50-$10.50. On October 16th, destined to become a landmark date in uranium industry history, the republics of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine and the Russian Federation signed quantitative restraint agreements with the US Department of Commerce. Predictably, prices jumped significantly as sellers withdrew from the market. With Commerce's initial calculation of a $7.95 market price for determining the level of CIS imports over the next six months, it appears quite certain that prices for non-CIS origins will continue to rise. (CIS imports can only begin when Commerce determines that the market price has hit $13). There is the possibility that a two-tiered market could emerge in the future with lower prices being paid for CIS origins by those utilities not affected by Euratom or Commerce restrictions. However, at this point, most potential buyers falling into this category have opted to maintain a wait-and-see approach

1992-11-01

144

State-Propagated Narratives about a National Defender in Central Asian States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between narratives propagated by the state about a historical national hero and a contemporary soldier's professional ideology in the post-Soviet Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. It argues that while elite-maintained mass publishing of cohesive narratives about a vividly drawn historical persona, male and warrior, trigger at raising a loyal soldier unified with his compatriots on the basis of cultural values and objects of loyalty, state elites seek to link a contemporary army recruit with his historical predecessors who fought for unity, integrity, and  dominance of the nation. But the link inevitably merges with ethno-centric ideas of protecting the cultural community identified with the narrative, as opposed to a physical entity within the state borders. State elites  reinforce the significance of military experience of the titular ethnic entity in accordance with their own political interests. Narratives about a national defender articulate what the political elites expect from the military service but are restrained from depicting in official policy documents. In order to reach effective results, the Central Asian states retained the same Soviet tools of cultivating patriotism as the basis for the army's internal discipline, but primordial characters have also been incorporated into the indoctrination.

Erica Marat

2007-03-01

145

Transregional lineament of Central Asia, its magmatism, metallogeny and seismicity  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of the place and role of such large fault as Central Kyzylkum, North Nurata and South Ferghana, Atbashin, which were regarded earlier as separate independent structures led us to the idea that they are parts of a single global structure. We suggest that it should be called "Transregional lineament of Central Asia". Transregional lineament of Central Asia is multisutured long-term, and in the nodal points of some parts it is complicated by deep fault zones of «Anti Tien-Shan» trend.There are large gold ore deposits (Muruntau, Kokpatas, Kumtor) in the intersection of some of these faults. Within the lineament there are 4 mafite - ultramafite associations of different age, that are presented as isolated or combined blocks, zones and regions. The most ancient is ophiolite one (I association). Best of all it is developed in Sultanuvais and Northern Tamdytau, Uzbekistan. The second, rift association of this belt is picrite-gabbro-diabase-alkali-olivine-basalt is widespread within the belt (northern Bukantau, northern Nuratau, northern slope of the Altay ridge).The third association is peridotite-gabbroic. It is represented by the Tebinbulak intrusive of Sultanuvais. Coverings, small stocks, dikes and explosion tubes formed by potassic mafite-ultramafites ore related to much later inter-plate (P-T) occurrences of mafite-ultramafite magmatism (IY association). On Kyrgyzstan's territory the studied lineament is observed as a system of regional deep faults -Atbashi-Inylchek and Southern Ferghana, with which the ophiolite ultramafite-mafite formation is associated. The rocks have the traces of tectonic movements, which can be the ground to regard them as protrusions. Tectonically, the vast territory of Mongolia is divided into two large blocks: northern and southern. This part of the lineament called Transmongolian. This part is week studied-a special investigation was only carried out in its western part - Bulgan fault. Thus, in the presence of linear-stretched sublatitudinal metallogenic belts within the area of the studied transregional lineament in the Central Asian region, the most prospective ore deposits'assemblages are located in the intersection of these belts as deep faults of meridional, north-eastern and north-western trend. The following deposits are situated in such intersection zones: the largest in Eurasia Muruntau gold deposit, a large deposit Kumtor, Kyrgyzstan; and the gigantic class deposit - Ashi in China.Anomalously increased heat flow density (HFD) values both Muruntau deposit (according to our data- up to 85 mW/m2), and for Kumtor deposit (according to E.A.Ljubimova data - up to 130 mW/m2 ) indicate the deep character of dislocations. Interpretation of seismic observations revealed a transregional zone with the width of up to 80 km in the upper part of Kyzylkums crust. The strip is located in the relief of Moho surface, and is discordant to the general trend of premesozoic structures. Abrupt variations of the Moho boundary with vertical movement of up to 10 km are observed in the eastern end of the Issyk-Kul valley and at the boundary of Northern and Middle Tien Shan, along the Nikolaev line. In conclusion we'd like to note that such structures are well-known in American, Australian and other continents.They are recognized as deep structures and served as channels for the heat energy, magmas and fluids to come out of the core and mantle of the Earth. In this connection, activity of these structures are accompanied by the presence of various magamatic, endogenous as well as gigantic ore deposits.

Sidorova, I.

2004-12-01

146

Shifting mountain snow patterns in a changing climate from remote sensing retrieval.  

Science.gov (United States)

Observed climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on environmental systems and society. In this context, many mountain regions seem to be particularly sensitive to a changing climate, through increases in temperature coupled with changes in precipitation regimes that are often larger than the global average (EEA, 2012). In mid-latitude mountains, these driving factors strongly influence the variability of the mountain snow-pack, through a decrease in seasonal reserves and earlier melting of the snow pack. These in turn impact on hydrological systems in different watersheds and, ultimately, have consequences for water management. Snow monitoring from remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to address the question of snow cover regime changes at the regional scale. This study outlines the results retrieved from the MODIS satellite images over a time period of 10 hydrological years (2000-2010) and applied to two case studies of the EU FP7 ACQWA project, namely the upper Rhone and Po in Europe and the headwaters of the Syr Darya in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia). The satellite data were provided by the MODIS Terra MOD-09 reflectance images (NASA) and MOD-10 snow products (NSIDC). Daily snow maps were retrieved over that decade and the results presented here focus on the temporal and spatial changes in snow cover. This paper highlights the statistical bias observed in some specific regions, expressed by the standard deviation values (STD) of annual snow duration. This bias is linked to the response of snow cover to changes in elevation and can be used as a signal of strong instability in regions sensitive to climate change: with alternations of heavy snowfalls and rapid snow melting processes. The interest of the study is to compare the methodology between the medium scales (Europe) and the large scales (Central Asia) in order to overcome the limits of the applied methodologies and to improve their performances. Results show that the yearly snow cover duration increases by 4-5days per 100m elevation during the accumulation period, depending of the watershed, while during the melting season the snow depletion rate is 0.3% per day of surface loss for the upper Rhone catchment, 0.4%/day for the Syr Darya headwater basins, and 0.6%/day for the upper Po, respectively. Then, the annual STD maps of snow cover indicate higher values (more than 45days difference compared to the mean values) for (i) the Po foothill region at medium elevation (SE orientation) and (ii) the Kyrgyzstan high plateaux (permafrost areas). These observations cover only a time-period of 10years, but exhibit a signal under current climate that is already consistent with the expected decline in snow in these regions in the course of the 21st century. PMID:24842410

Dedieu, J P; Lessard-Fontaine, A; Ravazzani, G; Cremonese, E; Shalpykova, G; Beniston, M

2014-09-15

147

United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs): Helping to Ensure the Integration of Nuclear Techniques with other Development Initiatives and Plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA and the Department of Technical Cooperation in particular, rely on harmonious and collaborative work with numerous partners over a broad range of policy levels to promote peace and development through the peaceful application of nuclear science and technology. The Strategy and Partnership Section (TCSPS) of the Division of Programme Support and Coordination is at the forefront of developing and maintaining successful partnerships with the IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation. Part of the work of TCSPS involves streamlining the Country Programme Framework (CPF) process and building networks that support the United Nations one house approach. Country Programme Frameworks are programming tools that provide a frame of reference for technical cooperation between the IAEA and its Member States in the medium term (4-6 years). They provide a concise framework for national development needs or problems that can be addressed using nuclear science and technology. In support of the IAEA's efforts to align and provide leverage for its technical cooperation activities within the larger development context, the CPF preparation process now makes extensive use of national development plans and United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs). UNDAFs are the planning framework for the development operations of the UN system at the country level and not only help to ensure that the application of nuclear techniques is integrated with existing development initiatives and plans, but also assist identifying areas where such techniques might be usefully deployed. In the past two years, 13 UNDAFs have been signed, reflecting the IAEA's focus on optimizing development activities at the country level. Currently the Secretariat is engaged in 22 ongoing UNDAF processes to ensure that the TC programme is aligned with the national development priorities reflected in these frameworks. One outstanding example of the work that is possible within the UNDAF framework is demonstrated in a soil conservation project in Tajikistan (TAD5005) entitled 'Developing Soil Conservation Strategies for Improved Soil Health', part of a technical cooperation effort that began with the assessment of soil erosion and sedimentation for land use. In former years limited capacity to monitor national resources has led to poverty due to widespread soil erosion that has affected agricultural lands. A lack of essential soil redistribution information made it impossible for the nation to assess, monitor and address the processes of accelerated natural resource degradation. The technical cooperation project was developed as a result of Tajikistan's identified need for improved national capacities and facilities to provide the basis for soil erosion modelling and land use planning. The IAEA is providing expert advice in field sampling design, laboratory set-up and data interpretation and training, to contribute to a better understanding of the main factors affecting Tajikistan's soil redistribution. As a result of this assistance, sustainable natural resource management will be possible, based on the identification of cost-effective soil conservation measures. This project has become associated with the project on Sustainable Land Management in the High Pamir and Pamir-Alai Mountains (PALM), an integrated transboundary initiative of the governments of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan and has involved numerous partners: - The Global Environment Facility (GEF), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and other donors who provided financial support to PALM; - The State agencies for environment protection and forestry in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; - Partnerships were established with the University of Bern's Centre for Development and Environment through the National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, and with scientists from Moscow State University; - GEF directed complementary resources to the project through the PALM mechanism; - The United Nations University (UNU) helped to coordinate project activities. These partners are working with the same Tajik

2011-01-01

148

Uzbekistan - nonproliferation and continuous activities on countering nuclear materials and other radioactive sources illicit trafficking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Countering illicit trafficking of nuclear weapon and its components is an important task in the modern world. For this reason, at the borders and customs points the control of transportation is to be conducted in order to determine radioactive and fissile materials in them. This report presents the results of works performed in the period of 2001 - 2005 years on the program for development of radiation monitors and equipping the Uzbekistan border customs points with them, in order to fight the smuggling of nuclear and radioactive materials. The Republic of Uzbekistan is located on the transit transportation crossroad, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Western Europe - to the North, and Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and others - to the South. Therefore, this program is important for saving peace in the world and fighting any attempts to create nuclear weapon in the region. The radiation monitoring equipment is installed at the border customs points through which the transportation enters the Uzbekistan and at the Tashkent International Airport where passengers arrive by air. Also, the customs points are equipped through which the transportation quits for South and international passenger depart. The radiation portal monitors are designed by CIS Aspect (Dubna, Moscow region), however, we develop our own portal monitoring system which can be produced after certification. The Institute of Nuclear Physics provides the technical expertise that includes installation, calibration, maintenance, and secondary alarm response; mobile response units are being developed to rapidly and accurately identify seized material and recommend handling procedures. At present we are accumulating information on the alarm from the Yantar - type radiation monitor at the customs check-points and examining characteristics of the system to improve the results of our research

2006-11-01

149

Assessment of cattle genetic introgression into domestic yak populations using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers  

Science.gov (United States)

Hybridization between yak Poephagus grunniens and taurine Bos taurus or indicine B. indicus cattle has been widely practiced throughout the yak geographical range, and gene flow is expected to have occurred between these species. To assess the impact of cattle admixture on domestic yak, we examined 1076 domestic yak from 29 populations collected in China, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and Russia using mitochondrial DNA and 17 autosomal microsatellite loci. A cattle diagnostic marker-based analysis reveals cattle-specific mtDNA and/or autosomal microsatellite allele introgression in 127 yak individuals from 22 populations. The mean level of cattle admixture across the populations, calculated using allelic information at 17 autosomal microsatellite loci, remains relatively low (mYcattle = 2.66 ± 0.53% and Qcattle = 0.69 ± 2.58%), although it varies a lot across populations as well as among individuals within population. Although the level of cattle admixture shows a clear geographical structure, with higher levels of admixture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Mongolian and Russian regions, and lower levels in the Himalayan and Pamir Plateau region, our results indicate that the level of cattle admixture is not significantly correlated with the altitude across geographical regions as well as within geographical region. Although yak-cattle hybridization is primarily driven to produce F1 hybrids, our results show that the subsequent gene flow between yak and cattle took place and has affected contemporary genetic make-up of domestic yak. To protect yak genetic integrity, hybridization between yak and cattle should be tightly controlled.

