WorldWideScience
1

Destination: Kyrgyzstan. Study Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide offers a closer look at the newly-independent nation of Kyrgyzstan. The teaching materials focus on the history and culture of the nation, emphasize the influence of physical geography on culture, and explore the diversity found in this small country. Each lesson includes the geography standards linked to the activity, objectives,…

Amundson, Kristen J.

2

Human Alveolar Echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Human echinococcosis is a reportable disease in Kyrgyzstan. Between 1995 and 2011, human alveolar echinococcosis increased from 60 cases per year. The origins of this epidemic, which started in 2004, may be linked to the socioeconomic changes that followed the dissolution of the former Soviet Union.

Usubalieva, Jumagul; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Ziadinov, Iskender; Deplazes, Peter; Torgerson, Paul R.

2013-01-01

3

Human alveolar echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human echinococcosis is a reportable disease in Kyrgyzstan. Between 1995 and 2011, human alveolar echinococcosis increased from 60 cases per year. The origins of this epidemic, which started in 2004, may be linked to the socioeconomic changes that followed the dissolution of the former Soviet Union. PMID:23763935

Usubalieva, Jumagul; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Ziadinov, Iskender; Deplazes, Peter; Torgerson, Paul R

2013-07-01

4

[Introduction of traditional medicinal plants in Kyrgyzstan].  

Science.gov (United States)

Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country in the northeastern part of Central Asia which shares borders to the southeast with China. Due to their extreme environment and climate, there are a diverse range of species of plants. Many of the plants used in Kyrgyz folk medicine have not been studied using modern scientific techniques. This paper introduced the basic situation of medicinal herbs in Kyrgyzstan by comparing the differences traditional use between China and Kyrgyzstan, and looked for traditional medicinal plant research to provide basis for the development and cooperation of China and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24946536

Wang, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Xie, Dong-Mei

2014-02-01

5

Multilingualism, Russian Language and Education in Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

The study provides an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Kyrgyzstan and the current role of Russian and Kyrgyz in the republic. We present initial results of a mass survey of language use that show that the efforts to introduce the Kyrgyz language on all levels of societal use had some effect. At the same time, Kyrgyzstan is a…

Orusbaev, Abdykadyr; Mustajoki, Arto; Protassova, Ekaterina

2008-01-01

6

Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an emerging pathogen in Europe and Asia. We investigated TBEV in Kyrgyzstan by collecting small mammals and ticks from diverse localities and analyzing them for evidence of TBEV infection. We found TBEV circulating in Kyrgyzstan much farther south and at higher altitudes than previously reported.

Briggs, Benjamin J.; Atkinson, Barry; Czechowski, Donna M.; Larsen, Peter A.; Meeks, Heather N.; Carrera, Juan P.; Duplechin, Ryan M.; Hewson, Roger; Junushov, Asankadyr T.; Gavrilova, Olga N.; Breininger, Irena; Phillips, Carleton J.; Baker, Robert J.; Hay, John

2011-01-01

7

The Financing of Higher Education in Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, Kyrgyzstan, like other countries of the former Soviet Union, held a fairly high position from the standpoint of the population's average level of education. As of the beginning of period of transition, the level of education in Kyrgyzstan was relatively high. By 1991, the rate of literacy among the adult population was 97.7 percent.…

Tiuliundieva, N.

2008-01-01

8

Economic Aspects of Defence in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides a country survey of the Kyrgyz defence economy. Kyrgyzstan is small landlocked country situated in Eastern Central Asia. It borders Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and China, with a population of nearly five million people. Although The Kyrgyz Republic introduced the most liberal reforms in Central Asia, its economy remains unstable with low level of economic growth. Moreover, Kyrgyzstan has a weak state structure, a history of ethnic tension, inequality and poverty. De...

Tolga Saruc; Sennur Sezgin; Selami Sezgin

2012-01-01

9

On transition and revolution in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

This essay reviews the revolutionary situations that recently emerged in the post-Soviet world, focusing on the 'Tulip Revolution' in Kyrgyzstan. Observers were quick to explain this revolution in terms of democratic resistance to authori- tarianism. This view is particularly problematic given that Kyrgyzstan was among the 'fast reformers' in the region and made its name as an 'island of democracy'. Instead of assuming that problems started when the country digressed from the ideals of libera...

Pelkmans, Mathijs

2005-01-01

10

HIV-1 genetic variants in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: During the last two decades, HIV-1 has been spreading rapidly in former Soviet Union republics including Kyrgyzstan. The current molecular monitoring of HIV-infection epidemic is carried out in Russia only with no or limited data from the other FSU countries. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic variants circulating in Kyrgyzstan. Methods: Blood collection from the HIV-infected patients was carried out by local specialists with the informed conse...

Laga, V.; Kazennova, E.; Vasilyev, A.; Lapovok, I.; Ismailova, A.; Beysheeva, N.; Asybalieva, N.; Bobkova, M.

2012-01-01

11

Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Relations: Cooperation in Political and Educational Spheres  

OpenAIRE

In 1991, Kyrgyzstan gained its independence, and started establishing direct links with the world beyond the Soviet frontier. To conduct foreign relations Kyrgyzstan opened its embassies and/or consulates in almost 30 countries. Turkey is one of the key partners for Kyrgyzstan and plays an important role in the country’s foreign relations (Note 1). This article aims to look at the development of Kyrgyzstan-Turkey relations from 1991 till 2012 focusing on the aspects of the political and edu...

Dinara Murzaeva

2014-01-01

12

Studying abroad: encouraging students to return to Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

More and more students from Kyrgyzstan are now studying at foreign universities, where they gain knowledge and skills that are vital for Kyrgyzstan’s development and prosperity. But many face difficulties in finding opportunities to apply their new skills upon their return. This issue of evidence for policy examines the causes and consequences of this situation, and examines challenges of making student migration advantageous for Kyrgyzstan.

Thieme, Susan; Elebaeva, Ainur; Bruce, Zarina; Samanchina, Jarkyn

2013-01-01

13

Post-Soviet Moral Education: The Case of Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Republic of Kyrgyzstan became a free and democratic state after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since that time, Kyrgyzstan has redefined and renegotiated what education in its society should be. Although numerous internal and external initiatives have sought to reshape Kyrgyzstan's curriculum and instructional strategies, these projects…

Misco, Thomas; Hamot, Gregory E.

2007-01-01

14

Modernization Problems of Higher Education in Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author discusses and presents some modernization problems of Kyrgyzstan's higher education. These problems are: (1) The low quality of the services of professional education that are offered; (2) In the republic as a whole, the qualitative makeup of the corps of instructors is clearly deteriorating; (3) The services of…

Dzhaparova, R.

2005-01-01

15

From Finland to Kyrgyzstan: A Changing Landscape  

Science.gov (United States)

In the most recent Programme for International Student Assessment of science learning, the equivalent of six school years separate the achievement of 15-year-olds in Finland, the best-performing country, from their counterparts in Kyrgyzstan, a former Soviet republic. Still more than a school year lies between the neighboring countries Canada,…

Schleicher, Andreas K. R.

2009-01-01

16

Student mobility, experiences of return and employment in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Labour migration has become a widespread phenomenon in Kyrgyzstan. Up to 20 per cent of Kyrgyzstan’s population have left in search of better economic opportunities in Russia and Kazakhstan, sending back remittances that account for 30 per cent of GDP (Sadowskaja 2008, Schmidt and Sagynbekova, 2008). Apart from the national scale the positive impact of remittances on household level has been confirmed in various ways (e.g. Thieme, 2008; 2009; Tynaliev and McLean, 2011). Despite the posit...

Thieme, S.

2011-01-01

17

Radioactive situation in Kyrgyzstan: problems and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the major problems of the environment contamination in Kyrgyzstan is the development of radioactive and toxic pollution caused by nuclear tests, technogene accidents which took place in neighboring countries, and breach of safe storage and destruction of uranium and hazardous waste tailings. Long-term nuclear tests in various areas of the world and the accident at the NPP have caused the origin of stratospheric deposit of artificial radionuclides, the fallout of which have led to radioactive pollution of the biosphere. Maximum fallout have been observed in the latitudinal zone of 40-60 degrees and in the mountainous regions. As a result of many years of research the main sources of radioactive contamination have been established. It is shown that stratospheric or tropospheric and local fallout have permanently exposed the territory of Kyrgyzstan to the pollution by radionuclides. A brief description of radioactive contamination of the environment in Kyrgyzstan from remote external sources and atmospheric mechanisms of its transfer delineated on the basis of long-term observation of geophysical and atmospheric parameters and regular radiation monitoring have been presented. The investigated mechanisms can be used to interpret the sharp increase of the radioactive background and to estimate the risk to the environment and human health. Some methodological questions about the influence of geophysical conditions on the territorial distribution of contamination have bee considered. The tropospheric mechanism of contamination transfer for different seasons of year has been suggested. The uranium tailings located in mountain regions near densely populated areas and and groundwater basins are the internal sources of radioactive contamination in Kyrgyzstan. Waste products of uranium production present a real treat for the environment and public health. The problem of environment security in connection with destruction of uranium tailings has been discussed. Till now there has not been conducted assessment of radioactive contamination consequences to the environment and human health in this region. The impact of ionization radiation on people health has been presented

18

Happiness in Transition: The Case of Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

We analyse self-reported measures of satisfaction with life in a transition country, Kyrgyzstan, using 1993 household survey data. We test whether higher levels of satisfaction are associated with greater economic well-being. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the data. Unhappiness is prevalent among older people, the unemployed, and those who are divorced. There appears to be little correlation between happiness and either gender or education level. We find some evidence that income re...

Namazie, Ceema; Sanfey, Peter

1998-01-01

19

Landslides in southern Kyrgyzstan: Understanding tectonic controls  

OpenAIRE

Frequent landsliding is one of the greatest natural hazards facing the inhabitants of Central Asia's Fergana Basin and the surrounding mountain ranges. Active tectonics in the region is rapidly building the Tien Shan, one of the highest mountain ranges on Earth, and the extreme topographic relief promotes frequent landslide activity, which causes major losses of life and property. In southwestern Kyrgyzstan alone, on average 10 people die and seven houses are destroyed each year in these sudd...

Christian Haberland; Ulan Abdybachaev; Bernd Schurr; Hans-Ulrich Wetzel; Sigrid Roessner; Aman Sarnagoev; Sagynbek Orunbaev; Christoph Janssen

2011-01-01

20

HIV-1 genetic variants in Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: During the last two decades, HIV-1 has been spreading rapidly in former Soviet Union republics including Kyrgyzstan. The current molecular monitoring of HIV-infection epidemic is carried out in Russia only with no or limited data from the other FSU countries. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic variants circulating in Kyrgyzstan. Methods: Blood collection from the HIV-infected patients was carried out by local specialists with the informed consent and the questionnaire was answered by each of the patients. The total number of samples was 100. The washed cell pellets were transferred to Moscow following with proviral DNA extraction, PCR amplification and gag, pol and env genes sequencing. The phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences using neighbor-joining method was carried out by MEGA 3 program. The preliminary data were obtained in 22 samples isolated from PBMC of HIV-infected patients from Kyrgyzstan. Results: Among the samples studied 6 (27.3% samples belonged to a subtype CRF02_AG, 16 samples - to subtype A (A1. One of the samples belonging to CRF02_AG, probably, is a recombinant between CRF02_AG and A1. There was no major drug resistance mutations in the samples studied. The minor mutations were presented in small proportions: 1 in PR (L10I, 6 in RT (A62V - in 3 samples, V108G, E138A, Y181F, M184I, L210M - on one sample and 1 in IN (L74M. It was impossible to associate the distribution of mutations with HIV-1 genetic variant. The V3 loop (env gene in 17 samples was analyzed for tropism using geno2pheno program; all samples were found to be R5-viruses. Conclusion: The HIV-1 subtype A seems to dominate in Kyrgyzstan like in other FSU countries. The recombinant CRF02_AG epidemiologically linked to Uzbekistan is quite widespread. The rest of Kyrgyzstan collection is under investigation and the data will be refined soon.

V Laga

2012-11-01

21

Het cyanide ongeval in Barskoon (Kyrgyzstan)  

OpenAIRE

On May 20, 1998, a truck with 20 tons of sodium cyanide crashed and fell into the Barskoon River (Kyrgyzstan). This small stream, used by the local population for irrigation and drinking water purposes, flows into Lake Issyk-Kul, a major tourist resort. As a result of the accident, some 1700 - 1800 kg of sodium cyanide (NaCN) was released directly into the river, some 8 km upstream the village of Barskoon. The cyanide spill evoked a strong commotion among the populatio...

Rfmj, Cleven; Bruggen M

2007-01-01

22

Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Relations: Cooperation in Political and Educational Spheres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1991, Kyrgyzstan gained its independence, and started establishing direct links with the world beyond the Soviet frontier. To conduct foreign relations Kyrgyzstan opened its embassies and/or consulates in almost 30 countries. Turkey is one of the key partners for Kyrgyzstan and plays an important role in the country’s foreign relations (Note 1. This article aims to look at the development of Kyrgyzstan-Turkey relations from 1991 till 2012 focusing on the aspects of the political and educational cooperation. Cooperation in the political sphere is studied by looking at official statements at all levels and, participation and collaboration in multilateral structures. As for the educational sphere, the focus is mainly on Turkey’s various initiatives such as Turkish schools and universities, as well as student exchange programs that can be seen as one of the ‘soft power’ tools inevitably promoting Turkish culture and values. The paper shows asymmetric relationship in which Kyrgyzstan seeks to pursue multi-vector policy rendering certain limitations in the relationship. Kyrgyzstan is essentially eager to receive Turkish foreign policy initiatives. Turkish presence in Kyrgyzstan has mostly been confined to spheres of education and economy. This reliance on ‘soft power’ is attributed to the fact that Turkey seems to, at least for now, lack resources and willingness to challenge Russia, China and USA in the competition for political and military influence in Central Asia.

Dinara Murzaeva

2014-08-01

23

Migration and first-time parenthood: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

This article investigates the reproductive behavior of young women and men in the post-Soviet Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan, focusing on the link between migration and fertility. We employ event-history techniques to retrospective data from the 'Marriage, Fertility, and Migration' survey conducted in Northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to study patterns in first-time parenthood. We demonstrate the extent to which internal migration is related to family formation and to the patterns of becomi...

Gunnar Andersson; Lesia Nedoluzhko

2007-01-01

24

Migration and first-time parenthood : Evidence from Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

This article investigates the reproductive behavior of young women and men in the post-Soviet Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan, focusing on the link between migration and fertility. We employ event-history techniques to retrospective data from the ‘Marriage, Fertility, and Migration’ survey conducted in Northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to study patterns in first-time parenthood. We demonstrate the extent to which internal migration is related to family formation and to the patterns of beco...

Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Andersson, Gunnar

2007-01-01

25

New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia i...

Lazkov, Georgy; Sennikov, Alexander

2014-01-01

26

75 FR 67013 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested...related to humanitarian needs resulting from recent violence in Kyrgyzstan. You are authorized and directed to publish this...

2010-11-01

27

Kasha and Quality in Kyrgyzstan: Donors, Diversity, and Dis-Integration in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Kyrgyzstan's relative openness to a diversity of ideas, combined with its poverty, has caused it to accept a plethora of international academic institutions and programs, often exported by the sender rather than imported at Kyrgyzstan's request. These institutions suggest a variety of visions of Kyrgyzstan's future and of the political and…

Merrill, Martha C.

2012-01-01

28

New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemisruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambeorientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salviaaethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodiumvulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldiaincana (Brassicaceae) in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragusracemosus (Poaceae) is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherumelatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaureasolstitialis (Asteraceae) and an ephemerous occurrence of Glauciumcorniculatum (Papaveraceae) are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24855435

Lazkov, Georgy; Sennikov, Alexander

2014-01-01

29

Migration and first-time parenthood: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article investigates the reproductive behavior of young women and men in the post-Soviet Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan, focusing on the link between migration and fertility. We employ event-history techniques to retrospective data from the 'Marriage, Fertility, and Migration' survey conducted in Northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to study patterns in first-time parenthood. We demonstrate the extent to which internal migration is related to family formation and to the patterns of becoming a parent after resettlement. We gain deeper insights into demographic behavior by considering information on factors such as the geographical destination of migration and retrospectively stated motives for reported moves. In addition, our study reveals clear ethno-cultural differences in the timing of entry into parenthood in Kyrgyzstan.

Gunnar Andersson

2007-12-01

30

New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae) in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae) is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae) and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae) are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24855435

2014-01-01

31

Kyrgyzstan - A virtual narco-state?  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous myths have surrounded the drug trade in Central Asia over the past two decades. Analysts writing on the issue and the law enforcement structures of the respective countries often have no complete and accurate information about the scale of the trade, the different groups involved and the role of drugs-related money in politics. Generally there are two dominating views: the first considers Kyrgyzstan to be a virtual narco-state and overstates the involvement of politicians and police officials; the alternative underestimates the role of state representatives, describes the smuggling as more decentralised and chaotic and emphasises the role of organised crime gangs and radical Islamic organisations. Based on the interviews in the field conducted in January-March 2012, this paper analyses these alternative perspectives and the empirical evidence supporting these views. It highlights methodological problems relating to research on similar issues, elucidates networks of smuggling and their links with politics and reflects on complexities in addressing these challenges. PMID:24565739

Kupatadze, Alexander

2014-11-01

32

Representative Seroprevalences of Brucellosis in Humans and Livestock in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new human brucellosis cases per 100,000 people in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences worldwide. In Kyrgyzstan, the currently used diagnostic tests in humans and animals are the Rose Bengal Test and the Huddleson test. A national representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, cattle, sheep, and goats was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 4,936 livestock sera and 1,77...

Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Du?rr, Salome; Toktobaev, Nurjan; Doherr, Marcus G.; Schueth, Tobias; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

2012-01-01

33

Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where the…

Junisbai, Azamat K.

2010-01-01

34

Continuing Teacher Professional Development in Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

After the collapse of the USSR, Kyrgyzstan became an independent Central Asian state in 1991. Since its independence, there have been enormous changes in the political, social and economic life of the young state, which strives to become a democratic and aspiring market-oriented economy. Its education system has also begun experiencing changes.…

Joldoshalieva, Rahat

2007-01-01

35

Pedagogical and Methodological Considerations for Bilingual Education in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines pedagogical and methodological considerations involved in language immersion programs in Kyrgyzstan, discussing bilingual education program goals, how children acquire first languages, how language and content can be taught and learned simultaneously, and steps that have been taken to make immersion programs successful in…

Schulter, Beatrice

36

The Revolution in Kyrgyzstan: A Social Studies Educator's Eyewitness Account  

Science.gov (United States)

This article relates a story about the unfolding of the recent revolution in Kyrgyzstan told by an insider who was an unlikely "captive" of the events in the capital, Bishkek. Over a seven-day period this past March, protest demonstrations paralyzed the country, military and police protection evaporated, the government collapsed, the president…

Wilen, William W.

2005-01-01

37

On whether Kyrgyzstan Should Join the Bologna Process  

Science.gov (United States)

Right now every college and university in Kyrgyzstan faces the urgent question of whether to join the Bologna Process. Opinions in the republic are split down the middle: (1) some rectors categorically reject joining; and (2) others would like to convert to the credit technology of instruction and have already started to take active, practical…

Dzhaparova, R.

2006-01-01

38

Reducing Non-consensual Bride Kidnapping in Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bride kidnapping in Kyrgyzstan is the act of abducting a woman to marry her and includes actions, ranging from consensual eloping to forceful kidnapping and rape. This paper reviews the current context and research on bride kidnapping and describes a program that shows promise in preventing bride kidnapping. This program was tested in two studies, one in small villages (2008-2009, and one in Karakol City (2011-2012. These studies provide evidence that the program can help reduce the rate of bride kidnapping from approximately 1/2 to approximately 1/4 of marriages. Analysis of the practice and the economic, political and cultural changes in Kyrgyzstan in the last century shows how this program can be effective by shifting the focus from law and punishment to a discourse framed by tradition, family, honor and shame, and using the assumption from Gandhi's Satyagraha that truth is force.

Russell Kleinbach

2013-08-01

39

Marriage, childbearing, and migration in Kyrgyzstan: Exploring interdependencies  

OpenAIRE

In our study we investigate interdependencies between entry into a marital union, childbearing, and migration. We apply event-history techniques to retrospective data on women aged 18-29 from a survey conducted in northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to examine how these events can influence one another, with a special focus on the effects of duration of exposure. In addition we analyze the impact of some individual characteristics on the propensity to get married, to become a mother, and to migrate. ...

Lesia Nedoluzhko; Victor Agadjanian

2010-01-01

40

Children of the street and homeless youth in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

This article is about the condition of children from vulnerable groups in Kyrgyzstan. The economic crisis of the transition period made the family system worse, as the majority of families suffer from poverty. This is why negative social tendencies appear - derelict children, teenage crime, child labour, violence against children etc. Most children must work in order to survive. Frequently, a child is the only breadwinner in a family. Children from vulnerable groups in Kyrgyzst...

Jyldyz, Omusheva

2007-01-01

41

Marriage, childbearing, and migration in Kyrgyzstan : Exploring interdependences  

OpenAIRE

In this study, we investigate interdependences between entry into a marital union, childbearing, and migration. We apply event-history techniques to retrospective data on women aged 18-29 from a survey conducted in northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to examine how these events can influence one another, with a special focus on the effects of duration of exposure. In our analysis, we account for several duration dependences (‘clocks’). The results illustrate that months since marriage formation i...

Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Agadjanian, Victor

2010-01-01

42

Reducing Non-consensual Bride Kidnapping in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Bride kidnapping in Kyrgyzstan is the act of abducting a woman to marry her and includes actions, ranging from consensual eloping to forceful kidnapping and rape. This paper reviews the current context and research on bride kidnapping and describes a program that shows promise in preventing bride kidnapping. This program was tested in two studies, one in small villages (2008-2009), and one in Karakol City (2011-2012). These studies provide evidence that the program can help...

Russell Kleinbach; Gazbubu Babaiarova

2013-01-01

43

Rotavirus genotype distribution in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, 2007-2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first study to present rotavirus genotype distribution in children admitted to a hospital with acute gastroenteritis in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan from January 2007 through December 2009. In total, 858 rotavirus ELISA-positive samples were characterized by RT-PCR, with a considerable geographical and seasonal variation in genotype distribution observed during the study. The globally common genotypes (G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8], G12P[8] and G12P[6]) accounted for 81.5-88.2% of the infections in Kyrgyzstan and 72.3-79.3% of the infections in Kazakhstan. The predominant genotypes were G1P[8], G2P[4] and G3P[8]. G1P[8] was the dominating genotype in Kyrgyzstan, detected in 51-64.7% of the samples. A similar predominance was not seen for G1P[8] in Kazakhstan, with a shift to G2P[4] predominance being seen in 2008. G9P[8] was a rare genotype in both countries, whereas G12 was detected in between 2.2% and 7.6% of the samples. The surveillance period was characterized by many co-circulating genotypes, and eight unusual combinations (G1P[4], G2P[8], G2P[6], G3P[4], G9P[4], G12P[4], G9P[9] and G10P[4]) were detected. This study provides important baseline data on rotavirus genotypes in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in the pre-vaccine era, and the results may indicate that the two licensed vaccines can be expected to prevent rotavirus disease in these countries. PMID:23078218

Vainio, Kirsti; Latipov, Renat; Utegenova, Elmira; Kasymbekova, Kaliya; Juraev, Rivojiddin; Asilova, Mukhayyo; Flem, Elmira

2013-05-01

44

Maternity care and birth preparedness in rural Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To assess a baseline level of maternity care knowledge of the population and of care providers in rural areas in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (Central Asia). Methods: Interviews with pregnant women and with men about their knowledge of key danger signs, serious health problems during pregnancy, labour and childbirth, and knowledge of basic infant care. Questionnaires about maternity care knowledge for providers, and checklists about providers’ communication and counselling skills an...

Wiegers, T. A.; Boerma, W. G. W.; Haan, O.

2010-01-01

45

Educational Financing and Budgeting in Kyrgyzstan. Financial Management of Education Systems. Working Document.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book provides an indepth description and analysis of financial management and budgetary procedures for education in Kyrgyzstan. The case of this country is interesting for practitioners and researchers due to its policy of accelerated transition to a market economy, with associated hardships for educational finance and budgeting. Kyrgyzstan

Rysalieva, Symbat Dj.; Ibraeva, Gulmira A.

46

The Impact of Standardized Testing on University Entrance Issues in Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

In Kyrgyzstan, the breakup of the USSR raised many issues related to equity and fairness in education, one of which is the distribution of public funds to support scholarship admissions to higher education institutions. After 1992, public institutions could begin to charge tuition fees, but as a legacy of the USSR, Kyrgyzstan continues providing…

Shamatov, Duishon

2012-01-01

47

What Is Needed to Improve Teacher In-Service Education in Kyrgyzstan?  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last decade, since the break-up of the Soviet Union into a number of independent countries, Kyrgyzstan has experienced major political, social and economic transformation. This has resulted in increased democratization and decentralization. Educational systems have been transformed too. In Kyrgyzstan, the number and size of universities…

Kabylov, Toichubek B.

2006-01-01

48

76 FR 43369 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Kyrgyzstan Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of...requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect Kyrgyzstan and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination...

2011-07-20

49

Atlas of mineral resources of the ESCAP region. Vol 13. Geology and mineral resources of Kyrgyzstan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume of the Atlas gives an update of the complex metallogeny and mineral resource potential of Kyrgyzstan resulting from geodynamic evolution and the complex tectonic and structural setting of the Tien Shan mountain system. Sections are headed: general geology and structural setting of Kyrgyzstan; metallogenic development of Kyrgyzstan; Mineral deposits and occurrences of Kyrgyzstan; current status of mining and mineral-based industries and future trends; mineral policy and regulatory framework for the development of the mineral sector; index of mineral deposits and occurrences in Kyrgyzstan; and bibliography. Coal deposits are of Jurassic age, the major deposits being the Northern Fergana, Uzgen, Southern Fergana and Alay coal basins, the Kavak coalfield and the Southern Issyk-Kul coalfield. 72 refs., 70 figs., 13 tabs., 1 app.

NONE

1999-07-01

50

Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov (Amaryllidaceae, a new species from Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This species is the second member of A. sect. Spathulata F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch, being different from A. spathulatum F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch in larger, broader, obtuse and more intensely purple-coloured tepals, and in a more robust habit. It is a local endemic of Babash-Ata Mt. Range situated east of Fergana Valley in Kyrgyzstan, recommended for legal protection as Endangered because of the very small population size in its only locality.

Alexander Sennikov

2013-04-01

51

Why the UK should care about what is happening in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Recent ethnic violence and unrest in Kyrgyzstan have created a flood of refugees into neighbouring countries, and at least one into the UK. Madeleine Reeves explains why the UK faces serious policy issues as a result.

Reeves, Madeleine

2010-01-01

52

Comparing genetic diversity and population structure of common beans grown in Kyrgyzstan using microsatellites  

OpenAIRE

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important export crop in Kyrgyzstan. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of genetic diversity, determine the population structure, and relate to the main gene pools grown in Kyrgyzstan. Twenty-eight common bean accessions (including five Kyrgyz cultivars, and main references from the Mesoamerica and South America) were evaluated with microsatellites. Nine polymorphic microsatellites were used to estimate genetic di...

Sergey Hegay; Mulatu Geleta; Tomas Bryngelsson; Larisa Gustavsson; Helena Persson Hovmalm; Rodomiro Ortiz

2012-01-01

53

The Discourses of Romanticism and Heroism in the Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

After the two so-called ?colored revolutions? of March 24, 2005 and April 7, 2010 in Kyrgyzstan the ideas about the future development produced by political, traditional elite groups and academics are shaped into the certain discourses that reflect socio-cultural and political projects including real events and processes along with imagined reality. Among the inconsistent and incoherent discourses which take place in the social rhetoric of Kyrgyzstan, two dominant discourses – about Kyr...

Aijarkyn

2014-01-01

54

Molecular Epidemiology and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Livestock Brucella melitensis Isolates from Naryn Oblast, Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

The incidence of human brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan has been increasing in the last years and was identified as a priority disease needing most urgent control measures in the livestock population. The latest species identification of Brucella isolates in Kyrgyzstan was carried out in the 1960s and investigated the circulation of Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, B. ovis, and B. suis. However, supporting data and documentation of that experience are lacking. Therefore, typing of Brucella spp. and ...

Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Imanseitov, Joldoshbek; Ballif, Marie; Schu?rch, Nadia; Paniga, Sandra; Pilo, Paola; Tonolla, Mauro; Benagli, Cinzia; Akylbekova, Kulyash; Jumakanova, Zarima; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob

2013-01-01

55

Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales  

OpenAIRE

Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was...

Nazir Mirzaev; Jusipbek Kazbekov; Andrew Noble; Oyture Anarbekov; Kahramon Jumabaev; Murat Yakubov; Akmal Karimov; Ahmad Alimdjanov

2010-01-01

56

Post-socialist transition and the intergenerational transmission of education in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

We investigate long-term trends in the intergenerational transmission of education in a low income country undergoing a transition from socialism to a market economy. We draw on evidence from Kyrgyzstan using data from three household surveys collected in 1993, 1998 and 2011. We find that Kyrgyzstan, like Eastern European middle income transition economies, generally maintained high educational mobility, comparable to the levels during Soviet times. However, we find that the younger cohorts, ...

Bru?ck, Tilman; Esenaliev, Damir

2013-01-01

57

Strong mediaeval earthquake in the Chuy Basin, Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

The data presented in this paper show that in historical time the Chuy Basin in Kyrgyzstan was repeatedly subjected to strong earthquakes, which affected the inhabitants and the economic and political situation at that time. The deformed buildings in the Novopokrovka site of ancient settlements situated in the central part of the basin unequivocally indicate seismic damage and subsequent abandonment of the settlement. The earthquake happened at the end of the Karakhanid epoch (the end of the 12th century A.D.). The intensity of seismic oscillations (I = VIII-IX) at the site was reinforced by unfavorable engineering geology conditions. The source of the earthquake was probably related to displacements along the piedmont Ysyk-Ata Fault located to the south of the site.

Korjenkov, A. M.; Kol'chenko, V. A.; Rott, Ph. G.; Abdieva, S. V.

2012-07-01

58

An innovative national health care waste management system in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel low-cost health care waste management system was implemented in all rural hospitals in Kyrgyzstan. The components of the Kyrgyz model include mechanical needle removers, segregation using autoclavable containers, safe transport and storage, autoclave treatment, documentation, recycling of sterilized plastic and metal parts, cement pits for anatomical waste, composting of garden wastes, training, equipment maintenance, and management by safety and quality committees. The gravity-displacement autoclaves were fitted with filters to remove pathogens from the air exhaust. Operating parameters for the autoclaves were determined by thermal and biological tests. A hospital survey showed an average 33% annual cost savings compared to previous costs for waste management. All general hospitals with >25 beds except in the capital Bishkek use the new system, corresponding to 67.3% of all hospital beds. The investment amounted to US$0.61 per capita covered. Acceptance of the new system by the staff, cost savings, revenues from recycled materials, documented improvements in occupational safety, capacity building, and institutionalization enhance the sustainability of the Kyrgyz health care waste management system. PMID:25649402

Toktobaev, Nurjan; Emmanuel, Jorge; Djumalieva, Gulmira; Kravtsov, Alexei; Schüth, Tobias

2015-02-01

59

Diabetes in Kyrgyzstan: changes between 2002 and 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health system reform in Kyrgyzstan is seen as a relative success story in central Asia. Initially, most attention focused on structural changes, and it is only since 2006 that the delivery of care and the experience of health service users have risen on the agenda. One exception from the earlier period was a rapid appraisal of the management of diabetes, undertaken in 2002. Using that study as a baseline, we describe the findings of a new evaluation of diabetes management, undertaken in 2009, using the Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, now implemented in seven countries. Access to care has improved through the creation of the Family Medical Centres and the deployment of endocrinologists to them. Another improvement is the access to insulin and related medicines, although assessment of the procurement system reveals that the government is getting very poor value for money. Looking ahead, there are grounds for optimism that the passage of the law on diabetes may progressively have a greater impact. Although the law is not yet fully implemented, it has enabled the diabetes associations to defend the rights of their members. This increased capacity is credited with some improvements in diabetes care. PMID:23125073

Beran, David; Abdraimova, Aida; Akkazieva, Baktygul; McKee, Martin; Balabanova, Dina; Yudkin, John S

2013-01-01

60

Marriage, childbearing, and migration in Kyrgyzstan: Exploring interdependencies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In our study we investigate interdependencies between entry into a marital union, childbearing, and migration. We apply event-history techniques to retrospective data on women aged 18-29 from a survey conducted in northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to examine how these events can influence one another, with a special focus on the effects of duration of exposure. In addition we analyze the impact of some individual characteristics on the propensity to get married, to become a mother, and to migrate. In our analysis we account for several duration dependences ('clocks'. The results illustrate that months since marriage formation is the most important duration variable in the first-birth propensities model. Out-of-wedlock conception is associated with increased marriage risks. Migration is often a part of the family building process: high first-birth propensities of recent migrants as well as high migration risks among pregnant women are due to marriage-related migration.

Lesia Nedoluzhko

2010-02-01

61

Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was developed using GAMS 2.25 software. Application of the model to the Akbura River basin indicated efficiencies in the proposed institutional rules especially in low water years.

Nazir Mirzaev

2010-08-01

62

Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range) air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86) ?g/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD) 13.5 (3.6)...

Ana Navas-Acien; Patrick Breysse; Shahida Shahrir; Denis Vinnikov; Nurlan Brimkulov

2010-01-01

63

Curriculum Reform in Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan: Indigenization of the History Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

This article raises general questions regarding the relations between curriculum and ideology in reforming, specifically indigenizing the curriculum by focusing on the importance attached to the history curriculum under reform circumstances. Through an examination of indigenization of history curriculum in the context of Kyrgyzstan, a post-Soviet…

Ismailova, Baktygul

2004-01-01

64

"Leave Me Alone--Simply Let Me Teach": An Exploration of Teacher Professionalism in Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines how, in the context of the increasing deprofessionalization of the teaching professional both nationally and internationally, teachers have attempted to reshape the notion of "professionalism" in a post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan, where teachers function within a top-down, bureaucratic education system. The article employs…

Teleshaliyev, Nurbek

2013-01-01

65

Environmental Journalism in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan: Reporting Scarce amid Environmental and Media Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Independence for the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia has not led to press freedom, solutions to pressing environmental problems, or development of effective grassroots nongovernmental organizations. This article examines relations between journalists and environmental nongovernmental organizations, and it…

Freedman, Eric

2011-01-01

66

Bayesian estimation of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new cases of human brucellosis per 100,000 inhabitants in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences in the world. However, because this number is based on official records, it is very likely that the incidence is underreported. The diagnostic tests most commonly used in Kyrgyzstan are the Rose Bengal test in ruminants and the Huddleson test in humans. The sensitivity and specificity of these tests have never been evaluated under field conditions in Kyrgyzstan, where the strains circulating in livestock and humans are unknown. Therefore, a representative national cross-sectional serological study was undertaken in humans, cattle, sheep and goats to assess the true seroprevalence and to compare different serologicaltests. In the year of study (2006), few animals were vaccinated against brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan. A total of 5,229 livestock sera and 1,777 human sera from three administrative regions were collected during spring 2006 and submitted to a range of serological tests. The true seroprevalence of brucellosis, estimated using Bayesian methodology, was 7% (95% credibility interval 4%-9%) in humans, 3% (1%-5%) in cattle, 12% (7%-23%) in sheep and 15% (7%-30%) in goats. The Rose Bengal test was confirmed as a useful screening test in livestock and humans, although its sensitivity was lower than that of other tests. The estimates of specificity of all tests were significantly higher than those for sensitivity. The high seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans, cattle and small ruminants in Kyrgyzstan was confirmed. Bayesian statistical approaches were demonstrated to be useful for simultaneously deriving test characteristics and true prevalence estimates in the absence of a gold standard. PMID:24761732

Dürr, S; Bonfoh, B; Schelling, E; Kasymbekov, J; Doherr, M G; Toktobaev, N; Schueth, T; Zinsstag, J

2013-12-01

67

Diversity of beans grown in Kyrgyzstan and marker-aided breeding for resistance to bean common mosaic virus and anthracnose  

OpenAIRE

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important export crop in Kyrgyzstan since the end of the 20th century. Kyrgyzstan produces about 70,000 t of common beans per year, which provides jobs to 76% of the population in the Talas region. Information about genetic diversity of common beans helps to select appropriate genetic material to be used for breeding programs. Accessions originating from both Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools, including the main Kyrgyz common bean market types were a...

Hegay, Sergey

2013-01-01

68

Seismic investigation of Lake Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake Issyk-Kul is located in an intramontane basin of the Tien Shan mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. It has formed in a tectonically active region with W-E striking major thrust zones north and south of the lake. The lake's modern surface level is at 1607 m above sea level, maximum depth in the central basin of the lake is roughly 670 m, and the total water volume is around 1736 km3. The lake is elongated with 180 km in west-east and 60 km in south-north direction. With a surface area of 6232 km2, Lake Issyk-Kul is the second largest lake in the higher altitudes. The lake is characterized by two large delta areas at its western and eastern end, with the deltaic area being as wide as up to 60 km in the eastern and 40 km in the western part, and by steep slopes at the northern and southern shore with only a rather narrow shallower shelf area. The lake contains the sediments of the past up to several million years, and has been proposed as a future target for deep drilling within ICDP. Three seismic surveys by Russian and Belgian groups in 1982, 1997 and 2001 revealed a thick sediment infill in Lake Issyk-Kul. At both the western and the eastern end of the lake, large delta systems were formed by actual and previous inlets, namely the Tyup and Djyrgalan rivers in the eastern part of the lake (still active) and the Chu River at the western end (currently bypassing the lake). Large sub-aquatic channel systems are visible in the lake's bathymetry in the shallower part of the delta systems close to the river mouths. They were quite likely formed by these rivers during a former lake level lowstand. The delta system consists of stacked prograding delta lobes with a characteristic topset-foreset-bottomset configuration. These lobes together with sub-aerial terraces found at several spots around the lake witness lake level fluctuations of up to >400 m. The sediments in the central plain of Lake Issyk-Kul are mainly well-layered with many turbiditic sequences intercalated with pelagic background sedimentation. Sediments are slightly inclined towards south with increasing angles with depth, suggesting a halfgraben structure of the lake basin. Mass transport deposits such as debris flows are a common feature close to the steeper flanks around the central plain. The southern flank is characterized by many small terraces and several canyons that are related to the small inlets at the southern shore. The northern flank, however, shows a small, shallow shelf area of 25 to 30 m water depth. This area is characterized by glacial outwash sediments brought to the lake by small rivers that drain the large terminal moraines which are located north of the lake.

Gebhardt, C.; Naudts, L.; De Mol, L.; De Batist, M.

2012-04-01

69

Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86 ?g/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD 13.5 (3.6 hours a day and 5.8 (1.4 days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS.

Ana Navas-Acien

2010-03-01

70

HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question. PMID:24342741

Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

2015-02-01

71

Excessive exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke among hospitality workers in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range) air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86) microg/m(3). Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD) 13.5 (3.6) hours a day and 5.8 (1.4) days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS. PMID:20617012

Vinnikov, Denis; Brimkulov, Nurlan; Shahrir, Shahida; Breysse, Patrick; Navas-Acien, Ana

2010-03-01

72

Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Along the northern foothills of the Turkestan-Alai Range (SW Kyrgyzstan), a 1000 to 1500m thick succession of Mesozoic deposits is exposed recording regional changes of the paleo-landscape during Triassic to Cretaceous times. Detailed litho- and biofacies analyses, conducted by the TU Bergakademie Freiberg since 2006, provided for the first time a nearly complete columnar section of the continental Triassic Madygen Formation of Kyrgyzstan. Organic petrographical and organic geochemical methods (including RockEval pyrolyses, and biomarker analyses) have been applied to a suite of terrestrial sedimentary rocks of Triassic age with the intention to identify the depositional environment. Our investigations suggest that the potential source rocks of the terrestrial pluvial Madygen Formation might generate predominantly gaseous hydrocarbons at higher maturities. (orig.)

Berner, U.; Scheeder, G.; Kus, J. [Section Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, BGR, Hannover (Germany); Voigt, S.; Schneider, J.W. [Geological Inst., TU Bergakademic Freiberg (Germany)

2009-09-15

73

Eager to Leave? Intentions to Migrate Abroad among Young People in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

This study examines young people’s intentions to migrate abroad in Kyrgyzstan, focusing in particular on differences between Asian and European-origin ethnic groups. The multivariate analyses of recent survey data show that even after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and social embeddedness Europeans are significantly more inclined to migrate than Asians. Whereas no gender differences in migration intentions among either group are detected, marriage, childbearing, and social ca...

Agadjanian, Victor; Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Kumskov, Gennady

2008-01-01

74

Religious crossings and conversions on the Muslim–Christian frontier in Georgia and Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

The renewed relevance of religion in post-Soviet public spheres has been accompanied by conspicuous and controversial conversion processes. This article compares cases of conversion on the Muslim-Christian frontier in Kyrgyzstan and in Georgia. It argues that the notions of boundary and frontier are essential to construct a more dynamic model for understanding 'spiritual' movement in social contexts that are rapidly changing. This approach in turn sheds light on the roles and the nature of so...

Pelkmans, Mathijs

2010-01-01

75

Quantifying the predictability of the timing of jökulhlaups from Merzbacher Lake, Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Glacier-dammed lakes can yield subglacial outburst floods (jo¨kulhlaups) repeatedly. Predicting flood timing is crucial for hazard mitigation, but incomplete understanding of flood-initiation physics makes this challenging. Here we examine the predictability of the timing of jo¨kulhlaups from Merzbacher Lake, Kyrgyzstan, using five flood-date prediction models of varying complexity. The simplest model, which offers a benchmark against which the other models are compared, assumes...

Kingslake, Jonathan; Ng, Felix

2013-01-01

76

Return of the state to development: the state, donors, and NGOs in Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

The thesis explores international donors’ promotion of civil society in post- Soviet Kyrgyzstan since the mid 2000s with a particular focus on how policy changes in the promotion of civil society have influenced Kyrgyz non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and their relations with the state. The thesis is based on tenmonths field research, which involved ninety semi-structured interviews with nineteen donors, forty-seven NGOs, six community based organisations, and three r...

Jailobaeva, Kanykey Bayalieva

2011-01-01

77

Environmental Effects of Possible Landslides in the Areas of Radioactive Waste Storage in Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the problems caused by the location of uranium mine and mill tailings in the mountainous regions of Kyrgyzstan which are subject to potentially disrupting natural events such as landslides and flooding. It describes the modelling analyses which have been carried out to provide an improved predictive capability of potential future events. On the basis of these analyses, strategies have been developed to avoid some of the worst consequences of the natural events. (author)

78

Demographic Journeys along the Silk Road : Marriage, Childbearing, and Migration in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

This thesis contributes to the limited demographic literature on Central Asia – the region through which led the great Silk Road – an ancient route of trade and cultural exchange between East and West. We focus on Kyrgyzstan and countries in its immediate neighborhood: Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. We analyze the dynamic interplay between marriage, childbearing, and migration, and examine fertility intentions and intentions to migrate as predictors of demographic outcomes. The thesis consist...

Nedoluzhko, Lesia

2012-01-01

79

Molecular snapshot of Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and drug-resistance in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kyrgyzstan is a post-Soviet country in Central Asia marked with high incidence and mortality rates of tuberculosis (TB). The present study provided first assessment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and drug-resistance in civilian population here. The collection included 103 M. tuberculosis DNA samples subjected to the analysis of rifampin and isoniazid resistance mutations and spoligotyping. The major spoligotype-defined families were Beijing (n = 62), T (n = 14), LAM (n = 9), Ural-2 (n = 6) and Ural-1 (n = 3). Genotypically, 20 isolates were RIF-resistant, 28 were INH-resistant, 17 were multidrug-resistant. Drug resistant isolates were more prevalent among Beijing than non-Beijing groups (P = 0.03). The predominance of the mainly "Russian" spoligotypes among the non-Beijing strains (LAM-RUS and Ural-1) in this study along with previously demonstrated prevalence of the Russia-specific subtype of the Beijing family in Kyrgyz prison (Mokrousov et al., 2009) suggest that the current population structure of M. tuberculosis in Kyrgyzstan has been mainly formed within the course of the 20th century when the country was a part of the Russian Empire and Soviet Union. On the other hand, a prevalence of the Asia-specific Ural-2 type in the oldest age group (68-85 years old; P Kyrgyzstan. PMID:23890973

Mokrousov, Igor; Isakova, Jainagul; Valcheva, Violeta; Aldashev, Almaz; Rastogi, Nalin

2013-09-01

80

The Discourses of Romanticism and Heroism in the Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the two so-called ?colored revolutions? of March 24, 2005 and April 7, 2010 in Kyrgyzstan the ideas about the future development produced by political, traditional elite groups and academics are shaped into the certain discourses that reflect socio-cultural and political projects including real events and processes along with imagined reality. Among the inconsistent and incoherent discourses which take place in the social rhetoric of Kyrgyzstan, two dominant discourses – about Kyrgyz nomads and National heroes - have provoked ardent debates for many years. This article describes and analyzes the above mentioned discourses in order to reveal their contents, character and effects. I will present the results of my field research that includes the analysis of publications, political leaders’ speeches, transcript materials from different intellectual group discussions, interviews with academics and participants of April 7 ?revolution?. I will illustrate that these discourses cover both political and socio-cultural issues connected with the imagined reality instead of solving short-term and long-term problems in certain aspects of Kyrgyzstan life. I believe that under the umbrella of political Romanticism they reflect an intention of some elite groups to have much more influence on the political processes and to redistribute symbolical power.

Aijarkyn

2014-09-01

81

Rapid deep-water renewal in Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) indicated by transient tracers  

OpenAIRE

Simultaneous profiles of the transient tracers sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), 3H-3He, and the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 and CFC-12 were measured in Lake Issyk-Kul, a large, deep lake in Kyrgyzstan. Apparent water ages derived from these measurements suggest rapid mixing, with a deepwater renewal rate > 10% yr21 at 650 m depth. SF6 and 3H-3He ages agree reasonably well, whereas CFC ages are significantly greater. The discrepancy is explained by the nonlinear relationship between tracer age and tr...

Hofer, Markus; Peeters, Frank; Aeschbach-hertig, Werner; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Holocher, Johannes; Livingstone, David M.; Romanovski, Vladimir; Kipfer, Rolf

2002-01-01

82

Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov (Amaryllidaceae), a new species from Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This species is the second member of Allium sect. Spathulata F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch, being different from Allium spathulatum F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch in larger, broader, obtuse and more intensely purple-coloured tepals, and in a more robust habit. It is a local endemic of Babash-Ata Mt. Range situated east of Fergana Valley in Kyrgyzstan, recommended for legal protection as Endangered because of the very small population size in its only locality. PMID:23794934

Sennikov, Alexander N; Lazkov, Georgy A

2013-01-01

83

Challenges of Applying a Student-Centered Approach to Learning in the Context of Education in Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenge of maximizing student learning has been paramount in many societies. This issue has become especially salient in the context of drastic social and political changes that have taken place in countries such as Kyrgyzstan. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, teachers and students are confronted with new ways of thinking, which are…

de la Sablonniere, Roxane; Taylor, Donald M.; Sadykova, Nazgul

2009-01-01

84

Coping with the energy crisis: Impact assessment and potentials of non-traditional renewable energy in rural Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyrgyz energy sector is characterised by a dramatic energy crisis that has deprived a substantial part of the population from access to energy. Non-traditional renewable energy sources have emerged as a promising alternative in providing basic energy services to the rural poor. Based on qualitative interview data from local households and project planners, this study sets out to assess impacts, limitations and barriers of non-traditional renewable energy projects in rural areas in Kyrgyzstan. This study argues that recent renewable energy efforts from multilateral international agencies, the private sector, and nongovernmental organisations exhibit great potential in creating tangible benefits and improving basic energy services, but have so far been inefficient in establishing and replicating sustainable and long-term energy solutions. Existing practices need to be improved by attaching greater importance to the capacities and real needs of the rural poor. The guidance of integrated programmes and policies along with alternative financing schemes and awareness-raising are urgently needed to leverage local success stories and to facilitate a sustainable energy development in rural Kyrgyzstan. - Highlights: ? We examine 11 rural households and 5 project planners in rural Kyrgyzstan. ? We assess impacts of non-traditional renewable energies compared with conventional fuels. ? Renewable energies exhibit a range of tangible benefits for rural users. ? Limitatinefits for rural users. ? Limitations concern performance, durability, repair, acceptance, finance and policy. ? Renewable energy is a promising alternative for rural households in Kyrgyzstan.

85

Childhood exposures to Rn-222 and background gamma radiation in the uranium provinces of south Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The project was undertaken in southern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It was speculated that the radiation doses in these areas would be sufficiently high and dispersed to facilitate a case-control study where the radiation doses to leukaemia subjects/their siblings could be compared with those received by control children. As a precursor a pilot project was undertaken to confirm radiation exposures in the region. This was undertaken in association with regional childhood cancer treatment centres. Children from families affected by childhood leukaemia were monitored for 1 month for external ?-radiation dose and for exposure to radon gas. 28 children from families in Kazakhstan and from 31 families in Kyrgyzstan were monitored. The median measured radon in air concentration recorded in Kazakhstan was 123 Bq m(-3) and in Kyrgyzstan was 177 Bq m(-3). These represent 24-h average indoor/outdoor values. In the case of the ?-doses the mean annual dose was 1.2 mGy for Kazakhstan and 2.1 mGy for Kyrgyzstan. Overall, the results suggest that the populations studied receive similar annual radiation doses to those received by populations living in other areas with enhanced natural radioactivity and that further study of Kazakh and Kyrgyz populations would not facilitate a successful case-control study for childhood leukaemia. PMID:22727647

Priest, N D; Hoel, D; Uralbekov, B; Baizakova, D O; Burkitbayev, M

2013-09-01

86

The Accommodation of Children and Young People in Kyrgyzstan by the System of Education, and the Problem of Gender Inequality  

Science.gov (United States)

Kyrgyzstan, like other countries of the former Soviet Union, traditionally occupied a relatively high position in the world from the standpoint of the average level of education of its population. Any gender inequality when it came to obtaining an education was insignificant by international standards. However, the conversion to market relations,…

Tiuliundieva, N.

2006-01-01

87

Childhood exposures to Rn-222 and background gamma radiation in the uranium provinces of south Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project was undertaken in southern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It was speculated that the radiation doses in these areas would be sufficiently high and dispersed to facilitate a case–control study where the radiation doses to leukaemia subjects/their siblings could be compared with those received by control children. As a precursor a pilot project was undertaken to confirm radiation exposures in the region. This was undertaken in association with regional childhood cancer treatment centres. Children from families affected by childhood leukaemia were monitored for 1 month for external ?-radiation dose and for exposure to radon gas. 28 children from families in Kazakhstan and from 31 families in Kyrgyzstan were monitored. The median measured radon in air concentration recorded in Kazakhstan was 123 Bq m?3 and in Kyrgyzstan was 177 Bq m?3. These represent 24-h average indoor/outdoor values. In the case of the ?-doses the mean annual dose was 1.2 mGy for Kazakhstan and 2.1 mGy for Kyrgyzstan. Overall, the results suggest that the populations studied receive similar annual radiation doses to those received by populations living in other areas with enhanced natural radioactivity and that further study of Kazakh and Kyrgyz populations would not facilitate a successful case–control study for childhood leukaemia

88

Dog ownership, dog behaviour and transmission of Echinococcus spp. in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan, and the incidence of human infection has increased substantially since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Domestic dogs are hosts of Echinococcus spp. and play an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The demography, ecology and behaviour of dogs are therefore relevant in studying Echinococcus spp. transmission. Dog demographics, roles of dogs, dog movements and faecal environmental contamination were assessed in four rural communities in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan. Arecoline purge data revealed for the first time that E. granulosus, E. canadensis and E. multilocularis were present in domestic dogs in the Alay Valley. Surveys revealed that many households had dogs and that dogs played various roles in the communities, as pets, guard dogs or sheep dogs. Almost all dogs were free to roam, and GPS data revealed that many moved outside their communities, thus being able to scavenge offal and consume rodents. Faecal environmental contamination was high, presenting a significant infection risk to the local communities. PMID:23985326

Van Kesteren, Freya; Mastin, Alexander; Mytynova, Bermet; Ziadinov, Iskender; Boufana, Belgees; Torgerson, Paul R; Rogan, Michael T; Craig, Philip S

2013-11-01

89

Comparing genetic diversity and population structure of common beans grown in Kyrgyzstan using microsatellites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important export crop in Kyrgyzstan. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of genetic diversity, determine the population structure, and relate to the main gene pools grown in Kyrgyzstan. Twenty-eight common bean accessions (including five Kyrgyz cultivars, and main references from the Mesoamerica and South America were evaluated with microsatellites. Nine polymorphic microsatellites were used to estimate genetic diversity and heterozygosity. The number of alleles per microsatellite locus ranged from 2 to 4 and there were a total of 24 alleles. The observed heterozygosity of each accession over all loci ranged from 0 to 1.11 (with an average of 0.05, while the expected average heterozygosity was 0.08, which could reflect the self-pollinating breeding behavior of common beans. The analysis of molecular variance further revealed that 94.71% of the total variation was accounted by differences among accessions (Fst =0.947; p

Sergey Hegay

2012-11-01

90

Progress Toward Remediation of Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The town of Mailuu-Suu in Kyrgyzstan inherited 23 distinct tailings deposits from Soviet-Era uranium mining operations. Mailuu-Suu is located in the narrow landslide-prone valley of the Mailuu-Suu River about 25 km from the Uzbekistan border. Large-scale release of the radioactive tailings, as a result of landslides, could lead to irreversible contamination of the river and downstream areas. The Mailuu-Suu River is a tributary to the Syr-Darya River, the Fergana valley's main source of irrigation water. The Fergana Valley is a key agricultural region and major population center that spans Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The trans-boundary nature of the Mailuu-Suu tailings issue presents an opportunity for collaboration among these Central Asian states. A cooperative approach to addressing environmental issues such as Mailuu-Suu may contribute to the region's stability by facilitating peaceful associations. Experience from remediation of sites in the US under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action Project (UMTRA) will be useful in progressing toward remediation at Mailuu-Suu

91

Progress Toward Remediation of Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The town of Mailuu-Suu in Kyrgyzstan inherited 23 distinct tailings deposits from Soviet-Era uranium mining operations. Mailuu-Suu is located in the narrow landslide-prone valley of the Mailuu-Suu River about 25 km from the Uzbekistan border. Large-scale release of the radioactive tailings, as a result of landslides, could lead to irreversible contamination of the river and downstream areas. The Mailuu-Suu River is a tributary to the Syr-Darya River, the Fergana valley's main source of irrigation water. The Fergana Valley is a key agricultural region and major population center that spans Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The trans-boundary nature of the Mailuu-Suu tailings issue presents an opportunity for collaboration among these Central Asian states. A cooperative approach to addressing environmental issues such as Mailuu-Suu may contribute to the region's stability by facilitating peaceful associations. Experience from remediation of sites in the US under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action Project (UMTRA) will be useful in progressing toward remediation at Mailuu-Suu.

Buckley, P B; Ranville, J; Honeyman, B D; Smith, D K; Rosenberg, N; Knapp, R B

2003-07-09

92

Situation analysis in the field of control and management of uranium tailings in Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is devoted to situation analysis in the field of control and management of uranium tailings in Kyrgyzstan. The basic sites for control in Kyrgyzstan are: HMP P C 'KGRK', specialized on uranium oxide production (status operating) RSH; storage for low-activity waste (tailings and rock piles) former uranium industry; site for disposal of ionizing radiation sources and radioactive waste in Bishkek city; ionizing radiation sources; medical institutions (X-rays diagnostics, radiotherapy); natural anomaly (local sites with high radiation background). It was concluded that: in existing legislative basis there is a necessity to amend requirements for accepting regulatory provisions on radiation safety; it is necessary to continue working on combination of country's policy and strategy with Fundamental Safety Principles and with International instruments, agreements, codes which were ratified by State; legislative basis documental hierarchy on radiation safety issues is not a complete system, significant number of gaps are defined (more than 60 % from the whole system), basically, related to low stages of hierarchical structure (rules, norms, regulations, instructions and etc.); it is necessary to review existing leading documents with the purpose of inaccuracy correcting, especially in the field of safety statements (especially, it relates to new basic regulation on radiation safety, where contradicting to each other criteria are available, mixing to one 'pile' the concepts of 'dose threshold' and 'dose limits', incomplete and scrappy Radioactive Wastes classification, absence of instructions on ionizing radiation sources categorization and etc.

93

Uranium in natural waters sampled within former uranium mining sites in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New data are presented on 238U concentrations in surface and ground waters sampled at selected uranium mining sites in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan and in water supplies of settlements located in the vicinity of these sites. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used for 238U determination in all cases. In addition, for data accuracy assessments purposes, a sub-set of these samples was analysed by high-resolution alpha spectrometry, following standard radiochemical separation and purification. Our data show that drinking waters sampled at various settlements located close to the uranium mining sites are characterised by relatively low uranium concentrations (1.9 - 35.9 ?g L-1) compared to surface waters sampled within the same sites. The latter show high concentrations of total uranium, reflecting the influence from the radioactive waste generated as a result of uranium ore production. (author)

94

The Bishkek vertical array (BIVA): acquiring strong motion data in Kyrgyzstan and first results  

Science.gov (United States)

We present results from a vertical array of accelerometers that was recently installed in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) with the long-term aim of recording strong motion data. Taking advantage of recordings of a Mb 4.7 earthquake that occurred 40 km from the array site during the installation phase, we provide results of some preliminary data analysis. First, estimates of the S-wave velocity and Qs structure are deduced by the inversion of the deconvolved wavefield between the sensors in the borehole. Furthermore, the application of the nonstationary ray decomposition Kinoshita (Earth Planets Space 61:1297-1312, 2009) allowed at least three reflectors in the shallow velocity structure below the array to be identified. The complex nature of the wavefield (with up-going, down-going waves, and converted phases) due to the coarse, unconsolidated subsoil structure is highlighted by means of numerical simulations of ground motion.

Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Ullah, S.; Orunbaev, S.; Usupaev, S.; Moldobekov, B.; Echtler, H.

2013-04-01

95

Radioecological and radiobiologeochemical situation in the pool of river Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the end of 20th. century in connection with increased technogenium of biosphere accompanying wide application of mineral fertilizers, cause accumulation in environment wastes of a mining industry, household wastes and other, technogenium biogeochemical provinces and new associations of chemical elements arise. It is known that sharp deficiency or the surplus in environment of biologically active elements results in diseases of animals, plants and men. On the territory of Kyrgyzstan and other countries biogeochemical provinces with deficiency and surplus I, F, Cu, V, Ca, Sr, Se, U and Hg are investigated. The doctrine about biogeochemical provinces finds practical realization in medicine and agriculture (preventive maintenance of endemical diseases, synthesis of medicines, manufacture of micro fertilizers etc.) The ecology of coast ecosystems and river Mailuu-Suu (ground, water, plants) is investigated for the first time in uranium-technogenius area

96

An innovative tool for landslide susceptibility mapping in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Kyrgyzstan is among the most exposed countries in the world to landslide susceptibility. The high seismicity of the area, the presence of high mountain ridges and topographic relieves, the geology of the local materials and the occurrence of heavy precipitations represent the main factors responsible for slope failures. In particular, the large variability of material properties and slope conditions as well as the difficulties in forecasting heavy precipitations locally and in quantifying the level of ground shaking call for harmonized procedures for reducing the negative impact of these factors. Several studies have recently been carried out aiming at preparing landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; however, some of them - qualitative-based - suffer from the application of subjective decision rules from experts in the classification of parameters that influence the occurrence of a landslide. On the other hand, statistical methods provide objectivity over qualitative ones since they allow a numerical evaluation of landslide spatial distribution with landslide potential factors. For this reason, we will make use of a bivariate technique known as Weight-Of-Evidence method to evaluate the influence of landslide predictive factors. The aim of this study is to identify areas in Kyrgyzstan being more prone to earthquake-triggered landslides. An innovative approach which exploits the new advances of GIS technology together with statistical concepts is presented. A range of conditioning factors and their potential impact on landslide activation is quantitatively assessed on the basis of landslide spatial distribution and seismic zonation. Results show areas which are more susceptible to landslides induced by earthquakes. Our approach can be used to fill the gap of subjectivity that typically affects already performed qualitative analysis. The resulting landslide susceptibility map represents a potentially supportive tool for disaster management and planning activities at regional level; furthermore, it can be used as a starting point for further constraining the analysis which might also consider meteorological influences and for carrying out an extension to all Central Asian countries in the framework of cross-border activities.

Saponaro, Annamaria; Pilz, Marco; Wieland, Marc; Bindi, Dino; Parolai, Stefano

2013-04-01

97

The impact of institutional factors on Georgia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan "color revolutions" as a breakthrough political regime transitions  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the institutional factors on Georgia: Rose Revolution, Ukraine: Orange Revolution and Kyrgyzstan: Tulip Revolution. Color revolutions. According to Thomas Carothers one of the fifth core assumptions that define transition paradigma democratization tends to unfold in a set sequence of stanges. First there occurs the opening: a periood of democratic ferment and political liberization, secondly follows breakthrough: the collpas...

Mo?ttus, Andres

2012-01-01

98

Toxoplasma gondii infection in Kyrgyzstan: Seroprevalence, risk factor analysis, and astimate of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: HIV-prevalence, as well as incidence of zoonotic parasitic diseases like cystic echinococcosis, has increased in the Kyrgyz Republic due to fundamental socio-economic changes after the breakdown of the Soviet Union. The possible impact on morbidity and mortality caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection in congenital toxoplasmosis or as an opportunistic infection in the emerging AIDS pandemic has not been reported from Kyrgyzstan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened 1...

Minbaeva, G.; Schweiger, A.; Bodosheva, A.; Kuttubaev, O.; Hehl, A. B.; Tanner, I.; Ziadinov, I.; Torgerson, P. R.; Deplazes, P.

2013-01-01

99

An international degree, social ties and return: when international graduates make a career back home in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Student mobility is increasing worldwide, and Kyrgyzstan is no exception. This study looks at students who returned after their degree and highlights the increasing transnational, networked character of professionals, emphasizing not only the phys­ical presence of migrants, but also the value of knowledge transfer. Transnationalism can be maintained without moving physically, for example through interaction with international donor agencies in the country or through an in-depth application o...

Thieme, Susan

2014-01-01

100

Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Kyrgyzstan: Seroprevalence, Risk Factor Analysis, and Estimate of Congenital and AIDS-Related Toxoplasmosis  

OpenAIRE

A serological study on toxoplasmosis was undertaken in a rural and urban population in Kyrgyzstan. The observed seroprevalence was adjusted because of differences between age and gender stratifications in the study group compared to population census figures. This gave an estimated seroprevalence in rural and urban populations of 5.1% and 16.4% respectively. In our analysis we determined the risk-factors for infection in the rural population to be age, low social-status and low number of shee...

Minbaeva, Gulnara; Schweiger, Alexander; Bodosheva, Aigerim; Kuttubaev, Omurbek; Hehl, Adrian B.; Tanner, Isabelle; Ziadinov, Iskender; Torgerson, Paul R.; Deplazes, Peter

2013-01-01

101

Bismarck meets Beveridge on the Silk Road: coordinating funding sources to create a universal health financing system in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Options for health financing reform are often portrayed as a choice between general taxation (known as the Beveridge model) and social health insurance (known as the Bismarck model). Ten years of health financing reform in Kyrgyzstan, since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, provide an excellent example of why it is wrong to reduce health financing policy to a choice between the Beveridge and Bismarck models. Rather than fragment the system according to the insu...

Kutzin, Joseph; Ibraimova, Ainura; Jakab, Melitta; O’dougherty, Sheila

2009-01-01

102

Development of a Dynamic Landslide Inventory Information System for Southern Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Southern Kyrgyzstan is part of the tectonically active mountain ranges of the Tien Shan. The study area is located at the Eastern rim of the Fergana Basin representing a densely populated region where large landslides regularly endanger human lives and infrastructure. Therefore, GIS-based landslide susceptibility and hazard analysis is of great importance requiring detailed assessment of past landslide activity at regional scale. In Kyrgyzstan, information on past landslide activity is less available than in other more developed and researched regions of the world. Although landslide investigations were conducted since the 1950s, they have been drastically reduced since Kyrgyzstan's independence from the former Soviet Union in 1991 accompanied by loss of existing information. During the last years, information on landslides has been made publicly available mostly in form of derivatives, such as landslide hazard maps. All of these investigations have been limited to inhabited areas with known landslide danger. The presented research has the goal to develop a GIS-based approach for establishing a dynamic landslide inventory information system which allows efficient integration of the existing heterogeneous landslide data. They consist of reports prepared by Kyrgyz authorities as a result of field campaigns supported by visual interpretation of aerial photographs. These reports vary greatly in their spatial and temporal reliability as well as the format of the contained landslide data. This information has been complemented by multi-temporal satellite remote sensing data analysis carried out by the GFZ Potsdam aiming at interactive mapping of slopes affected by long-term complex landslide processes as well as developing an automated approach for landslide identification for the last 25 years. The used satellite remote sensing data provide a spatially continuous information base, partially with high temporal resolution, and thus enable creation of a dynamic landslide inventory at a regional scale. The complexity of the landslide processes and the heterogeneous information base require development of customized approaches for data integration and validation in order to establish a reliable and comprehensible digital landslide inventory system. In a first step all existing landslide information was digitized and integrated into a common spatial reference system consisting of the geo-referenced multi-temporal satellite remote sensing database. In combination with results from GPS-based field mapping of landslides, this database has been used for resolving spatial and temporal ambiguities originating from the combination of different information sources as well as for adding new events to the landslide inventory. The goal of establishing a dynamic landslide inventory also requires the development of a GIS-based data structure which is capable of representing spatial and temporal changes in a consistent and reproducible way allowing discrimination between single and multiple slope failures as well as incorporation of spatial information about undated past landslide activity. Besides data structure, determination of appropriate spatial mapping units is of special importance. Present research investigates the suitability of slope units derived from DEM-based watershed delineation. The capabilities of such a dynamic landslide inventory system will be demonstrated in an exemplary way for selected slopes within the study area affected by high landslide activity.

Golovko, Daria; Roessner, Sigrid; Behling, Robert; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Kaufmann, Hermann

2013-04-01

103

Re-establishing seasonal mass balance observation at Abramov Glacier, Kyrgyzstan, from 1968 - 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

The Abramov Glacier, located in the Pamir Alay in Kyrgyzstan, was subject to intense studies in the frame of various scientific programs under the former USSR. With the breakdown of the Soviet Union, the monitoring was abruptly abandoned in the late nineties. Well documented and continuous seasonal mass balance observations are available for 1968-1994. However, some inconsistencies between different publications lead to in-homogeneous data sets. Recently, the project CATCOS (Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems) was launched, aiming among other goals to re-establish mass balance observation on selected glaciers in Kyrgyzstan. At Abramov Glacier, a new stake network, an automatic weather station (AWS) and two automatic terrestrial cameras with instantaneous data transfer over satellite were installed in 2011. Measurements were repeated and intensified in 2012 and will be subject of a third field campaign in summer 2013. A complete re-analysis of the long-term mass balance series from 1968 to 1994 delivers corrected mass balance data for Abramov Glacier. To homogenize in-situ mass balance records, a spatially distributed mass balance model driven with local daily temperature and precipitation data was calibrated to each seasonal mass balance survey. The model resolves seasonal mass-balance measurements to a daily timescale and performs spatial inter- and extrapolation of data points based on a consistent algorithm, taking into account the principal factors of mass balance distribution. Summarizing the annually optimized parameters over the entire study period provides a robust model parameter set for years with less extensive direct measurements. From 1994 to 2011, neither direct point measurements nor meteorological data are available. In order to run the calibrated model developed for the 1960's to 90's, climate input variables were taken from bias corrected Re-analysis data (NCEP/NCAR and JRA). Evaluation of the model results was achieved through observations of snow-lines on Landsat images throughout each mass balance year. Automatic cameras, installed in August 2011 took repeated oblique photographs of the glacier on a daily basis. Snow-line evolution was analysed on the orthorectified and georeferenced images and complementary on Landsat imagery. Meteorological variables collected in 2012 from the newly installed AWS were used to run the calibrated mass balance model for the hydrological year 2011/2012. All available mass balance point measurements were used for optimization. Evaluation against snow-line observations on terrestrial photographs and satellite images are promising.

Barandun, Martina; Huss, Matthias; Azisov, Erlan; Gafurov, Abror; Hoelzle, Martin; Merkushkin, Aleksandr; Salzmann, Nadine; Usubaliev, Ryskul

2013-04-01

104

ON INSCRIPTIONS WITH ARABIC LETTERS IN KYRGYZSTAN KIRGIZ?STANDAK? ARAP HARFL? YAZITLAR ÜZER?NE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The territory within the boundaries of Kyrgyzstan Republic is highly important for Turkish-Islamic history. The territory contains many Arabic inscriptions belonging to Muslim-Turkic tribes especially Karahanli state (Karahanlilar, and Arabians who arrived in the region for conquests. This paper presents to the attention the significance of Turkish and Arabic inscriptions in Alphabet, found in historical mosques, prayer rooms, caravansaries, shrines, tombstones, holy places (ziyaret yerleri, manuscripts (cönkler, books, coins, knick-knacks and belongings…. belonging to Islamic Era, for Turkish-Islamic history and their current conditions. K?rg?zistan Cumhuriyeti s?n?rlar? içinde kalan topraklar, Türk-?slam tarihi aç?s?ndan büyük önem ta??maktad?r. Söz konusu topraklarda ba?ta Karahanl?lar olmak üzere Müslüman Türk boylar?na ve fütuhat için bölgeye gelen Araplar’a ait pek çok Arap harfli yaz?t bulunmaktad?r.Bu makalede K?rg?zistandaki tarihî camilerde, mescitlerde, kervansaraylarda, türbelerde, mezar ta?lar?nda, ziyaret yerlerinde, el yazmas? eserlerde (cönklerde, kitaplarda, sikkelerde, süs ve kullan?m e?yalar?nda… kar??la??lan ?slamî döneme ait Arap harfli Türkçe ve Arapça yaz?tlar?n Türk-?slam tarihi aç?s?ndan önemi ve bugünkü durumlar? dikkatelere sunulmaktad?r.

Cengiz ALYILMAZ

2009-12-01

105

The Inylchek Glacier in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia: Insight on Surface Kinematics from Optical Remote Sensing Imagery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mountain chains of Central Asia host a large number of glaciated areas that provide critical water supplies to the semi-arid populated foothills and lowlands of this region. Spatio-temporal variations of glacier flows are a key indicator of the impact of climate change on water resources as the glaciers react sensitively to climate. Satellite remote sensing using optical imagery is an efficient method for studying ice-velocity fields on mountain glaciers. In this study, temporal and spatial changes in surface velocity associated with the Inylchek glacier in Kyrgyzstan are investigated. We present a detailed map for the kinematics of the Inylchek glacier obtained by cross-correlation analysis of Landsat images, acquired between 2000 and 2011, and a set of ASTER images covering the time period between 2001 and 2007. Our results indicate a high-velocity region in the elevated part of the glacier, moving up to a rate of about 0.5 m/day. Time series analysis of optical data reveals some annual variations in the mean surface velocity of the Inylchek during 2000–2011. In particular, our findings suggest an opposite trend between periods of the northward glacial flow in Proletarskyi and Zvezdochka glacier, and the rate of westward motion observed for the main stream of the Inylchek.

Mohamad Nobakht

2014-01-01

106

Assessment of radiation exposure in the uranium mining and milling area of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of the town of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals from tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu Suu, located downstream the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine waste dump. The actual external exposure is around 1.2 mSv a-1 at both locations and exposure from radon is around 3 mSv a-1 at Mailuu Suu and around 10 mSv a-1 at Kara Agach. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (?10-30 mSv a-1). In case of an accidental scenario [(part of) Tailing 3 content thrust to river], estimated additional maximum doses result in 45 and 77 mSv for an adult and a child, respectively

107

Training of front-line health workers for tuberculosis control: Lessons from Nigeria and Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Efficient human resources development is vital for facilitating tuberculosis control in developing countries, and appropriate training of front-line staff is an important component of this process. Africa and Central Asia are over-represented in global tuberculosis statistics. Although the African region contributes only about 11% of the world population, it accounts for at least 25% of annual TB notifications, a proportion that continues to increase due to poor case management and the adverse impact of HIV/AIDS. Central Asia's estimated current average tuberculosis prevalence rate of 240/100 000 is significantly higher than the global average of 217/100 000. With increased resources currently becoming available for countries in Africa and Central Asia to improve tuberculosis control, it is important to highlight context-specific training benchmarks, and propose how human resources deficiencies may be addressed, in part, through efficient (retraining of frontline tuberculosis workers. This article compares the quality, quantity and distribution of tuberculosis physicians, laboratory staff, community health workers and nurses in Nigeria and Kyrgyzstan, and highlights implications for (retraining tuberculosis workers in developing countries.

Schelokova Irina

2008-09-01

108

Glacier characteristics and changes in the Sary-Jaz River Basin (Central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan) – 1990–2010  

OpenAIRE

The water discharge from the heavily glacierized Sary-Jaz River Basin (Eastern Kyrgyzstan) is of high importance for the very arid Tarim Basin located in Xinjiang (north-western China). We investigated glacier changes in the entire Sary-Jaz River Basin, which covers a large part of the Central Tien Shan, for the period from 1990 to 2010 based on Landsat ‘TM’/‘ETM+’data. We found 1310 glaciers (>0.1 km²), which covered 2055 ± 41.1 km² (?18% of the entire basin) in 1990. The glacie...

Osmonov, Azamat; Bolch, Tobias; Xi, Chen; Kurban, Alishir; Guo, Wanqing

2013-01-01

109

Environmental Impact and Remediation of Uranium Tailings and Waste Rock Dumps at Mailuu-Suu in Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the environmental situation in the former uranium mining and milling region of Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan), the approach to environmental remediation of the waste facilities (tailings ponds and waste dumps) and the results achieved so far. It starts with an outline of the history of the environmental remediation project which has received international attention and is seen as a pilot project for further remediation activities of former uranium mining and milling sites in the region. Apart from technical aspects, the paper draws conclusions with respect to the administrative environment, institutional capacity building and the local availability of resources needed to successfully implement a complex remediation project. (author)

110

Quantitative Biostratigraphic Analysis of Central Asia with Implications for the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Central Asia lies at a nexus both in terms of geology and evolutionary biogeography. With the convergence of the Indian and Asian plates creating high rates of deformation over broad regions, shortening of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic basement rocks has created a rich history of late Cenozoic sedimentary basins. In fact, Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active country in the world. Additionally, Central Asia is a biogeographic crossroads, facilitating the intercontinental migrations of distant faunas from North American, Europe, Africa, and Southern Asia. With such an active geologic and biological evolution, the usefulness of temporal constraints is apparent. However, the continental collision environment has provided few volcanic rocks suitable for radiometric dating. Therefore, while less precise, the biostratigraphic analysis of Central Asia I present is an ideal method for both establishing ages and correlating between disparate basins. The last several decades provided great advancements in quantitative biostratigraphic methods applied to marine microfossils from drill cores. While these newer methods such as RASC (ranking and scaling), its sister program CASC, and CONOP (constrained optimization) provide a clear improvement over older methods such as graphic correlation, they have yet to be applied to terrestrial vertebrate faunas. Graphic correlation only allows comparison between two stratigraphic columns at a time and is heavily weighted by the initial selection of a type section. Both RASC and CONOP compare all stratigraphic sections simultaneously, eliminating type section bias. Previous vertebrate biostratigraphy methods attempted to predict FADs and LADs with the assumption they are generally minimum estimates. RASC instead establishes average stratigraphic ranges for each taxon and with CASC actually provides confidence intervals for each prediction, reducing the potential error resulting from reworking. CONOP generates maximum stratigraphic ranges observed in all sections, yet also includes error bars for the estimates of each biological event such as an extinction or origination. Used in conjunction, RASC, CASC, and CONOP provide both a solid evaluation of land mammal ages or zones for Central Asia and a predictive composite column for new late Cenozoic fossil localities. With a high degree of endemicity and migration, Central Asia cannot rely on the European Neogene Mammal Zones. This study aims to support and evaluate the emerging Asian biostratigraphic and geochronologic framework. With little fossil material currently collected from Kyrgyzstan, this study also sets a temporal framework for future paleontological work. Material is included from countries with much better constrained biostratigraphic records, preferably associated with existing radiometric dates. Specifically included were sites from Asiatic Russia, Mongolia, Western China, India, and Nepal. This geographic range is selected both to preserve the signal of faunas endemic to the Himalayan and Tibetan highlands, but also to provide a large enough sample to account for the well-known problems with the terrestrial fossil record such as high sampling errors and diachrony.

McLaughlin, W. N.; Hopkins, S. S.

2013-12-01

111

Radioecological and radiobiogeochemical situation of flood-lands of river Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In the end of XX c. in connection with increased texnogenium of biosphere accompanying wide application of mineral fertilizers, accumulation in environment wastes of a mining industry, household wastes and other, technogenium biogeochemical provinces and new associations of chemical elements arise. It is known, that sharp deficiency or the surplus in environment of biologically active elements results in diseases of animals, plants and a man. On the territory of Kyrgyzstan and other countries biogeochemical provinces with deficiency and surplus I, F, Cu, Cu, V, Ca, Sr, Se, U and Hg are investigated. The doctrine about biogeochemical provinces finds practical realization in medicine and agriculture (preventive maintenance of endemical diseases, synthesis of medicines, manufacture of micro fertilizers etc.). Selection of samples of soil, natural waters and plants carried out by a way of platforms on the certain routes with the account of landscape-geochemical and meteorological conditions. Processing of samples carried out in biogeochemistry laboratory of an environment GEOCHI of RAS and Biology-soil institute NAS of KR with use of soil and geological cards at an advice of the geologists and soil scientists of Kyrgyzstan. Concentration of triselementis was being by AAC, Spectrofluorimetrical and etc. methods. During operation of a uranium deposit Mailuu-Suu (1946-1968 years) more than 10 thousand tons of uranium were extracted. According to the scientific geologists and geochemists, radioactive wastes in the given site, are quantitatively equivalent to size of the extracted uranium. In tail-depository the huge weights of residual uranium and it long-lived of isotopes (Th-230, Ra-226 etc.), hence, radio-activity tail-depositories will be kept long. Now condition of these damps and storehouses contains in a so pitiable condition, that radioactive wastes, heavy metals and the toxic substances pollute an environment. And, most dangerous sites are in landslide-dangerous zones or possible food by waters of the river Mailuusuu now. In pool of the river mud flows are often. For example, 1958 as a result of failure on tail-depository No 7 on the river has passed radioactive mud torrent with the charge more than 200 m3/s In the whole water p. Mailuusuu on our received data is unsuitable for drinking and cultural - household usage. The highest concentration after the attitude LPC (limit-permissible-concentration) is characteristic for Se (up to 20 times), and the level does not change in all extent of the river. Further is accumulated Fe up to 8 times more, is especial 2 and 5 points, and Hg, Cd and Al up to 2 times. It is necessary especially to note, that in r.Kulmen-Sai (inflow r.Mailuusuu are marked the increased contents of uranium up to 5 times, where the inhabitants use water for watering and economic needs. The concentration of other investigated microelements in the river at a level ore is lower LPC. Till current of the river the level of concentration Hg, Cd and Se does not vary almost, it is constant, on other elements of the certain laws is not revealed

112

Development of Triad approach based system for ecological risk assessment for contaminated areas of Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

This research is aimed to develop a high-effective system of an ecological risk assessment and risk-based decision making for anthropogenic ecosystems, with particular focus on the soils of the Kyrgyz Republic. The study is focused on the integration of Triad data including chemical, biological and ecotoxicological soil markers to estimate the potential risk from soils of highly anthropized areas impacted by deposition of different pollutants from mining operation. We focus on technogenic areas of Kyrgyzstan, the former uranium-producing province. Triad-based ecological risk assessment for technogenic sites are not currently used in Kyrgyzstan. However, the vitality of such research is self-evident. There are about 50 tailing dumps and more than 80 tips of radioactive waste which are formed as a result of uranium and complex ores (mercury, antimony, lead, cadmium and etc) mining around the unfavorable aforementioned places. According to the Mining Wastes' Tailings and Fills Rehabilitation Centre established in 1999 by a special Government's Resolution, one of the most ecologically dangerous uranium tailings resides in Kadzhi-Say. Although uranium processing is no longer practiced in Kadzhi-Say, a large number of open landfills and uranium ore storages still remain abandoned at the vicinity of this settlement. These neglected sites have enormous problems associated with soil erosion known as "technogenic deserts". The upper soil horizons are deprived of humus and vegetation, which favor the formation of low-buffer landscapes in the zones of maximum contamination. As a result, most of these areas are not re-cultivated and remain in critical environmental condition (Bykovchenko, et al., 2005; Tukhvatshin, 2005; Suranova, 2006). Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites will be integrated. The following Triad-based parameters will be employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous substances), 2) ecological parameters (assessing changes in microorganism's community structure and functions, bioindication); and 3) toxicological bioassays (utilizing classical endpoints such as survival and reproduction rates, genotoxicity). The output will be consisted of 3 indexes: 1) Environmental Risk Index, quantifying the level of biological damage at population-community level, 2) Biological Vulnerability Index, assessing the potential threats to biological equilibria, and 3) Genotoxicity Index, screening genotoxic effects. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) will be used to integrate a set of environmental Triad data to be obtained during the project, which will be carried out in order to estimate the potential risk from soil contamination of the highly anthropized areas of Kadzhi-Say, which have been impacted by deposition of heavy metals. The basis of the development under this research is studies with a particular focus concerning the biocenosis mapping of Kyrgyz soils (Mamytova et al., 2003, 2010), investigations on interaction of humic substances with soil contaminants (Jorobekova, Kydralieva, Khudaibergenova, 2004; Khudaibergenova, 2005, 2007), and in addition, technical approach for ecotoxicological assessment of soils (Terekhova, 2007, 2011). Soil ecotoxicological estimation has been studied with a battery of tests using test-organisms of many trophic levels. Currently, bioindication of soils with various humus states is under study (Senesi, Yakimenko 2007; Yakimenko, et al., 2008).

Kydralieva, Kamilia; Uzbekov, Beksultan; Khudaibergenova, Bermet; Terekhova, Vera; Jorobekova, Sharipa

2014-05-01

113

Re-establishment of long-term glacier monitoring in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Glacier mass balance is an important indicator of climate change. The internationally recommended multi-level strategy for monitoring mountain glaciers combines in-situ measurements (mass balance, front variations) with remote sensing (inventories) and numerical modelling. This helps to bridge the gap between detailed local process-oriented studies and global coverage. Several glaciers in Central Asia, i.e. Abramov and Golubina Glacier were some of the most important reference glaciers in the world-wide glacier monitoring program representing important mountain ranges, such as the Pamir-Alay and the Tien Shan mountains. For these glaciers long-term series of more than 20 years are available. After the break-down of the former Soviet Union, most of the measurements were abandoned. In a cooperative effort between the countries Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Germany and Switzerland, the measurement series are currently re-initiated and will be continued within the next years. This study shows the measurement strategy and network, and discusses new installations, which have been set up at Abramov in summer 2011 and Golubina Glacier in summer 2010. The research strategy is composed of three main components. The first component is based on mass balance measurements using the glaciological method, the second relies on snow line observations with installed automatic cameras taking several pictures per day in order to document the snow line evolution on the glaciers during the summer months. The third is the application of a mass balance model driven by a nearby automatic weather station. The advantage of this strategy is that the three different components can be used to test them against each other, or to use them for calibration purposes. A second objective of the re-established glacier monitoring programs is to reconstruct the mass balance for the time period, where no measurements are available. Continuous mass balance series for each glacier will be derived based on a well calibrated mass balance model.

Hoelzle, M.; Azisov, E.; Barandun, M.; Hagg, W.; Huss, M.; Kriegel, D.; Machguth, H.; Mandychev, A.; Merkushkin, A.; Moldobekov, B.; Schöne, T.; Thoss, H.; Vorogushyn, S.; Zemp, M.

2012-04-01

114

Rapid appraisal of human intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren in Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

A population-representative lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) survey was conducted in 2009 to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren across Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The diagnostic approach consisted of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from a single stool sample and an adhesive tape test. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors for infections. A total of 1262 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years were recruited; 41% of them harboured at least one of the eight identified helminth species. The two most prevalent helminths were Ascaris lumbricoides (23.1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (19.3%). Lower prevalences were found for Hymenolepis nana (4.4%), Fasciola hepatica (1.9%) and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (1.8%). Washing raw vegetables was a protective factor with regard to A. lumbricoides infection (odds ratio (OR)=0.69, p=0.022); tap water was borderline protective (OR=0.56, p=0.057). Children of the richest families were at a lower risk of E. vermicularis infection than the poorest ones (OR=0.41, p=0.011). Sharing the bed with more than one person was a risk factor for E. vermicularis infection (OR=2.0, p=0.002). The results call for targeted interventions against intestinal helminths in Osh oblast. In a first stage, annual deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups with albendazole or mebendazole should be implemented, and reliable diagnosis and additional anthelminthic drugs should be made available. Subsequently, transmission control including locally-adapted health education, improved water supply and adequate sanitation should become the central features. PMID:20615381

Steinmann, Peter; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Imanalieva, Cholpon; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Stefiuk, Kayte; Jeandron, Aurelie; Utzinger, Jürg

2010-12-01

115

Experience of the multi-parameters electromagnetic monitoring in the area of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of the multi-parameters electromagnetic (EM) monitoring technology in frequency range 0.1 Hz - 1 MHz is carried out in the area of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan). The technology includes registration of such EM earthquake precursors, as apparent resistivity variations, ULF magnetic and electrotelluric anomalies, electromagnetic emission and ionosphere disturbances. Two types of equipment are used for the EM monitoring: the audiomagnetotelluric system ACF-4M (0.1-1000 Hz) and the radiomagnetotelluric system RMT-F (1-1000 kHz). The equipment ensure time series registration of electric and magnetic field components, robust data processing, spectral parameters calculations, apparent resistivity and impedance phase determination. The integrated multi-parameters monitoring of the considered precursors is carried out simultaneously and obtaining of informative parameters is differed by methods of measured time series data processing only. For the apparent resistivity variations monitoring we apply the audiomagnetotelluric sounding method in frequency range 7-300 Hz with the sufficiently large investigation depth for decreasing of seasonal and daily factors influence, temperature changes and other weather conditions. In this frequency range natural EM fields are quite stable for reliable data obtaining in any time of day and season with accuracy 0.3 % for apparent resistivity. For ULF magnetic, electrotelluric and electromagnetic emission anomalies study we use the wide-band registration of time-series of electric and magnetic fields in frequency range from 0.1 Hz up to 1 MHz. Ionosphere disturbances are studied in radio (observations of remote radio transmitter's signals) and audio (Schumann resonances observations) frequency ranges. EM emission anomaly was registered before the earthquake of M=3.3 on 4 April 2013 in the monitoring station at 100 km distance to the West from the earthquake epicenter (Issyk-Kul lake area). In the dynamic spectrum of magnetic field horizontal component the anomaly is seen in intervals 10-25 and 70-100 kHz (Fig. 1). The duration of the anomaly is approximately 2 hours before the earthquake. This work was supported by the RFBR (project 13-05-12091). Fig. 1. An example of anomaly in the dynamic spectrum of magnetic field in radio frequency range 10-100 kHz before the earthquake of M=3.3 on 4 April 2013 in the area of Bishkek

Saraev, A.; Antaschuk, K.; Simakov, A.

2013-12-01

116

Cenozoic magnetostratigraphy and magnetic properties of the southern Issyk-Kul basin, Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

We present paleomagnetic data from the northern flank of the Tianshan range, southeast of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). 613 cores were collected in two parallel sections with a total thickness of 960 m (Chon Kyzylsuu, CK) and 990 m (Jeti Oguz, JO), as well as 48 cores at six sites in a nearby anticline. Rock magnetic analyses identify both magnetite and hematite in the fluvial-lacustrine sediments. The concentration of both minerals, the magnetite:hematite ratio, and the average magnetite grain size increase upward in both sections. Anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization defines a tectonic fabric with sub-horizontal maximum axes that parallel the strike direction together with intermediate and minimum axes that streak out about a great circle orthogonal to the maximum axes suggestive of a tectonic fabric emplaced during folding. Stepwise thermal demagnetization isolates interpretable magnetization components in 284 samples that define 26 polarity chrons in CK and 19 in JO. A positive fold test, dual polarities and systematic changes in rock-magnetic parameters with depth suggest that the high temperature magnetization component was acquired coevally with deposition. An age model based on a visual magnetostratigraphic correlation of both sections with the geomagnetic polarity time scale defines absolute ages from 26.0 to 13.3 Ma, with a fairly constant sedimentation rate of 9-10 cm/ka. A correlation based on a numerical algorithm arrives at a slightly different conclusion, with deposition ages from 25.2 to 11.0 Ma and sedimentation rates from 5 to 8 cm/ka. In comparison with sedimentation rates found at other magnetostratigraphic sections in the Tianshan realm, we infer that the sedimentary record in this part of the Issyk-Kul Basin precedes the more rapid phase of uplift of the Kyrgyz Tianshan. The onset of deposition and concomitant erosion of the adjacent Terskey Range is in good agreement with independent assessments of the exhumation history of this mountain range, with erosion increasing at 25-20 Ma and accelerating after 11-13 Ma.

Wack, Michael R.; Gilder, Stuart A.; Macaulay, Euan A.; Sobel, Edward R.; Charreau, Julien; Mikolaichuk, Alexander

2014-08-01

117

Holocene climate variability in lake Sonkul sediments (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia) based on vegetation changes  

Science.gov (United States)

Western Central Asia, as a remote intracontinental setting located far from oceanic influences, is a key place for high-resolution paleoclimatic studies because different climate systems interact at different timescales and control the regional climate variability. A multiproxy study (pollen grains, palynofacies, and magnetic susceptibility) was conducted on Holocene sediments from the alpine lake Sonkul (3010 m, 41°48'33N / 75°07'38E; Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan). The combination of sediment core proxies allowed the reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes through lake level variations and vegetation dynamics between 8400 and 2000 cal. BP. A high-resolution age model was built on Holocene sediments, constituting one of the most accurate chronologies available in the Central Tien Shan. A quantitative reconstruction of climatic parameters using the "modern analogue vegetation types" (MAV) method was carried out to establish variations in temperature and precipitation patterns during the Holocene as based on variations in fossil pollen assemblages. Between 8400 and 5900 cal. BP, the climate conditions are cold and wet associated with a very low lake level. The Siberian High Pressure (SHP) and the Pacific Summer Monsoon (PSM) are the main mechanisms controlling climatic conditions during the early to mid-Holocene. Between 5900 and 4300 cal. BP, warm and moist conditions characterized the "Mid Holocene Optimum" interval where the combined influence of the Westerlies and the PSM is recorded. Our results reveal that the "Mid Holocene Optimum" period in Lake Sonkul sediments appears to be of shorter duration than in other lakes from the Tibetan plateau. Finally, between 4300 and 2000 cal. BP, the climate becomes persistently arid and warm, as it is nowadays, with a predominant influence of the Westerlies in summer and the SHP in winter. Our results show, therefore, that the lake Sonkul represents an excellent sedimentary archive in Central Asia for high-resolution climatic studies. It allows deciphering, at a high time resolution, the interactions between different climatic systems on environmental dynamics in Central Asia during the Holocene.

Mathis, M.; Sorrel, P.; Klotz, S.; Oberhänsli, H.

2012-04-01

118

Phased Remediation Approach for Prevention of Risks Linked with Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of the town of Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals from tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, we evaluated measures to be taken by the authorities to reduce the radiological exposure of the population and to prevent environmental pollution by radionuclides and heavy metals in case of loss of tightness of dams and damage to dumps and heaps from mining and milling by land and mudslides and proposed sustainable remedial options, accepted by the public. A radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu-Suu, located downstream of the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine-waste dump. The actual external exposure is around 1.2 mSv a-1 at both locations and exposure from radon is around 3 mSv a-1 at Mailuu-Suu and around 10 mSv a-1 at Kara Agach. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu-Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the very conservative hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (?10-30 mSv a-1). Additional dose from irrigation with Mailuu-Suu river water is small in actual conditions (o 3, the potential of such a disaster to occur is non-negligible. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options are evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilization and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu-Suu River valley are studied (translocation of other tailings, tunnel to deviate river, partial protection of river from landslide blockage). It was proposed to acquire a phased approach in time performing urgent limited stabilization options for Tailing No 3, improve the stability of the Tailing No 3 by COLMIX-columns in the medium-term, while investigating and evaluating further two long term remedial options: the translocation of the tailings and the long-right-bank river diversion tunnel. (author)

119

Late Holocene environmental reconstruction of Lake Issyk-Kul (Rep. Kyrgyzstan)  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake Issyk-Kul is an endorheic mountain lake located at 1608 m a.s.l., in the northern Tien Shan ranges, in the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. It has an area of 6236 km2, a length of 180 km, a width of 60 km, and a maximum depth of 668 m making it the fifth deepest lake in the world. The lake is monomictic, brackish (6 g/l), oligotrophic to ultra-oligotrophic (2 - 3.8 ?g/l of phosphorous), and it has high values of dissolved oxygen (6.5 - 7.5 mg/l at the bottom of the lake). In August 2000, a gravity 150 cm long core (C142a, 42°34'312' N - 77°20'030' E) was recovered at 150 m of water depth at the central northern shore of the lake. This core was characterized using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner (measurements every 300 ?m), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) every 3 mm, and elemental (TC and TN) and isotopic composition (?13C and ?15N) of bulk organic matter every centimeter. The preliminary chronological framework was constructed with 4 AMS 14C dates. Statistical analyses (clusters, Principal Component (PCA) and Redundant (RDA) Analyses) were employed to identify and isolate the environmental forcings that have triggered the input, distribution and deposition of sediments within the lake. The core records the last ca. 4,000 cal. yrs BP and, during this time its primary productivity has steadily increased (higher values of TC and TN). ?13C and ?15N values suggest that the main primary producer are blue-green algae. The last ca. 100 years, the primary productivity has experienced a dramatic increase. Furthermore, PCA on XRF data also highlights that more than the 50% of the total variance is related to changes in primary productivity (the first eigenvector (EV) is tied by the opposition of the terrigenous - organic matter geochemical indicators). This EV shows that the primary productivity oscillated at decadal and centennial frequencies. The main forcing of these primary productivity fluctuations seems to be temperature changes linked to both solar activity (11 years Schwabe cycles) and anthropogenic global warming.

Giralt, Santiago; Hernández, Armand; Sáez, Alberto; José Pueyo, Juan; Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Margalef, Olga

2010-05-01

120

Problem of bioecology in the natural-technogenic Uranium provinces of Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: It is known that Kyrgyzstan was the largest producer of uranium for the former USSR (for example, deposit Mailuu Suu, Sumsar, Min-Kush, Kaji-Sai, Ak-Tuz, Orlovka, Kara-Balta, etc.). Currently, interest in this problem increases again at the decision of the new strategic challenges in the world. It should be noted that due to inefficient and wasteful mining processing of minerals in the territory of Kyrgyzstan, in dumps and tailings 747.22 million m3 mineral processing wastes were formed containing a high number of potentially hazardous chemical elements and their compounds. To store them imported from other friendly countries. The status of these dumps and storage facilities so bad, that the radioactive waste, heavy metals and toxic substances contaminate the environment (soil, air, water) and living organisms. They are involved in biogeochemical cycles with the formation of new technological biogeochemical provinces (1,2,3). These technogenic features of the province, and activity of various biological organisms remain poorly understood and obscure the real geochemical situation. There are no forecasts of technological evolution of biogeochemical provinces. Limited data on the doctors and geologists for the 60-year period there was a significant change in uranium, polymetallic and other technogenic provinces in the country. Therefore, the most urgent is to find ecological and biogeochemical characteristics of enriched uranium and other rare eartcs of enriched uranium and other rare earth elements, areas and assessment of the reactions of organisms in the biocenoses of the high content of radio-nuclides and base metals. We have conducted a comprehensive survey of uranium province, according to the methodology of radiological and biological study of various toxins of the biosphere. Complex of radio biogeochemical and radio-ecological studies were carried out in 2006-2011 using modern equipment. These included land ecosystems and the aquatic environment: water, samples of higher plants and animals. From the radiometric survey we found that the level of exposure dose to the whole country was at the level of the background and below the standards (NRB-99; IAEA, 2009). But in the tailings and waste dumps, and some areas of natural background radiation increased. For example, Dzhenish and Ak-Terek placers - thorium sands from 30 to 60 mR/hr, at least 100-120 and at some points reaches 400 mR/hr in some areas tailings and dumps up to 1000 mR/h (Ak -Tuz, Kaji-Sai and Mailuu-Suu). Vegetation on the tailings and dumps most of the sparse, projective cover varies from 5 to 10% and only in some areas- up to 50%. Here one can meet the modified form of morphological plants (Peganum garmala, Potentilla argentea, Iris songarica Schrenk). In the roots of plants total alpha activity was 670 Bq/kg of beta-activity-137.5 Bq/kg, above-ground parts of plants, the alpha-activity of 490 Bq/kg, and beta activity-125.0 Bq/kg. The level of total uranium from the streams of the tail Kaji-Sai compared to water in the lake Issyk-Kul is 2-5 times more as compared with Kichi-Ak-Suu, and 40-100 times for the Bulan-Seget. However, the stream of the tail does not always reach the lake (2, 4). A total weight of tamarisk gerbils (Meriones tamariscinus), inhabiting the area and the tailings ponds, the level of alpha activity was 26.2 Bq/kg (Kn-0,039) ((Kn-book-accumulation factor), beta-activity-36.7 Bq/kg (Kn-0, 29), which is 1.5 - 2.0 times higher than that of animals with non-contaminated areas of Issyk-Kul region. Analyses of radio-nuclides in bone and muscle tissues of fish after 30 days spent in special packaging containers. We were able to identify all three major isotopes, gamma rays - 226 Ra, 228 Th and 212 Pb. In the bone tissue level of 226 Ra-chebachok-Leuciscus bergi Kaschkarov. 1925 (0,75 Bg/kg), and the Issyk-Kul trout-Salmo ischchan Issykogegarkuni Lushin. 1932 (0.52 Bg/kg) compared with muscle tissue more than 2-3 times, respectively, 0.26 and 0,20 Bg/kg wet wt. Thorium- 228, on the contrary, slightly increased in muscle tissue (0.