Qi, X B; Jianlin, H; Wang, G; Rege, J E O; Hanotte, O

2010-01-01

150

Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan  

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Full Text Available Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

H.-B. Havenith

2003-01-01

151

Exhumation of Basement-cored Uplifts: Example of the Kyrgyz Range Quantified with Apatite Fission-track Thermochronology  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kyrgyz Range, the northernmost portion of the Kyrgyzstan Tien Shan, displays topographic evidence for lateral propagation of surface uplift and exhumation. The highest and most deeply dissected segment lies in the center of the range. To the east, topography and relief decrease, and preserved remnants of a Cretaceous regional erosion surface imply minimal amounts of bedrock exhumation. The timing of exhumation of range segments defines the lateral propagation rate of the range-bounding reverse fault and quantifies the time and erosion depth needed to transform a mountain range from a juvenile to a mature morphology. New apatite fission-track (AFT) data from three transects from the eastern Kyrgyz Range, combined with published AFT data, demonstrate that the range has propagated over 110 km eastwards over the last 7-11 Myr. Based on the thermal and topographic evolutionary history, we present a model for a time-varying exhumation rate driven by rock uplift and changes in erodability and the time scale of geomorphic adjustment to surface uplift. Easily eroded, Cenozoic sedimentary rocks overlying resistant basement control early, rapid exhumation and slow surface upliftrates. As increasing amounts of resistant basement are exposed, exhumation rates decrease while surface uplift rates are sustained or increase, thereby growing topography. As the range becomes high enough to cause ice accumulation and develop steep river valleys, fluvial and glacial erosion become more powerful and exhumation rates once again increase. Independently determined range-noma1 shortening rates have also varied over time, suggesting a feedback between erosional efficiency and shortening rate.

Sobel, Edward R.; Oskin, Michael; Burbank, Douglas; Mikolaichuk, Alexander

2005-01-01

152

An Assessment of Antibiotics Prescribed at the Secondary Health-Care Level in the Kyrgyz Republic  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions in a secondary health care setting in Kyrgyzstan. A retrospective analysis was performed of antibiotic prescriptions in 251 inpatient records of patients admitted to the Sokuluk Territorial Hospital. A total of 19 different antibiotics were prescribed. Penicillin G (24.9%, gentamicin (16.1%, metronidazole (15.6% and cefazolin (14.5% were those most frequently prescribed. The major indications for antibiotics were diseases of the respiratory system (28.0%, injury, poisoning and certain other consequences from external causes (25.5%, and diseases of the digestive system (14.3%. Almost three-quarters of the antibiotics were used parenterally, 252 of which (58.9% were administered intramuscularly and 70 (16.4% intravenously. Forty-five percent of the patients received two antibiotics, and 12.0% received three antibiotics during their stay at the hospital. Antibiotic therapy proved inappropriate for 184 patients (73.3%. The most common reason given for inappropriateness was the unjustified (not indicated use of antibiotics in 143 (48.6% cases. There was a significantly higher inappropriate choice of antibiotics in gynecology (OR=2.70, 95% CI=1.02–7.69 when compared with that in other wards. Although antibiotics were prescribed in all cases post-operatively, noneof those patients were given pre-operative prophylactic antibiotics when indicated. We concluded that antibiotic prescriptions were seriously inappropriate in the Kyrgyz Republic with prescribing patterns failing to strictly adhere to the national guidelines. Adoption of an international standard and locally conformableguidelines of antibiotic use can help correct such problems.

JUNICHI SAKAMOTO

2011-08-01

153

Ionizing radiation sources management in the Commonwealth of Independent States - CIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation sources cover a broad band of power: from powerful NPP reactors and research reactors to portable radioisotope ionizing radiation sources applied in medicine, agriculture, industry and in the energy supply systems of remote facilities. At present, scales and use field of radionuclide sources in the CIS have the tendency to increase. In this connection, the issues of ionizing radiation sources management safety at all stages of their life cycle, from production to treatment, have been of a great importance. The materials on ionizing radiation sources inventory and treatment in the CIS (Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Ukraine) are presented in the report. It is shown that in some republics, there is difficulty in ionizing radiation sources accounting and control system; the national regulatory and legal framework bases regulating activity on radioactive sources use, localization and treatment require update. Many problems are connected with the sources beyond state accounting. The problem of ionizing radiation sources use safety is complicated by the growing activity of various terrorist groups. The opportunity to use ionizing radiation sources with terrorism goals requires the application of defined systems of security and physical protection at all stages of their management. For this purpose a collective, with all CIS countries, organization of radioactive sources accounting and control as well as countermeasures on their illegal transportation and use are necessary. In this connection, the information collection regarding situation with providing of ionizing radiation sources safety, conditions of equipment and storage facilities, radioactive materials accounting and control system in the CIS countries is vitally needed

2006-09-06

154

A plan for location calibration of IMS stations and near Kazakhstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For purposes of monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, it is desirable to be able to locate seismic events routinely to within an uncertainty not greater than 1000 square km. From more than five years of experience with publication of the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) by the Prototype International Data Centre (PIDC), resulting in estimated locations for more than 100,000 seismic events, it is apparent that improved location accuracy is needed in order to reduce uncertainties below 1000 square km. In this paper, we outline a three-year program of applied research which commenced in March 2000 and which has the goal of achieving improved REB locations based upon data to be contributed to the International Data Centre from 30 IMS stations in Eastern Asia. Our first efforts will focus on the four IMS seismographic stations in Kazakhstan (AKT, BRV, KUR, MAK), together with IMS stations ZAL in Russia and AAK in Kyrgyzstan. Following the recommendations of two 'IMS Location Calibration Workshops' held in Oslo, Norway, in 1999 and 2000, our approach is to generate station-specific travel times for each observable seismic phase, as a function of distance and azimuth (and depth, where possible). Such travel times are obtained on the basis of (i) early studies based mainly on earthquake data (e.g. Nersesov and Rautian, 1964), (ii) Deep Seismic Sounding, and (iii) recent studies of nuclear and chemical explosions. We are also using (iv) an empirical approach in which phases are picked at IMS stations, for so-called Ground Truth events whose location is known quite accurately on the basis of additional data, obtained for example from local and regional networks. (author)

2001-01-01

155

Marriage formation as a process intermediary between migration and childbearing  

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Full Text Available In studies of differences in fertility between migrants and non-migrants, marriage interferes because migration can be motivated by an impending marriage or can entail entry into a marriage market with new opportunities. One would therefore expect elevated fertility after migration, although a competing theory states that on the contrary fertility ought to be reduced in the time around the move because migration temporarily disturbs the life of the migrant. In any case marriage appears as a process that is intermediary between migration and childbearing. To handle such issues it pays to have a technique that allows the analyst to separate any disruptive effects of migration from any boosting effects of marriage in studies of childbearing. The purposes of the present paper are (i to remind us that such a technique is available, in fact is straightforward, and (ii to apply the technique to further analyze a set of data on migration and first-time parenthood in Kyrgyzstan recently used by the second author and Gunnar Andersson. The technique has the neat feature that it allows us to operate with several "clocks" at the same time. In the analysis of first births we keep track of time since migration (for migrants and time since marriage formation (for the married beside the respondent's age (for women at childbearing ages; in other connections there may be more clocks. For such analyses we make use of a flexible graphical housekeeping device that allows the analyst to keep track of a feature like whether migration occurs before or after marriage, or at the same time. This is a half-century-old flow chart of statuses and transitions and is not much more complex than the famous Lexis diagram, which originated with Gustav Zeuner, as we now know. These reflexions were first presented at a symposium dedicated to Professor Zeuner.

Lesia Nedoluzhko

2008-06-01

156

INVESTIGATION OF CRUSTAL MOTION IN THE TIEN SHAN USING INSAR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

Mellors, R J

2011-02-25

157

Pliocene-Pleistocene initiation, style, and sequencing of deformation in the central Tien Shan  

Science.gov (United States)

response to the Indo-Asian collision, deformation of the Tien Shan initiated at ~25 Ma along the northwestern margin of the Tarim Basin. 300 km north, the Kyrgyz Range began deforming ~15 Ma later. Although multiple intervening structures across the Tien Shan are currently active, the sequencing of initial deformation across the orogen's entire width remains poorly known. To determine whether deformation migrated sequentially northward or developed less predictably, we documented deformation patterns within the Naryn Basin in south-central Kyrgyzstan. Detailed mapping and a published balanced cross section across the Naryn Basin suggest that deep-seated, relatively steeply dipping thrust faults have disrupted the basin during late Cenozoic deformation. Dating of deformed fluvial terraces with ages between ~10 and 250 ka constrains the rate of deformation across relatively young structures in the Tien Shan interior. Based on geodetic surveys of dated terraces, local rates of relative rock uplift span from 0.3 to 3.5 mm/yr. Folding rates and patterns are temporally persistent at a given site. Moreover, they mimic modern geodetic rates measured from interferometric synthetic aperture radar. Extrapolating these rates into the past suggests that structures within the interior of the Naryn Basin formed in the last 1 Myr, whereas the ranges surrounding the basin initiated at least 1-4 Myr earlier. Hence, within the Naryn Basin itself, deformation has migrated from margins to interior. Similarly, these new chronologies indicate that at least some deformation in the interior of the Tien Shan initiated millions of years later than along either orogenic margin.

Goode, Joseph K.; Burbank, Douglas W.; Ormukov, Cholponbek

2014-04-01

158

Basin Width Control of Faulting and Structural Style  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of 5 balanced cross-sections across the Naryn Basin, Kyrgyzstan, reveals a transition in patterns of faulting. Each section is based on surface mapping of deformed basin-filling strata. Beginning in the 25-km-wide Eastern Naryn Basin, deformation within the basin is attributed to faults that are low-angle splays of the northern basin-bounding reverse fault. In 40-km-wide Western Naryn Basin, the pattern of deformation linked to the northern range front remains, but is accompanied by steeper faults that are both south and north dipping. These steeper faults in the west do not appear to be directly linked to the northern range-bounding fault, and likely penetrate the through the entire section of Cenozoic basin fill into the underlying Paleozoic limestone that forms the surrounding ranges. We compare these cross-sections to geodetic measurements of surface deformation. Synthetic aperture RADAR interferometry (InSAR) provides a measure of satellite line-of-sight range changes through time, a close approximation of vertical surface uplift rates. Profiles of deformation rates across the Naryn Basin reveal that in the west, surface deformation is distributed across the broad basin interior. In the east, uplift is concentrated at the northern basin margin of the narrower basin. From the geodetic and structural data, we infer that in the Western Naryn Basin, deformation has migrated away from the northern basin margin and into the interior. Deformation of the eastern basin interior, however, remains linked to the northern basin-bounding fault. These changes along the length of the basin are not accompanied by a consistent change in elevation of the basin-bounding range. Basin width may control basin deformation whereby formation of basin-interior faults in the narrow, eastern Naryn Basin is inhibited by the proximity of the basin-bounding ranges.

Goode, J. K.; Burbank, D. W.