121

CIS as a successor of the Soviet Union: who is financially responsible for the uranium waste storage sites in Kyrgyzstan?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: As the Second World War came to an end and the Cold War just started, the Soviet Union was faced with a problematic necessity of the nuclear weapons' production. Indeed, the Soviet Empire was in the extreme need of such weapons since their possession was viewed as an only guarantee of peaceful relations between USSR and United States. Exactly in that period the Soviet Union started its intensive exploitation of the large radioactive ore deposits (basically, uranium and radium), located on the territory of the present-day Kyrgyzstan. Throughout the post-war cold period and right up to mid-80s Kyrgyzstan had been one of the leading producers of uranium in the Soviet Union. In fact, the first Soviet atomic bomb was produced using Kyrgyz uranium. In the intense arms race with United States there was no time to concern oneself with environmental and demographic protection of the exploited territory, unfortunately. The role of the Kyrgyz ASSR (Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) was to provide raw materials, concurrently being a conveniently remote place to treat foreign radioactive ores (imported from Eastern Germany and Czechoslovakia) and serving as a burial place for their wastes. Creating an enormous amount of the radioactive wastes, the uranium and radium ore deposits were located in immediate proximity to highly populated areas; in the basins of transboundary rivers; and in the seismic-active regions of the Republic. As it could be legitimately assumed, the Soviet Union was not deeply obsessed with the environmental peculiarities of the treated area and did not give a damn to its protection, being solely interested in the maximization of the uranium extraction. In 1991, immediately after the Soviet Union's dissolution, the Russian Federation officially proclaimed itself its successor. Consequently, it was Russia that received the bigger part of a huge military potential (particularly, nuclear one) of its predecessor, including the nuclear weapons' arsenal. Yet, the newly independent Kyrgyz Republic was left alone with an enormous amount of uranium waste, which was extracted on the Kyrgyz territory to produce these nuclear armaments. As a consequence of the Soviet policy, uranium waste storage sites represent a direct danger to the environment of present-day Kyrgyzstan. Therefore, Russia as the official successor of the Soviet Empire should help the Kyrgyz Republic to deal with this costly and extensive problem. These environmental issues serve as a basis for the given work. In turn, research will be primarily concentrated on several the most problematic radioactive waste storage sites, namely, the Mailuu-Suu, Kadji-Say, Kara-Balta, and Ak-Tuz uranium storages. Today, Kyrgyzstan has 50 radioactive waste storage sites, located throughout its territory and contained altogether about 300 million tons of wastes. In general, it could be suggested that the financial responsibility could be delegated to the Kyrgyz government; the Central Asian Community; Russia. It is clear with the first instance, the Kyrgyz government, as it ought to deal with the environmental problems of its country. The situation is more sophisticated and arguable in terms of second and third instance, namely, the Central Asian Community and, particularly, Russia. This paper is designed to prove not only the necessity for their involvement, but rather their responsibility for the present-day situation with the Kyrgyz storage sites. As regards the other Central Asian States, it is in their interests since they are under immediate threat of being affected. Concerning Russia, it is rather a moral right to demand its assistance than a legally legitimate one. All information, related to uranium, its extraction and further utilization was totally classified and only revealed after the Soviet Union's dissolution. Only in 1994 did the Kyrgyz public become acquainted with the truly poor environmental conditions of the newly fledged Republic. Yet, no radically efficient measures had been undertaken during the following 6 years of Kyrgyz independe

122

Metallogeny and geodynamics of the Aktiuz Boordu Mining District, Northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Aktiuz-Boordu Mining District is located in the Northern Tien Shan in the eastern part of Kyrgyzstan. The region is characterized by nappe-folding structures and comprises strongly deformed Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic sedimentary, volcano-sedimentary, and metamorphic sequences. Metamorphic rocks are represented by crystalline schists, para- and orthogneisses, marble, migmatite, amphibolite and eclogite lenses. These rocks are thought to be the oldest in the Northern Tien Shan. The 2780-Ma Aktiuz complex has a total thickness of 2800-2900 m. Available U-Pb zircon age data for the Kemin Group migmatites yield ages of 2200 ± 50 Ma. Based upon their geological setting, multistage metamorphism and isotopic ages of retrograde metamorphism (1.1-1.9 Ga), these rocks reach a few kilometers in thickness and are subdivided into Archaean and Paleoproterozoic. The Archaean and Paleoproterozoic basement metamorphic rocks contain mineralization of various ages and types, including porphyry Cu, Au-sulphide, Au-Bi, barite, epithermal base metal and Au-Ag, REE and rare-metals. Two ore fields have been identified within the Aktiuz-Boordu Mining District, they are: (1) Taldybulak-Boordu, with Au, base metal, and porphyry Cu systems; (2) Aktiuz, with REE, rare- and base-metal deposits. Within the Paleozoic Taldybulak-Boordu volcanic structure, deposits and occurrences of Au are present at Taldybulak Levoberezhny, Chimbulak Zapadny, Karamoko and Kuranjailyau; of Pb at Boordu, Taldybulak Stary, Chimbulak Vostochny and Chimbulak Zapadny; of Mo at Karabulak, and of Cu at Berkut-Kashka. Almost all are found along the periphery of deeply eroded volcanoes. Rock types in the Taldybulak-Boordu ore field mainly comprise chlorite-amphibole and amphibole schists, amphibolites, and migmatites of the Paleoproterozoic Kuperlisay suite. The younger Paleoproterozoic Kokbulak and Kapchigay suites are represented by mica schists and granite gneisses, which are separated from the Kuperlisay suite by a fault. The basement rocks are cut by a complex network of Paleozoic sub-1 volcanic intrusions, accompanied by eruptive rocks and breccia pipes. These represent the root system of Middle and Late Paleozoic volcanoes. At the Taldybulak Levoberezhny Au deposit, the principal ore-controlling structures are inter- and intraformational shear, thrust-fault zones and tectonic mélange injected by intrusions that underwent metasomatic alteration. Gold-sulphide disseminated mineralization is associated with the upper part of Taldybulak shear zone and is associated with monzodiorites and quartz-tourmaline veinlets. The Aktiuz ore field is located in an uplifted block of the basement rocks, including gneisses and crystalline schists (the Archean Aktiuz complex and Paleoproterozoic Kemin Group). They are intruded by Neoproterozoic mafic and ultramafics rocks, Late Ordovician-Silurian collision granites and granodiorites, Devonian monzodiorites, alaskites, alkalic and subalkalic two-feldspar granites, and Permian-Triassic syenites, subalkalic leucogranites, granophyres and granite-porphyries. The Kuperlisay leucogranite intrusion is an elongated body with several ridge-like projections of granophyres. For the Kuperlisay leucogranite a K-Ar age of 260 Ma was obtained, whereas the K-Ar age of granophyre is 225-230 Ma. Analyses of the Aktiuz granite samples taken from the Kutessay open pit yielded an age of 416 Ma (U-Pb zircon SHRIMP method). The Aktiuz ore field contains deposits of Th at Kuperlisay and Kutessay II, and of REE and base metals at Aktiuz and at Kalesay. All are hosted by leucocratic alkali granites, granophyres, granite-porphyries and albitites. Significant reserves and resources of REE and base metals ores for the Aktiuz and Kutessay II deposits make them economically important.

Djenchuraeva, R. D.; Borisov, F. I.; Pak, N. T.; Malyukova, N. N.

2008-03-01

123

Seismic Data Reveal Lake-Level Changes in Lake Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake Issyk-Kul is located in an intramontane basin of the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, at 1607 m above sea level. It has formed in a tectonically active region with W-E striking major thrust zones both N and S of the lake. The lake is elongated with 180 km in W-E and 60 km in S-N direction and a water depth of roughly 670 m at its central plain. With a surface area of 6232 km2 and a total water colume of around 1736 km3, Lake Issyk-Kul is the second largest lake in the higher altitudes (De Batist et al., 2002). Two large delta areas have formed at the E and W end. Steep slopes at both the N and S shore separate rather narrow, shallow shelf areas from the central deeper plain. First seismic data of lake Issyk-Kul were acquired in 1982 by the Moscow University with a total of 31 profiles across the lake. In 1997 and 2001, a second and third seismic survey of the lake were carried out by the group of Marc De Batist (Ghent, Belgium) in cooperation with the Royal Museum of Central Africa (Tervuren, Belgium) and the SBRAS (Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia) using a sparker system with a single-channel streamer. These surveys were recently completed by a fourth expedition carried out by the University of Bremen in April 2013. During this expedition, 33 additional profiles were acquired with an airgun and a multi-channel streamer. The sparker surveys mostly cover the delta and shelf areas in high detail, while the airgun survey covers the deeper parts of the lake with penetration beyond the first multiple. Bathymetry data reveal that at the delta areas, the shelf is divided into two parts. The shallower comprises the part down to 110 m water depth with an average inclination of 0.5°, while the deeper part reaches from 110 m to 300 m water depth with an average slope inclination of 1°. Incised paleo-river channels of up to 2-3 km width and 50 m depth are visible both on the eastern and western shelf, but are limited to the shallower part of the deltas. They lie in the prolongation of modern river mouths at the eastern part of the lake, while at the western lake, they connect to former in- and outlets of the Chu River that is currently bypassing the lake (De Mol, 2006). A series of morphological terraces interpreted as ancient shorelines characterize the deeper part of the shelf. Together with lake-level terraces that are outcroping along the lake shores, the delta areas document up to 400 m of lake-level change. Deeper-penetrating multi-channel airgun profiles reveal that the sediments are mostly well-layered at least down to the multiple, and large-scale debris flows were detected only in some spots. The dipping of the layers increases with depth and reveals a halfgraben structure filled with lacustrine sediments. References: De Batist, M., et al., 2002. Bathymetry and sedimentary environments of Lake Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyz Republic (Central Asia): a large, high-altitude, tectonic lake. In: J. Klerkx and B. Imanackunov (Editors), Lake Issyk-Kul: Its Natural Environment. NATO Science Series, Series IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 101-123. De Mol, L., 2006. Reconstructie van meerspiegelschommelingen in het Issyk-Kul Meer (Kirgizië) op basis van de geomorfologische en seismostratigrafische analyse van rivierdelta's. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Gent, Gent, 144 pp.

Gebhardt, C.; Spiess, V.; Keil, H.; Sauermilch, I.; Oberhänsli, H.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; De Batist, M. A.; Naudts, L.; De Mol, L.

2013-12-01

124

Capital Based Macroeconomic model and 100 percent reserve system, free banking system and BFH system: A Comparism among Latvia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.  

OpenAIRE

This essay extends the capital based macroeconomic theory to include international capital flow thus extending it to an open economy and analyze it in the context of the BFH system, Free banking system and 100 percent reserve ration. In all these, it was noticed that interest rate will barely change even though the possibility of interest rate changes was not ruled out completely. A test of these systems was conducted on Latvia, Lithuanian, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan and was successful. Howev...

Baafi Antwi, Joseph

2010-01-01

125

Towards equitable access to medicines for the rural poor: analyses of insurance claims reveal rural pharmacy initiative triggers price competition in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A rural pharmacy initiative (RPI) designed to increase access to medicines in rural Kyrgyzstan created a network of 12 pharmacies using a revolving drug fund mechanism in 12 villages where no pharmacies previously existed. The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of the RPI resulted in the unforeseen benefit of triggering medicine price competition in pre-existing (non-RPI) private pharmacies located in the region. Methods

Gm, Leufkens Hubert; Laing Richard; Tripodis Yorghos; Maddix Jason; Waning Brenda; Gokhale Manjusha

2009-01-01

126

Child agency and economic circumstances: how does family economic status affect child agency in Kyrgyzstan's post-Soviet culture of transition?  

OpenAIRE

This thesis explores how children’s experiences of childhood in Kyrgyzstan transformed after the collapse of the Soviet Union (1991) and the consequent transition to market economy. In particular it studies the interrelations of culture and economic circumstances and their effects on child agency in times of economic, social, cultural and political change which were not given enough attention in the relevant literature. I sampled 40 children (aged 12 and 16) from a state school in an...

Rasulova, Saltanat Temirbekovna; Walker, Robert; Bennett, Fran

2013-01-01

127

Assessment of the radiological impact of gamma and radon dose rates at former U mining sites in Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to gamma radiation, radon and thoron was carried out at the former uranium mining and processing sites in Shekaftar, Minkush and Kadji Sai in Kyrgyzstan. Gamma dose rate measurements were made using various field instruments and radon/thoron measurements were carried out using discriminative radon (222Rn)/thoron (220Rn) solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time including at least three seasonal periods in a year, in different outdoor and indoor public and residential environments at the selected uranium legacy sites. The results showed that gamma, Rn and Tn doses were in general low, which consequently implies a low/relatively low radiological risk. The major radiation hazard is represented by abandoned radioactive filtration material that was being used as insulation by some Minkush residents for a longer period of time. Annual radiation doses of several hundred mSv could be received as a consequence of using this material in their houses. The radiation doses deriving from external radiation (gamma dose rate), indoor radon and thoron with their short-lived progenies in several cases exceeded national as well as international standards. Current doses of ionizing radiation do not represent any serious hazard to the health of the resident public, but this issue should be adequately addressed to further reduce needless exposure of resident public to ionizing radiation

128

Assessment of the radiological impact of gamma and radon dose rates at former U mining sites in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to gamma radiation, radon and thoron was carried out at the former uranium mining and processing sites in Shekaftar, Minkush and Kadji Sai in Kyrgyzstan. Gamma dose rate measurements were made using various field instruments and radon/thoron measurements were carried out using discriminative radon ((222)Rn)/thoron ((220)Rn) solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time including at least three seasonal periods in a year, in different outdoor and indoor public and residential environments at the selected uranium legacy sites. The results showed that gamma, Rn and Tn doses were in general low, which consequently implies a low/relatively low radiological risk. The major radiation hazard is represented by abandoned radioactive filtration material that was being used as insulation by some Minkush residents for a longer period of time. Annual radiation doses of several hundred mSv could be received as a consequence of using this material in their houses. The radiation doses deriving from external radiation (gamma dose rate), indoor radon and thoron with their short-lived progenies in several cases exceeded national as well as international standards. Current doses of ionizing radiation do not represent any serious hazard to the health of the resident public, but this issue should be adequately addressed to further reduce needless exposure of resident public to ionizing radiation. PMID:23260850

Lespukh, E; Stegnar, P; Usubalieva, A; Solomatina, A; Tolongutov, B; Beishenkulova, R

2013-09-01

129

Ideal climatic variables for the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, derived from GPS data and energy-mass balance measurements  

OpenAIRE

We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007) of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Differential GPS surveys reveal a vertical surface deletion at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the modern state are 289 mm and ?3.85 °C at the ...

Fujita, K.; Takeuchi, N.; Nikitin, S. A.; Surazakov, A. B.; Okamoto, S.; Aizen, V. B.; Kubota, J.

2011-01-01

130

[Taxonomy of the Sokuluk virus (SOKV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus, Entebbe bat virus group) isolated from bats (Vespertilio pipistrellus Schreber, 1774), ticks (Argasidae Koch, 1844), and birds in Kyrgyzstan].  

Science.gov (United States)

Complete genome sequencing of the Sokuluk virus (SOKV) isolated in Kyrgyzstan from bats Vespertilio pipistrellus and their obligatory parasites--Argasidae Koch, 1844, ticks was carried out. SOKV was classified as attributed to the Flaviviridae family, Flavivirus genus. The maximum homology (71% for nucleotide and 79% for amino acid sequences) was detected with respect to the Entebbe bat virus (ENTV). ENTV and SOKV form a group joining to the yellow fever virus (YFV) within the limits of the mosquito flavivirus branch. Close relation of SOKV with bat covers and human housings permits to assume SOKV potentially patogenic to human health. PMID:25065143

L'vov, D K; Al'khovski?, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Samokhvalov, E I; Botikov, A G

2014-01-01

131

Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1949–1967, a U mine, a coal-fired thermal power plant and a processing plant for the extraction of U from the produced ash were operated at the Kadji Sai U mining site in Tonsk district, Issyk-Kul County, Kyrgyzstan. The Kadji Sai U legacy site represents a source of contamination of the local environment by naturally occurring radionuclides and associated trace elements. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals at the site, field expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2008 by the Joint collaboration between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (JNKKT) project and the NATO SfP RESCA project. In addition to in situ gamma and Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water and sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of radionuclides and trace metals in water from Issyk-Kul Lake were in general low, but surprisingly high for As. Uptake of U and As was also observed in fish from the lake with maximum bioconcentration factors for liver of 1.6 and 75, respectively. The concentrations of U in water within the Kadji Sai area varied from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L, except for downstream from the mining area where U reached a factor of 10 higher, 0.2 mg/L. Uranium concentrations in the drinking water of Kadji Sai village were about the level recommended by the WHO for drinking water. The 234U/238U activity ratio reflected equilibrium conditions in the mining pond, but far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching 2.3 for an artesian well). Uranium, As and Ni were mainly present as low molecular mass (LMM, less than 10 kDa) species in all samples, indicating that these elemental species are mobile and potentially bioavailable. The soils from the mining sites were enriched in U, As and trace metals. Hot spots with elevated radioactivity levels were easily detected in Kadji Sai and radioactive particles were observed. The presence of particles carrying significant amount of radioactivity and toxic trace elements may represent a hazard during strong wind events (wind erosion). Based on sequential extractions, most of the elements were strongly associated with mineral matter, except for U and As having a relatively high remobilization potential. Low Kd was obtained for U (3.5 × 102 L/kg d.w.), intermediate Kds (?3 × 103 L/kg d.w.) were obtained for 226Ra, As and Ni, while a high Kd (2.2 × 105 L/kg d.w.) were obtained for Pb. The accumulation of metals in fish gills reflected the LMM species in the Issyk-Kul water, and did not show any bioaccumulation. The muscle Hg concentrations in all fish species were low and did not represent any health risk even for groups at risk. Total gamma and Rn dose rate to man amounted to about 12 mSv/y, while the highest calculated dose rate for non-human species based on the ERICA Assessment Tool were obtained in terrestrial plants (164 ?Gy/h) due to the Ra exposure. The results obtained showed that radiation doses to resident public at all of the investigated sites in the Kadji Sai area were in general relatively low. Low radiological risk and no detrimental health impact on resident public can be expected at these sites. However, exposure to Rn and Tn in the living environment can be further reduced by implementing simple countermeasures such as ventilation of dwelling cellars. More focus in the Kadji Sai area should probably be put on trace elements, especially the As uptake in fish in Lake Issyk-Kul

132

Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1949-1967, a U mine, a coal-fired thermal power plant and a processing plant for the extraction of U from the produced ash were operated at the Kadji Sai U mining site in Tonsk district, Issyk-Kul County, Kyrgyzstan. The Kadji Sai U legacy site represents a source of contamination of the local environment by naturally occurring radionuclides and associated trace elements. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals at the site, field expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2008 by the Joint collaboration between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (JNKKT) project and the NATO SfP RESCA project. In addition to in situ gamma and Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water and sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of radionuclides and trace metals in water from Issyk-Kul Lake were in general low, but surprisingly high for As. Uptake of U and As was also observed in fish from the lake with maximum bioconcentration factors for liver of 1.6 and 75, respectively. The concentrations of U in water within the Kadji Sai area varied from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L, except for downstream from the mining area where U reached a factor of 10 higher, 0.2 mg/L. Uranium concentrations in the drinking water of Kadji Sai village were about the level recommended by the WHO for drinking water. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratio reflected equilibrium conditions in the mining pond, but far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching 2.3 for an artesian well). Uranium, As and Ni were mainly present as low molecular mass (LMM, less than 10 kDa) species in all samples, indicating that these elemental species are mobile and potentially bioavailable. The soils from the mining sites were enriched in U, As and trace metals. Hot spots with elevated radioactivity levels were easily detected in Kadji Sai and radioactive particles were observed. The presence of particles carrying significant amount of radioactivity and toxic trace elements may represent a hazard during strong wind events (wind erosion). Based on sequential extractions, most of the elements were strongly associated with mineral matter, except for U and As having a relatively high remobilization potential. Low Kd was obtained for U (3.5 × 10(2) L/kg d.w.), intermediate Kds (~3 × 10(3) L/kg d.w.) were obtained for (226)Ra, As and Ni, while a high Kd (2.2 × 10(5) L/kg d.w.) were obtained for Pb. The accumulation of metals in fish gills reflected the LMM species in the Issyk-Kul water, and did not show any bioaccumulation. The muscle Hg concentrations in all fish species were low and did not represent any health risk even for groups at risk. Total gamma and Rn dose rate to man amounted to about 12 mSv/y, while the highest calculated dose rate for non-human species based on the ERICA Assessment Tool were obtained in terrestrial plants (164 ?Gy/h) due to the Ra exposure. The results obtained showed that radiation doses to resident public at all of the investigated sites in the Kadji Sai area were in general relatively low. Low radiological risk and no detrimental health impact on resident public can be expected at these sites. However, exposure to Rn and Tn in the living environment can be further reduced by implementing simple countermeasures such as ventilation of dwelling cellars. More focus in the Kadji Sai area should probably be put on trace elements, especially the As uptake in fish in Lake Issyk-Kul. PMID:22898665

Lind, O C; Stegnar, P; Tolongutov, B; Rosseland, B O; Strømman, G; Uralbekov, B; Usubalieva, A; Solomatina, A; Gwynn, J P; Lespukh, E; Salbu, B

2013-09-01

133

Late Devonian palaeomagnetism of the North Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan: can secular variation vary on a short timescale?  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied more than 80 lava flows from a ˜600-m-thick pile of Upper Devonian (Frasnian) basalts and andesites of the Aral Formation in the North Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia). With the aid of stepwise thermal demagnetization, a high-temperature, dual-polarity component was reliably isolated from most flows. The primary origin of the high-temperature component is demonstrated by positive reversal, conglomerate and fold tests. The most prominent and intriguing feature of this Late Devonian data set involves a clear distinction in angular dispersion between the lower and upper parts of the studied section. A rather low concentration parameter (k = 13) and several directional anomalies characterize the lower section; in contrast, a much better grouping (k = 46) and a lack of directional outliers is observed for the dual-polarity vectors from the upper flow sequence of the formation. We analysed different mechanisms to account for this directional pattern and found that it is possible in just two ways. One is to assume that secular variation (SV) in the upper sequence is strongly underrepresented, and it is a coincidence that the mean directions of both polarities are statistically antipodal, and the corresponding concentration parameters are statistically equal. The other explanation is to hypothesize that the magnitude of SV can vary several-fold at the same palaeolatitude and over time intervals estimated as 105-106 yr. This is in sharp contrast with other models of SV, where this magnitude has been assumed to be rather time-independent (for a given latitude). Our hypothesis accounts for the observed irregularities in palaeomagnetic data, but makes attempts to establish a correlation between SV and other parameters (geographic latitude, reversal frequency, age, etc.) more difficult. We are aware, however, that more data are needed to refute or confirm it.

Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Van der Voo, Rob; Levashova, Natalia M.; Dominguez, Ada R.

2013-05-01

134

Validation of high-resolution TRMM-3B43 precipitation product using rain gauge measurements over Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the validation of monthly precipitation using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA)—3B43 product with conventional rain gauge observations for the period 1998-2007 over Kyrgyzstan. This study is carried out to quantify the accuracy of TMPA-3B43 product over the high latitude and complex orographic region. The present work is quite important because it is highly desirable to compare the TMPA precipitation product with the ground truth data at a regional scale, so that the satellite product can be fine-tuned at that scale. For the validation, four different types of spatial collocation have been used: station wise, climatic zone wise, topographically and seasonal. The analysis has been done at the same spatial and temporal scales in order to eliminate the sampling biases in the comparisons. The results show that TMPA-3B43 product has statistically significant correlation ( r = 0.36-0.88) with rain gauge data over the most parts of the country. The minimum linear correlation is observed around the large continental water bodies (e.g., Issyk-Kul lake; r = 0.17-0.19). The overall result suggests that the precipitation estimated using TMPA-3B43 product performs reasonably well over the plain regions and even over the orographic regions except near the big lake regions. Also, the negative bias suggests the systematic underestimation of high precipitation by TMPA-3B43 product. The analyses suggest the need of a better algorithm for precipitation estimation over this region separately to capture the different types of rain events more reliably.

Karaseva, Marina O.; Prakash, Satya; Gairola, R. M.

2012-04-01

135

The Hunt for Surface Rupture From the 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik Earthquake, Northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik earthquake in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan is one of the largest historic intraplate reverse-faulting events. Documentation of slip distribution and fault geometry for major historic earthquakes, such as the Chilik event, provide important data on their source physics, seismotectonics, and hazard. These data also provide insight into potential mechanical interaction with other large regional earthquakes, notably the 1887 Ms 7.3 Verny and 1911 Ms 8.2 Kebin (Chon Kemin) events. Despite the importance of the Chilik event, very little is known about the earthquake's epicenter and the presence of associated ground rupture. Isoseismal's from historic shaking intensity data gathered immediately following the event were used to estimate the event magnitude and suggest an epicentral location in the northern foothills of the Kungey Ala-too range, 80-100 kilometers east-southeast of Almaty. Researchers who have visited this area report no evidence of ground rupture, suggesting that the event either did not rupture the ground surface or that the isoseismal data do not provide a sufficiently focused estimate of epicentral location. We have reanalyzed the shaking intensity data to update the estimate of the epicentral location. During June 2007 field work and in review of aerial photography, we observed extensive east-west trending and morphologically youthful km-long and 1-5 m high fault scarps on the eastern crest of the Kungey Ala-Too Range along the Kygyz-Kazak border north of Tyup. Contemporary reports of the 1911 Kebin earthquake did not document these structures, despite the thorough investigation of rupture to the west and northwest. The scarp lengths and their offsets indicate that they did not form in the M6.6 1978 Djalanash Tyup earthquake. Although located to the south of the isoseismal epicenter for the Chilik earthquake, the scarps observed near the range crest must be considered as possible candidates for Chilik ground rupture.

Crosby, C. J.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Korjenkov, A. M.; Guralnik, B.; Mamyrov, E.; Povolotskaya, I. E.

2007-12-01

136

Glacier lake outburst floods caused by glacier shrinkage: case study of Ala-Archa valley, Kyrgyz Ala Too, northern Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in glacier extent and runoff in Central Asia increase socio-economic stress and may result in political conflict between donors of freshwater (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) and recipients of freshwater (Uzbekistan, China). Glaciers in the Pamir and Tian Shan regions have experienced an unprecedented downwasting due to regional climate changes over the past decades. This is because air temperature increases are in some areas accompanied by a decrease in precipitation. Such conditions have already resulted in a reduction of glacier runoff, especially in the northern and western Tian Shan, and an increase of the number and area of glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan. Even though glacial lakes in the mountains are in general relatively small and located far from densely populated areas, their outbursts often produce destructive debris flows. Such debris flows are especially common in Kyrgyzstan because of its steep river channels and abundance of Holocene and Quaternary glacier deposits that can be remobilized. The glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in the Shakhimardan river catchment in 1999, for example, resulted in 100 fatalities in Uzbekistan, and the GLOF from the Zyndan glacial lake led to substantial economic losses in 2009. According to the latest inventory, there are more than 350 glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan of which about 70 occur in the Kyrgyz Ala Too. The Ala-Archa valley is among the most important glacierized catchments in Kyrgyzstan. Despite the presence of a relatively small glacier-covered area of 36 km2, the Ala-Archa river is of critical importance to the Bishkek area, its agriculture, and its population which currently exceeds one million. GLOFs are therefore a threat to both numerous settlements of touristic value in the Ala-Archa headwaters and to Bishkek. The Teztor lake in the Adygene catchment of the Ala-Archa river system experienced an outburst during 1988 and 2005. On the early morning of July 31, 2012, this lake began draining through a dam composed of stagnant ice and debris. With the water discharge being merely a few m3/s, the GLOF transformed into a debris flow beyond a steep front of rock glacier, which is within 150 m downstream of the lake. After rushing through the ca. 7 km-long Adygene valley, the debris flow formed a fan in the Ala-Archa valley and transformed into a flood. The flood wave reached Bishkek located more than 40 km downstream. This led to a panic amongst local dwellers and Bishkek residents. The maximum discharge of the debris flow in the lower part of the Adygene valley was assessed as 300 m3/s and the discharge of the flood in Bishkek as 35 m3/s. The latter exceeds the standard discharge of the Ala-Archa river substantially. Although no fatalities resulted from this event, economic losses as a consequence of a destroyed mineral water factory could possibly amount to USD 200000, which is a substantial sum by Kyrgyz standards. Because of the prior history, it is expected that GLOFs from the Teztor valley will recur in the upcoming years. We conclude that installation of an early warning system in lower Adygene valley is needed to prevent further damage in the study area.

Petrakov, D.; Erochin, S. A.; Harbor, J.; Ivanov, M.; Rogozhina, I.; Stroeven, A. P.; Usubaliev, R.

2012-12-01

137

Comparing site response techniques by means of earthquake data and ambient seismic noise analysis in Karakol (Kyrgyzstan)  

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Surface geology plays an important role in the variation of earthquake ground motion and hence in seismic hazard and risk assessment. This makes Kyrgyzstan, being located in one of the seismically most active regions in the world, an important investigation area for studying site effects. To this regard, as part of Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA) project, a temporary seismic network of 16 short period sensors was installed in the city of Karakol which operated continuously for more than 3 months from 10th of July 2011 until October 2011. A significant number of around 80 events, local, regional and teleseismic, were recorded during this time. Moreover, single station seismic noise measurements were carried out at 34 sites across the city. Since the shear-wave velocity structure is hardly known in the city, 3 array measurements with 20 stations were also carried out in different parts of the city, respectively. Here we present the results obtained from a combined analysis of earthquake and noise data. Standard Spectral Ratios (SSR) from earthquake analysis show amplification over a broad frequency range for stations in the city with respect to a reference station in the south located on hard rock. Moreover, also the amplitudes of the spectral ratios are varying over short scales, showing high amplitudes of around 7 to 9 in the northern part of the study area near Lake Issyk-Kul, whereas the amplitudes in the southern part of the city are around 1.5 to 3. H/V from noise analysis shows a flat response in the central and northern part of the city while some stations in the southern part show clear peak with large amplitude. Such strong variations of ground motion over short scales might therefore be indicative of a complex subsurface structure. The array recordings were analyzed for Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curves using extended spatial autocorrelation (ESAC) method. The dispersion curves were inverted for the local shear-wave velocity structure, indicating large velocity variations over short scales with lower velocities for the northern part and higher velocities for the southern part of the study area

Ullah, Shahid; Pilz, Marco; Bindi, Dino; Orunbaev, Sagynbeck; Kamchybekov, Yrysmendi; Picozzi, Matteo; Parolai, Stefano

2013-04-01

138

Assessment of radiation exposure and evaluation of remedial measures for the uranium mining and milling area of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of the town of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals in tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. Radioactive substances are stored in 23 tailings and 10 heaps situated along the Mailuu Suu River. The stability of many tailings is at risk. Attention is mostly directed to Tailing 3, because of its important radionuclide inventory and since threatened by the borders of a major landslide. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, a radiological monitoring programme was set up and a radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu Suu, located downstream the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine-waste dump. The actual radiological situation is of no immediate concern for most of the population of Mailuu Suu. The actual external exposure and exposure from radon are, respectively, around 1.2 mSv a-1 and 5 mSv a-1, at both locations. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (?10-30 mSv a-1). Additional dose from irrigation with Mailuu Suu river water is small in actual conditions (-1). However, there is an important possibility that, triggered by an earthquake or a lanhat, triggered by an earthquake or a landslide, (part of the) tailing(s) content may be directed to the river Mailuu Suu. In case the content of Tailing 3 is thrust to river, calculated maximum doses are 45 and 77 mSv a-1 for an adult and a child, respectively, for an assumed exposure duration of 2 years. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options were evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilisation and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu Suu River valley were proposed (translocation of other tailings, tunnel to deviate river, partial protection of river from landslide blockage). (authors)

139

Radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources in the former uranium mining and milling sites of Mailuu Suu (Kyrgyzstan).  

Science.gov (United States)

An assessment of the radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources at the former uranium mines and processing sites of Mailuu-Suu, in Kyrgyzstan, was carried out. A large number of water samples were collected from the drinking water distribution system (DWDS), rivers, shallow aquifers and drainage water from the mine tailings. Radionuclides and trace metal contents in water from the DWDS were low in general, but were extremely high for Fe, Al and Mn. These elements were associated with the particle fractions in the water and strongly correlated with high turbidity levels. Overall, these results suggest that water from the DWDS does not represent a serious radiological hazard to the Mailuu Suu population. However, due to the high turbidities and contents of some elements, this water is not good quality drinking water. Water from artesian and dug wells were characterized by elevated levels of U (up to 10 ?g/L) and some trace elements (e.g. As, Se, Cr, V and F) and anions (e.g. Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-)). In two artesian wells, the WHO guideline value of 10 ?g/L for As in water was exceeded. As the artesian wells are used as a source of drinking water by a large number of households, special care should be taken in order to stay within the WHO recommended guidelines. Drainage water from the mine tailings was as expected highly contaminated with many chemicals (e.g. As) and radioactive contaminants (e.g. U). The concentrations of U were more than 200 times the WHO guideline value of 30 ?g/L for U in drinking water. A large variation in (234)U/(238)U isotopic ratios in water was observed, with values near equilibrium at the mine tailings and far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching ratios of 2.3 in the artesian well). This result highlights the potential use of this ratio as an indicator of the origin of U contamination in Mailuu Suu. PMID:25129324

Corcho Alvarado, J A; Balsiger, B; Röllin, S; Jakob, A; Burger, M

2014-12-01

140

Real-time risk assessment in seismic early warning and rapid response: a feasibility study in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)  

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Earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are considered to be an effective, pragmatic, and viable tool for seismic risk reduction in cities. While standard EEWS approaches focus on the real-time estimation of an earthquake's location and magnitude, innovative developments in EEWS include the capacity for the rapid assessment of damage. Clearly, for all public authorities that are engaged in coordinating emergency activities during and soon after earthquakes, real-time information about the potential damage distribution within a city is invaluable. In this work, we present a first attempt to design an early warning and rapid response procedure for real-time risk assessment. In particular, the procedure uses typical real-time information (i.e., P-wave arrival times and early waveforms) derived from a regional seismic network for locating and evaluating the size of an earthquake, information which in turn is exploited for extracting a risk map representing the potential distribution of damage from a dataset of predicted scenarios compiled for the target city. A feasibility study of the procedure is presented for the city of Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan, which is surrounded by the Kyrgyz seismic network by mimicking the ground motion associated with two historical events that occurred close to Bishkek, namely the 1911 Kemin ( M = 8.2; ±0.2) and the 1885 Belovodsk ( M = 6.9; ±0.5) earthquakes. Various methodologies from previous studies were considered when planning the implementation of the early warning and rapid response procedure for real-time risk assessment: the Satriano et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 98(3):1482-1494, 2008) approach to real-time earthquake location; the Caprio et al. (Geophys Res Lett 38:L02301, 2011) approach for estimating moment magnitude in real time; the EXSIM method for ground motion simulation (Motazedian and Atkinson, Bull Seismol Soc Am 95:995-1010, 2005); the Sokolov (Earthquake Spectra 161: 679-694, 2002) approach for estimating intensity from Fourier amplitude spectra; and the Tyagunov et al. (Nat Hazard Earth Syst Sci 6:573-586, 2006) approach for risk computation. Innovatively, all these methods are jointly applied to assess in real time the seismic risk of a particular target site, namely the city of Bishkek. Finally, the site amplification and vulnerability datasets considered in the proposed methodology are taken from previous studies, i.e., Parolai et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am, 2010) and Bindi et al. (Soil Dyn Earthq Eng, 2011), respectively.

Picozzi, M.; Bindi, D.; Pittore, M.; Kieling, K.; Parolai, S.

2013-04-01

141

Regional vegetation patterns at lake Son Kul reveal Holocene climatic variability in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia)  

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A multiproxy study was conducted on Holocene sediments from the alpine lake Son Kul (3010 m a.s.l, 41°48?33N/75°07?38E) in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan). The combination of high-resolution pollen, palynofacies and magnetic susceptibility data allowed reconstruction of changes in sedimentary and vegetation dynamics regionally at Son Kul between 8350 and ca 2000 cal. BP. Using pollen data to quantify climatic parameters, a quantitative reconstruction of climatic conditions was performed using the "Modern Analogue Vegetation types" (MAV) method and a ranged index of seasonality. The most temperate (e.g. moister) climate conditions occurred between 8350 and 5000-4500 cal. BP when alpine meadow vegetation was enriched in plants requiring moister conditions and trees developed regionally. Conversely, more continental and arid conditions prevailed after 4500 cal. BP with the decline of arboreal vegetation (especially Juniperus) and the extension of an alpine steppe-meadow along with a regional decrease in Poaceae. This climate transition was associated with a change in seasonality as the continentality greatly intensified after 5000-4500 cal. BP. Our results are consistent with other records from the Tien Shan range and the Chinese Province Xinjiang showing that relatively wet conditions prevailed regionally before 5000 cal. BP, whereas reduced moisture conditions were established after that time. From a more global perspective, we highlight that regional rainfall in central Tien Shan and western Central Asia is likely to be predominantly controlled by the Eastern Mediterranean cyclonic system and North Atlantic climate, as based on the close correspondence between climatic archives from western Central Asia, the Levant, the Eastern Mediterranean and Caspian Sea regions. However, the effect of monsoonal dynamics on the regional climatic system in central Tien Shan still remains dubious, since recent modelling studies have shown that no dynamic link exists between humidity in Central Asia and the Indian Summer Monsoon. This study pinpoints the need to explore the effect of remote Eurasian atmospheric circulation patterns on past climate variability in Central Asia.

Mathis, Marie; Sorrel, Philippe; Klotz, Stefan; Huang, Xiangtong; Oberhänsli, Hedi

2014-04-01

142

Hydrological changes in western Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) during the Holocene as inferred from a palaeolimnological study in lake Son Kul  

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The hydrology of western Central Asia is highly sensitive to climatic perturbations. In order to understand its long-term variability and to infer linkages between precipitation and atmospheric and oceanic systems, we conducted a thorough sedimentary and geochemical study on a composite core retrieved in lake Son Kul (central Kyrgyzstan). A multi-proxy approach was conducted on lake sediments based on grain size analyses, magnetic susceptibility, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and carbon and oxygen isotope analyses on bulk and biogenic materials (ostracoda and molluscs shells) at a resolution equivalent to ca 40 years, aiming to characterise the sequence of palaeolimnological changes in Son Kul. As indicated by ?18O record of bulk carbonates, mainly consisting of aragonite, the Holocene hydrological balance was negative during most of time, suggesting an excess of evaporation (E) over precipitation (P). Limnological conditions fluctuated rapidly before 5000 cal yr BP indicating significant changes in regional hydrology and climate. In particular, the long-term negative hydrological balance was impeded by several short stages with marked increase of precipitation, lasting several decades to a few centuries (e.g., 8300-8200, 6900-6700, 6300-6100, 5500-5400, 5300-5200 and 3100-3000 cal yr BP). Precipitation changes as inferred from ?18O data are also documented by increased minerogenic detritus and higher TOC. We propose that the seasonal pattern of precipitation varied transiently in western Central Asia during the Holocene, although evaporation changes may also account for the rapid changes observed in ?18O data. When the annual water balance was less critical (P ? E), the excess of water might be ascribed to increased precipitation during cold seasons mainly because winter precipitation has more negative ?18O than its summer equivalent. Conversely, when the annual water balance is negative (P ? E), the moisture was mainly delivered during the warm season, as between 5000 and 2000 cal yr BP. Our results thus imply that moisture sources could have changed as well during the Holocene. Moisture was delivered as today mainly during summer from the extended Caspian-Aral Basin and eastern Mediterranean, although Arctic and even North Atlantic seas might be important moisture sources when seasonal precipitation was dominated by winter precipitation. We hypothesise that warming Arctic and North Atlantic seas were important for the North Hemisphere circulation during the cold season.

Huang, Xiangtong; Oberhänsli, Hedi; von Suchodoletz, Hans; Prasad, Sushma; Sorrel, Philippe; Plessen, Birgit; Mathis, Marie; Usubaliev, Raskul

2014-11-01

143

Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007. Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative financial experiences of pharmacy initiatives to inform future projects and advance access to medicines goals.

Maddix Jason

2010-07-01

144

Scale of the equilibration volume in eclogites: insights from a new micro-mapping approach - Example of Atbashi range, Kyrgyzstan  

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Understanding geodynamic processes in subduction zones and mountains belts relies on the reconstruction of precise pressure-temperature paths (P-T paths) from metamorphic rocks. Most P-T paths are obtained using quantitative thermobarometry such as forward thermodynamics models. The question of the scale of the equilibration volume is of prime importance because its chemistry is used as input for the calculation of P-T sections. In chemically homogeneous rocks the bulk rock may be obtained either by ICP-MS or XRF analysis on whole rocks. For chemically heterogeneous rocks, containing different mineral assemblages and/or a high proportion of zoned minerals, the concept of local effective bulk (LEB) is essential. In the last 10 years, X-ray micro-mapping methods have been developed in this aim. Here we show how standardized X-ray maps can be used to estimate the equilibration volume at the pressure peak in an eclogite sample. The study area lies in the Atbashi range, in Kyrgyzstan, along the South-Tianshan carboniferous suture of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt with the Tarim block. We use the micro-mapping approach to unravel the P-T path of a mafic eclogite containing mm-scale garnet porphyroblasts. Quantitative compositional maps of a garnet and its surrounding matrix are obtained from standardized X-ray maps processed with the XMapTools program (Lanari et al, 2014). By using these maps we measured the LEB corresponding to the different stages of garnet growth. The equilibration volume is then modeled using the local compositions (extrapolated in 3D) combined with Gibbs free energy minimization. Our model suggests that equilibrium conditions are attained for chemistry made of 90% of garnet and 10% of matrix. P-T sections are calculated from the core of the garnet to the rim taking into account the fractionation at each stage of garnet growth by changing the bulk composition. We obtained the following P-T path: (1) garnet core crystallization during prograde stage at 450 ± 50°C and 17 ± 2 kbar; (2) metamorphic peak conditions at 510 ± 50°C and 24 ± 2 kbar; (3) garnet rim crystallization during retrograde stage at 400 ± 50°C and 8 ± 2 kbar. This P-T path involves a burial and exhumation along a cold geothermal gradient suggesting a rapid subduction and exhumation. The exhumation probably occured within a deep sedimentary channel as suggested by eclogitic sediments hosting the mafic eclogites boudins. This study shows that in the case of mm-scale round minerals presenting zoning growth patterns, the calculation of LEB requires to take into account the 3D geometry of the grains. The scale of the equilibration volume in eclogitic rocks bearing mm-scale porphyroblasts corresponds to that of a major proportion of porphyroblasts and a minor fraction of the surrounding matrix. References Lanari, P., Vidal, O., De Andrade, V., Dubacq, B., Lewin, E., Grosch, E. G., & Schwartz, S. (2014). XMapTools: A MATLAB©-based program for electron microprobe X-ray image processing and geothermobarometry. Computers & Geosciences, 62, 227-240.

Loury, Chloé; Lanari, Pierre; Rolland, Yann; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément

2014-05-01

145

How much water will glaciers in the Chon Kemin valley (Tien Shan mountains, Kyrgyzstan) provide in the future?  

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Climate-driven changes in glacier-fed streamflow regimes have direct implications on freshwater supply, irrigation and hydropower potential. Reliable information on current and future glaciation and runoff is thus crucial for water allocation. In summer-dry regions like Central Asia, glaciers play an important role in streamflow regimes, as meltwater from glaciers is released when other sources such as snowmelt are depleted. This situation is well reflected by the Chon Kemin River, an important tributary to the Chu River providing Kyrgyzstan's capital Bishkek with freshwater. Today, glaciers cover around 8% of the Chon Kemin valley (118 of 1'438 km2) and 30% of the headwater catchment (49 of 165 km2), but these glaciers in the low-altitude northern periphery of the Tien Shan mountains are melting particularly fast. Glacier shrinkage has considerable impacts on the seasonal and overall availability of water: In a first instance, shrinking glaciers supply ample quantities of water in the form of increased glacial runoff, but reduced glacier volume will ultimately result in a decrease in both glacier-fed and total runoff, if no other sources can offset reduced glacier melt. Although crucial for efficient water planning, it is largely unknown if the Tien Shan rivers have already passed this tipping point ("peak water"), or, if not yet, when this will happen. In our study, we assess past and future runoff changes in the Chon Kemin River to elucidate the timing of "peak water" and to quantify water availability in coming summers, when precipitation is expected to be even more scarce than today. Meteorological and hydrological data suggest that total runoff has increased in the past decades, particularly during summer and fall, probably as a result of increasing glacial meltwater. Annual fluctuations in precipitation and runoff have shown an asynchronous behavior in a first phase (1936 until early 1960s), but have then changed to a synchronous pattern (early 1960s until 2005), which might indicate that the Chon Kemin River already underwent a transformation from a glacial-nival to a nival-pluvial runoff regime. To quantify future runoff from Chon Kemin River, we use the glacio-hydrological model GERM. The model includes transient glacier changes and calculates glacier mass balance and runoff in daily time-steps. The refined multi-variable-calibration allows a realistic reproduction of each runoff component and an accurate simulation of discharge and mass balance over time. Calibration and validation include snowcover duration from MODIS/AVHRR (1985-2012), mass balance data from Tuyuksu glacier in the neighboring valley (1957-2009), changes in glacier extent and surface elevation from aerial photographs (1956 and 1988), glacier length changes (1977-1990) and measured daily runoff (1936-2005). After calibration, the model is run with daily precipitation and temperature data from a downscaled regional climate model (IPCC scenario A1B) until the end of the 21st century. In order to produce realistic results, we address uncertainties in terms of amount, seasonal distribution and form of future precipitation in detail, as well as feedback mechanisms, such as a changing snow cover.

Sorg, Annina; Huss, Matthias; Stoffel, Markus

2013-04-01

146

The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF) occurred at the western (w-) Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, ...

Narama, C.; Duishonakunov, M.; Ka?a?b, A.; Daiyrov, M.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

2010-01-01

147

The ecological Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article author made conclusion that the rapid growth of population, industrial snowballing and agriculture demand passage to new principals of water supply, reconsideration of structures sown area in agriculture and assumption pressing measures on protection of biodiversity

148

Case study: Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT The paper discusses the importance of Open Source (OS hereinafter technology for national Information Communication Technology (ICT hereinafter development and E-Government for developing countries as a general strategy for overcoming the digital divide. The paper highlights the opportunities presented to the developing countries by the growing world-wide movement for use of OS systems, namely, the ability to promote the transfer of technological know-how and the growth of local IT professionals, the possibility of providing IT solutions within the limited financial means of a developing country, and the ability to strengthen the legal use of software. The paper

Baktybek Abdrisaev

2005-12-01

149

'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84, service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58 and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86. Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector.

Harmer Andrew

2011-07-01

150

'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV\\/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV\\/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV\\/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector.

Spicer, Neil

2011-07-13

151

Towards equitable access to medicines for the rural poor: analyses of insurance claims reveal rural pharmacy initiative triggers price competition in Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A rural pharmacy initiative (RPI designed to increase access to medicines in rural Kyrgyzstan created a network of 12 pharmacies using a revolving drug fund mechanism in 12 villages where no pharmacies previously existed. The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of the RPI resulted in the unforeseen benefit of triggering medicine price competition in pre-existing (non-RPI private pharmacies located in the region. Methods We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses on medicine insurance claims data from Kyrgyzstan's Mandatory Health Insurance Fund for the Jumgal District of Naryn Province from October 2003 to December 2007. We compared average quarterly medicine prices in competitor pharmacies before and after the introduction of the rural pharmacy initiative in October 2004 to determine the RPI impact on price competition. Results Descriptive analyses suggest competitors reacted to RPI prices for 21 of 30 (70% medicines. Competitor medicine prices from the quarter before RPI introduction to the end of the study period decreased for 17 of 30 (57% medicines, increased for 4 of 30 (13% medicines, and remained unchanged for 9 of 30 (30% medicines. Among the 9 competitor medicines with unchanged prices, five initially decreased in price but later reverted back to baseline prices. Multivariate analyses on 19 medicines that met sample size criteria confirm these findings. Fourteen of these 19 (74% competitor medicines changed significantly in price from the quarter before RPI introduction to the quarter after RPI introduction, with 9 of 19 (47% decreasing in price and 5 of 19 (26% increasing in price. Conclusions The RPI served as a market driver, spurring competition in medicine prices in competitor pharmacies, even when they were located in different villages. Initiatives designed to increase equitable access to medicines in rural regions of developing and transitional countries should consider the potential to leverage medicine price competition as a means of achieving their goal. Evaluations of interventions to increase rural access to medicines should include impact assessment on both formal and informal pharmaceutical markets.

Leufkens Hubert GM

2009-12-01

152

Three-dimensional passive imaging of complex seismic fault systems: evidence of surface traces of the Issyk-Ata fault (Kyrgyzstan)  

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Nowadays, an increasing number of seismological imaging studies are published taking advantage of the increasing popularity of analysing empirical Green's functions obtained from high-frequency ambient seismic noise. However, especially on a local scale results could potentially be biased in regions where topography is not small compared to the wavelength and the penetration depth of the considered waves. Current 2-D seismic techniques are often inadequate when solving such 3-D geophysical problems, which include the complication of seismic imaging for cases where there are pronounced relief effects. For example, information about the geologic subsurface structure and deformational patterns is necessary for accurate site characterization and seismic hazard assessment. Here we show that an ad hoc passive seismic tomography approach can identify and describe complex 3-D structures, which can help to accurately and efficiently map the shear-wave velocities of the surficial soil layers, even in cases of significant topography relief. We test our technique by using simulations of seismic noise for a simple realistic site and show for a real data set across the Issyk-Ata fault, Kyrgyzstan, which is located at southern border of the capital, Bishkek, this novel approach has identified two different small fault branches and a clear shear-wave velocity contrast across the fault.

Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Bindi, Dino

2013-09-01

153

Ideal climatic variables for the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, derived from GPS data and energy-mass balance measurements  

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Full Text Available We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007 of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Differential GPS surveys reveal a vertical surface deletion at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the modern state are 289 mm and ?3.85 °C at the glacier summit (4600 m above sea level, a.s.l., respectively. The good agreement between the long-term estimated and observed precipitation at a nearby station in the Tien Shan (292 mm at 3614 m a.s.l. for the period 1930–2002 suggests that the glacier dynamics have been regulated by the long-term average accumulation. The glacier mass-balance, reconstructed based on meteorological data from the Tien Shan station for the past 80 yr, explains the observed fluctuations in glacier extent, particularly the negative mass balance in the 1990s.

K. Fujita

2011-03-01

154

Distribution of Natural (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226) and Technogenic (Sr-90, Cs-137) Radionuclides in Soil-Plants Complex Near Issyk-Kul Lake, Kyrgyzstan  

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Researches on radionuclides distribution in the soil-plants complex provide essential information in understanding human exposure to natural and technogenic sources of radiation. It is necessary in establishing regulation relating to radiation protection. The aim of this study was the radiochemical analysis of the content natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th,226Ra and technogenic radionuclides content (90Sr, 137Cs) in soils near Issyk-Kul lake (Kyrgyzstan). Results of radiochemical analyses have shown, that the concentrations of thorium-232 are fluctuating in the limits (11.7-84.1)-10-4% in the soils. The greatest concentration of thorium-232 has been found in the light chestnut soils. The content of uranium-238 in the soils near Issyk-Kul lake is fluctuating from 2.8 up to 12.7-10-4%. Radium-226 has more migration ability in comparison with other heavy natural radionuclides. According to our research the concentrations of radium-226 are fluctuating in the limits (9.4-43.0)-10-11%. The greatest concentration of radium-226 (43,0±2,8)-10-11% has been determined in the light chestnut soil. In connection with global migration of contaminating substances, including radioactive, the special attention is given long-lived radionuclides strontium-90 and caesium-137 in food-chains, and agroecosystems. Results of radiochemical analyses have shown, that specific activity of strontium-90 is fluctuating in the range of 2.9 up to 11.1 Bq/kg, and caesium-137 from 3.7 up to 14,3 Bq/kg in the soil of agroecosystems in the region of Issyk-Kul. In soil samples down to 1 meter we have observed vertical migration of these radionuclides, they were found to accumulate on the surface of soil horizon (0-5 cm) and their specific activity sharply decreases with depth. In addition in high-mountain pastures characterized by horizontal migration of cattle in profiles of soil, it was discovered that specific activity of radionuclides are lower on the slope than at the foot of the mountain. The content of natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th, 226Ra ) and technogenic radionuclides (90Sr, 137Cs) in the soils depend on many factors: the type and mechanical composition of soil, capacity of absorption, acidity, concentration of exchange forms of carbonates, organic substances. The radionuclides accumulation process in the plants depend on a specific accumulation ability of plants. During the researches it has been found that radionuclides accumulate in vegetative organs more than in reproductive parts of plants. According to the accumulation degrees of natural radionuclides plants taking place in the following decreasing series: sugar beet > potatoes > lucerne > clover > oats > perennial herbs > wheat > annual grass crops > barley > corn. Radiochemical analysis of the technogenic radionuclides in the plants has been determined that specific activity of strontium-90 is increased in leguminous plants (cobs of corn, lucerne) in comparison with other cultures. Caesium-137 is accumulated in beet roots, cobs of corn and lucerne. Key words: natural radionuclides, technogenic radionuclides, soil-plants complex, Issyk-Kul lake, Kyrgyzstan

Jovanovic, L.; Kaldybaev, B.; Djenbaev, B.; Tilenbaev, A.

2012-04-01

155

Disequilibrium between uranium and its progeny in the Lake Issyk-Kul system (Kyrgyzstan) under a combined effect of natural and manmade processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kadji-Sai abandoned field of U-bearing brown coal on the southern coast of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) poses a threat of radioactive pollution to the world's fifth deepest and second largest pristine highland lake. The valleys of ephemeral streams in the lake catchment are filled with coarse-grained sand and clay, with a background U-Ra activity of 35-55 Bq kg-1. High activity areas vs. this background come from three sources: (1) scarce outcrops of uraniferous brown coal and mining wastes containing fragments of this coal with 238U/226Ra ratios of 0.8 due to uranium losses through weathering; (2) manmade anomalies caused by a radioactive waste dump, where U was extracted from the ash of coal burnt at a coal-fired power plant. As a result, the 238U/226Ra ratios become 0.15-0.25; (3) six catch pools terraced below the mine, where U activity decreases downslope, and 238U/226Ra ratios reach 150-200. Uranium lost in the extraction process may have been retained on the terraces. The distribution pattern of radionuclides in the bottom sediments of the lake is controlled by water depth and offshore distance. The upper section of homogeneous limy-argillic deposits in the lake center remains undisturbed by currents, as indicated by regular sub-exponential distribution of atmospheric 137Cs and 210Pbatm. Sedimentation rate in the lake center for the past century, fou the lake center for the past century, found from 210Pb, was 0.32 mm yr-1. 238U/226Ra in deep-water sediments was about 3. The activity of uranium adsorbed by sediments from the lake water was estimated by subtraction of the Ra-equilibrium component from the total U activity. Thus, the flux of dissolved U to the bottom sediments was as 2.07 x 10-7 g cm-2 yr-1. The upper section of near-shore deposits was disturbed by currents, with 137Cs and 210Pbatm more or less uniformly distributed in this layer. Peaks of 226Ra and 210Pb occur at different depths from 5 to 20 cm below the sediment surface, with 238U/226Ra ratios 0.28-0.44. The presence of mullite in these sediments indicated that radioactive ash penetrated into the lake in the past. At present, 226Ra in the ash is buried under a non-radioactive cap

156

Holocene climate variability in arid Central Asia as revealed from high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical analyses of laminated sediments from Lake Chatyr Kol (Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan)  

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A pronounced trend from a predominantly wet climate during the early Holocene towards significantly drier conditions since the mid-Holocene, mainly attributed to the weakening of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), is documented in numerous palaeoclimate records from the monsoon-influenced parts of Asia, e.g. the Tibetan Plateau and north- and southeastern China. In contrast, climate in the adjacent regions of mid-latitude arid Central Asia, located north and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, is supposed to have been characterized by pronounced dry conditions during the early Holocene, wet conditions during the mid-Holocene and a rather moderate drying during the late Holocene, which is mainly attributed to the complex interplay between the mid-latitude Westerlies and the ASM. However, although mid-latitude Central Asia thus might represent a key region for the understanding of teleconnections between the ASM system and the Westerlies, knowledge about past climate development in this region is still ambiguous due to the limited number of high-resolution palaeoclimate records. Hence, new well-dated and highly resolved palaeoclimate records from this region are expected to provide important information about spatio-temporal changes in the regional interplay between Westerlies and ASM and thus aid the understanding of global climate teleconnections. As a part of the project CADY (Central Asian Climate Dynamics), aiming at reconstructing past climatic and hydrological variability in Central Asia, a sediment core of about 6.25 m length has been recovered from alpine Lake Chatyr Kol (40°36' N, 75°14' E, 3530 m a. s. l., surface area ~170 km2, maximum depth ~20 m), located in the Central Tian Shan of Kyrgyzstan. Sediment microfacies analysis on large-scale petrographic thin sections reveals continuously sub-mm scale laminated sediments throughout the record except for the uppermost ca. 60 cm. Microsedimentological characterization of these laminae, which are most probably of annual origin, is still in progress but according to first radiocarbon dates and laminae countings, the sediment record covers at least the last 10 000 years, thus representing a unique palaeoclimate archive from this region. In addition, first results of geochemical (?XRF, TOC, TIC) and isotopic (?15N, ?13Corg) analyses indicate significant shifts parallel to changes in sediment microfacies around 8000-9000 and around 2000-3000 cal. a BP, most probably reflecting regional palaeoclimatic and environmental changes, but further work is necessary to fully explore the potential of this exceptional lake sediment record.

Lauterbach, S.; Plessen, B.; Dulski, P.; Mingram, J.; Prasad, S.

2013-12-01

157

High-pressure mafic oceanic rocks from the Makbal Complex, Tianshan Mountains (Kazakhstan & Kyrgyzstan): Implications for the metamorphic evolution of a fossil subduction zone  

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The Makbal Complex in the western Tianshan Mountains of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan consists of HP/UHP metasedimentary host rocks which enclose various HP mafic blocks or boudins. These mafic rocks comprise rare eclogites (sensu stricto and sensu lato), garnet amphibolites (retrograded eclogites) and a newly discovered glaucophanite (glaucophane-garnet-omphacite bearing rock). So far the Makbal Complex has been interpreted to predominantly consist of continental lithologies and the mafic rocks were considered as dismembered dikes intruding continental metasediments. This interpretation is mainly based on the geological relationship and bulk rock chemistry of the different rock types. It was further suggested that the continental lithologies of the Makbal Complex underwent eclogite-facies metamorphism in a former subduction zone. In the present study we combined conventional geothermometry, P-T pseudosection modeling and major and trace element whole rock geochemistry for different mafic samples (glaucophanite and eclogites (sensu lato)) in order to shed light on both the metamorphic evolution and the protoliths of the mafic HP rocks in the Makbal Complex. Prograde to peak-pressure clockwise P-T paths of glaucophanite and eclogites (sensu lato) were modeled using garnet isopleth thermobarometry. The results show that the glaucophanite and eclogite (sensu lato) samples experienced similar prograde P-T paths and slightly different peak metamorphic conditions at ~ 560 °C at 2.4 GPa for the former and between ~ 520 °C at 2.2 GPa and ~ 555 °C at ~ 2.5 GPa for the latter, corresponding to burial depths between 70 and 85 km. Whole rock major and trace element analyses and petrological evidence imply that the various rock types at the Makbal Complex most likely originated from different precursor rocks. Eclogites (sensu lato) are believed to represent strongly retrogressed former eclogite-facies rocks that had never been eclogites (sensu stricto, i.e. > 70 vol.% garnet and omphacite) due to an unfavorable alkali-poor bulk composition (Na2O < 1 wt.%). The four high-pressure mafic samples investigated in this study originated from oceanic crust (Zr/Hf ratio of 33 to 35) which contradicts all previous studies suggesting a continental protolith for all mafic HP/UHP rocks at Makbal. The present study indicates that the mafic high-pressure rocks represent incoherent segments of exhumed oceanic crust. Juxtaposition of different mafic oceanic (this study) and continental rocks is suggested to be due to buoyancy-driven exhumation of the metasedimentary host rock in the subduction channel where dismembered fragments of the subducted oceanic crust were captured in different depths.

Meyer, Melanie; Klemd, Reiner; Konopelko, Dmitry

2013-09-01

158

Influence of the Westerlies in arid Central Asia during the Holocene recorded in sediments from lakes Son Kol and Chatyr Kol, Kyrgyzstan  

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Knowledge about past Asian climate variability and particularly teleconnections between the Westerlies in arid Central Asia and the Monsoon on the Tibetan Plateau is still limited. To reconstruct the Westerlies intensity during the Holocene in arid Central Asia and its effect on vegetation dynamics, we compared the sediment records from alpine lakes Son Kol (273 km2; 13 m depth) and Chatyr Kol (170 km2; 20 m depth), located in the central Tien Shan mountain range (Kyrgyzstan). Both sites differ in the mean annual amount of precipitation received (Son Kol: 550 mm; Chatyr Kol: 260 mm), but show identical recent catchment vegetation (montane grassland). To find out, whether the precipitation primarily causes differences in sedimentary organic matter accumulation, we investigated the distribution of n-alkanes in recent surface sediments from both lakes. The distribution of these biomarkers in Lake Son Kol is dominated by higher input of terrestrial plant material, whereas the one of Lake Chatyr Kol is characterized by mixed input of terrestrial and aquatic material. Additionally, we investigated the n-alkane distributions and compound-specific ?D values of radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from Son Kol (core length: 154 cm), dating back to 6000 years BP, and from Chatyr Kol (core length: 625 cm), which dates back to the early Holocene. The combination of terrestrial and aquatic alkane-specific ?D values can be used to determine changes of relative humidity. A generally stable n-alkane composition and relatively high amounts of terrestrial biomarkers within the sediments of Lake Son Kol display relatively stable climatic conditions for organic matter production during the mid-to late Holocene. Throughout the record, depleted ?D values (-180 ‰) of terrestrial n-alkanes prevail, only periodically interrupted by phases with enriched values (-140 ‰). This suggests a predominance of generally wet conditions due to the influence of the Westerlies with only short-term intercalated dry phases. During the late Holocene, a general trend towards higher n-alkane amounts and more depleted ?D n-C29 values is recognized. We conclude that the regional climate was mainly influenced by westerly air-masses, but intensity fluctuations had only minor effects on organic matter accumulation within both lakes. The general trend towards wetter conditions since the mid-Holocene suggests a strengthened influence of Westerlies, bringing more moisture into this region, which is in contrast to monsoonal Asia where a trend towards dryer climate conditions since the mid-Holocene is recognized. It seems that teleconnections between arid Central Asia and the Tibetan Plateau are characterized by anti-cyclic changes in the intensities of the Westerlies and the Monsoon. Keywords: n-alkanes, hydrogen isotopes, sediment, Central Asia, Westerlies, Son Kol, Chatyr Kol

Witt, R.; Lauterbach, S.; Plessen, B.; Prasad, S.; Maeusbacher, R.; Gleixner, G.

2013-12-01

159

Mid- to Late Holocene climate development in Central Asia as revealed from multi-proxy analyses of sediments from Lake Son Kol (Kyrgyzstan)  

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A mid-Holocene shift from predominantly wet to significantly drier climate conditions, attributed to the weakening of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), is documented in numerous palaeoclimate records from the monsoon-influenced parts of Asia, e.g. the Tibetan Plateau and north- and southeastern China. In contrast, Holocene climate development in the arid regions of mid-latitude Central Asia, located north and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, is less well-constrained but supposed to have been influenced by a complex interaction between the mid-latitude Westerlies and the ASM. Hence, well-dated and highly resolved palaeoclimate records from Central Asia might provide important information about spatio-temporal changes in the regional interplay between Westerlies and ASM and thus aid the understanding of global climate teleconnections. As a part of the project CADY (Central Asian Climate Dynamics), aiming at reconstructing past climatic and hydrological variability in Central Asia, several sediment cores were recovered from alpine Lake Son Kol (41° 48'N, 75° 12'E, 3016 m a. s. l.) in the Central Tian Shan of Kyrgyzstan. A radiocarbon-dated sediment sequence of 154.5 cm length, covering approximately the last 6000 years, was investigated by using a multi-proxy approach, including sedimentological, (bio)geochemical, isotopic and micropalaeontological analyses. Preliminary proxy data indicate hydrologically variable but predominantly wet conditions until ca. 5100 cal. a BP, characterized by the deposition of finely laminated organic-carbonatic sediments. In contrast to monsoonal Asia, where a distinct trend towards drier conditions is observed since the mid-Holocene, the hydrologically variable interval at Lake Son Kol was apparently followed by an only short-term dry episode between ca. 5100 and 4200 cal. a BP. This is characterized by a higher ?D of the C29 n-alkanes, probably reflecting increased evapotranspiration. Also pollen, diatom and ostracod data point towards drier climate conditions. Higher ?15N values during this period may also reflect increased evaporation but could also be related to dust input of NOx, being in agreement with high amounts of fine-grained minerogenic material. Further periods of higher ?15N values and contents of fine-grained minerogenic material occurred at 3600-3000 and 2000-1600 cal. a BP. However, as biogeochemical data indicate no further distinct dry episodes since about 4200 cal. a BP, these intervals most probably reflect increased dust deposition. Finally, a trend towards wetter climate conditions can be observed during the last ca. 1500 years, reflected by high ostracod and diatom diversity and (bio)geochemical data. The absence of a pronounced drying trend since the mid-Holocene, as observed in monsoonal Asia, is largely consistent with results from other regional palaeoclimate records and might reflect the predominant influence of the strengthening mid-latitude Westerlies on regional climate since this time.

Lauterbach, Stefan; Dulski, Peter; Gleixner, Gerd; Hettler-Riedel, Sabine; Mingram, Jens; Plessen, Birgit; Prasad, Sushma; Schwalb, Antje; Schwarz, Anja; Stebich, Martina; Witt, Roman

2013-04-01

160

Glaciers, permafrost and snow in the upstream Naryn catchments, Kyrgyzstan - Distribution, characteristics and trends for the water budget under climate change conditions  

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There is strong scientific consciousness among scientist that the global climate is warming and that glaciers and permafrost worldwide are rapidly responding to this trend. A strong glacial retreat in the Central Asian mountains was especially intensive during the last decades. Its impact on water resources is noteworthy for the arid regions of the Kyrgyz Republic. This research assesses recent glacial and periglacial changes and their impact on water resources of the Upstream Naryn catchments. Naryn River is the largest river of Kyrgyzstan. It flows from east to west at a length of more than 700 km before reaching Syr-Darya. A period of 45 years (1965-2010) was analyzed using 1:25,000 scale topographic maps and ALOS/AVNIR satellite imagery. The result shows that the glacier area decreased by 17.4% in the Akshyirak mountain massif, 20.8% in the Borkoldoy mountain, 21.9% in the Jetim mountain, 24.6% in the Jetimbel mountain, 28.9% in the Naryn mountain, 20.8% in the Sook mountain, 20.9% in the Terskey mountain (South slope glaciers) and 17.8% in the Uchemchek mountain ranges. The accelerated glacial retreat will have strong effects concerning periods of water shortage in densely populated areas especially for the agriculture. Also the increase of frequent glacial induced hazards (e.g. GLOFs) is obvious. Whereas the additional runoff supplied by glaciers is well-known, the contribution of slowly melting ground-ice and perennial snow fields is almost unknown. However, this periglacial contribution is significant in the extremely arid mountain areas of the Central Tianshan. Hence, our research was to include this contribution to the water balance. The geomorphology of the study area was mapped, and a network of 18 high resolution thermistor strings and mini data loggers was installed. Hourly temperatures were recorded at various depths of up to 132 cm. The measurements started August 2010, covered three full years, and show that permafrost is wide-spread above 3300 m. a.s.l., the lowermost permafrost areas have been found even below 2700 meters. A ten year observation period (2001 - 2011) of the Tian-Shan Meteorological Station located at 3659 meters a.s.l. is of special interest. It testifies the thawing and development of the active layer with maximum depths observed early August. During the period 2010 to 2013, an average active layer depth of 300 cm depth was reached here. With the detailed identification of parameters determining the active layer thickness and the study of thaw dynamics, large scale modeling of the state of the permafrost in the Central Tian Shan is attempted. It can be shown, that not only negative glacier mass balances but also the degradation of permafrost with melting of ground ice and the reduction of perennial snow patches over the last 12 years contributes considerably to additional run-off.

Duishonakunow, Murataly; King, Lorenz; Usubaliev, Ryskul; Moldobekov, Bolot

2014-05-01

161

Kyrgyzstan’s Fragmented Police and Armed Forces  

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Full Text Available This article is a first attempt to analyze the underlying reasons behind the unprofessional behavior of the Kyrgyz military and police during ethnic conflict in Osh on June 10-14, 2010. It argues that the higher military leadership in Bishkek shares a common distrust of the Tashkent regime and overall uncertainly about power sharing two months after regime change, while lower level personnel may have provoked the Uzbek minority, because of their nationalist feelings (the majority of police and army personnel are ethnic Kyrgyz and overall frustration with the fragmented political leadership. The situation was further exacerbated by the lack of political control over the security forces and their lack of adequate training to deal with civic unrest.

Erica Marat

2011-03-01

162

Renewable energy sources of Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article presents the talk on the renewable energy sources of Kyrgyz Republic given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent(Uzbekistan) in June 1997. It is shown that renewable energy sources may cover 50% of energy demand in Republic and the most economically and ecologically effective is considered solar energy. (A.A.D.)

163

[Taxonomic status of the Tyulek virus (TLKV) (Orthomyxoviridae, Quaranjavirus, Quaranfil group) isolated from the ticks Argas vulgaris Filippova, 1961 (Argasidae) from the birds burrow nest biotopes in the Kyrgyzstan].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tyulek virus (TLKV) was isolated from the ticks Argas vulgaris Filippova, 1961 (Argasidae), collected from the burrow biotopes in multispecies birds colony in the Aksu river floodplain near Tyulek village (northern part of Chu Valley, Kyrgyzstan). Recently, the TLKV was assigned to the Quaranfil group (including the Quaranfil virus (QRFV), Johnston Atoll virus (JAV), Lake Chad virus) that is a novel genus of the Quaranjavirus in the Orthomyxoviridae family. In his work, the complete genome (ID GenBank KJ438647-8) sequence of the TLKV was determined using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform). Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences shows closed relationship of the TLKV with QRFV and JAV (86% and 84% identity for PB1 and about 70% for PB2 and PA, respectively). The identity level of the TLKV and QRFV in outer glycoprotein GP is 72% and 80% for nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the TLKV belongs to the genus of the Quaranjavirus in the family Orthomyxoviridae. PMID:25069282

L'vov, D K; Al'khovski?, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Aristova, V A; Gitel'man, A K; Samokhvalov, E I; Botikov, A G

2014-01-01

164

The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF occurred at the western (w- Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, and ALOS/AVNIR-2 reveal that the flood reduced the lake area from 0.0422 km2 to 0.0083 km2, discharging 437 000 m3 of water. This glacier lake was not present in a Landsat 7 ETM+ image taken on 26 April 2008. It formed rapidly over just two and half months from early May to the late July, when large amounts of snow and glacier melt water became trapped in a basin in the glacier terminus area, blocked by temporary closure of the drainage channel through the terminal moraine that included much dead-ice. In the same mountain region, most other glacier-lake expansions were not particularly large during the period from 1999–2008. Although events like the w-Zyndan glacier lake outburst occur infrequently in the high Central Asian mountains, such fast developing, short-lived lakes are particularly dangerous and not easy to monitor using satellite data. Appropriate measures to protect against such lake outburst hazards in this region include educating residents on glacier hazards and monitoring techniques, providing frequently updated maps of glacier lakes, and planning and monitoring land-use, including house locations.

C. Narama

2010-04-01

165

Turanite, Cu2+5(V5+O4)2 (OH)4, from the Tyuya-Muyun radium-uranium deposit, Osh district, Kyrgyzstan: a new structure for an old mineral  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The crystal structure of turanite, Cu-2+(V5+O4)2 (OH)4, from the Tyuya-Muyun Ra-U deposit, the Alai Ridge foothills, Osh district Kyrgyzstan, triclinic, space group P1, a 5.3834(2), b 6.2736(3), c 6.8454(3) Angstrom, ? 86.169(1), ? 91.681(1), ? 92.425(1)o V 230.38(2) Angstrom3, Z = 1, has been solved by direct methods and refined to an R index of 2.2% based on 1332 observed [Fo > 4?F] unique reflections measured with MoK? X-radiation and a Bruker P4 diffractometer equipped with a CCD detector. Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave CuO 62.94, V2O5 28.90, H2O 5.85, sum 97.69 wt.%; the amount of H2O was determined by crystal-structure analysis. The resulting empirical formula on the basis of 12 anions (including OH = 4 apfu) is Cu2+ 4.97)(V5+O4)2 (OH)4.08. There are three distinct Cu sites fully occupied by Cu2+ and octahedrally coordinated by four O atoms and two (OH) groups, with = 2.115 Angstrom. The (Cu?6) octahedra (? = O, OH) form a sheet of edge-sharing octahedra (with vacancies, oct : vac = 5 : 1) parallel to (011). On each side of the vacant octahedron, a (VO4) tetrahedron is attached to three anions of the sheet and points away from the sheet to be attached to an anion of the adjacent sheet. Thus the (Cu?6) octahedra and (VO4) tetrahedra constitute a framework, within which the sheets are also linked by hydrogen bonding from (OH) groups of one sheet to O anions of adjacent sheets. Turanite can be considered as a framework structure with interrupted sheets of (C?6) octahedra decorated by (VO4) tetrahedra, and is related to the structures of cornubite, cianciulliite, gordaite, bechererite, chalcophyllite, ramsbeckite and simonkolleite. (author)

166

Bismarck meets Beveridge on the Silk Road: coordinating funding sources to create a universal health financing system in Kyrgyzstan / Quand Bismarck rencontre Beveridge sur la Route de la soie: coordination des sources de financement pour créer un système universel de financement de la santé au Kyrgyzstan / Bismarck y Beveridge en la Ruta de la Seda: coordinación de las fuentes de financiación de un sistema de cobertura sanitaria universal en Kirguistán  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las opciones de reforma de la financiación de la salud se resumen a menudo como un dilema entre los sistemas basados en los impuestos generales (el llamado modelo Beveridge) y el seguro social de enfermedad (conocido como modelo Bismarck). La experiencia de diez años de reforma de la financiación sa [...] nitaria que ha acumulado Kirguistán desde que se implantó el fondo del seguro obligatorio de enfermedad en 1997 brinda un ejemplo excelente para demostrar que la reducción del problema de la financiación de la salud a la mera elección entre el modelo Beveridge y el modelo Bismarck constituye un error. En lugar de fragmentar el sistema considerando la población asegurada y la no asegurada, como han hecho muchos otros países de ingresos bajos y medios, las reformas llevadas a cabo en Kirguistán se guiaron por el objetivo de implantar un solo sistema para toda la población. Entre las iniciativas más importantes de esas reformas cabe citar la función y el desarrollo gradual del fondo de seguro médico obligatorio como el único comprador de servicios de atención sanitaria para toda la población, usando métodos de pago basados en los resultados; la plena reestructuración de los arreglos de mancomunación de los recursos, pasando de la antigua estructura presupuestaria descentralizada a un solo fondo común nacional; y el establecimiento de un paquete de prestaciones bien delimitado. Un aspecto fundamental del proceso fue la transformación de la función de los ingresos generales del presupuesto, principal fuente de financiación pública de la salud, que pasaron de subvencionar directamente el suministro de servicios a subvencionar la compra de servicios en nombre de toda la población a través del fondo del seguro de enfermedad. Replanteándose de ese modo su política de financiación de la salud, en particular la mancomunación de recursos, los reformadores del sistema de salud de Kirguistán han demostrado que es posible crear un sistema unificado y universal usando fondos de distinta procedencia de forma claramente complementaria. Abstract in english Options for health financing reform are often portrayed as a choice between general taxation (known as the Beveridge model) and social health insurance (known as the Bismarck model). Ten years of health financing reform in Kyrgyzstan, since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in [...] 1997, provide an excellent example of why it is wrong to reduce health financing policy to a choice between the Beveridge and Bismarck models. Rather than fragment the system according to the insurance status of the population, as many other low- and middle-income countries have done, the Kyrgyz reforms were guided by the objective of having a single system for the entire population. Key features include the role and gradual development of the compulsory health insurance fund as the single purchaser of health-care services for the entire population using output-based payment methods, the complete restructuring of pooling arrangements from the former decentralized budgetary structure to a single national pool, and the establishment of an explicit benefit package. Central to the process was the transformation of the role of general budget revenues - the main source of public funding for health - from directly subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services on behalf of the entire population by redirecting them into the health insurance fund. Through their approach to health financing policy, and pooling in particular, the Kyrgyz health reformers demonstrated that different sources of funds can be used in an explicitly complementary manner to enable the creation of a unified, universal system

Joseph, Kutzin; Ainura, Ibraimova; Melitta, Jakab; Sheila, O' Dougherty.

2009-07-01

167

Bilingual Education in Kyrgyzstan: Pros and Cons.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the potential of bilingual education and its possible implementation in Kyrgzystan, focusing on why bilingual education can be useful in solving linguistic tension in Kyrgzystan and which organizational questions must be considered to make bilingual education effective. The paper begins by examining and refuting common…

Korth, Britta

168

Seismic of the territory Toktogul reservoir, Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In connection with that this seismic in the territory of Naryn cascade maybe has its peculiarity in cludding in the territory Toktogul reservoir before of the building of the Toktogul dam, during of the building and after accordingly was decided to consider the seismic in this space of times. The arm of the present paper is estimation seismic of the territory Toktogul reservoir for different times: before of the building of the Toktogul dam (1960-1973), during its filling (1974-1980) and since start it's of the uninterruptedly exploitation to present time (1981-2006). The territory in that located the cascade of Naryn River is considered that seismic active in the Central part of the Tien Shan. The tectonic motions are become here intensity. The presence of the large faults is complicating significantly the seismic situation of the study region

169

Trends in traffic collisions and injuries in Kyrgyzstan, 2003-2007 / Tendances des accidents et des blessures de la route au Kirghizistan sur la période 2003-2007 / Tendencias en las colisiones y las lesiones de tráfico en Kirguistán, entre 2003 y 2007  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos sobre las colisiones de vehículos motorizados, las lesiones y las muertes resultantes en Kirguistán para servir de apoyo al desarrollo de una política basada en la evidencia. MÉTODOS: Los datos sobre colisiones de vehículos motorizados y las estadísticas s [...] obre lesiones entre 2003 y 2008 procedieron de fuentes oficiales suministradas por el Departamento de Seguridad Vial y el Centro de Información Médica de la República, perteneciente al Ministerio de Sanidad. Los datos fueron analizados y comparados con los datos procedentes de estudios realizados en otros países de ingresos medios y bajos. RESULTADOS: Se observó una marcada heterogeneidad entre las diversas fuentes de datos. Las colisiones de vehículos motorizados provocadas por los conductores se duplicaron en el periodo comprendido entre 2003 y 2007. Durante dicho periodo, aumentó el parte de colisiones de vehículos motorizados, las muertes y las lesiones resultantes en un 34%, 33% y 47%, respectivamente. Dichos aumentos fueron proporcionalmente mayores que el crecimiento de la población o de los vehículos motorizados registrados. La proporción de lesiones atribuibles a las colisiones de vehículos motorizados aumentó un 14% y la tasa de mortalidad relacionada con este tipo de colisiones aumentó un 39% entre 2003 y 2007. CONCLUSIÓN: En Kirguistán están aumentando las colisiones de vehículos motorizados, al igual que el número de personas lesionadas o fallecidas por este motivo. Revertir esta tendencia implicará una colaboración más estrecha entre las agencias pertinentes y un sistema de vigilancia completo, además de mejoras operativas en la asistencia médica de urgencias, nuevas leyes de seguridad vial que se hagan cumplir de forma estricta y mejoras en la infraestructura de transportes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiological data on motor vehicle collisions, injuries and deaths in Kyrgyzstan to inform evidence-based policy development. METHODS: Data on motor vehicle collision and injury statistics covering 2003-2007 were obtained from official sources provided by the Department o [...] f Traffic Safety and the Ministry of Health's Republican Medical Information Centre.The data were analysed and compared with data derived from studies in other low- and middle-income countries. FINDINGS: Large heterogeneity between data sources was noted. Motor vehicle collisions caused by drivers increased twofold between 2003 and 2007. Reported motor vehicle collisions, deaths and injuries increased by 34%, 33% and 47%, respectively, over that period. Such increases were proportionately greater than the growth in population or in the number of registered motor vehicles.The proportion of injury attributable to motor vehicle collisions increased by 14% and the collision-related mortality rate increased by 39% in 2003-2007. CONCLUSION: In Kyrgyzstan, the number of motor vehicle collisions is rising and so is the number of those who are injured or killed in them. Reversing this trend will call for closer collaboration among relevant agencies and for a comprehensive surveillance system, along with operational improvements in emergency medical care, new and strictly enforced passenger safety laws and improvements to the transportation infrastructure.

Viola, Artikova; Michael E, Thompson; Elena, Platonova; Gerald F, Pyle; Samat, Toimatov.

2011-05-01

170

INTELLIGENTSIA PERSONNEL TRAINING IN KYRGYZSTAN IN GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During Great Patriotic War, despite all the difficulties of wartime the Republic trained intelligentsia personnel, who had to fulfill the task of seamless combination of ideologic impact, cultural and educational work with specific military-administrative activities

Gulnara D. Dzhunushalieva

2011-01-01

171

Personality Value Orientations in Terms of Kyrgyzstan Society Anomie  

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Full Text Available All well-known definitions of an anomy extremely precisely approach to a current state Kyrgyz society. The chosen ways under of subjective and objective circumstances lead to society destabilization. During such periods of social development the developed values and valuable orientations can’t be equal to the existing realities, and new weren't created yet up to the end, exactly in such conditions the anomy and deviant behavior most extend. Today to the country deviant behavior of considerable part of the population embodies the destructive tendencies most dangerous. These tendencies must be studied and analyzed.

Ruslan M. Asanaliyev

2012-10-01

172

Remittances and children's capabilities: New evidence from Kyrgyzstan, 2005 - 2008  

OpenAIRE

The Kyrgyz Republic is one of the largest recipients of international remittances in the world; from a Balance of Payments measure of remittances, it ranked tenth in the world in 2008 in the ratio of remittances to GDP, a rapid increase from 30th place in 2004. Remittances can be used to maintain the household's standard of living by providing income to families with unemployed and underemployed adult members. Remittances can also be used to promote investment not only in businesses and commu...

Kroeger, Antje; Anderson, Kathryn H.

2012-01-01

173

Hydrological regime of Lake Adygine, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Glacier retreat in high mountain areas around the world is considered one of the major geosciences research topics of last decades. This process may result in formation and further development of glacial lakes that are often unstable and pose a threat to downstream valleys. The studied area is situated at the end of a tributary valley on the northern side of Kyrgyz range, about 40 km south of the capital - Bishkek. Glaciers of Central Tien Shan are considered very sensitive indicators of climate change. The studied lake is part of a system of young lakes situated near the front of a retreating glacier therefore it ranks among potentially dangerous ones. The area is closely observed, terrain research including bathymetric, geophysical, geodetic measurements was carried out during last ten years. The lake level and its dependence on the changing climatic conditions in the area have been monitored in detail at this location since August 2007. Data from two meteorological stations are used to explain lake water level fluctuations, especially during ablation season when the lake is drained by a surface channel. The hydrological regime of the lake is compared with a regime of glacial streams, individual factors that affect it are described and possible trends and uncertainties that arise from it are analysed. The lake is also drained by subsurface channels, and as the water level declines over the cold part of a year, their capacity is studied and compared among years. The main aim of the study is to explain any deviations or changes found in the hydrological regime of the lake and to decide whether their cause could mean a decreased stability of the lake dam. Part of the dam is made up of moraine with buried ice and as the lake is drained by subsurface channels, their capacity can be changed due to moraine subsidence when the ice melts. This may lead either to sudden enlargement of channels' capacity or to their blockage, both of which could cause lake outburst.

Falátková, Kristýna; Šobr, Miroslav; Kocum, Jan; Janský, Bohumír

2014-05-01

174

Remediation of uranium mining tailings in Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this research project, which is financially supported under EC-TACIS, is to evaluate measures to be taken by the authorities to reduce the radiological exposure of the population and to prevent environmental pollution by radionuclides and heavy metals. The specific project objectives are: to identify the risks (radiological and other), to propose measures to monitor and to mitigate those risks, to study and evaluate rehabilitation plans for Tailing 3 and to evaluate how the approach for Tailing 3 can be applied to other tailings to implement short term remedial measures on Tailing 3 and to study and evaluate rehabilitation plans to decrease the impact of a disaster scenario

175

Probabilistic seismic risk of the territory of Bishkek city, Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For seismic risk analysis were gathered information about district's seismicity, tectonics, topography, and engineering--geotechnical conditions, which present in apartments, infrastructures and demographies. All of these informations are joined within the limits of GIS for father probabilistic evaluations from different losses levels from earthquake, and also definitions of effective arrangements by reaction. There were given analysis of obtained results with the purpose to take into the consideration and falling of seismic risk's levels

176

Mountain Atlas of Kyrgyzstan  : six ans de coopération statistique.  

OpenAIRE

Adriana Rabinovich [A. R.]  : Ce qui apparaît clairement dans l’ouvrage est un projet plus large dont l’atlas est l’un des produits. Le but en était de donner une vision globale des situations démographiques, économiques, sociales et culturelles dans les régions de montagne de la république du Kirghizstan. Martin Schuler [M. S.]  : C’était en effet le but du projet, intitulé : « la coopération statistique kirghize-suisse », dans sa deuxième phase, entre 1999 et 2004. ...

Adriana Rabinovich

2007-01-01

177

Mountain Atlas of Kyrgyzstan  : six ans de coopération statistique.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adriana Rabinovich [A. R.]  : Ce qui apparaît clairement dans l’ouvrage est un projet plus large dont l’atlas est l’un des produits. Le but en était de donner une vision globale des situations démographiques, économiques, sociales et culturelles dans les régions de montagne de la république du Kirghizstan. Martin Schuler [M. S.]  : C’était en effet le but du projet, intitulé : « la coopération statistique kirghize-suisse », dans sa deuxième phase, entre 1999 et 2004. ...

Adriana Rabinovich

2007-01-01

178

INTELLIGENTSIA PERSONNEL TRAINING IN KYRGYZSTAN IN GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR  

OpenAIRE

During Great Patriotic War, despite all the difficulties of wartime the Republic trained intelligentsia personnel, who had to fulfill the task of seamless combination of ideologic impact, cultural and educational work with specific military-administrative activities

Dzhunushalieva, Gulnara D.

2011-01-01

179

Radioecological situation in Issyk-kul region of Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The topic of radioactive contamination investigation is of present interest. In Soviet time, a dynamic uranium mining was taking place in some regions of the Republic, including the Issik-kul region. According to medical and statistical information (1988-1998), these regions are featured with a high rate of oncologic diseases.The International Scientific Center of American Fund Grant conducted radioecological investigations in Issik-kul region, including radiation survey of the terrain and analysis of soil and water samples by the thorium and radium content.The investigations were conducted using American methods and a set of the up-to-date equipment that allows both a precise measuring Y-background parameters and recording exact position of a site, date and time as well.The measuring methods imply a simultaneous positioning, using device E600 OPT19 Instrument Carrying Strap, and measuring gamma-background level, using detector Eberline E-600/SPA-8. All information about a position, radiation background values, date, measuring time is then transferred to computer using the memory package.The investigation outcomes are given as a sheet of dose loads of natural gamma-radiation in different areas of the region. The obtained outcomes are of a great interest

180

The EU strategy for Central Asia and Kyrgyzstan foreign policy  

OpenAIRE

Over the last two years the European Union has changed its attitude towards the countries of Central Asia. The EU has strengthened its relationship with the region since the adoption of ?The EU and Central Asia: Strategy for a New Partnership? by the European Council in June 2007. The strategy aims to strengthen relations in all spheres of cooperation. The objectives of the new strategy are reinforcement of political dialogue through regular meetings of EU and Central Asian F...

Momosheva, Nazira

2010-01-01

181

Political instability, revolution: Comparison between Kyrgyzstan and Georgia  

OpenAIRE

The goal of this paper is to compare the data such as government effectiveness, voice of accountability, and corruption indexes of the Kyrgyz Republic and Georgia as a consequence of political instability or revolution. The purpose of the country selection was due to their common similarities such as: they both are CIS countries, they both went through a revolution, and the degree of their economies are almost the same. Special attention is given to the reasons of the revolution in these coun...

Ryskulov, Urmat

2010-01-01

182

50 CFR 17.11 - Endangered and threatened wildlife.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Afganistan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Entire except Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and TajikistanE15... ......do......doKyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and...

2010-10-01

183

75 FR 81915 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign Participation in Acquisitions in...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan...Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan...Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan,...

2010-12-29

184

75 FR 832 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign Participation in Acquisitions in...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan...Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan...Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan,...

2010-01-06

185

Untitled  

Science.gov (United States)

P a g e | 1 KYRGYZSTAN HUMAN RESOURCES FOR TREATING NEW CANCER CASES IN KYRGYZSTAN Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to describe the human resources needed in Kyrgyzstan to treat new cancer patients. The population of Kyrgyzstan

186

[The problems of radioecology and radiation safety of the former uranium production in Kyrgyzstan].  

Science.gov (United States)

The article summarizes the history and problems of the former uranium production (tailing and waste dumps), the current status and their possible impact on the environment. Also given are the priority radio-ecological and radiobiogeohemichal problems for the medium term, as well as legal and regulatory framework. PMID:25507625

2013-01-01

187

Designing Social Inquiry in Central Asia - A Case Study of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan  

OpenAIRE

"Central Asia offers a potential smorgasbord for researchers engaged in comparative analysis. Common shared characteristics of these states have provided and continue to provide opportunities for advances in our understanding of political and social phenomena of global importance, including state building, democratisation, nationalism and economic development. However, in conducting comparative case study research in Central Asia, researchers should be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of...

Robert Kevlihan

2013-01-01

188

Self-Governance and Sustainable Common Pool Resource Management in Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to best govern natural resources in order to enable a sustainable way of handling them is what both research and practice aim to achieve. Empirical findings from several studies indicate that resource users are able to successfully cooperate in the management of common pool resources and solve social dilemmas through self-governance arrangements. The authors explore the potential success of self-governance in irrigation systems, focusing primarily on the factors influencing compliance of irrigation water users under self-crafted and self-enforced rules in two Kyrgyz communities. A field experiment is employed to provide insights and some quantitative empirical data, further complemented by qualitative methods (questionnaires, group discussions and interviews to enhance the analysis of the findings about working rules in irrigation at the community level. The results show that Kyrgyz irrigation users of the selected communities generally respond better in a self-governance setting in terms of rules compliance, distribution efficiency and equity. Compliance and cooperative behavior depend on group as well as individual variables including communication, social norms and the legitimacy of rules.

Tanja Baerlein

2015-01-01

189

Trace fossils from Silurian and Devonian turbidites of the Chauvay area, southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available The siliciclastic turbidite successions (Pul’gon and Dzhidala Formations that crop out in the eastern part of the Chauvay River valley, are marked on geological maps as a belt of terrigenous deposits of Silurian–Devonian age. They resemble deposits of overbank areas and depositional lobes of deep sea fans, and display common trace fossils particularly on lower surfaces of sandstone beds. Sixteen ichnotaxa representing four morphological groups have been distinguished. The trace fossil assemblages suggest their affiliation to the Nereites ichnofacies. Various branched, preturbidite forms predominate in both examined units, although the assemblages of individual units differ slightly in composition. In the Pulg’on Formation, small, densely distributed burrows commonly occur on lower surfaces of sandstone beds. Shallow burrowing depth together with relatively low diversity trace fossil assemblages indicate lowered oxygenation of the sea floor.

Micha? WARCHO?

2009-01-01

190

Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: the City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).  

Science.gov (United States)

The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice. PMID:24068306

Sim, Natasha M; Wilson, David C; Velis, Costas A; Smith, Stephen R

2013-10-01

191

Is Upper Lake Merzbacher (Central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan) the result of a fluctuating glacier?  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on time series analysis of topographic maps, aerial photos and satellite images, and on fieldwork at the Global Change Observatory "Gottfried Merzbacher", we reconstruct the retreat and advance of the Northern Inylchek Glacier and the development of supraglacial and proglacial lakes respectively. The aerial photo of 1943 reveals a Northern Inylchek Glacier with abundant supraglacial lakes. Change detection since 1943 documents the formation of a proglacial lake, which until 1981 increased in size and was termed Upper Lake Merzbacher. In contrast to the increase of the Upper Lake, an undulated terrain with a dozen of small lakes did not change at all during the last 70 years. We term this area of about one square kilometre in size the "stable-moraine-lake-ensemble". It is situated northeast of the terminal moraine of the Northern Inylchek Glacier. Regarding its geomorphologic features, this stable-moraine-lake-ensemble represents an old stage of glacier karst. Since this area is covered by several meters of fine-grained and thin-layered lake sediments we postulate a former proglacial lake, which was dammed by both the Northern and Southern Inylchek Glacier. In view of the fact that a meter thick massive till, rich in striated pebbles, overlies these lake sediments, we conclude that the Northern Inylchek Glacier overthrusted these lake sediments; a process which must have happened before 1943, and hence long before the (present) Upper Lake Merzbacher came to exist. From our findings we postulate the following fluctuations of the Northern Inylchek Glacier: 1) An ice stream net consisting of both the Northern and Southern Inylchek Glaciers jointly flowing down the Inylchek Valley existed during Würm glaciation. 2) At the end of the Little Ice Age, the moraines of which are poorly dated in the Central Tien Shan, the glaciers rapidly retreated. As soon as the Southern Inylchek Glacier stagnated and the Northern Inylchek Glacier separated and retreated, part of the Southern Inylchek Glacier bended and flew up the Northern Inylchek Valley. 3) Next, the Northern Inylchek Glacier advanced again, piling up a terminal moraine (which at present borders the Peremitschka to the southwest). Then a lake flooded the stable-moraine-lake-ensemble and lake sediments were deposited on it. We hypothesize that Gottfried Merzbacher in 1902 saw exactly this icy lake "... in whose blue waters floated thousands of tiny icebergs and frozen blocks in every shape and form…". 4) Gottfried Merzbacher could not have seen the (present) Upper Lake, which only came to exist after the 1940s. However, he could also not have seen the Lower Lake (in its present size, as soon as it comes to exist), because in his photo taken in 1902, the Southern Inylchek Glacier covers most of the Peremitschka. 5) We have no documents of the Northern Inylchek Valley between 1902 and 1943, but due to the fact that a ground moraine clearly overlies the lake deposits of the stable-moraine-lake-ensemble, we postulate that another advance of the Northern Inylchek Glacier occurred during this 40 year period. 6) From 1943 to 1981 the Northern Inylchek Glacier retreated again and gave way to an increasing Upper Lake Merzbacher. 7) During a rapid advance, which we do not term a glacier surge however, the size of Upper Lake Merzbacher was significantly reduced in late 1997 and early 1998 respectively.

Häusler, H.; Leber, D.; Kopecny, A.

2012-04-01

192

Vocational Education and Training in Kyrgyzstan. Managing Educational Reforms in an Economy in Transition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is the result of a request from the European Commission Directorate General XXII for an in-depth study into the vocational education and training system in one of the countries of the New Independent States of Mongolia. This document examines those parts of the Kyrgyz education system with direct links to Vocational Education and…

Oskarsson, Bertil; Muscheidt, Corinna

193

Three Universities in Georgia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan: The Struggle against Corruption and for Social Cohesion  

Science.gov (United States)

Universities may contribute to a nation's social cohesion through both direct and indirect means. In their syllabi they may include techniques necessary for understanding complex social problems. Faculty may model good behaviour in terms of listening and understanding points of view that may contradict their own. University administrators may…

Heyneman, Stephen P.

2007-01-01

194

Paleoseismological investigations along a newly developing fault in the northern Tien Shan foreland near Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kyrgyz Tien Shan is a low-strain orogen, which experiences large-magnitude earthquakes. The area comprises a broken foreland of basement-cored uplifts bounded by reverse faults that were reactivated along inherited shear zones, but lacks a clear deformation front. About one third of the current India-Asia collision is accommodated in the Tien Shan, but deformation is widely distributed across E-W striking structures. This pattern seems to be in agreement with long-term Quaternary slip rates of 1-3 mm/a, as calculated for single faults along a N-S transect. However, this pattern differs from the distribution of recent and historical seismicity, which is concentrated along the northern and southern periphery of the Tien Shan, respectively. Moreover, a series of major earthquakes occurred in the late 19th and earliest 20th centuries along the northern limit: 1885 (Ms 6.9), 1887 (Ms 7.3), 1889 (Ms 8.3), and 1911 (Ms 8.1). These events are amongst the largest known intraplate earthquakes worldwide and their spatial and temporal association is intriguing, but cause and recurrence still remain enigmatic. Furthermore, we find newly youthful fault scarps in close vicinity to reactivated inherited structures inferred to have been active during the Quaternary. To elucidate these rupture and earthquake patterns, we started paleoseismological investigations along a young fault, located just 35 km west of Belovodskoie, the epicenter of the 1885 (Ms 6.9) earthquake, and about 75 km west of Bishkek, the Kyrgyz capital. Two scarps are developed in an alluvial fan, nested inside a late Pleistocene loess terrace. The northern, more prominent, E-W striking scarp, can be followed for about 4 km across the alluvial fan. It is aligned with a cumulative break in topography of about 13 m in the loess-covered surface to the west. The trace of the scarp suggests a dominant reverse faulting mechanism, while the smaller scarp suggests a minor left-lateral component of motion. The alluvial fan is composed of different lobes with distinct offsets between about 0.6 m and 3.8 m. Three trenches were excavated in the low-offset and intermediate-offset segments of the main scarp, respectively, in order to better understand the offset distribution and associated earthquake history. In all trenches, dip-slip motion has been recognized as the dominant faulting process, resulting in hanging-wall collapse scarps with the deposition of colluvial wedges. We find one event in the low-offset segment. This event has offset two alluvial units and one organic-rich soil . The other two trenches reveal evidence for at least two rupture events, respectively. Unfortunately, the stratigraphic base recording earlier events could not be excavated due to safety reasons. However, our new trenching data suggest that the ultimate event recorded in all three trenches was characterized by an offset between 1.2 and 1.4 m. Using probabilistic magnitude estimates for this slip this may correspond to a magnitude between 6.8 and 7.2, emphasizing the seismogenic nature of the northern Tien Shan with infrequent, large magnitude earthquakes. Ongoing age determination of offset strata and colluvial wedges, and high-resolution seismic reflection profiling are expected to provide additional data to further constrain the seismogenic deformation in this region.

Landgraf, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Djumabaeva, A.; Strecker, M. R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Haberland, C. A.

2012-12-01

195

Water User Associations (WUAs) in Kyrgyzstan : A Case Study on Institutional Reform in Local Irrigation Management  

OpenAIRE

This article aims to give an overview over the reform of local irrigation management by its transfer to Water User Associations and to identify obstacles for its success. Its main focus are institutional aspects of the reform and not technical issues. Institutions are understood as formal as well as informal rules - societal accepted ways of behavior, which can be laws, traditions, norms and values. A subtype of institutions are organizations as the ones that enforce those rules but are also ...