2010-12-01

159

Micro-analytical characterisation of radioactive heterogeneities in samples from Central Asian TENORM sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work focuses on the use of micro-analytical techniques to demonstrate the heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides and metals in soils collected at Former Soviet Union mining sites in Central Asia. Based on digital autoradiography, radionuclides were heterogeneously distributed in soil samples collected at the abandoned uranium mining sites Kurday, Kazakhstan, Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan and Taboshar, Tajikistan. Using electron microscopy interfaced with X-ray microanalysis submicron - mm-sized radioactive particles and rock fragments with U, As, Se and toxic metals on the surfaces were identified in Kurday and Kadji Sai samples. Employing scanning and tomographic (3D) synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-SRXRF) and synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray diffraction (?-SRXRD) allowed us to observe the inner structure of the particles without physical sectioning. The distribution of elements in virtual crosssections demonstrated that U and a series of toxic elements were rather heterogeneously distributed also within individual radioactive TENORM particles. Compared to archived data, U in Kadji Sai particles was present as uraninite (U4O9+y or UO2+x) or Na-zippeite ((Na4(UO2)6[(OH)10(SO4)3]·4H2O), i.e. U minerals with very low solubility. The results suggested that TENORM particles can carry substantial amount of radioactivity, which can be subject to re-suspension, atmospheric transport and water transport. Thus, the potential radioecological and radioanalytical impact of radioactive particles at NORM and TENORM sites worldwide should be taken into account. The present work also demonstrates that radioecological studies should benefit from the use of advanced methods such as synchrotron radiation based techniques. PMID:22421357

Lind, O C; De Nolf, W; Janssens, K; Salbu, B

2013-09-01

160

Strain partitioning at the eastern Pamir-Alai revealed through SAR data analysis of the 2008 Nura earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

On 2008 October 5, a magnitude 6.6 earthquake struck the eastern termination of the intermontane Alai valley between the southern Tien Shan and the northern Pamir of Kyrgyzstan. The shallow thrust earthquake occurred in the footwall of the Main Pamir thrust, where the Pamir orogen is colliding with the southern Tien Shan mountains. We measure the coseismic surface displacements using SAR (Synthetic Aperture RADAR) data; the results show clear gradients in the vertical and horizontal directions along a complex pattern of surface ruptures and active faults. To integrate and to interpret these observations in the context of the regional tectonics, we complement the SAR data analysis with seismological data and geological field observations. While the main moment release of the Nura earthquake appears to be on the Pamir Frontal thrust, the main surface displacements and surface rupture occurred in the footwall along the NE-SW striking Irkeshtam fault. With InSAR data from ascending and descending tracks along with pixel offset measurements, we model the Nura earthquake source as a segmented rupture. One fault segment corresponds to high-angle brittle faulting at the Pamir Frontal thrust and two more fault segments show moderate-angle and low-friction thrusting at the Irkeshtam fault. Our integrated analysis of the coseismic deformation argues for rupture segmentation and strain partitioning associated to the earthquake. It possibly activated an orogenic wedge in the easternmost segment of the Pamir-Alai collision zone. Further, the style of the segmentation may be associated with the presence of Palaeogene evaporites.

Teshebaeva, Kanayim; Sudhaus, Henriette; Echtler, Helmut; Schurr, Bernd; Roessner, Sigrid

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

GREAT REBELLION OF 1916 in KYRGYZ: URKÜN 1916 KIRGIZ BÜYÜK ?SYANI: ÜRKÜN  

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Full Text Available The revolution in 1916 was one of the biggest tragedies in the politics of the Russian Empire was to have Kyrgyzstan as its colony. For instance, the best places were given to russians, local people were forced to move to rural area. The main reason was a call for men into Russia’s Central Asian colonies to serve in the Tsarist army fighting in World war I. The first uprising was in Khojent on july 4 th 1916 and the movement spread to other parts of Turkestan. Kyrgyz Turks were killed by the Russian forces and settlers. Kyrgyz population from the North of the country were killed. And another 120.000 fled across the border to China 1916 ?syan? K?rg?z tarihinin en büyük trajedilerinden biridir. Bu olay K?rg?zistan’da Ürkün olarak bilinir. Rus ?mparatorlu?u K?rg?zistan’da koloni politikas? uygulam??t?r. En iyi yerler Ruslara verilmi? yerli halk kendi topra??ndan edilerek k?rsal alanlara göç ettirilmi?tir. Ayaklanman?n temel nedeni ise I. Dünya Sava??nda Çarl???n Rusya’n?n geri hizmetlerinde çal??mak üzere Türkistanl?lar? ça??rmas? olmu?tur. Ayaklanma 4 Temmuz 1916’da Hocent’te ba?lam??t?r daha sonra Türkistan’?n di?er k?s?mlar?na yay?lm??t?r. K?rg?z Türkleri Rus askerleri ve Rus yerle?imciler taraf?ndan öldürülmü?tür. Ülkenin kuzeyindeki ayaklanmac?lar öldürülmü? di?er 120 bini Çine kaçm??t?r.

Füsun KARA

2011-06-01

162

The use of propagation path corrections to improve seismic event location in western China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to improve ability to locate events in western China using only regional data, the authors have developed propagation path corrections to seismic travel times, and applied such corrections using both traditional location routines as well as a nonlinear grid search method. Thus far, they have concentrated on corrections to observed P arrival times. They have constructed such corrections by using travel time observations available from the USGS Earthquake Data Reports, as well as data reported by the ISC. They have also constructed corrections for six stations that are a part of the International monitoring System. For each station having sufficient data, they produce a map of the travel-time residuals from all located events. Large-amplitude residuals are removed by median filtering, and the resulting data are gridded. For a given source location, the correction at a particular station is then interpolated from the correction grid associated with the station. They have constrained the magnitude of the corrections to be {le} 3 s. They have evaluated the utility of the calculated corrections by applying the corrections to the regional relocation of 10 well-located Chinese nuclear tests, as well as a single, well-located aftershock in nearby Kyrgyzstan. The use of corrections having magnitudes > 2 s is troubling when using traditional location codes, as the corrections amount to a nonlinear perturbation correction, and when large may destabilize the location algorithm. Partly for this reason, the authors have begun using grid search methods to relocate regional events. Such methods are easy to implement and fully nonlinear. Moreover, the misfit function used to locate the event can very easily be changed; they have used L{sub 1}- and L{sub 2}-norm misfit functions, for example. Instances in which multiple local minima occur in a location problem are easily recognized by simply contouring or otherwise displaying the misfit function.

Cogbill, A.H.; Steck, L.K.

1998-03-01

163

Influence of High Energy Electromagnetic Pulses on the Dynamics of the Seismic Process Around the Bishkek Test Area (Central Asia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation of dynamical features of the seismic process as well as the possible influence of different natural and man-made impacts on it remains one of the main interdisciplinary research challenges. The question of external influences (forcings) acquires new importance in the light of known facts on possible essential changes, which occur in the behavior of complex systems due to different relatively weak external impacts. Seismic processes in the complicated tectonic system are not an exclusion from this general rule. In the present research we continued the investigation of dynamical features of seismic activity in Central Asia around the Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) test area, where strong electromagnetic (EM) soundings were performed in the 1980s. The unexpected result of these experiments was that they revealed the impact of strong electromagnetic discharges on the microseismic activity of investigated area. We used an earthquake catalogue of this area to investigate dynamical features of seismic activity in periods before, during, and after the mentioned man-made EM forcings. Different methods of modern time series analysis have been used, such as wavelet transformation, Hilbert Huang transformation, detrended fluctuation analysis, and recurrence quantification analysis. Namely, inter-event (waiting) time intervals, inter-earthquake distances and magnitude sequences, as well as time series of the number of daily occurring earthquakes have been analyzed. We concluded that man-made high-energy EM irradiation essentially affects dynamics of the seismic process in the investigated area in its temporal and spatial domains; namely, the extent of order in earthquake time and space distribution increase. At the same time, EM influence on the energetic distribution is not clear from the present analysis. It was also shown that the influence of EM impulses on dynamical features of seismicity differs in different areas of the examined territory around the test site. Clear changes have been indicated only in areas which, according to previous researches, have been characterized by anomalous increase of average rates of strain release and thus can be regarded as close to the critical state.

Matcharashvili, Teimuraz N.; Chelidze, Tamaz L.; Zhukova, Natalia N.

2014-06-01

164

Projected impacts of climate change on hydrology, water resource use and adaptation needs for the Chu and Talas cross-border rivers basin, Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

The observed long-term trends, variability and projections of future climate and hydrology of the Chu and Talas transboundary rivers basin were analysed using a common approach for Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan parts of the basin. Historical, current and forecasted demands and main uses of water in the basin were elaborated by the joint effort of both countries. Such cooperative approach combining scientific data, water practitioners' outlook with decision making needs allowed the first time to produce a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on water resources in the Chu-Talas transboundary rivers basin, identify future needs and develop the initial set of adaptation measures and recommendations. This work was carried out under the project "Promoting Cooperation to Adapt to Climate Change in the Chu and Talas Transboundary Basin", supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Climate change projections, including air temperatures and rainfall in the 21st century were determined with a spatial resolution 0.5 degrees based on the integration of 15 climate change model outputs (derived from IPCC's 4th Assessment Report, and partially 5th Assessment Report) combined with locally-designed hydrology and glacier models. A significant increase in surface air temperatures by 3-6°C may be expected in the basin area, especially in summer and autumn. This change is likely to be accompanied by rainfall increase during the cold season and a decrease in the warm half of the year. As a result, a deterioration of moisture conditions during the summer-autumn period is possible. Furthermore, milder winters and hotter summers can be expected. Mountains will likely receive more liquid precipitation, than snow, while the area and volume of glaciers may significantly reduce. Projected changes in climate and glaciers have implications for river hydrology and different sectors of the economy dependent on water use. Assessment of agricultural sector vulnerability, which is the key water user in the basin, led to identification of the potential adaptation measures and discussion with relevant national and river basin authorities and the major stakeholders. Proposed adaptation measures range from technical - such as rehabilitation of irrigation systems to reduce water losses, modernize water reservoirs and adjust river regulation to environmental flow needs, changing land use and crop diversification - to policy and finance measures, including revision of subsidies, economic consideration of ecosystem services, etc. Next steps include a more detailed assessment of economics, effectiveness and feasibility of the initially proposed adaptation measures and additional research.

Shamil Iliasov, Shamil; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Lipponen, Annukka; Novikov, Viktor

2014-05-01

165

Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the Russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010  

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Full Text Available A series of wildfires broke out in Western Russia starting in late July of 2010. Harmful particulates and gases released into the local Russian atmosphere have been reported, as have possible negative consequences for the global atmosphere. In this study, an extremely hazy area and its transport trajectory on Russian wildfires were analysed using aerosol optical depth (AOD images retrieved via the synergy method from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. In addition, we used trace gases (NO2 and SO2 and CO2 products measured using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI data, vertical distribution of AOD data retrieved from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO data, the mass trajectory analyses, synoptic maps from a HYSPLIT model simulation and ground-based data, including AERONET (both AOD and Ångström exponent data and PM2.5. First, an Optimal Smoothing (OS scheme was used to develop more precise and reliable AOD data based on multiple competing predictions made using several AOD retrieval models; then, integrated AOD and PM2.5 data were related using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, and the integrated AOD and visibility data were related using the 6S radiative transfer code. The results show that the PM2.5 concentration is enhanced by a factor of 3–5 as determined from both satellite and in situ observations with peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 500 ?g m3. Also, the visibility in many parts of Russia, for instance in Moscow, was less than 100 m; in some areas, the visibility was less than 50 m. Additionally, the possible impact on neighbouring countries due to long-transport was analysed for 31 July and 15 August 2010. A comparison of the satellite aerosol products and ground observations from the neighbouring countries suggests that wildfires in Western Russian had little impact on most european and asian countries, the exceptions being Finland, Estonia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. However, a possible impact on the Arctic region was identified; such an effect would have a serious influence on the polar atmospheric enviroment, and on animals such as polar bears.

L. Mei

2011-12-01

166

Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A series of wildfires broke out in western Russia starting in late July of 2010. Harmful particulates and gases released into the local Russian atmosphere have been reported, as have possible negative consequences for the global atmosphere. In this study, an extremely hazy area and its transport trajectory on Russian wildfires were analysed using aerosol optical depth (AOD images retrieved via the synergy method from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. In addition, we used trace gases (NO2 and SO2 and CO2 products measured using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI data, vertical distribution of AOD data retrieved from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO data, the mass trajectory analyses, synoptic maps from a HYSPLIT model simulation and ground-based data, including AERONET (both AOD and Ångström exponent data and PM2.5. First, an Optimal Smoothing (OS scheme was used to develop more precise and reliable AOD data based on multiple competing predictions made using several AOD retrieval models; then, integrated AOD and PM2.5 data were related using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, and the integrated AOD and visibility data were related using a 6S model. The results show that the PM2.5 concentration is 3–5 times the normal amount based on both satellite data and in situ values with peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 500 ?g m?3. Also, the visibility of many parts of Russia, even Moscow, was less than 100 m; in some areas, the visibility was less than 50 m. Additionally, the possible impact on neighbouring countries due to the long-transport effect was also analysed during 31 July and 15 August 2010. A comparison of the satellite aerosol products and ground observations from the neighbouring countries suggests that wildfires in western Russian have had little impact on most European and Asian countries, the exceptions being Finland, Estonia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. However, a possible impact on the Arctic region was also identified; such an effect would have a serious influence on the polar atmospheric environment and on animals such as polar bears.