Sehring, Jenniver

2005-01-01

196

Designing Social Inquiry in Central Asia – A Case Study of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Central Asia offers a potential smorgasbord for researchers engaged in comparative analysis. Common shared characteristics of these states have provided and continue to provide opportunities for advances in our understanding of political and social phenomena of global importance, including state building, democratisation, nationalism and economic development. However, in conducting comparative case study research in Central Asia, researchers should be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of different comparative approaches. This article reviews and critiques one approach to comparative analysis that has become increasingly dominant in social science research, particularly in the US. Comparing events in two Central Asian countries during 2005, a period of heightened risk of colour revolution, the article highlights both strengths and weaknesses of this increasingly dominant approach, arguing instead for a more inclusive and pragmatic approach to comparative analysis both in Central Asia and to case study comparisons more generally as the best way to advance our understanding of important social and political phenomena.

Robert Kevlihan

2013-06-01

197

Training of front-line health workers for tuberculosis control: Lessons from Nigeria and Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Efficient human resources development is vital for facilitating tuberculosis control in developing countries, and appropriate training of front-line staff is an important component of this process. Africa and Central Asia are over-represented in global tuberculosis statistics. Although the African region contributes only about 11% of the world population, it accounts for at least 25% of annual TB notifications, a proportion that continues to increase due to poor case manage...

Schelokova Irina; Awofeso Niyi; Dalhatu Abubakar

2008-01-01

198

Generation of relief by fault propagation folding in the Kochkor Basin of the Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

The southern margin of the Kochkor basin in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan is actively shortening. At the range front the South Kochkor Fault, a north verging basement bounding thrust fault, is emplacing Paleozoic granite on orogenic Tertiary sediments from the onset of Tien Shan exhumation. Displacement on the fault in the area of focus is at most a few hundred meters; however, the structural relief in the region amounts to 4-5 kilometers. North of the uplifted basement is a 2km thick unit of east-west striking, steeply dipping to overturned sediments that exhibit signs of flexural sheer such as intraformational folds. This steep section is separated from limbs of gently dipping beds both to the north and south by narrow hinge zones. Farther into the basin, the top of the tertiary formation is thrusting over Quaternary deposits in two younger episodes of faulting. Through detailed (1:25,000) mapping west of the Djuanarik River, we can conclude that most of the structural relief in the area is due to fault propagation folding of the entire Tertiary package. Post folding, the original fault has propagated into the basin in two distinct branches. Age constraints from PMAG data and fossil specimens place the conformable uppermost deformed unit (Sharpyldak formation) in the Pleistocene, indicating the relief due to folding in the basin has accumulated in the last 2-5 million years. Elsewhere in the basin the balance between faulting and folding changes. As the South Kochkor fault trends east, displacement on the fault increases as the degree of folding decreases. Within the area of focus the South Kochkor Fault, Achop Hills Fault and the farthest rupturing fault overlap along a north-south transect. Across the three fault traces, Quaternary terraces are clearly uplifted with discrete hinges, indicating all three faults are active.

Paulson, K. T.; Weldon, R. J.; Hopkins, S. S.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Weldon, N. M.

2012-12-01

199

Oil and gas resources of the Fergana Basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgyzstan)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analysis is part of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA`s) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). This one for the Fergana Basin is an EIA first for republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU). This was a trial study of data availability and methodology, resulting in a reservoir-level assessment of ultimate recovery for both oil and gas. Ultimate recovery, as used here, is the sum of cumulative production and remaining Proved plus Probable reserves as of the end of 1987. Reasonable results were obtained when aggregating reservoir-level values to the basin level, and in determining general but important distributions of across-basin reservoir and fluid parameters. Currently, this report represents the most comprehensive assessment publicly available for oil and gas in the Fergana Basin. This full report provides additional descriptions, discussions and analysis illustrations that are beneficial to those considering oil and gas investments in the Fergana Basin. 57 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

1995-01-01

200

47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan...Federation, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan, Slovakia, the Czech Rep., Tajikistan...Russian Federation, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan,...

2010-10-01

201

50 CFR 17.40 - Special rules-mammals.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (j) Argali (Ovis ammon ) in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan. (1) Except...part shall apply to this species in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan (Note...Upon receiving from the governments of Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan...

2010-10-01

202

78 FR 148 - Additional Designations of Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13581  

Science.gov (United States)

...a.k.a. ``ALMANBET ALAY''); DOB 17 Aug 1973; POB Osh Region, Kyrgyzstan; alt. POB Zhkendi Village, Alai Region, Kyrgyzstan; nationality Kyrgyzstan (individual) [TCO] 3. KASENOV, Adilet Zhakypovich; DOB 08 Jun...

2013-01-02

203

47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Federation, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey and Ukraine and the...Federation, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey and Ukraine and...

2010-10-01

204

40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and Nations Complying With, But Not Parties to, the Protocol  

Science.gov (United States)

...Korea, Republic of ? ? ? ? Kuwait ? ? ? Kyrgyzstan ? Lao, People's Democratic Republic ? Latvia ...Republic of 68. Korea, Republic of 69. Kuwait 70. Kyrgyzstan 71. Lao People's Democratic Republic 72....

2010-07-01

205

8 CFR 236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.  

Science.gov (United States)

...detention. Hungary Jamaica Kazakhstan Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Malta Mauritius Moldova Mongolia Nigeria...Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan,...

2010-01-01

206

8 CFR 1236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Guyana Hungary Jamaica Kazakhstan Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Malta Mauritius Moldova Mongolia Nigeria...Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan,...

2010-01-01

207

77 FR 68699 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...  

Science.gov (United States)

...state'' means Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, or Uzbekistan...state'' means Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, or...

2012-11-16

208

27 CFR 447.52 - Import restrictions applicable to certain countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Any firearm located or manufactured in Georgia, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Turkmenistan, Ukraine...Ammunition located or manufactured in Georgia, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Turkmenistan,...

2010-04-01

209

Threat assessment report. Regulatory aspects of the remediation and rehabilitation of nuclear legacy in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the Soviet period, the uranium mining operations in Central Asia served as one of the main uranium producers for the Soviet Union (SU) military complex. The regulatory standards for exposure and emissions control to all Soviet Republics were administered by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and were the same across the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the former Soviet Republics became independent, but also inherited the legacy in the form of wastes, including those from uranium ore processing and tailings and old Soviet regulatory documents, which are mostly inconsistent with the international standards and guidances and need substantial improvements. Many radioactive waste storage facilities in Central Asia, especially in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, are located in regions of seismic activity, in landslide- and mud flow-prone areas and areas subject to flooding and high ground water levels, and near the banks of the rivers that form the base of the large water basin of the Central Asian region. Many tailings are situated near towns, other populated areas and state borders, and they represent a long-term hazard to health and the environment. In regard to the legal and regulatory framework, it should be noted that none of the Central Asian countries have a National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management developed and approved by the Governments. Existing regulatory documents do not address the issues regarding safts do not address the issues regarding safety assessments and safety cases or the implementation of long-term institutional control and monitoring of the abandoned dumps with radioactive wastes (RW) or future RW disposal sites, neither during operation nor after their closure. There is also a need to develop safety criteria (reference levels) and determine measures to be taken for existing exposure situations (past practices). In addition, there is a lack of safety requirements for different types of disposal facilities in accordance with the different categories of radioactive waste. Safety criteria and clearance levels are also not established. The NRPA, with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in the Central Asian countries to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and RW management in the Central Asian countries. Based on threat assessments that have been completed in each Central Asian country during the year 2010, this document focuses on the existing regulatory problems at the legacy sites and projects will address the regulatory documents which should be developed first. It is clear that in order to remove the threat connected with radioactive wastes, both that which has already been accumulated as a result of previous activity and that which is currently being generated in significant amounts and will be produced in the future, it is necessary to at least develop and implement: A National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management, including strategies for disposal of each category of the RW, allocation of responsibilities and financial assurance for these activities; Safety requirements on the design, siting, construction, operation, closure and establishment of the institutional control needed for disposal facilities in accordance with the approved national policy and strategy on radioactive waste management; and New classifications of radioactive waste according to the recently published international recommendations, including identification of corresponding categories; In addition, it is clear that in order to remove the threats connected with extensive territories contaminated by radionuclides, the rehabilitation of these areas is required and, accordingly, it is necessary to develop regulations on: Quantitative criteria defining reference levels for existing exposure situations, consid

210

Elevation changes of Inylchek Glacier during 1974-2007, Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan derived from remote sensing data  

Science.gov (United States)

Glacier melt is an important source of fresh water for the arid regions surrounding the Tian Shan. Inylchek Glacier (650 km2) is the largest glacier in Tian Shan consisting of two branches (northern Inylchek glacier and southern Inylchek glacier) separated by the regularly draining Lake Merzbacher. However, little is known about volume and mass changes of the last decades. In this study, we investigated the changes of glacier area and glacier surface elevation from 1974 until 2007 and the surface velocity between 2003 and 2011 using multi-temporal remote-sensing data. The main flow direction of Southern Inylchek Glacier tongue showed strong velocities of ?100 m a-1 with a slight decreasing tendency between 2002/03 and 2010/11. The end of the tongue however, is likely stagnant as the main flow is directed towards Lake Merzbacher. The total glacier area increased by 1.3 ± 0.1 km2 (?0.2%) within the studies period though southern Inylchek Glacier shrank consecutive since 1974. The overall area gain was caused by the strong increase of northern Inylchek Glacier of 3.7 ± 0.3 km2 between 1990-1999. A comparison of glacier surface elevation using multi-temporal digital elevation models derived from KH9-Hexagon (1974), SRTM (1999), ALOS (2006) and SPOT5-HRG (2007) revealed an overall elevation difference of Inylchek Glacier of -0.5 ± 0.1 m a-1 for the period of 1974-2007. The northern glacier branch showed on average no significant surface elevation change (0.1 ± 0.1 m a-1) during 1974 and 2007 while a significant lowering of 0.7 ± 0.1 m a-1 was observed for the southern branch. The overall negative values are mainly due to the period 1974-1999. A possible thickening of 0.5 ± 0.5 m a-1 occurred between 1999 and 2007 where a clear thickening was measured in the accumulation area of the southern branch. We also identified the thickening with a maximum of about ?150 m close to the end of the northern Inylchek Glacier tongue for the period 1974-1999. This is possibly due to a surge event which happened between 1990 and 1999 according to the area change data. The ablation region of southern Inylchek Glacier showed considerable lowering rates especially in the distal part of the tongue with low velocity despite thick debris coverage.

Shangguan, D.; Bolch, T.; Ding, Y.; Kröhnert, M.; Pieczonka, T.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Liu, S.

2014-05-01

211

Seismogenic Convolutions in Lacustrian Deposits in Issyk-Kul (kyrgyzstan) and Sevan (armenia) Lakes as Indicators of Strong Paleoseismic Events  

Science.gov (United States)

During recent field investigations we found evidence of sediment deformation structures in one of the most tectonically active areas on the globe: the Tien Shan range in Central Asia and Armenian Highland, Caucasus. We are focused on examining the significance of the deformations as indicators of palaeoseismicity. Soft-sediment deformation structures in the form of balls, pillows, pockets, sharp "waves" and pseudo-nodules are exposed in the Issyk-Kul and Sevan Lakes basins, within interfingering beds of shallow lacustrine, beach and fluviatile origin. Additional deformation structures that were encountered include: a complex and chaotic folded structure, giant balls and a ''pillar'' structure which has not been previously reported, where marl intrudes down into coarse pebbley sand and forms pillar morphology. Liquefaction features and bedforms related to storm and breaking waves were not encountered. Neither was there evidence of turbidites. Seven field criteria for relating soft sediment deformation to palaeoseismic triggering provide strong evidence for a seismic origin of the deformation structures. Empirical relationships between magnitude and the maximum distance from an epicenter to liquefaction sites make the active epicentral zone north of Lake Issyk-Kul and east of the Sevan, with its frequent high magnitude events, the most favorable source for the deformation structures. Luminescence dating of the sediments of the Issyk-Kul lake gives a time window of 26F2.1 to 10.5F0.7 ka BP, indicating latest Pleistocene seismic activity. According to relative geological scheme the Sevan seismites are Pleistocene-Holocene age. The field investigation were supported in frame of NATO project "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Respouse" (CauSER) SfP 983284. Seimogenic convolution in lacustrian deposits of Sevan lake (Armenia) Giant sand "Pillow" in Issyk-Kul lake deposits

Avanesyan, M.; Korzhenkov, A.; Karakhanyan, A.

2012-12-01

212

Evaluation of microsatellite-based genetic diversity, protein and mineral content in chickpea accessions grown in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic diversity of 23 chickpea accessions representing Kyrgyz landraces and cultivars, ICARDA breeding lines, Spanish and Turkish cultivars was characterized using nine microsatellite (SSR) markers which generated a total of 122 alleles. The number of alleles (Na) per locus varied from 9 to 20. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged between 0.05 and 0.43 (average 0.13) whereas both the expected heterozygosity (He) and polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.71 to 0.90 (average 0.83). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 62% of the total genetic variation was found within accessions while the remaining 38% was found among accessions. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) indicated the presence of two groups. The two Kyrgyz cultivars were found apart from these groups. Cluster analysis generally confirmed the results of PCoA and also separated the Kyrgyz cultivars from the subcluster formed by Kyrgyz landraces and the subclusters formed by breeding lines from ICARDA along with landraces from Turkey and Spain. In addition, protein content and mineral concentration were determined. Protein content and mineral concentrations for Ca, S, Mg, P, K, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn varied significantly among accessions. The results show that Kyrgyz germplasm provides a source of diversity for improvement of chickpea. PMID:25363275

Torutaeva, Elnura; Asanaliev, Abdybek; Prieto-Linde, Maria Luisa; Zborowska, Anna; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa

2014-10-01

213

Threat assessment report. Regulatory aspects of the remediation and rehabilitation of nuclear legacy in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the Soviet period, the uranium mining operations in Central Asia served as one of the main uranium producers for the Soviet Union (SU) military complex. The regulatory standards for exposure and emissions control to all Soviet Republics were administered by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and were the same across the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the former Soviet Republics became independent, but also inherited the legacy in the form of wastes, including those from uranium ore processing and tailings and old Soviet regulatory documents, which are mostly inconsistent with the international standards and guidances and need substantial improvements. Many radioactive waste storage facilities in Central Asia, especially in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, are located in regions of seismic activity, in landslide- and mud flow-prone areas and areas subject to flooding and high ground water levels, and near the banks of the rivers that form the base of the large water basin of the Central Asian region. Many tailings are situated near towns, other populated areas and state borders, and they represent a long-term hazard to health and the environment. In regard to the legal and regulatory framework, it should be noted that none of the Central Asian countries have a National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management developed and approved by the Governments. Existing regulatory documents do not address the issues regarding safety assessments and safety cases or the implementation of long-term institutional control and monitoring of the abandoned dumps with radioactive wastes (RW) or future RW disposal sites, neither during operation nor after their closure. There is also a need to develop safety criteria (reference levels) and determine measures to be taken for existing exposure situations (past practices). In addition, there is a lack of safety requirements for different types of disposal facilities in accordance with the different categories of radioactive waste. Safety criteria and clearance levels are also not established. The NRPA, with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in the Central Asian countries to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and RW management in the Central Asian countries. Based on threat assessments that have been completed in each Central Asian country during the year 2010, this document focuses on the existing regulatory problems at the legacy sites and projects will address the regulatory documents which should be developed first. It is clear that in order to remove the threat connected with radioactive wastes, both that which has already been accumulated as a result of previous activity and that which is currently being generated in significant amounts and will be produced in the future, it is necessary to at least develop and implement: A National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management, including strategies for disposal of each category of the RW, allocation of responsibilities and financial assurance for these activities; Safety requirements on the design, siting, construction, operation, closure and establishment of the institutional control needed for disposal facilities in accordance with the approved national policy and strategy on radioactive waste management; and New classifications of radioactive waste according to the recently published international recommendations, including identification of corresponding categories; In addition, it is clear that in order to remove the threats connected with extensive territories contaminated by radionuclides, the rehabilitation of these areas is required and, accordingly, it is necessary to develop regulations on: Quantitative criteria defining reference levels for existing exposure situations, considering its justification, optimization and

Zhunussova, T.; Sneve, M.; Romanenko, O.; Solomatina, A.; Mirsaidov, I.

2011-06-15

214

Are the stair case terraces in the Inylchek Valley (Central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan) of neotectonic or sedimentary origin?  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2011 we performed fieldwork at the Global Change Observatory "Gottfried Merzbacher" east of Gribkov Base. High-resolution satellite images show at least six ridges which can be traced on the northern slopes of the Inylchek Valley. These ridges parallel each other and are intersected by smaller erosional valleys. Detailed mapping of outcrops in the tributary valleys revealed intensively folded Paleozoic formations overlain by glacial and fluvioglacial deposits of a thickness of tens of meters. From the sedimentological point of view we differentiate between kame terraces (KT), which are defined as depositional terraces perched on valley sides, deposited by meltwater streams flowing between lateral glacier margins and the adjacent valley wall, and fluvial terraces (FT), deposited above the niveau of the present Inylchek River. In the investigated sector of the Inylchek Valley we mapped FT1 and FT2 above the recent valley floor of the braided Inylchek River. These terraces intersect with the debris fans of the tributary streams. Up the northern hill we mapped at least four higher ridges, which are interpreted as remnants of kame terraces. The first and second of these higher ridges do not differ significantly in altitude and are therefore considered remnants of KT1a & b, followed up by two higher kame terraces KT2 and KT3. Each kame terrace represents one distinct stage of deglaciation of the valley glacier in the Southern Inylchek Valley. When another lower kame terrace was deposited, the higher terrace partly eroded along the valley wall and finally turned into a ridge. The observation that former fluvioglacial terraces today form ridges between incised valleys provides an example for an inverted relief. From the morphology of six ridges on the northern slope of the Inylchek Valley we derive the following succession of glacial and periglacial processes: 1) The highest kame terrace 3 (KT3) was deposited between the glacier margin of the former Inylchek Glacier at 4000 m altitude and the adjacent valley wall. 2) The next lower kame terrace (KT2) at about 3920 m altitude documents the deglaciation of the Southern Inylchek Glacier by 80 metres. 3) The lowest kame terrace (KT1) is preserved at an altitude of 3850 m a.s.l., indicating that the Southern Inylchek Glacier melted down another 70 metres. 4) After the retreat of the Glacier at least two fluvial terraces document proglacial sedimentation in a braided river system of the Inylchek Valley (upper fluvial terrace FT2 and lower terrace FT1). 5) In the studied Gribkov sector the recent Inylchek River eroded FT1 by three meters. Despite the fact that many recent, historical and paleo-earthquakes have been recorded in the Northern and Central Tien Shan, and that many scarps and even terraces may have resulted either from slides or from neotectonic tilting, we do not interpret the set of multiple ridges on the northern slope of Inylchek Valley as of tectonic origin but present arguments for their fluvioglacial evolution.

Häusler, H.; Kopecny, A.; Leber, D.

2012-04-01

215

Elevation changes of Inylchek Glacier during 1974–2007, Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan derived from remote sensing data  

OpenAIRE

Glacier melt is an important source of fresh water for the arid regions surrounding the Tian Shan. Inylchek Glacier (650 km2) is the largest glacier in Tian Shan consisting of two branches (northern Inylchek glacier and southern Inylchek glacier) separated by the regularly draining Lake Merzbacher. However, little is known about volume and mass changes of the last decades. In this study, we investigated the changes of glacier area and glacier surface eleva...

Shangguan, D.; Bolch, T.; Ding, Y.; Kro?hnert, M.; Pieczonka, T.; -u Wetzel, H.; Liu, S.

2014-01-01

216

Elevation changes of Inylchek Glacier during 1974–2007, Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan derived from remote sensing data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glacier melt is an important source of fresh water for the arid regions surrounding the Tian Shan. Inylchek Glacier (650 km2 is the largest glacier in Tian Shan consisting of two branches (northern Inylchek glacier and southern Inylchek glacier separated by the regularly draining Lake Merzbacher. However, little is known about volume and mass changes of the last decades. In this study, we investigated the changes of glacier area and glacier surface elevation from 1974 until 2007 and the surface velocity between 2003 and 2011 using multi-temporal remote-sensing data. The main flow direction of Southern Inylchek Glacier tongue showed strong velocities of ?100 m a?1 with a slight decreasing tendency between 2002/03 and 2010/11. The end of the tongue however, is likely stagnant as the main flow is directed towards Lake Merzbacher. The total glacier area increased by 1.3 ± 0.1 km2 (?0.2% within the studies period though southern Inylchek Glacier shrank consecutive since 1974. The overall area gain was caused by the strong increase of northern Inylchek Glacier of 3.7 ± 0.3 km2 between 1990–1999. A comparison of glacier surface elevation using multi-temporal digital elevation models derived from KH9-Hexagon (1974, SRTM (1999, ALOS (2006 and SPOT5-HRG (2007 revealed an overall elevation difference of Inylchek Glacier of ?0.5 ± 0.1 m a?1 for the period of 1974–2007. The northern glacier branch showed on average no significant surface elevation change (0.1 ± 0.1 m a?1 during 1974 and 2007 while a significant lowering of 0.7 ± 0.1 m a?1 was observed for the southern branch. The overall negative values are mainly due to the period 1974–1999. A possible thickening of 0.5 ± 0.5 m a?1 occurred between 1999 and 2007 where a clear thickening was measured in the accumulation area of the southern branch. We also identified the thickening with a maximum of about ?150 m close to the end of the northern Inylchek Glacier tongue for the period 1974–1999. This is possibly due to a surge event which happened between 1990 and 1999 according to the area change data. The ablation region of southern Inylchek Glacier showed considerable lowering rates especially in the distal part of the tongue with low velocity despite thick debris coverage.

D. Shangguan

2014-05-01

217

Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are ...

Maddix Jason; Waning Brenda; Soucy Lyne

2010-01-01

218

Assessment of the main natural radionuclides, minor and trace elements in soils and sediments of the Shu valley (near the border of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New data on the concentrations of the main gamma-emitting radionuclides, minor and trace elements, and isotopes of uranium (with Ra-226 as a daughter product of U-238) and thorium in soils and sediments of the Shu valley (from the river Chon-Kemin to the river Kuragatty downstream the river Shu) are presented, determined by high-resolution gamma-spectrometry, k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis and alpha-spectrometry with appropriate radiochemical separations of the samples, respectively. The results obtained showed an aquatic migration pathway of most of the trace elements and radionuclides and predicted water pollution downstream the river Shu. The scandium method showed pollution by As, Br, Ca, Cr, Zr of the Tasotkel dam impoundment and by Ca and Cr of the river Shu below its confluence with the river Kuragatty. According to the disequilibrium isotopic method for uranium (using the isotopic ratio U-234/U-238), areas with accumulation and leaching processes were estimated for soils and sediments of the river Shu and its main inflows. (author)

219

Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Kumbel oxidized W-Cu-Mo skarn and Au-W stockwork deposit in Kyrgyzstan, Tien Shan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kumbel deposit is located within a metallogenic belt of W-Mo, Cu-Mo, Au-W, and Au deposits along the Late Paleozoic active continental margin of Tien Shan. The deposit is related to a Late Carboniferous multiphase pluton, with successive intrusive phases from early olivine monzogabbro through monzonite-quartz monzonite to granodiorite and granite, with the latest monzogabbro-porphyry dikes. The deposit represents an example of a complex W-Cu-Mo-Au magmatic-hydrothermal system related to magnetite-series high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic igneous suite. It contains large bodies of W-Cu-Mo oxidized prograde and retrograde skarns, with abundant andradite garnet, magnetite, and especially hematite, as well as K-feldspar, molybdoscheelite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite, with transitions to zones of intense quartz-K-feldspar (with minor andradite and hematite) veining. The skarns are cut by quartz-carbonate ± adularia ± sericite veins (locally sheeted) and stockworks bearing scheelite and minor Cu, Zn, Pb sulfides, as well as Au, Bi, Te, and As mineralization. The association of these veins with the oxidized skarns and magnetite-series intrusion is consistent with the general oxidized, intrusion-related W-Mo-Cu-Au type of deposit, with an affinity to the alkalic (silica-saturated) Cu-Au ± Mo porphyry deposits. The fluid inclusion data show the predominance of magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous chloride fluid during the formation of skarns and quartz-carbonate-scheelite-sulfide veins. The high fluid pressures (˜1,750 bars), together with their high temperature (up to 600 °C) and high salinity (˜50-60 wt% NaCl-equiv.), suggest the formation of skarns and quartz-K-feldspar-andradite-hematite veins under conditions typical of magmatic-hydrothermal transition (depth of ?4-5 km) of intrusion-related mineralized system, possibly by exsolution of the fluids from crystallizing magma. The auriferous quartz-carbonate-scheelite-sulfide veins formed from high to moderate salinity (from ˜40 to <20 wt% NaCl-equiv.) and high pressure (from ˜1,200 bars to 850-900 bars) aqueous chloride fluids under decreasing temperature (from ˜370 to 120 °C). The massive deposition of molybdoscheelite in retrograde skarn and scheelite in quartz-carbonate-scheelite-sulfide veins could correspond to enrichment of fluids in Ca (up to 18-25 wt% CaCl2), likely from crystallizing magma.

Soloviev, Serguei G.

2014-06-01

220

First paleomagnetic results of mid- to late Holocene sediments from Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan): Implications for paleosecular variation in central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

We present new paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data from mid and late Holocene sediments recovered in two gravity cores (C087 and C142a) from Lake Issyk-Kul (central Asia), for which independent radiocarbon-based age models are available. Our results indicate that sediments from core C087 are characterized by fine (pseudo single domain) magnetite grains and are reliable recorders of Holocene geomagnetic paleosecular variation (PSV) in central Asia, which is a region with poor data coverage. Similarity is found between the core C087 PSV record, which spans the last 5700 years, and the Lake Baikal PSV record, which is the only published Holocene central Asian PSV record of comparable length with an independent radiocarbon-based chronology. Our new results represent a step forward in constructing a reference PSV curve for central Asia that can be used to date sedimentary sequences. These results can also be used to improve the reliability and accuracy of global geomagnetic field models. We have not been able to disentangle past environmental changes in the Lake Issyk-Kul region based on rock magnetic properties, probably because the magnetite and hematite in the studied sediments have a mixed (fluvial and eolian) terrigenous origin.

Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; LarrasoañA, Juan C.; Giralt, Santiago; Roberts, Andrew P.

2012-03-01

221

A late Pleistocene glacial chronology from the Kitschi-Kurumdu Valley, Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan), based on 10Be surface exposure dating  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface exposure dating has become a helpful tool for establishing numeric glacial chronologies, particularly in arid high-mountain regions where radiocarbon dating is challenging due to limited availability of organic material. This study presents 13 new 10Be surface exposure ages from the Kitschi-Kurumdu Valley in the At Bashi Range, Tien Shan. Three moraines were dated to ~ 15, 21 and > 56 ka, respectively, and corroborate previous findings that glacial extents in the Tien Shan during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 were limited compared to MIS 4. This likely documents increasingly arid conditions in Central Asia during the last glacial cycle. Morphological evidence in the Kitschi-Kurumdu Valley and a detailed review of existing numeric glacial chronologies from the Tien Shan indicate that remnants of the penultimate glaciation (MIS 6) are preserved, whereas evidence for MIS 5 glacier advances remains equivocal. Reviewed and recalculated exposure ages from the Pamir mountains, on the other hand, reveal extensive MIS 5 glacial extents that may indicate increased monsoonal precipitation. The preservation of MIS 3 moraines in the Tien Shan and the southern Pamir does not require any monsoonal influence and can be explained alternatively with increased precipitation via the westerlies.

Zech, Roland

2012-03-01

222

Correcting for inclination shallowing of early Carboniferous sedimentary rocks from Kyrgyzstan—indication of stable subtropical position of the North Tianshan Zone in the mid-late Palaeozoic  

Science.gov (United States)

High-quality palaeomagnetic data for the early Carboniferous of Central Asia are scarce and the palaeogeographic evolution of this area prior to final amalgamation of the region east of the Ural mountains is still rather obscure. Here, we present palaeomagnetic data for early Carboniferous deposits from two areas in the Kyrgyz North Tianshan (NTS). Detailed rock-magnetic analysis indicates the presence of magnetite and haematite as magnetic carriers in these red sediments. In the Kazakh basin section (KEL), we identify a high-temperature component (HTC) of magnetization during stepwise thermal demagnetization at temperatures of up to ˜680 °C yielding a site mean direction of D = 176.2°, I = -36.4°, k = 57.4 and ?95 = 8.9° after tilt correction. Two HTCs of magnetization were identified in samples from the Sonkul Basin (DUN) with maximum blocking temperatures of ˜600 °C (magnetite) and ˜680 °C (haematite). The magnetite component was also identified with alternating field demagnetization. The resulting site mean directions for these two components identified in 16 and 14 sites, respectively, are D = 149.3°, I = -50.3°, k = 73.6 and ?95 = 4.3° for the magnetite and D = 139.6°, I = -35.1°, k = 71.6 and ?95 = 4.7° for the haematite component. All three mean directions show a significant increase of the precision parameter k after tilt correction indicating acquisition of the high-temperature magnetization prior to the main folding event in the Jurassic. We explain the difference of the two components of DUN by a process of inclination bias due to compaction to which the platy haematite particles are more susceptible. Applying the elongation-inclination (E/I) method to directional data from over 100 individual samples from location DUN results in a negligible correction for the magnetite component (<5°), whereas the inclination of the haematite component corrects from -35.0° to -50.3° (f = 0.6, error interval -41.4° to -57.9°), which is then equal to the uncorrected magnetite inclination. The small number of samples from section KEL does not allow application of the E/I technique and inclination correction based on high field anisotropy of isothermal remanent magnetization was applied, yielding a corrected inclination of -75.2° ± 4°. Assuming comparable degrees of compaction for both study areas and applying the flattening factor obtained in DUN on samples from KEL, however, would result in comparable inclinations. The identification of inclination shallowing at both sections indicates that the age of magnetization is close to the deposition age. Assuming a reversed polarity of the directions from both areas results in palaeolatitudes of ˜30°N for section DUN and ˜60°N for the anisotropy-based correction of section KEL. The large difference, however, is geologically very unlikely. The inclination of the magnetite component of DUN (unaffected by inclination shallowing) favours a palaeoposition of ˜30°N. This is supported by the inclination shallowing corrected haematite component of DUN yielding a comparable inclination. Therefore, our results indicate that the NTS domain was situated at ˜30°N in the early Carboniferous. Furthermore, the NTS zone was probably not connected to Baltica or Siberia prior to the late Palaeozoic.

Kirscher, U.; Bilardello, D.; Mikolaichuk, A.; Bachtadse, V.

2014-08-01

223

Glaciers and permafrost as water resource in Kyrgyzstan : distribution, recent dynamics and hazards, and the relevance for sustainable development of Central Asian semiarid regions  

OpenAIRE

Die Republik Kirgistan ist das einzige Land Zentralasiens, das seine Wasserressourcen ganz aus dem eigenen Territorium bezieht. Dieser Wasserreichtum stammt zu einem großen Teil aus den vergletscherten Gebirgen des Landes und ist eine lebenswichtige Grundlage für die Landwirtschaft, aber auch für die Produktion von Hydroenergie. Die Landwirtschaft in den meist sehr trockenen Ebenen am Gebirgsfuß ist auf Bewässerung angewiesen. Die Gebirgsketten Kirgistans erreichen an vielen Stellen übe...

Duishonakunov, Murataly Turganalievich

2014-01-01

224

Genetic characterization of Kyrgyzstan fine-leaved Festuca valesiaca germplasm for use in semi-arid low-maintenance turf applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Fine-leaved Festuca valesiaca Shleidcher ex. Gaudin (2n = 2x-4x) is native to heavily grazed, cold, semi-arid, Asian rangelands. However, its potential for low-maintenance turf applications in the semi-arid western United States and its relatedness to other agriculturally important Festuca species ...

225

The Syr Darya river conflict: An experimental case study  

OpenAIRE

With the disintegration of the USSR a conflict arose between Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan over the Syr Darya river. Upstream Kyrgyzstan operates the Toktogul reservoir which generates hydropower demanded mainly in winter for heating. Downstream Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan need irrigation water in summer, primarily to grow cotton. Regional agreements obliging Kyrgyzstan to high summer discharges in exchange for fossil fuel transfers in winter have generally been unsuccessful, notably du...

Abbink, Klaus; Moller, Lars Christian; O Hara, Sarah

2005-01-01

226

Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

2013-01-01

227

Rapakivi granites within Phanerozoic collisional orogens as a possible consequence of continental subduction and following exhumation of the Precambrian crust: Evidences from the Permian Jangart rapakivi in South Tien Shan collisional belt, Eastern Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

All worldwide known rare occurrences of Phanerozoic A-type granites with typical rapakivi texture do not usually have any significant volume of contemporaneous basic rocks in magmatic association and occur only in those collisional orogens, which border ancient cratons and contain HP-UHP metamorphic terranes, suggesting connection of their petrogenesis with a deep continental subduction and subsequent exhumation of the ancient crust. Early Permian Jangart rapakivis and genetically related leucogranites and Li-mica granites widely spread within the Saryjaz syntaxis, which is distinguished by the shortest distance between the Tarim craton and Caledonian Kazakh continent, collided in the Late Carboniferous with the possibly deepest continental subduction of the Tarim under the South Tien Shan collisional belt. Rapakivi plutons occur within the remarkable huge (20 × 120 km) mega-mélange (mega-breccia) terrane of diapiric (not tectonic) origin, which was identified by the latest geological data and deciphering of satellite imagery. According to geophysical data the most of subducted Tarim continental crust was trapped within lithospheric mantle and never exhumed. But in the Saryjaz syntaxis, where the collisional suture has been subjected to flecsure-like oroclinal bending due to sinistral strike-slip tectonics during oblique collision between the Tarim and Kazakh plates, the subduction channel was weakened and exhumation occurred. The suggested P-T-t path of exhumed slices of the subducted Tarim continental crust presumes a relatively long (around 20 Ma) residence time on a mantle depth as well as additional internal radiogenic heating and rapid (around 2 Ma) isothermal exhumation, which were favorable for extensive melting and subsequent rapakivi formation. Phanerozoic rapakivis originated from the same ancient lower crust granulite source rocks as their abundant Proterozoic counterparts but mechanism of heating and melting of those source rocks was radically different.

Solomovich, Leonid I.; Trifonov, Boris A.

2014-12-01

228

U-Pb-Hf zircon study of two mylonitic granite complexes in the Talas-Fergana fault zone, Kyrgyzstan, and Ar-Ar age of deformations along the fault  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2000 km long dextral Talas-Fergana strike-slip fault separates eastern terranes in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan from western terranes. The aim of this study was to constrain an age of dextral shearing in the central part of the fault utilizing Ar-Ar dating of micas. We also carried out a U-Pb-Hf zircon study of two different deformed granitoid complexes in the fault zone from which the micas for Ar dating were separated. Two samples of the oldest deformed Neoproterozoic granitoids in the area of study yielded U-Pb zircon SHRIMP ages 728 ± 11 Ma and 778 ± 11 Ma, characteristic for the Cryogenian Bolshoi Naryn Formation, and zircon grains analyzed for their Lu-Hf isotopic compositions yielded ?Hf(t) values from -11.43 to -16.73, and their calculated tHfc ages varied from 2.42 to 2.71 Ga. Thus varying Cryogenian ages and noticeable heterogeneity of Meso- to Paleoproterozoic crustal sources was established for mylonitic granites of the Bolshoi Naryn Formation. Two samples of mylonitized pegmatoidal granites of the Kyrgysh Complex yielded identical 206Pb/238U ages of 279 ± 5 Ma corresponding to the main peak of Late-Paleozoic post-collisional magmatism in the Tien Shan (Seltmann et al., 2011), and zircon grains analyzed for their Lu-Hf isotopic compositions yielded ?Hf(t) values from -11.43 to -16.73, and calculated tHfc ages from 2.42 to 2.71 Ga indicating derivation from a Paleoproterozoic crustal source. Microstructural studies showed that ductile/brittle deformation of pegmatoidal granites of the Kyrgysh Complex occurred at temperatures of 300-400 °C and caused resetting of the K-Ar isotope system of primary muscovite. Deformation of mylonitized granites of the Bolshoi Naryn Formation occurred under high temperature conditions and resulted in protracted growth and recrystallization of micas. The oldest Ar-Ar muscovite age of 241 Ma with a well defined plateau from a pegmatoidal granite of the Kyrgysh Complex is considered as a “minimum” age of dextral motions along this section of the fault in the Triassic while younger ages varying from 227 Ma to 199 Ma with typical staircase patterns indicate protracted growth and recrystallization of micas during ductile deformations which continued until the end of the Triassic.

Konopelko, D.; Seltmann, R.; Apayarov, F.; Belousova, E.; Izokh, A.; Lepekhina, E.

2013-09-01

229

Socio-cultural and town-planning continuity development of the cities of Chujskaya valley of Kyrgyzstan in XIX—XX centuries — the second revival (tendencies and prospects / ?????-?????????? ? ????????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ? XIX—XXI ??. — ?????? ??????????? (????????? ? ???????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rapid growth of the cities of Chujskaya valley in XX century defines the important stage of accumulation of town-planning experience, which use, incorporating to experience of the middle ages, will allow to create strategic regional models of town-planning objects of any level. / ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? XX ?. ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????, ??????? ? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????.

Tonkoy I.V. / ?????? ????? ??????????

2009-06-01

230

[Taxonomic status of the Burana virus (BURV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Tamdy group) isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 and Haem. concinna Koch, 1844 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae) in Kyrgyzstan].  

Science.gov (United States)

Complete genome sequence of the Burana virus (BURV) was determined using the next-generation sequencing approach (ID GenBank KF801651). The prototype strain of BURV LEIV-Krg760 was originally isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae), collected from cows in Tokmak wildlife sanctuary, eastern part of the Chu valley (43 degrees 10' N, 74 degrees 40' E) near Burana village, Kirgizia, in April 1971. Molecular genetics and phylogenetic analyses showed that the BURV belonged to the Nairovirus genus, Bunyaviridae and is related to Tamdy virus (TAMV) that is also associated with the ixodidae ticks of pasture biocenosis in Central Asia. Previous studies showed that TAMV is the prototypic virus of new phylogenetic Tamdy group in the Nairovirus genus. Thus, BURV was classified as a new virus of the Tamdy group, Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae. PMID:25549462

2014-01-01

231

The first results of environmental impact study of the production complex Ak-Tyuz according to the Protocol of the 3rdMeeting of Kyrgyzstan-Kazakhstan Intergovernmental Council  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigations of radionuclide and elemental composition of selected samples of the environment items were made. The method of instrumental gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of individual radionuclides in two samples of bottom sediments. The method of X-ray fluorescence analysis was used to study the elemental composition of the same samples of bottom sediments. All results of research activities clearly show the negative impact of the industrial zone Ak-Tyuz on radionuclide and elemental composition of water in Kichi-Kemin River.

232

Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

Whitsel, Christopher M.

2011-01-01

233

Notes on some Lepidoptera Tortricidae from Central Asia  

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Full Text Available Faunistic data of some Lepidoptera Tortricidae collected in mountainous localities of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenija, are reported. The total number of species recorded is 69; some of them are of special biogeographical interest.

Pasquale Trematerra

2012-04-01

234

78 FR 34705 - Designation of 3 Individuals and 10 Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13224 of September 23...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pentagon. The Order imposes economic sanctions on persons who have committed, pose...16 entities as subject to the economic sanctions. The Order was further amended by Executive...citizen Kyrgyzstan; Passport 02NO133036 (Russia); alt. Passport AN1912357...

2013-06-10

235

7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Luxembourg, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malta, Mexico, Republic of Moldova, Morocco, the...Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, New Zealand...T, the Andean Potato Calico Strain of Tobacco Ringspot Virus, and Potato...

2010-01-01

236

Notes on some Lepidoptera Tortricidae from Central Asia  

OpenAIRE

Faunistic data of some Lepidoptera Tortricidae collected in mountainous localities of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenija, are reported. The total number of species recorded is 69; some of them are of special biogeographical interest.

Pasquale Trematerra

2012-01-01

237

Uranium industry legacy. Problems and ways forward  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is devoted to uranium industry legacy of Kyrgyzstan. Data on tailings and rock piles is presented. Data on ongoing works and projects on remediation of uranium tailings is presented as well.

238

Electricity in Central Asia: Market and investment opportunity report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.

NONE

2007-09-15

239

Proceedings of reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceeding of the conference covers different aspects of solid state physics and concludes 173 papers. Scientist and specialists from Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan took part in the conference

240

50 CFR 17.11 - Endangered and threatened wildlife.  

Science.gov (United States)

...throughout its entire range (China, India, and SE Asia); consequently...Panthalops hodgsoniiChina, India, Nepal ......doE...ammonAfganistan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan...doE3NANA Bat, Bulmer's fruit...

2010-10-01

241

American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, The Dem Rep Of The Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote ... Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Dem People's Rep Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Dem Republic ...

242

47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...55Additional allocation:in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan...from harmful interference. In Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, the Russian...58Additional allocation:In Armenia, Azerbaijan, the Russian Federation,...

2010-10-01

243

Empirical Analysis of Kyrgyz Trade Patterns  

OpenAIRE

Being naturally located between two big markets in Europe and Asia, Kyrgyzstan together with other Central Asian countries does not have a direct access to sea ports. Landlockedness limits volumes of international trade and creates obstacles for economic growth. Results of statistical analysis show that Kyrgyz trade neither follows Heckscher-Ohlin model nor intra-industry trade model. Another finding is that open and liberal trade policy of Kyrgyzstan has a large positive effect on trade vol...

Kurmanalieva, Elvira

2008-01-01

244

THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE SOCIO-POLITICAL PROCESSES IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC  

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Full Text Available This article deals with the foreign policy of the Kyrgyz Republic and the influence of geopolitical factors on the political processes in the country. The paper presents a periodization of foreign policy in modern Kyrgyzstan concerning the United States. The author reviewed the draft F. Starr's "Greater Central Asia" and analyzed the "theory of controlled chaos". Big attention is paid to the relationships of Kyrgyzstan and Russia , the USA and China, on the one hand, and with the nearest neighbors in the region, on the other. The paper analyzes the project for the construction of the railway "China - Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan". Russia takes one of the central points in the paper. Much attention is paid to the economic sphere, namely the construction of hydroelectric power. Due to the growing number of labor migrants from Kyrgyzstan to Russia , the article discusses the legislative framework in this area. The author lists the key factors that cause social and political problems between Kyrgyzstan and neighboring countries. This paper discusses in detail issues related to the enclaves and the disputed territories.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-31

?????????? ?????????????? ???????

2013-10-01

245

Commentary - The Early Days of Central Asian Military Integration: the Kyrgyz National Division of the Red Army in 1927-1928  

OpenAIRE

This paper is a brief overview of the sociology of a national division of the Red Army in the early days of its formation in Kyrgyzstan, as described in two documents about soldiers of Kyrgyz nationality in 1927 and 1928. At that time the Soviet Army was not seeking to substantially increase its numbers but rather recruiting in line with the intentions of the nationality policy, by integrating ethnic groups and regions that had been ignored by the high command. Kyrgyzstan is a striking exampl...

Isabelle Ohayon

2009-01-01

246

Water and energy problems of the central asia and the place of the republic of Tajikistan in solving these problems  

OpenAIRE

An important feature of Central Asia is the fact that two of its countries, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, are located in the zone of water runoff, and the rest of the republic are in the dispersement zone. For Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan - is to use water mainly for hydropower development, and for Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - for irrigated agriculture. In Tajikistan, formed 64 km3 of water runoff from the total volume of the Aral Sea 115km3. Taking into account the flowing river o...

Higmatillo, Goibnazarov

2010-01-01

247

Commentary - The Early Days of Central Asian Military Integration: the Kyrgyz National Division of the Red Army in 1927-1928  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the sociology of a national division of the Red Army in the early days of its formation in Kyrgyzstan, as described in two documents about soldiers of Kyrgyz nationality in 1927 and 1928. At that time the Soviet Army was not seeking to substantially increase its numbers but rather recruiting in line with the intentions of the nationality policy, by integrating ethnic groups and regions that had been ignored by the high command. Kyrgyzstan is a striking exampl...

Isabelle Ohayon

2009-12-01

248

Uranium, radium and radon level on territory of Western Mining-Chemical Combine of Mailuu-Suu town (Kyrgyz Republic)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: During realization of research work on International Cooperative Program in area of trans-boundary monitoring of the rivers between the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and the USA (project 'Navruz') it was established that the possible source of contamination of the Aral Sea basin on territory of Kyrgyzstan can be a waste deposit of the Western Mining-Chemical combine (WMChC, Mailuu-Suu town). In particular, it was shown, that the uranium content in the Mailuu-Suu river near WMChC reaches 3.1·10-6 g/l, and on boundary with Uzbekistan - 1.8·10-6 g/l. It is necessary to note that the uranium content in potable waters of a Chu valley is almost one order higher, than in the river Mailuu-Suu. On territory of Uzbekistan in the Mailuu-Suu river the uranium content is 2·10-5 g/l, as well as in waters of Chu valley in Kyrgyzstan. The reasons of increase of uranium level on territory of Uzbekistan cannot be uniquely connected with the WMChC activity. Is this increase of technogenic or natural origin, is Kyrgyzstan a supplier of radioactive wastes for Uzbekistan or not? The report represents new materials on uranium and radium content in soils washed by waters of the river Mailuu-Suu and on the content of radon in the air around WMChC

249

Faculty Development and Quality Assurance in the EU ERAMIS Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the ERAMIS project is to create a
network of Masters degrees “Informatics as a Second
Competence” in nine beneficiary universities of Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan and Russia. This contribution presents how
faculty development is organized and quality assurance
implemented inside this project.

Agathe Merceron

2012-07-01

250

Cross-Cultural Investigation into Cognitive Underpinnings of Individual Differences in Early Arithmetic  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluated 626 5-7-year-old children in the UK, China, Russia, and Kyrgyzstan on a cognitive test battery measuring: (1) general skills; (2) non-symbolic number sense; (3) symbolic number understanding; (4) simple arithmetic--operating with numbers; and (5) familiarity with numbers. Although most inter-population differences were…

Rodic, Maja; Zhou, Xinlin; Tikhomirova, Tatiana; Wei, Wei; Malykh, Sergei; Ismatulina, Victoria; Sabirova, Elena; Davidova, Yulia; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Kovas, Yulia

2015-01-01

251

Regulatory Support Program in Central Asia. Progress and new bilateral project with the State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Republic of Uzbekistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A meeting of the regional regulatory support program in Central Asia (CA) was held in May 25 to 26, 2011 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where parties discussed ongoing bilateral cooperation between the NRPA and the regulatory bodies of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Author)

NONE

2011-07-01

252

Srovnání kulturních zm?n u afghanských Kyrgyz? a Kyrgyz? v Kyrgystánu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Creation of the national state in Kyrgyzstan had significant influence to national awareness of the Kyrgyz. It was aroused here an interest in the history of own nation, there were presented historical constructs to the population about the ancientness and certain exclusivity of the Kyrgyz ethnic group, what many inhabitants adopted. For all Kyrgyz in all investigated areas is common relatively high historical awareness of membership to the Kyrgyz nation – this perception is not bound to the language. All Kyrgyz living beyond the Kyrgyzstan border perceive very similarly the creation of national state. It is a symbol of their national identity for them, to which they are looking up with a certain respect. Also the Afghani Kyrgyz that usually do not know the Kyrgyzstan state symbols express the wishes to visit Kyrgyzstan, a country, where they can feel as at home. More important that the proper area is the own existence of the Kyrgyz state that, already by its name, offers a certain proximity to the Kyrgyz living outside its borders.

Petr Kokaisl

2010-04-01

253

Planned Transitions from Education into Employment in a Managed Post-Communist Market Economy: A Case Study in Samarkand  

Science.gov (United States)

This article arises from case studies in 2006 of 20 businesses in Samarkand (Uzbekistan), surveys of their up to 30-year-old employees (r = 419), follow-up interviews with eight of these employees, and matched samples in Almaty (Kazakhstan) and Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan). The main difference between education in Samarkand (and Uzbekistan in general) and…

Roberts, Ken; Teshmatullo, Akhamadov; Firdavsiy, Kurbanov; Sarateppo, Boltaev; Tholen, Jochen

2007-01-01

254

Understanding Teaching beyond Content and Method: Insights from Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study suggests the need for complex research approaches that provide richer, contested, and nondichotomous portrayals of classrooms, schooling life, and teachers. Drawing from a qualitative study of Tajik teachers' practices and perspectives (Niyozov, 2001) and studies on teaching conducted in Kyrgyzstan (De Young, Reeves, & Valyaeva , 2006;…

Niyozov, Sarfaroz

2009-01-01

255

Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008?July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

256

Barriers to Coverage of Transborder Environmental Issues in the Ferghana Valley of Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Three former Soviet republics occupy Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, a region of serious transborder environmental problems, especially ones that involve water and energy. Most news organizations in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan provide little in-depth coverage of these issues. Journalists in one country usually do not seek news…

Freedman, Eric

2014-01-01

257

The Cultural and Ecological "Worlds" of Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

With a grant through Indiana University's Inner Asian & Uralic National Resource Center, the authors developed an online, five-week unit that discusses the cultural and ecological "worlds" of central Asia, specifically the countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan. There are two main ideas throughout this…

Quigley, Cassie; Allspaw, Kathleen

2011-01-01

258

Regulatory Support Program in Central Asia. Progress and new bilateral project with the State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Republic of Uzbekistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A meeting of the regional regulatory support program in Central Asia (CA) was held in May 25 to 26, 2011 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where parties discussed ongoing bilateral cooperation between the NRPA and the regulatory bodies of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Author)

259

Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first…

Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.