L. Mei

2011-08-01

167

Development and characteristics of alpine lakes in the upper catchment of the Amu Darya river, Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Amu Darya is one of the most important rivers in the lowlands of Central Asia, ensuring the supply of irrigation water for agriculture in that arid region. Control of the water flow due to hydropower generation in Tajikistan (Norak Dam, planned Rogun Dam) is a highly political issue. The sources of the Amu Darya are located in the glacierized high-mountain areas of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan (Pamir, Alai and Hindukush mountains). These environments are highly dynamic systems particularly sensitive to climate fluctuations and changes. During the previous decades, numerous lakes have developed or enlarged in the forefields of the retreating glaciers. Other lakes in the area are embedded in older glacial landscapes or retained by rocky swells, block or debris dams. The latter two types of dams are usually formed by landslides or moraines, Usoi Dam impounding lake Sarez is the highest landslide dam in the world and goes back to an earthquake in 1911. Whilst the safety situation of Lake Sarez is still discussed controversially, a number of glacial lakes poses a threat to the mountain communities downstream. At least two significant glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) were recorded in the study are in the last ten years, one of which caused major destruction. Besides the hazards, lakes may also offer a potential for hydropower generation. Furthermore, they mirror the dynamics of the high-mountain environment and therefore indicate fluctuations and changes. Consequently, up-to date information on the lakes present in the watershed is required. A comprehensive multi-temporal lake inventory for the upper catchment of the Amu Darya river was prepared and analyzed, based on remotely sensed data. ASTER and Landsat scenes were used as well as Corona images from the late 1960s. The satellite information was complemented by helicopter surveys and in-detail field investigations of selected lakes in 2003, 2009 and 2011. Lake type, size, drainage and development were recorded for all lakes. More than 2000 lakes exist in the area, most of them are located between 4200 and 4800 m a.s.l., many of them are directly related to retreating glacier tongues. The detailed analysis was focussed on this type of lakes, most of which have experienced a significant growth over the observation period. Whilst there is evidence that the growth of some of the larger glacial lakes has decelerated in the last ten years, others are starting to evolve, illustrating the dynamics of the glacial and periglacial environment. Long-term changes are superimposed - and sometimes blurred - by intra- and inter-annual fluctuations.

Müller, J. P.; Mergili, M.; Schneider, J. F.

2012-04-01

168

CHARIS - The Contribution to High Asian Runoff from Ice and Snow, Preliminary results from the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of the CHARIS project is to improve the understanding of the regional water resources of High Asia. In order to achieve this goal CHARIS is a cross-boundary exercise with University of Colorado scientists working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes both joint research and capacity building that includes augmented field programs and technical training. While it is generally accepted that a significant component of these water resources results from the melting of glacier ice and seasonal snow, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains uncertain. The amount, timing, and spatial patterns of snow and ice melt play key roles in providing water for downstream irrigation, hydropower generation, and general consumption. The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the separate contributions from seasonal snow melt and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the region. To accomplish project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to temperature-index melt models to estimate runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once seasonal snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt models are driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. We are comparing the melt volume time series generated from temperature-index models with measured river discharge volumes and comparing the regional scale results with local sub-basin studies based on energy balance modeling approaches. We are also evaluating the accuracy of the melt model results using isotopic and geochemical tracers to identify and quantify the sources of water (ice melt, snow melt, rainfall and ground water) flowing into selected rivers representing the major hydro-climates of the study area. Preliminary results are presented for the Upper Indus Basin, and the Hunza sub-basin, for the period 2000-2012.

Armstrong, R. L.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Hashmey, D.; Horodyskyj, U. N.; Khalsa, S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Williams, M. W.; Wilson, A.

2013-12-01

169

InSAR analysis of the coseismic deformation related to the 2008 Nura earthquake, Pamir-Alai mountains  

Science.gov (United States)

A magnitude 6.6 earthquake struck the eastern Alai region near the town of Nura on 5th October 2008, causing 74 human fatalities and considerable destruction in the southern province of Osh, Kyrgyzstan. The earthquake ruptured a part the E-W trending Pamir Frontal Thrust as revealed by surface ruptures observed in the field, distribution of aftershocks and analyses of the tectonic geomorphology. In addition, the surface deformation measured with InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture RADAR) shows a clear co- or postseismic activation of the NE-SW oriented Irkeshtam thrust fault that is located north-eastwards from the Pamir Frontal Thrust. We present a source study on the Nura earthquake by using InSAR surface deformation measurements from ENVISAT (C-band) and ALOS (L-band) radar satellites. Our study aims to add information on earthquake source parameters gained in seismological studies such as fault extension and fault segmentation that will support further analyses on seismic hazard in the region. Measuring coseismic surface deformation using InSAR, however, is challenging in this region of high topographic relief. The Pamir-Alay ridge, which reaches elevations in excess of 7000 m, is covered by snow throughout the year. As a result, extensive loss of phase coherence and layover occurs in the processed C-band interferograms strongly limiting the deformation measurements here. In L-band interferograms of the ALOS satellite a ground deformation is measured that amounts to about 72 cm of relative uplift on the hanging wall of the Pamir Frontal Thrust and about 48 cm of uplift at the hanging wall of the Irkeshtam thrust fault. We also discuss the seismotectonic setting in the epicentral region. Long-term GPS observations over the Pamir-Alay zone show a NNW-SSE oriented shortening with a velocity of 10 up to 15 mm/yr - a rate that is a large part of the about 25 mm/yr of total convergence between the Pamir and Eurasia. Therefore, the analysis of the Nura earthquake potentially provides new insights into strain partitioning at the footwall of the Pamir Thrust and the processes of mountain building at the eastern end of Trans Alai range.

Teshebaeva, K. O.; Sudhaus, H.; Echtler, H.; Roessner, S.; Motagh, M.; Schurr, B.; Zubovich, A. V.; Moldobekov, B.; Wetzel, U.

2011-12-01

170

Underground gas storage in the World - 2013 (fifth Edition)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. 'Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013' builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. The Survey includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries surveyed, 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned. The document includes 70 tables, 72 charts and figures, 44 country maps. The countries surveyed are: Europe : Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom. North America: Canada, USA. CIS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Asia/Oceania: Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Korea, Taiwan. Rest of the World: Argentina, Mexico, Iran

2013-01-01

171

Central Asia Water (CAWa) - A visualization platform for hydro-meteorological sensor data  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is an indispensable necessity of life for people in the whole world. In central Asia, water is the key factor for economic development, but is already a narrow resource in this region. In fact of climate change, the water problem handling will be a big challenge for the future. The regional research Network "Central Asia Water" (CAWa) aims at providing a scientific basis for transnational water resources management for the five Central Asia States Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. CAWa is part of the Central Asia Water Initiative (also known as the Berlin Process) which was launched by the Federal Foreign Office on 1 April 2008 at the "Water Unites" conference in Berlin. To produce future scenarios and strategies for sustainable water management, data on water reserves and the use of water in Central Asia must therefore be collected consistently across the region. Hydro-meteorological stations equipped with sophisticated sensors are installed in Central Asia and send their data via real-time satellite communication to the operation centre of the monitoring network and to the participating National Hydro-meteorological Services.[1] The challenge for CAWa is to integrate the whole aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations in a proper design of a monitoring infrastructure. The use of standardized interfaces to support data transfer and interoperability is essential in CAWa. An uniform treatment of sensor data can be realized by the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) , which makes a number of standards and interface definitions available: Observation & Measurement (O&M) model for the description of observations and measurements, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) for the description of sensor systems, Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for obtaining sensor observations, Sensor Planning Service (SPS) for tasking sensors, Web Notification Service (WNS) for asynchronous dialogues and Sensor Alert Service (SAS) for sending alerts. An OpenSource web-platform bundles the data, provided by the SWE web services of the hydro-meteorological stations, and provides tools for data visualization and data access. The visualization tool was implemented by using OpenSource tools like GeoExt/ExtJS and OpenLayers. Using the application the user can query the relevant sensor data, select parameter and time period, visualize and finally download the data. [1] http://www.cawa-project.net

Stender, Vivien; Schroeder, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

2014-05-01

172

Radioactive parameters of waters of the Syr-Darya river basin on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Within the framework of the International Cooperation Program in the sphere of the transboundary monitoring of the rivers between the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, and the United States of America ("Navruz", ISTC KR-850 Project), in addition, in the Kyrgyz Republic, the isotopic content (isotopic ratio of "2"3"4U/ "2"3"8U=? ), and the uranium content (CU) in the waters was measured. The isotopic ratio "2"3"4U/ "2"3"8U=? of the waters of the rivers Naryn and Kara-Daria basins has no anomalous values of "2"3"4U/ "2"3"8U, which indicates the absence of the man-caused uranium in these rivers. The results of determination of the activity ratio of "2"3"4U/ "2"3"8U and uranium content in the Mailuu-Suu river basin are of great interest. In the upper reaches of the Mailuu-Suu river the uranium content is 0.4 10"-"6 g/l (0.8 10"-"6 g/l in the flood period), in Mailuu-Suu town (after the tailing dump) - (3 †4) 10"-"6 g/l, i.e. this value is an order of magnitude higher, and at the border with Uzbekistan - 1.8 ·10"-"6 g/l (3.2 ·10"-"6 g/l in the period of flooding), which is lower as compared with the town. Correspondently, there are changes in the activity ratio from 1.39 (in the upper reaches of the river) to 1.05 (in the town), and 1.32 (1.12 during the flood period) at the border with Uzbekistan. This situation indicates, first, the enrichment of the waters of the rivers with the man-caused uranium ( ?=1), and its subsequent sorption along the river stream. The obtained results indicate the absence of the man-caused uranium in the whole stream of the Naryn and Kara-Daria rivers on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic, and lack of noticeable contamination of the waters of the Mailuu-Suu river with the man-caused uranium from the tailing dumps of the Western Mining-Chemical Plant (WMCP, Mailuu-Suu). It also should be noted that the share of the man-caused uranium, transported to Uzbekistan by the Mailuu-Suu river does not exceed 20-30%, and the total uranium content in these waters is much lower then MPC, and lower then that in the drinking water of the Chui valley of the Kyrgyz Republic

2004-10-01

173

Peru Mercury Inventory 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in other products such as batteries and computer electronics is not recycled and may ultimately be released to the environment.

Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

2007-01-01

174

Swedish support programme on nuclear non-proliferation in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the request of the Swedish Government, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has established a support and co-operation programme in the area of nuclear non-proliferation with Russia and several of the republics of the former Soviet Union. The Programme was initiated in 1991 and an overall goal is to accomplish national means and measures for control and protection of nuclear material and facilities, in order to minimise the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The objective of the Swedish Support Programme is to help each, so called, recipient State to be able to, independently and without help from outside, take the full responsibility for operating a national non-proliferation system and thereby fulfil the requirements imposed through the international legal instruments. This would include both the development and implementation of a modern nuclear legislation system, and the establishment of the components making up a national system for combating illicit trafficking. The support and co-operation projects are organised in five Project Groups (i.e. nuclear legislation, nuclear material control, physical protection, export/import control, and combating of illicit trafficking), which together cover the entire non-proliferation area. Up till June 2000, support and co-operation projects, completed and on-going, have been carried out in ten States, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, programmes have been initiated during the first part of 2000 with Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In addition, assistance has been given to Poland on a specific nuclear material accountancy topic. All projects are done on request by and in co-operation with these States. The total number of projects initiated during the period 1991 to June 2000 is 109, thereof 77 have been completed and 32 are currently on-going. It is the convinced understanding and opinion of the Swedish Support Programme Management that the States in question are seriously motivated and are carrying out an ambitious work to develop and improve their national non-proliferation regimes, in spite of their shortcomings concerning financial and human resources. For those States, with which Sweden has established support and co-operation programmes with 'full-scope' non-proliferation objectives, it is judged that the goals reached, up till now, are very satisfactory, and that the States in question have come a long way towards the fulfilment of international requirements. The Programme is now entering a third phase and the future Programme plans are currently under consideration. A broad outlook of the future activities is made in chapter D of this report

2000-06-00

175

Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many of these toxic dumps are vulnerable to seismically induced landsliding, release of reservoir water and breaching of very large (up to several km3) landslide-dammed lakes within the deep mountain valleys typical of the fault zone. The May 2008 earthquake in neighboring Sichuan, in which some 30 landslide-dammed lakes were created, may be useful in refining hazard scenarios developed from the multi-pronged analysis employed in our study. This analysis involves compiling all relevant existing data, such as seismic archives held in paper format, within the project GIS. Spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by these compiled data, together with focal mechanism determinations where possible, are combined with data on the distribution and nature of geological units to provide estimates of peak ground acceleration and the likely incidence of seismically-triggered slope instability. This compilation also identifies data deficiencies to be targeted using a portable seismometer network, geophysical and geodetic surveys, InSAR and other remote sensing data; all combined with geotechnical and palaeoseismological fieldwork. Initial results from this approach confirm the ground-shaking potential of Talas-Fergana rupture events, suggest a long-term slip rate as high as 15 mm a-1, and the occurrence of the last ground-rupturing event some 4-500 years BP. The lack of significant activity since that event suggests the Talas-Fergana structure may comprise a seismic gap within the Tien-Shan, highlighting the importance of hazard scenarios in proposing mitigation measures against potentially catastrophic threats, such as extensive pollution of irrigated lands in the Fergana Valley downstream from Toktogul on which some 10 million people depend.

Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

2009-04-01

176

Uranium Mining in Paraguay: An opportunity to improve the environmental regulations in mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In many respects uranium mining is much the same as any other mining activity. In Paraguay under the Environmental Law, as well as many other South American countries, projects must have environmental permits prior to commencing, and must comply with all environmental, safety and occupational health conditions applicable. Increasingly, these activities are regulated by international standards, with external audits. The capacity for enforcement varies from the experience and tradition in mining production. Mining in Paraguay is a very recent activity; and as well as the Environmental Authority was recently created in 2000; therefore the environmental legislation for mining is not developed. Once the mining activity is approved, open pits or shafts and drives are dug, waste rock and overburden is placed in engineered dumps. Tailings from the ore processing must be placed in engineered dams or underground. Finally the whole site must be rehabilitated at the end of the project. Meanwhile air and water pollution must be avoided. The nuclear Renaissance in the world is a result of the high prices of oil and governments commitments on reducing the Greenhouse Effect Emissions under the Kyoto protocol: many governments expressed their willingness to increment their uranium predictions as well as the nuclear energy generation. Representatives of the Paraguayan Government after a meeting of the National council of Defense had stated that the issue of uranium exploration and has a strategic significance, and it has requested the preparation of environmental regulations to regulate this activity. The sector development strategy has also been discussed within the National Council of Defense. In this regard upon request of the National Environmental Authority and with support from USAID cooperation a process of preparing regulations for uranium mining has initiated by considering the cases of remediation and liabilities left by uranium mining in Australia - Nabarlek; Gabon-Mounana; Australia - Valle South Alligator; Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Once the uranium mining process and risks were evaluated by the authorities, and taking into considerations that the process is common to all metalliferous mining, and are well recognized and understood, the government decided to prepare an Environmental Regulation for General Mining. Also a particular regulation for uranium mining was prepared and was included in the Standards Protocols and Term of References for Uranium Mining. The proposed regulation states the follow stages of the process: mine site rehabilitation assessment, environmental risk assessment to determine what environmental assets are at greatest risk from multiple threats, assessment of the biophysical impact of mining on people; assessment of the impact of uranium mining and chemical and biological control regimes to ensure that the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are protected from the operation of mines in the region. Finally in the Environmental Management Plan an environmental monitoring is implemented for early detection of effects in the environment, arising from dispersion of mine waters during the rain and wet season. It is expected that with the proposed environmental regulation, uranium mining will be encourage in Paraguay. (author)

2009-06-22

177

The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region  

Science.gov (United States)

Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies are necessary. Temporary seismic networks have been installed in several Central Asian cities (Bishkek and Karakol, Kyrgyzstan; Dushanbe, Tajikistan; Tashkent, Uzbekistan) within the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA), a regional program of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The empirically estimated site effects have already helped to improve real-time risk scenarios for Bishkek and will be applied to other major cities. - A crucial requirement for disaster risk reduction involves the analysis of the vulnerability of existing building inventories. Whereas traditional approaches are very time- and cost-consuming, and even impossible given the high rate of urbanization in Central Asian capitals, our integrated approach is based on satellite remote sensing and ground-based omni-directional imaging, providing building inventories and thus structural vulnerability over large areas (EMCA, GEM-IDCT). All mentioned activities are carried out within the framework of cooperation between GFZ and regional national institutes, in particular the Central Asian Institute for Applied Geosciences. Altogether, this comprehensive and long-term risk analyses and research program will lead to a better understanding of the coupling of endogene and exogene processes and the identification of their impact on society.

Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

2012-12-01

178

Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 through 2003  

Science.gov (United States)

This Circular updates and supersedes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 03–083, "Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 to 2000," with the addition of supply and consumption estimates and analysis from 2001 through 2003 and revisions to the consumption estimates for 1998 through 2000. The text from Open-File Report 03–083 also has been updated in this Circular to include revisions to and expansion of the time-series coverage. The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States produced about 3.29 million metric tons (Mt) of asbestos and used approximately 31.5 Mt between 1900 and 2003. About half of this amount was used after 1960. In 2002, the last asbestos mine in the United States closed, marking the end of more than 110 years of U.S. asbestos production. Cumulative world production from 1900 through 2003 was about 181 Mt. If one assumes that unusually large stocks were not maintained and that world consumption roughly equaled production, then about half of the world production and consumption occurred between the end of 1976 and the end of 2003. The United States and Western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of Kazakhstan and Russia by the 1970s. After the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the decline in world production and consumption began to be evident in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The 1991 breakup of the Soviet Union, a major user of asbestos, resulted in a significant decline in asbestos consumption and production in former Soviet-bloc countries. Consumption and production in Kazakhstan and Russia increased through 2003 from 2001, albeit to a much lower level than in the 1980s. In 2003, world consumption was estimated to be 2.11 Mt, about 45 percent that of 1980. Relatively few countries in Asia, the Middle East, South America, and the former Soviet Union remained as the leading users of asbestos. China was the leading consuming nation, using an estimated 492,000 metric tons (t) in 2003. China was followed, in decreasing order of consumption, by Russia (429,000 t), India (192,000 t), Kazakhstan (174,000 t), Ukraine (156,000 t), Thailand (133,000 t), Brazil (78,400 t), and Iran (75,800 t). These eight countries accounted for 82 percent of the world's apparent consumption in 2003. Following Iran, in decreasing order of consumption by tonnage, were Uzbekistan (42,400 t), Vietnam (39,400 t), Indonesia (32,300 t), the Republic of Korea (23,800 t), Kyrgyzstan (23,700 t), Japan (23,400 t), and Mexico (20,100 t). Consumption in all other countries was estimated to be less than 15,000 t each in 2003. Sizable consumption increases occurred in Azerbaijan, China, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Thailand, and Ukraine between 2000 and the end of 2003. Consumption patterns in countries using less than 5,000 t per year were too erratic to ascertain any trends in their use of asbestos.

Virta, Robert L.

2006-01-01

179

Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radium in natural water springs presents two main problems in radiological protection. The first problem is the direct 226Ra ingestion during the water consumption. The second problem is concerning the fact that the elevated radium concentration in water springs is the source of possible soil contamination by 226Ra and high radon concentration in the atmosphere of the dwellings situated over the contaminated place. Due to high radiotoxicity 226Ra is characterized by low action level (0.5 Bq/l for drinking water) and a high sensitivity technique is required to measure such low concentrations. The developed method of 226Ra concentration measurements is based on emanation technique: the specific activity of 226Ra is determined by radon volume activity measurement in closed system during the water sample bubbling. The main measuring steps are: Degassing, sealing and storage of the water sample during at least 2 weeks; Absorption of background 222Rn in the inner volume of measuring system consisting of radon monitor AlphaGUARD, set of glass vials AlphaKIT and air pump AlphaPUMP; Transfer of water sample in the system and beginning of air bubbling through the sample. Measurement of 222Rn concentration in closed system (at least 10 values of radon concentration) The minimum detected specific activity of 226Ra in such technique is 0.03 Bq/l without any need for preliminary radium concentration. After 2 week interval the water sample can be repeatedly measured. The 226Ra in water was measured in 4 regions with high levels of radon in dwellings: Ural (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Caucasus (Russia) and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). It was founded that high radon concentration in water (400-600 Bq/l) is not always lead to radium presence in the sample. In practically all of measured samples the radium specific activity was either below action level or a little above it. A close correlation between 226Ra in water and radon in dwellings was found only in Niska Banja and Caucasus. For these places the formation of travertine during the interaction of radium in water and limestone is typical. It should be noted that low 226Ra specific activity in water (approx. 0.15-0.4 Bq/l) can lead to high radium specific activity in travertine (up to 1000-1500 Bq/kg) and extremely high indoor radon concentration. The maximum 226Ra specific activity was measured in spring waters 'Slavyanovskaya' and 'Smirnovskaya' sampled in Zheleznovodsk (Caucasus) - 4.1 and 2.1 Bq/l. It should be noted that these waters are traditionally used as a mineral waters prescribed for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders during more then 150 years

2008-06-01

180

Eocene sea retreat out of Asia: paleogeography, controlling mechanisms and environmental impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

The sediments of the Central Asian basins include the remnants of the easternmost extent of a large epicontinental sea. Before it retreated westward and eventually separated as the Paratethys Sea following the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), this shallow marine sea extended across the Eurasian continent from the Mediterranean Tethys in the west to the Tarim Basin in western China in the east. However, the paleogeography and the timing of the westward retreat of the proto-Paratethys Sea are too poorly constrained to identify its proposed controlling mechanisms and paleoenvironmental impacts. The sea supposedly entered Central Asia in the Cretaceous and five third-order marine incursions have been recognized from the Cretaceous-Paleogene sedimentary record, of which the last two transgressions are documented here. We studied the sea retreat in the Tarim Basin in western China, the Alai Valley and Ferghana Basin in southern Kyrgyzstan and the Afghan-Tajik Basin in south-western Tajikistan. Integrated bio-magnetostratigraphic dating shows that the sea retreated westward from the Tarim Basin in stepwise fashion. The major fourth transgression occurred during the Lutetian, after which the sea retreated from the southwest Tarim Basin paleodepocenter at ~41 Ma (base C18r). The last and fifth transgression was restricted to the westernmost margin of the Tarim basin and occurred during latest Bartonian-early Priabonian (base C17n.3n-base C16n.1n). At the level of precision of our dating, each of these marine incursions is apparently synchronous across the Tarim Basin suggesting rapid regional transgression/regression cycles in these shallow epicontinental basins with limited diachroneity. The shallow marine near-shore sediments of these last two transgressions can be convincingly correlated by litho- and biostratigraphy across Central Asia, showing for the first time that the sea may have largely retreated from Central Asia in the late Eocene. The lack of apparent diachroneity of the two last regressions and their concomitancy with the closure of the Turgai Strait in the late Lutetian, with short-term cooling events recognized in contemporary marine records, important late Eocene regressions documented in European basins (e.g. Paris Basin, Ebro Basin, and Transylvanian Basin) and with minor drops in global sea-level, suggest that the individual marine incursions may have been controlled by short-term global fluctuations in sea-level. On the other hand, the gradual continuous character of the marine-continental transitions and the westward paleogeographic step between the fourth and fifth incursions, separated by several millions of years, rather are typical of long-term tectonic control. Tectonism is likely related to the Eocene India-Asia collision and Pamir initiation to the south in agreement with the infilling with northward paleoflow directions observed in the investigated sections. This is confirmed here by paleomagnetic data from the southwest Tarim Basin showing that clockwise rotation initiated after the fourth marine incursion, probably in response to initial symmetric radial thrusting of the Pamir Mountains. However, the presence of a major disconformity in the southwest Tarim Basin at the EOT, associated with a major global sea-level fall, confirms that the Tarim Basin remained hydrologically connected to the Mediterranean Tethys in the Eocene and had not yet been isolated by tectonic uplift of the surrounding mountains. This is in agreement with previously reported late Oligocene-early Miocene exhumation ages of the Pamir-Kunlun orogenic system and proposed kinematic models suggesting that after late Oligocene-early Miocene initiation of slip along the Kashgar-Yecheng Transfer System along the Eastern Pamir. This is consistent with the paleomagnetic data presented here showing that after the Oligocene deformation became asymmetric with ceased clockwise rotation in the Tarim Basin and continued anticlockwise rotation on the western side in the Afghan-Tajik Basin. The stepwise sea retreat and disconformity are concur

Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Bosboom, Roderic; Proust, Jean-Noël; Mandic, Oleg; Villa, Giuliana; Grothe, Arjan; Stoica, Marius; Guo, Zhaojie; Krijgsman, Wout; Yang, Wei; Bougeois, Laurie; Aminov, Jovid; Ormukov, Cholponbec; Huang, Wentao

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

Building momentum to minimize highly enriched uranium use, improve nuclear security and combat nuclear terrorism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Much has been done to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism under the auspices of international programs such as the G-8 Global Partnership, the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism, and the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. Despite the practical progress in removing the threat that terrorist groups could obtain the fissile material for an improvised nuclear device, however, much more work remains. In 1980, the 59 states participating in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation agreed that the civilian use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) should be minimized. Decades later, and despite dramatic new threats to world peace, the pledge to forego the use of HEU is not yet universal or legally binding. Nor have improvements to the physical security of this material been sufficient in many locations. This paper surveys the international measures that have been taken towards the formation of an international norm to minimize BEU risks through established mechanisms and suggests several additional approaches that may help to solidify support for practical measures and accelerate the process of civil HEU minimization and improved security globally. HEU reduction requires global cooperation: eliminating a small holding of HEU at a single facility or upgrading its security does not greatly reduce terrorist risks overall. Policymakers must be sure that their counterparts in other states arc engaged in similar efforts. A global HEU minimization norm would validate each nation's efforts, no matter how small, and provide a disincentive for inaction. Clearer standards for the security of this material and commitments to meet these standards would serve the same purpose. While each failure 10 act poses its own risks, it also erodes the usefulness of HEU elimination programs elsewhere and sends the wrong political message to the rest of the world. Moreover, it is technically impossible to minimize the largest REU holdings-those at fuel cycle facilities-until the end users of HEU no longer demand this material. And it should be noted that nearly all HEU trafficking cases involve material originating from fuel cycle facilities. Both practical and political considerations demand greater high level attention to minimizing HEU and improving its security. Great technological progress has been made since programs were initiated to convert reactors and medical isotope production processes, remove and reduce nuclear materials worldwide, and protect at-risk nuclear materials from theft and sabotage. The new technical capabilities have not been translated into significant reductions in HEU use, however, due to a lack of overarching political solutions. To date, only a few countries have indicated formally their support for HEU minimization, among them Iceland, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden in the context of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons review process, though there have been international calls for HEU minimization in other fora, including the G-8 'Action Plan on Nonproliferation' issued at the Sea Island summit of 2004 and the 2007 Astana joint statement of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. New measures are needed, however, to make these commitments real. With this in mind, the James Martin Center for Non-proliferation Studies has led an effort to draft HEU guidelines, modeled in part on the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (INFCIRC/549). There is international interest in such guidelines. France, for example, called for the adoption of HEU guidelines at the 2007 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2010 NPT Review Conference. HEU guidelines would codify best management practices, allow states to commit to national management strategies, and provide updated security recommendations, as this paper discusses in detail. While HEU guidelines are voluntary measures aimed at states, there are also ways that nuclear enterprises and other stakeholder groups can move the policy process forward. The adoption of resolutions by such groups can be good for business and

2009-04-03

182

Automated landslide identification based on temporal NDVI-trajectories using long-term optical multi-sensor time-series data  

Science.gov (United States)

Landslides are a world-wide occurring natural hazard leading to severe loss of life and infrastructure. Objective and dynamic landslide hazard assessment requires profound knowledge about spatiotemporal occurrence of landslides. Thus, landslide inventories, which are a prerequisite for landslide hazard and risk assessment, have to be as complete as possible in time and space. So far, for many parts of the world such multi-temporal landslide inventories are largely missing, because the preparation relies mainly on very time consuming and resource intensive conventional methods, i.e. visual interpretation of optical data aided by comprehensive field surveys. Against this background, long-term archives of satellite remote sensing data, such as the USGS level 1T Landsat-(E)TM database open up new opportunities for analysis of landslide occurrence at a regional scale. However, in order to achieve best possible temporal data coverage, multi-sensor data have to be used. In this study such a satellite remote sensing database has been established for an area of 12,000 km² in Southern Kyrgyzstan, which is strongly affected by landslides. The database consists of about 700 orthorectified multispectral mid- and high-resolution satellite remote sensing datasets acquired by Landsat-(E)TM, SPOT, IRS-1C (LISS3), ASTER and RapidEye during the last 27 years. This builds the methodological framework for developing a reliable and robust automated landslide identification approach with the potential for global applicability. The developed approach comprises automated multi-sensor pre-processing and multi-temporal change detection methods. Change detection requires a precise spatial alignment of the whole database. Therefore an automated image-to-image co-registration approach has been developed using time series of USGS level 1T Landsat-(E)TM data as spatial reference. Accuracy assessment has shown a high relative image-to-image accuracy of 17 m (RMSE) and a high absolute accuracy of 23 m (RMSE) of the whole co-registered multi-temporal database making it suitable for automated landslide detection at a regional scale. The developed change detection approach is based on the analysis of temporal NDVI-trajectories which are obtained for every pixel across the analysed time span. NDVI-trajectories represent specific temporal footprints of vegetation changes. They allow for automatic identification of landslide events due to landslide-specific footprints represented by short-term vegetation cover destruction as well as longer-term revegetation rates as effects of landslide related disturbance and dislocation of soil. In combination with DEM-derivatives (e.g. slope, stream order) the developed approach enables automated object-based identification of landslides of different sizes, shapes and in different stages of development (i.e. fresh failures, reactivations and relocations) and thus is suitable for mapping spatiotemporal landslide activity under varying natural conditions (land cover and lithology). This approach has been applied to the spatial and temporal high resolution RapidEye database acquired between 2009 and 2013 for the whole study area. In the result 612 landslides could be identified with sizes ranging between 125 and 750,000 m² representing a total landslide affected area of approx. 7.3 million m². Currently, this approach is extended to the whole multi-sensor time-series database.

Behling, Robert; Roessner, Sigrid; Segl, Karl; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Kaufmann, Hermann

2014-05-01

183

Dynamics of large landslide movement over coal mine Angren, in period of different strong distant earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1985, on the working coal mine Angren board began to develop landslide "Central", and another landslide "Old substation" formed in 1993. In 2001 the process of connecting these two adjacent sites has been started, and in 2011 two landslides were merged. As a result, the upper band formed graben like longitudinal down warping with width 150 m, length 1400 m and an amplitude of 0.5-2 m, volume of the landslide was 120-130 m3. Motion of the landslide mass with average thickness of 100 m occurs in a shallow surface 40 in the contact zone of limestone with fine-grained sands and greenish clays of Paleogene. Merging of landslides occurred in result of earthquake impact from Hindu Kush in March 21, 2011, M = 5.8, at depth 196 km. Intensity of motions in Angren 2-3 units and effective duration of 105 seconds. Geodetic GPS measurements carried out there since 2005, regular cycle was held March, 21 in the morning before the earthquake, after 10-12 hours the earthquake was carried out repeated measurement. There was a sharp increase in groundwater discharge, in the upper ledges of mine was formed lake 20-25 m long, 15 m wide and 1 m deep. At the bottom of the mine employees watched the water flow, which probably is connected with the vibration and deformation of the underground hydrogeological system. The rate of displacement of landslide in the day of the earthquake is not sharply increased. It began to be accelerated in the course of 57 days (21.03-17.05) in the Central zone from 168 to 749 mm / day and 79 days (21.03-8.06) in the upper zone from 68 to 385.4 mm/day. Then, the displacement velocity began to decline during the past two months to 310.8 mm/day (middle) and 255 mm / day in the upper zone. In 19.07.2011, there was a local earthquake in Kyrgyzstan, M = 6.2, H = 10-12 km, distance 135 km from Angren with intensity of 5 units, duration of horizontal vibrations 60-70 seconds. By carried out repeated GPS measurements after 12 hours, the acceleration of the displacement was noted only in one benchmark (6), located in the upper zone, where the vertical displacement increased to 431 mm/day and subsided to 2-2.5 m. The horizontal dis-placement for 5 days before the earthquake was equal to 255 mm/day, after the earthquake, 223 mm/day, i.e. this earthquake did not cause the rate change. Thus, two different earth-quakes, occurred at different times caused different effects, but activation of the landslide determines by the state of critical stability of mine board.

Nyazov, R.; Nurtaev, B.

2011-12-01

184

OH CHARACTERS OF AMAN SASPAEV STORIES AMAN SASPAEV’?N ÖYKÜLER?NDE K???LER DÜNYASI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aman Saspayev who started his writer's life at China and is one of the today's Kyrgyz literature writers, his stories hold a peculiar place in a technical organization and also in terms of expression at Kyrgyz storytelling. First stories of writer published at 1966 with the name of Gülkay?r (Ebegümeci after he had returned from China to Kyrgyzstan. Aman Saspayev who used a symbolic language, had fronted to status storytelling more than event storytelling. Probably for this reoson people's world at stories consist of ordinary people, objects and assets.In this study, through people at stories of Aman Saspayev, we will try to analyze the technic of writer. In this study also we will give place to some elements which reflected from writer's life to his stories.Such that to determined Kyrgyz and Uyghurs as a story heros of his stories that he had written at China to give ordinary occurrence also has thematic contents. Aman Saspayev, although he had written many stories during Soviet Union, he avoid bad discourses or good discourses about Union.In our article also it will be given a place about the writer's stance against the Soviet system using his stories. Yazarl?k hayat?na Çin’de ba?layan ve K?rg?z edebiyat?n?n günümüz yazarlar?ndan birisi olan Aman Saspayev’in öyküleri, gerek teknik kurulu? ve gerekse anlat? bak?m?ndan K?rg?z öykücülü?ünde kendine mahsus bir yer tutar. Yazar?n ilk öyküleri Çin’den K?rg?zistan’a döndükten sonra 1966’da Gülkay?r (Ebegümeci ad?yla yay?mlan?r. ?lk öykülerinden itibaren sembolik bir dil kullanan Aman Saspayev, olay öykücülü?ünden daha çok durum öykücülü?üne yönelmi?tir. Bu sebeple olsa gerek öykülerdeki ki?iler dünyas? s?radan insanlar, nesneler veya varl?klardan olu?ur. Bu çal??mada Aman Saspayev’in öykülerindeki ki?iler arac?l??? ile yazar?n öykü tekni?ini çözümlenmeye çal???lacakt?r. Yazar?n hayat?ndan öykülere yans?yan kimi unsurlara da bu çal??mada yer verilecektir. Öyle ki Çin’de yazd??? öykülerinde s?radan olu?u vermek için yazar?n buradaki K?rg?zlar? ve Uygurlar? öykü kahramanlar? olarak belirlemi? olmas? dahi tematik bir içeri?e sahiptir. Aman Saspayev, eserlerinin ço?unu Sovyetler Birli?i zaman?nda yazmas?na ra?men, Sovyet sistemine ili?kin olumlayan ya da olumsuzlayan söylemlerden kaç?n?r. Makalede yazar?n Sovyet sistemi kar??s?ndaki duru?una da öykülerinden hareketle yer verilmi?tir.

Chinara SASYKULOVA

2011-09-01

185

Estimation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central asia and the Caucasus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: It is our international Program with the participation of 6 countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. For all presented regions we single out the following typical factors that significantly increase a risk of implementing natural and man-induced catastrophes: (1) these regions are located in the mountain areas with the high seismic level (5- 9 grades by Richter scale); (2) the largest mountain rivers have cascades of powerful hydroelectric stations with their sizeable reservoirs and huge high dams (>100m); (3) on the regions' densely populated lands there are plenty of mines for extraction of metals/minerals, industrial facilities and plants with U-tailing dumps and burrows of varied pollutants with using the different radioactive, toxic and poisonous substances in their technologies; (3) the man-induced activity here increases probabilities for occurrence of not only severe man-induced catastrophes, but also natural ones; (4) An especially grave situation has been created on trans boundary lands of these continue, due to the lack of common ecological and geochemical monitoring systems, that increases political and economic tension between the countries and generating negative migration processes; (5) risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes are not only regional but also global by nature, since they entail contamination of vast lands, the basins of the Black, Caspian and Kara Seas, that of the Arctic Ocean and, consequently, the entire World Ocean; (6) opportunity to perform deliberate attacks of terrorists with the using of explosives, that are able to cause man-induced catastrophes and stimulate natural calamities (earthquakes, mud flows, landslips, etc.). It is easier to implement attacks of terrorists there due to the intersection of main lines, an available border with current centers of international terrorism, located in Chechnya, Afghanistan and some others. The hazard is especially great for new independent states, where the system of safety, boundary and customs control, that of strict visa control and other state safety measures have not yet been formed. Consequences of terrorist attacks in the regions will be followed by major human and huge material losses, and extremely negative irreversible global scale environmental effects. The humankind has faced the majority of the above issues for the first time and, therefore, there are no good suitable methods provided for their solving. A purposeful activity of all countries of the world community is required. Program's results of Program 3 will be used in the following: (1) When developing a methodology/strategy to regulate and manage risks in emergencies; (2) when mapping risk allocation by various lands; (3) when developing a common system for emergency prevention/elimination. Our Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAS) has own experience in these scientific directions (http://www.ibrae.ac.ru). This Program will promote the realization of concept of substantial development with growth of economical cooperation and stability, decreasing of political stress not only for the countries- participants, but also at global scale for all countries, located at the continent. (author)

2006-09-01

186

Chelyabinsk meteoroid: seismological observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of present work was analysis of seismological phenomena emerged due to Chelyabinsk airburst (15 February 2013). According to different astronomical and seismological agencies reports airburst coordinates and time vary over a wide range and its energy ranges from 70 kt to 1.4 Mkt of TNT equivalent (1 kt = 4.185·1012 J) [reports by NASA; USGS; CTBTO; Perm Regional Seismological Center; Kazakhstan Seismological Center; Department of Physics and Astronomy of University of Western Ontario; Le Pichon et al., 2013; Borovicka et al., 2013; Brown et al., 2013; Tauzin et al., 2013; Gokhberg et al., 2013; Seleznev et al., 2013]. We used records obtained by broadband seismic station global networks (Iris/Ida, Iris/USGS) and by regional networks (Iris/China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Baikal Regional Seismological Center). Data provided by IRIS Data Management System (Seattle, Washington, USA, www.iris.edu/). Seismogram visual analysis showed the presence at several stations of the seismic wave, which at the time of occurrence and form may be associated with the explosion of a meteoroid. It was recorded at 32 stations and is a short period motion (period T = 3-16 sec) for up to 1 minute. This wave was defined by us as the Rayleigh surface wave. Maximum epicentral distance at which confidently fixed surface wave is about 3650 km (station LSA, Tibet). At stations located farther away from the airburst site, the signal is noisy by surface waves from the earthquake Tonga (February 15, 2013, origin time 03:02:23.3, M=5.8, coordinates -19.72N, -174.48W, report by USGS). Spectral analysis showed that the recorded signal at short epicentral distances (up to 1300 km) is most manifest in the low frequency range - 0.25 (0.5) up to 1 Hz, while the remote stations for surface wave is lost in microseismic noise. A visual analysis of the arrival times of Rayleigh waves at seismic stations located at different epicentral distances are marked with their nonlinear: at close distances much lower rate than in the remote, and the average 2.4 and 3.2 km/s, respectively. This nonlinearity can be explained from the viewpoint of surface Rayleigh wave as a result of exposure to acoustic (infrasound) wave from the explosion of a meteoroid in atmosphere on the earth's surface [Tauzin et al., 2013; Ewing et al., 1957; Edwards et al., 2007]. The difference in the velocities of seismic and acoustic waves (velocity of propagation of sound waves in air is ~0.3 km/s) explains the relatively low rate of arrival of the surface wave at seismic stations close. The average surface wave velocity is 3.2 km/s. Dominant period method was used for estimation of surface wave attenuation - values obtained seismic Q and its dependence on frequency. Dependence of Q on the frequency is exponential: QR(f)=1700·exp1.2. Seismic energy was evaluated by surface wave magnitude (magnitude Ms and MS). To calculate the magnitude of the maximum amplitude used Ms surface wave measured at periods ranging from 18 to 22 sec, for calculating the magnitude MS - ranging from 3 to 60 sec. The resulting average values are equal magnitudes 4.1 and 4.2. Analysis of the azimuthal distribution of values for surface wave magnitude (Ms), the maximum amplitudes and frequencies of surface waves showed that these parameters have a distinct azimuthal orientation, oriented according to the flight path of the meteoroid. Fixed azimuthal orientation can be explained by the Doppler effect - the dependence of the oscillation frequency of the direction of motion of the source. The minimum and maximum

Dobrynina, Anna; Chechelnitsky, Vladimir; Chernykh, Evgeny; Sankov, Vladimir

2014-05-01

187

Isotope composition and uranium content in the rivers Naryn and Mailuu-Suu  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To solve the atomic problem, including the creation of an atomic weapon, one must embark on an intensive exploration and mining of radioactive raw materials, first among which uranium, together with other materials and metals. The acquisition of all these materials has thus been accompanied by the creation of a great deal of production and storage wastes and other refuse from plants, leading to many problems of protecting the environment from radioactive and other hazardous metals and materials. And so, as a result of the extensive mining and processing of radioactive and other raw materials that had been necessary for the atomic industry, in locations like Kara-Balty, Mailuu-Suu, Kavak, Kadamzhay and other places, a series of radioactive and hazardous tailings and dumps has been generated in the Kyrgyz Republic. The toxic ingredients from the dumps migrate and mix together with the ground waters that leach the tailings. However, how these waters migrate both in space and time have not been sufficiently studied; and, so, in general, we cannot forecast the propagation of these hazards. In the usual estimation of the scale of migration from uranium plants, only the total uranium content in the ground water is used. But this does not show natural or technogenic components; and it is obvious that the danger from the plants need only be characterized by the technogenic components. To solve this problem, one can employ the phenomenon where there is a natural separation in the fraction of 234U and 238U present in nature and as a result of technological processes. The essence of this understanding is that, as uranium transitions from solid form into a liquid, such as its dissolution in ground water, it undergoes isotope enrichment, i.e. hydrogenic uranium is enriched with 234U compared to 238U.The essence of this understanding is that, as uranium transitions from solid form into a liquid, such as its dissolution in ground water, it undergoes isotope enrichment, i.e. hydrogenic uranium is enriched with 234U compared to 238U. In the technological cycle, during the extraction of the uranium element by dissolution from uranium ore (or from any other mineral raw material), the proportion between the uranium isotopes does not change. That is, the technological process does not lead to the enhancement of one uranium isotope over another. So, there is some real possibility that, by measuring the magnitude of ? = 234U/238U in various environments, one can discern technogenic uranium (where ? = 0) from the uranium leached into ground waters from dumps and tailings (where ? > 0). In this work we attempted to utilize this effect for the purpose of defining the technogenic fraction of uranium in the waters of the Naryn and Mailuu-Suu rivers. To measure uranium content CU and isotopic concentration ratio ?, samples were taken from these rivers at locations shown in Figure 1. The sampling was performed within the framework of Project Navruz-an international program of collaboration for the trans-boundary monitoring of rivers, sponsored by the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and the United States of America. Further information about this project can be found on this web site: http://www.cmc.sandia.gov/Central/centralasia.html

2002-01-01

188

Problems of radiation safety at mined out uranium properties in Uzbekistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Republic of Uzbekistan was one of the main uranium production areas in former Soviet Union for more than 40 years. About 150 uranium production facilities have been constructed for that time in connection with hydrothermal and sedimentary-metamorphic deposits of the fold basement and stratal-infiltration deposits of the sedimentary cover. 18 of these facilities are located in Tadzhikistan and Kyrgyzstan along the boundary with Uzbekistan. Exploration and operation activities in the deposits located in the fold basement were in general in form of mining. It was resulted in essential violation of landscape, development of various underground excavations, damps, tailing impoundments, lower grade stockpiles. All these need large volume of radioactive decontamination and restoration activities. 54 sites from 67 (80%) located in the territory of Uzbekistan need radioactive decontamination and restoration now. Very serious radiation settings have occurred in some of these sites nowadays. Radioactive dumps of Cherkesar-I and Cherkesar-II mined out uranium deposits are out of any control in Fergana valley in Pap region of Namangan province. The radioactive materials are collected in dumps covered with neutral ground. The cover is washed out in some places by rains. Intensity of gamma radiation is 300 to 450 ?r/h, radon exhalation is up to 7 Bk/m2*sec (while the normal level is up to 1 Bk/m2*sec). Water runs out from mothballed mines and its microelement composition is close to the composition of the technological solution. The water contains a number of very toxic elements (beryllium, manganese, iron, and aluminum). Water concentration of radionuclides is uranium - 23.4 Bk/1 (the normal level is 9.6), radon - 1433 (80), radium - 15.9 (0.94). The same set of the toxicants has been found in bottom sediment of a stream, its total alpha-activity reaches 35 to 81 KBk/kg. The spring water runs to a small valley and then to a village where the water is used for cattle watering and irrigation, that is hazardous for the local people health. Living in stone houses is also hazardous as they have been built of damp material and plastered with sand from Uigursai uranium deposit located in vicinity with the village. 250 living and public buildings have been examined. Gamma-activity level of 60 to 120 ?r/h was observed in 50% of them, radon exhalation is 200-500 to 3000 Bk/m3 (normal level is 100). The village habitants suffer from increasing rate of disease of blood, circulation and respiratory organs, urogenital system and oncologic diseases. Similar situation can be seen in other mined-out uranium facilities of the Republic (Yangiabad, Rezak, Shakaptar and others). Radiation setting is happier in the cover mined-out facilities because the underground leaching (UL) technique, which is much more environmentally safer, was used there. However, local contamination of surface of the UL sites and, mainly, underground water of ore-bearing horizon occurs and preserves for a long time using this technique. Main reasons of the contamination are: technologic solution spillings, disbalance of pumping-in and pumping-out, solutions remained in leaching areas, running out of these solutions into neighbouring horizons. Sulphuric acid underground leaching has lead to essential deterioration of environmental condition of ore bearing horizon underground water in the site under operation. The underground water was assayed for 27 components. Major of them noticeably exceeds the ultimate permissible concentrations. These are, before all, the solvent components - sulphate-ions and ions of hydrogen, leached elements - uranium, iron, aluminum, manganese, some heavy metals and other toxic elements, products of technological processing - nitrates and others. The highest contamination rate was observed for sulphates - 20 times and more, aluminum and uranium - hundreds times, iron and beryllium - thousand times. In spite of the fact that areas of contamination in case of underground leaching are rather small and, as a rule, not exceed 100 m - 150 m radius from the UL

2002-04-01

189

Formulation of humic-based soil conditioners  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of the study is to prepare soil conditioners (SC) able to carry out the following functions: (i) the chemical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the adjustment of pH, (ii) the balancing of inorganic nutrients, (iii) the physical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the improvement of water permeability, air permeability and water retention properties, and (iv) improvement of the ecological system concerning of useful microorganisms activity in the soil. The SC was made of a mixture of inorganic ingredients, a chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of which promoted improvement of physical characteristic of soil and enrichment by its mineral nutritious elements. In addition to aforesaid ingredients, this soil conditioner contains agronomical-valued groups of microorganisms having the function promoting the growth of the crop. As organic component of SC humic acids (HA) was used. HA serve many major functions that result in better soil and plant health. In soil, HA can increase microbial and mycorrhizal activity while enhancing nutrient uptake by plant roots. HA work as a catalyst by stimulating root and plant growth, it may enhance enzymatic activity that in turn accelerates cell division which can lead to increased yields. HA can help to increase crop yields, seed germination, and much more. In short, humic acids helps keep healthy plants health. The first stage goal was to evaluate mineral and organic ingredients for formulation of SC. Soil conditioners assessed included ash and slag. The use of slags has been largelly used in agriculture as a source of lime and phosphoric acid. The silicic acid of slags reduces Al-acitivity thus, promoting a better assimilation of P-fertilizer by plants. Additionally, silicic acid is also known to improve soil moisture capacity, thus enhancing soil water availability to plants. Physico-chemical characteristics of ash and slag were determined, as a total - about 20 samples. Results include: Chemical composition of (i) ash: 53-54% SiO2; 26-27% Al2O3; 3-5% Fe2O3; 1.7-2.9% CaO; 1.3-2.3% MgO; 0.5-0.8% Na2O; 1.0-1.5% K2O and; (ii), slag: 17-20% SiO2; 15-20% Al2O3; 30-40% CaO; 1-6% Fe2O3; 4-11% MgO. Of all samples assessed, per 5 samples from various regions with various compositions (high, average and low content of metal oxides) were selected and tested as component of SC in vegetative pot and field experiments, i.e., to study the immobilization processes including microorganisms and inorganic ingredients. This study helped to elucidate the influence of ash and slag composition on microbial development. The next stage was (i) to evaluate microbial activity of selected soils from Kyrgyzstan, (ii) to isolate microorganisms exhibiting antagonistic activity against pathogenic microorganisms present in the soil and, (iii) to utilize microbes as nutrient sources. Candidate microbial cultures were isolated from soils/crops and assessed as plant growth promoting microorganisms. The characteristics of the physiological groups of microorganisms were also investigated. Of different physiological groups of microorganisms selected, ca, 3 consortia of agronomical-valued microbial groups from undisturbed soils was selected as component of soil conditioners. Microorganisms, namely oligonitrophils, ammonifiers, nitrifiers, were tested based on beneficial bioactivity including plant biomass and stem length on commercial onion and lettuce crops. Our results demonstrate that all the combinations ash/slag, humic acids and consortium of beneficial agronomical-valued microbial groups into one environmentally friendly soil conditioner possessed equal or higher growth-promoting potential in relation to lettuce. However, our results demonstrated clearly that among studied scope of soil conditioners only one of them could be recommended for further study in terms of practical applications. Namely, it was mixture consisting of humic acids, ash and oligonitrophils as soil conditioning agent. Acknowledgement. This research was supported by the grant of ISTC KR-993.2.

Amanova, M. A.; Mamytova, G. A.; Mamytova, B. A.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

2009-04-01

190

Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples; Untersuchungen zur Uransorption an Bentonit bzw. Montmorillonit sowie von Uran in Umweltproben  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The geotechnical barrier is an important component of a geological repository and consists of compacted bentonite surrounding radioactive waste containers. Its most important functions are, to retard the radionuclide migration into the biosphere and to prevent groundwater contact with containers. lt is therefore of central importance to investigate the bentonite material on its capacity to sorb radionuclides under near-natural chemical and physical conditions. The purpose of this work was to study the adsorption of uranium(VI) on bentonit and on montmorillonite-standards at high uranium concentrations. Thereby, a special account was given to the calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation, which leads to the formation of very stable and mobile uncharged Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} complex. Results of batch experiments showed that the dicalcium-uranyl-tricarbonate complexation lowers the uranium(VI) sorption on natural clay (bentonite) by a factor of up to 3. After 21 days of contact time, about 40 % and 20 % of the initial uranium(VI)concentration were sorbed on Na-bentonite and ea-bentonite, respectively, from a solution with Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} dominating the uranium(VI) speciation. On the contrary, about 55 % of the initial uranium(VI)-concentration were sorbed on thes clays from the solution, in which (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}{sup -} complex dominated the uranium(VI) speciation. Thus uranium(VI) sorption is more strongly influenced by the solution composition than by bentonite type. Na-bentonite should be used instead of ea-bentonite as a geotechnical barrier, since calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation may be a realistic scenario. Further SEM-EDX and HREM-EDX studies showed that uranium(VI) sorption occurred predominantly on montmorillonite, which is the main component of bentonite. Uranium(VI) sorption on bentonite's accessory Minerals (pyrite, calcite, mica, and feldspar) was not observed. Investigation of uranium(VI) sorption on four montmorillonite-standard, which are distinguished by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling uranium releases from tailings into the aquatic system. The results showed that uranium(VI)

Azeroual, Mohamed

2010-09-22

191

Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geotechnical barrier is an important component of a geological repository and consists of compacted bentonite surrounding radioactive waste containers. Its most important functions are, to retard the radionuclide migration into the biosphere and to prevent groundwater contact with containers. lt is therefore of central importance to investigate the bentonite material on its capacity to sorb radionuclides under near-natural chemical and physical conditions. The purpose of this work was to study the adsorption of uranium(VI) on bentonit and on montmorillonite-standards at high uranium concentrations. Thereby, a special account was given to the calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation, which leads to the formation of very stable and mobile uncharged Ca2UO2(CO3)3 complex. Results of batch experiments showed that the dicalcium-uranyl-tricarbonate complexation lowers the uranium(VI) sorption on natural clay (bentonite) by a factor of up to 3. After 21 days of contact time, about 40 % and 20 % of the initial uranium(VI)concentration were sorbed on Na-bentonite and ea-bentonite, respectively, from a solution with Ca2UO2(CO3)3 dominating the uranium(VI) speciation. On the contrary, about 55 % of the initial uranium(VI)-concentration were sorbed on thes clays from the solution, in which (UO2)2CO3(OH)3- complex dominated the uranium(VI) speciation. Thus uranium(VI) sorption is more strongly influenced by the solution composition than by bentonite type. Na-bentonite should be used instead of ea-bentonite as a geotechnical barrier, since calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation may be a realistic scenario. Further SEM-EDX and HREM-EDX studies showed that uranium(VI) sorption occurred predominantly on montmorillonite, which is the main component of bentonite. Uranium(VI) sorption on bentonite's accessory Minerals (pyrite, calcite, mica, and feldspar) was not observed. Investigation of uranium(VI) sorption on four montmorillonite-standard, which are distinguished by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling uranium releases from tailings into the aquatic system. The results showed that uranium(VI) speciation in water samples is controlled by pH as well as bicarbonate and calcium

2010-01-01

192

K?rg?z Sözlükçülü?ünde Husein [Karasayeviç] Karasayev Ve Konstantin [Kuzmiç] Yudahin’in Yeri The Place Of Husein [Karasayevich] Karasayev And Konstantin [Kuzmich] Yudahin In Kyrgyz Lexicography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this notification, there will be discussed the Kyrgyzlexicography contribution of K. KARASAYEV and K. K. YUDAHIN.Dictionaries has a very important role in the formation of the standardlanguage. The Kyrgyz writing language has been formed in the XXcentury at the end of the first quarter. K. KARASAYEV and K. K.YUDAHIN has a big effect both in creating the Kyrgyz writing languageand in the Kyrgyz lexicography.In this labor will be analyzed the various prints of the Kyrgyzspelling guide that was done by K. KARASAYEV who helped in formingof dictionaries in Kyrgyzstan and editor of all the variants of the Kyrgyzalphabet,and the Kyrgz-Russian dictionary of K. K. YUDAHIN will bedealed with all the differences of the prints.The Kyrgyz-Russian dictionaries first print was in the year of1940, the second print was in 1965, the third print was in 1985 and thefourth was done in the 1999. YUDAHIN's dictionary has a very bigreputation which shows the Kyrgyz word treasures and the usages ofthe words. Yudahin started the work in 1920 with collecting thematerials like textbooks, newspapers, magazines and folklore. Thisdictionary consists of the Kyrgyz languages word treasure, historicaland etnographic idioms, folklore materials, old idioms andapproximately two thousand idioms and proverbs. This Kyrgyz-Russiandictionary is also an encyclopaedic dictionary because Kyrgyz traditionwith its history and culture has a rich content. Bu makalede Husein [Karasayeviç] Karasayev ve Konstantin [Kuzmiç] Yudahin’in K?rg?z sözlükçülü?üne katk?s? ele al?nm??t?r. Bir standart dilin olu?mas?nda sözlüklerin rolü büyüktür. K?rg?zca yaz? dili XX. yüzy?l?n ilk çeyre?inin sonlar?nda olu?mu?tur. Gerek K?rg?zca yaz? dilinin olu?turulmas?nda ve gerekse K?rg?z sözlükçülü?ünde K. Karasayev ve K. K. Yudahin’in önemli bir yeri vard?r.Bu çal??mada K?rg?zistan’da sözlüklerin olu?turulmas?nda önemli rol oynayan ve K?rg?z alfabesinin tüm çe?itlenmelerini düzenlemi? olan H. K. Karasayev taraf?ndan haz?rlanan K?rg?zca imla k?lavuzunun çe?itli bask?lar? incelenmi?, ayr?ca K. K. Yudahin’in K?rg?zca-Rusça Sözlü?ünün tüm bask?lar? farkl?l?klar?yla birlikte ele al?nm??t?r.K?rg?zca-Rusça Sözlü?ün ilk bask?s? 1940 y?l?nda, ikinci bask?s? 1965 y?l?nda, üçüncü bask?s? 1985 y?l?nda, dördüncü bask?s? ise 1999 y?l?nda yap?lm??t?r. K?rg?z dilinin kelime hazinesini tespit eden ve kelimelerin kullan??lar?n? gösteren Yudahin’in sözlü?ü birçok ülkede büyük ün kazanm??t?r. Yudahin, çal??mas? için gerekli malzemeleri 1920 y?llar?nda ders kitaplar?, gazeteler, dergiler ve folklordan derleme?e ba?lam??t?r. Bu sözlükte, o dönemdeki K?rg?z dilinin kelime hazinesi, tarihî ve etnografya terimler, folklorik malzemeler, eski tabirler, yakla??k olarak iki bin atasözü ve deyim yer almaktad?r. K. K. Yudahin’in K?rg?zca-Rusça Sözlü?ü K?rg?z gelenekleri, tarihi ve kültürüyle ilgili çok zengin malzeme içermesinin yan?nda ayn? zamanda ansiklopedik bir sözlük özelli?ini ta??maktad?r.Ekim Devrimi’ne [24 Ekim 1917] kadar okuryazar K?rg?zlar, Ça?atayca kullan?yorlard?. Ekim Devrimi’nin ilk y?llar?nda okullarda e?itim dili Kazakça ve Tatarca idi. 1923 y?l?ndan itibaren ilk defa K?rg?zca okul kitaplar? ç?kar?lma?a ba?lanm??, böylece K?rg?zca art?k resmî dil olarak kullan?lma?a ba?lanm??t?r.

Faruk ÖZTÜRK

2012-12-01

193

Glaciers of Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter is the ninth to be released in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, a series of 11 chapters. In each of the geographic area chapters, remotely sensed images, primarily from the Landsat 1, 2, and 3 series of spacecraft, are used to analyze the specific glacierized region of our planet under consideration and to monitor glacier changes. Landsat images, acquired primarily during the middle to late 1970s and early 1980s, were used by an international team of glaciologists and other scientists to study various geographic regions and (or) to discuss related glaciological topics. In each glacierized geographic region, the present areal distribution of glaciers is compared, wherever possible, with historical information about their past extent. The atlas provides an accurate regional inventory of the areal extent of glacier ice on our planet during the 1970s as part of a growing international scientific effort to measure global environmental change on the Earth?s surface. The chapter is divided into seven geographic parts and one topical part: Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union (F-1), Glaciers of China (F-2), Glaciers of Afghanistan (F?3), Glaciers of Pakistan (F-4), Glaciers of India (F-5), Glaciers of Nepal (F?6), Glaciers of Bhutan (F-7), and the Paleoenvironmental Record Preserved in Middle-Latitude, High-Mountain Glaciers (F-8). Each geographic section describes the glacier extent during the 1970s and 1980s, the benchmark time period (1972-1981) of this volume, but has been updated to include more recent information. Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union are located in the Russian Arctic and various mountain ranges of Russia and the Republics of Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakstun. The Glacier Inventory of the USSR and the World Atlas of Ice and Snow Resources recorded a total of 28,881 glaciers covering an area of 78,938 square kilometers (km2). China includes many of the mountain-glacier systems of the world including the Himalaya, Karakorum, Tien Shan and Altay mountain ranges. The glaciers are widely scattered and cover an area of about 59,425 km2. The mountain glaciers may be classified as maritime, subcontinental or extreme continental. In Afghanistan, more than 3,000 small glaciers occur in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains. Most glaciers occur on north-facing slopes shaded by mountain peaks and on east and southeast slopes that are shaded by monsoon clouds. The glaciers provide vital water resources to the region and cover an area of about 2,700 km2. Glaciers of northern Pakistan are some of the largest and longest mid-latitude glaciers on Earth. They are located in the Hindu Kush, Himalaya, and Karakoram mountains and cover an area of about 15,000 km2. Glaciers here are important for their role in providing water resources and their hazard potential. The glaciers in India are located in the Himalaya and cover about 8,500 km2. The Himalaya contains one of the largest reservoirs of snow and ice outside the polar regions. The glaciers are a major source of fresh water and supply meltwater to all the rivers in northern India, thereby affecting the quality of life of millions of people. In Nepal, the glaciers are located in the Himalaya as individual glaciers; the glacierized area covers about 5,324 km2. The region is the highest mountainous region on Earth and includes the Mt. Everest region. Glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya have a total area of about 1,317 km2. Many recent glacier studies are focused on glacier lakes that have the potential of generating dangerous glacier lake outburst floods. Research on the glaciers of the middle-latitude, high-mountain glaciers of Asia has also focused on the information contained in the ice cores from the glaciers. This information helps in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic records, and the computer modeling of global climate change.

Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

2010-01-01