2007-01-01

260

Skills Needs Analysis. Conference on Continuing Vocational Training (Turin, Italy, November 9-10, 1998). Conclusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participants in the Conference on Continuing Vocational Training (CVT) represented 13 countries from Central and Eastern Europe, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Uzbekistan, European Union (EU) countries, European Commission, and European Training Foundation. The conference aimed to increase awareness among policymakers and social partners on CVT's…

European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

261

The Members of the Agency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.58) is Kyrgyzstan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2003. The list shows the dates on which the present 137 Member States became Members

262

Leadership Styles and Work-Related Values of Managers and Employees of Manufacturing Enterprises in Post-Communist Countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Survey responses from 695 managers and 1,696 employees in Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia revealed significant differences in cultural values between the two groups. Significant differences among countries were found in terms of cultural value dimensions of leadership style, such as masculinity, paternalism, and long-term orientation.…

Ardichvili, Alexander

2001-01-01

263

Empirical Analysis of Kyrgyz Trade Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Being naturally located between two big markets in Europe and Asia, Kyrgyzstan together with other Central Asian countries does not have a direct access to sea ports. Landlockedness limits volumes of international trade and creates obstacles for economic growth. Results of statistical analysis show that Kyrgyz trade neither follows Heckscher-Ohlin model nor intra-industry trade model. Another finding is that open and liberal trade policy of Kyrgyzstan has a large positive effect on trade volumes, suggesting that bilateral trade will expand markedly if country continues liberalization of its trade policy with other countries. Quality of infrastructure and transportation costs play a crucial role for landlocked countries and a free trade agreement with other countries looks like a good opportunity to overcome natural barriers and diversify their trade.

Elvira KURMANALIEVA

2008-05-01

264

Community-Based Associations for Sustainable Tourism Development : Fostering Sustainable Development in Developing Countries  

OpenAIRE

Community-Based Tourism (CBT) is a bottom-up approach to sustainable developmentused in developing countries to enhance the conservation of natural resources, preservetraditional culture, and generate income at the local level. The study aims to understandthe effectiveness of community associations for CBT development in developingcountries. Ghana is selected as the primary case of this study. Published data on CBTassociations in Namibia, Uganda, Kyrgyzstan and Costa Rica are used as supporti...

Yamashita, Shihomi

2011-01-01

265

Unemployment hysteresis in Central Asia  

OpenAIRE

Unemployment hysteresis is an important but rather controversial issue in applied economics because the existence of hysteresis in unemployment rate poses a challenge to a central building-block of macroeconomic theory. The current paper chooses five Central Asian countries, namely Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, as a case study to examine the unemployment hysteresis for the period of 1991-2012. The number of observation is 22. In order to overcome the insuffi...

Furuoka, Fumitaka

2014-01-01

266

Atmospheric noble gases in lake sediment pore water as proxies for environmental change  

OpenAIRE

Lake sediment pore water has been proposed as a noble gas archive for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, but appropriate experimental techniques have not been available until recently. Here we present noble gas concentrations measured in the sediment pore water of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) which demonstrate for the first time the value of the sediment pore water archive for paleoclimate reconstruction. The noble gas profiles in the sediment indicate that the salinity of the lake water durin...

Brennwald, Matthias S.; Peeters, Frank; Imboden, Dieter M.; Giralt, Santiago; Hofer, Markus; Livingstone, David M.; Klump, Stephan; Strassmann, Kuno; Kipfer, Rolf

2004-01-01

267

Struktur der Pamir-Hindukusch-Region aus lokalen seismischen Daten  

OpenAIRE

Within this thesis, passive seismic data collected during the two-year TIPAGE deployment in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan from 2008 to 2010, are analyzed. This is the first modern digital seismological dataset for this politically unstable region, all previous studies either relied on globally recorded data or some short-term deployments of analog stations in Afghanistan during the late 1960s and 70s. Modern seismological techniques applied to the collected digital seismic data provide a wealth o...

Sippl, Christian

2013-01-01

268

Drivers of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries: Evidence from a FAVAR analysis  

OpenAIRE

We investigate the likely sources of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) over the last dec-ade (1999-2010). Evidence is based on country VARs augmented by a regional com-mon factor structure (FAVAR model). The models include nominal exchange rates, the common factor of exchange rates in the CIS countries, and international drivers such as global trade, share prices, and oil price. Global, regional and idiosyncrati...

Dreger, Christian; Fidrmuc, Jarko

2010-01-01

269

Comparative quantitative and qualitative content analyses of coverage of Hizb ut-Tahrir in German, British and Kyrgyz quality newspapers in 2002-2007  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation studies coverage of Hizb ut-Tahrir al Islami, the “Party of Islamic Liberation”, in German, British and Kyrgyz quality newspapers between 2002 and 2007. This Islamist organization is trans-national in its scope of influence and radical in its core ideology. In 2003 HT was banned in Germany for its anti-Semitic slogans and in Kyrgyzstan for instigating inter-ethnic conflicts. However, as of today HT operates legally and maintains its international headquarters in Gre...

Volf, Irina

2011-01-01

270

Long-run validity of purchasing power parity and rank tests for cointegration for Central Asian Countries  

OpenAIRE

This study finds that Purchasing Power Parity holds in the long-run for Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, based on Breitung’s (2001) rank tests for cointegration. Results from further analysis indicates that nominal exchange rates and relative prices are nonlinearly interrelated. Trade barriers, transportation costs and government intervention in the pricing system in these countries may have resulted in the establishment of the above-mentioned nonlinear relationship.

Liew, Venus Khim-sen; Chia, Ricky Chee-jiun; Ling, Tai-hu

2009-01-01

271

Digital Curation: ??????????? ? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???????????  

OpenAIRE

Title: "Digital curation: Opportunities and perspectives for libraries of Kyrgyzstan". In the digital age libraries have huge opportunities to provide resources for the community through new and innovative technologies. Information technologies play an important role in a long-term preservation of scientific and cultural heritage of knowledge and documents which are the important prerequisite for successful development of information community. These technologies allow libraries not ...

????????, ?. ?.

2011-01-01

272

Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasus and Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Following the First Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late nineteen-ninetieth, TAEK, besides the cooperation with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Scientific Organisations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peacef activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

273

Pamir Alpine desert and tundra.  

OpenAIRE

The Pamir is a high plateau located at the intersection of the world's tallest mountains of the Himalayas, Karakoram, Hindu Kush, Kunlun, and Tian Shan regions. These mountains are sometimes referred as the Roof of the World. The Pamir is shared by Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan. Due to its geopolitical importance, sometimes it is referred to as the Pamir Knot. The biodiversity in the Pamir is high thanks to the intersection of several climates among the various moun...

Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb

2013-01-01

274

Is there a pattern?  

OpenAIRE

The countries that experienced a ‘coloured revolution’ between 2000 and 2005 – Serbia, Georgia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan – were not distinguished by their levels of economic development, as political modernization theory suggested. Nor did they distribute incomes more unequally than other countries at the same level of development, as class analysis would have posited. By contrast, perceptions of the political system, and of its levels of corruption and responsiveness, were more closely...

White, S.

2009-01-01

275

Post-communism and the abandonment of mixed-member electoral systems  

OpenAIRE

Many countries adopted mixed-member (MM) electoral systems in the 1990s, but several switched to list proportional representation (PR) recently. Most switchers are post-communist countries that used the semi-proportional mixed-member majoritarian (MMM) system, often associated with dominant parties. List PR was adopted under competitive conditions in some cases (Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Ukraine), while in places where authoritarian control remains (Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan...

Lundberg, T. C.

2009-01-01

276

Srovnání kulturních zm?n u afghanských Kyrgyz? a Kyrgyz? v Kyrgystánu  

OpenAIRE

Creation of the national state in Kyrgyzstan had significant influence to national awareness of the Kyrgyz. It was aroused here an interest in the history of own nation, there were presented historical constructs to the population about the ancientness and certain exclusivity of the Kyrgyz ethnic group, what many inhabitants adopted. For all Kyrgyz in all investigated areas is common relatively high historical awareness of membership to the Kyrgyz nation – this perception is not bound to th...

Petr Kokaisl; Petra Kohoutková; Pavel Michálek

2010-01-01

277

Echinococcus of the Liver Treated with Laparoscopic Hepatectomy  

OpenAIRE

Echinococcosis or hydatid disease is endemic to many countries around the world where livestock, mainly sheep and cattle, are raised with dogs who act as the definitive hosts for the adult phase of the echinococcal tapeworm. We report a case of a man, age 22 years, who emigrated from Kyrgyzstan as a teenager, presenting with abdominal fullness and nausea and found to have a 9 cm echinococcal cyst of the liver which was successfully treated with laparoscopic hepatectomy because of a very favor...

Foster, Erina N.; Hertz, Gabor

2010-01-01

278

PRODUCTION AND TRADE OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN SELECTED ECO COUNTRIES  

OpenAIRE

The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) is an inter-governmental organization comprising Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Pakistan, Turkey and several countries of the Commonwealth of Independent states (CIS) including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The agricultural sector has remained a major contributor to the national economies of the ECO member countries. According to FAO estimates, in 2002 agriculture generated 25.2 percent of GDP and...

Mirzaei, Farhad; Heidelbach, Olaf

2006-01-01

279

Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products  

OpenAIRE

Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flo...

Doolotkeldieva, T. D.

2010-01-01

280

Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Turkic Republics and Turkey: Economic and Business Dimensions  

OpenAIRE

An ever-increasing globalization in last century is enforcing many countries to come together and create organizations to take advantage of a greater power in the global stage both in political and economic issues. Regional organizations are one form of such organizations. In addition to many of such groups, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is an intergovernmental mutual-security organization which was founded in 2001 by the leaders of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan ...

Lutfu Sagbansua; Nurettin Can

2011-01-01

281

Proceedings of the International Conference and Young Researchers' Forum: 'Natural resource use in Central Asia: institutional challenges and the contribution of capacity building'. Held in Giessen, 1st October 2013  

OpenAIRE

[LIST OF CONTENT] SH. KENJABAEV, I. FORKUTSA, M. BACH, H.G. FREDE: Performance evaluation of the BUDGET model in simulating cotton and wheat yield and soil moisture in Fergana valley ... 1 / KANAYIM TESHEBAEVA, HENRIETTE SUDHAUS, H.-U. WETZEL, SIGRID ROESSNER, HELMUT ECHTLER AND ALEXANDER ZUBOVICH: Radar remote sensing for surveying and monitoring of earthquakes and mass movements in Southern Kyrgyzstan ... 15 / DAVRON ABSALYAMOV: Efficiency of wheat and cotton producing farms in Uzbekistan: ...

Ahmed, Mirza Nomman; Pawlowski, Ira

2013-01-01

282

Communication received from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation to the Agency concerning a statement of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Agency has received a communication dated 30 August 2005 from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation, attaching a statement by the heads of State of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan adopted at the Moscow session of the Collective Security Council of the Collective Security Treaty Organization on 23 June 2005. The communication from the Russian Federation and, as requested therein, its attachment, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

283

[Monogenea of the fishes from Chu River basin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of the long-term faunistic study of Monogenea from fishes of the Chu River basin are reported. Fauna of Monogenea in the studied area was found to include 51 species of 11 genera and 5 families. Thirteen parasite species occurred in the mountain part of the basin, and 40 species inhabit the valley zone, including 10 species of the Amur faunistic complex probably introduced to Kyrgyzstan together with acclimatized fishes. PMID:18825925

Karabekova, D U

2008-01-01

284

Central Asia: hotspot in the worldwide HIV epidemic  

OpenAIRE

The HIV epidemic in central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) has accelerated since 2000. This expansion in the epidemic is largely attributable to escalating injection drug use, reflecting central Asia's geographic position along major drug trafficking routes. Although up to 75% of cumulative HIV cases have been among injection drug users (IDUs) so far, HIV infections are increasing in other population groups, including female sex workers and their clien...

Thorne, C.; Ferencic, N.; Malyuta, R.; Mimica, J.; Niemiec, T.

2010-01-01

285

International Conference 'Uranium legacy of Soviet Union in Central Asia: problems and way forward' Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of the conference is to discuss safe management of uranium mill tailings, remediation activities foreseen under Eurasian Economic Community in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, existing problems and ways forward. A conference on this topic in Tajikistan with the support of the International Science and Technology Center and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority is relevant and very important taken into account foreseen remediation activities starting from 2013.

286

Silurian-Devonian active-margin deep-marine systems and palaeogeography, Alai Range, Southern Tien Shan, Central Asia  

OpenAIRE

Analysis of Mid-Palaeozoic successions in the northern part of the Alai Range (Kyrgyzstan and bordering Uzbekistan), Southern Tien Shan, Central Asia, has identified a Silurian-Devonian deep-marine depositional system of basin-slope facies-associations. Here, we document the stratigraphy and sedimentology of a region in Central Asia that, through conflict, has become inaccessible for geological research. The turbidite-dominated Pul'gon Formation (Silurian) accumulated in sea-floor depressions...

Pickering, Kt; Koren, Tn; Lytochkin, Vn; Siveter, Dj

2008-01-01

287

Radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya river (II)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article contains the results obtained during the radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya River, which was conducted within the frames of international collaboration of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and USA. The data on the nature of radionuclide distribution of uranium and thorium rows in bottom and soil is presented. Reasons of formation of the observed dependence of the obtained results on the distance from the source are discussed. (author)

288

Inanspruchnahme von Impfungen bei Eltern in Kirgisistan : Empfehlungen für die Impfpolitik  

OpenAIRE

- Background Vaccination is one of the most successful and effective tools for preventing infectious diseases. However, despite the well-established benefits of vaccinations many children in different regions of the world remain unvaccinated. - Objectives The aim of this dissertation was to describe a vaccination process in a transitional country, using the example of Kyrgyzstan. Among the specific aims of this dissertation was an analysis of factors associated with children's vaccin...

Akmatov, Manas K.

2009-01-01

289

Income and distribution effects of migration and remittances: an analysis based on CGE models for selected CIS countries  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyzes the direct and indirect income effects of international labor migration and remittances in selected CIS countries. The analysis is based on computable general equilibrium (CGE) models for Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia. All net emigration countries would experience a sharp contraction of private consumption in the absence of remittances. In Russia, the main effect of immigration has been to hold down the real wage (as potential capital stock adjustments ...

Atamanov, Aziz; Luecke, Matthias; Omar Mahmoud, Toman; Mogilevsky, Roman; Tereshchenko, Kseniya; Tourdyeva, Natalia A.; Uzagalieva, Ainura; Vavryschuk, Vitaly

2009-01-01

290

Banking system in Kyrgyz Republic  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concepts are essential for avoiding harmful problems, development stable and solvent banking system. These developments include the more effective regulation of the entry and exit of banks, removal of ob...

Sagbansu, Lutfu

2006-01-01

291

The impact of the global financial crisis on public expenditures on education and health in the economies of the former Soviet Union  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides an overview of public expenditures on education and healthcare in Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine and some other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the global financial crisis. Before the crisis, the governments of these countries were substantially increasing spending on education and health. The crisis adversely affected the FSU countries and worsened their fiscal situation. The analysis indicates that during the crisis, despite...

Chubrik, Alexander; Dabrowski, Marek; Mogilevsky, Roman; Sinitsina, Irina

2011-01-01

292

Welfare in transition: trends in poverty and well-being in central Asia  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the impact of the transition on living standards and welfare in the five Republics of former Soviet Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, along with the Republic of Azerbaijan. A broad definition of welfare is taken, including both economic measures and capability-based indicators, reflecting the health and education of the population. The picture that emerges is of a regional population facing severe economic, physical and psycho-s...

Falkingham, Jane

1999-01-01

293

Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of resid...

Gotsadze George; Djibuti Mamuka; Mataradze George; Zoidze Akaki

2007-01-01

294

Journalism Educations and Child Rights: Exploring a New Model of Collaboration in Rights-based Journalism Education  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an overview and discussion of a unique approach to journalism education in the Central, East European and CIS region. In 2008, a group of universities initially in Turkey, and later joined by Romania, Georgia, Macedonia, Serbia, Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan joined with UNICEF to introduce a new child rights syllabus into their respective journalism programmes. For years, the approach to training journalists in children’s rights in the CEE/CIS region had been quantitative ?...

O Neill, Brian; Foley, Michael; Hayes, Noirin

2011-01-01

295

Uranium and radium in the Naryn and Mailuu-Suu rivers of the Kurkhuz Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the mining and processing of the radioactive and other materials on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic a number of tailing dumps and heaps have been constructed. Besides, on the territory of the Republic there are the enterprises, which also may negatively impact on the ecological situation in Kyrgyzstan, as well as in the adjacent states - Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. The toxic ingredients of these enterprises can get on the territory of the adjacent states with the waters of the big rivers of Kyrgyzstan, i.e. Naryn and Mailuu-Suu, which spring from the territory of Kyrgyzstan, and then pass the territories of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. To a certain degree, funding of three Projects, they are: Kr-072 (it is already finished), Kr-715 and Kr-850, (which are being implemented), and which is made through the ISTC, has assisted in solving these problems. Somehow these Projects are related to the study of the spatial and temporal migration of the toxic ingredients

296

Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among turkish speaking countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 Nuclear Power Plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non proliferation of nuclear weapons, great affords were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade resocial, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides the co operations with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. The joint activities carried out are given as follows: '1st Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Applications' organized in Turkey on 23-27.10. 2000 by TAEK with co organizers from the related organizations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and sponsored by IAEA and OECD/NEA, '2nd Eurasia Conference' organized at Almaty on 16-19.09.2002 by Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan with the related organizations of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan as co organizers, NATO Workshop on Environmental Protection Against Radioactive Pollution by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan at Almaty on 16-19.09.2002, joint 'Eurasia Nuclear Bulletin' covering activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy in these countries published in August 2002. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (Cabot). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

297

Outlook on non-proliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkish speaking countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 nuclear power plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, great efforts were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the first Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join to European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasian Region. So, there are significant developments in cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owningcal, economical and trade relations owning to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's TAEK, besides the cooperation with various countries, has involved to cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. These protocols enable parties to organize join projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the join studies and make join efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. The joint activities carried out are given as follows: '1st Eurasia Conference of Nuclear Science and its Application' organized in Turkey on 23-27 October 2000 by TAEK with co-organizers from the related organizations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan and sponsored by IAEA and OECD/NEA; '2nd Eurasia Conference of Nuclear Science and its Application' will be organized at Almaty on 16-19 September 2002 by Nuclear Physics Institute of National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan with the related organizations of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan as co-organizers; joint Eurasia Nuclear Bulletin' covering activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy in these countries will be published in mid 2002. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban treaty (CTBT). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

298

Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so called 'Threat assessment' in each CA country which revealed additional problems in the existing regulatory documents beyond those described at the start of our ongoing bilateral projects in Kazakhstan, Kirgizistan Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. (authors)

299

Radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya river  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article contains the results obtained during the radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya River, which was conducted within the frames of international collaboration of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and USA. The data on the nature of salinity of water, alfa- and beta-activity of water, bottom, water plants, and soil was obtained. Dependence of the obtained results on the distance form the source is discussed. The major life-providing arteries for the great region of Central Asia are Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. There are many countries next to the pools of these rivers: Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. There is a great concern caused by the shortage of supply of fresh water, severe epidemiological situation, and radiation conditions along of the pools of these rivers. Such conditions have developed as a result of intensive economic and industrial activities, and also of geological and geochemical features of this region. One of the most serious aspects of this problem is the weak scrutiny level of influence of large deposits of natural uranium and consequences of technological and industrial activities. Since November, 2000 Scientifics of four of the listed countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) have come to an agreement carrying out the teamwork on studying and monitoring the environment in the pools of Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers [1]. Collaborator of these works is CooperativeCollaborator of these works is Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, USA. During three expeditions each country in 15 control sites on their territory has conducted field researches and has obtained the samples of elements of the environment. Laboratory researches were carried out in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The first results were obtained in (2,3) and later in [4].Currently, the analysis of the data on salinity of water and alpha- and beta- activities of samples along Syr-Darya River is presented

300

HOLY KYRGZS’S CALPACK / KUTSAL KIRGIZ KALPA?I  

OpenAIRE

Calpack, in today’s Kyrgyzstan, is not only defined as a head craftwore in towns which is remembered barely during national and religiousbairams but also it emerged as a concrete sample of Kyrgyz nationalphilosophy, which has been kept alive from mythological era to epic era andfrom epic era to present day by the colors it involved and the motifs itcarried. Irregardless of the social statues, calpacks can be observed on nearlyall Kyrgyz men’s heads and even this particular feature of calp...

Arikan, Dr Metin; Kalli?mci?, I?smail Turan

2008-01-01

301

[Intraspecific genetic and morphological variation of earthworm Eisenia foetida (Sav.)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to study the allelic frequency distribution of four polymorphic loci (Pox, Lap, Pgm, and Odh) in 22 samples of Eisenia foetida (Sav.) from distant parts of the range: European Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. A hierarchical population structure was demonstrated for this species: local populations are integrated into spatial groups. Statistical analysis of morphological variation demonstrated that recognition of the spatial groups on the basis of biochemical and genetic characters as individual taxa of any rank is not justified. PMID:16212265

Bolotetski?, N M; Kodolova, O P

2005-01-01

302

Slope stability monitoring from microseismic field using polarization methodology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerical simulation of seismoacoustic emission (SAE associated with fracturing in zones of shear stress concentration shows that SAE signals are polarized along the stress direction. The proposed polarization methodology for monitoring of slope stability makes use of three-component recording of the microseismic field on a slope in order to pick the signals of slope processes by filtering and polarization analysis. Slope activity is indicated by rather strong roughly horizontal polarization of the respective portion of the field in the direction of slope dip. The methodology was tested in microseismic observations on a landslide slope in the Northern Tien-Shan (Kyrgyzstan.

Yu. I. Kolesnikov

2003-01-01

303

Sampling and Surveying Hard-to-Reach Populations for Demographic Research: A Study of Female Labor Migrants in Moscow, Russia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because household-based survey designs are notoriously ineffective in studying hard-to-reach groups such as irregular migrants, these groups, however numerically large they may be, are rarely represented in demographic analyses. In this paper, we report on the application of a workplace-based stratified probability sampling design, response rate, and item-specific refusals in a recent study of irregular female migrants from Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan working in bazaars, eateries, and small retail outlets in Moscow, Russia. We argue that workplace-based survey, while not flawless, provides a uniquely feasible and cost-effective tool for studying irregular migrants and other marginalized groups.

Victor Agadjanian

2012-02-01

304

Kirguizistán, 2007: oportunidades y desafíos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2005, President Akayev fell as a result of a popular revolution, something that seemed impossible among the regimes of Central Asia. The year 2006 was marked by the new President Bakiev’s attempt to stabilize the situation of the country and to start up the constitutional reform. The year 2007 began, nevertheless, with a return to the authoritarianism of the previous stage, although maintaining the democratic appearance. In the article, the main issues that require a more urgent reform for the quick stabilization of Kyrgyzstan are presented: institutional, economic, territorial, the Islamism and the foreign influences.

Antonio Alonso

2007-01-01

305

Perapion connexum (Schilsky, 1902 (Coleoptera, Apionidae in Central Europe, a case of plant expansion chase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Perapion connexum (Schilsky is recorded for the first time from Hungary and Kyrgyzstan, and new distribution data from Ukraine and Russia are provided. Preliminary placements of this weevil in faunal checklists for Poland and Slovakia are here documented with detailed data. Its occurrence in Austria based on older evidence, is discussed. The neophytic and invasive in Central Europe sorrel Rumex confertus Willd. is confirmed to be its unique host plant in Poland. Morphology of the newcoming weevil is described and illustrated, and the key to all Central European species of Perapion is presented.

Marek Wanat

2012-03-01

306

Market analysis of some mercury-containing products and their mercury-free alternatives in selected regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the study was to gather information on certain mercury containing products from selected developing countries (DCs) with economics in transition (CiZs) from four UN regions. Then countries involved in surveys were Kenya and Senegal (Africa), China and India (Asia), Kyrgyzstan and Russia (Eastern Europe), Brazil and Mexico (Latin America). The study gives an overview about selected mercury-containing products and their mercury-free alternatives in these countries: thermometers and blood pressure maters used in hospitals and medical practices, thermometers for use at home, skin-lightening products, common batteries and dental materials. Information was gathered from local retailers, health care workers, professionals and consumers.

Uram, Eric [International POPs Elimination Network (IPEN), Goeteborg (Sweden); Bischofer, Barbara P.; Hagemann, Sven [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

2010-03-15

307

Preliminary Sustainability Assessment of water resources management in the Ili-Balkhash Basin of Central Asia  

OpenAIRE

The Ili-Balkhash basin (IB basin) is a large freshwater system, covering 413 000 km2 in Kazakhstan, China and Kyrgyzstan. The main part of the watershed is situated in Kazakstan (85%) and a smaller part in northwestern China (15 %). The Kazakhstan's part of the IB basin embraces the territory of the Almaty region and Xinijang region. The water of the western lake Balkhash is slightly salty (1,2 %), while the eastern part has a considerably higher salt contamination (3,9 %). The lake has a sur...

Spitsyna, Anna; Spitsyna, Tatiana

2007-01-01

308

GPS velocity field for the Tien Shan and surrounding regions  

OpenAIRE

Measurements at ?400 campaign-style GPS points and another 14 continuously recording stations in central Asia define variations in their velocities both along and across the Kyrgyz and neighboring parts of Tien Shan. They show that at the longitude of Kyrgyzstan the Tarim Basin converges with Eurasia at 20 ± 2 mm/yr, nearly two thirds of the total convergence rate between India and Eurasia at this longitude. This high rate suggests that the Tien Shan has grown into a major mountain range o...

Zubovich, Alexander V.; Wang, Xiao-qiang; Scherba, Yuri G.; Schelochkov, Gennady G.; Reilinger, Robert; Reigber, Christoph; Mosienko, Olga I.; Molnar, Peter; Michajljow, Wasili; Makarov, Vladimir I.; Li, Jie; Kuzikov, Sergey I.; Herring, Thomas A.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Hager, Bradford H.

2010-01-01

309

Communication dated 11 September 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 11 September 2006, from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the IAEA regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006 in Semipalatinsk by the leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the enclosed information regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

310

NRPA develops regulatory cooperation with Central Asian authorities for nuclear safety and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the NRPA has initiated a regional regulatory cooperation project with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to improve regulations on nuclear safety, radiation protection and environmental issues, and assist the countries in re mediating radioactively contaminated sites. There is a critical lack in the regulatory basis for carrying out such remediation work, including a lack of relevant radiation and environmental safety norms and standards, licensing procedures and requirements for monitoring, as well as expertise to transform such a basis into practice. (Author)

311

Perapion connexum (Schilsky, 1902) (Coleoptera, Apionidae) in Central Europe, a case of plant expansion chase  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Perapion connexum (Schilsky) is recorded for the first time from Hungary and Kyrgyzstan, and new distribution data from Ukraine and Russia are provided. Preliminary placements of this weevil in faunal checklists for Poland and Slovakia are here documented with detailed data. Its occurrence in Austria based on older evidence, is discussed. The neophytic and invasive in Central Europe sorrel Rumex confertus Willd. is confirmed to be its unique host plant in Poland. Morphology of the newcoming weevil is described and illustrated, and the key to all Central European species of Perapion is presented. PMID:22451784

Wanat, Marek; Podlussány, Attila; Schön, Karel

2012-01-01

312

Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water 226Ra concentration in springs was measured in regions with high indoor radon: Ural, North Caucasus (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Piestany (Slovakia), and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). This paper presents the results for 226Ra concentration above 0.03 Bq l-1. Radium in water could indicate indoor radon problem in the region and water investigation is useful at the initial stage of radon survey. Even low 226Ra concentration in water (0.1-0.6 Bq l-1) caused high 226Ra activity in travertine (up to 1500 Bq kg-1), which resulted in indoor radon concentration above 2000 Bq m-3 (Niska Banja).

313

Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement: a case study of a new terrorist organization in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) was designated a terrorist organization by Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, China, the United States, and the United Nations in 2002. However, no systematic studies have been published on the new terrorist organization in Xinjiang, China. Using a case-study approach and interviews, this article attempts to provide information in terms of its historical evaluation, related religious and ethnic issues, organizational agenda, activities, and role in the current international terrorist network. This article argues that better international cooperation and the improvement of social and religious policies will help curtail activities of the ETIM. PMID:14526597

Wang, John Z

2003-10-01

314

Molecular systematics and evolution of the recently discovered "Parnassian" butterfly (Parnassius davydovi Churkin, 2006) and its allied species (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The nucleotide sequence of 807 bp of the mtDNA-ND5 locus of Parnassius davydovi (Churkin, S. 2006. A new species of Parnassius Latreille, 1804, from Kyrgyzstan (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Helios (Moskow) 7,142-158), was determined. This butterfly was unexpectedly discovered recently in Kyrgyzstan, and we wished to shed light on its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other Parnassian butterflies, as well as to the related taxa in the subfamily Parnassiinae of the family Papilionidae. Using the ML method with the GTR+I+Gamma model, we inferred the phylogenetic tree for 60 Parnassius individuals together with materials of the related genera in the subfamily Parnassiinae (Hypermnestra, Archon, Luehdorfia, Bhutanitis, Allancastria, Zerynthia and Sericinus) with Papilio machaon as an out-group. It was found that P. davydovi is a distinct species most closely related to P. loxias in clade VI among the eight clades, or species groups of Parnassius. The morphological diversity in the form of sphragis, the attachment to the female abdomen formed by the male during copulation, is characteristic to this clade, and we inferred the order of emergence of the different sphragis forms during evolution. Attempts to estimate the divergence times between related taxa were also made. It was inferred that the relatively rapid radiation of Parnassian butterflies started at about 24 MYA BP, while P. davydovi diverged from P. loxias at about 10 MYA BP. PMID:19059318

Omoto, Keiichi; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Shinkawa, Tsutomu

2009-07-15

315

Foregoing medicines in the former Soviet Union: Changes between 2001 and 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pharmaceutical costs dominate out-of-pocket payments in former Soviet countries, posing a severe threat to financial equity and access to health services. Nationally representative household survey data collected in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine were analysed to compare the level of population having to forego medicines in 2001 and 2010. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess differences between populations of different economic status, and rural and urban populations. A substantial proportion of the population did forego medicines in 2010, from 29.2% in Belarus to 72.9% in Georgia. There was a decline in people foregoing medicines between 2001 and 2010; the greatest decline was seen in Moldova [rate ratio (RR)=0.67 (0.63; 0.71)] and Kyrgyzstan [RR=0.63 (0.60; 0.67)], while very little improvement took place in countries with a higher Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and greater GNI growth over the decade such as Armenia [RR=0.92 (0.87; 0.96)] and Georgia [RR=0.95 (0.92; 0.98)]. Wealthier, urban populations have benefited more than poorer, rural households in some countries. Countries experiencing the greatest improvement over the study period were those that have implemented policies such as price controls, expanded benefits packages, and encouragement of rational prescribing. Greater commitment to pharmaceutical reform is needed to ensure that people are not forced to forego medicines. PMID:25263591

Footman, Katharine; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Alimbekova, Gulzhan; Pachulia, Merab; Rotman, David; Gasparishvili, Alexander; McKee, Martin

2014-11-01

316

Robust Automated Image Co-Registration of Optical Multi-Sensor Time Series Data: Database Generation for Multi-Temporal Landslide Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reliable multi-temporal landslide detection over longer periods of time requires multi-sensor time series data characterized by high internal geometric stability, as well as high relative and absolute accuracy. For this purpose, a new methodology for fully automated co-registration has been developed allowing efficient and robust spatial alignment of standard orthorectified data products originating from a multitude of optical satellite remote sensing data of varying spatial resolution. Correlation-based co-registration uses world-wide available terrain corrected Landsat Level 1T time series data as the spatial reference, ensuring global applicability. The developed approach has been applied to a multi-sensor time series of 592 remote sensing datasets covering an approximately 12,000 km2 area in Southern Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia strongly affected by landslides. The database contains images acquired during the last 26 years by Landsat (ETM, ASTER, SPOT and RapidEye sensors. Analysis of the spatial shifts obtained from co-registration has revealed sensor-specific alignments ranging between 5 m and more than 400 m. Overall accuracy assessment of these alignments has resulted in a high relative image-to-image accuracy of 17 m (RMSE and a high absolute accuracy of 23 m (RMSE for the whole co-registered database, making it suitable for multi-temporal landslide detection at a regional scale in Southern Kyrgyzstan.

Robert Behling

2014-03-01

317

Problem of risk modeling: influence of uranium storage on environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radiological safety on the territory of Kyrgyz republic is caused by natural factors and by activity of the enterprises on extraction and processing of the raw material which contained natural radionuclides. The territory of republic has specific climatic condition with the highest degree of natural hazards. From general area 199 900 km of republic only 20% is concerned to be zone of comfortable residing. After the termination of uranium extraction in the republic there are formed 49 storages and more than 80 piles. After collapse of the USSR the works on maintenance of safety and recultivation of storages practically were not carried out, that significantly increased the risk of people disease who live in the given territories. Increase of level of underground waters, high waters, landslides, high seismicity - are resulted the storage destruction, that present threat on ecology not only of Kyrgyzstan, but also on ecology of Central Asia. The resolution of radiological problems of Kyrgyzstan may be only with the complex approach of all neighboring countries and with attraction of foreign experts from donor countries

318

A survey of East Palaearctic Hersiliola Thorell, 1870 (Araneae, Hersiliidae, with a description of three new genera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three new genera and eight new species of Hersiliidae are described from the East Palaearctic (Afganistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The genus Hersiliola Thorell, 1870 (Araneae: Hersiliidae is revised, and four new species are described. The genus includes nine species: H. afghanica Roewer, 1960 (Afghanistan; H. esyunini sp. n. (Uzbekistan; H. foordi sp. n. (Iran; H. lindbergi sp. n. (Afghanistan; H. macullulata (Dufour, 1831 (type species; from Spain and Algeria to Israel and Yemen; H. simoni (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872 (from Spain and Morocco to Israel; H. sternbergsi sp. n. (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; H. versicolor (Blackwall, 1865 (Cape Verde; and H. xinjiangenis (Liang & Wang, 1989 (Xinjiang, China. A new genus Duninia gen. n. is described, with two new species, Duninia baehrae sp. n. (type species; Turkmenistan and D. rheimsae sp. n. (Iran. A new genus Deltshevia gen. n. is described, with two new species, Deltshevia danovi sp. n. (type species; Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and D. gromovi sp. n. (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan. The widely ranging Central Asian Hersiliola pallida Kroneberg, 1875 (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan is transferred to a new monotypic genus, Ovtsharenkoia gen. n.

Victor Fet

2009-07-01

319

FARKLILIK S?YASET? ÜZER?NDEN BA?IMSIZ KIRGIZ?STAN’DA ÇOKKÜLTÜRLÜLÜK VE ÇOKD?LL? E??T?M POL?T?KALARI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The troubled relationship between identity and difference as part of describing democratic theory in the light of the politics of difference became the hotly debated topic in the last period. We can approach to this problematic relationship the case of Kyrgyzstan as general in Central Asia, where carried out perspectives of educational language policy and planning. In this study will be available queries related to how to find a right way in macro and micro planes in a democracy, the data obtained by querying, presumptions, observations, results and assessments. We must approach to the problem of national identity as a general problem of culture. In order to explain how are reflected common and unique feeling which can be cover all entire nation, why sometimes can be formed a common behavior patterns it’s seen as sine qua non to hit the road with this approach. In fact, there is living more nationality than the states in the world. Therefore, common experiences which created the nation, in other words, the historical experiences are forming some symbols/signs (language which strengthens the belief of unity and integrity. For that, it seems quite challenging to hold multicultural states together and proceeds in a way. In this sense, fieldwork was Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia, as it submitted a multicultural social structure and due to the descriptive statistical procedure, which obtained from the Kyrgyzstan Statistics Committee, there is given a great importance to the phenomenon of cultural democracywhich is able to eliminatethe ethnic conflicts. By the simplest words cultural democracy means freedom of communication. Indeed, all democratic politics based on culture and defends the right that everyone achieves to culture. Every community found a cultural identity as a source of inspiration for the creative assets for themselves. Therefore, should be stored the right and the duty of all peoples to live and maintain their own cultural presence. For this reason, educational policies and planning carries a fairly large importance as a principal transmitter of culture, especially in multinational societies. Therefore, the question of this study suggests its importance with extremely reasonable and valid factors.in this platform.

Emine Yavasgel

2013-04-01

320

Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so called 'Threat assessment' in each CA country which revealed additional problems in the existing regulatory documents beyond those described at the start of our ongoing bilateral projects in Kazakhstan, Kirgizistan Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. (authors)

Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

2012-07-01

321

Climate- vs. Earthquake-induced Rock-Glacier Advances in the Tien Shan: Insights from Lichenometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Rock glaciers have been traditionally used as landform proxies of the distribution of sporadic alpine permafrost. In the northern Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan, most distinct lobes of >200 rock glaciers that we mapped from satellite imagery occur at two major elevation levels. However, a number of particularly low-lying lobes seem difficult to reconcile with palaeoclimatic fluctuations and commensurate changes of permafrost patterns: The minimum elevation of the majority of rock-glacier snouts lies between ~2500 up to ~3700 m a.s.l., but some 10% of rock-glaciers extend down to well below 3000 m a.s.l. We hypothesize that some of the rock glaciers in this area may have formed following strong earthquakes that could have triggered massive supraglacial rock-slope failures, which would have subsequently created sediment-rich rock glaciers from clear-ice glaciers. Our hypothesis is based on the observation that the tectonically active northern Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan was affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and earliest 20th centuries, e.g. in 1885 (Ms 6.9), 1887 (Ms 7.3), 1889 (Ms 8.3), and 1911 (Ms 8.1). All of these earthquakes had triggered numerous landslides in the northern Tien Shan. It is also likely that similarly strong earthquakes had happened before, but their recurrence intervals are long and more palaeoseismological work is in progress. We test whether lichenometry of rock-glacier surfaces together with morphometric analysis are suitable methods to testing our hypothesis. We focus on assessing the possibility of earthquake-triggered rock-glacier advances, and use lichenometry to resolve age patterns of different rock-glacier lobes. We use a dataset of several thousand lichen diameter measurements encompassing seven different species calibrated by gravestones and dated mass-movement deposits. Data on four single and two merging rock glaciers in four selected valleys in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan support the notion that Tien Shan rock glaciers do not record a consistent palaeoclimatic signal. We discuss whether distinct peaks of comparable lichen sizes and associated distributions of surface velocities for a given rock-glacier lobe result from rapid climate-driven advances or high lateral material input provided by seismically-induced slope instability instead. We compare our field data to advance-rate estimates from ground surveys and remote sensing (1 to >10 m/a), and dendrogeomorphic constraints obtained from trees growing on the rock glaciers. We conclude by highlighting a number of constraints that may limit the use of lichenometry for dating rock-glacier advances, and scope for future research on seismic triggers.

Rosenwinkel, Swenja; Landgraf, Angela; Korup, Oliver; Sorg, Annina

2014-05-01

322

Cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasian and Central Asian countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: On the first call for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and became the member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in the same year. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with other countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides building cooperation with various countries, has involved in cooperating with related institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countrirical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. The joint activities carried out mainly are given as follows: Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Application - First Conference organized in the year 2000 in Turkey, Second Conference at Almaty? in 2002 and Third Conference at Tashkent in 2004, sponsored by international organizations as IAEA and (OECD/NEA), NATO. Training Course on Industrial Application of Irradiation Technology organized by TAEK and Academy of Science of Azerbaijan and sponsored by IAEA at Baku in 2003. Joint Eurasia Nuclear Bulletincovering activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy in these countries published yearly since 2002. After 2006 Baku Conference the bulletin will be published in two years in parallel with Conference organization. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and have become members to IAEA

323

HOLY KYRGZS’S CALPACK / KUTSAL KIRGIZ KALPA?I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Calpack, in today’s Kyrgyzstan, is not only defined as a head craftwore in towns which is remembered barely during national and religiousbairams but also it emerged as a concrete sample of Kyrgyz nationalphilosophy, which has been kept alive from mythological era to epic era andfrom epic era to present day by the colors it involved and the motifs itcarried. Irregardless of the social statues, calpacks can be observed on nearlyall Kyrgyz men’s heads and even this particular feature of calpack makes itan important element to analyze not only for Kyrgyz culture but also for thecommon Turkish culture. Our aim is to determine the various values ofcalpack which have been survived from past to present.

Dr. Metin ARIKAN

2008-05-01

324

Russia Factor in the problem of Aral Lake(Aral’s Sand According to the German Sources  

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Full Text Available The water is a kind of food without an alternative. The guaranteed usage of water is a basis for civilization that indicates the importance of water. The Aral Sea in Central Asia was the fourth largest lake of the world; today there is only 10 % of old size. The pollutive characteristics of industry in East Europe and the harmful applications of political decision makers caused ecological problems in the Aral Sea basin. Today the ecological problem in Aral Sea became a political problem among the sharers of that problem, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, and affected the safety of region. Within the framework of Aral Sea ecological problem, at first the strategies developed by EU and Russia caused to enlargement of the problem instead of solving it.The expedience conflict of regional and global powers in Central Asia was appeared and a solution could not be produced till today.

Necati ?yikan

2013-06-01

325

Facts and Perspectives of Water Reservoirs in Central Asia: A Special Focus on Uzbekistan  

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Full Text Available The political transformation of the Central Asian region has induced the implosion of the interconnected physical hydraulic infrastructure and its institutional management system. Land-locked Central Asian countries, with their climatic conditions and transboundary water resources, have been striving to meet their food security, to increase agricultural production, to sustain energy sectors, and to protect the environment. The existing water reservoirs are strategic infrastructures for irrigation and hydropower generation. Upstream countries (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan favor the reservoirs’ operation for energy supply, while downstream countries (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan push for irrigation use. This paper provides an overview of the current challenges and perspectives (technical, institutional, and legal regulations and presents recommendations for the sustainable management of man-made water reservoirs in Uzbekistan.

Shavkat Rakhmatullaev

2010-06-01

326

Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water {sup 226}Ra concentration in springs was measured in regions with high indoor radon: Ural, North Caucasus (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Piestany (Slovakia), and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). This paper presents the results for {sup 226}Ra concentration above 0.03 Bq l{sup -1}. Radium in water could indicate indoor radon problem in the region and water investigation is useful at the initial stage of radon survey. Even low {sup 226}Ra concentration in water (0.1-0.6 Bq l{sup -1}) caused high {sup 226}Ra activity in travertine (up to 1500 Bq kg{sup -1}), which resulted in indoor radon concentration above 2000 Bq m{sup -3} (Niska Banja)

Onishchenko, Aleksandra [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, S. Kovalevskoy St., 20A, 620219, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: onischenko@ecko.uran.ru; Zhukovsky, Michael [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, S. Kovalevskoy St., 20A, 620219, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Veselinovic, Nenad; Zunic, Zora S. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, ECE LAB, Mike Alasa St., 12-14, 11000, Belgrade (Serbia)

2010-04-15

327

Book of abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this book Abstracts were included proceedings of The Fifth Eurasian Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Application, was held 14-17 October 2008 in Ankara (Turkey). This conference was organized by National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Turkish Atomic Energy Authority in cooperation with institutes of nuclear directorate of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan Republic. The conference has been becoming traditional and is held in two years periodically. The first Eurasian Conference was organized in Izmir (Turkey) in 2000, the second one was held in Almaty (Kazakhstan) in 2002, the third one was held in Tashkent (Uzbekistan) in 2004 and the fourth one was held in Baku (Azerbaijan) in 2008. The main topics were: Nuclear energy: present status and perspectives, basic problems of nuclear physics, radiation ecology, application of nuclear technologies in industry,medicine and agriculture

328

FEATURES OF SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT IN THE CIS COUNTRIES: DOES INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT AFFECT  

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Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of small businesses at the national level through a comparative analysis between the former Soviet countries – Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan. These countries are comparable by the previous path dependence (the period of the USSR, communism, by the position of the geographical location, as well as by similarity of cultural development. As can be seen from the analysis, which was conducted in article, the quantitative characteristics of small business development in the above countries are similar, based on the dependence on foreign markets and conditions in national economies. However, qualitative indicators of small business development in these countries are different. These differences can be attributed to the activities of the institutional environment (formal and informal institutions and its impact on the national economy. Conclusions about the effectiveness of quality of development of small business sector through the analysis of its contribution to the national economy are done.

Nataliia Viktorovna Ostapenko

2014-07-01

329

Toward a New Policy for Scientific and Technical Communication: the Case of Kyrgyz Republic  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this policy paper is to formulate a new policy in the field of scientific and technical information (STI) in Kyrgyz Republic in the light of emergence and rapid development of electronic scientific communication. The major problem with communication in science in the Republic is lack of adequate access to information by scientists. An equally serious problem is poor visibility of research conducted in Kyrgyzstan and, as consequence, negligible research impact on academic society globally. The paper proposes an integrated approach to formulation of a new STI policy based on a number of policy components: telecommunication networks, computerization, STI systems, legislation & standards, and education & trainings. Two alternatives were considered: electronic vs. paper-based scientific communication and development of the national STI system vs. cross-national virtual collaboration. The study results in suggesting a number of policy recommendations for identified stakeholders.

Djenchuraev, N

2004-01-01

330

Discharge capacity of sluiceway channel of water intake structure for diversion power plant in winter  

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Full Text Available The paper presents results of research hydraulic processes at the intake structures of diversion power plants in winter. On the basis of the physical modeling results the flow characteristics of sluiceway channel of water intake on the river Issyk-Ata, Kyrgyzstan were determined. Statistical models of discharges of elements of sluiceway channel with their mutual influence were obtained, using the methods of experimental design and data analysis. The influence of the concentration of brash ice on the sluiceway channel and its elements is described. The comparison of experimental data with data obtained by other authors before is made by comparing flow coefficients. Recommendations for normal operation of ice pass at sluiceway track channel of water intake structure for diversion power plant are given.

N.P. Lavrov

2013-06-01

331

Application of Global Positioning Measurements to Continental Collision in the Pamir-Tien Shan Region, Central Asia and GPS Survey of the Western Tien Shan  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report, we summarize what we have accomplished with five years of funding from NASA under its DOSE program, and with a comparable level of funding from NSF. We describe the development of a GPS network in the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan of the former Soviet Union, the analysis of data, and the main results. This discussion presents the state of the current network, which has grown significantly since the termination of our DOSE grants, with continued support both from NSF through its continental dynamics program and from NASA's SENH program. Although grants from NASA's DOSE program did not support this growth not directly, it did so indirectly by building the infrastructure that has enabled further expansion in an area where otherwise there would be only a small GPS presence. We note how the network has grown over time, but the emphasis of this discussion is on the quantity and quality of measurements that we have made.

Hamburger, Michael W.; Reilinger, Robert E.; Hager, Bradford H.; Molnar, Peter

1997-01-01

332

Political Regimes in Central Asia: Crisis of Legitimacy, Political Violence and Uncertain Prospects  

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Full Text Available This article analyses the present-day transition and political context of each of the states that comprise the former Soviet region of Central Asia since their independence: the internal changes they have undergone, the creation of their own institutions and regional and international relations. This evolution, especially with regard to the deficiencies in democracy and legitimacy of the majority of the current governments, based, in many cases, on personalist, authoritarian regimes, points to an uncertain future for a region in which, too frequently, its rulers have used all the means at their disposal (persecution of political opposition, disregard for human rights, constraint of the mass media and NGOs, etc. to guarantee their continuance in power. This article also includes an analysis of the most recent events, such as the Andijan (Uzbekistan massacre, the‘revolution’ without changes in Kyrgyzstan, and the authoritarian drift of Turkmenistan, which leads to conclusions filled with uncertainties for future political scenarios.

Mohammad-Reza Djalili

2005-10-01

333

Central Asia: hotspot in the worldwide HIV epidemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

The HIV epidemic in central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) has accelerated since 2000. This expansion in the epidemic is largely attributable to escalating injection drug use, reflecting central Asia's geographic position along major drug trafficking routes. Although up to 75% of cumulative HIV cases have been among injection drug users (IDUs) so far, HIV infections are increasing in other population groups, including female sex workers and their clients, prisoners, and migrants. Among IDUs, risky injecting practices are highly prevalent, and the intersecting epidemic of sexually transmitted infections, particularly syphilis, highlights the potential for sexual transmission of HIV to bridging populations. Few HIV cases in children have been reported so far, with most resulting from nosocomial outbreaks in hospital settings. Some recent progress has been made towards scaling-up prevention, treatment, and care services, including harm reduction for IDUs, although key challenges remain. PMID:20610330

Thorne, Claire; Ferencic, Nina; Malyuta, Ruslan; Mimica, Jadranka; Niemiec, Tomasz

2010-07-01

334

Verification of the open package OpenFOAM on dam break problems  

Science.gov (United States)

The work presents the results of mathematical modeling of large-scale flows in areas with a complex topographic relief. The Reynolds-averaged Navier—Stokes equations constitute the basis of the three-dimensional unsteady modelling. The well-known Volume of Fluid method implemented in the solver interFoam of the open package OpenFOAM 1.7.1 is used to track the free-boundary location. The mathematical model adequacy is checked by comparing with experimental data. The efficiency of the applied technology is illustrated by the example of modeling the breakthrough of the dams of the Andijan (Uzbekistan) and Papan (near the Osh town, Kyrgyzstan) reservoirs.

Zhainakov, A. Zh.; Kurbanaliev, A. Y.

2013-12-01

335

Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?  

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Full Text Available Background: The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design: Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings: The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context.The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions: The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development cooperation and improved health outcomes; arguably, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have made slower progress in their health and socio-economic indices because of their resistance to open and accountable development relationships.

Anar Ulikpan

2014-09-01

336

Kyrgyz Libraries Community – Co-Operation for Development: New Challenges and New Approaches = K?rg?z Kütüphane Toplulu?u – Geli?im ?çin ??birli?i: Yeni F?rsatlar ve Uygulamalar  

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Full Text Available “Kyrgyz Libraries Information Consortium”, one of the largest library associations in the country, celebrates its 10th anniversary. The Consortium was established in 2002 and through membership, it comprises more than 400 libraries within Kyrgyzstan, including the National Library, the State Patent and Technical Library, the Library of the Academy of Science, and many other academic and regional libraries. The Consortium’s creation was an answer to the challenges the country faced: lack of information, very low level of technological development, no budget for collection development, lack of cooperation and collaboration between libraries in the country as well as with the international library community. The history and development of the Consortium, the Consortium mission, its goals, its main initiatives and the strategic directions to be taken are presented in the article. The importance of library development and how libraries in developed countries established strong and effective organizations are reviewed and analyzed here. This paper also presents the challenges and approaches that must be taken for future development of libraries in Kyrgyzstan. / “K?rg?z Kütüphaneleri Bilgi Konsorsiyumu” ülkedeki en büyük kütüphanecilik derneklerinden biridir ve kurulu?unun onuncu y?l dönümünü kutlamaktad?r. Bu Konsorsiyum 2000 y?l?nda kurulmu? olup, üyelik say?s? sonucu K?rg?zistan içinde toplam 400'den fazla kütüphaneyi kapsamaktad?r. Konsorsiyum içinde Milli Kütüphane (The National Library, Devlet Patent ve Teknik Kütüphanesi (State Patent and Technical Library, Bilim Akademisi Kütüphanesi (Library of the Academy ofScience, ile bunlar?n yan?s?ra çok say?da akademik ve bölgesel kütüphaneler de yer almaktad?r. Konsorsiyum’un kurulu?u ülkede kar??la??lan güçlüklere bir kar?? ç?k?? olmu?tur: yetersiz bilgi, çok dü?ük düzeyli teknik geli?meler, koleksiyon geli?tirmek için bütçe ayr?lmamas?, ülkedeki kütüphaneler aras? i?birli?i ve beraber çal??ma al??kanl???n?n olmamas? gibi sorunlar?n yan? s?ra,uluslararas? kütüphanelerle ili?kilerin de kopuk olmas? gibi güçlükler say?labilir. Konsorsiyum’un tarihi ve geli?im süreci oldu?u kadar, misyonu, amaçlar?, giri?imleri ve izlenecek stratejik hedefleri bu makalede ele al?nm??t?r. Geli?mi? ülkelerde kütüphanelerin önemi ve bunlar?n nas?l güçlü ve etkin kurumlar olarak geli?tikleri incelenerek burada sunulmu?tur. Makalede ayni zamanda K?rg?z?stan’da kütüphanelerin geli?tirilmesi için kar??la??lan güçlükler ve gelecek için izlenmesi gereken yakla??mlar üzerinde durulmaktad?r.

Battalova, Sania

2012-01-01

337

Climatic and Hydrological Changes of Past 100 Years in Asian Arid Zone  

Science.gov (United States)

The Asian Arid Zone (AAZ) is here defined to include the following regions: northwestern China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Generally speaking, the AAZ has experienced a temperature rising during the past 100 years that was significantly faster than the global average (0.14 ºC per decade). Specifically, the rate was 0.39 ºC per decade in northwestern China (1950-2010), 0.26 ºC per decade in Kazakhstan (1936-2005), 0.22 ºC per decade in Mongolia (1940-2010), 0.29 ºC per decade in Uzbekistan (1950-2005), 0.18 ºC per decade in Turkmenistan (1961-1995). It should be noted that the mountainous parts of AAZ seems to have experienced a slower rate of temperature rising. For example, the rate was 0.10 ºC per decade in Tajikistan (1940-2005) and was 0.08 ºC per decade in Kyrgyzstan (1890-2005). Precipitation has a slight increasing trend in northwestern China, but it has fluctuated along a near-constant line in the rest of the AAZ. Hydrological data from high-elevation basin show that the runoff has been increasing primarily as a result of rising temperature that caused increases in ice melting. A natural decreasing trend of surface runoff in low-elevation basins is undeniable and the decreasing trend is attributable to intensified evaporation under warming conditions. It is true that the total amount of runoff in the Tianshan Mountains and the associated basins has been increased primarily as a result of temperature rising-resulted increases in ice melting. But, approaching to the turning point of glacier-melting supplies to runoff will pose a great threat to socio-economic sustainability and to ecological security. The turning point refers to the transition from increasing runoff to decreasing runoff within ice melting supplied watersheds under a warming climate.

Feng, Zhaodong; Salnikov, Vitaliy; Xu, Changchun

2014-05-01

338

Hydro-Meteorological Hazards Assessment Based Upon Climate Change Considerations in Isfara Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Central Asia is highly exposed and vulnerable to hydro-meteorological hazards and presents a constant threat to the population, in particular with flood and mudflow as frequent events in this region. Annual floods and mudflows cause enormous economic and social affects e.g. damages on houses and infrastructure in the floodplains, agricultural production particularly for water control (channels, bridges, etc.). An important challenge for the assessment of hydro-meteorological hazards is climate change, which is altering exposure. In the framework of the Trans-boundary Water Management in Central Asia/WMBOCA project, supported by TWM-CA and CAWa projects of German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and German Aerospace Center (DLR), we developed an approach how to address flood and mudflow using the official sources have been performed for selected areas in Central Asia based upon climate change considerations. This research has been carried out for the Isfara River basin which is located in northern Tajikistan and south-western Kyrgyzstan. The Isfara River basin belongs to Sugdh Oblast in Tajikistan and to Batken Oblast in Kyrgyzstan. The study begins with a description of the employed sources and methodology. The ensuing section offers analysis of exposure to hydro-meteorological hazards. Then, the study covers an overview of work related to the analysis of changes in mudflow and flood hazards in the past 20 years. Additionally, exposure to hydro-meteorological hazards in the case study has been assessed against a backdrop of rising climate change and variability for year 2050. This study presents initial findings from these analyses which are including (a) mapping of previous floods and mudflows in the basin, using conventional and traditional sources, supported remote sensing tools, (b) forecast of floods and mudflows in the basin, based upon climate change scenarios, and finally (c) supporting the local authorities and administrations in consideration of consequences for protection measures against floods and mudflows and contribution to basin planning. The resulted observations will help to identify current gaps and future needs in flood and mudflow hazard assessment in terms of mitigation and/or protection measures in selected case study in Central Asia. Keywords: Hydro-meteorological hazards, Central Asia, Mudflow, Climate Change

Ramesh, Azadeh; Conrad, Christopher; Mannig, Birgit; Schrader, Frank

2013-04-01

339

Identifying Changing Snow Cover Characteristics in Central Asia between 1986 and 2014 from Remote Sensing Data  

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Full Text Available Central Asia consists of the five former Soviet States Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, therefore comprising an area of ~4 Mio km2. The continental climate is characterized by hot and dry summer months and cold winter seasons with most precipitation occurring as snowfall. Accordingly, freshwater supply is strongly depending on the amount of accumulated snow as well as the moment of its release after snowmelt. The aim of the presented study is to identify possible changes in snow cover characteristics, consisting of snow cover duration, onset and offset of snow cover season within the last 28 years. Relying on remotely sensed data originating from medium resolution imagers, these snow cover characteristics are extracted on a daily basis. The resolution of 500–1000 m allows for a subsequent analysis of changes on the scale of hydrological sub-catchments. Long-term changes are identified from this unique dataset, revealing an ongoing shift towards earlier snowmelt within the Central Asian Mountains. This shift can be observed in most upstream hydro catchments within Pamir and Tian Shan Mountains and it leads to a potential change of freshwater availability in the downstream regions, exerting additional pressure on the already tensed situation.

Andreas J. Dietz

2014-12-01

340

Remediation project planning at the uranium production legacy sites. Lesson learned from the best international practice and challenges for developing countries - 59043  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The former Soviet Union countries such as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine, where uranium production legacy sites are located (such as mines, waste rock piles, pits, chemical and hydrometallurgical plants, tailing dumps, etc.) are currently facing the challenge of making these objects environmentally safe. These countries share a common history of the uranium mining and milling industry, similar regulatory shortcomings and uncertainties regarding the strategy justification for such remediation projects. They also have to deal with scarcity of financial resources for long-term remediation programmes, and lack of experience with planning and management of environmental remediation projects at former uranium production sites. In the recent years, IAEA-supported programmes of international technical co-operation (the projects RER/0986 and RER/3010) were advancing actively, as well as those sponsored by the UNDP, EurAsEC and others, all aiming to assist with the preparedness and performance of future remediation projects. As demonstrated by analysis, effectiveness of the many programmes largely depends on the nations' level of preparedness to carry out remediation projects in accordance with the international standards. This paper presents the lessons learned from analyses of the different type of projects, which were already implemented or which are still in plan dy implemented or which are still in plan in different countries

341

Procesos sociales y culturales en el mundo turco  

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Full Text Available The beginning of this article describres the distribution and lingustic groups of the Turkic population and thereafter characterised the latest social and cultural developments in each Turkic states. Turkey, as the most developed state, supplies material and cultural help to the other Turkic states situated in the interior of Eurasia. The best results in this all-Turkic co-operation appear not insomuch in the partnership with nearby Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan, which are influenced by neighbouring Iran, but with easternmost Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakstan. All these states belong to the OSCE. Thus, Mediterranean Turkey, with its experience in democratic development, is the gateway of Mediterranean countries to Central Asia. At the same time, the eastern Turkic states export raw materials and some elements of their ancient folk culture to penisular Turkey. The all-Turkic co-operation is a good example of mutually-useful relations between the Eurasian Heartland and Rimland, considered in the classical theory of geopolitics by some antagonists.

Ott Kurs

1999-01-01

342

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases  

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Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

T. Schöne

2012-06-01

343

Automated Spatiotemporal Landslide Mapping over Large Areas Using RapidEye Time Series Data  

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Full Text Available In the past, different approaches for automated landslide identification based on multispectral satellite remote sensing were developed to focus on the analysis of the spatial distribution of landslide occurrences related to distinct triggering events. However, many regions, including southern Kyrgyzstan, experience ongoing process activity requiring continual multi-temporal analysis. For this purpose, an automated object-oriented landslide mapping approach has been developed based on RapidEye time series data complemented by relief information. The approach builds on analyzing temporal NDVI-trajectories for the separation between landslide-related surface changes and other land cover changes. To accommodate the variety of landslide phenomena occurring in the 7500 km2 study area, a combination of pixel-based multiple thresholds and object-oriented analysis has been implemented including the discrimination of uncertainty-related landslide likelihood classes. Applying the approach to the whole study area for the time period between 2009 and 2013 has resulted in the multi-temporal identification of 471 landslide objects. A quantitative accuracy assessment for two independent validation sites has revealed overall high mapping accuracy (Quality Percentage: 80%, proving the suitability of the developed approach for efficient spatiotemporal landslide mapping over large areas, representing an important prerequisite for objective landslide hazard and risk assessment at the regional scale.

Robert Behling

2014-08-01

344

Exposure Estimation from Multi-Resolution Optical Satellite Imagery for Seismic Risk Assessment  

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Full Text Available Given high urbanization rates and increasing spatio-temporal variability in many present-day cities, exposure information is often out-of-date, highly aggregated or spatially fragmented, increasing the uncertainties associated with seismic risk assessments. This work therefore aims at using space-based technologies to estimate, complement and extend exposure data at multiple scales, over large areas and at a comparatively low cost for the case of the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. At a neighborhood scale, an analysis of urban structures using medium-resolution optical satellite images is performed. Applying image classification and change-detection analysis to a time-series of Landsat images, the urban environment can be delineated into areas of relatively homogeneous urban structure types, which can provide a first estimate of an exposed building stock (e.g., approximate age of structures, composition and distribution of predominant building types. At a building-by-building scale, a more detailed analysis of the exposed building stock is carried out using a high-resolution Quickbird image. Furthermore, the multi-resolution datasets are combined with census data to disaggregate population statistics. The tools used within this study are being developed on a free- and open-source basis and aim at being transparent, usable and transferable.

Jochen Zschau

2012-05-01

345

State-Propagated Narratives about a National Defender in Central Asian States  

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Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between narratives propagated by the state about a historical national hero and a contemporary soldier's professional ideology in the post-Soviet Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. It argues that while elite-maintained mass publishing of cohesive narratives about a vividly drawn historical persona, male and warrior, trigger at raising a loyal soldier unified with his compatriots on the basis of cultural values and objects of loyalty, state elites seek to link a contemporary army recruit with his historical predecessors who fought for unity, integrity, and  dominance of the nation. But the link inevitably merges with ethno-centric ideas of protecting the cultural community identified with the narrative, as opposed to a physical entity within the state borders. State elites  reinforce the significance of military experience of the titular ethnic entity in accordance with their own political interests. Narratives about a national defender articulate what the political elites expect from the military service but are restrained from depicting in official policy documents. In order to reach effective results, the Central Asian states retained the same Soviet tools of cultivating patriotism as the basis for the army's internal discipline, but primordial characters have also been incorporated into the indoctrination.

Erica Marat

2007-03-01

346

Cooperação e poder: a Organização de Cooperação de Shangai como expressão da política externa chinesa para a Ásia Central  

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Full Text Available At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan established the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. This international organization represents the first Chinese initiative in building an international security organization. This article aims to study the Chinese Foreign Policy for Central Asia from the perspective of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. We seek to answer how this international organization enables the Chinese state to achieve its interests in Central Asia. / No início do século XXI, Cazaquistão, China, Quirguistão, Rússia, Tajiquistão e Uzbequistão criaram a Organização de Cooperação de Shangai. A proeminência dessa organização internacional está no fato de ela representar a primeira iniciativa chinesa na construção de um organismo internacional de segurança. O presente artigo tem por objetivo estudar a Política Externa Chinesa para a Ásia Central sob a ótica da Organização de Cooperação de Shangai. Como problemática, busca- se responder de que maneira essa organização internacional possibilita ao Estado chinês atingir seus interesses na região centro asiática.

Andréa Freire Lucena

2011-01-01

347

Seismoacoustic responses to high-power electric pulses from well logging data at the Bishkek geodynamical test area  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of recording seismoacoustic emission (SAE) in the boreholes of the Bishkek geodynamical test area in Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, are presented. The spectral structure of SAE signals and the pattern of variations in SAE intensity during electromagnetic (EM) sounding of the Earth's crust by the highpower ERGU-600-2 generator unit are studied. The statistical methods for SAE data processing are adjusted for the problem of revealing the correlations between SAE responses and pulsed electrical impacts (i.e., energy input into the medium). The response of the medium to EM soundings, which are conducted for monitoring the apparent resistivity of the rocks, is revealed. The response of the medium manifests itself as the increase in SAE intensity (the responses to the electric current pulses generated during the soundings). The SAE responses belong to the same group of the effects (the signs of external forcing of rock destruction) as the variations in seismicity during the runs of the geophysical magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) generators in 1983-1989 or experimental soundings in 2000-2005. The sources of SAE signals are located at shallow depths, near the geophone installation place. This accounts for the difference between the variations in SAE intensity and microseismicity in response to the same impact.

Zakupin, A. S.; Bogomolov, L. M.; Mubassarova, V. A.; Il'ichev, P. V.

2014-09-01

348

Uluslararas? Güvenlik: Olmak ya da Olmamak (International Security: To Be or Not To Be  

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Full Text Available The Three Greats (USA, USSR and GB fixed their areas of influence during the Postdam Conference, which paved the end of the WW II. But the rivalry especially between the USA and USSR brought about emergence of the bipolar world. The Cold War that longed by the collapse of the USSR determined geopolitical and strategical strugles of the Great Powers in Europe and other places. Though there established a relatively peaceful environment in Europe for about 50 years, the USA and its independent allies experienced a serial of military interventions from 1948 on. After the September 11, 2001, the USA opened military bases in Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan and Uzbekistan, with the approval of the Russian Federation, and thus gained geopolitic success. After the collapse of the USSR, Russian troops intervened in some events in various places for peace keeping or struggle with terrorism. In this way, a "relative peace" was established after about 50 years from the WW II. This essay focuses on the critical developments after the end of the bipolar world.

Inar Gitsba

2010-10-01

349

Music as Illness; Music as Healing.  

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Throughout the Soviet Union, the arts became tied to ethnicity through the project of Socialist Realism. When, in 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic became independent from the Soviet Union, its national narrative continued to be built upon tropes of Kyrgyz ethnicity. Through their engagement with images of the ethno-national self, the arts provide a great source of beauty. Defining beauty as a representation of the self that is pure whole, and stable, Julia Kristeva asserts that beauty and suffering are part of the same phenomena. Arthur Kleinman argues that suffering is best understood as existing within the triangulated relationship of cultural representation, collective experience, and subjectivity. Music too is part of this triangulated relationship, and therefore, a part of suffering. Drawing upon ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in Kyrgyzstan, this article explores the illness experience of a single Kyrgyz musician. In doing so, it illustrates music's role in self-formation and the development of social, economic, and political ties and the shifts that occur in these during illness. In drawing forth the role of music in the construction of racialized ethnicities, this article demonstrates how the experience of transformative beauty can coexist with turmoil, marginalization, and violence. PMID:25394694

Pritchard, Maureen

2014-11-14

350

The value of satellite-derived snow cover images for calibrating a hydrological model in snow-dominated catchments in Central Asia  

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satellite-derived snow cover data for hydrologic model calibration can be a good way to improve model internal consistency. This study applied a multiobjective genetic algorithm to characterize the trade-off curve between model performance in terms of discharge and snow cover area (SCA). Using a Monte Carlo-based approach, we further investigated the additional information content of an increasing number of SCA scenes used in the calibration period. The study was performed in six snowmelt-dominated headwater catchments of the Karadarya Basin in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, using the hydrological model WASA and snow cover data from four melt seasons retrieved from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer). We generally found only small trade-offs between good simulations with respect to discharge and SCA, but good model performance with respect to discharge did not exclude low performance in terms of SCA. On average, the snow cover error in the validation period could be reduced by very few images in the calibration period. Increasing the number of images resulted in only small further improvements. However, using only a small number of images involves the risk that these particular images cause the selection of parameter sets which are not representative for the catchment. It is therefore advisable to use a larger number of images. In this study, it was necessary to include at least 10-16 images.

Duethmann, Doris; Peters, Juliane; Blume, Theresa; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Güntner, Andreas

2014-03-01

351

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases  

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Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

T. Schöne

2013-02-01

352

Epidemiology and control of echinococcosis in central Asia, with particular reference to the People's Republic of China.  

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At least 270 million people (58% of the total population) are at risk of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Central Asia including areas of Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and western China. The annual surgical incidence rate in Uzbekistan and Tadjikistan has been estimated to be as high as 25-27 cases/100,000 with the highest prevalence reaching 10% (range from 0.8 to 11.9%) in some Tibetan communities in western China. Echinococcus transmission in the region is largely associated with social factors including limited community knowledge of echinococcosis, small-scale household animal production, home killing of livestock, and the feeding of dogs with uncooked offal. Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is also endemic in Central Asia and is recognized as a major problem in some Tibetan communities with up to 6% of villagers infected in some villages. In western China, 5-30% of the population are seropositive against E. granulosus antigens, indicating that a large number of individuals have been exposed to the parasite. Although echinococcosis control programs have been initiated in some countries in Central Asia, control efforts are generally fragmented and uncoordinated. Monthly deworming of dogs with praziquantel (PZQ), as a key measure to control the Echinococcus parasites, has been used in western China. However, the approach has proven difficult in local semi-nomadic communities. Additional control measures including health education, domestic livestock animal treatment/vaccination and dog vaccination are needed in CE-endemic areas to accelerate progress. PMID:24686096

Zhang, Wenbao; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Wu, Weiping; Shi, Baoxin; Li, Jun; Zhou, Xiaonong; Wen, Hao; McManus, Donald P

2015-01-01

353

Mutualistic fungal endophytes in the Triticeae - survey and description.  

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Grasses of the tribe Triticeae were screened to determine the presence of mutualistic epichloae fungal endophytes. Over 1500 accessions, from more than 250 species, encompassing 22 genera within the Triticeae were screened using immunodetection and direct staining/microscopy techniques. Only two genera, Elymus and Hordeum, were identified as harbouring epichloae endophytes with accessions native to a range of countries including Canada, China, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia and the USA. Genetic analysis based on simple sequence repeat data revealed that the majority of endophytes cluster according to geographical regions rather than to host species; many strains isolated from Hordeum grouped with those derived from Elymus, and amongst the Elymus-derived strains, there was no clear correspondence between clustering topology and host species. This is the first detailed survey demonstrating the genetic diversity of epichloae endophytes within the Triticeae and highlights the importance of germplasm centres for not only preserving the genetic diversity of plant species but also the beneficial microorganisms they may contain. PMID:24754753

Card, Stuart D; Faville, Marty J; Simpson, Wayne R; Johnson, Richard D; Voisey, Christine R; de Bonth, Anouck C M; Hume, David E

2014-04-01

354

Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products  

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Full Text Available Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flour, first grade flour and high grade flour. The samples were analyzed using classical mycological and immunoassay methods in order to detect mycotoxins producing fungi species. We isolated overall 27 species belonging to 7 genera. Mycotoxins producing species like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium cyclopium were detected in the stored grains and in mechanically-cleaned grains. The species of Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium genera dominated in roughly-milled flour samples, so this site of flour manufacture still has a risk and danger of contamination with mycotoxins producing fungus. Only the final product i.e. the high grade flour lacked any fungal contamination. We recommend to scrutinize flour samples at the last stages of processing, particularly in the mills like ?1, ?1 and ?4.

T.D. Doolotkeldieva

2010-03-01

355

Crystallographic analysis of the structure of livingstonite HgSb{sub 4}S{sub 8} from refined data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An X-ray diffraction study of mineral livingstonite (HgSb{sub 4}S{sub 8}) from Khaydarkan (Kyrgyzstan) has been performed on a Bruker Nonius X8Apex diffractometer with a 4K CCD detector (R = 0.031). The unit-cell parameters were found to be a = 30.1543(10) A, b = 3.9953(2) A, c = 21.4262(13) A, {beta} = 104.265(1){sup o}, V = 2501.7(2) A{sup 3}, Z = 8, d{sub calcd} = 5.013 g/cm{sup 3}, and sp. gr. A2/a. It was confirmed that livingstonite belongs to rod-layers structures. In one type of layer, two double Sb{sub 2}S{sub 4} chains are bound by disulfide groups [S{sub 2}]{sup 2-} (S-S 2.078(2) A); in the other type, these chains are bound via Hg{sup 2+} cations. A crystallographic analysis confirmed the existence of independent pseudotranslational ordering in the cation and anion matrices, which is characteristic of the lozenge-like structures of sulfides and sulfosalts.

Borisov, S. V., E-mail: borisov@che.nsk.su; Pervukhina, N. V.; Magarill, S. A.; Kuratieva, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Vasil' ev, V. I., E-mail: itret@uiggm.nsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2010-03-15

356

Cenozoic deformation and exhumation history of the Central Kyrgyz Tien Shan  

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low-temperature thermochronological data from 80 samples in eastern Kyrgyzstan are combined with previously published data from 61 samples to constrain exhumation in a number of mountain ranges in the Central Kyrgyz Tien Shan. All sampled ranges are found to have a broadly consistent Cenozoic exhumation history, characterized by initially low cooling rates (<1°C/Myr) followed by a series of increases in exhumation that occurred diachronously across the region in the late Cenozoic that are interpreted to record the onset of deformation in different mountain ranges. Combined with geological estimates for the onset of proximal deformation, our data suggest that the Central Kyrgyz Tien Shan started deforming in the late Oligocene-early Miocene, leading to the development of several, widely spaced mountain ranges separated by large intermontane basins. Subsequently, more ranges have been constructed in response to significant shortening increases across the Central Kyrgyz Tien Shan, notably in the late Miocene. The order of range construction is interpreted to reflect variations in the susceptibility of inherited structures to reactivation. Reactivated structures are also shown to have significance along strike variations in fault vergence and displacement, which have influenced the development and growth of individual mountain ranges. Moreover, the timing of deformation allows the former extent of many intermontane basins that have since been partitioned to be inferred; this can be linked to the highly time-transgressive onset of late Cenozoic coarse clastic sedimentation.

Macaulay, Euan A.; Sobel, Edward R.; Mikolaichuk, Alexander; Kohn, Barry; Stuart, Finlay M.

2014-02-01

357

Türkiye’nin Orta Asya ve Kafkasya’daki Bölgesel Politikas?nda Enerji Güvenli?i  

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Full Text Available After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and after Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, which have many common denominators with Turkey in terms of language, religion and culture, gained independence in the Central Asia and the Caucasus; regional policy of Turkey, which was indifferent to the region during the Cold War, changed seriously. In this study, foreign policy Turkey has pursued in theCentral Asia and Caucasus after the end of the Cold War was analyzed within context of energy supply security. Increasing importance of the energy supply security concept in international politics was examined, how the rich oil and natural gas reserves of the Central Asia and Caucasus turned the region into the focus of interest of the regional and global actors was analyzed, andthe “new great game”, which many claim started in the region, was investigated. Pipeline projects such as Baku-Tiflis-Ceyhan and Nabucco that were developed to transport the hydrocarbon reserves of the region to the international markets, regional policies the global and regional actors pursue within the context of energy supply security, and reflections of these policies to the foreign policy Turkey pursues in the region were examined.actors over the routes the oil and natural gas reserves of the region will be transported to the international markets will continue and Turkey will become one of the key countries of the east-west as well as the north-south energy corridor.

Gökhan Özkan

2010-12-01

358

Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation in Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium ore is a naturally occurring radioactive material which is often regarded as something separate to NORM due to its place at the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Uranium mining and processing was a significant industry in the Central Asian countries of the former Soviet Union. When the Soviet Union broke up in 1989 these countries gained their independence but the uranium mining industry now had to try and survive in a new economic environment. In Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan this proved too great a challenge. Production stopped and sites were simply abandoned with little or no attention paid to remediation. Skilled personnel departed and both physical and regulatory infrastructure decayed. Consequently, the legacies of the former times remained throughout Central Asia to become an issue of considerable concern to many. The sites were generally uncontrolled and the NORM residues from the mining and processing were a source of environmental contamination which also threatened public health in a number of ways. In recent years there has been considerable activity by a number of international agencies and Governments working towards solutions for these issues. Much of the effort has been undertaken by the IAEA and this paper describes the original situation, the development of remediation strategies and the various remediation related projects, their outcomes to date, and plans for the future in both the political and scientific arenas. (author)entific arenas. (author)

359

Feast or famine: 1992 spot market review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There was nothing temperate about the uranium spot market in 1992. It was a year of extremes. Demand took off at a brisk pace early in the year as utilities, enticed by low U3O8 prices and interest rates, stepped up their discretionary purchases. With the NUKEM price range sinking to an all-time low of US$6.75-7.70 in November 1991, utilities reckoned that prices had bottomed out and decided to buy and hold material. Indeed, the upper end of NUKEM's range remained below $8.00 per lb for much of the first half of 1992. The main cause of low prices was the flood of imports from the crumbling Soviet Union and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]. The CIS republics quickly embraced a free-market philosophy to boost their faltering economies, and several hoped to use uranium as a source of badly-needed hard currency. But they were about to get a harsh introduction to capitalism. It came in the form of government intervention, in both the US and Europe. In May, the US Department of Commerce made its preliminary determination that the uranium-producing republics of the CIS were selling material in the US at less than fair market value. The antidumping case was eventually settled in October when the CIS republics [Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan] signed suspension agreements subjecting CIS origin uranium to price and quantity quotas in the US

360

Seasonal deuterium excess in a Tien Shan ice core: Influence of moisture transport and recycling in Central Asia  

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Stable water isotope (??18O, ??D) data from a high elevation (5100 masl) ice core recovered from the Tien Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan, display a seasonal cycle in deuterium excess (d = ??D - 8*??18O) related to changes in the regional hydrologic cycle during 1994-2000. While there is a strong correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ??18O and ??D in the ice core samples, the regression slope (6.9) and mean d value (23.0) are significantly different than the global meteoric water line values. The resulting time-series ice core d profile contains distinct winter maxima and summer minima, with a yearly d amplitude of ???15-20???. Local-scale processes that may affect d values preserved in the ice core are not consistent with the observed seasonal variability. Data from Central Asian monitoring sites in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) have similar seasonal d changes. We suggest that regional-scale hydrological conditions, including seasonal changes in moisture source, transport, and recycling in the Caspian/Aral Sea region, are responsible for the observed spatial and temporal d variability.

Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.; Aizen, V.B.; DeWayne, Cecil L.; Synal, H.-A.

2003-01-01

361

Management of environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sustainable waste management and disposal is a societal challenge in terms of economics, public health and environmental impact. The situation in developing countries, and in particular those subject to extreme natural hazards, results in increased overall risk as governments prioritize investments to issues of perceived higher economic importance. This dissertation investigates environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia. Environmental risk from municipal solid waste landfill sites encompasses a wide range of topics within socio-economics, physical sciences and engineering and therefore necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach. The underlying study is an accumulative result of a three-year collaborative research project (Contract No. INCO-CT-2005-516732) funded within the Eu Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). The international cooperation involved European, Russian and Central Asian research partners forming a multi-disciplinary consortium covering: GIS technologies, geology / hydrogeology geophysics and geotechnical engineering; landfill design and operation and waste management. understanding the relevant socio-economic aspects and legislative frameworks was necessary to prepare results and recommendations to address stakeholders in the Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and uzbekistan. (author)

362

Los retos de la cooperación regional en Asia central: Más sombras que luces en la gestión de los recursos hídricos compartidos  

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Full Text Available Examining the situation in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tayikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan is an interesting excercice in order to analyze the evolution of the international environmental security concept. As an exemple of how environmental changes may come to acquire an entity such as to be perceived as a threat when they combine with inequitable allocation of resources, we focus on shared water resources management. The framework at international level should be the two main instruments in this field, the 1992 Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes and the 1997 Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. On the one hand, Central Asian States have shown only a weak commitment to these international regimes. On the contrary, they have prioritized the former URSS’s model of water and energy exchange. This model, as being unsustainable and inequitable, favors the extreme dichotomy between the two major competing uses of water in the region (irrigation and hydropower production. On the other hand, some sub-regional institutions served to clarify the articulation of water management structures. However, because of important issues on their internal organization, they have not been able to achieve their mission and their efforts seems to be directed to seek stability and the status quo in Central Asia.

Mar Campins Eritja

2010-01-01

363

Asian republics: the gas industry of the southern FSU [former Soviet Union  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The central Asian and Caucasian states of the former Soviet Union differ widely in terms of natural gas production, reserves and future potential but have two features in common. Firstly, they have a form of ''common gas market'' with Turkmenistan largely supplying the gas demand of the whole region. Secondly, these states are land-locked and present gas transport routes all across Russian territory. Alternative routes to the western European market which by-pass Russia are being sought by Turkmenistan whose exports compete with those of the Russian Federation. Turkmenistan is the second largest producer of gas in the former Soviet Union after Russia. There is currently a crisis in the Turkmen gas industry, though, caused by technical problems and difficulties in attracting foreign investment for exploration. Of these southern states, Uzbekistan is the only one to have expanded production since the break-up of the Soviet Union by the timely replacement of depleting fields by new ones. Kazakhstan's production is falling rapidly and further development is dependent on Russian infrastructure and benevolence as 75% of known reserves are on the Russian border, Gas production in Azerbaijan, which is also declining, is largely associated gas from offshore fields. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan produce only small amounts of associated gas and prospects for expansion of output are slim. (2 tables) (UK)

364

Transition in Central Asia: Growth with Increasingly Greater Inequality?  

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Full Text Available This article analyses the economic evolution of the former Soviet states of Central Asia since their independence, especially in regard to growth and in comparison with growing inequality. The following topics are considered: first of all, the initial conditions in whichthe economic transition of these countries began; secondly, the transformations of widely varying scope (different “routes of transition” that these economies have experienced, from an almost non-reform (Turkmenistan or a gradual or partial reform (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, to a large-scale reform (Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan; and thirdly, the economic performance of the Central Asian states, which, with the exception of Uzbekistan, has been quite poor and has generated what we could call two kinds of “duality”: one which is generated by the expansion of extracting industries (oil, gas and metals, to the detriment of other sectors fundamental to the countries’ development, and another one originating from the growingunequal distribution of income among the population. While the first of these “dualities” cannot be maintained as a long-term development strategy, the second one could culminate in social agitation and instability, even in the medium term, which could contribute to thedestabilisation of the already fragile and volatile region of Central Asia.

Max Spoor

2005-10-01

365

Seismic triggering of landslides. Part B: Simulation of dynamic failure processes  

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Full Text Available From field observations it is possible to establish correlations between geological conditions and landslide occurrence. However, in general, it is difficult to assess the affect of individual factors on slope instability because of their mutual interaction. In addition, the dynamic effect of propagating seismic waves significantly increases the complexity of the slope stability problem. Wave diffraction, reflection and focusing effects are dependent on local geological conditions and make it difficult to analyse dynamic sliding mechanisms using field observations alone. As a consequence, in order to examine the influence of various geological and seismic factors on slope movements, it is often necessary to produce numerical models. This paper describes the results of such models as applied to two case studies in Kyrgyzstan: the Ananevo rockslide, located in granite, and the Suusamyr debris slump-flow, situated within soft sediments (see Part A: Havenith et al., 2003. Discrete element modelling (UDEC, adapted both to the discontinuous character of fractured rock and to the heterogeneity of layered mediums, was used. This permitted simulation of deformation mechanisms, including seismically induced bending, block tilting, and slip. Particular attention was paid to the interaction between deformation mechanisms, site-specific amplification effects, and subsurface structure.

H.-B. Havenith

2003-01-01

366

Central Asia: A major emerging energy player in the 21st century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term

367

Investigation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central Asia and Caucasus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Various threats to civilization such as natural and man-induced catastrophes, international terrorism, ecological imbalance, global climate change and others hazards have been recently increased in number. Today catastrophic processes are notable for a high degree of organization The humankind has faced the majority of hazards for the first time; therefore, there are no analogues and recipes to be used for their solving. Catastrophe risk have increased so much and joint efforts of the entire world immunity are required. One of the most effective ways to solve the issue can be estimation of risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes. Here we pay attention to the main regions, having the high seismic activities, where it is possible to stimulate natural calamities in this way or cause man-induced catastrophes with huge negative effects of international scale in Central Asia and Caucasus: Uranium, antimony and mercury tailing storages in Tian-Shan mountains. The possible terrorism acts here create the serious danger for Russian and USA military air bases, functioned near large Kyrgyzstan capital Bishkek city. The large Hydroelectric Stations with their huge dams and reservoirs, located near big industrial cities, different natural mines tailing storages, including Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Polygon in East Kazakhstan

368

The closed Lake Issyk-Kul as an indicator of global warming in Tien-Shan  

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Full Text Available Lake Issyk-Kul is the seventh deepest lake in the world situated inCentral Asiain theTien-ShanMountainsat the elevation of 1607 m above sea level. This area belongs toKyrgyzstan. From 1927 to 1997 the water level decreased by 3.4 m, and increased by 0.93 m from 1997 to 2011. The article analyzes the impact of the global warming on the Lake Issyk-Kul thermal regime and the components of its water balance: river discharge, precipitation, evaporation and lake level variations. It shows that the global warming has entailed the increase of the Lake Issyk-Kul water temperature down to the maximum depths, and river discharge increase due to the glaciers melting and the evaporation from the lake surface. The air temperature increase of 1 ? results in river discharge increas and lake level rise of 44 mm/year and surface evaporation increase of 88 mm/year. TheLakeIssyk-Kullevel increase after 1997, which takes place in the situation of global warming, was caused by the activation of the West air masses transport and increase of precipitation in autumn.

Vladimir V. Romanovsky

2013-05-01

369

Has global fund support for civil society advocacy in the former Soviet Union established meaningful engagement or 'a lot of jabber about nothing'?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although civil society advocacy for health issues such as HIV transmission through injecting drug use is higher on the global health agenda than previously, its impact on national policy reform has been limited. In this paper we seek to understand why this is the case through an examination of civil society advocacy efforts to reform HIV/AIDS and drugs-related policies and their implementation in three former Soviet Union countries. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine by national researchers with representatives from a sample of 49 civil society organizations (CSOs) and 22 national key informants. We found that Global Fund support resulted in the professionalization of CSOs, which increased confidence from government and increased CSO influence on policies relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs. Interviewees also reported that the amount of funding for advocacy from the Global Fund was insufficient, indirect and often interrupted. CSOs were often in competition for Global Fund support, which caused resentment and limited collective action, further weakening capacity for effective advocacy. PMID:22767433

Harmer, Andrew; Spicer, Neil; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

2013-05-01

370

Reduction of Radiometric Miscalibration—Applications to Pushbroom Sensors  

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Full Text Available The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework—Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME—considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data.

Sigrid Roessner

2011-06-01

371

Exhaled nitric oxide is reduced upon chronic intermittent hypoxia exposure in well-acclimatized mine workers.  

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The aim of this study was to assess how exhaled nitric oxide (NO) levels in healthy subjects changed upon exposure to intermittent hypoxia at high altitude. Eighty-one healthy subjects with a mean age of 31.8±6.7 years, well acclimatized at altitudes of 3800-4000m above sea level, and employed by a gold-mining company were recruited for the study. Baseline, altitude-corrected partial exhaled NO levels (PE(NO)) were measured in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (780m). Measurements were then taken on day 1 of the ascent to the mine, which is located at an altitude of 4000m, on day 3 and finally at the end of the 2- or 3-week shifts. The mean PE(NO) level was 9.49±3.66nmHg in Bishkek and was lower in females than in males (9.76±3.58nmHg vs. 7.03±3.71nmHg). When compared to the first day at altitude, exhaled NO was reduced by 17.2% on day 3 (p=0.001) and 29.6% by the end of the shift (p<0.001). In summary, this study of well-acclimatized high-altitude miners demonstrates that despite the absence of clinical signs of desadaptation, there is an apparent reduction in exhaled NO. PMID:21112418

Vinnikov, Denis; Brimkulov, Nurlan; Redding-Jones, Rupert; Jumabaeva, Kalysbubu

2011-02-15

372

Advocating for opioid substitution therapy in Central Asia: much still to be done.  

Science.gov (United States)

Opioid substitution therapy (OST) was first introduced in the formerly-Soviet Central Asian Republics as an HIV prevention intervention for people who inject drugs (PWID) in 2002. Presently, pilot programs function in Kazakhstan and Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan has scaled-up from the pilot phase to the operation of over 20 OST sites nation-wide. All three countries have taken steps towards lower-threshold programs, allowing clients to enroll regardless of HIV status, and, in some cases, without documentation of failure to complete other drug treatment programs. However, OST programs remain exclusively funded by international donors, and political and societal opposition to these programs threaten their stability. In order to counter negative campaigns and political attacks on OST, organized advocacy efforts are needed. This commentary explores efforts undertaken by international donor partners supporting advocacy efforts to scale-up OST and assure a sustainable future for programming. It examines both proactive and reactive efforts, and the variety of target audiences that need to be reached to conduct effective advocacy. Ultimately we find that, while a range of tools are available for OST advocacy in the hostile environments of the former Soviet Union, the strengthening of advocacy groups is needed to assure an optimized platform exists for using the evidence and developing relevant materials in the appropriate languages (including, but not limited to, Russian) for both proactive and reactive efforts; and that more robust monitoring is desirable to bring sharper focus to replicable methods. PMID:24680628

Parsons, Danielle; Burrows, Dave; Bolotbaeva, Aisuluu

2014-11-01

373

[Variability and phylogenetic relationships of the Cucumis sativus L. species inferred from NBS profiling and RAPD analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic variability of the Cucumis sativus species and its phylogenetic relationsips with other species of the genus were studied on the basis of RAPD marking and analysis of intra- and interspecific polymorphism of the nucleotide sequences of the NBS-LRR gene family in species of the genus Cucumis with the use of the NBS profiling method. According to RAPD analysis, cucumber cultivars from different geographic regions are highly similar, except for accessions k-3835 and k-3833 from Afghanistan. NBS profiling analysis revealed phylogenetically most distinct accessions expected to be characterized by specificity of resistance: k-3845 from Uzbekistan, k-3851 from Kyrgyzstan, line 701, k-3835 and k-3833 from Afghanistan, k-2757 and k-3079 from Netherlands, vr.k. 908 from Canada, k-2926 from Bulgaria, Russian cultivars Monastyrskii, Izyashchnyi, and Lel'. Three essentially different groups of species were distinguished, and the C. sativus species (subgenus Cucumis) was found to be distant from the species belonging to the subgenus Melo. PMID:21954614

Goriunova, S V; Gashkova, I V; Kosareva, G A

2011-08-01

374

Sustainable Land Management in the Pamir Alai Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on identifying of possible opportunities for local people, living in Pamir Alai region of Kyrgyzstan, particularly in Kashka Suu and Alaiku, by conducting analysis of such value chains as wool production and collection of berries and medicinal herbs. Identification of key features of these two value chains provides insight into which entities benefit from the value of products, and provides the basis for projecting possible additional income to the populations in the areas. Economic opportunities available for local population in Kashka Suu and Alaiku are very limited. Lack of opportunities linked to harsh terrain and climatic conditions makes livestock, including wool production, and collection of wild resources, are the most available sources of income for local communities. Population, living in Kashka Suu and Alaiku, is unable to produce good quality wool competitive even on domestic market, but investments in wool sector could help to improve livelihoods. Berries also play an important role in generating income, especially in off agricultural season. Income from berries is managed by women, and used for purchasing goods for family. Medicinal and aromatic plants and herbs sub sector is totally undeveloped and plays important role only for subsistence purposes.

Kenesh Shapakov

2011-10-01

375

Shifting mountain snow patterns in a changing climate from remote sensing retrieval.  

Science.gov (United States)

Observed climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on environmental systems and society. In this context, many mountain regions seem to be particularly sensitive to a changing climate, through increases in temperature coupled with changes in precipitation regimes that are often larger than the global average (EEA, 2012). In mid-latitude mountains, these driving factors strongly influence the variability of the mountain snow-pack, through a decrease in seasonal reserves and earlier melting of the snow pack. These in turn impact on hydrological systems in different watersheds and, ultimately, have consequences for water management. Snow monitoring from remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to address the question of snow cover regime changes at the regional scale. This study outlines the results retrieved from the MODIS satellite images over a time period of 10 hydrological years (2000-2010) and applied to two case studies of the EU FP7 ACQWA project, namely the upper Rhone and Po in Europe and the headwaters of the Syr Darya in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia). The satellite data were provided by the MODIS Terra MOD-09 reflectance images (NASA) and MOD-10 snow products (NSIDC). Daily snow maps were retrieved over that decade and the results presented here focus on the temporal and spatial changes in snow cover. This paper highlights the statistical bias observed in some specific regions, expressed by the standard deviation values (STD) of annual snow duration. This bias is linked to the response of snow cover to changes in elevation and can be used as a signal of strong instability in regions sensitive to climate change: with alternations of heavy snowfalls and rapid snow melting processes. The interest of the study is to compare the methodology between the medium scales (Europe) and the large scales (Central Asia) in order to overcome the limits of the applied methodologies and to improve their performances. Results show that the yearly snow cover duration increases by 4-5 days per 100 m elevation during the accumulation period, depending of the watershed, while during the melting season the snow depletion rate is 0.3% per day of surface loss for the upper Rhone catchment, 0.4%/day for the Syr Darya headwater basins, and 0.6%/day for the upper Po, respectively. Then, the annual STD maps of snow cover indicate higher values (more than 45 days difference compared to the mean values) for (i) the Po foothill region at medium elevation (SE orientation) and (ii) the Kyrgyzstan high plateaux (permafrost areas). These observations cover only a time-period of 10 years, but exhibit a signal under current climate that is already consistent with the expected decline in snow in these regions in the course of the 21st century. PMID:24842410

Dedieu, J P; Lessard-Fontaine, A; Ravazzani, G; Cremonese, E; Shalpykova, G; Beniston, M

2014-09-15

376

Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global Mineral Resource Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits. Western Central Asia, a region diverse in its geologic complexity, is situated north of the Tarim and North China tectonic blocks and sandwiched between the East European and Siberian cratons. The Ural Mountains form the western margin of the region; the southern margin is formed by the high-standing ranges that make up the Tian Shan mountain range in the border regions of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and western China, where the effects of collisional tectonics are well displayed. The tectonic collage that makes up the core of western Central Asia is perhaps the geologically least understood part of the region. There is broad agreement that the early Paleozoic is made up of tectonically juxtaposed blocks that vary from Precambrian-cored microcontinents to magmatic arc and related complexes to subduction-related accretionary complexes. The rudiments of an incipient, contiguous single Kazakhstan block were formed by the end of the Silurian. In the middle to late Paleozoic, the block was unconformably superposed by two large, nested magmatic-arc belts, one Devonian, the other Carboniferous. Both magmatic-arc complexes were folded into a horseshoe-shaped, southeast-opening orocline in response to the final collisions of the various surrounding cratonic blocks with the Kazakhstan block. Additional deformation in the upper Cenozoic derived from the collision of India and China significantly redistributed fragments of the various mosaicked blocks, particularly in the central and southern parts of the western Central Asian region. Porphyry copper deposits are associated with many of the magmatic-arc fragments and belts throughout the geologically complex region, and economically important deposits are found in arc sequences of all Paleozoic Periods. The economically most productive arcs are Carboniferous. The assessment includes a discussion of the tectonic and geologic setting of porphyry copper deposits in western Central Asia (chapter 1), an application of remote sensing data for hydrothermal alteration mapping as a tool for porphyry copper assessment in the region (chapter 2), and a probabilistic assessment of undiscovered porphyry copper resources in four areas that represent Ordovician and Late Paleozoic (Carboniferous-Permian) magmatic arcs (chapter 3). The principal litho-tectonic terrane concept used to delineate permissive tracts was that of a magmatic arc that formed in the subduction boundary zone above a subducting plate. Eight permissive tracts are delineated on the basis of mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks assigned to magmatic arcs of specified age ranges that define areas where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the Earth’s surface is possible. These tracts range in area from about 8,000 to 200,000 square kilometers and host 18 known porphyry copper deposits that contain about 54 million metric tons of copper. Available data included geologic maps, the distribution of significant porphyry copper occurrences and potentially related deposit types, the distribution of hydrothermal alteration patterns that are consistent with porphyry copper mineralization, and information on possible subsurface extensions of permissive rocks. On the basis of analyses of these data, the assessment team estimated a mean of 25 undiscove

Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

2014-01-01

377

Discrimination between induced and natural seismicity by means of nonlinear analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of human activity on the Earth's interior often causes activation of seismic processes, i.e., generates induced seismicity. Nowadays, the problem of distinguishing between the natural and induced seismicity have become important. The increasing interest to this problem is caused by the issues which seem to be far from related to seismicity, for examples, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere through the transition to the so-called green energy sources (such as hydrothermal power plants). Some geothermal power plants are located in the seismically active regions, which impedes referring the increase in seismic activity to the induced effects or natural variations. Efficient methods for analyzing the behavior of complex dynamical systems (to which the geophysical systems pertain) were developed in the field of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, these methods allow one to identify the changes in the state of the system, which are caused by external action. If a system exposed to some impact has changed its state, the processes in this system will contain a deterministic component defined by the external factor. The appearance of the deterministic component should decrease the fractal dimension of the attractor in the phase space of the system states (if such attractor is distinguished) and decrease the dimension of the embedding space (the number of the key parameters required for describing the behavior of the system). The Grassberger-Procaccia method is the widest-adopted approach for estimating the dimensions of the attractor and the embedding space. In the presented work, we use this method for analyzing the seismicity in several regions that suffered from technogeneous impacts. In some cases considered, the seismicity was not obviously induced. Four data sets were analyzed: (1) the seismicity in the region of the Romashkino oil field, Russia; (2) the seismic activity before and after the large-scale explosions on Burlykiya and Uch-Terek Rivers in Kyrgyzstan; (3) the seismicity in the region of the Geysers geothermal complex in California, US; (4) the seismicity in the region of Bishkek geophysical test site, Kyrgyzstan, recorded before and after strong electromagnetic discharges. The nonlinear analysis of the data sets on seismicity showed that technogeneous action on the geophysical medium increases the regularity of the seismic regime. It looks like the formation of stable states characterized by a finite fractal dimension of the attractor and reasonable small dimension of the embedding space. The presence of the stable states opens the possibility of forecasting the development of induced seismic activity. We also present the results of nonlinear analysis of the rate-and-state model, which allows us to describe the mechanics of the studied phenomenon. In this context, the model of motion in the fault zones that obey the two-parameters friction law suggests that if the external action causes the critical stresses to decrease e.g. due to the growth of the pore pressure or due to heating of the fault zone, we should expect the deterministic component of the seismic process to increase.

Turuntaev, S. B.; Melchaeva, O. Yu.; Vorohobina, S. V.

2012-04-01

378

3D and 2D inversion of magnetotelluric data from the continental collision zone in the Pamirs and Tien Shan, Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Many geodynamic processes governing intra-continental collisional orogeny are largely unexplained and controversial. A key question is the state and dynamic behaviour of the lithosphere at middle and lower crustal levels while continental collision progresses. The Pamir - Tien Shan region in Central Asia may be the best location on Earth to study such lithospheric deformation processes in situ. The mountain ranges and high plateaus formed at the tip of the north-western Indian promontory through the Cenozoic experienced rates of shortening similar to the adjacent Himalaya-Tibet system. Today, the Pamir - Tien Shan orogenic belt hosts some of the deepest active intra-continental subduction zones on Earth and absorbs the highest strain rate over the shortest distance that is manifested in the India-Asia collision zone. The multi-disciplinary Tien Shan - Pamir Geodynamic Program (TIPAGE) was designed to address some of the geodynamic key questions in this region. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out in concert with other geophysical and geological observations in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, predominantly along a 350 km long and 50 km wide corridor from southern Tajikistan to Osh in Kyrgyzstan across the Pamir Plateau and southern Tien Shan mountain ranges. In total we recorded MT data at 178 stations, 26 of them combine long-period and broad band recordings. We present and compare 2D and 3D MT inversion results. Strike analysis of the data revealed an overall mean geo-electric strike direction consistent with the predominant tectonic trends. 2D inversion yields a reasonable data fit, with exception of some sites which exhibit phases above 90 degrees. 3D inversion was carried out with the ModEM package. We inverted for all four impedance tensor components and the vertical magnetic transfer functions. Topography was also included. The 3D models are generally in agreement with the 2D results but achieve a better data fit, particularly phases which could not be fitted with 2D inversion. The MT inversions reveal an upper crust of the Pamirs, which is generally resistive, with embedded conductive parts correlating to suture zones. Several distinct zones of high conductivity appear beneath the southern Pamirs and the central/northern Pamir at mid crustal levels, possibly reaching mantle depths. We interpret the southern mid-crust conductor as hot and partially molten, viscous felsic material. To the north, the conductor is bound by a resistive block which correlates with the miocene gneiss of the Muskol dome. The second conductive zone north of the Muskol dome could originate from brittle and fractured crust. Faults and old deformation zones can form pathways for aqueous fluids in the crust. When highly mineralized fluids penetrate fractured brittle areas, the entire region can become conductive. Further north, the seismically active Main Pamir Thrust which separates the Pamir from the Tien Shan corresponds to a sharp, south-dipping conductivity contrast between resistive upper crust in the Pamirs and conductive crust beneath the Alai valley.

Sass, Paul; Ritter, Oliver; Rybin, Anatolii; Batalev, Vladislav

2013-04-01

379

3D and 2D inversion of MT data from the continental collision zone in the Pamirs and Tien Shan, Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Many geodynamic processes governing intra-continental collisional orogeny are largely unexplained and controversial. A key question is the state and dynamic behaviour of the lithosphere at middle and lower crustal levels while continental collision progresses. The Pamir - Tien Shan region in Central Asia may be the best location on Earth to study such lithospheric deformation processes in situ. The mountain ranges and high plateaus formed at the tip of the north-western Indian promontory through the Cenozoic experienced rates of shortening similar to the adjacent Himalaya-Tibet system. Today, the Pamir - Tien Shan orogenic belt hosts some of the deepest active intra-continental subduction zones on Earth and absorbs the highest strain rate over the shortest distance that is manifested in the India-Asia collision zone. The multi-disciplinary Tien Shan - Pamir Geodynamic Program (TIPAGE) was designed to address some of the geodynamic key questions in this region. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out in concert with other geophysical and geological observations in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, predominantly along a 350 km long and 50 km wide corridor from southern Tajikistan to Osh in Kyrgyzstan across the Pamir Plateau and southern Tien Shan mountain ranges. In total we recorded MT data at 178 stations, 26 of them combine long-period and broad band recordings. We present and compare 2D and 3D MT inversion results. Strike analysis of the data revealed an overall mean geo-electric strike direction consistent with the predominant tectonic trends. 2D inversion yields a reasonable data fit, with exception of some sites which exhibit phases above 90 degrees. 3D inversion was carried out with the ModEM package. We inverted for all four impedance tensor components and the vertical magnetic transfer functions. Topography was also included. The 3D models are generally in agreement with the 2D results but achieve a better data fit, particularly phases which could not be fitted with 2D inversion. The MT inversions reveal an upper crust of the Pamirs, which is generally resistive. Two distinct zones of high conductivity appear beneath the southern Pamirs and the central/northern Pamir at mid crustal levels, possibly reaching mantle depths. We interpret the southern conductor as hot and partially molten, viscous felsic material. To the north, the conductor is bound by a resistive block which penetrates the entire crust. The resistive structure seems to correlate with the miocene gneiss of the Muskol dome. The second conductive zone north of the Muskol dome could originate from brittle and fractured crustal material. Faults can form pathways for aqueous fluids in the crust. When highly mineralized fluids penetrate fractured brittle deformation zones, the entire region can become conductive. Further north, the seismically active Main Pamir Thrust which separates the Pamir from the Tien Shan corresponds to a sharp, south-dipping conductivity contrast between resistive upper crust in the Pamirs and conductive crust beneath the Alai valley.

Sass, P.; Ritter, O.; Rybin, A.; Batalev, V.

2012-12-01

380

Nuclear material in the NIS. Experience and progress in enhancing security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The break-up of the former Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in the creation of 14 newly independent States (NIS), besides the Russian Federation. Eleven States are known to have nuclear activities (including mining activities). These are Armenia, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Three other States are known to have no nuclear activity or mining activity. These are Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Turkmenistan. All 14 States have acceded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Safeguards agreements have been signed with 12 of the States. There are nine States where a safeguards agreement is in force: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, and three States - Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia - have signed safeguards agreements which are pending ratification. Azerbaijan was the latest State to sign a safeguards agreement, in 1999. Eight States have signed the Additional Protocol. The Additional Protocol has entered into force in four of the NIS: Azerbaijan, Latvia, Lithuania, and Uzbekistan. Long before the individual NIS ratified the NPT and signed the safeguards agreements, IAEA experts and safeguards staff went on technical visits to locations where the State informed the Agency that there was nuclear material. The purposes of these visits were to advise the country on the initial inventory declarations and possible safeguards tory declarations and possible safeguards activities for each facility, to explain these activities to facility and State representatives, and to demonstrate safeguards equipment that would be used, thereby preparing the facility for eventual inspections. A wide variety of different types of nuclear facilities (uranium mining, fuel fabrication plant, commercial nuclear power plants, research reactors, and storage facilities) are located in the NIS. With most NIS becoming parties to the NPT as non-nuclear weapon States, there has been an acute need in these States for considerable assistance for the establishment of the necessary structure and resources to ensure that their commitments to non-proliferation are fully implemented in a timely manner. A number of IAEA Member States (donor States) offered and provided assistance to the NIS on a bilateral level to set up an appropriate State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) which includes Import/Export Control and Physical Protection of Nuclear Material in each State. The IAEA and these donor States established the Coordinated Technical Support Programme (CTSP) to ensure that the support given to the NIS was done in a coordinated and transparent manner and to avoid duplication of effort. The IAEA has played a coordinating role for the past eight years by helping to identify detailed needs in individual States, by providing a platform for Member States to identify areas where they could provide the optimum support, and in developing and preparing the Coordinated Technical Support Plans. The donor and recipient countries regularly meet in Vienna to review the focus and implementation status of the coordinated technical support activities in the NIS

381

United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs): Helping to Ensure the Integration of Nuclear Techniques with other Development Initiatives and Plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA and the Department of Technical Cooperation in particular, rely on harmonious and collaborative work with numerous partners over a broad range of policy levels to promote peace and development through the peaceful application of nuclear science and technology. The Strategy and Partnership Section (TCSPS) of the Division of Programme Support and Coordination is at the forefront of developing and maintaining successful partnerships with the IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation. Part of the work of TCSPS involves streamlining the Country Programme Framework (CPF) process and building networks that support the United Nations one house approach. Country Programme Frameworks are programming tools that provide a frame of reference for technical cooperation between the IAEA and its Member States in the medium term (4-6 years). They provide a concise framework for national development needs or problems that can be addressed using nuclear science and technology. In support of the IAEA's efforts to align and provide leverage for its technical cooperation activities within the larger development context, the CPF preparation process now makes extensive use of national development plans and United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs). UNDAFs are the planning framework for the development operations of the UN system at the country level and not only help to ensure that the application of nuclear techniques is integrated with existing development initiatiegrated with existing development initiatives and plans, but also assist identifying areas where such techniques might be usefully deployed. In the past two years, 13 UNDAFs have been signed, reflecting the IAEA's focus on optimizing development activities at the country level. Currently the Secretariat is engaged in 22 ongoing UNDAF processes to ensure that the TC programme is aligned with the national development priorities reflected in these frameworks. One outstanding example of the work that is possible within the UNDAF framework is demonstrated in a soil conservation project in Tajikistan (TAD5005) entitled 'Developing Soil Conservation Strategies for Improved Soil Health', part of a technical cooperation effort that began with the assessment of soil erosion and sedimentation for land use. In former years limited capacity to monitor national resources has led to poverty due to widespread soil erosion that has affected agricultural lands. A lack of essential soil redistribution information made it impossible for the nation to assess, monitor and address the processes of accelerated natural resource degradation. The technical cooperation project was developed as a result of Tajikistan's identified need for improved national capacities and facilities to provide the basis for soil erosion modelling and land use planning. The IAEA is providing expert advice in field sampling design, laboratory set-up and data interpretation and training, to contribute to a better understanding of the main factors affecting Tajikistan's soil redistribution. As a result of this assistance, sustainable natural resource management will be possible, based on the identification of cost-effective soil conservation measures. This project has become associated with the project on Sustainable Land Management in the High Pamir and Pamir-Alai Mountains (PALM), an integrated transboundary initiative of the governments of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan and has involved numerous partners: - The Global Environment Facility (GEF), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and other donors who provided financial support to PALM; - The State agencies for environment protection and forestry in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; - Partnerships were established with the University of Bern's Centre for Development and Environment through the National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, and with scientists from Moscow State University; - GEF directed complementary resources to the project through the PALM mechanism; - The United Nations University (UNU) helped to coordinate project activities. These

382

The crustal and mantle velocity structure in central Asia from 3D traveltime tomography  

Science.gov (United States)

The lithospheric structure in central Asia features large blocks such as the Indian plate, the Afghan block, the Turan plate, and the Tarim block. This geologically and tectonically complicated area is also one of the most seismically active regions in the world. We developed P- and S- wave velocity structures of the central Asia in the crust using the traveltime data from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbek. We chose the events and stations between 32N65E and 45N85E and focused on the areas of Pamir and western Tianshan. In this data set, there are more than 6000 P and S arrivals received at 80 stations from about 300 events. The double difference tomography is applied to relocate events and to invert for seismic structures simultaneously. Our results provide accurate locations of earthquakes and high resolution crustal structure in this region. To extend the model deeper into the mantle through the upper mantle transition zone, ISC/EHB data for P and PP phases are combined with the ABCE data. To counteract the “smearing effect,” the crust and upper mantle velocity structure, derived from regional travel-times, is used. An adaptive grid method based on ray density is used in the inversion. A P-wave velocity model extending down to a depth of 2000 km is obtained. regional-teleseismic tomography provides a high-resolution, 3-D P-wave velocity model for the crust, upper mantle, and the transition zone. The crustal models correlate well with geologic and tectonic features. The upper mantle tomograms show the images of Tian Shan. The slab geometry is quite complex, reflecting the history of the changes in the plate motions and collision processes. Vp/Vs tomography was also determined in the study region, and an attenuation tomography was obtained as well.

Sun, Y.; Martin, R. V.; Toksoz, M. N.; Pei, S.

2010-12-01

383

Gazprom: Russia's strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventeen years after the splitting up of the Soviet empire, Russia is looking again for huge international ambitions. Its main advantage in this power search will is its energy resources. Production area, but also transit area between Asia, central Asia, Caucasus and Europe, Russia is an inevitable partner and wishes to take advantage of this strategic position. Gazprom, the hugest gas company in the world, is totally under the control of the government. Therefore, the Kremlin has made gas its main political and diplomatic weapon. Such an energetic imperialisms has strong economical and political consequences on the rest of Europe as illustrated by the recent Ukrainian crisis. The reconstruction of an energy empire similar to the one of the hottest days of the cold war worries also the USA. This study is a collective work carried out by students of the Sciences Po school of Paris in the framework of the 'international organizations' seminar given by by A.M Lizin, president of the Belgium senate and chairwoman of the human rights commission of the organization for European security and cooperation. Content: Gazprom's international strategy, Gazprom: an omnipotent gas company, Gazprom's international strategy at the service of the Russian foreign policy, Gazprom's energy stake and strategies, Gazprom and Armenia, Gazprom and Azerbaijan, Gazprom and Belgium, Gazprom and Bielorussia, Gazprom and Iberia, French position in energy stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's difficulties in Hungary, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in front of Gazprom, Gazprom and the US strategy. (J.S.)

384

A plan for location calibration of IMS stations and near Kazakhstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For purposes of monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, it is desirable to be able to locate seismic events routinely to within an uncertainty not greater than 1000 square km. From more than five years of experience with publication of the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) by the Prototype International Data Centre (PIDC), resulting in estimated locations for more than 100,000 seismic events, it is apparent that improved location accuracy is needed in order to reduce uncertainties below 1000 square km. In this paper, we outline a three-year program of applied research which commenced in March 2000 and which has the goal of achieving improved REB locations based upon data to be contributed to the International Data Centre from 30 IMS stations in Eastern Asia. Our first efforts will focus on the four IMS seismographic stations in Kazakhstan (AKT, BRV, KUR, MAK), together with IMS stations ZAL in Russia and AAK in Kyrgyzstan. Following the recommendations of two 'IMS Location Calibration Workshops' held in Oslo, Norway, in 1999 and 2000, our approach is to generate station-specific travel times for each observable seismic phase, as a function of distance and azimuth (and depth, where possible). Such travel times are obtained on the basis of (i) early studies based mainly on earthquake data (e.g. Nersesov and Rautian, 1964), (ii) Deep Seismic Sounding, and (iii) recent studies of nuclear and chemical explosions. We are also using (iv) an empiricaosions. We are also using (iv) an empirical approach in which phases are picked at IMS stations, for so-called Ground Truth events whose location is known quite accurately on the basis of additional data, obtained for example from local and regional networks. (author)

385

Pliocene-Pleistocene initiation, style, and sequencing of deformation in the central Tien Shan  

Science.gov (United States)

response to the Indo-Asian collision, deformation of the Tien Shan initiated at ~25 Ma along the northwestern margin of the Tarim Basin. 300 km north, the Kyrgyz Range began deforming ~15 Ma later. Although multiple intervening structures across the Tien Shan are currently active, the sequencing of initial deformation across the orogen's entire width remains poorly known. To determine whether deformation migrated sequentially northward or developed less predictably, we documented deformation patterns within the Naryn Basin in south-central Kyrgyzstan. Detailed mapping and a published balanced cross section across the Naryn Basin suggest that deep-seated, relatively steeply dipping thrust faults have disrupted the basin during late Cenozoic deformation. Dating of deformed fluvial terraces with ages between ~10 and 250 ka constrains the rate of deformation across relatively young structures in the Tien Shan interior. Based on geodetic surveys of dated terraces, local rates of relative rock uplift span from 0.3 to 3.5 mm/yr. Folding rates and patterns are temporally persistent at a given site. Moreover, they mimic modern geodetic rates measured from interferometric synthetic aperture radar. Extrapolating these rates into the past suggests that structures within the interior of the Naryn Basin formed in the last 1 Myr, whereas the ranges surrounding the basin initiated at least 1-4 Myr earlier. Hence, within the Naryn Basin itself, deformation has migrated from margins to interior. Similarly, these new chronologies indicate that at least some deformation in the interior of the Tien Shan initiated millions of years later than along either orogenic margin.

Goode, Joseph K.; Burbank, Douglas W.; Ormukov, Cholponbek

2014-04-01

386

Addressing of Amirbek Turatovic Muratov to Yenisey / Amirbek Turatoviç Muratov’dan Yenisey’e Sesleni?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some people who could not find what they searched for in Turkic Republics founded following the breakdown of Soviet Union had to migrate to different countries (Russian Federation, Turkey, European Union Counties, United Stated of America... for various reasons such as "financial difficulties", "longing for the past" etc. One of those who had to leave their hometown Kyrgyzstan for their longing to the history and past of the Kyrgyz is poet Amirbek Turatoviç MURATOV. MURATOV settled in Krasnoyarsk which located at the coasts of Yenisey River in Siberian Region. This article presents migrations from Turkic Republics to Siberian Region, autobiography of Amirbek Turatoviç MURATOV and some of his poems on Yenisey River. Sovyetler Birli?i’nin da??lmas?ndan sonra yeni kurulan Türk cumhuriyetlerinde arad?klar?n? bulamayan baz? ki?iler geçim s?k?nt?s?”, “geçmi?e özlem” vb. sebeplerle farkl? ülkelere (Rusya Federasyonu, Türkiye, Avrupa Birli?i ülkeleri, Amerika Birle?ik Devletleri… göç etmek zorunda kalm??lard?r. Do?up büyüdü?ü ülkesi K?rg?zistan’dan K?rg?zlar?n tarihine ve geçmi?ine duydu?u özlem yüzünden ayr?lmak zorunda kalanlardan biri de ?air Amirbek Turatoviç MURATOV’dur. MURATOV, Sibirya Bölgesi’nde Yenisey Irma?? k?y?lar?nda bulunan Krasnoyarsk’a yerle?mi?tir. Bu makalede son y?llarda Türk cumhuriyetlerinden Sibirya bölgesine yap?lan göçler, Amirbek Turatoviç MURATOV’un öz geçmi?i ve onun Yenisey Irma?? üzerine yazm?? oldu?u baz? ?iirler dikkatlere sunulmaktad?r.

Cengiz ALYILMAZ

2014-03-01

387

Strain partitioning at the eastern Pamir-Alai revealed through SAR data analysis of the 2008 Nura earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

On 2008 October 5, a magnitude 6.6 earthquake struck the eastern termination of the intermontane Alai valley between the southern Tien Shan and the northern Pamir of Kyrgyzstan. The shallow thrust earthquake occurred in the footwall of the Main Pamir thrust, where the Pamir orogen is colliding with the southern Tien Shan mountains. We measure the coseismic surface displacements using SAR (Synthetic Aperture RADAR) data; the results show clear gradients in the vertical and horizontal directions along a complex pattern of surface ruptures and active faults. To integrate and to interpret these observations in the context of the regional tectonics, we complement the SAR data analysis with seismological data and geological field observations. While the main moment release of the Nura earthquake appears to be on the Pamir Frontal thrust, the main surface displacements and surface rupture occurred in the footwall along the NE-SW striking Irkeshtam fault. With InSAR data from ascending and descending tracks along with pixel offset measurements, we model the Nura earthquake source as a segmented rupture. One fault segment corresponds to high-angle brittle faulting at the Pamir Frontal thrust and two more fault segments show moderate-angle and low-friction thrusting at the Irkeshtam fault. Our integrated analysis of the coseismic deformation argues for rupture segmentation and strain partitioning associated to the earthquake. It possibly activated an orogenic wedge in the easternmost segment of the Pamir-Alai collision zone. Further, the style of the segmentation may be associated with the presence of Palaeogene evaporites.

Teshebaeva, Kanayim; Sudhaus, Henriette; Echtler, Helmut; Schurr, Bernd; Roessner, Sigrid

2014-06-01

388

Marriage formation as a process intermediary between migration and childbearing  

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Full Text Available In studies of differences in fertility between migrants and non-migrants, marriage interferes because migration can be motivated by an impending marriage or can entail entry into a marriage market with new opportunities. One would therefore expect elevated fertility after migration, although a competing theory states that on the contrary fertility ought to be reduced in the time around the move because migration temporarily disturbs the life of the migrant. In any case marriage appears as a process that is intermediary between migration and childbearing. To handle such issues it pays to have a technique that allows the analyst to separate any disruptive effects of migration from any boosting effects of marriage in studies of childbearing. The purposes of the present paper are (i to remind us that such a technique is available, in fact is straightforward, and (ii to apply the technique to further analyze a set of data on migration and first-time parenthood in Kyrgyzstan recently used by the second author and Gunnar Andersson. The technique has the neat feature that it allows us to operate with several "clocks" at the same time. In the analysis of first births we keep track of time since migration (for migrants and time since marriage formation (for the married beside the respondent's age (for women at childbearing ages; in other connections there may be more clocks. For such analyses we make use of a flexible graphical housekeeping device that allows the analyst to keep track of a feature like whether migration occurs before or after marriage, or at the same time. This is a half-century-old flow chart of statuses and transitions and is not much more complex than the famous Lexis diagram, which originated with Gustav Zeuner, as we now know. These reflexions were first presented at a symposium dedicated to Professor Zeuner.

Lesia Nedoluzhko

2008-06-01

389

INVESTIGATION OF CRUSTAL MOTION IN THE TIEN SHAN USING INSAR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

Mellors, R J

2011-02-25

390

Good Health at Low Cost 25 years on: lessons for the future of health systems strengthening.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1985, the Rockefeller Foundation published Good health at low cost to discuss why some countries or regions achieve better health and social outcomes than do others at a similar level of income and to show the role of political will and socially progressive policies. 25 years on, the Good Health at Low Cost project revisited these places but looked anew at Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Thailand, and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which have all either achieved substantial improvements in health or access to services or implemented innovative health policies relative to their neighbours. A series of comparative case studies (2009-11) looked at how and why each region accomplished these changes. Attributes of success included good governance and political commitment, effective bureaucracies that preserve institutional memory and can learn from experience, and the ability to innovate and adapt to resource limitations. Furthermore, the capacity to respond to population needs and build resilience into health systems in the face of political unrest, economic crises, and natural disasters was important. Transport infrastructure, female empowerment, and education also played a part. Health systems are complex and no simple recipe exists for success. Yet in the countries and regions studied, progress has been assisted by institutional stability, with continuity of reforms despite political and economic turmoil, learning lessons from experience, seizing windows of opportunity, and ensuring sensitivity to context. These experiences show that improvements in health can still be achieved in countries with relatively few resources, though strategic investment is necessary to address new challenges such as complex chronic diseases and growing population expectations. PMID:23574803

Balabanova, Dina; Mills, Anne; Conteh, Lesong; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Banteyerga, Hailom; Dash, Umakant; Gilson, Lucy; Harmer, Andrew; Ibraimova, Ainura; Islam, Ziaul; Kidanu, Aklilu; Koehlmoos, Tracey P; Limwattananon, Supon; Muraleedharan, V R; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Palafox, Benjamin; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; McKee, Martin

2013-06-15

391

Capacity building for air quality management and the application of clean coal combustion technologies in Central Asia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides an overview of the project proposal submitted by the UNECE for funding under the fourth tranche of the United Nations Development Account (UNDA) for the biennium 2004-2005. The objective of the project is to strengthen the capacity of air quality management institutions in Central Asia to implement the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and its protocols and to promote the deployment of appropriate clean coal combustion technologies for heat and power generation from solid fuels. The project is known by the acronym CAPACT. Three of the five Central Asian economies, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, use solid fuels, notably both hard coal and lignite with a high ash and high sulphur content. The total production level is currently around 80 million tonnes (Mt) and is forecast to increase to up to 90 Mt by 2005. There are some 40 coal-based power plants in operation, which are a key source of pollution for the whole region posing both an environmental and health hazard for the local populations. The proposed activities include six main work packages (WPs): Implementation Plan for the CLTRAP Protocols; Development of Sub-regional Cooperation on Air pollution Problems as part of the Regional Cooperation under the Convention; Linking European and Asian Air Monitoring and Evaluation Programme; Development of a Sub-Regional network for Energy Related Emission Reductions; Strengthening of Sustainable Energy Policies and Energy Pricing Reforms; and Promotion of Investment Project Finance for the Development of Clean Coal Technologies. The proposed budsget is US$680,000 for the entire period of project implementation.

NONE

2003-09-01

392

Micro-analytical characterisation of radioactive heterogeneities in samples from Central Asian TENORM sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work focuses on the use of micro-analytical techniques to demonstrate the heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides and metals in soils collected at Former Soviet Union mining sites in Central Asia. Based on digital autoradiography, radionuclides were heterogeneously distributed in soil samples collected at the abandoned uranium mining sites Kurday, Kazakhstan, Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan and Taboshar, Tajikistan. Using electron microscopy interfaced with X-ray microanalysis submicron - mm-sized radioactive particles and rock fragments with U, As, Se and toxic metals on the surfaces were identified in Kurday and Kadji Sai samples. Employing scanning and tomographic (3D) synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-SRXRF) and synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray diffraction (?-SRXRD) allowed us to observe the inner structure of the particles without physical sectioning. The distribution of elements in virtual crosssections demonstrated that U and a series of toxic elements were rather heterogeneously distributed also within individual radioactive TENORM particles. Compared to archived data, U in Kadji Sai particles was present as uraninite (U4O9+y or UO2+x) or Na-zippeite ((Na4(UO2)6[(OH)10(SO4)3]·4H2O), i.e. U minerals with very low solubility. The results suggested that TENORM particles can carry substantial amount of radioactivity, which can be subject to re-suspension, atmospheric transport and water transport. Thus, the potential radioecological and radioanalytical impact of radioactive particles at NORM and TENORM sites worldwide should be taken into account. The present work also demonstrates that radioecological studies should benefit from the use of advanced methods such as synchrotron radiation based techniques. PMID:22421357

Lind, O C; De Nolf, W; Janssens, K; Salbu, B

2013-09-01

393

Malaria Status in Economic Cooperation Countries; Achievement and Gaps Toward United Nations Millennium Development Goals  

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Full Text Available Background: Evaluating the malaria status of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO member countries relation to goal 6 of 3rd Millennium Development Goals (MDGs which includes have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria.Methods: By 2009, we reviewed the MDGs reports, extracted the data from surveillance system, published, and unpublished data. The main stakeholders, from both governmental and international organizations in the country have been visited and interviewed by the research team as part of the data validation process.Results: The malaria incidence is very heterogeneous among ECO countries, which differ less than 200 cases in total country in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan to 82,564 cases (2,428/100,000 in Afghanistan and 59,284 cases (881/100,000 in Pakistan and about 18/100,000 in Iran in 2008. Malaria has been a major public health problem in Pakistan and Afghanistan and will continue to pose serious threat to millions of people due to poor environmental and socioeconomic conditions conducive to the spread of disease. The main malaria endemic areas of Iran are in southeastern part of the country; consist of less developed provinces that are bordered in the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan. There are little valid information about proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures indicators.Conclusion: All ECO countries could achieve MDGs malaria indicators by 2015 except Pakistan and Afghanistan, unless preparing urgent intervention programs to fulfill the goals.

A Mirzazadeh

2012-07-01

394

Uzbekistan - nonproliferation and continuous activities on countering nuclear materials and other radioactive sources illicit trafficking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Countering illicit trafficking of nuclear weapon and its components is an important task in the modern world. For this reason, at the borders and customs points the control of transportation is to be conducted in order to determine radioactive and fissile materials in them. This report presents the results of works performed in the period of 2001 - 2005 years on the program for development of radiation monitors and equipping the Uzbekistan border customs points with them, in order to fight the smuggling of nuclear and radioactive materials. The Republic of Uzbekistan is located on the transit transportation crossroad, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Western Europe - to the North, and Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and others - to the South. Therefore, this program is important for saving peace in the world and fighting any attempts to create nuclear weapon in the region. The radiation monitoring equipment is installed at the border customs points through which the transportation enters the Uzbekistan and at the Tashkent International Airport where passengers arrive by air. Also, the customs points are equipped through which the transportation quits for South and international passenger depart. The radiation portal monitors are designed by CIS Aspect (Dubna, Moscow region), however, we develop our own portal monitoring system which can be produced after certification. The Institute of Nuclear Physics provides the technical expertise that includes install technical expertise that includes installation, calibration, maintenance, and secondary alarm response; mobile response units are being developed to rapidly and accurately identify seized material and recommend handling procedures. At present we are accumulating information on the alarm from the Yantar - type radiation monitor at the customs check-points and examining characteristics of the system to improve the results of our research

395

National Legislation and Regulations in the Uranium Legacy Radiation Safety of the Former USSR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many uranium legacy sites in Russia and ex-Soviet republics in the Central Asia, which are decommissioned now. In Russia, there is a number of operating uranium mines and ore milling facilities to be decommissioned after termination of their life cycle. Today, the list of Russian subsoil areas of the federal significance includes 135 uranium deposits. The uranium legacy management is accompanied with the environmental impact. The intensity of such impact depends on the amount of generated waste, degree of its confining and dispersion in the environment. The whole question reduces itself to the following: to what extent this impact is harmful to the environment and human health. The proper regulation of this problem is a criterion for the safe work. Today, the advanced guidance document is under development 'Health-care requirements for design and operation of facilities for uranium ore mining and milling'. In order to enhance the regulatory framework, the following tasks are urgent: introduction of the existing exposure situation in the national laws and regulations in compliance with the ICRP statutory system; development criteria for remediation of sites and their gradual return to uncontrolled use. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary SNF and Radioactive Wastes storage; review of possibilities and methods for optimization of the remediation strategies under development; identification of the special category - R W originated from the uranium ore mining and milling. Some regulatory problems assume to be solved under the Eurasian Economic Community inter-state target programme 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines'. Within this programme, by examples of the uranium legacy facilities in Kyrgyzstan and in Tajikistan, posed to trans-border disasters and required urgent remediation, the experience will be gained to be applied in other Eurasian Economic Community member states. Harmonization of national legislation and regulations in radiation safety is provided for.

396

Contesting danger : a new agenda for policy and scholarship on Central Asia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Western geopolitical discourse misrepresents and constructs Central Asia as an inherently and essentially dangerous place. This pervasive ‘discourse of danger’ obscures knowledge of the region, deforms scholarship and, because it has policy implications, actually endangers Central Asia. This article identifies how the region is made knowable to a US–UK audience through three mutually reinforcing dimensions of endangerment: Central Asia as obscure, oriental, and fractious. This is evidenced in the writings of conflict resolution and security analysts, the practices of governments, the activities of international aid agencies and numerous lurid films, documentaries and novels. The article first establishes the tradition of inscribing danger to Central Asia, in both academic and policy discourse, from the colonial experience of the nineteenth century through to the post-Soviet transition and subsequent considerations of the region in terms of the war on terror. It considers several examples of this discourse of danger including the popular US TV drama about presidential politics, The West Wing, the policy texts of ‘Washingtonian security analysis’ and accounts of danger, insecurity and urban violence in the Ferghana Valley. It is argued that popular policy and academic texts are relatively consistent across the three dimensions of endangerment. This argument is demonstrated through a discussion of how policy-making and practice is informed by this discourse of danger and of how the discourse of danger is contested within the region. The example of urban violence in Osh, Kyrgyzstan and Jalalabad, Afghanistan in 2010 demonstrates how opportunities to mitigate conflict may have been lost due to the distortions of this discourse of danger. It concludes by raising the challenge to policy-makers, journalists and academics to contest this western geopolitical discourse and provide better accounts of how danger is experienced by Central Asians.

Heathershaw, John; Megoran, Nick

2011-01-01

397

In Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics, maternal deaths become more common.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal mortality is becoming more common in Central and Eastern Europe and the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, reflecting a decline in women's health because of economic and maternity care problems. Women are vulnerable to the economic and social disruption in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. A recent conference organized by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe addressed women's health in these countries. The gap between the health of women in the former socialist countries and those in the rest of Europe seems to be widening. A woman in Turkmenistan can expect to live 10 years less than a woman in the European Union. In Lithuania and Poland, female life expectancy fell during the early 1990s. Maternal mortality in the newly independent states is twice as high as in Central and Eastern Europe and four times higher than in Western Europe. Although maternal mortality in Albania and Romania fell dramatically after abortion was legalized a few years ago, levels are still well above the average for Europe. The risk of pregnancy-related death is increasing in Lithuania, Kyrgyzstan, and St. Petersburg, some of it on account of better reporting systems. However, increases in maternal death are also the result of deteriorating socioeconomic conditions, inadequate health systems, and use of abortion rather than contraception to regulate fertility. The role of midwives is severely limited; newborn babies are separated from their mothers; information about treatment options is lacking; and financial costs of health care are growing. PMID:12345696

1994-01-01

398

Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan  

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Full Text Available Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

H.-B. Havenith

2003-01-01

399

Central Asia Active Fault Database  

Science.gov (United States)

The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late Pleistocene landforms observed near the fault trace.

Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

2014-05-01

400

Exhumation of Basement-Cored Uplifts: Example of the Kyrgyz Range Quantified with Apatite Fission-Track Thermochronology  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kyrgyz range, the northernmost portion of the Kyrgyzstan Tian Shan, provides an example of a reverse-fault bounded mountain range with topographic evidence for progressive lateral propagation of surface uplift and exhumation. The highest and most deeply dissected central portion of the range lies south of Bishkek, in the region of the Ala Archa river. To the east and west, topography and relief decrease and remnants of a Cretaceous regional erosion surface imply minimal amounts of bedrock exhumation. Deciphering the timing of exhumation of segments of the range outward from the center measures the lateral propogation rate of the range-bounding reverse fault and quantifies the time and erosion depth needed to transform a mountain range from a juvenile to a mature morphology. New apatite fission-track (AFT) data from three transects from the eastern half of the Kyrgyz Range, combined with published AFT data, demonstrate that the range has propagated over 110 km from the presently highest region towards the east over the last 8-11 Ma. Based on the thermal and topographic evolutionary history of the Kyrgyz range, we present a model for a time-varying exhumation rate driven by changes in erodability, precipitation, and glaciation. Easily eroded, recently deposited sedimentary rocks overlying resistant basement control early, rapid exhumation and slow surface uplift rates. As increasing amounts of resistant basement are exposed, exhumation rates decrease while surface uplift rates increase, thereby growing topography. As the range becomes high enough to cause ice accumulation and orographically enhanced precipitation, fluvial and glacial erosion become more powerful and exhumation rates once again increase. Balance between erosion and uplift occurs through establishment of mature drainage networks into the range that connect high-elevation glaciated areas to deeply incised rivers.

Sobel, E. R.; Oskin, M.; Burbank, D.; Mikolaichuk, A.

2004-12-01

401

Exhumation of basement-cored uplifts: Example of the Kyrgyz Range quantified with apatite fission track thermochronology  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kyrgyz Range, the northernmost portion of the Kyrgyzstan Tien Shan, displays topographic evidence for lateral propagation of surface uplift and exhumation. The highest, most deeply dissected segment lies in the center of the range. To the east, topography and relief decrease, and preserved remnants of a Cretaceous regional erosion surface imply minimal amounts of bedrock exhumation. The timing of exhumation of range segments defines the lateral propagation rate of the range-bounding reverse fault and quantifies the time and erosion depth needed to transform a mountain range from a juvenile to a mature morphology. New multicompositional apatite fission track (AFT) data from three transects from the eastern Kyrgyz Range, combined with published AFT data, demonstrate that the range has propagated over 110 km eastward over the last ˜7-11 Myr. On the basis of the thermal and topographic evolutionary history, we present a model for a time-varying exhumation rate driven by rock uplift and changes in erodability and the timescale of geomorphic adjustment to surface uplift. Easily eroded, Cenozoic sedimentary rocks overlying resistant basement control early, rapid exhumation and exhibit slow surface uplift rates. As increasing amounts of resistant basement are exposed, exhumation rates decrease while surface uplift rates are sustained or increase, thereby growing topography. As the range becomes high enough to cause ice accumulation and to develop steep river valleys, fluvial and glacial erosion becomes more powerful, and exhumation rates once again increase. Independently determined range-normal shortening rates also varied over time, suggesting a feedback between erosional efficiency and shortening rate.

Sobel, Edward R.; Oskin, Michael; Burbank, Douglas; Mikolaichuk, Alexander

2006-04-01

402

Glacier Surface Monitoring by Maximizing Mutual Information  

Science.gov (United States)

The contribution of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) images compared with the single-channel SAR in terms of temporal scene characterization has been found and described to add valuable information in the literature. However, despite a number of recent studies focusing on single polarized glacier monitoring, the potential of polarimetry to estimate the surface velocity of glaciers has not been explored due to the complex mechanism of polarization through glacier/snow. In this paper, a new approach to the problem of monitoring glacier surface velocity is proposed by means of temporal PolSAR images, using a basic concept from information theory: Mutual Information (MI). The proposed polarimetric tracking method applies the MI to measure the statistical dependence between temporal polarimetric images, which is assumed to be maximal if the images are geometrically aligned. Since the proposed polarimetric tracking method is very powerful and general, it can be implemented into any kind of multivariate remote sensing data such as multi-spectral optical and single-channel SAR images. The proposed polarimetric tracking is then used to retrieve surface velocity of Aletsch glacier located in Switzerland and of Inyltshik glacier in Kyrgyzstan with two different SAR sensors; Envisat C-band (single polarized) and DLR airborne L-band (fully polarimetric) systems, respectively. The effect of number of channel (polarimetry) into tracking investigations demonstrated that the presence of snow, as expected, effects the location of the phase center in different polarization, such as glacier tracking with temporal HH compared to temporal VV channels. Shortly, a change in polarimetric signature of the scatterer can change the phase center, causing a question of how much of what I am observing is motion then penetration. In this paper, it is shown that considering the multi-channel SAR statistics, it is possible to optimize the separate these contributions.

Erten, E.; Rossi, C.; Hajnsek, I.

2012-07-01

403

Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

Gotsadze George

2007-08-01

404

Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polonium-210 in water and 210Pb and 210Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of 210Pb and 210Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of 210Po was higher than for 210Pb, and the accumulation of 210Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg?1 ww). Although the average activity concentration of 210Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25–327 Bq kg?1 ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported 210Po into the liver, and that the distributions of 210Po and 210Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for 210Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 105, >2.5 × 104 and >1.4 × 104, respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log 210Po in liver and ?15N could indicate biomagnification of 210Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for 210Po, the concentration of 210Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake

405

The Virtual Silk Highway -- Connectivity for Central Asia and the Caucasus  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation focuses on Internet for research and education communities in the countries along the Great Silk Road, eight republics of the Former Soviet Union (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia) and Afghanistan. When the Internet became a standard science tool in the nineties, connectivity to this area was limited to analog telephone lines. The TAE fiber was installed from Istanbul via Tashkent to Shanghai, but it was based on international ISDN telephone calls at 10 per minute, unaffordable to communities with salaries of 300 per month. Satellites offered connectivity on short notice at better prices but funding by the communities was out of the question. Aid programs stepped in, connecting individual institutes across the area to the outside world. ISPs catered to those who could afford it, such as universities selling MBA courses, but Internet for research and education was lacking. In 2001, the NATO Science Programme added to its grants to institutes a multi-year program of providing a shared satellite service for international connectivity to all the countries above. National connectivity and solving the ``last mile problem'' was also funded, provided that a National Research and Education Network (NREN) organization was created in the country. SILK-1 ran 2002-6 for 3.5m providing 30Mbps west->east and 6Mbps east->west. QOS was implemented for video and audio conferencing. Co-funding by NRENs and others was established, but sustainability is still outstanding. Only recently, affordable fiber (SILK-2 in 2006 was issued in a technology-neutral way. No fiber bids were received, but a cheaper satellite service providing a total of 120/30Mbps for 3.5m in 2007-8. With fiber initiatives under way, it is hoped that part of SILK-2 can switch to fiber in 2009.

Frese, Hans

2007-04-01

406

[Legislation concerning reproductive health in Central and Eastern Europe: new facts].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, WHO reports on certain laws promulgated in different central and eastern European countries in the early 1990s. Russia has passed a law creating a Coordinating Committee on Problems of the Family, Motherhood, and Childhood. It brings together governmental agencies, public organizations, and citizens to identify ways to improve women's status and protection of maternal and child health. Russia has also adopted Legislative Orientations of the Russian Federation concerning the Sanitary Protection of Citizens. For example, this law guarantees pregnant women the right to work under conditions adapted to their physiological and sanitary state. A whole chapter is dedicated to family planning and regulation of human procreation. Only women have the right to decide whether to terminate or continue their pregnancy. A law in Kyrgyzstan states that every woman has the right to make her own decisions concerning motherhood. With their consent, women also have the right to modern contraceptive methods. Sterilization can only be done with the consent of the woman or for medical reasons. The Counsel of Ministers in the Ukraine adopted a program aiming to improve the condition of women and the family and to protect mothers and children. A Hungarian law does not consider abortion to be a family planning method or a means of fertility control. At the same time, it considers family planning to be a right and a duty of parents. It calls for considerable education on the value of health and life, the healthy life, responsibilities accompanying relations between partners, a family life compatible with human dignity, and contraceptive methods. Albania first approved family planning activities in May 1992. Romania approved technical norms relative to hormonal contraceptives and to IUDs. In January 1993, Poland passed a law restricting abortion to cases of medical indications, fetal death, a grave abnormality, and illicit acts. PMID:12222255

Fluss, S S

1994-05-01

407

Swedish support programme on nuclear non-proliferation in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the request of the Swedish Government, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has established a support and co-operation programme in the area of nuclear non-proliferation with Russia and several of the republics of the former Soviet Union. The Programme was initiated in 1991 and an overall goal is to accomplish national means and measures for control and protection of nuclear material and facilities, in order to minimise the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The objective of the Swedish Support Programme is to help each, so called, recipient State to be able to, independently and without help from outside, take the full responsibility for operating a national non-proliferation system and thereby fulfil the requirements imposed through the international legal instruments. This would include both the development and implementation of a modern nuclear legislation system, and the establishment of the components making up a national system for combating illicit trafficking. The support and co-operation projects are organised in five Project Groups (i.e. nuclear legislation, nuclear material control, physical protection, export/import control, and combating of illicit trafficking), which together cover the entire non-proliferation area. Up till June 2000, support and co-operation projects, completed and on-going, have been carried out in ten States, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, programmes have been initiated during the first part of 2000 with Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In addition, assistance has been given to Poland on a specific nuclear material accountancy topic. All projects are done on request by and in co-operation with these States. The total number of projects initiated during the period 1991 to June 2000 is 109, thereof 77 have been completed and 32 are currently on-going. It is the convinced understanding and opinion of the Swedish Support Programme Management that the States in question are seriously motivated and are carrying out an ambitious work to develop and improve their national non-proliferation regimes, in spite of their shortcomings concerning financial and human resources. For those States, with which Sweden has established support and co-operation programmes with 'full-scope' non-proliferation objectives, it is judged that the goals reached, up till now, are very satisfactory, and that the States in question have come a long way towards the fulfilment of international requirements. The Programme is now entering a third phase and the future Programme plans are currently under consideration. A broad outlook of the future activities is made in chapter D of this report.

Ek, P.; Andersson, Sarmite [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Wredberg, L. [ILG Consultant Ltd., Vienna (Austria)

2000-06-15

408

Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered mobile and potentially bioavailable. Looking at fish, high BCF (L/kg) especially for {sup 210}Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of {sup 210}Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. A linear correlation between log {sup 210}Po in liver and ?{sup 15}N could indicate bio-magnification of {sup 210}Po in liver of C. auratus. These legacy sites, containing enhanced levels of natural radioactive material as well as heavy metals, may represent a hazard having a potential radiological and chemical impact on man and the environment, and measures should be taken to reduce the environmental risk to man and biota. (authors)

Skipperud, L.; Rosseland, B.O.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU (Norway); Stegnar, P. [Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Yunusov, M. [IA Vostokredmet (Tajikistan); Burkitbaev, L.M. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)

2014-07-01

409

Peru Mercury Inventory 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in other products such as batteries and computer electronics is not recycled and may ultimately be released to the environment.

Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

2007-01-01

410

Projected impacts of climate change on hydrology, water resource use and adaptation needs for the Chu and Talas cross-border rivers basin, Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

The observed long-term trends, variability and projections of future climate and hydrology of the Chu and Talas transboundary rivers basin were analysed using a common approach for Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan parts of the basin. Historical, current and forecasted demands and main uses of water in the basin were elaborated by the joint effort of both countries. Such cooperative approach combining scientific data, water practitioners' outlook with decision making needs allowed the first time to produce a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on water resources in the Chu-Talas transboundary rivers basin, identify future needs and develop the initial set of adaptation measures and recommendations. This work was carried out under the project "Promoting Cooperation to Adapt to Climate Change in the Chu and Talas Transboundary Basin", supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Climate change projections, including air temperatures and rainfall in the 21st century were determined with a spatial resolution 0.5 degrees based on the integration of 15 climate change model outputs (derived from IPCC's 4th Assessment Report, and partially 5th Assessment Report) combined with locally-designed hydrology and glacier models. A significant increase in surface air temperatures by 3-6°C may be expected in the basin area, especially in summer and autumn. This change is likely to be accompanied by rainfall increase during the cold season and a decrease in the warm half of the year. As a result, a deterioration of moisture conditions during the summer-autumn period is possible. Furthermore, milder winters and hotter summers can be expected. Mountains will likely receive more liquid precipitation, than snow, while the area and volume of glaciers may significantly reduce. Projected changes in climate and glaciers have implications for river hydrology and different sectors of the economy dependent on water use. Assessment of agricultural sector vulnerability, which is the key water user in the basin, led to identification of the potential adaptation measures and discussion with relevant national and river basin authorities and the major stakeholders. Proposed adaptation measures range from technical - such as rehabilitation of irrigation systems to reduce water losses, modernize water reservoirs and adjust river regulation to environmental flow needs, changing land use and crop diversification - to policy and finance measures, including revision of subsidies, economic consideration of ecosystem services, etc. Next steps include a more detailed assessment of economics, effectiveness and feasibility of the initially proposed adaptation measures and additional research.

Shamil Iliasov, Shamil; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Lipponen, Annukka; Novikov, Viktor

2014-05-01

411

La jama?at al Tabligh en Asie centrale : réactivation des liens islamiques avec le sous continent indien et insertion dans un islam mondialisé The Jama?at al Tabligh in Central Asia : revival of Islamic links with the Indian subcontinent and integration with a globalized Islam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Très fortes jusqu’à l’arrivée de la Russie en Asie centrale au XIXe siècle, notamment sous la dynastie moghole originaire d’Asie centrale, les relations islamiques entre l’Inde et l’Asie centrale ont été considérablement amoindries pendant la période russe et soviétique où l’islam centrasiatique était particulièrement coupé du monde musulman. Toutefois, à la faveur des indépendances en 1991, un important processus de recréation de liens voire d’intégration, permet à l’islam d’Asie centrale de se mettre en réseau avec l’islam du monde entier, turc, arabe, mais aussi indien. Ce dernier, sans doute le moins étudié par la communauté des chercheurs sur l’Asie centrale, s’implante en force dans toute la région, mais plus particulièrement au Kirghizstan et au Kazakhstan, grâce au dynamisme d’une organisation islamique, née dans l’Inde britannique des années 1920, la Jama?at al Tabligh. Non radical et apolitique, prêchant un « islam minimal » qui insiste sur les vertus de la foi et de la pratique, l’islam de cette mouvance semble bénéficier du soutien tacite des autorités politiques en place, qui trouvent dans la Jama?at al Tabligh un allié dans leur lutte contre l’islam contestataire de l’ordre établi.After two centuries of close relationships, especially under the Mughals, Islamic ties between India and Central Asia were considerably weakened after the Tsarist colonization and the subsequent Soviet religious repression and ideological isolation. However, when Central Asian post-Soviet republics became independent in 1991, they renewed all kinds of links with the Indian subcontinent. And the revival of Central Asian Islam benefited from international sources of Islamic inspiration from Turkey, the Arab countries as well as from India. The last one drew less attention from analysts than the other sources of influence, although it has gained ground through the past years all over the region with a particular highlight in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, where the India-based Jama?at al Tabligh has met with a significant success. This Islamic organization established in British India in the 1920s defines itself as a non-radical and non-political movement, promoting a "basic" Islamic faith and practice. So far, the Jama?at al Tabligh has been, in fact, tacitly supported by local authorities who would rather use them as a shield against more radical Islamic groups who openly oppose the established regime.

Bayram Balci

2012-02-01

412

Influence of High Energy Electromagnetic Pulses on the Dynamics of the Seismic Process Around the Bishkek Test Area (Central Asia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation of dynamical features of the seismic process as well as the possible influence of different natural and man-made impacts on it remains one of the main interdisciplinary research challenges. The question of external influences (forcings) acquires new importance in the light of known facts on possible essential changes, which occur in the behavior of complex systems due to different relatively weak external impacts. Seismic processes in the complicated tectonic system are not an exclusion from this general rule. In the present research we continued the investigation of dynamical features of seismic activity in Central Asia around the Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) test area, where strong electromagnetic (EM) soundings were performed in the 1980s. The unexpected result of these experiments was that they revealed the impact of strong electromagnetic discharges on the microseismic activity of investigated area. We used an earthquake catalogue of this area to investigate dynamical features of seismic activity in periods before, during, and after the mentioned man-made EM forcings. Different methods of modern time series analysis have been used, such as wavelet transformation, Hilbert Huang transformation, detrended fluctuation analysis, and recurrence quantification analysis. Namely, inter-event (waiting) time intervals, inter-earthquake distances and magnitude sequences, as well as time series of the number of daily occurring earthquakes have been analyzed. We concluded that man-made high-energy EM irradiation essentially affects dynamics of the seismic process in the investigated area in its temporal and spatial domains; namely, the extent of order in earthquake time and space distribution increase. At the same time, EM influence on the energetic distribution is not clear from the present analysis. It was also shown that the influence of EM impulses on dynamical features of seismicity differs in different areas of the examined territory around the test site. Clear changes have been indicated only in areas which, according to previous researches, have been characterized by anomalous increase of average rates of strain release and thus can be regarded as close to the critical state.

Matcharashvili, Teimuraz N.; Chelidze, Tamaz L.; Zhukova, Natalia N.

2014-06-01

413

Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Turkic Republics and Turkey: Economic and Business Dimensions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An ever-increasing globalization in last century is enforcing many countries to come together and create organizations to take advantage of a greater power in the global stage both in political and economic issues. Regional organizations are one form of such organizations. In addition to many of such groups, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO is an intergovernmental mutual-security organization which was founded in 2001 by the leaders of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgy