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1

Kyrgyzstan: Health system review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kyrgyzstan has undertaken wide-ranging reforms of its health system in a challenging socioeconomic and political context. The country has developed two major health reform programmes after becoming independent: Manas (1996 to 2006) and Manas Taalimi (2006 to 2010). These reforms introduced comprehensive structural changes to the health care delivery system with the aim of strengthening primary health care, developing family medicine and restructuring the hospital sector.Major service delivery improvements have included the introduction of new clinical practice guidelines, improvements in the provision and use of pharmaceuticals, quality improvements in the priority programmes for mother and child health, cardiovascular diseases, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, strengthening of public health and improvements in medical education. A Community Action for Health programme was introduced through new village health committees, enhancing health promotion and allowing individuals and communities to take more responsibility for their own health. Health financing reform consisted of the introduction of a purchaser provider split and the establishment of a single payer for health services under the state-guaranteed benefit package (SGBP). Responsibility for purchasing health services has been consolidated under the Mandatory Health Insurance Fund (MHIF), which pools general revenue and health insurance funding. Funds have been pooled at national level since 2006, replacing the previous pooling at oblast level. The transition from oblast-based pooling of funds to pooling at the national level allowed the MHIF to distribute funds more equitably for the SGBP and the Additional Drug Package. Although utilization of both primary care and hospital services declined during the 1990s and early 2000s, it is increasing again. There is increasing equality of access across regions, improved financial protection and a decline in informal payments, but more efforts will be required in these areas in the future. PMID:21697030

Ibraimova, Ainura; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Ibraimov, Aibek; Manzhieva, Elina; Rechel, Bernd

2011-01-01

2

New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia i...

Lazkov, Georgy; Sennikov, Alexander

2014-01-01

3

75 FR 67013 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the...State, related to humanitarian needs resulting from recent violence in Kyrgyzstan. You are authorized and directed to...

2010-11-01

4

New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae) in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae) is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae) and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae) are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24855435

2014-01-01

5

Comparing genetic diversity and population structure of common beans grown in Kyrgyzstan using microsatellites  

OpenAIRE

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important export crop in Kyrgyzstan. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of genetic diversity, determine the population structure, and relate to the main gene pools grown in Kyrgyzstan. Twenty-eight common bean accessions (including five Kyrgyz cultivars, and main references from the Mesoamerica and South America) were evaluated with microsatellites. Nine polymorphic microsatellites were used to estimate genetic diversity and heterozygosity...

Sergey Hegay; Mulatu Geleta; Tomas Bryngelsson; Larisa Gustavsson; Helena Persson Hovmalm; Rodomiro Ortiz

2012-01-01

6

Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales  

OpenAIRE

Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was...

Nazir Mirzaev; Jusipbek Kazbekov; Andrew Noble; Oyture Anarbekov; Kahramon Jumabaev; Murat Yakubov; Akmal Karimov; Ahmad Alimdjanov

2010-01-01

7

Molecular Epidemiology and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Livestock Brucella melitensis Isolates from Naryn Oblast, Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

The incidence of human brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan has been increasing in the last years and was identified as a priority disease needing most urgent control measures in the livestock population. The latest species identification of Brucella isolates in Kyrgyzstan was carried out in the 1960s and investigated the circulation of Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, B. ovis, and B. suis. However, supporting data and documentation of that experience are lacking. Therefore, typing of Brucella spp. and ...

Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Imanseitov, Joldoshbek; Ballif, Marie; Schu?rch, Nadia; Paniga, Sandra; Pilo, Paola; Tonolla, Mauro; Benagli, Cinzia; Akylbekova, Kulyash; Jumakanova, Zarima; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob

2013-01-01

8

Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range) air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86) ?g/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD) 13.5 (3.6)...

Ana Navas-Acien; Patrick Breysse; Shahida Shahrir; Denis Vinnikov; Nurlan Brimkulov

2010-01-01

9

Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86 ?g/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD 13.5 (3.6 hours a day and 5.8 (1.4 days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS.

Ana Navas-Acien

2010-03-01

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Excessive exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke among hospitality workers in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range) air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86) microg/m(3). Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD) 13.5 (3.6) hours a day and 5.8 (1.4) days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS. PMID:20617012

Vinnikov, Denis; Brimkulov, Nurlan; Shahrir, Shahida; Breysse, Patrick; Navas-Acien, Ana

2010-03-01

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Quantifying the predictability of the timing of jökulhlaups from Merzbacher Lake, Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Glacier-dammed lakes can yield subglacial outburst floods (jo¨kulhlaups) repeatedly. Predicting flood timing is crucial for hazard mitigation, but incomplete understanding of flood-initiation physics makes this challenging. Here we examine the predictability of the timing of jo¨kulhlaups from Merzbacher Lake, Kyrgyzstan, using five flood-date prediction models of varying complexity. The simplest model, which offers a benchmark against which the other models are compared, assumes...

Kingslake, Jonathan; Ng, Felix

2013-01-01

12

Demographic Journeys along the Silk Road : Marriage, Childbearing, and Migration in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

This thesis contributes to the limited demographic literature on Central Asia – the region through which led the great Silk Road – an ancient route of trade and cultural exchange between East and West. We focus on Kyrgyzstan and countries in its immediate neighborhood: Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. We analyze the dynamic interplay between marriage, childbearing, and migration, and examine fertility intentions and intentions to migrate as predictors of demographic outcomes. The thesis consist...

Nedoluzhko, Lesia

2012-01-01

13

Religious crossings and conversions on the Muslim–Christian frontier in Georgia and Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

The renewed relevance of religion in post-Soviet public spheres has been accompanied by conspicuous and controversial conversion processes. This article compares cases of conversion on the Muslim-Christian frontier in Kyrgyzstan and in Georgia. It argues that the notions of boundary and frontier are essential to construct a more dynamic model for understanding 'spiritual' movement in social contexts that are rapidly changing. This approach in turn sheds light on the roles and the nature of so...

Pelkmans, Mathijs

2010-01-01

14

The State as Investment Market : An Analytical Framework for Interpreting Politics and Bureaucracy in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

What type of state has emerged in post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan, and what kind of theoretical framework must we develop to understand its behavior and performance? This study argues that the logic of political and bureaucratic organization follows that of an investment market in which public offices are purchased with the expectation of yielding a favorable return. This theory represents a novel perspective on the post-communist state which has hitherto either been premised on modernization theory o...

Engvall, Johan

2011-01-01

15

Rapid deep-water renewal in Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) indicated by transient tracers  

OpenAIRE

Simultaneous profiles of the transient tracers sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), 3H-3He, and the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 and CFC-12 were measured in Lake Issyk-Kul, a large, deep lake in Kyrgyzstan. Apparent water ages derived from these measurements suggest rapid mixing, with a deepwater renewal rate > 10% yr21 at 650 m depth. SF6 and 3H-3He ages agree reasonably well, whereas CFC ages are significantly greater. The discrepancy is explained by the nonlinear relationship between tracer age and tr...

Hofer, Markus; Peeters, Frank; Aeschbach-hertig, Werner; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Holocher, Johannes; Livingstone, David M.; Romanovski, Vladimir; Kipfer, Rolf

2002-01-01

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Progress Toward Remediation of Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The town of Mailuu-Suu in Kyrgyzstan inherited 23 distinct tailings deposits from Soviet-Era uranium mining operations. Mailuu-Suu is located in the narrow landslide-prone valley of the Mailuu-Suu River about 25 km from the Uzbekistan border. Large-scale release of the radioactive tailings, as a result of landslides, could lead to irreversible contamination of the river and downstream areas. The Mailuu-Suu River is a tributary to the Syr-Darya River, the Fergana valley's main source of irrigation water. The Fergana Valley is a key agricultural region and major population center that spans Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The trans-boundary nature of the Mailuu-Suu tailings issue presents an opportunity for collaboration among these Central Asian states. A cooperative approach to addressing environmental issues such as Mailuu-Suu may contribute to the region's stability by facilitating peaceful associations. Experience from remediation of sites in the US under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action Project (UMTRA) will be useful in progressing toward remediation at Mailuu-Suu.

Buckley, P B; Ranville, J; Honeyman, B D; Smith, D K; Rosenberg, N; Knapp, R B

2003-07-09

17

Childhood exposures to Rn-222 and background gamma radiation in the uranium provinces of south Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project was undertaken in southern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It was speculated that the radiation doses in these areas would be sufficiently high and dispersed to facilitate a case–control study where the radiation doses to leukaemia subjects/their siblings could be compared with those received by control children. As a precursor a pilot project was undertaken to confirm radiation exposures in the region. This was undertaken in association with regional childhood cancer treatment centres. Children from families affected by childhood leukaemia were monitored for 1 month for external ?-radiation dose and for exposure to radon gas. 28 children from families in Kazakhstan and from 31 families in Kyrgyzstan were monitored. The median measured radon in air concentration recorded in Kazakhstan was 123 Bq m?3 and in Kyrgyzstan was 177 Bq m?3. These represent 24-h average indoor/outdoor values. In the case of the ?-doses the mean annual dose was 1.2 mGy for Kazakhstan and 2.1 mGy for Kyrgyzstan. Overall, the results suggest that the populations studied receive similar annual radiation doses to those received by populations living in other areas with enhanced natural radioactivity and that further study of Kazakh and Kyrgyz populations would not facilitate a successful case–control study for childhood leukaemia

18

Childhood exposures to Rn-222 and background gamma radiation in the uranium provinces of south Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The project was undertaken in southern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It was speculated that the radiation doses in these areas would be sufficiently high and dispersed to facilitate a case-control study where the radiation doses to leukaemia subjects/their siblings could be compared with those received by control children. As a precursor a pilot project was undertaken to confirm radiation exposures in the region. This was undertaken in association with regional childhood cancer treatment centres. Children from families affected by childhood leukaemia were monitored for 1 month for external ?-radiation dose and for exposure to radon gas. 28 children from families in Kazakhstan and from 31 families in Kyrgyzstan were monitored. The median measured radon in air concentration recorded in Kazakhstan was 123 Bq m(-3) and in Kyrgyzstan was 177 Bq m(-3). These represent 24-h average indoor/outdoor values. In the case of the ?-doses the mean annual dose was 1.2 mGy for Kazakhstan and 2.1 mGy for Kyrgyzstan. Overall, the results suggest that the populations studied receive similar annual radiation doses to those received by populations living in other areas with enhanced natural radioactivity and that further study of Kazakh and Kyrgyz populations would not facilitate a successful case-control study for childhood leukaemia. PMID:22727647

Priest, N D; Hoel, D; Uralbekov, B; Baizakova, D O; Burkitbayev, M

2013-09-01

19

Coping with the energy crisis: Impact assessment and potentials of non-traditional renewable energy in rural Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyrgyz energy sector is characterised by a dramatic energy crisis that has deprived a substantial part of the population from access to energy. Non-traditional renewable energy sources have emerged as a promising alternative in providing basic energy services to the rural poor. Based on qualitative interview data from local households and project planners, this study sets out to assess impacts, limitations and barriers of non-traditional renewable energy projects in rural areas in Kyrgyzstan. This study argues that recent renewable energy efforts from multilateral international agencies, the private sector, and nongovernmental organisations exhibit great potential in creating tangible benefits and improving basic energy services, but have so far been inefficient in establishing and replicating sustainable and long-term energy solutions. Existing practices need to be improved by attaching greater importance to the capacities and real needs of the rural poor. The guidance of integrated programmes and policies along with alternative financing schemes and awareness-raising are urgently needed to leverage local success stories and to facilitate a sustainable energy development in rural Kyrgyzstan. - Highlights: ? We examine 11 rural households and 5 project planners in rural Kyrgyzstan. ? We assess impacts of non-traditional renewable energies compared with conventional fuels. ? Renewable energies exhibit a range of tangible benefits for rural users. ? Limitatinefits for rural users. ? Limitations concern performance, durability, repair, acceptance, finance and policy. ? Renewable energy is a promising alternative for rural households in Kyrgyzstan.

20

Uranium in natural waters sampled within former uranium mining sites in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New data are presented on 238U concentrations in surface and ground waters sampled at selected uranium mining sites in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan and in water supplies of settlements located in the vicinity of these sites. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used for 238U determination in all cases. In addition, for data accuracy assessments purposes, a sub-set of these samples was analysed by high-resolution alpha spectrometry, following standard radiochemical separation and purification. Our data show that drinking waters sampled at various settlements located close to the uranium mining sites are characterised by relatively low uranium concentrations (1.9 - 35.9 ?g L-1) compared to surface waters sampled within the same sites. The latter show high concentrations of total uranium, reflecting the influence from the radioactive waste generated as a result of uranium ore production. (author)

 
 
 
 
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Seasonal migrations of four individual bar-headed geese Anser indicus from Kyrgyzstan followed by satellite telemetry  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The Kyrgyz population of the bar-headed goose Anser indicus has declined dramatically during the past decades. Human persecution during migration and habitat loss at stopover and wintering sites are commonly regarded as most serious threats. However, little is known about seasonal movements, migration routes, and wintering sites of the bar-headed geese from Kyrgyzstan, which represent the westernmost geographical population of the species. As part of a conservation project...

2010-01-01

22

Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Kyrgyzstan: Seroprevalence, Risk Factor Analysis, and Estimate of Congenital and AIDS-Related Toxoplasmosis  

OpenAIRE

A serological study on toxoplasmosis was undertaken in a rural and urban population in Kyrgyzstan. The observed seroprevalence was adjusted because of differences between age and gender stratifications in the study group compared to population census figures. This gave an estimated seroprevalence in rural and urban populations of 5.1% and 16.4% respectively. In our analysis we determined the risk-factors for infection in the rural population to be age, low social-status and low number of shee...

Minbaeva, Gulnara; Schweiger, Alexander; Bodosheva, Aigerim; Kuttubaev, Omurbek; Hehl, Adrian B.; Tanner, Isabelle; Ziadinov, Iskender; Torgerson, Paul R.; Deplazes, Peter

2013-01-01

23

An international degree, social ties and return: when international graduates make a career back home in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Student mobility is increasing worldwide, and Kyrgyzstan is no exception. This study looks at students who returned after their degree and highlights the increasing transnational, networked character of professionals, emphasizing not only the phys­ical presence of migrants, but also the value of knowledge transfer. Transnationalism can be maintained without moving physically, for example through interaction with international donor agencies in the country or through an in-depth application o...

Thieme, Susan

2014-01-01

24

Glacier characteristics and changes in the Sary-Jaz River Basin (Central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan) – 1990–2010  

OpenAIRE

The water discharge from the heavily glacierized Sary-Jaz River Basin (Eastern Kyrgyzstan) is of high importance for the very arid Tarim Basin located in Xinjiang (north-western China). We investigated glacier changes in the entire Sary-Jaz River Basin, which covers a large part of the Central Tien Shan, for the period from 1990 to 2010 based on Landsat ‘TM’/‘ETM+’data. We found 1310 glaciers (>0.1 km²), which covered 2055 ± 41.1 km² (?18% of the entire basin) in 1990. The glacie...

Osmonov, Azamat; Bolch, Tobias; Xi, Chen; Kurban, Alishir; Guo, Wanqing

2013-01-01

25

Radioecological and radiobiogeochemical situation of flood-lands of river Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In the end of XX c. in connection with increased texnogenium of biosphere accompanying wide application of mineral fertilizers, accumulation in environment wastes of a mining industry, household wastes and other, technogenium biogeochemical provinces and new associations of chemical elements arise. It is known, that sharp deficiency or the surplus in environment of biologically active elements results in diseases of animals, plants and a man. On the territory of Kyrgyzstan and other countries biogeochemical provinces with deficiency and surplus I, F, Cu, Cu, V, Ca, Sr, Se, U and Hg are investigated. The doctrine about biogeochemical provinces finds practical realization in medicine and agriculture (preventive maintenance of endemical diseases, synthesis of medicines, manufacture of micro fertilizers etc.). Selection of samples of soil, natural waters and plants carried out by a way of platforms on the certain routes with the account of landscape-geochemical and meteorological conditions. Processing of samples carried out in biogeochemistry laboratory of an environment GEOCHI of RAS and Biology-soil institute NAS of KR with use of soil and geological cards at an advice of the geologists and soil scientists of Kyrgyzstan. Concentration of triselementis was being by AAC, Spectrofluorimetrical and etc. methods. During operation of a uranium deposit Mailuu-Suu (1946-1968 years) more than 10 thousand tons of uranium were extracted. According to the scientific geologists and geochemists, radioactive wastes in the given site, are quantitatively equivalent to size of the extracted uranium. In tail-depository the huge weights of residual uranium and it long-lived of isotopes (Th-230, Ra-226 etc.), hence, radio-activity tail-depositories will be kept long. Now condition of these damps and storehouses contains in a so pitiable condition, that radioactive wastes, heavy metals and the toxic substances pollute an environment. And, most dangerous sites are in landslide-dangerous zones or possible food by waters of the river Mailuusuu now. In pool of the river mud flows are often. For example, 1958 as a result of failure on tail-depository No 7 on the river has passed radioactive mud torrent with the charge more than 200 m3/s In the whole water p. Mailuusuu on our received data is unsuitable for drinking and cultural - household usage. The highest concentration after the attitude LPC (limit-permissible-concentration) is characteristic for Se (up to 20 times), and the level does not change in all extent of the river. Further is accumulated Fe up to 8 times more, is especial 2 and 5 points, and Hg, Cd and Al up to 2 times. It is necessary especially to note, that in r.Kulmen-Sai (inflow r.Mailuusuu are marked the increased contents of uranium up to 5 times, where the inhabitants use water for watering and economic needs. The concentration of other investigated microelements in the river at a level ore is lower LPC. Till current of the river the level of concentration Hg, Cd and Se does not vary almost, it is constant, on other elements of the certain laws is not revealed

26

Phased Remediation Approach for Prevention of Risks Linked with Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of the town of Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals from tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, we evaluated measures to be taken by the authorities to reduce the radiological exposure of the population and to prevent environmental pollution by radionuclides and heavy metals in case of loss of tightness of dams and damage to dumps and heaps from mining and milling by land and mudslides and proposed sustainable remedial options, accepted by the public. A radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu-Suu, located downstream of the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine-waste dump. The actual external exposure is around 1.2 mSv a-1 at both locations and exposure from radon is around 3 mSv a-1 at Mailuu-Suu and around 10 mSv a-1 at Kara Agach. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu-Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the very conservative hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (?10-30 mSv a-1). Additional dose from irrigation with Mailuu-Suu river water is small in actual conditions (o 3, the potential of such a disaster to occur is non-negligible. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options are evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilization and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu-Suu River valley are studied (translocation of other tailings, tunnel to deviate river, partial protection of river from landslide blockage). It was proposed to acquire a phased approach in time performing urgent limited stabilization options for Tailing No 3, improve the stability of the Tailing No 3 by COLMIX-columns in the medium-term, while investigating and evaluating further two long term remedial options: the translocation of the tailings and the long-right-bank river diversion tunnel. (author)

27

Discovery of low aluminium nevadaite from the Kara-Chagyr Area, Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

The rare phosphate—nevadaite has been found at Kara-Chagyr (Batken region, Kyrgyzstan) in a zone of alteration of vanadium bearing “black shales”. It occurs as blue crusts of spherulitic aggregates of tiny tabular crystals (0.1-10 ?m). It is associated with metahewettite, hummerite, carnotite, minyulite, fluellite, crandallite, variscite, and woodhouseite. Optical properties: n = 1.542-1.555, D meas (for aggregates) = 2.58(1) g/cm3, D calc = 2.582 g/cm3. The most intense X-ray powder reflections are as follows: [ d/ n, Å, ( I meas), ( hkl)]: 9.54 (80) (020), 6.03 (100) (200), 5.61 (100) (130), 3.91 (60) (310), 3.41 (80) (041), 2.982 (100) (241), 2.804 (60) (331), 2.672 (70) (061), 1.845 (60) (352) 1.507 (70) (243). Calculated cell dimensions are: a = 12.072(10) Å, b = 18.958(15) Å, c = 4.969(5) Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°, V = 1137.2 Å3. Electron microprobe analyses gives (wt %): (observed (average of 8 analyses); (calculated for 22H2O)): P2O5 34.69 (31.85), SiO2 0.25 (0.24), Al2O3 25.61 (23.50), V2O 5.58 (5.13), Fe2O3 0.48 (0.46), MnO 0.03 (0.03), CuO 10.79 (9.90), ZnO 0.69 (0.65), CaO 0.18 (0.15), MgO 0.17 (0.17), K2O 0.08 (0.08), F 7.40 (6.79), H2O 17.16 (by diff.) (23.90), -F2 =O bar 3 .11 ( bar 2 .86), total 100.00 (100.00).The crystal-chemical formula of the mineral is (Cu{2.2/+2}?2.03V{1.21/+3}Al0.15Zn0.14Fe0.10Mg0.07Ca0.05K0.03Mn0.01)6.00(Al8.00(P7.93Si0.07O32)F6.32(OH)2.98 · 22(H2O) for the ideal number of water molecules. Nevadaite from Kara-Chagyr differs from that from the type locality, Gold Quarry (Nev., USA), by its lower Al content. The IR-spectrum, and microphotographs of nevadaite and associated minerals are given.

Karpenko, V. Y.; Pautov, L. A.; Agakhanov, A. A.

2009-12-01

28

Hydrochemistry and land cover in the upper Naryn river basin, Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic and social changes at the end of the 20th century affected land use decisions and land management in the Central Asian republics of the former Soviet Union. Amongst others, land tenure changed from mainly collectivized to private land, and in consequence, land management (e.g. soil treatment and fertilization practices) altered. Apart from agricultural pollutants and the impact of irrigation management, water resources are threatened by waste dumps remaining from mining activities. However, recent studies on the effect of land use changes on ecohydrology in Central Asia remain scarce. In a preliminary study, current land use and hydrochemistry in the upper Naryn Valley (Kyrgyzstan) was analyzed in 2008. Climate is semi-arid, and annual precipitation is approximately 300 mm. Precipitation peak occurs in early summer, while the rest of the year is rather dry. Crop and hay production prevail in the valley bottom. Environmental conditions in the mountains support pastoralism with a shift between summer and winter pastures. Agriculture depends on irrigation to a great deal as precipitation is seasonal and the vegetation period usually is the dry period. Today, production is mainly for subsistence purposes or local markets. The Naryn river is the headwater of the of the Syrdarya river which is one of the major sources of irrigation water in the Aral Sea basin. Hence, the ecohydrological condition of the contributing rivers is of major importance for the irrigation management downstream. Nevertheless, information on current ecohydrological conditions and land use which may affect the distribution and chemical composition of the rivers is lacking. In the presented study, basic hydrochemical measurements in the Naryn river and its tributaries were made. In situ measurements comprised electrical conductivity, ammonia and nitrate measurements, among others. While electrical conductivity varies greatly between the Naryn river and its tributaries, ammonia and nitrate concentrations remain below detection limit for the most part. The study shows that tributaries of high electrical conductivity do not affect hydrochemistry of the main river during summer because glacier and snow melt dominates runoff generation. Daily cycles of increased runoff due to snow and ice melt in the afternoon could be observed along the tributaries in the upper parts of the study area. Effects of agricultural production on ecohydrology remain weak as application of fertilizers and pesticides is currently low due to financial constraints. The data will be linked to land use data derived from satellite image products in order to analyse the effect of land cover and land cover changes on ecohydrological processes. Former observation of remote sensing data and related literature showed evidence for a change in land use management in the Naryn Valley. In 2008 training areas of land use classes for a supervised classification of 2008 remote sensing data have been recorded. A land use classification of the Naryn Valley on the base of Landsat ETM+ Data of 2008 and 1993 was done to get information on land use change on a regional scale. The classification uses spectral and spatial data in a hard classifier and object oriented combined approach. Comparing the two datasets with respect to changes in pattern of irrigated area and pasture area, change in cultivated crops and the change of agricultural cell sizes gives further information for hydrological modeling and land use monitoring purposes.

Schneider, K.; Dernedde, Y.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H. G.

2009-04-01

29

Assessment of the radiological impact of gamma and radon dose rates at former U mining sites in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to gamma radiation, radon and thoron was carried out at the former uranium mining and processing sites in Shekaftar, Minkush and Kadji Sai in Kyrgyzstan. Gamma dose rate measurements were made using various field instruments and radon/thoron measurements were carried out using discriminative radon ((222)Rn)/thoron ((220)Rn) solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time including at least three seasonal periods in a year, in different outdoor and indoor public and residential environments at the selected uranium legacy sites. The results showed that gamma, Rn and Tn doses were in general low, which consequently implies a low/relatively low radiological risk. The major radiation hazard is represented by abandoned radioactive filtration material that was being used as insulation by some Minkush residents for a longer period of time. Annual radiation doses of several hundred mSv could be received as a consequence of using this material in their houses. The radiation doses deriving from external radiation (gamma dose rate), indoor radon and thoron with their short-lived progenies in several cases exceeded national as well as international standards. Current doses of ionizing radiation do not represent any serious hazard to the health of the resident public, but this issue should be adequately addressed to further reduce needless exposure of resident public to ionizing radiation. PMID:23260850

Lespukh, E; Stegnar, P; Usubalieva, A; Solomatina, A; Tolongutov, B; Beishenkulova, R

2013-09-01

30

Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1949-1967, a U mine, a coal-fired thermal power plant and a processing plant for the extraction of U from the produced ash were operated at the Kadji Sai U mining site in Tonsk district, Issyk-Kul County, Kyrgyzstan. The Kadji Sai U legacy site represents a source of contamination of the local environment by naturally occurring radionuclides and associated trace elements. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals at the site, field expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2008 by the Joint collaboration between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (JNKKT) project and the NATO SfP RESCA project. In addition to in situ gamma and Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water and sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of radionuclides and trace metals in water from Issyk-Kul Lake were in general low, but surprisingly high for As. Uptake of U and As was also observed in fish from the lake with maximum bioconcentration factors for liver of 1.6 and 75, respectively. The concentrations of U in water within the Kadji Sai area varied from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L, except for downstream from the mining area where U reached a factor of 10 higher, 0.2 mg/L. Uranium concentrations in the drinking water of Kadji Sai village were about the level recommended by the WHO for drinking water. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratio reflected equilibrium conditions in the mining pond, but far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching 2.3 for an artesian well). Uranium, As and Ni were mainly present as low molecular mass (LMM, less than 10 kDa) species in all samples, indicating that these elemental species are mobile and potentially bioavailable. The soils from the mining sites were enriched in U, As and trace metals. Hot spots with elevated radioactivity levels were easily detected in Kadji Sai and radioactive particles were observed. The presence of particles carrying significant amount of radioactivity and toxic trace elements may represent a hazard during strong wind events (wind erosion). Based on sequential extractions, most of the elements were strongly associated with mineral matter, except for U and As having a relatively high remobilization potential. Low Kd was obtained for U (3.5 × 10(2) L/kg d.w.), intermediate Kds (~3 × 10(3) L/kg d.w.) were obtained for (226)Ra, As and Ni, while a high Kd (2.2 × 10(5) L/kg d.w.) were obtained for Pb. The accumulation of metals in fish gills reflected the LMM species in the Issyk-Kul water, and did not show any bioaccumulation. The muscle Hg concentrations in all fish species were low and did not represent any health risk even for groups at risk. Total gamma and Rn dose rate to man amounted to about 12 mSv/y, while the highest calculated dose rate for non-human species based on the ERICA Assessment Tool were obtained in terrestrial plants (164 ?Gy/h) due to the Ra exposure. The results obtained showed that radiation doses to resident public at all of the investigated sites in the Kadji Sai area were in general relatively low. Low radiological risk and no detrimental health impact on resident public can be expected at these sites. However, exposure to Rn and Tn in the living environment can be further reduced by implementing simple countermeasures such as ventilation of dwelling cellars. More focus in the Kadji Sai area should probably be put on trace elements, especially the As uptake in fish in Lake Issyk-Kul. PMID:22898665

Lind, O C; Stegnar, P; Tolongutov, B; Rosseland, B O; Strømman, G; Uralbekov, B; Usubalieva, A; Solomatina, A; Gwynn, J P; Lespukh, E; Salbu, B

2013-09-01

31

Street-Level Bureaucrats at Work: A Municipality-Level Institutional Analysis of Community-Based Natural Resource Management Implementation Practice in the Pasture Sector of Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article looks into lowest-level policy implementers’ (street-level bureaucrats’ role in donor-initiated natural resource governance reforms. The article employs an institutional analysis framework with a specific policy implementation focus. A multiple case study reviews a resource user information campaign during the early phase of a community-based pasture management reform in Kyrgyzstan. It finds implementation rule simplification by policy implementers at the expense of full resource user involvement as a result of an insufficient contextual fit of the formal information rules. The results emphasize the need of well-designed implementation rules in order to ensure full and equitable resource user involvement in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM.

Wibke Crewett

2015-03-01

32

Case study: Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT The paper discusses the importance of Open Source (OS hereinafter technology for national Information Communication Technology (ICT hereinafter development and E-Government for developing countries as a general strategy for overcoming the digital divide. The paper highlights the opportunities presented to the developing countries by the growing world-wide movement for use of OS systems, namely, the ability to promote the transfer of technological know-how and the growth of local IT professionals, the possibility of providing IT solutions within the limited financial means of a developing country, and the ability to strengthen the legal use of software. The paper

Baktybek Abdrisaev

2005-12-01

33

The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF) occurred at the western (w-) Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, ...

Narama, C.; Duishonakunov, M.; Ka?a?b, A.; Daiyrov, M.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

2010-01-01

34

Ideal climatic variables for the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, derived from GPS data and energy-mass balance measurements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007 of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Differential GPS surveys reveal a vertical surface deletion at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the modern state are 289 mm and ?3.85 °C at the glacier summit (4600 m above sea level, a.s.l., respectively. The good agreement between the long-term estimated and observed precipitation at a nearby station in the Tien Shan (292 mm at 3614 m a.s.l. for the period 1930–2002 suggests that the glacier dynamics have been regulated by the long-term average accumulation. The glacier mass-balance, reconstructed based on meteorological data from the Tien Shan station for the past 80 yr, explains the observed fluctuations in glacier extent, particularly the negative mass balance in the 1990s.

K. Fujita

2011-03-01

35

Newcastle disease outbreaks in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan during 1998, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2005 were caused by viruses of the genotypes VIIb and VIId.  

Science.gov (United States)

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infects domesticated and wild birds throughout the world, and infections with virulent NDV strains continue to cause disease outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. To assess the evolutionary characteristics of 28 NDV strains isolated from chickens in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan during 1998, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2005, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among these viruses and viruses described previously. For genotyping, fusion (F) gene phylogenetic analysis (nucleotide number 47-421) was performed using sequences of Kazakhstanian and Kyrgyzstanian isolates as compared to sequences of selected NDV strains from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the 14 newly characterized strains from years 1998 to 2001 belong to the NDV genotype VIIb, whereas the 14 strains isolated during 2003-2005 were of genotype VIId. All strains possessed a virulent fusion protein cleavage site (R-R-Q-R/K-R-F) and had intracerebral pathogenicity indexes in day-old chickens that ranged from 1.05 to 1.87, both properties typical of NDV strains classified in the mesogenic or velogenic pathotype. PMID:19466536

Bogoyavlenskiy, Andrey; Berezin, Vladimir; Prilipov, Alexey; Usachev, Eugeniy; Lyapina, Olga; Korotetskiy, Ilya; Zaitceva, Irina; Asanova, Saule; Kydyrmanov, Aydyn; Daulbaeva, Klara; Shakhvorostova, Larisa; Sayatov, Marat; King, Daniel

2009-08-01

36

Disequilibrium between uranium and its progeny in the Lake Issyk-Kul system (Kyrgyzstan) under a combined effect of natural and manmade processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kadji-Sai abandoned field of U-bearing brown coal on the southern coast of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) poses a threat of radioactive pollution to the world's fifth deepest and second largest pristine highland lake. The valleys of ephemeral streams in the lake catchment are filled with coarse-grained sand and clay, with a background U--Ra activity of 35--55 Bqkg(-1). High activity areas vs. this background come from three sources: (1) scarce outcrops of uraniferous brown coal and mining wastes containing fragments of this coal with (238)U/(226)Ra ratios of 0.8 due to uranium losses through weathering; (2) manmade anomalies caused by a radioactive waste dump, where U was extracted from the ash of coal burnt at a coal-fired power plant. As a result, the (238)U/(226)Ra ratios become 0.15--0.25; (3) six catch pools terraced below the mine, where U activity decreases downslope, and (238)U/(226)Ra ratios reach 150--200. Uranium lost in the extraction process may have been retained on the terraces. The distribution pattern of radionuclides in the bottom sediments of the lake is controlled by water depth and offshore distance. The upper section of homogeneous limy--argillic deposits in the lake center remains undisturbed by currents, as indicated by regular sub-exponential distribution of atmospheric (137)Cs and (210)Pb(atm). Sedimentation rate in the lake center for the past century, found from (210)Pb, was 0.32 mmyr(-1). (238)U/(226)Ra in deep-water sediments was about 3. The activity of uranium adsorbed by sediments from the lake water was estimated by subtraction of the Ra-equilibrium component from the total U activity. Thus, the flux of dissolved U to the bottom sediments was as 2.07 x 10(-7)gcm(-2)yr(-1). The upper section of near-shore deposits was disturbed by currents, with (137)Cs and (210)Pb(atm) more or less uniformly distributed in this layer. Peaks of (226)Ra and (210)Pb occur at different depths from 5 to 20 cm below the sediment surface, with (238)U/(226)Ra ratios 0.28--0.44. The presence of mullite in these sediments indicated that radioactive ash penetrated into the lake in the past. At present, (226)Ra in the ash is buried under a non-radioactive cap. PMID:15935909

Gavshin, V M; Melgunov, M S; Sukhorukov, F V; Bobrov, V A; Kalugin, I A; Klerkx, J

2005-01-01

37

75 FR 81915 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign Participation in Acquisitions in...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan; and...Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, or Uzbekistan...Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, or...

2010-12-29

38

75 FR 832 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign Participation in Acquisitions in...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. This...Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, or Uzbekistan...Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, or...

2010-01-06

39

Oil and gas resources of the Fergana Basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgyzstan)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analysis is part of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA`s) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). This one for the Fergana Basin is an EIA first for republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU). This was a trial study of data availability and methodology, resulting in a reservoir-level assessment of ultimate recovery for both oil and gas. Ultimate recovery, as used here, is the sum of cumulative production and remaining Proved plus Probable reserves as of the end of 1987. Reasonable results were obtained when aggregating reservoir-level values to the basin level, and in determining general but important distributions of across-basin reservoir and fluid parameters. Currently, this report represents the most comprehensive assessment publicly available for oil and gas in the Fergana Basin. This full report provides additional descriptions, discussions and analysis illustrations that are beneficial to those considering oil and gas investments in the Fergana Basin. 57 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

1995-01-01

40

Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: the City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).  

Science.gov (United States)

The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice. PMID:24068306

Sim, Natasha M; Wilson, David C; Velis, Costas A; Smith, Stephen R

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
41

The Inylchek Glacier in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia: Insight on Surface Kinematics from Optical Remote Sensing Imagery  

OpenAIRE

Mountain chains of Central Asia host a large number of glaciated areas that provide critical water supplies to the semi-arid populated foothills and lowlands of this region. Spatio-temporal variations of glacier flows are a key indicator of the impact of climate change on water resources as the glaciers react sensitively to climate. Satellite remote sensing using optical imagery is an efficient method for studying ice-velocity fields on mountain glaciers. In this study, temporal and spatial c...

Mohamad Nobakht; Mahdi Motagh; Hans-Ulrich Wetzel; Sigrid Roessner; Hermann Kaufmann

2014-01-01

42

76 FR 68404 - Uranium From the Russian Federation; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the Suspension...  

Science.gov (United States)

...preliminary determination that uranium from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan...at Less Than Fair Value: Uranium From Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan...investigations involving uranium from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia,...

2011-11-04

43

Threat assessment report. Regulatory aspects of the remediation and rehabilitation of nuclear legacy in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the Soviet period, the uranium mining operations in Central Asia served as one of the main uranium producers for the Soviet Union (SU) military complex. The regulatory standards for exposure and emissions control to all Soviet Republics were administered by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and were the same across the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the former Soviet Republics became independent, but also inherited the legacy in the form of wastes, including those from uranium ore processing and tailings and old Soviet regulatory documents, which are mostly inconsistent with the international standards and guidances and need substantial improvements. Many radioactive waste storage facilities in Central Asia, especially in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, are located in regions of seismic activity, in landslide- and mud flow-prone areas and areas subject to flooding and high ground water levels, and near the banks of the rivers that form the base of the large water basin of the Central Asian region. Many tailings are situated near towns, other populated areas and state borders, and they represent a long-term hazard to health and the environment. In regard to the legal and regulatory framework, it should be noted that none of the Central Asian countries have a National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management developed and approved by the Governments. Existing regulatory documents do not address the issues regarding safety assessments and safety cases or the implementation of long-term institutional control and monitoring of the abandoned dumps with radioactive wastes (RW) or future RW disposal sites, neither during operation nor after their closure. There is also a need to develop safety criteria (reference levels) and determine measures to be taken for existing exposure situations (past practices). In addition, there is a lack of safety requirements for different types of disposal facilities in accordance with the different categories of radioactive waste. Safety criteria and clearance levels are also not established. The NRPA, with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in the Central Asian countries to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and RW management in the Central Asian countries. Based on threat assessments that have been completed in each Central Asian country during the year 2010, this document focuses on the existing regulatory problems at the legacy sites and projects will address the regulatory documents which should be developed first. It is clear that in order to remove the threat connected with radioactive wastes, both that which has already been accumulated as a result of previous activity and that which is currently being generated in significant amounts and will be produced in the future, it is necessary to at least develop and implement: A National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management, including strategies for disposal of each category of the RW, allocation of responsibilities and financial assurance for these activities; Safety requirements on the design, siting, construction, operation, closure and establishment of the institutional control needed for disposal facilities in accordance with the approved national policy and strategy on radioactive waste management; and New classifications of radioactive waste according to the recently published international recommendations, including identification of corresponding categories; In addition, it is clear that in order to remove the threats connected with extensive territories contaminated by radionuclides, the rehabilitation of these areas is required and, accordingly, it is necessary to develop regulations on: Quantitative criteria defining reference levels for existing exposure situations, considering its justification, optimization and

Zhunussova, T.; Sneve, M.; Romanenko, O.; Solomatina, A.; Mirsaidov, I.

2011-06-15

44

Elevation changes of Inylchek Glacier during 1974–2007, Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan derived from remote sensing data  

OpenAIRE

Glacier melt is an important source of fresh water for the arid regions surrounding the Tian Shan. Inylchek Glacier (650 km2) is the largest glacier in Tian Shan consisting of two branches (northern Inylchek glacier and southern Inylchek glacier) separated by the regularly draining Lake Merzbacher. However, little is known about volume and mass changes of the last decades. In this study, we investigated the changes of glacier area and glacier surface elevation from 1...

Shangguan, D.; Bolch, T.; Ding, Y.; Kro?hnert, M.; Pieczonka, T.; -u Wetzel, H.; Liu, S.

2014-01-01

45

Threat assessment report. Regulatory aspects of the remediation and rehabilitation of nuclear legacy in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the Soviet period, the uranium mining operations in Central Asia served as one of the main uranium producers for the Soviet Union (SU) military complex. The regulatory standards for exposure and emissions control to all Soviet Republics were administered by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and were the same across the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the former Soviet Republics became independent, but also inherited the legacy in the form of wastes, including those from uranium ore processing and tailings and old Soviet regulatory documents, which are mostly inconsistent with the international standards and guidances and need substantial improvements. Many radioactive waste storage facilities in Central Asia, especially in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, are located in regions of seismic activity, in landslide- and mud flow-prone areas and areas subject to flooding and high ground water levels, and near the banks of the rivers that form the base of the large water basin of the Central Asian region. Many tailings are situated near towns, other populated areas and state borders, and they represent a long-term hazard to health and the environment. In regard to the legal and regulatory framework, it should be noted that none of the Central Asian countries have a National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management developed and approved by the Governments. Existing regulatory documents do not address the issues regarding safts do not address the issues regarding safety assessments and safety cases or the implementation of long-term institutional control and monitoring of the abandoned dumps with radioactive wastes (RW) or future RW disposal sites, neither during operation nor after their closure. There is also a need to develop safety criteria (reference levels) and determine measures to be taken for existing exposure situations (past practices). In addition, there is a lack of safety requirements for different types of disposal facilities in accordance with the different categories of radioactive waste. Safety criteria and clearance levels are also not established. The NRPA, with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in the Central Asian countries to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and RW management in the Central Asian countries. Based on threat assessments that have been completed in each Central Asian country during the year 2010, this document focuses on the existing regulatory problems at the legacy sites and projects will address the regulatory documents which should be developed first. It is clear that in order to remove the threat connected with radioactive wastes, both that which has already been accumulated as a result of previous activity and that which is currently being generated in significant amounts and will be produced in the future, it is necessary to at least develop and implement: A National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management, including strategies for disposal of each category of the RW, allocation of responsibilities and financial assurance for these activities; Safety requirements on the design, siting, construction, operation, closure and establishment of the institutional control needed for disposal facilities in accordance with the approved national policy and strategy on radioactive waste management; and New classifications of radioactive waste according to the recently published international recommendations, including identification of corresponding categories; In addition, it is clear that in order to remove the threats connected with extensive territories contaminated by radionuclides, the rehabilitation of these areas is required and, accordingly, it is necessary to develop regulations on: Quantitative criteria defining reference levels for existing exposure situations, consid

46

Assessment of the main natural radionuclides, minor and trace elements in soils and sediments of the Shu valley (near the border of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New data on the concentrations of the main gamma-emitting radionuclides, minor and trace elements, and isotopes of uranium (with Ra-226 as a daughter product of U-238) and thorium in soils and sediments of the Shu valley (from the river Chon-Kemin to the river Kuragatty downstream the river Shu) are presented, determined by high-resolution gamma-spectrometry, k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis and alpha-spectrometry with appropriate radiochemical separations of the samples, respectively. The results obtained showed an aquatic migration pathway of most of the trace elements and radionuclides and predicted water pollution downstream the river Shu. The scandium method showed pollution by As, Br, Ca, Cr, Zr of the Tasotkel dam impoundment and by Ca and Cr of the river Shu below its confluence with the river Kuragatty. According to the disequilibrium isotopic method for uranium (using the isotopic ratio U-234/U-238), areas with accumulation and leaching processes were estimated for soils and sediments of the river Shu and its main inflows. (author)

47

47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Georgia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey and Ukraine and the area to the north...Georgia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey and Ukraine and the area to...

2010-10-01

48

IDEOLOGICAL APPROACHES OF FOLKLORE STUDIES IN KYRGYZSTAN ON THE SOVIET UNION PERIOD: ERSOLTONOY EPIC EXAMPLE SOVYETLER B?RL??? DÖNEM?NDE KIRGIZ?STAN’DA FOLKLOR ÇALI?MALARINDA ?DEOLOJ?K YAKLA?IMLAR: ER SOLTONOY DESTANI ÖRNE??  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Folklore, emerged in the 19th century with the romance movement as a tool of nationalizm, acted as shield aganist discriminative movements in the countries which weren’t able to achieve political unity. Political movement, which doesn’t consist freedom of expression and based on single party system like socialism, nazism and communism, wanted to take advantage of all communication channels for propaganda purpose. These movements imposed important folklore products which was considered as a means of communication and interaction. One of these is to understand the judgements values and develop policies on this judgements, other is to ensure harmony between the regime and people-more clearly by formatting fort he purpose of regime.Socialism which is of the movements using folklore for the ideological purpose have benefited from folklore to make people of occupied countries for he emperialist purpose compatible. Epic type, decorated with elements of romantics and nationalism, is used to increase nationalism by the Turks tribes where oral culture is dominant during the war period at ordinary times has taken spokemanship of proletariat class. Such work has been tested on the Kyrgyz Turks which were nomadic horseman and interested in the type of epic proceeding from Er Soltonoy’s of Kyrgyz Turks. 19. yüzy?lda ortaya ç?kan romantizm hareketiyle ulusla?man?n bir arac? olarak görülen folklor ürünleri, siyasi birli?ini sa?layamam?? ülkeler taraf?ndan d??tan gelecek ayr??t?r?c? ak?mlara kar?? kalkan görevini görmü?tür. Nazizm, Sosyalizm ve Komünizm gibi tek parti sistemine dayanan ve ifade özgürlü?ünün olmad??? siyasi ak?mlar ise halka ula?abilecekleri bütün ileti?im kanallar?ndan propaganda amac?yla yararlanmak istemi?ler; bu ak?mlar dönemin ileti?im araçlar?ndan say?lan folklor ürünlerine de bu ba?lamda önemli görevler yüklemi?lerdir. Bu görevlerden biri, halk?n de?er yarg?lar?n? anlamaya ve bu de?er yarg?lar? üzerinde politikalar geli?tirmeye yönelikken, di?eri de geli?tirilen bu politikalarla halk?n de?er yarg?lar? üzerinde oynama yaparak halkla rejim aras?nda uyum sa?lamak, daha aç?k bir ifade ile halk? rejimin amaçlar? do?rultusunda biçimlendirerek ferdin kendisi olmas?n? de?il “rejimin adam?” olmas?n? sa?lamakt?r. Folkloru ideolojik amaçlar do?rultusunda kullanan ak?mlardan biri olan Sosyalizm, emperyalist amaçlarla i?gal etti?i ülke vatanda?lar?n? sistemle uyumlu hale getirmek için folklor ürünlerinden çok s?k yararlanm??t?r. Özellikle sözlü kültürün hâkim oldu?u Türk boylar?nda romantik ve milliyetçi ö?elerle süslü destan türü, sava? döneminde milliyetçili?in dozunu art?rmak için kullan?rken, ola?an dönemlerde proletarya s?n?f?n?n sözcülü?üne büründürülmü?tür. Bu tip çal??malar atl?-göçebe özelliklerini yak?n zamana kadar sürdüren ve destan türüne özel bir ilginin oldu?u K?rg?z Türkleri üzerinde de denenmi?tir. Bu çal??mada K?rg?z Türklerinin Er Soltonoy Destan? örne?inden yola ç?karak destan türü üzerinde yap?lan ideolojik tahrifatlar üzerinde durulacakt?r.

Mehmet ÇER?BA?

2012-01-01

49

40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Article 5 Parties  

Science.gov (United States)

...People's Democratic Republic of, Korea, Republic of, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Madagascar...Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,...

2010-07-01

50

Find an Allergist/Immunologist  

Science.gov (United States)

... Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kosovo Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Dem Republic Latvia ...

51

22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...restricted countries: Cuba, Iraq, Iran, Laos, Libya, North Korea, and Syria. (c) Code 935—Any area or country including...Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan,...

2010-04-01

52

GI Locator Service  

Science.gov (United States)

... HONG KONG HUNGARY ICELAND INDIA INDONESIA IRAN IRAQ IRELAND ISLE OF MAN ISRAEL ITALY JAMAICA JAPAN JERSEY JORDAN KAZAKHSTAN KENYA KIRIBATI KOREA Korea, Republic Of KOSOVO KRAKOW KUWAIT KYRGYZSTAN LAOS ...

53

Uranium Deposits Radioactive Hazards  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Assessment of Radioactive Hazard of Developed Jilskiy (Kyrgyzstan), Adrasman and Taboshar (Tajikistan) Uranium Deposits, Development and Typification of Actions on Rehabilitation of the Areas and Facilities for the Central Asia Region

54

Empirical Analysis of Kyrgyz Trade Patterns  

OpenAIRE

Being naturally located between two big markets in Europe and Asia, Kyrgyzstan together with other Central Asian countries does not have a direct access to sea ports. Landlockedness limits volumes of international trade and creates obstacles for economic growth. Results of statistical analysis show that Kyrgyz trade neither follows Heckscher-Ohlin model nor intra-industry trade model. Another finding is that open and liberal trade policy of Kyrgyzstan has a large positive effect on trade vol...

Kurmanalieva, Elvira

2008-01-01

55

Mountain Building in Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

International Symposium: Geodynamics of Intracontinental Orogens and Geoecological Problems; Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 15-23 June 2008; The Research Station of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, hosted its fourth international symposium in June to celebrate both the thirtieth anniversary of the station and the tenth anniversary of the International Research Center-Geodynamic Proving Ground (IGRC). The IGRC, whose base institution is the research station, was established with support from the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Kyrgyzstan Academy of Sciences, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, and the U.S. Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF). About 200 scientists from seven countries attended the symposium, including approximately 40 students and young scientists.

Schelochkov, G. G.; Zeigarnik, V. A.; Molnar, Peter

2008-10-01

56

Water and energy problems of the central asia and the place of the republic of Tajikistan in solving these problems  

OpenAIRE

An important feature of Central Asia is the fact that two of its countries, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, are located in the zone of water runoff, and the rest of the republic are in the dispersement zone. For Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan - is to use water mainly for hydropower development, and for Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - for irrigated agriculture. In Tajikistan, formed 64 km3 of water runoff from the total volume of the Aral Sea 115km3. Taking into account the flowing river o...

Higmatillo, Goibnazarov

2010-01-01

57

Commentary - The Early Days of Central Asian Military Integration: the Kyrgyz National Division of the Red Army in 1927-1928  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the sociology of a national division of the Red Army in the early days of its formation in Kyrgyzstan, as described in two documents about soldiers of Kyrgyz nationality in 1927 and 1928. At that time the Soviet Army was not seeking to substantially increase its numbers but rather recruiting in line with the intentions of the nationality policy, by integrating ethnic groups and regions that had been ignored by the high command. Kyrgyzstan is a striking exampl...

Isabelle Ohayon

2009-12-01

58

The Members of the Agency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.58) is Kyrgyzstan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2003. The list shows the dates on which the present 137 Member States became Members

59

Uranium, radium and radon level on territory of Western Mining-Chemical Combine of Mailuu-Suu town (Kyrgyz Republic)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: During realization of research work on International Cooperative Program in area of trans-boundary monitoring of the rivers between the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and the USA (project 'Navruz') it was established that the possible source of contamination of the Aral Sea basin on territory of Kyrgyzstan can be a waste deposit of the Western Mining-Chemical combine (WMChC, Mailuu-Suu town). In particular, it was shown, that the uranium content in the Mailuu-Suu river near WMChC reaches 3.1·10-6 g/l, and on boundary with Uzbekistan - 1.8·10-6 g/l. It is necessary to note that the uranium content in potable waters of a Chu valley is almost one order higher, than in the river Mailuu-Suu. On territory of Uzbekistan in the Mailuu-Suu river the uranium content is 2·10-5 g/l, as well as in waters of Chu valley in Kyrgyzstan. The reasons of increase of uranium level on territory of Uzbekistan cannot be uniquely connected with the WMChC activity. Is this increase of technogenic or natural origin, is Kyrgyzstan a supplier of radioactive wastes for Uzbekistan or not? The report represents new materials on uranium and radium content in soils washed by waters of the river Mailuu-Suu and on the content of radon in the air around WMChC

60

Regulatory Support Program in Central Asia. Progress and new bilateral project with the State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Republic of Uzbekistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A meeting of the regional regulatory support program in Central Asia (CA) was held in May 25 to 26, 2011 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where parties discussed ongoing bilateral cooperation between the NRPA and the regulatory bodies of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Author)

NONE

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

The Challenges of Lifelong Learning: Report of a Seminar Involving the New Independent States and Mongolia, February 2002. Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

To help the New Independent States and Mongolia address central issues related to lifelong learning, the European Training Foundation organized a project on lifelong learning that involved the following countries: Armenia; Belarus; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; the Russian Federation; Ukraine; and Uzbekistan. The project's principal…

European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

62

Skills Needs Analysis. Conference on Continuing Vocational Training (Turin, Italy, November 9-10, 1998). Conclusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participants in the Conference on Continuing Vocational Training (CVT) represented 13 countries from Central and Eastern Europe, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Uzbekistan, European Union (EU) countries, European Commission, and European Training Foundation. The conference aimed to increase awareness among policymakers and social partners on CVT's…

European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

63

LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

64

Sustainable Land Management in the Pamir Alai Region  

OpenAIRE

This paper focuses on identifying of possible opportunities for local people, living in Pamir Alai region of Kyrgyzstan, particularly in Kashka Suu and Alaiku, by conducting analysis of such value chains as wool production and collection of berries and medicinal herbs. Identification of key features of these two value chains provides insight into which entities benefit from the value of products, and provides the basis for projecting possible additional income to the populations in the areas....

Kenesh Shapakov; Jyldyz Tabaldieva; Altynai Davletalieva

2011-01-01

65

Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of ...

Gotsadze George; Djibuti Mamuka; Mataradze George; Zoidze Akaki

2007-01-01

66

Toward a New Policy for Scientific and Technical Communication: the Case of Kyrgyz Republic  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this policy paper is to formulate a new policy in the field of scientific and technical information (STI) in Kyrgyz Republic in the light of emergence and rapid development of electronic scientific communication. The major problem with communication in science in the Republic is lack of adequate access to information by scientists. An equally serious problem is poor visibility of research conducted in Kyrgyzstan and, as consequence, negligible research impac...

Djenchuraev, Nurlan

2004-01-01

67

Long-run validity of purchasing power parity and rank tests for cointegration for Central Asian Countries  

OpenAIRE

This study finds that Purchasing Power Parity holds in the long-run for Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, based on Breitung’s (2001) rank tests for cointegration. Results from further analysis indicates that nominal exchange rates and relative prices are nonlinearly interrelated. Trade barriers, transportation costs and government intervention in the pricing system in these countries may have resulted in the establishment of the above-mentioned nonlinear relationship.

Liew, Venus Khim-sen; Chia, Ricky Chee-jiun; Ling, Tai-hu

2009-01-01

68

Is there a pattern?  

OpenAIRE

The countries that experienced a ‘coloured revolution’ between 2000 and 2005 – Serbia, Georgia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan – were not distinguished by their levels of economic development, as political modernization theory suggested. Nor did they distribute incomes more unequally than other countries at the same level of development, as class analysis would have posited. By contrast, perceptions of the political system, and of its levels of corruption and responsiveness, were more closely...

White, S.

2009-01-01

69

Silurian-Devonian active-margin deep-marine systems and palaeogeography, Alai Range, Southern Tien Shan, Central Asia  

OpenAIRE

Analysis of Mid-Palaeozoic successions in the northern part of the Alai Range (Kyrgyzstan and bordering Uzbekistan), Southern Tien Shan, Central Asia, has identified a Silurian-Devonian deep-marine depositional system of basin-slope facies-associations. Here, we document the stratigraphy and sedimentology of a region in Central Asia that, through conflict, has become inaccessible for geological research. The turbidite-dominated Pul'gon Formation (Silurian) accumulated in sea-floor depressions...

Pickering, Kt; Koren, Tn; Lytochkin, Vn; Siveter, Dj

2008-01-01

70

Exposure Estimation from Multi-Resolution Optical Satellite Imagery for Seismic Risk Assessment  

OpenAIRE

Given high urbanization rates and increasing spatio-temporal variability in many present-day cities, exposure information is often out-of-date, highly aggregated or spatially fragmented, increasing the uncertainties associated with seismic risk assessments. This work therefore aims at using space-based technologies to estimate, complement and extend exposure data at multiple scales, over large areas and at a comparatively low cost for the case of the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. At a neighbo...

Jochen Zschau; Stefano Parolai; Massimiliano Pittore; Marc Wieland

2012-01-01

71

International Conference 'Uranium legacy of Soviet Union in Central Asia: problems and way forward' Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of the conference is to discuss safe management of uranium mill tailings, remediation activities foreseen under Eurasian Economic Community in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, existing problems and ways forward. A conference on this topic in Tajikistan with the support of the International Science and Technology Center and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority is relevant and very important taken into account foreseen remediation activities starting from 2013.

72

Banking system in Kyrgyz Republic  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concepts are essential for avoiding harmful problems, development stable and solvent banking system. These developments include the more effective regulation of the entry and exit of banks, removal of ob...

Sagbansu, Lutfu

2006-01-01

73

Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Introduction Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS), countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. Methods Using 2005–2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, an...

Janevic Teresa; Sarah Pallas W; Leyla Ismayilova; Elizabeth Bradley H

2012-01-01

74

State builders, nation destroyers? Clans and national cohesion in Central Asia  

OpenAIRE

Contrary to prevailing theories on clans, high levels of national identification, as reported in an AsiaBarometer survey conducted in 2005, indicate that citizens of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan possess a greater proclivity to a civic identity than to any other form of subnational identification. This essay examines the relationship between state and society, in order to understand how high levels of national identification can exist in a political and social arena trapped within the...

Kim, Hyun K.

2009-01-01

75

Shallow and deep structure of the Pamir-Hindu Kush region from local seismic data  

OpenAIRE

Within this thesis, passive seismic data collected during the two-year TIPAGE deployment in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan from 2008 to 2010, are analyzed. This is the first modern digital seismological dataset for this politically unstable region, all previous studies either relied on globally recorded data or some short-term deployments of analog stations in Afghanistan during the late 1960s and 70s. Modern seismological techniques applied to the collected digital seismic data provide a wealth o...

Christian Sippl

2013-01-01

76

Sampling and Surveying Hard-to-Reach Populations for Demographic Research: A Study of Female Labor Migrants in Moscow, Russia  

OpenAIRE

Because household-based survey designs are notoriously ineffective in studying hard-to-reach groups such as irregular migrants, these groups, however numerically large they may be, are rarely represented in demographic analyses. In this paper, we report on the application of a workplace-based stratified probability sampling design, response rate, and item-specific refusals in a recent study of irregular female migrants from Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan working in bazaars, eateries, ...

Victor Agadjanian; Natalya Zotova

2012-01-01

77

Factors Influencing Portfolio Yield of Microfinance Institutions in Central Asia  

OpenAIRE

We analyze the determinants of portfolio yield of microfinance institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Mongolia, Afghanistan, and China over the period 1998-2011. We confirm that targeting women borrowers improves the financial results of microfinance institutions whereas the effectiveness of group lending or advantages of rural lending, in contrast to the initial expectations, were not confirmed. We also consider the contributions of different governance f...

Janda, Karel; Turbat, Batbayar

2013-01-01

78

Drivers of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries: evidence from a FAVAR analysis  

OpenAIRE

We investigate the likely sources of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) over the last dec-ade (1999-2010). Evidence is based on country VARs augmented by a regional com-mon factor structure (FAVAR model). The models include nominal exchange rates, the common factor of exchange rates in the CIS countries, and international drivers such as global trade, share prices, and oil price. Global, regional and idiosyncrati...

Dreger, Christian; Fidrmuc, Jarko

2009-01-01

79

Community-Based Associations for Sustainable Tourism Development : Fostering Sustainable Development in Developing Countries  

OpenAIRE

Community-Based Tourism (CBT) is a bottom-up approach to sustainable developmentused in developing countries to enhance the conservation of natural resources, preservetraditional culture, and generate income at the local level. The study aims to understandthe effectiveness of community associations for CBT development in developingcountries. Ghana is selected as the primary case of this study. Published data on CBTassociations in Namibia, Uganda, Kyrgyzstan and Costa Rica are used as supporti...

Yamashita, Shihomi

2011-01-01

80

Welfare in transition: trends in poverty and well-being in central Asia  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the impact of the transition on living standards and welfare in the five Republics of former Soviet Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, along with the Republic of Azerbaijan. A broad definition of welfare is taken, including both economic measures and capability-based indicators, reflecting the health and education of the population. The picture that emerges is of a regional population facing severe economic, physical and psycho-s...

Falkingham, Jane

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Atmospheric noble gases in lake sediment pore water as proxies for environmental change  

OpenAIRE

Lake sediment pore water has been proposed as a noble gas archive for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, but appropriate experimental techniques have not been available until recently. Here we present noble gas concentrations measured in the sediment pore water of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) which demonstrate for the first time the value of the sediment pore water archive for paleoclimate reconstruction. The noble gas profiles in the sediment indicate that the salinity of the lake water durin...

Brennwald, Matthias S.; Peeters, Frank; Imboden, Dieter M.; Giralt, Santiago; Hofer, Markus; Livingstone, David M.; Klump, Stephan; Strassmann, Kuno; Kipfer, Rolf

2004-01-01

82

Radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya river (II)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article contains the results obtained during the radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya River, which was conducted within the frames of international collaboration of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and USA. The data on the nature of radionuclide distribution of uranium and thorium rows in bottom and soil is presented. Reasons of formation of the observed dependence of the obtained results on the distance from the source are discussed. (author)

83

Rural non-farm activities in Central Asia: a regional analysis of magnitude, structure, evolution and drivers in the Kyrgyz Republic  

OpenAIRE

This article provides an in-depth regional analysis of the rural nonfarm economy in Kyrgyzstan based on three household budget surveys for 2003, 2005 and 2006. Regression analysis reveals that the share of time spent in the commercial rural nonfarm economy was larger in districts with low agricultural potential, indicating that the rural poor are pushed into accessible but not necessarily very profitable nonfarm activities. This ‘push’ scenario is probably strengthened by the low commerci...

Atamanov, A.; Berg, M. M.

2012-01-01

84

A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Vincent's Centre Ltd, Cork  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV\\/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV\\/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV\\/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector.

Spicer, Neil

2011-07-13

85

Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so called 'Threat assessment' in each CA country which revealed additional problems in the existing regulatory documents beyond those described at the start of our ongoing bilateral projects in Kazakhstan, Kirgizistan Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. (authors)

86

Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-07-01

87

Perapion connexum (Schilsky, 1902 (Coleoptera, Apionidae in Central Europe, a case of plant expansion chase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Perapion connexum (Schilsky is recorded for the first time from Hungary and Kyrgyzstan, and new distribution data from Ukraine and Russia are provided. Preliminary placements of this weevil in faunal checklists for Poland and Slovakia are here documented with detailed data. Its occurrence in Austria based on older evidence, is discussed. The neophytic and invasive in Central Europe sorrel Rumex confertus Willd. is confirmed to be its unique host plant in Poland. Morphology of the newcoming weevil is described and illustrated, and the key to all Central European species of Perapion is presented.

Marek Wanat

2012-03-01

88

The closed Lake Issyk-Kul as an indicator of global warming in Tien-Shan  

OpenAIRE

Lake Issyk-Kul is the seventh deepest lake in the world situated inCentral Asiain theTien-ShanMountainsat the elevation of 1607 m above sea level. This area belongs toKyrgyzstan. From 1927 to 1997 the water level decreased by 3.4 m, and increased by 0.93 m from 1997 to 2011. The article analyzes the impact of the global warming on the Lake Issyk-Kul thermal regime and the components of its water balance: river discharge, precipitation, evaporation and lake level variations. It shows that the ...

Romanovsky, Vladimir V.; Saadat Tashbaeva; Jean-François Crétaux; Stephane Calmant; Vanessa Drolon

2013-01-01

89

Sampling and Surveying Hard-to-Reach Populations for Demographic Research: A Study of Female Labor Migrants in Moscow, Russia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because household-based survey designs are notoriously ineffective in studying hard-to-reach groups such as irregular migrants, these groups, however numerically large they may be, are rarely represented in demographic analyses. In this paper, we report on the application of a workplace-based stratified probability sampling design, response rate, and item-specific refusals in a recent study of irregular female migrants from Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan working in bazaars, eateries, and small retail outlets in Moscow, Russia. We argue that workplace-based survey, while not flawless, provides a uniquely feasible and cost-effective tool for studying irregular migrants and other marginalized groups.

Victor Agadjanian

2012-02-01

90

Communication dated 11 September 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 11 September 2006, from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the IAEA regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006 in Semipalatinsk by the leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the enclosed information regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

91

Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement: a case study of a new terrorist organization in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) was designated a terrorist organization by Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, China, the United States, and the United Nations in 2002. However, no systematic studies have been published on the new terrorist organization in Xinjiang, China. Using a case-study approach and interviews, this article attempts to provide information in terms of its historical evaluation, related religious and ethnic issues, organizational agenda, activities, and role in the current international terrorist network. This article argues that better international cooperation and the improvement of social and religious policies will help curtail activities of the ETIM. PMID:14526597

Wang, John Z

2003-10-01

92

The Program Assessment Guide: an approach for structuring contextual knowledge and experience to improve the design, delivery, and effectiveness of nutrition interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

As evidence from small-scale trials has accumulated concerning the efficacy of low-cost interventions to address undernutrition, the design, implementation, and strengthening of large-scale programs to deliver these interventions has become a high priority. This scaling up process involves a large number of technical, logistical, administrative, political, and social considerations and little research exists on how to address these in a systematic way. This paper introduces the Program Assessment Guide (PAG), a set of analysis and decision tools that seeks to fill this gap, and reports on its application in Kyrgyzstan and Bolivia. The PAG places a special focus on eliciting and systematizing contextual knowledge and experience through a structured, participatory workshop and is grounded in theory, principles, and experience from program planning, management, change management, and intervention planning. When applied in Kyrgyzstan and Bolivia, the PAG was successful in helping workshop participants identify key implementation bottlenecks, questionable assumptions in the program theory, and feasible ways to address some of the shortcomings. These experiences also identified the need for a number of modifications to the PAG related to the workshop design itself, the preparations prior to the workshop, and follow-up after the workshop. The PAG represents one approach for strengthening decisions related to the design and large-scale implementation of interventions. The development and full-scale testing of alternative methods such as these for strengthening program analysis and decision making is an important and intellectually challenging subject for further research. PMID:21956957

Pelletier, David; Corsi, Allison; Hoey, Lesli; Faillace, Silvana; Houston, Robin

2011-11-01

93

Foregoing medicines in the former Soviet Union: changes between 2001 and 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pharmaceutical costs dominate out-of-pocket payments in former Soviet countries, posing a severe threat to financial equity and access to health services. Nationally representative household survey data collected in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine were analysed to compare the level of population having to forego medicines in 2001 and 2010. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess differences between populations of different economic status, and rural and urban populations. A substantial proportion of the population did forego medicines in 2010, from 29.2% in Belarus to 72.9% in Georgia. There was a decline in people foregoing medicines between 2001 and 2010; the greatest decline was seen in Moldova [rate ratio (RR)=0.67 (0.63; 0.71)] and Kyrgyzstan [RR=0.63 (0.60; 0.67)], while very little improvement took place in countries with a higher Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and greater GNI growth over the decade such as Armenia [RR=0.92 (0.87; 0.96)] and Georgia [RR=0.95 (0.92; 0.98)]. Wealthier, urban populations have benefited more than poorer, rural households in some countries. Countries experiencing the greatest improvement over the study period were those that have implemented policies such as price controls, expanded benefits packages, and encouragement of rational prescribing. Greater commitment to pharmaceutical reform is needed to ensure that people are not forced to forego medicines. PMID:25263591

Footman, Katharine; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Alimbekova, Gulzhan; Pachulia, Merab; Rotman, David; Gasparishvili, Alexander; McKee, Martin

2014-11-01

94

Problem of risk modeling: influence of uranium storage on environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radiological safety on the territory of Kyrgyz republic is caused by natural factors and by activity of the enterprises on extraction and processing of the raw material which contained natural radionuclides. The territory of republic has specific climatic condition with the highest degree of natural hazards. From general area 199 900 km of republic only 20% is concerned to be zone of comfortable residing. After the termination of uranium extraction in the republic there are formed 49 storages and more than 80 piles. After collapse of the USSR the works on maintenance of safety and recultivation of storages practically were not carried out, that significantly increased the risk of people disease who live in the given territories. Increase of level of underground waters, high waters, landslides, high seismicity - are resulted the storage destruction, that present threat on ecology not only of Kyrgyzstan, but also on ecology of Central Asia. The resolution of radiological problems of Kyrgyzstan may be only with the complex approach of all neighboring countries and with attraction of foreign experts from donor countries

95

Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so called 'Threat assessment' in each CA country which revealed additional problems in the existing regulatory documents beyond those described at the start of our ongoing bilateral projects in Kazakhstan, Kirgizistan Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. (authors)

Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

2012-07-01

96

Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of cervical cancer in the countries within the two regions. It is hoped that the expanded second edition of the European Guidelines will finally kick-start effective interventions in many of these countries that still lack organised programmes. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24332296

Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

2013-12-31

97

Health conditions among workers who participated in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

People who took part in the Chernobyl accident cleanup have been registered upon their return to Kyrgyzstan since 1991, and their children since 1992. Later, citizens affected by the Semipalatinsk and Chelyabinsk contamination incidents were included for registration and health care purposes. The effects of the nuclear waste depositories in the Mailuu-Suu region were examined with the assistance of the Kansas University Medical Center (United States of America). All these investigations of affected people indicated apparent increases in a number of symptoms and illnesses when compared to the rest of the population. Samples sizes ranged from several hundred to several thousand. Above-normal radiation levels and/or the stress and fear of living in contaminated areas can lead to significant increases in nervous disorders, cardiovascular diseases and other problems. The most significant increase was in the suicide rate. 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

98

Analysis of China's Agricultural Exports to Five Central Asian Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper uses the statistical description and the constant market share model to analyze the Chinese agricultural product export to Central Asian countries. It discovered that the establishments the SCO Shanghai cooperation organization and cooperation process promote agricultural exports; agricultural products from China to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan is mainly attributed to the scale factor; in recent years, competition factor becomes the more important one. Owing to the market fluctuating, it restricted the exporting process in a certain degree. We can enhance the process in organization, construction, agricultural technology and marketing research.
Keywords: The five Central Asian Countries; Agricultural products; Export; Scale effect; Competition effect

Buwajian Abula

2012-06-01

99

Uranium series radionuclides in surface waters from the Shu river (Kazakhstan).  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb have been determined in surface waters collected along the course of the Shu River, lying on the border between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. In the study area, the river runs through some of the largest uranium deposits worldwide, which were actively exploited during the nuclear weapons and nuclear energy programmes of the former Soviet Union. The data show an increasing trend in uranium concentrations downstream the river from the city of Tokmak to the city of Shu, with good correlation between total uranium concentrations and total dissolved solids. Data on uranium isotopes disequilibrium show the presence of technogenic uranium inputs into the Shu River downstream from the city of Karasu, evidenced by a decrease in the measured (234)U/(238)U isotopic ratio from 1.63 in uncontaminated sites to 1.29 in sites affected by past mining activities. PMID:22378504

Burkitbayev, Mukhambetkali; Uralbekov, Bolat; Nazarkulova, Sholpan; Matveyeva, Ilona; León Vintró, Luis

2012-04-01

100

Verification of the open package OpenFOAM on dam break problems  

Science.gov (United States)

The work presents the results of mathematical modeling of large-scale flows in areas with a complex topographic relief. The Reynolds-averaged Navier—Stokes equations constitute the basis of the three-dimensional unsteady modelling. The well-known Volume of Fluid method implemented in the solver interFoam of the open package OpenFOAM 1.7.1 is used to track the free-boundary location. The mathematical model adequacy is checked by comparing with experimental data. The efficiency of the applied technology is illustrated by the example of modeling the breakthrough of the dams of the Andijan (Uzbekistan) and Papan (near the Osh town, Kyrgyzstan) reservoirs.

Zhainakov, A. Zh.; Kurbanaliev, A. Y.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Radioecological monitoring of transboundary rivers of the Central Asian Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of radioecological investigation of Central Asian rivers are presented. Investigation was done as part of the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the United States. The study of waterborne radionuclides and metals concentrations in Central Asia is of particular interest because of the history of nuclear materials mining, fabrication, transport, and storage there, when it was part of the Soviet Union. This development left a legacy of radionuclides and metals contamination in some Central Asian regions, which poses a clear health hazard to populations who rely heavily upon surface water for agricultural irrigation and direct domestic consumption. (author)

102

Political Regimes in Central Asia: Crisis of Legitimacy, Political Violence and Uncertain Prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses the present-day transition and political context of each of the states that comprise the former Soviet region of Central Asia since their independence: the internal changes they have undergone, the creation of their own institutions and regional and international relations. This evolution, especially with regard to the deficiencies in democracy and legitimacy of the majority of the current governments, based, in many cases, on personalist, authoritarian regimes, points to an uncertain future for a region in which, too frequently, its rulers have used all the means at their disposal (persecution of political opposition, disregard for human rights, constraint of the mass media and NGOs, etc. to guarantee their continuance in power. This article also includes an analysis of the most recent events, such as the Andijan (Uzbekistan massacre, the‘revolution’ without changes in Kyrgyzstan, and the authoritarian drift of Turkmenistan, which leads to conclusions filled with uncertainties for future political scenarios.

Mohammad-Reza Djalili

2005-10-01

103

A previously unrecognized group of Middle Jurassic triconodontan mammals from Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Ferganodon narynensis gen. et sp. nov. is represented by a lower molariform tooth from the Middle Jurassic (Callovian) Balabansai Svita in Kyrgyzstan. The new genus is allied with Klamelia zhaopengi Chow and Rich 1984 from the Middle Jurassic Shishugou Formation in Xinjiang, northwest China to the new family Klameliidae based on parallelogram-shaped lower molariforms, imbricating rather than interlocking of cusps e- d- f, by a peculiar distolabial cingulid cusp, and by vertical folding of the enamel on the labial crown side. The new family Klameliidae fam. nov. is most similar to Gobiconodontidae by the structure of the molariform teeth and represents a previously unrecognized radiation of eutriconodontan mammals possibly endemic to Central Asia.

Martin, Thomas; Averianov, Alexander O.

2007-01-01

104

Ticks status in Central Asia with a special emphasis on Uzbekistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uzbekistan is located between the greatest rivers of Central Asia and shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south. The climate is severely continental and arid, with hot summers and cold winters. These climatic particularities of Uzbekistan determine the distribution of tick fauna. The Ixodidae family of ticks is represented by 23 species in Uzbekistan. These ticks, as ectoparasites, cause significant damage to the livestock breeding and also serve as carriers of many human and animal diseases. During the last 10 years, more than 30,000 ticks in different regions of Uzbekistan were collected and identified. Analysis showed that cattle are parasitized by 11 species of Ixodidae ticks. The dominating species were Hyalomma anatolicum (34.9%), Hyalomma detritum detritum (31.8%), Boophilus kohlsi (30.7%). PMID:17823825

Rasulov, Ilham

2007-09-01

105

Historical distribution patterns of trigonioidids (non-marine Cretaceous bivalves) in Asia and their palaeogeographic significance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The non-marine trigonioidid bivalves show five phases of radiation in the Cretaceous of Pal-Asia: pre-Aptian (?Valanginian/Hauterivian-Barremian), Aptian, Albian, Cenomanian and Turonian-Maastrichtian. Their distribution patterns show two distinct palaeo-river systems feeding trigonioidids. Before the Cenomanian, the river system occupied the southwestern-southern-southeastern Pal-Asian continental margin areas. During the Turonian-Maastrichtian, it extended along the line of southcentral China-eastern China-northeastern China-northern China and Mongolia-northwestern China-eastern Fergana Basin of Kyrgyzstan-western Tajikistan Basin of Tajikistan-Tashkent area of Kazakhstan-central Kyzylkum of northern Uzbekistan-Aral Sea area of Kazakhstan. Furthermore, the general trigonioidid distribution pattern demonstrates that Japan was probably attached to part of eastern China and/or Korea during the ?Valanginian/Hauterivian-Cenomanian stages. PMID:19605391

Sha, Jingeng

2010-01-22

106

Assessment of the radiological impact of gamma and radon dose rates at former U mining sites in Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to gamma radiation, radon and thoron was carried out at selected former uranium mining and processing sites in the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Gamma dose rate measurements were made using various field instruments and radon/thoron measurements were carried out using discriminative radon (222Rn)/thoron (220Rn) solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time, including at least three seasonal periods in a year, in different outdoor and indoor public and residential environments at the selected uranium legacy sites. The results showed that gamma, Rn and Tn doses were in general low, which consequently implies a low/relatively low radiological risk. The major radiation hazard is represented by abandoned radioactive filtration material that was being used as insulation by some Minkush residents (Kyrgyzstan) for a longer period of time. Annual radiation doses of several hundred mSv could be received as a consequence of using this material domestically. In addition, the gamma and Rn/Tn dose rates at Digmai, Tajikistan, could reach values of several 10 mSv/a. The doses of ionizing radiation deriving from external radiation (gamma dose rate), indoor radon and thoron with their short-lived progenies in several cases exceeded the recommended annual effective dose threshold level of 10 mSv. At none of the sites investigated did the individual annual effective doses exceed 30 mSv, the internationally recommended value for considering intervention. Current doses of ionizing radiation do not represent a serious hazard to the health of the resident public, but this issue should be adequately addressed to further reduce needless exposure of the resident public to ionizing radiation

107

Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Past Mountain Glaciation in the Tian Shan, Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstructing chronologies of past glaciation using consistent methods is critical for efforts to examine the timing and spatial patterns of past climate changes. Using remote sensing data for initial mapping of glacial landforms, combined with field investigations to refine the mapping and 10Be surface exposure dating to constrain ages, we aim to improve understanding of spatial and temporal patterns of past glaciation along the length of the Tian Shan from Kyrgyzstan to China, including valleys with both southerly and northerly aspects. Building on past work by others, we have significantly expanded the range of sites for which data are available and the number of absolute ages to constrain the glacial chronology. This includes over 60 10Be surface exposure ages from two valleys with northern (source area of the Urumqi River) and southern aspects centered on the Central Tian Shan, and three sites in the western Tian Shan of Kyrgyzstan. The records of glaciation across the Tian Shan include preservation of fewer glaciations in northerly-trending than in southerly-trending valleys, evidence for glacial advance during MIS 2 throughout the mountain range, advances during MIS 6, 4 and 3 in some southerly-trending valleys, and a Holocene record in the central Tian Shan that is dominated by an extensive LIA advance. The LIA advance presumably destroyed evidence for other Holocene advances that were less extensive than that during the LIA advance. The disparity in records between northerly- and southerly-trending valleys could reflect a difference in the number of events as a result of the difference in aspect between north and south facing valleys, and/or differential preservation.

Harbor, J.; Stroeven, A. P.; Li, Y.; Lifton, N. A.; Blomdin, R.; Beel, C. R.; Caffee, M. W.; Chen, Y.; Gribenski, N.; Hättestrand, C.; Heyman, J.; Ivanov, M.; Kassab, C.; Li, Y.; Liu, G.; Petrakov, D.; Rogozhina, I.; Usubaliev, R.; Zhang, M.

2013-12-01

108

Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design: Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings: The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context.The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions: The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development cooperation and improved health outcomes; arguably, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have made slower progress in their health and socio-economic indices because of their resistance to open and accountable development relationships.

Anar Ulikpan

2014-09-01

109

Assessment of the radiological impact of gamma and radon dose rates at former U mining sites in Central Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to gamma radiation, radon and thoron was carried out at selected former uranium mining and processing sites in the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Gamma dose rate measurements were made using various field instruments and radon/thoron measurements were carried out using discriminative radon ((222)Rn)/thoron ((220)Rn) solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time, including at least three seasonal periods in a year, in different outdoor and indoor public and residential environments at the selected uranium legacy sites. The results showed that gamma, Rn and Tn doses were in general low, which consequently implies a low/relatively low radiological risk. The major radiation hazard is represented by abandoned radioactive filtration material that was being used as insulation by some Minkush residents (Kyrgyzstan) for a longer period of time. Annual radiation doses of several hundred mSv could be received as a consequence of using this material domestically. In addition, the gamma and Rn/Tn dose rates at Digmai, Tajikistan, could reach values of several 10 mSv/a. The doses of ionizing radiation deriving from external radiation (gamma dose rate), indoor radon and thoron with their short-lived progenies in several cases exceeded the recommended annual effective dose threshold level of 10 mSv. At none of the sites investigated did the individual annual effective doses exceed 30 mSv, the internationally recommended value for considering intervention. Current doses of ionizing radiation do not represent a serious hazard to the health of the resident public, but this issue should be adequately addressed to further reduce needless exposure of the resident public to ionizing radiation. PMID:23291151

Stegnar, P; Shishkov, I; Burkitbayev, M; Tolongutov, B; Yunusov, M; Radyuk, R; Salbu, B

2013-09-01

110

The Kyrgyz Seismic Network (KNET)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kyrgyz Digital Seismic Network (KNET) is a regional continuous telemetric network of very broadband seismic data. KNET was installed in 1991. The telemetry system was upgraded in 1998. The seismograms are transmitted in near real time. KNET is located along part of the boundary between the northern Tien Shan Mountains and the Kazakh platform. Several major tectonic features are spanned by the network including a series of thrust faults in the Tien Shan, the Chu Valley, and the NW-SE trending ridges north of Bishkek. This network is designed to monitor regional seismic activity at the magnitude 3.5+ level as well as to provide high quality data for research projects in regional and global broadband seismology. The Kyrgyz seismic network array consists of 10 stations - 3 of them with more than 3600 m altitude, 2 mountain repeaters, 1 intermediate data base and 2 data centers. One of data centers is a remote source for IRIS data base. KNET is operated by International Research Center - Geodynamic Proving Ground in Bishkek (IGRC) with the participation of Research Station of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RS RAS) and Kyrgyz Institute of Seismology (KIS). The network consists of Streckeisen STS-2 sensors with 24-bit PASSCAL data loggers. All continuous real-time data are accessible through the IRIS DMC in Seattle with over 95% data availability, which compares favorably to the best networks currently operating worldwide. National institutes of seismology in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, National Nuclear Centre of Kazakhstan, RS RAS, divisions of the ministries on extreme situations and the institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences use KNET data for estimating seismic hazards and to study deep-seated structure of researched territory. KNET data is used by National Nuclear Centre of Republic of Kazakhstan, which together with LAMONT laboratory (USA) carries out verification researches and monitoring of nuclear detonations in China, India and Pakistan. The uniform digital Catalogue of Central Asia data which will include Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and KNET seismic networks data is being developed. Chinese scientists have expressed interest in usage of KNET data, and also in association of a digital network located in the Tarim platform and KNET territory.

Bragin, V. D.; Willemann, R. J.; Matix, A. I.; Dudinskih, R. R.; Vernon, F.; Offield, G.

2007-05-01

111

CrisisGroup  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Crisis Group (ICG) is a private, multinational organization "committed to strengthening the capacity of the international community to anticipate, understand and act to prevent and contain conflict." The ICG, which is chaired by former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari, is headquartered in Brussels and has advocacy offices in Washington DC, New York, and Paris. The organization currently operates field projects in nineteen crisis-affected countries and four continents: Algeria, Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, Sudan, and Zimbabwe in Africa; Myanmar, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan in Asia; Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia in Europe; and Colombia in Latin America. Teams of political analysts gather information from a wide range of sources, assess local conditions, and produce regular analytical reports, containing "practical recommendations targeted at key international decision-takers." For those users interested in exploring publications on issues related to conflict prevention and management, this is definitely a place to start. The heading "Browse by publication type," located on the main website, will allow users to browse a variety of resoures such as reports, briefings, speeches, podcasts and other multimedia and the latest news releases.

112

Automated Spatiotemporal Landslide Mapping over Large Areas Using RapidEye Time Series Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past, different approaches for automated landslide identification based on multispectral satellite remote sensing were developed to focus on the analysis of the spatial distribution of landslide occurrences related to distinct triggering events. However, many regions, including southern Kyrgyzstan, experience ongoing process activity requiring continual multi-temporal analysis. For this purpose, an automated object-oriented landslide mapping approach has been developed based on RapidEye time series data complemented by relief information. The approach builds on analyzing temporal NDVI-trajectories for the separation between landslide-related surface changes and other land cover changes. To accommodate the variety of landslide phenomena occurring in the 7500 km2 study area, a combination of pixel-based multiple thresholds and object-oriented analysis has been implemented including the discrimination of uncertainty-related landslide likelihood classes. Applying the approach to the whole study area for the time period between 2009 and 2013 has resulted in the multi-temporal identification of 471 landslide objects. A quantitative accuracy assessment for two independent validation sites has revealed overall high mapping accuracy (Quality Percentage: 80%, proving the suitability of the developed approach for efficient spatiotemporal landslide mapping over large areas, representing an important prerequisite for objective landslide hazard and risk assessment at the regional scale.

Robert Behling

2014-08-01

113

Combined wind, hydropower and photovoltaic systems for generation of electric power and control of water resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the present day energy consumption and potentialities of utilization of wind- and hydropower resources in some Central and Southern Asian Republics, in particular, in the Republic of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan are presented. The maximum consumption of electric power is observed in winter time when hydropower is the minimum, but wind power is the maximum. At the same time water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those which use water for generation of electric power. It is proposed that the utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy will facilitate the proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia. In the future in Tajikistan, wind power systems with a capacity of 30-100 MW and more will be installed, providing power balance of the country in winter; hence saving water in reservoirs, especially in drought years. This will provide the integration of electricity generated by wind, hydroelectric power and photovoltaic system in the unified energy system of the country. (author)

114

The closed Lake Issyk-Kul as an indicator of global warming in Tien-Shan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lake Issyk-Kul is the seventh deepest lake in the world situated inCentral Asiain theTien-ShanMountainsat the elevation of 1607 m above sea level. This area belongs toKyrgyzstan. From 1927 to 1997 the water level decreased by 3.4 m, and increased by 0.93 m from 1997 to 2011. The article analyzes the impact of the global warming on the Lake Issyk-Kul thermal regime and the components of its water balance: river discharge, precipitation, evaporation and lake level variations. It shows that the global warming has entailed the increase of the Lake Issyk-Kul water temperature down to the maximum depths, and river discharge increase due to the glaciers melting and the evaporation from the lake surface. The air temperature increase of 1 ? results in river discharge increas and lake level rise of 44 mm/year and surface evaporation increase of 88 mm/year. TheLakeIssyk-Kullevel increase after 1997, which takes place in the situation of global warming, was caused by the activation of the West air masses transport and increase of precipitation in autumn.

Vladimir V. Romanovsky

2013-05-01

115

Has global fund support for civil society advocacy in the former Soviet Union established meaningful engagement or 'a lot of jabber about nothing'?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although civil society advocacy for health issues such as HIV transmission through injecting drug use is higher on the global health agenda than previously, its impact on national policy reform has been limited. In this paper we seek to understand why this is the case through an examination of civil society advocacy efforts to reform HIV/AIDS and drugs-related policies and their implementation in three former Soviet Union countries. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine by national researchers with representatives from a sample of 49 civil society organizations (CSOs) and 22 national key informants. We found that Global Fund support resulted in the professionalization of CSOs, which increased confidence from government and increased CSO influence on policies relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs. Interviewees also reported that the amount of funding for advocacy from the Global Fund was insufficient, indirect and often interrupted. CSOs were often in competition for Global Fund support, which caused resentment and limited collective action, further weakening capacity for effective advocacy. PMID:22767433

Harmer, Andrew; Spicer, Neil; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

2013-05-01

116

Circus monkeys or change agents? Civil society advocacy for HIV/AIDS in adverse policy environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the factors enabling and undermining civil society efforts to advocate for policy reforms relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs in three countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. It examines how political contexts and civil society actors' strengths and weaknesses inhibit or enable advocacy for policy change - issues that are not well understood in relation to specific policy areas such as HIV/AIDS, or particular regions of the world where national policies are believed to be major drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The study is based on in-depth interviews with representatives of civil society organizations (CSOs) (n = 49) and national level informants including government and development partners (n = 22). Our policy analysis identified a culture of fear derived from concerns for personal safety but also risk of losing donor largesse. Relations between CSOs and government were often acrimonious rather than synergistic, and while we found some evidence of CSO collective action, competition for external funding - in particular for HIV/AIDS grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was often divisive. Development partners and government tend to construct CSOs as service providers rather than advocates. While some advocacy was tolerated by governments, CSO participation in the policy process was, ultimately, perceived to be tokenistic. This was because there are financial interests in maintaining prohibitionist legislation: efforts to change punitive laws directed at the behaviors of minority groups such as injecting drug users have had limited impact. PMID:22036298

Spicer, Neil; Harmer, Andrew; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

2011-12-01

117

National independence and nonproliferation in the new states of Central Asia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five independent states emerged in Central Asia from the breakup of the USSR. One of these states, Kazakhstan, possesses nuclear weapons. The other four of these states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are not known to possess nuclear weapons, however they occupy a geostrategic position which makes them important to non-proliferation efforts. The present report profiles the capabilities and intentions of these four Central Asian states. The analysis of capabilities suggests that none of these states has the capability to develop a usable nuclear weapon. However, all of these countries-- especially Uzbekistan--have components of the old Soviet nuclear weapons complex which are now orphans. They have no use for these facilities and must either re-profile them, destroy them, or transfer them. The analysis of intentions suggests that the dynamics of national independence have created a situation in which Uzbekistan has hegemonic designs in the region. Implications for retarding nuclear proliferation in the Central Asian region are examined. Opportunities for outside influence are assessed.

Gleason, G.

1993-12-01

118

Feast or famine: 1992 spot market review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There was nothing temperate about the uranium spot market in 1992. It was a year of extremes. Demand took off at a brisk pace early in the year as utilities, enticed by low U3O8 prices and interest rates, stepped up their discretionary purchases. With the NUKEM price range sinking to an all-time low of US$6.75-7.70 in November 1991, utilities reckoned that prices had bottomed out and decided to buy and hold material. Indeed, the upper end of NUKEM's range remained below $8.00 per lb for much of the first half of 1992. The main cause of low prices was the flood of imports from the crumbling Soviet Union and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]. The CIS republics quickly embraced a free-market philosophy to boost their faltering economies, and several hoped to use uranium as a source of badly-needed hard currency. But they were about to get a harsh introduction to capitalism. It came in the form of government intervention, in both the US and Europe. In May, the US Department of Commerce made its preliminary determination that the uranium-producing republics of the CIS were selling material in the US at less than fair market value. The antidumping case was eventually settled in October when the CIS republics [Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan] signed suspension agreements subjecting CIS origin uranium to price and quantity quotas in the US

119

Investigation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central Asia and Caucasus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Various threats to civilization such as natural and man-induced catastrophes, international terrorism, ecological imbalance, global climate change and others hazards have been recently increased in number. Today catastrophic processes are notable for a high degree of organization The humankind has faced the majority of hazards for the first time; therefore, there are no analogues and recipes to be used for their solving. Catastrophe risk have increased so much and joint efforts of the entire world immunity are required. One of the most effective ways to solve the issue can be estimation of risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes. Here we pay attention to the main regions, having the high seismic activities, where it is possible to stimulate natural calamities in this way or cause man-induced catastrophes with huge negative effects of international scale in Central Asia and Caucasus: Uranium, antimony and mercury tailing storages in Tian-Shan mountains. The possible terrorism acts here create the serious danger for Russian and USA military air bases, functioned near large Kyrgyzstan capital Bishkek city. The large Hydroelectric Stations with their huge dams and reservoirs, located near big industrial cities, different natural mines tailing storages, including Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Polygon in East Kazakhstan

120

Central Asia: A major emerging energy player in the 21st century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

Addressing global change challenges for Central Asian socio-ecosystems  

Science.gov (United States)

Central Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions on the planet earth to global climate change, depending on very fragile natural resources. The Soviet legacy has left the five countries (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) with a highly integrated system but they are facing great challenges with tensions that hinder regional coordination of food and water resources. With increasing climate variability and warming trend in the region, food and water security issues become even more crucial now and, if not addressed properly, could affect the regional stability. The long-term drivers of these two most critical elements, food and water, are climate change; the immediate and probably more drastic factors affecting the food and water security are land uses driven by institutional change and economic incentives. As a feedback, changes in land use and land cover have directly implications on water uses, food production, and lifestyles of the rural community in the region. Regional and international efforts have been made to holistically understand the cause, extent, rate and societal implications of land use changes in the region. Much of these have been understood, or under investigation by various projects, but solutions or research effort to develop solutions, to these urgent regional issues are lacking. This article, serves as an introduction to the special issue, provides a brief overview of the challenges facing the Central Asian countries and various international efforts in place that resulted in the publications of this special issue.

Qi, Jiaguo; Bobushev, Temirbek S.; Kulmatov, Rashid; Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik

2012-06-01

122

The Navruz experiment. Cooperative monitoring for radionuclides and metals in Central Asia transboundary rivers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In March of 2000, scientists from four nuclear physics research institutes in the Central Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and the U.S. Sandia National Laboratories embarked on a three-year cooperative transboundary river monitoring experiment. The experiment, named Navruz (meaning 'new beginning'), uses standardized methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: (1) to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; (2) to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and (3) to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources. Contamination of these rivers is a result of growing population, urbanization, agricultural uses, and radioactive and metals contamination from a legacy of uranium mining, industry, and other activities of the former Soviet Union. The project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of the importance of these contaminants to public health and political stability in Central Asia. Moreover, the method of enabling scientists from bordering countries to study a transboundary problem, can lead to a greater scientific understanding, consensus on necessary mitigation steps, and ultimately the political resolution of the issue. The project scope, approach, and prissue. The project scope, approach, and preliminary results are presented. (author)

123

Vulnerability to Poverty in select Central Asian Countries  

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Full Text Available In the extant literature either income or consumption expenditures as measured over short periods of time have been regarded as a proxy for the material well-being of households. However, economists have long recognized that a household's sense of well-being depends not just on its average income or expenditures, but also on the risks it faces and its ability to deal with these risks. Hence vulnerability is a more satisfactory measure of welfare. In this study we used the concept of vulnerability as expected poverty to assess the household vulnerability to poverty in four Central Asian countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Except for Tajikistan, headcount poverty and vulnerability rates are significantly different. We also find that vulnerability differs significantly across households by location and selected household characteristics. In this paper we use a simple empirical measurement that allows estimating the headcount vulnerability to poverty using cross-section data. This measurement is based on the strong assumption that households have the same conditional distribution of consumption in a stationary environment. While this approach cannot capture all dimensions of vulnerability, it at least begins to raise the policy issue that vulnerability should be considered alongside poverty.

Raghbendra Jha

2009-06-01

124

Central Asia: A major emerging energy player in the 21st century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term

125

Improved seismic risk assessment based on probabilistic multi-source information integration  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthquakes threat millions of people all over the world. Assessing seismic risk, defined as the probability of occurrence of economical and social losses as consequence of an earthquake, both at regional and at local scale is a challenging, multi-disciplinary task. In order to provide reliable estimates, diverse information must be gathered by seismologists, geologists, engineers and civil authorities and carefully integrated, keeping into account the different uncertainties and the inherent spatio-temporal variability. An efficient and reliable assessment of the assets exposed to seismic hazard and the structural and social components of vulnerability are of particular importance, in order to undertake proper mitigation actions and to promptly and efficiently react to a possibly catastrophic natural event. An original approach is presented to assess seismic vulnerability and risk based on integration of information coming from several heterogeneous sources: remotely-sensed and ground-based panoramic images, manual digitization, already available information and expert knowledge. A Bayesian approach has been introduced to keep into account collected information while preserving priors and subjective judgment. In the broad perspective of GEM (Global Earthquake Model) and more specifically within EMCA (Earthquake Model Central Asia) project, an integrated, sound approach to seismic risk in countries with limited resources is an important but rewarding challenge. Improved vulnerability and risk models for the capital cities of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and their application in earthquake scenarios will be discussed.

Pittore, M.; Wieland, M.; Duisheev, A.; Yasunov, P.

2012-04-01

126

Remediation project planning at the uranium production legacy sites. Lesson learned from the best international practice and challenges for developing countries - 59043  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The former Soviet Union countries such as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine, where uranium production legacy sites are located (such as mines, waste rock piles, pits, chemical and hydrometallurgical plants, tailing dumps, etc.) are currently facing the challenge of making these objects environmentally safe. These countries share a common history of the uranium mining and milling industry, similar regulatory shortcomings and uncertainties regarding the strategy justification for such remediation projects. They also have to deal with scarcity of financial resources for long-term remediation programmes, and lack of experience with planning and management of environmental remediation projects at former uranium production sites. In the recent years, IAEA-supported programmes of international technical co-operation (the projects RER/0986 and RER/3010) were advancing actively, as well as those sponsored by the UNDP, EurAsEC and others, all aiming to assist with the preparedness and performance of future remediation projects. As demonstrated by analysis, effectiveness of the many programmes largely depends on the nations' level of preparedness to carry out remediation projects in accordance with the international standards. This paper presents the lessons learned from analyses of the different type of projects, which were already implemented or which are still in plan dy implemented or which are still in plan in different countries

127

Aid effectiveness and women's empowerment: practices of governance in the funding of international development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the empowerment of women is a prominent goal in international development, feminist development professionals, activists, and scholars remain deeply dissatisfied with the limited extent to which women's empowerment is actually achieved. Their experiences and analyses raise questions about the connections and disjunctions between discourse, institutional practices, and everyday life. A major effort to reform development aid guided by the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness raises new questions about the place of gender in development practice. Drawing on recently conducted research on women and development in Kyrgyzstan and using a range of institutional texts, we interrogate how development professionals and activists engage with the aid effectiveness discourse. Our analytic approach, institutional ethnography, shares with work on governmentality an empirical focus on practices undertaken by diversely situated people and how these practices constitute a particular field of action. Institutional ethnography directs analytic attention to the operation of texts as local and translocal coordinators of people's everyday activities. The product of this coordinated work is what we call, in this case, the development institution. For those concerned about women and development, we see the usefulness of making visible how global governance is accomplished in both enactments of and resistance to institutional practices, but in ways that do not necessarily benefit women. PMID:20827854

Campbell, Marie L; Teghtsoonian, Katherine

2010-01-01

128

After dumping agreement: A two-tiered market?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In its largest increase since July 1990, the NUKEM price range for this month ended up at $9.50-$10.50. On October 16th, destined to become a landmark date in uranium industry history, the republics of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine and the Russian Federation signed quantitative restraint agreements with the US Department of Commerce. Predictably, prices jumped significantly as sellers withdrew from the market. With Commerce's initial calculation of a $7.95 market price for determining the level of CIS imports over the next six months, it appears quite certain that prices for non-CIS origins will continue to rise. (CIS imports can only begin when Commerce determines that the market price has hit $13). There is the possibility that a two-tiered market could emerge in the future with lower prices being paid for CIS origins by those utilities not affected by Euratom or Commerce restrictions. However, at this point, most potential buyers falling into this category have opted to maintain a wait-and-see approach

129

[Distribution of mutations in the rpoB, katG, inhA, ahpC gene of rifampicin and isoniazid resistant M. tuberculosis strains isolated in Kyrgyz Republic].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to evaluate the prevalence mutations in the rpoB, katG, inhA, ahpC gene of rifampicin and isoniazid resistant M. tuberculosis (Tb) isolates from Kyrgyz Republic using OA Biochip MDR. In the rifampicin-resistant strains, the mutations were identified in the codons 531, 526, 516, 511, 513, 512, 533, and 522. The most prevalent point mutations were Ser531RLeu at the codon 531 (59.7%). Resistance to INH was associated with mutations found in the katG gene (94.5%), inhA gene (3.5%), and ahpC gene (1.0%). The most prevalent mutations were SerRThr at the codon 315 (93.0%). The rifampicin and isoniasid resistance of the M. Tb strains isolated in Kyrgyzstan is associated mostly with Ser531RLeu mutation of the rpoB gene, Ser315RThr mutation of the katG gene, and InhT15 mutation. PMID:19172878

Isakova, Zh T

2008-01-01

130

10 points about buying C.I.S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On October 16, 1992, the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) settled the antidumping case against the CIS republics by imposing price and volume quotas on CIS uranium imported into the United States. Bound by a suspension agreement, each of the six uranium-producing CIS republics is responsible for restricting the flow of imports to the US-either directly or indirectly. (As the NUKEM Market Report went to press, the Ukraine government notified the DOC of its intent not to terminate the suspension agreement.) This action is to prevent undercutting price levels in the US domestic uranium markets. What follows are ten points about everything you should know about importing uranium from the uranium-producing CIS republics- Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Newcomers to the CIS scene should follow this simple roadmap and be aware of the issues they face as importers in terms of Commerce/Customs requirements and documentation and where to get them, when to buy the material and how to transport it, how to deal effectively with CIS exporters, and how to avoid unnecessary complications when buying CIS

131

Reduction of Radiometric Miscalibration—Applications to Pushbroom Sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework—Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME)—considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program) scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data. PMID:22163960

Rogaß, Christian; Spengler, Daniel; Bochow, Mathias; Segl, Karl; Lausch, Angela; Doktor, Daniel; Roessner, Sigrid; Behling, Robert; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Kaufmann, Hermann

2011-01-01

132

Reduction of radiometric miscalibration--applications to pushbroom sensors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework-Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME)-considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program) scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data. PMID:22163960

Rogass, Christian; Spengler, Daniel; Bochow, Mathias; Segl, Karl; Lausch, Angela; Doktor, Daniel; Roessner, Sigrid; Behling, Robert; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Kaufmann, Hermann

2011-01-01

133

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

T. Schöne

2013-02-01

134

Identifying Changing Snow Cover Characteristics in Central Asia between 1986 and 2014 from Remote Sensing Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Central Asia consists of the five former Soviet States Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, therefore comprising an area of ~4 Mio km2. The continental climate is characterized by hot and dry summer months and cold winter seasons with most precipitation occurring as snowfall. Accordingly, freshwater supply is strongly depending on the amount of accumulated snow as well as the moment of its release after snowmelt. The aim of the presented study is to identify possible changes in snow cover characteristics, consisting of snow cover duration, onset and offset of snow cover season within the last 28 years. Relying on remotely sensed data originating from medium resolution imagers, these snow cover characteristics are extracted on a daily basis. The resolution of 500–1000 m allows for a subsequent analysis of changes on the scale of hydrological sub-catchments. Long-term changes are identified from this unique dataset, revealing an ongoing shift towards earlier snowmelt within the Central Asian Mountains. This shift can be observed in most upstream hydro catchments within Pamir and Tian Shan Mountains and it leads to a potential change of freshwater availability in the downstream regions, exerting additional pressure on the already tensed situation.

Andreas J. Dietz

2014-12-01

135

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

T. Schöne

2012-06-01

136

Advocating for opioid substitution therapy in Central Asia: much still to be done.  

Science.gov (United States)

Opioid substitution therapy (OST) was first introduced in the formerly-Soviet Central Asian Republics as an HIV prevention intervention for people who inject drugs (PWID) in 2002. Presently, pilot programs function in Kazakhstan and Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan has scaled-up from the pilot phase to the operation of over 20 OST sites nation-wide. All three countries have taken steps towards lower-threshold programs, allowing clients to enroll regardless of HIV status, and, in some cases, without documentation of failure to complete other drug treatment programs. However, OST programs remain exclusively funded by international donors, and political and societal opposition to these programs threaten their stability. In order to counter negative campaigns and political attacks on OST, organized advocacy efforts are needed. This commentary explores efforts undertaken by international donor partners supporting advocacy efforts to scale-up OST and assure a sustainable future for programming. It examines both proactive and reactive efforts, and the variety of target audiences that need to be reached to conduct effective advocacy. Ultimately we find that, while a range of tools are available for OST advocacy in the hostile environments of the former Soviet Union, the strengthening of advocacy groups is needed to assure an optimized platform exists for using the evidence and developing relevant materials in the appropriate languages (including, but not limited to, Russian) for both proactive and reactive efforts; and that more robust monitoring is desirable to bring sharper focus to replicable methods. PMID:24680628

Parsons, Danielle; Burrows, Dave; Bolotbaeva, Aisuluu

2014-11-01

137

Music as Illness; Music as Healing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout the Soviet Union, the arts became tied to ethnicity through the project of Socialist Realism. When, in 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic became independent from the Soviet Union, its national narrative continued to be built upon tropes of Kyrgyz ethnicity. Through their engagement with images of the ethno-national self, the arts provide a great source of beauty. Defining beauty as a representation of the self that is pure whole, and stable, Julia Kristeva asserts that beauty and suffering are part of the same phenomena. Arthur Kleinman argues that suffering is best understood as existing within the triangulated relationship of cultural representation, collective experience, and subjectivity. Music too is part of this triangulated relationship, and therefore, a part of suffering. Drawing upon ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in Kyrgyzstan, this article explores the illness experience of a single Kyrgyz musician. In doing so, it illustrates music's role in self-formation and the development of social, economic, and political ties and the shifts that occur in these during illness. In drawing forth the role of music in the construction of racialized ethnicities, this article demonstrates how the experience of transformative beauty can coexist with turmoil, marginalization, and violence. PMID:25394694

Pritchard, Maureen

2014-11-14

138

Procesos sociales y culturales en el mundo turco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The beginning of this article describres the distribution and lingustic groups of the Turkic population and thereafter characterised the latest social and cultural developments in each Turkic states. Turkey, as the most developed state, supplies material and cultural help to the other Turkic states situated in the interior of Eurasia. The best results in this all-Turkic co-operation appear not insomuch in the partnership with nearby Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan, which are influenced by neighbouring Iran, but with easternmost Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakstan. All these states belong to the OSCE. Thus, Mediterranean Turkey, with its experience in democratic development, is the gateway of Mediterranean countries to Central Asia. At the same time, the eastern Turkic states export raw materials and some elements of their ancient folk culture to penisular Turkey. The all-Turkic co-operation is a good example of mutually-useful relations between the Eurasian Heartland and Rimland, considered in the classical theory of geopolitics by some antagonists.

Ott Kurs

1999-01-01

139

Minerageny and potential of the mineral-raw base development. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book includes papers of the well known geologists of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It is dedicated to Academician Kanysh Satpaev's 100-anniversary of the birthday. The book consists of two parts. The first part is opened out by papers about role of K. Satpaev in the mineral-raw base development and on regularities of the industrial mineralization distribution in Kazakhstan. The results of geologic analysis of region are summarized. Some new aspects of the metallogeny are shown and geologic models of sedimentary basin of Kazakhstan as a base of the petroleum potential forecast are demonstrated. The theoretical problems of geology in the light of the new geo tectonic concept, geo dynamics and minerageny of Tien-Shan, modern geo dynamics and seismicity of the Earth crust are considered. The stratified infiltrated uranium deposit of Kazakhstan are characterized. Geological-genetic model of some rhodusite-asbestos deposits, the paleovolcanic model of the pyrite mineralization, new data on ore content at the Semipalatinsk test site are considered. (author)

140

New Strains of Streptomyces as Producers of Biofungicides and Biological Stimulators for Protection of the Shoots and Seedlings of Tiang-Shang Spruce Fir (Picea Schrenkiana  

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Full Text Available During this work we detected 5 species of pathogenic fungi that damage seedlings and saplings of the Tiang-Shang spruce fir, which cause a perceptible damage to the coniferous nurseries of Northern Kyrgyzstan and require activities to protect the woods. The biological activity of Streptomyces metabolites for raising the resistance of seedlings to phytopathogenic fungi was tested in laboratory and field conditions during three seasons. In order to evaluate the biological activity of Streptomyces preparations as biological agents, we have soaked the seeds in the suspension of Streptomyces metabolites with the concentrations of 50, 100, 500 mg per liter. In other variant, the seeds were at first processed in the culture of pathogenic fungi as infectious drowning of sprouts (Fusarium, Alternaria, crown rot of sprouts (Sclerotinia graminearum Elen. and grey dew of needles (Hypodermella sulsigena Tub., then they were treated in the suspension of Streptomyces. Also we have used a spraying treatment with the suspension of Streptomyces metabolites of the one-year-old seedlings of Tiang-Shang spruce fir already staggered and dying from infectious drowning. The best results against the Alternaria culture were demonstrated by the use of preparation S. griseogromogenes 2?-8 at the concentration of 500 mgs per liter, which provided the safety of sprouts to 80.2%. Preparations of S. rubrogriseus ??2-5, S. wistariopsis ??3-13 and S. griseogromogenes 2?-8 were effective in protection of sprouts from Fusarium sp. cultures. They provided safety of sprouts to 80% on average.

T. D. Doolotkeldieva

2008-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Transition in Central Asia: Growth with Increasingly Greater Inequality?  

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Full Text Available This article analyses the economic evolution of the former Soviet states of Central Asia since their independence, especially in regard to growth and in comparison with growing inequality. The following topics are considered: first of all, the initial conditions in whichthe economic transition of these countries began; secondly, the transformations of widely varying scope (different “routes of transition” that these economies have experienced, from an almost non-reform (Turkmenistan or a gradual or partial reform (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, to a large-scale reform (Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan; and thirdly, the economic performance of the Central Asian states, which, with the exception of Uzbekistan, has been quite poor and has generated what we could call two kinds of “duality”: one which is generated by the expansion of extracting industries (oil, gas and metals, to the detriment of other sectors fundamental to the countries’ development, and another one originating from the growingunequal distribution of income among the population. While the first of these “dualities” cannot be maintained as a long-term development strategy, the second one could culminate in social agitation and instability, even in the medium term, which could contribute to thedestabilisation of the already fragile and volatile region of Central Asia.

Max Spoor

2005-10-01

142

Nuclear material in the NIS. Experience and progress in enhancing security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The break-up of the former Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in the creation of 14 newly independent States (NIS), besides the Russian Federation. Eleven States are known to have nuclear activities (including mining activities). These are Armenia, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Three other States are known to have no nuclear activity or mining activity. These are Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Turkmenistan. All 14 States have acceded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Safeguards agreements have been signed with 12 of the States. There are nine States where a safeguards agreement is in force: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, and three States - Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia - have signed safeguards agreements which are pending ratification. Azerbaijan was the latest State to sign a safeguards agreement, in 1999. Eight States have signed the Additional Protocol. The Additional Protocol has entered into force in four of the NIS: Azerbaijan, Latvia, Lithuania, and Uzbekistan. Long before the individual NIS ratified the NPT and signed the safeguards agreements, IAEA experts and safeguards staff went on technical visits to locations where the State informed the Agency that there was nuclear material. The purposes of these visits were to advise the country on the initial inventory declarations and possible safeguards tory declarations and possible safeguards activities for each facility, to explain these activities to facility and State representatives, and to demonstrate safeguards equipment that would be used, thereby preparing the facility for eventual inspections. A wide variety of different types of nuclear facilities (uranium mining, fuel fabrication plant, commercial nuclear power plants, research reactors, and storage facilities) are located in the NIS. With most NIS becoming parties to the NPT as non-nuclear weapon States, there has been an acute need in these States for considerable assistance for the establishment of the necessary structure and resources to ensure that their commitments to non-proliferation are fully implemented in a timely manner. A number of IAEA Member States (donor States) offered and provided assistance to the NIS on a bilateral level to set up an appropriate State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) which includes Import/Export Control and Physical Protection of Nuclear Material in each State. The IAEA and these donor States established the Coordinated Technical Support Programme (CTSP) to ensure that the support given to the NIS was done in a coordinated and transparent manner and to avoid duplication of effort. The IAEA has played a coordinating role for the past eight years by helping to identify detailed needs in individual States, by providing a platform for Member States to identify areas where they could provide the optimum support, and in developing and preparing the Coordinated Technical Support Plans. The donor and recipient countries regularly meet in Vienna to review the focus and implementation status of the coordinated technical support activities in the NIS

143

United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs): Helping to Ensure the Integration of Nuclear Techniques with other Development Initiatives and Plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA and the Department of Technical Cooperation in particular, rely on harmonious and collaborative work with numerous partners over a broad range of policy levels to promote peace and development through the peaceful application of nuclear science and technology. The Strategy and Partnership Section (TCSPS) of the Division of Programme Support and Coordination is at the forefront of developing and maintaining successful partnerships with the IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation. Part of the work of TCSPS involves streamlining the Country Programme Framework (CPF) process and building networks that support the United Nations one house approach. Country Programme Frameworks are programming tools that provide a frame of reference for technical cooperation between the IAEA and its Member States in the medium term (4-6 years). They provide a concise framework for national development needs or problems that can be addressed using nuclear science and technology. In support of the IAEA's efforts to align and provide leverage for its technical cooperation activities within the larger development context, the CPF preparation process now makes extensive use of national development plans and United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs). UNDAFs are the planning framework for the development operations of the UN system at the country level and not only help to ensure that the application of nuclear techniques is integrated with existing development initiatiegrated with existing development initiatives and plans, but also assist identifying areas where such techniques might be usefully deployed. In the past two years, 13 UNDAFs have been signed, reflecting the IAEA's focus on optimizing development activities at the country level. Currently the Secretariat is engaged in 22 ongoing UNDAF processes to ensure that the TC programme is aligned with the national development priorities reflected in these frameworks. One outstanding example of the work that is possible within the UNDAF framework is demonstrated in a soil conservation project in Tajikistan (TAD5005) entitled 'Developing Soil Conservation Strategies for Improved Soil Health', part of a technical cooperation effort that began with the assessment of soil erosion and sedimentation for land use. In former years limited capacity to monitor national resources has led to poverty due to widespread soil erosion that has affected agricultural lands. A lack of essential soil redistribution information made it impossible for the nation to assess, monitor and address the processes of accelerated natural resource degradation. The technical cooperation project was developed as a result of Tajikistan's identified need for improved national capacities and facilities to provide the basis for soil erosion modelling and land use planning. The IAEA is providing expert advice in field sampling design, laboratory set-up and data interpretation and training, to contribute to a better understanding of the main factors affecting Tajikistan's soil redistribution. As a result of this assistance, sustainable natural resource management will be possible, based on the identification of cost-effective soil conservation measures. This project has become associated with the project on Sustainable Land Management in the High Pamir and Pamir-Alai Mountains (PALM), an integrated transboundary initiative of the governments of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan and has involved numerous partners: - The Global Environment Facility (GEF), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and other donors who provided financial support to PALM; - The State agencies for environment protection and forestry in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; - Partnerships were established with the University of Bern's Centre for Development and Environment through the National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, and with scientists from Moscow State University; - GEF directed complementary resources to the project through the PALM mechanism; - The United Nations University (UNU) helped to coordinate project activities. These

144

3D and 2D inversion of magnetotelluric data from the continental collision zone in the Pamirs and Tien Shan, Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Many geodynamic processes governing intra-continental collisional orogeny are largely unexplained and controversial. A key question is the state and dynamic behaviour of the lithosphere at middle and lower crustal levels while continental collision progresses. The Pamir - Tien Shan region in Central Asia may be the best location on Earth to study such lithospheric deformation processes in situ. The mountain ranges and high plateaus formed at the tip of the north-western Indian promontory through the Cenozoic experienced rates of shortening similar to the adjacent Himalaya-Tibet system. Today, the Pamir - Tien Shan orogenic belt hosts some of the deepest active intra-continental subduction zones on Earth and absorbs the highest strain rate over the shortest distance that is manifested in the India-Asia collision zone. The multi-disciplinary Tien Shan - Pamir Geodynamic Program (TIPAGE) was designed to address some of the geodynamic key questions in this region. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out in concert with other geophysical and geological observations in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, predominantly along a 350 km long and 50 km wide corridor from southern Tajikistan to Osh in Kyrgyzstan across the Pamir Plateau and southern Tien Shan mountain ranges. In total we recorded MT data at 178 stations, 26 of them combine long-period and broad band recordings. We present and compare 2D and 3D MT inversion results. Strike analysis of the data revealed an overall mean geo-electric strike direction consistent with the predominant tectonic trends. 2D inversion yields a reasonable data fit, with exception of some sites which exhibit phases above 90 degrees. 3D inversion was carried out with the ModEM package. We inverted for all four impedance tensor components and the vertical magnetic transfer functions. Topography was also included. The 3D models are generally in agreement with the 2D results but achieve a better data fit, particularly phases which could not be fitted with 2D inversion. The MT inversions reveal an upper crust of the Pamirs, which is generally resistive, with embedded conductive parts correlating to suture zones. Several distinct zones of high conductivity appear beneath the southern Pamirs and the central/northern Pamir at mid crustal levels, possibly reaching mantle depths. We interpret the southern mid-crust conductor as hot and partially molten, viscous felsic material. To the north, the conductor is bound by a resistive block which correlates with the miocene gneiss of the Muskol dome. The second conductive zone north of the Muskol dome could originate from brittle and fractured crust. Faults and old deformation zones can form pathways for aqueous fluids in the crust. When highly mineralized fluids penetrate fractured brittle areas, the entire region can become conductive. Further north, the seismically active Main Pamir Thrust which separates the Pamir from the Tien Shan corresponds to a sharp, south-dipping conductivity contrast between resistive upper crust in the Pamirs and conductive crust beneath the Alai valley.

Sass, Paul; Ritter, Oliver; Rybin, Anatolii; Batalev, Vladislav

2013-04-01

145

Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polonium-210 in water and 210Pb and 210Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of 210Pb and 210Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of 210Po was higher than for 210Pb, and the accumulation of 210Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg?1 ww). Although the average activity concentration of 210Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25–327 Bq kg?1 ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported 210Po into the liver, and that the distributions of 210Po and 210Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for 210Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 105, >2.5 × 104 and >1.4 × 104, respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log 210Po in liver and ?15N could indicate biomagnification of 210Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for 210Po, the concentration of 210Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake

146

A plan for location calibration of IMS stations and near Kazakhstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For purposes of monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, it is desirable to be able to locate seismic events routinely to within an uncertainty not greater than 1000 square km. From more than five years of experience with publication of the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) by the Prototype International Data Centre (PIDC), resulting in estimated locations for more than 100,000 seismic events, it is apparent that improved location accuracy is needed in order to reduce uncertainties below 1000 square km. In this paper, we outline a three-year program of applied research which commenced in March 2000 and which has the goal of achieving improved REB locations based upon data to be contributed to the International Data Centre from 30 IMS stations in Eastern Asia. Our first efforts will focus on the four IMS seismographic stations in Kazakhstan (AKT, BRV, KUR, MAK), together with IMS stations ZAL in Russia and AAK in Kyrgyzstan. Following the recommendations of two 'IMS Location Calibration Workshops' held in Oslo, Norway, in 1999 and 2000, our approach is to generate station-specific travel times for each observable seismic phase, as a function of distance and azimuth (and depth, where possible). Such travel times are obtained on the basis of (i) early studies based mainly on earthquake data (e.g. Nersesov and Rautian, 1964), (ii) Deep Seismic Sounding, and (iii) recent studies of nuclear and chemical explosions. We are also using (iv) an empiricaosions. We are also using (iv) an empirical approach in which phases are picked at IMS stations, for so-called Ground Truth events whose location is known quite accurately on the basis of additional data, obtained for example from local and regional networks. (author)

147

Micro-analytical characterisation of radioactive heterogeneities in samples from Central Asian TENORM sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work focuses on the use of micro-analytical techniques to demonstrate the heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides and metals in soils collected at Former Soviet Union mining sites in Central Asia. Based on digital autoradiography, radionuclides were heterogeneously distributed in soil samples collected at the abandoned uranium mining sites Kurday, Kazakhstan, Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan and Taboshar, Tajikistan. Using electron microscopy interfaced with X-ray microanalysis submicron - mm-sized radioactive particles and rock fragments with U, As, Se and toxic metals on the surfaces were identified in Kurday and Kadji Sai samples. Employing scanning and tomographic (3D) synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-SRXRF) and synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray diffraction (?-SRXRD) allowed us to observe the inner structure of the particles without physical sectioning. The distribution of elements in virtual crosssections demonstrated that U and a series of toxic elements were rather heterogeneously distributed also within individual radioactive TENORM particles. Compared to archived data, U in Kadji Sai particles was present as uraninite (U4O9+y or UO2+x) or Na-zippeite ((Na4(UO2)6[(OH)10(SO4)3]·4H2O), i.e. U minerals with very low solubility. The results suggested that TENORM particles can carry substantial amount of radioactivity, which can be subject to re-suspension, atmospheric transport and water transport. Thus, the potential radioecological and radioanalytical impact of radioactive particles at NORM and TENORM sites worldwide should be taken into account. The present work also demonstrates that radioecological studies should benefit from the use of advanced methods such as synchrotron radiation based techniques. PMID:22421357

Lind, O C; De Nolf, W; Janssens, K; Salbu, B

2013-09-01

148

Micro-analytical characterisation of radioactive heterogeneities in samples from Central Asian TENORM sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work focuses on the use of micro-analytical techniques to demonstrate the heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides and metals in soils collected at Former Soviet Union mining sites in Central Asia. Based on digital autoradiography, radionuclides were heterogeneously distributed in soil samples collected at the abandoned uranium mining sites Kurday, Kazakhstan, Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan and Taboshar, Tajikistan. Using electron microscopy interfaced with X-ray microanalysis submicron – mm-sized radioactive particles and rock fragments with U, As, Se and toxic metals on the surfaces were identified in Kurday and Kadji Sai samples. Employing scanning and tomographic (3D) synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-SRXRF) and synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray diffraction (?-SRXRD) allowed us to observe the inner structure of the particles without physical sectioning. The distribution of elements in virtual crosssections demonstrated that U and a series of toxic elements were rather heterogeneously distributed also within individual radioactive TENORM particles. Compared to archived data, U in Kadji Sai particles was present as uraninite (U4O9+y or UO2+x) or Na-zippeite ((Na4(UO2)6[(OH)10(SO4)3]·4H2O), i.e. U minerals with very low solubility. The results suggested that TENORM particles can carry substantial amount of radioactivity, which can be subject to re-suspension, atmospheric transport and water transport. Thus, the potential radioecological and radioanalytical impact of radioactive particles at NORM and TENORM sites worldwide should be taken into account. The present work also demonstrates that radioecological studies should benefit from the use of advanced methods such as synchrotron radiation based techniques

149

Exhumation of Basement-cored Uplifts: Example of the Kyrgyz Range Quantified with Apatite Fission-track Thermochronology  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kyrgyz Range, the northernmost portion of the Kyrgyzstan Tien Shan, displays topographic evidence for lateral propagation of surface uplift and exhumation. The highest and most deeply dissected segment lies in the center of the range. To the east, topography and relief decrease, and preserved remnants of a Cretaceous regional erosion surface imply minimal amounts of bedrock exhumation. The timing of exhumation of range segments defines the lateral propagation rate of the range-bounding reverse fault and quantifies the time and erosion depth needed to transform a mountain range from a juvenile to a mature morphology. New apatite fission-track (AFT) data from three transects from the eastern Kyrgyz Range, combined with published AFT data, demonstrate that the range has propagated over 110 km eastwards over the last 7-11 Myr. Based on the thermal and topographic evolutionary history, we present a model for a time-varying exhumation rate driven by rock uplift and changes in erodability and the time scale of geomorphic adjustment to surface uplift. Easily eroded, Cenozoic sedimentary rocks overlying resistant basement control early, rapid exhumation and slow surface upliftrates. As increasing amounts of resistant basement are exposed, exhumation rates decrease while surface uplift rates are sustained or increase, thereby growing topography. As the range becomes high enough to cause ice accumulation and develop steep river valleys, fluvial and glacial erosion become more powerful and exhumation rates once again increase. Independently determined range-noma1 shortening rates have also varied over time, suggesting a feedback between erosional efficiency and shortening rate.

Sobel, Edward R.; Oskin, Michael; Burbank, Douglas; Mikolaichuk, Alexander

2005-01-01

150

Information Management Systems for Cultural Heritage and Conservation of World Heritage Sites. The Silk Roads Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of Information Management Systems (IMS in cultural heritage. IMS offer a set of tools for understanding, inventorying and documenting national, regional and World Heritage properties.  Information Management Systems can assist State Parties, stakeholders and heritage site managers involved in cultural heritage management and conservation by easily mining, sharing and exchanging information from multiple sources based on international standards. Moreover, they aim to record, manage, visualize, analyze and disseminate heritage information. In close collaboration with five Central Asian countries, namely, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan; a Belgian consortium headed by the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC, K.U.Leuven is developing the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (CHRIS. This Web-based Information Management System supports the preparation of the Central Asia Silk Roads serial and transnational nominations on the UNESCO World Heritage list. The project has been set up thanks to the financial support of the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO and in collaboration with UNESCO World Heritage Centre in conjunction with the People’s Republic of China and the Japanese Funds-in-Trust UNESCO project. It provides a holistic approach for the recording, documenta tion, protection and monitoring tasks as part of the management of these potential World Heritage Properties. The Silk Roads CHRIS is easily accessible to the general user, presented in a bilingual English and Russian frame and interoperable, i.e. open for other applications to connect to. In this way, all information for the nomination dossiers is easily verified regarding consistency and quality and ready for managing, periodic reporting and monitoring processes in the respect to the property listed. Fina lly, this study provides a general framework to establish the effectiveness and limits of the use of information systems for serial transnational nominations of World Heritage Properties and to demonstrate the potentials of an improved heritage documentation system.

Ona Vileikis

2011-12-01

151

Reconstructing spatial and temporal patterns of paleoglaciation along the Tian Shan  

Science.gov (United States)

Testing and calibrating global climate models require well-constrained information on past climates of key regions around the world. Particularly important are transitional regions that provide a sensitive record of past climate change. Central Asia is an extreme continental location with glaciers and rivers that respond sensitively to temporal variations in the dominance of several major climate systems. As an international team initiative, we are reconstructing the glacial history of the Kyrgyz and Chinese Tian Shan, based on mapping and dating of key localities along the range. Remote-sensing-based geomorphological mapping, building on previous maps produced by Kyrgyz, Russian, Chinese and German scholars, is being augmented with field observations of glacial geomorphology and the maximum distribution of erratics. We are using cosmogenic nuclide (CN) 10Be dating of moraines and other landforms that constrain the former maximum extents of glaciers. Study sites include the Ala-Archa, Ak-Shyrak and Inylchek/Sary-Dzaz areas in Kyrgyzstan and the Urumqi valley (as well as its upland and southern slopes), and the Tumur and Bogeda peak areas in China. Comparing consistently dated glacial histories along and across the range will allow us to examine potential shifts in the dominance patterns of climate systems over time in Central Asia. We are also comparing ages based on CN with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) dates. The final stage of this project will use intermediate complexity glacier flow models to examine paleoclimatic implications of the observed spatial and temporal patterns of glacier changes across Central Asia and eastern Tibet, focused in particular on the last glacial cycle.

Harbor, J.; Stroeven, A. P.; Beel, C.; Blomdin, R.; Caffee, M. W.; Chen, Y.; Codilean, A.; Gribenski, N.; Hattestrand, C.; Heyman, J.; Ivanov, M.; Kassab, C.; Li, Y.; Lifton, N. A.; Liu, G.; Petrakov, D.; Rogozhina, I.; Usubaliev, R.

2012-12-01

152

Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan  

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Full Text Available Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

H.-B. Havenith

2003-01-01

153

Ionizing radiation sources management in the Commonwealth of Independent States - CIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation sources cover a broad band of power: from powerful NPP reactors and research reactors to portable radioisotope ionizing radiation sources applied in medicine, agriculture, industry and in the energy supply systems of remote facilities. At present, scales and use field of radionuclide sources in the CIS have the tendency to increase. In this connection, the issues of ionizing radiation sources management safety at all stages of their life cycle, from production to treatment, have been of a great importance. The materials on ionizing radiation sources inventory and treatment in the CIS (Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Ukraine) are presented in the report. It is shown that in some republics, there is difficulty in ionizing radiation sources accounting and control system; the national regulatory and legal framework bases regulating activity on radioactive sources use, localization and treatment require update. Many problems are connected with the sources beyond state accounting. The problem of ionizing radiation sources use safety is complicated by the growing activity of various terrorist groups. The opportunity to use ionizing radiation sources with terrorism goals requires the application of defined systems of security and physical protection at all stages of their management. For this purpose a collective, with all CIS countries, organization of radioactive sources accounting and control as well as countermeasures on their illegal transportation and use are necessary. In this connection, the information collection regarding situation with providing of ionizing radiation sources safety, conditions of equipment and storage facilities, radioactive materials accounting and control system in the CIS countries is vitally needed

154

[Legislation concerning reproductive health in Central and Eastern Europe: new facts].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, WHO reports on certain laws promulgated in different central and eastern European countries in the early 1990s. Russia has passed a law creating a Coordinating Committee on Problems of the Family, Motherhood, and Childhood. It brings together governmental agencies, public organizations, and citizens to identify ways to improve women's status and protection of maternal and child health. Russia has also adopted Legislative Orientations of the Russian Federation concerning the Sanitary Protection of Citizens. For example, this law guarantees pregnant women the right to work under conditions adapted to their physiological and sanitary state. A whole chapter is dedicated to family planning and regulation of human procreation. Only women have the right to decide whether to terminate or continue their pregnancy. A law in Kyrgyzstan states that every woman has the right to make her own decisions concerning motherhood. With their consent, women also have the right to modern contraceptive methods. Sterilization can only be done with the consent of the woman or for medical reasons. The Counsel of Ministers in the Ukraine adopted a program aiming to improve the condition of women and the family and to protect mothers and children. A Hungarian law does not consider abortion to be a family planning method or a means of fertility control. At the same time, it considers family planning to be a right and a duty of parents. It calls for considerable education on the value of health and life, the healthy life, responsibilities accompanying relations between partners, a family life compatible with human dignity, and contraceptive methods. Albania first approved family planning activities in May 1992. Romania approved technical norms relative to hormonal contraceptives and to IUDs. In January 1993, Poland passed a law restricting abortion to cases of medical indications, fetal death, a grave abnormality, and illicit acts. PMID:12222255

Fluss, S S

1994-05-01

155

National Legislation and Regulations in the Uranium Legacy Radiation Safety of the Former USSR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many uranium legacy sites in Russia and ex-Soviet republics in the Central Asia, which are decommissioned now. In Russia, there is a number of operating uranium mines and ore milling facilities to be decommissioned after termination of their life cycle. Today, the list of Russian subsoil areas of the federal significance includes 135 uranium deposits. The uranium legacy management is accompanied with the environmental impact. The intensity of such impact depends on the amount of generated waste, degree of its confining and dispersion in the environment. The whole question reduces itself to the following: to what extent this impact is harmful to the environment and human health. The proper regulation of this problem is a criterion for the safe work. Today, the advanced guidance document is under development 'Health-care requirements for design and operation of facilities for uranium ore mining and milling'. In order to enhance the regulatory framework, the following tasks are urgent: introduction of the existing exposure situation in the national laws and regulations in compliance with the ICRP statutory system; development criteria for remediation of sites and their gradual return to uncontrolled use. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary SNF and Radioactive Wastes storage; review of possibilities and methods for optimization of the remediation strategies under development; identification of the special category - R W originated from the uranium ore mining and milling. Some regulatory problems assume to be solved under the Eurasian Economic Community inter-state target programme 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines'. Within this programme, by examples of the uranium legacy facilities in Kyrgyzstan and in Tajikistan, posed to trans-border disasters and required urgent remediation, the experience will be gained to be applied in other Eurasian Economic Community member states. Harmonization of national legislation and regulations in radiation safety is provided for.

156

WRITTEN “BATTALNAME”S IN TURKIC KAZAKH AND A REVIEW OF “TYNYSHLYKOULU’S BATTALNAME  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Battal Gazi is a Muslim commander showing great heroism in Umayyad-Byzantine wars in the process of spreading Islam. During intensifying Turkish-Byzantine struggles after the conquest of Anatolia by the Turks, it is seen that this unforgettable hero was symbolized in the struggles of the Turks with the same feelings and purposes like their ancestors. Containing epics occurring around the personality of his historical-epic story “Battalname” gains a special importance as an example of the most common post Islamic legends which are formed on the basis of Turkish epic saga tradition. Seyyid Battal Gazi is the first Turkish epic that emerged in Anatolia. This epic began to be transferred to writing starting from the 11-12th century and many copies of the epic which were written on various dates in verse and prose have survived to the present day. In our study, it was determined that the span of this epic is not limited only with Anatolia, it has a span of all Turkish world geography. It was revealed that many other written copies of the epic in different Turkish dialects are available in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tatarstan, different from the written copies of Anatolia. In this study, information was given about the epic of Seyyid Battal Gazi which contains the texts of the Kazakh Turkic manuscripts and printed copies and among those identified ones a review about Tynyshlykoulu copy (T?n??l?ko?lu that is prominent in terms of the volume and scope was presented.

Nurullah C?C?O?LU

2015-03-01

157

Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

Gotsadze George

2007-08-01

158

[Ethnic conflicts and environmental degradation in Central Asia. The Ferghana valley and northern Kazakhstan].  

Science.gov (United States)

This work seeks to demonstrate that the combination of ecological degradation, demographic pressure, and ethnic heterogeneity in Central Asia constitute a serious threat to the future stability of the region. The predominantly rural Ferghana Valley and Northern Kazakhstan suffer from shortages of water and land and from unemployment that leads to extensive out-migration to cities suffering from decline in their Soviet-era industries. The problem in the Ferghana Valley began with Tsarist conquest of the valley in 1876 and the subsequent imposition of cotton cultivation, which was greatly expanded by the Soviet Union. The Ferghana Valley, despite being a natural unit, was divided between Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan in the 1920s and 1930s, and remains divided between the independent states. The current population of 11 million is ethnically diverse, with Uzbeks in the majority and increasing most rapidly. Immigration from the Caucasus since 1950 added to the tension. Future peace will depend on such factors as whether the neo-Communist political regime chooses to incite ethnic hostilities, the manner in which land is redistributed, and the outcome of struggles for control of the flourishing narcotics trade. The northern Kazakhstan region was designated a pioneer wheat-growing region by Soviet planners in 1954. Russian and Ukrainian migrants established between 1954 and 1956 are today the predominant population sector, but feel their privileged position threatened by nationalist policies making Kazakh the official language and giving preference in employment to Kazakhs. Resettlement of Kazakhs from Mongolia, China, and Afghanistan in the region and the high Kazakh birth rate increase tensions. Grain production initially grew rapidly, but the mediocre soil and erosion-inducing constant dry winds have caused production to stagnate or decline. Regional disputes within Kazakhstan complicate the situation. Northern Kazakhstan, with its industrial development, is integrated more with the Urals and Western Siberia than with the rest of Kazakhstan. Serious ethnic conflicts in either Kazakhstan or the Ferghana Valley are likely to spill far beyond their local boundaries, embroiling much of the area in hostilities. PMID:12292788

De Cordier, B

1996-01-01

159

Influence of High Energy Electromagnetic Pulses on the Dynamics of the Seismic Process Around the Bishkek Test Area (Central Asia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation of dynamical features of the seismic process as well as the possible influence of different natural and man-made impacts on it remains one of the main interdisciplinary research challenges. The question of external influences (forcings) acquires new importance in the light of known facts on possible essential changes, which occur in the behavior of complex systems due to different relatively weak external impacts. Seismic processes in the complicated tectonic system are not an exclusion from this general rule. In the present research we continued the investigation of dynamical features of seismic activity in Central Asia around the Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) test area, where strong electromagnetic (EM) soundings were performed in the 1980s. The unexpected result of these experiments was that they revealed the impact of strong electromagnetic discharges on the microseismic activity of investigated area. We used an earthquake catalogue of this area to investigate dynamical features of seismic activity in periods before, during, and after the mentioned man-made EM forcings. Different methods of modern time series analysis have been used, such as wavelet transformation, Hilbert Huang transformation, detrended fluctuation analysis, and recurrence quantification analysis. Namely, inter-event (waiting) time intervals, inter-earthquake distances and magnitude sequences, as well as time series of the number of daily occurring earthquakes have been analyzed. We concluded that man-made high-energy EM irradiation essentially affects dynamics of the seismic process in the investigated area in its temporal and spatial domains; namely, the extent of order in earthquake time and space distribution increase. At the same time, EM influence on the energetic distribution is not clear from the present analysis. It was also shown that the influence of EM impulses on dynamical features of seismicity differs in different areas of the examined territory around the test site. Clear changes have been indicated only in areas which, according to previous researches, have been characterized by anomalous increase of average rates of strain release and thus can be regarded as close to the critical state.

Matcharashvili, Teimuraz N.; Chelidze, Tamaz L.; Zhukova, Natalia N.

2014-06-01

160

Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered mobile and potentially bioavailable. Looking at fish, high BCF (L/kg) especially for {sup 210}Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of {sup 210}Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. A linear correlation between log {sup 210}Po in liver and ?{sup 15}N could indicate bio-magnification of {sup 210}Po in liver of C. auratus. These legacy sites, containing enhanced levels of natural radioactive material as well as heavy metals, may represent a hazard having a potential radiological and chemical impact on man and the environment, and measures should be taken to reduce the environmental risk to man and biota. (authors)

Skipperud, L.; Rosseland, B.O.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU (Norway); Stegnar, P. [Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Yunusov, M. [IA Vostokredmet (Tajikistan); Burkitbaev, L.M. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polonium-210 in water and (210)Pb and (210)Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of (210)Pb and (210)Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of (210)Po was higher than for (210)Pb, and the accumulation of (210)Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg(-1) ww). Although the average activity concentration of (210)Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25-327 Bq kg(-1) ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported (210)Po into the liver, and that the distributions of (210)Po and (210)Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for (210)Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of (210)Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 10(5), >2.5 × 10(4) and >1.4 × 10(4), respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log (210)Po in liver and ?(15)N could indicate biomagnification of (210)Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for (210)Po, the concentration of (210)Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake. PMID:22513216

Skipperud, L; Jørgensen, A G; Heier, L S; Salbu, B; Rosseland, B O

2013-09-01

162

Regional Lineament Net of Uzbekistan: RemoteSensing&GIS, mineral deposits and geodynamic structures  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with the application of complex study of Remote Sensing images and deep Lithospheric structures to the knowledge of spatial interrelations between regional lineaments and mineral deposits in Uzbekistan. Deciphering of structural units of Uzbekistan territory using space ASTER images allows us to reveal regional, deep-rooted lineament, extending in latitudinal direction over Uzbekistan territory and neighboring countries. Thus lineament could penetrate the Earth up to deep Lithosphere layers, inheriting a position of old fault-lineament systems which origin related to Paleocene tectonic processes. The most extended latitudinal lineament is the Transregional lineament of Central Asia located within 42-44N zone. It stretches for more than 2000km from Sultan-Uvais mountains (Karakalpakstan), through Kyzylkums and Nurata mountains (Uzbekistan), Turkestan-Alay and Atbashi- Inylchek mountains (Kyrgyzstan), to Chinese border with possible extension along the Chinese Tien- Shan. The main objective is to associate the surface indicators as geological, geophysical and tectonic base of data using RS & GIS with the purpose to identify the occurrence special geoobjects of economic interest. Additionally, it will be possible to evaluate geospatial distributions of these altered zones related to morphological structures using Digital Elevation Modelling (DEM) products of ASTER images. RS&GIS methods were used to determine the interrelations of the volcanic and granitic rocks distribution-mineralization-alteration with the faults-lineaments, circular structures. The alteration zones, the tectonic lines and the circular structures related to the cones and calderas determined these methods and checked by group truth studies may be target areas to explore for some new ore deposits. As a result, our investigations envelops more then 10 mineral deposits of such kind bearing Au, Ag, Pt, U, Zn, Cu, Ni, rare earth elements and diamonds. In conclusion, it is necessary to note that such structures are well-known in the American, Australian continents. They are recognized as deep structures and served as channels for the heat (endogenous) energy, magmas and fluids to come out of the core and mantle of the Earth. It gives us an opportunity to concentrate there our efforts for prospecting of such kind mineral deposits.

Sidorova, I. P.

2005-12-01

163

Geodynamical model of oil-gas and mineral deposits using RS&GIS Western Uzbekistan  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with the application of complex study of Remote Sensing images and deep Lithospheric structures to the knowledge of spatial interrelation between regional lineaments and oil-gas and mineral deposits in Uzbekistan. Deciphering of structural units of Uzbekistan territory using space ASTER images allows us to reveal regional, deeprooted lineament, extending in latitudinal direction over Uzbekistan territory and neighboring countries. Thus lineament could penetrate the Earth up to deep Lithosphere layers, inheriting a position of old fault-lineament systems which origin related to Paleocene tectonic processes. The most extended latitudinal lineament is the "Transregional lineament of Central Asia" located within 42-44N zone. It stretches for more than 2000km from Sultan-Uvais mountains (Karakalpakstan), through Kyzylkums and Nurata mountains (Uzbekistan), Turkestan-Alay and Atbashi-Inychek mountains (Kyrgyzstan), to Chinese border with possible extension along the Chinese Tien-Shan. The main objective is to associate the surface «indicators» as geological, geophysical and tectonic base of data using RS&GIS with the purpose toidentify the occurrence special geoobjects of economic interest. Additionally, it will be possible to evaluate geospatial distributions of these altered zones related to morphological structures using Digital Elevation Modelling/DEM/ products of ASTER images. RS&GIS methods were used to determine the interrelations of the volcanic and granitic rocks distribution-mineralization-alteration with the faults-lineaments, circular structures. The alteration zones, the tectonic lines and the Circular structures related to the cones and calderas determined these methods and checked by group truth studies may be target areas to explore for some new oil-gas and ore deposits. As a result, our investigations envelops more then 10 deposits in Western Uzbekistan.In conclusion, it is necessary to note that such structures are well-known in the American, Australian continents. They are recognizes as deep structures and served as channels fo the heat (endogenous) energy, magmas and fluids to come out of the core and mantle of the Earth. It gives us an opportunity to concentrate there our efforts for prospecting of such kind oil-gas and mineral deposits.

Sidorova, I.

2006-05-01

164

Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 ?g m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2 to 90 ?g m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 ?g m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources from Europe; South, East, and Central Asia; and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.

Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

2015-02-01

165

Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered mobile and potentially bioavailable. Looking at fish, high BCF (L/kg) especially for 210Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. A linear correlation between log 210Po in liver and ?15N could indicate bio-magnification of 210Po in liver of C. auratus. These legacy sites, containing enhanced levels of natural radioactive material as well as heavy metals, may represent a hazard having a potential radiological and chemical impact on man and the environment, and measures should be taken to reduce the environmental risk to man and biota. (authors)

166

Projected impacts of climate change on hydrology, water resource use and adaptation needs for the Chu and Talas cross-border rivers basin, Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

The observed long-term trends, variability and projections of future climate and hydrology of the Chu and Talas transboundary rivers basin were analysed using a common approach for Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan parts of the basin. Historical, current and forecasted demands and main uses of water in the basin were elaborated by the joint effort of both countries. Such cooperative approach combining scientific data, water practitioners' outlook with decision making needs allowed the first time to produce a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on water resources in the Chu-Talas transboundary rivers basin, identify future needs and develop the initial set of adaptation measures and recommendations. This work was carried out under the project "Promoting Cooperation to Adapt to Climate Change in the Chu and Talas Transboundary Basin", supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Climate change projections, including air temperatures and rainfall in the 21st century were determined with a spatial resolution 0.5 degrees based on the integration of 15 climate change model outputs (derived from IPCC's 4th Assessment Report, and partially 5th Assessment Report) combined with locally-designed hydrology and glacier models. A significant increase in surface air temperatures by 3-6°C may be expected in the basin area, especially in summer and autumn. This change is likely to be accompanied by rainfall increase during the cold season and a decrease in the warm half of the year. As a result, a deterioration of moisture conditions during the summer-autumn period is possible. Furthermore, milder winters and hotter summers can be expected. Mountains will likely receive more liquid precipitation, than snow, while the area and volume of glaciers may significantly reduce. Projected changes in climate and glaciers have implications for river hydrology and different sectors of the economy dependent on water use. Assessment of agricultural sector vulnerability, which is the key water user in the basin, led to identification of the potential adaptation measures and discussion with relevant national and river basin authorities and the major stakeholders. Proposed adaptation measures range from technical - such as rehabilitation of irrigation systems to reduce water losses, modernize water reservoirs and adjust river regulation to environmental flow needs, changing land use and crop diversification - to policy and finance measures, including revision of subsidies, economic consideration of ecosystem services, etc. Next steps include a more detailed assessment of economics, effectiveness and feasibility of the initially proposed adaptation measures and additional research.

Shamil Iliasov, Shamil; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Lipponen, Annukka; Novikov, Viktor

2014-05-01

167

Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the Russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of wildfires broke out in Western Russia starting in late July of 2010. Harmful particulates and gases released into the local Russian atmosphere have been reported, as have possible negative consequences for the global atmosphere. In this study, an extremely hazy area and its transport trajectory on Russian wildfires were analysed using aerosol optical depth (AOD) images retrieved via the synergy method from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. In addition, we used trace gases (NO2 and SO2) and CO2 products measured using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data, vertical distribution of AOD data retrieved from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data, the mass trajectory analyses, synoptic maps from a HYSPLIT model simulation and ground-based data, including AERONET (both AOD and Ångström exponent) data and PM2.5. First, an Optimal Smoothing (OS) scheme was used to develop more precise and reliable AOD data based on multiple competing predictions made using several AOD retrieval models; then, integrated AOD and PM2.5 data were related using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), and the integrated AOD and visibility data were related using the 6S radiative transfer code. The results show that the PM2.5 concentration is enhanced by a factor of 3-5 as determined from both satellite and in situ observations with peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 500 ?g m3. Also, the visibility in many parts of Russia, for instance in Moscow, was less than 100 m; in some areas, the visibility was less than 50 m. Additionally, the possible impact on neighbouring countries due to long-transport was analysed for 31 July and 15 August 2010. A comparison of the satellite aerosol products and ground observations from the neighbouring countries suggests that wildfires in Western Russian had little impact on most european and asian countries, the exceptions being Finland, Estonia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. However, a possible impact on the Arctic region was identified; such an effect would have a serious influence on the polar atmospheric enviroment, and on animals such as polar bears.

Mei, L.; Xue, Y.; de Leeuw, G.; Guang, J.; Wang, Y.; Li, Y.; Xu, H.; Yang, L.; Hou, T.; He, X.; Wu, C.; Dong, J.; Chen, Z.

2011-12-01

168

CHARIS - The Contribution to High Asian Runoff from Ice and Snow, Preliminary results from the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of the CHARIS project is to improve the understanding of the regional water resources of High Asia. In order to achieve this goal CHARIS is a cross-boundary exercise with University of Colorado scientists working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes both joint research and capacity building that includes augmented field programs and technical training. While it is generally accepted that a significant component of these water resources results from the melting of glacier ice and seasonal snow, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains uncertain. The amount, timing, and spatial patterns of snow and ice melt play key roles in providing water for downstream irrigation, hydropower generation, and general consumption. The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the separate contributions from seasonal snow melt and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the region. To accomplish project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to temperature-index melt models to estimate runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once seasonal snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt models are driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. We are comparing the melt volume time series generated from temperature-index models with measured river discharge volumes and comparing the regional scale results with local sub-basin studies based on energy balance modeling approaches. We are also evaluating the accuracy of the melt model results using isotopic and geochemical tracers to identify and quantify the sources of water (ice melt, snow melt, rainfall and ground water) flowing into selected rivers representing the major hydro-climates of the study area. Preliminary results are presented for the Upper Indus Basin, and the Hunza sub-basin, for the period 2000-2012.

Armstrong, R. L.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Hashmey, D.; Horodyskyj, U. N.; Khalsa, S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Williams, M. W.; Wilson, A.

2013-12-01

169

[Fast identification of rifampicin-and isoniazid resistance of M. Tuberculosis strains by the "TB-biochip" test system].  

Science.gov (United States)

A total 988 specimens were obtained from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, which were all diagnosed according to clinical and X-ray and bacteriological studies. 940 patients were newly diagnosed without any history of treatment; 48 patients with a history of treatment one course. Mutations of rpoB, katG, inhA and ahpC gene associated with rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance were detected by "TB-Biochip" test system. Resistance was significantly higher in patients with a history of treatment compared with patients were newly diagnosed. Initial and acquired resistance were 53% (499/940) and 87% (41/48) respectively. Initial multidrug-resistance (MDR) (both to RIF and INH) was 30% (282/940) and acquired MDR was 75% (35/48). The single primary drug resistance only to RIF was 3% (29/940), to INH was 20% (188/940). The single acquired drug resistance only to RIF was 4% (2/48), to INH was 8% (4/48). The most common point mutations in rpoB gene were in codon 531 (58%), 526 (18%), 516 (9%) and 511 (6.8%). The point mutation Ser531-->Leu was at the highest frequency (59.7%). Resistance to INH was associated mostly with mutations found in katG gene-90.5%, inhA gene-9.05% and ahpC gene-0.45%. Prevalence of mutation was found in katG gene-Ser315 Thr (88.7%). The rifampicin and isoniasid resistance of M. Tb strains isolated in Kyrgyzstan is associated mostly with Ser531-->Leu mutation of rpoB gene, Ser315-->Thr mutation of katG gene. The "TB-Biochip" test system is simple and rapid for detection of rifampicin-and isoniazid resistant of M. Tuberculosis. The biochip-based analysis of RIF and INH susceptibility provides fast (less than 24 hours) and accurate identification of the mutations in gene rpoB, katG, inhA, ahpC responsible for resistance to rifampin and isoniazid. PMID:18560033

Isakova, Zh T

2008-05-01

170

Characteristics of fine particle carbonaceous aerosol at two remote sites in Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of PM to Eastern Asia, the Pacific Ocean, and the Western United States. PM is of significant interest not only because of its adverse effect on public health but also due to its more recently realized role in climate change. To investigate the sources and characteristics of PM in the region, a series of PM 2.5 and PM 10 samples were collected on an every-other-day basis at two sites (termed "Bishkek" and "Teploklyuchenka") in the Central Asian nation of the Kyrgyz Republic (also known as Kyrgyzstan) for a full year from July 2008 to July 2009. These samples were analyzed using standard methods for mass, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-insoluble organic carbon by difference (OC minus WSOC) and a variety of molecular marker chemical species to be used in a chemical mass balance (CMB) model to apportion the sources of OC. These analyses indicate that approximately 19 ± 6.4% of the PM 2.5 mass at both sites throughout the year consists of OC. The carbonaceous component of PM 2.5 is dominated by OC, with OC/Total Carbon (TC) ratios being around 0.8 in the winter to almost 0.95 in the summer months. The CMB analysis indicated that mobile sources, i.e., gasoline and diesel engine exhaust, biomass combustion, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene and ?-pinene precursors in the summer months were the dominant sources of OC. A strong positive correlation was observed between non-biomass burning WSOC and the un-apportioned OC from the CMB analysis, indicating that some of this un-apportioned OC is WSOC and likely the result of SOA-forming atmospheric processes that were not estimated by the CMB analysis performed. In addition, a comparison of the predominant contributors to OC between the two sites indicates that biomass combustion is a stronger relative source of OC at the Teploklyuchenka site, particularly in the winter, while contributions of isoprene- and ?-pinene-derived SOA to the measured OC was relatively similar between the sites.

Miller-Schulze, Justin P.; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Artamonova, Maria; Chen, Boris; Imashev, Sanjar; Sverdlik, Leonid; Carmichael, Greg R.; Deminter, Jeff T.

2011-12-01

171

CITIZENSHIP OF THE TURKIC WORLD PROJECT/TÜRK DÜNYASI VATANDA?LI?I PROJES?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan gained their independence in 1991 and took their place on the international arena as the “Newly Independent Turkic Republics”. New Turkic Republics signed agreements on various fields with many countries, notably Turkey, Russia and China. These agreements New Turkic Republics signed generally have economic bases. Agreements with a priority of education and teaching, directed by common academic programs and common purposes, have not yet been implemented. To compensate for this shortcoming, a project with a final objective of “Turkic World Citizenship” was prepared and put into effect in 2013 under the arch of Atatürk University Middle East and Central Asia Caucasus Research and Administration Center within the scope of Scientific Research Projects (BAP. In this article, information about the scope and objectives of “Citizenship of the Turkic World Project”, which was started by Atatürk University and was participated by other institutions and organizations later on, is presented. Sovyetler Birli?i’nin da??lmas?ndan sonra 1991 y?l?nda Azerbaycan, Türkmenistan, Özbekistan, K?rg?zistan ve Kazakistan ba??ms?zl?klar?n? kazanm?? ve uluslararas? arenada “Ba??ms?z Yeni Türk Cumhuriyetleri” olarak yerlerini alm??lard?r. Yeni Türk Cumhuriyetleri ba?ta Türkiye, Rusya ve Çin olmak üzere pek çok ülke ile farkl? alanlarda anla?malar imzalam??lard?r. Yeni Türk Cumhuriyetleri’nin imzalad?klar? bu anla?malar genelde ekonomik temellere dayanmaktad?r. Ortak ders programlar?n?n ve ortak amaçlar?n yön verdi?i; önceli?i e?itim ve ö?retim olan anla?malar ise gerçekle?tirilememi?tir. Bu eksikli?i telafi etmek için Atatürk Üniversitesi Orta Do?u ve Orta Asya Kafkaslar Ara?t?rma ve Uygulama Merkezi bünyesinde Bilimsel Ara?t?rma Projeleri (BAP kapsam?nda 2013 y?l?nda nihai hedefi “Türk Dünyas? Vatanda?l???” olan bir proje haz?rlan?p uygulamaya konulmu?tur. Bu makalede Atatürk Üniversitesinde ba?lat?lan ve daha sonra baz? kurum ve kurulu?lar?n da payda? olduklar? “Türk Dünyas? Vatanda?l??? Projesi”, kapsam? ve hedefleri hakk?nda bilgi verilmektedir.

Semra ALYILMAZ

2015-03-01

172

Radioactive parameters of waters of the Syr-Darya river basin on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Within the framework of the International Cooperation Program in the sphere of the transboundary monitoring of the rivers between the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, and the United States of America (Navruz, ISTC KR-850 Project), in addition, in the Kyrgyz Republic, the isotopic content (isotopic ratio of 234U/ 238U=? ), and the uranium content (CU) in the waters was measured. The isotopic ratio 234U/ 238U=? of the waters of the rivers Naryn and Kara-Daria basins has no anomalous values of 234U/ 238U, which indicates the absence of the man-caused uranium in these rivers. The results of determination of the activity ratio of 234U/ 238U and uranium content in the Mailuu-Suu river basin are of great interest. In the upper reaches of the Mailuu-Suu river the uranium content is 0.4 10-6 g/l (0.8 10-6 g/l in the flood period), in Mailuu-Suu town (after the tailing dump) - (3 †4) 10-6 g/l, i.e. this value is an order of magnitude higher, and at the border with Uzbekistan - 1.8 ·10-6 g/l (3.2 ·10-6 g/l in the period of flooding), which is lower as compared with the town. Correspondently, there are changes in the activity ratio from 1.39 (in the upper reaches of the river) to 1.05 (in the town), and 1.32 (1.12 during the flood period) at the border with Uzbekistan. This situation indicates, first, the enrichment of the waters of the rivers with the man-caused uranium ( ?=1), and its subsequent sorption along the river stream. The obtained results indicate the absence of the man-caused uranium in the whole stream of the Naryn and Kara-Daria rivers on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic, and lack of noticeable contamination of the waters of the Mailuu-Suu river with the man-caused uranium from the tailing dumps of the Western Mining-Chemical Plant (WMCP, Mailuu-Suu). It also should be noted that the share of the man-caused uranium, transported to Uzbekistan by the Mailuu-Suu river does not exceed 20-30%, and the total uranium content in these waters is much lower then MPC, and lower then that in the drinking water of the Chui valley of the Kyrgyz Republic

173

Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well defined vaccination policies are needed. This article forms part of a Regional Report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24332297

Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

2013-12-31

174

Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS, countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. Methods Using 2005–2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, we examined associations between individual and community socioeconomic status with current modern contraceptive use (MCU among N?=?55,204 women aged 15–49 married or in a union. Individual socioeconomic status was measured using quintiles of wealth index and education level (higher than secondary school, secondary school or less. Community socioeconomic status was measured as the percentage of households in the poorest quintile of the nationals household wealth index (0%, 0–25%, or greater than 25%. We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate associations adjusted for age, number of children, urban/rural, and socioeconomic variables. Results MCU varied by country from 14% (in Azerbaijan to 62% (in Belarus. Overall, women living in the poorest communities were less likely than those in the richest to use modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval?=?0.76, 0.89. Similarly, there was an increasing odds of MCU with increasing individual-level wealth. Women with a lower level of education also had lower odds of MCU than those with a higher level of education (aOR?=?.75, 95%CI?=?0.71, 0.79. In country-specific analyses, community-level socioeconomic inequalities were apparent in 4 of 10 countries; in contrast, inequalities by individual-level wealth were apparent in 7 countries and by education in 8 countries. All countries in which community-level socioeconomic status was associated with MCU were in Central Asia, whereas at the individual-level inequalities of the largest magnitude were found in the Caucasus. There were no distinct patterns found in Eastern European countries. Conclusions Community-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in Central Asian countries, whereas individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in the Caucasus. It is important to consider multilevel contextual determinants of modern contraceptive use in the development of reproductive health and family planning programs.

Janevic Teresa

2012-11-01

175

Swedish support programme on nuclear non-proliferation in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the request of the Swedish Government, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has established a support and co-operation programme in the area of nuclear non-proliferation with Russia and several of the republics of the former Soviet Union. The Programme was initiated in 1991 and an overall goal is to accomplish national means and measures for control and protection of nuclear material and facilities, in order to minimise the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The objective of the Swedish Support Programme is to help each, so called, recipient State to be able to, independently and without help from outside, take the full responsibility for operating a national non-proliferation system and thereby fulfil the requirements imposed through the international legal instruments. This would include both the development and implementation of a modern nuclear legislation system, and the establishment of the components making up a national system for combating illicit trafficking. The support and co-operation projects are organised in five Project Groups (i.e. nuclear legislation, nuclear material control, physical protection, export/import control, and combating of illicit trafficking), which together cover the entire non-proliferation area. Up till June 2000, support and co-operation projects, completed and on-going, have been carried out in ten States, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, programmes have been initiated during the first part of 2000 with Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In addition, assistance has been given to Poland on a specific nuclear material accountancy topic. All projects are done on request by and in co-operation with these States. The total number of projects initiated during the period 1991 to June 2000 is 109, thereof 77 have been completed and 32 are currently on-going. It is the convinced understanding and opinion of the Swedish Support Programme Management that the States in question are seriously motivated and are carrying out an ambitious work to develop and improve their national non-proliferation regimes, in spite of their shortcomings concerning financial and human resources. For those States, with which Sweden has established support and co-operation programmes with 'full-scope' non-proliferation objectives, it is judged that the goals reached, up till now, are very satisfactory, and that the States in question have come a long way towards the fulfilment of international requirements. The Programme is now entering a third phase and the future Programme plans are currently under consideration. A broad outlook of the future activities is made in chapter D of this report.

Ek, P.; Andersson, Sarmite [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Wredberg, L. [ILG Consultant Ltd., Vienna (Austria)

2000-06-15

176

Assembly of the Pamirs: Age and origin of magmatic belts from the southern Tien Shan to the southern Pamirs and their relation to Tibet  

Science.gov (United States)

Magmatic rocks and depositional setting of associated volcaniclastic strata along a north-south traverse spanning the southern Tien Shan and eastern Pamirs of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan constrain the tectonics of the Pamirs and Tibet. The northern Pamirs and northwestern Tibet contain the north facing Kunlun suture, the south facing Jinsha suture, and the intervening Carboniferous to Triassic Karakul-Mazar subduction accretion system; the latter is correlated with the Songpan-Garze-Hoh Xi system of Tibet. The Kunlun arc is a composite early Paleozoic to late Paleozoic-Triassic arc. Arc formation in the Pamirs is characterized by ???370-320 Ma volcanism that probably continued until the Triassic. The cryptic Tanymas suture of the southern northern Pamirs is part of the Jinsha suture. A massive ??????227 Ma batholith stitches the Karakul-Mazar complex in the Pamirs. There are striking similarities between the Qiangtang block in the Pamirs and Tibet. Like Tibet, the regional structure of the Pamirs is an anticlinorium that includes the Muskol and Sares domes. Like Tibet, the metamorphic rocks in these domes are equivalents to the Karakul-Mazar-Songpan-Garze system. Granitoids intruding the Qiangtang block yield ???200-230 Ma ages in the Pamirs and in central Tibet. The stratigraphy of the eastern Pshart area in the Pamirs is similar to the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone in the Amdo region of eastern central Tibet, but a Triassic ocean basin sequence is preserved in the Pamirs. Arc-type granitoids that intruded into the eastern Pshart oceanic-basin-arc sequence (???190-160 Ma) and granitoids that cut the southern Qiangtang block (???170-160 Ma) constitute the Rushan-Pshart arc. Cretaceous plutons that intruded the central and southern Pamirs record a long-lasting magmatic history. Their zircons and those from late Miocene xenoliths show that the most distinct magmatic events were Cambro-Ordovician (???410-575 Ma), Triassic (???210-250 Ma; likely due to subduction along the Jinsha suture), Middle Jurassic (???147-195 Ma; subduction along Rushan-Pshart suture), and mainly Cretaceous. Middle and Late Cretaceous magmatism may reflect arc activity in Asia prior to the accretion of the Karakoram block and flat-slab subduction along the Shyok suture north of the Kohistan-Ladakh arc, respectively. Before India and Asia collided, the Pamir region from the Indus-Yarlung to the Jinsha suture was an Andean-style plate margin. Our analysis suggests a relatively simple crustal structure for the Pamirs and Tibet. From the Kunlun arc in the north to the southern Qiangtang block in the south the Pamirs and Tibet likely have a dominantly sedimentary crust, characterized by Karakul-Mazar-Songpan-Garze accretionary wedge rocks. The crust south of the southern Qiangtang block is likely of granodioritic composition, reflecting long-lived subduction, arc formation, and Cretaceous-Cenozoic underthrusting. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

Schwab, M.; Ratschbacher, L.; Siebel, W.; McWilliams, M.; Minaev, V.; Lutkov, V.; Chen, F.; Stanek, K.; Nelson, B.; Frisch, W.; Wooden, J.L.

2004-01-01

177

500 years of mercury production: global annual inventory by region until 2000 and associated emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since pre-industrial times, anthropogenic emissions of Hg have at least doubled global atmospheric Hg deposition rates. In order to minimize environmental and human health effects, efforts have been made to reduce Hg emissions from industries and power plants, while less attention has been paid to Hg mining. This paper is a compilation of available data on primary Hg production and associated emissions with regional and annual resolution since colonial times. Globally, approximately one million tons of metallic Hg has been extracted from cinnabar and other ores during the past five centuries, half already before 1925. Roughly half has been used for mining of gold and silver, but the annual Hg production peaked during a short period of recent industrial uses. Comparison with total historic Hg deposition from global anthropogenic emissions (0.1-0.2 Mtons) suggests that only a few percent of all mined Hg have escaped to the atmosphere thus far. While production of primary Hg has changed dramatically over time and among mines, the global production has always been dominant in the region of the mercuriferous belt between the western Mediterranean and central Asia, but appears to be shifting to the east. Roughly half of the registered Hg has been extracted in Europe, where Spanish mines alone have contributed one third of the world's mined Hg. Approximately one fourth has been mined in the Americas, and most of the remaining registered Hg in Asia. However, the Asian figures may be largely underestimated. Presently, the dominant Hg mines are in Almadén in Spain (236 t of Hg produced in 2000), Khaydarkan in Kyrgyzstan (550 t), Algeria (estimated 240 t) and China (ca. 200 t). Mercury by-production from mining of other metals (e.g. copper, zinc, gold, silver) in 2000 includes 48 t from Peru, 45 t from Finland and at least 15 t from the USA. Since 1970, the recorded production of primary Hg has been reduced by almost an order of magnitude to approximately 2000 t in the year 2000. Mining is thus still of similar magnitude as all current anthropogenic Hg emissions to the atmosphere, and mined Hg may account for more than one third of these emissions. Also before use, mercury is emitted from Hg mines locally during the mining and refining processes and from mining waste. Global direct emissions to the atmosphere amount to 10-30 t per year currently (up to 10 at Almadén alone), and probably exceed 10000 t historically. Termination of Hg mining will reduce associated local emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere. Since several economically viable Hg-free alternatives exist for practically all applications of Hg, the production and use of Hg can be further reduced and all primary production of Hg other than by-production terminated. PMID:12663168

Hylander, Lars D; Meili, Markus

2003-03-20

178

Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many of these toxic dumps are vulnerable to seismically induced landsliding, release of reservoir water and breaching of very large (up to several km3) landslide-dammed lakes within the deep mountain valleys typical of the fault zone. The May 2008 earthquake in neighboring Sichuan, in which some 30 landslide-dammed lakes were created, may be useful in refining hazard scenarios developed from the multi-pronged analysis employed in our study. This analysis involves compiling all relevant existing data, such as seismic archives held in paper format, within the project GIS. Spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by these compiled data, together with focal mechanism determinations where possible, are combined with data on the distribution and nature of geological units to provide estimates of peak ground acceleration and the likely incidence of seismically-triggered slope instability. This compilation also identifies data deficiencies to be targeted using a portable seismometer network, geophysical and geodetic surveys, InSAR and other remote sensing data; all combined with geotechnical and palaeoseismological fieldwork. Initial results from this approach confirm the ground-shaking potential of Talas-Fergana rupture events, suggest a long-term slip rate as high as 15 mm a-1, and the occurrence of the last ground-rupturing event some 4-500 years BP. The lack of significant activity since that event suggests the Talas-Fergana structure may comprise a seismic gap within the Tien-Shan, highlighting the importance of hazard scenarios in proposing mitigation measures against potentially catastrophic threats, such as extensive pollution of irrigated lands in the Fergana Valley downstream from Toktogul on which some 10 million people depend.

Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

2009-04-01

179

Differential uplift and denudation of the Kungei and Terzkey ranges bordering the Issyk-Kul intermontane basin, Kyrgyz Tien Shan mountains (Central Asia): constraints from apatite fission-track analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tien Shan mountain belt forms one of the most active intracontinental belts in the world. Its Cenozoic evolution is directly related to ongoing convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates. The Tien Shan are draped along the northern rim of the rigid and stable Tarim Basin in Central Asia, north of the Tibetan Plateau. The mountain belt is composed of E-W trending ranges, alternating with intermontane basins. The lens shaped Issyk-Kul (IK) basin in northern Kyrgyzstan is a striking example of such a basin and accommodates the Issyk-Kul Lake. It is bordered by the Kungei (north) and the Terzkey ranges (south). While the present lake level is situated at 1607 m a.s.l., the elevation of both ranges reaches 5000 m. Both mountain ranges (cored by pink Ordovician granites and exhibiting large altitude differences) were sampled for AFT analysis along elevation profiles. In addition, samples from other IK basement rocks were collected in areas outside the ranges. AFT ages in the Kungei range fall roughly between 120 Ma and 170 Ma, while those for the Terzkey range were substantially lower (60 Ma to 110 Ma). The additional basement apatites sampled throughout the area have ages between 110 Ma and 160 Ma, corresponding to those of the Kungei range. The Kungei age-elevation plot is quite normal with ages decreasing with decreasing altitude, while the Terzkey range samples exhibit additional scatter. No "break in slope" is observed in any of the profiles and this together with the fact that all track length distributions carry a substantial Apatite Partial Annealing Zone signature (mean lengths are between 12.5 and 13.0 µm for both ranges) gives evidence of the mixed nature of the AFT ages. In contrast with the AFT data by Bullen et al. (2001) from the Kyrgyz range to the west of the IK basin, no late Cenozoic AFT ages were found for our samples. Hence the active tectonic phase experienced by the Tien Shan since the Late Miocene must undoubtedly have uplifted the Kungei and Terzkey ranges to their present high altitudes, but it has not been accompanied by significant denudation to be registered by the AFT system as such. The difference in AFT ages between both ranges does however indicate a different amount of denudation for the ranges, with the Terzkey range being exhumed significantly more compared to the Kungei range. This is in agreement with the inferred half-ramp structure for the central section of the IK basin (Buslov et al., submitted), with an underthrusting and strongly uplifting Terzkey range. AFT modelling of the data is in progress and will shed more light on the exact significane of the AFT ages with respect to the pre-Cenozoic tectono-thermal history of the Kungei and Terzkey granite massifs. References Bullen, M.E., Burbank, D.W., Garver, J.I., Abdrakhmatov, K. Ye. (2001). Late Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the northwestern Tien Shan: new age estimates for the initiation of mountain building. GSA Bulletin, 113, 1544-1559.

de Grave, J.; Buslov, M. M.; van den Haute, P.

2003-04-01

180

Uranium Mining in Paraguay: An opportunity to improve the environmental regulations in mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In many respects uranium mining is much the same as any other mining activity. In Paraguay under the Environmental Law, as well as many other South American countries, projects must have environmental permits prior to commencing, and must comply with all environmental, safety and occupational health conditions applicable. Increasingly, these activities are regulated by international standards, with external audits. The capacity for enforcement varies from the experience and tradition in mining production. Mining in Paraguay is a very recent activity; and as well as the Environmental Authority was recently created in 2000; therefore the environmental legislation for mining is not developed. Once the mining activity is approved, open pits or shafts and drives are dug, waste rock and overburden is placed in engineered dumps. Tailings from the ore processing must be placed in engineered dams or underground. Finally the whole site must be rehabilitated at the end of the project. Meanwhile air and water pollution must be avoided. The nuclear Renaissance in the world is a result of the high prices of oil and governments commitments on reducing the Greenhouse Effect Emissions under the Kyoto protocol: many governments expressed their willingness to increment their uranium predictions as well as the nuclear energy generation. Representatives of the Paraguayan Government after a meeting of the National council of Defense had stated that the issue of uranium exploratistated that the issue of uranium exploration and has a strategic significance, and it has requested the preparation of environmental regulations to regulate this activity. The sector development strategy has also been discussed within the National Council of Defense. In this regard upon request of the National Environmental Authority and with support from USAID cooperation a process of preparing regulations for uranium mining has initiated by considering the cases of remediation and liabilities left by uranium mining in Australia - Nabarlek; Gabon-Mounana; Australia - Valle South Alligator; Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Once the uranium mining process and risks were evaluated by the authorities, and taking into considerations that the process is common to all metalliferous mining, and are well recognized and understood, the government decided to prepare an Environmental Regulation for General Mining. Also a particular regulation for uranium mining was prepared and was included in the Standards Protocols and Term of References for Uranium Mining. The proposed regulation states the follow stages of the process: mine site rehabilitation assessment, environmental risk assessment to determine what environmental assets are at greatest risk from multiple threats, assessment of the biophysical impact of mining on people; assessment of the impact of uranium mining and chemical and biological control regimes to ensure that the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are protected from the operation of mines in the region. Finally in the Environmental Management Plan an environmental monitoring is implemented for early detection of effects in the environment, arising from dispersion of mine waters during the rain and wet season. It is expected that with the proposed environmental regulation, uranium mining will be encourage in Paraguay. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

Prevention of goiter in children who consume water contaminated with radionuclides (Uranium and Thorium)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Background. Since the thyroid gland is the most susceptible to radiation (Buldakov L.A., Kalistratova V.S., 2003), the incidence of goiter is very high (32-37%) among the adolescents who live in the uranium biogeochemical areas and consume water contaminated with uranium and thorium. For these reasons, elaboration of measures for prevention of goiter in children who consume water contaminated with radionuclides is of great importance. Objective. Elaboration of measures for prevention of goiter in children who consume water contaminated with radionuclides. Materials and Methods. A total of 55 school children who reside in 10-15 km downstream the uranium biogeochemical provinces and consume the water from the river of Mayluu-Suu were subject to observation. The concentration of radionuclides in water was measured by standard Y-spectrometric device with a detector. To evaluate the efficacy of the preventive measures clinical methods were applied. All children under observation were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 71 children and Group II - 72 children. Prevention measures were first undertaken in 1995 - 1997 when the children were at the age of 1 - 2 years. By the time of the present study their age is about 16-18 years. Results. Concentration of uranium and thorium in water and silt of the river of Mayluu-Suu fluctuated depending on the season. In 2003-2004 uranium concentration in water ranged from 2.8 to 9.6 ?g / l, in silt - from 2.67 and 3.to 9.6 ?g / l, in silt - from 2.67 and 3.46 ?g/g. Thorium concentration - 0.025 and 0.097 ?g / l and 2.8 - 3.46?g / g, respectively; Cesium concentration in silt ranged from 86 and 98 Bq / kg. In group I all children administered tea concentrate produced from fruits and plants rich in vitamins and biologically active substances, trace elements, pectins which possess bile-and diuretic properties and sorbent properties with regards to radionuclides as well. To 2 teaspoons brewed in 400 ml of boiled water, before use of agitated, allowed to drink during the day. The term does not restrict the use of tea. Rhodiola rosea tincture and iodized salt were also administered alongside with the concentrates. In Group II (control group) children administered an iodized salt. The results of preventive measures were evaluated in March 2012. In Group I goiter was reported only in 2 (2.8%) of 71 children as compared to 23 (31.9%) out of 72 in Group II. Thus, for the prevention of goiter in children who consume water contaminated with radionuclides (uranium and thorium) in conditions of Mayluu-Suu it is recommended to administer therapeutic concentrates obtained from the herbs and fruits growing in Kyrgyzstan, and tinctures of Rhodiola rosea alongside with the iodized salt of high quality. Prevention of goiter may be initiated in early childhood. (author)

182

[Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among patients with chronic hepatitis C infection in Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey: a five-year evaluation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis. It is important to know the genotypes of HCV in the decision of the HCV related chronic hepatitis therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HCV genotypes determined at the Microbiology Laboratory of Akdeniz University Hospital, and to evaluate the changes in the distribution of the genotypes within the last five years. A total of 422 blood samples from HCV-RNA positive chronic hepatitis C patients (219 male, 203 female; age range: 8-79 yrs, mean age 46.3 ± 15.5 yrs) which were sent to our laboratory for genotyping between 2009-2013 period, were analyzed retrospectively. HCV-RNA extractions were performed in an automated system (EZ1 Virus Mini Kit v2.0, Qiagen, Germany), and a commercial reverse hybridization line probe-based assay (LIPA; GEN-C RT-PCR, Italy) was carried out for genotyping, For viral load determinations, a real-time PCR method (Cobas TaqMan HCV, Roche Diagnostics, Germany) was used. Demographic data of the patients were obtained from the hospital information systems and electronic patients' files. Out of the 422 patients, genotype 1b was detected in 63.3% (n= 267), genotype 1a in 14.7% (n= 62), genotype 3a in 11.1% (n= 47), genotype 2b in 0.9% (n= 4), genotype 4e in 0.2% (n= 1). The subtypes couldn't be determined for 5.4% (n= 23), 2.6% (n= 11) and 1.4% (n= 6) of the patients infected with genotype 1, 2 and 4, respectively. One (0.2%) patient, was coinfected with genotype 1 and 4. Of the patients, 40 were foreign-born (16 cases from Russia; 4 of each from Ukraine and Georgia; 3 of each from Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Germany; one of each from Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Chechnya, Moldova, Switzerland and Romania) and among these patients genotype 3a (19/40; 47.5%) was the most common genotype followed by genotype 1b (17/40; 42.5%). Median values of HCV viral load were 668.500 IU/ml (range: 2.000-9.630.000) in the whole group; while it was 732.000 IU/ml (range: 2.000-9.630.000) in patients infected with genotype 1 and 444.000 IU/ml (range: 2.650- 8.330.000) in patients infected with the other genotypes (p> 0.05). Patients infected with genotype 1 were found to be older than those infected with other genotypes (47 ± 15.7 and 39.5 ± 12.2, respectively; p 0.05). In conclusion, the determination of HCV genotypes is of crucial importance for treatment decision-making of chronic HCV infection. Besides, it also allows monitoring the changes in the epidemiology of HCV. In this study, although genotype 1b was determined as the most common HCV genotype, the detection of other genotypes was remarkable. This finding was attributed to the presence of many foreign national people in Antalya region which was a high capacity tourism area in Turkey. PMID:25052109

Sa?lik, ?mran; Mutlu, Derya; Öngut, Gözde; ?nan, Dilara; Ö?ünç, Dilara; Can Sarino?lu, Rabia; Özhak Baysan, Betil; Gültekin, Meral; Çolak, Dilek

2014-07-01

183

Estimation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central asia and the Caucasus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: It is our international Program with the participation of 6 countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. For all presented regions we single out the following typical factors that significantly increase a risk of implementing natural and man-induced catastrophes: (1) these regions are located in the mountain areas with the high seismic level (5- 9 grades by Richter scale); (2) the largest mountain rivers have cascades of powerful hydroelectric stations with their sizeable reservoirs and huge high dams (>100m); (3) on the regions' densely populated lands there are plenty of mines for extraction of metals/minerals, industrial facilities and plants with U-tailing dumps and burrows of varied pollutants with using the different radioactive, toxic and poisonous substances in their technologies; (3) the man-induced activity here increases probabilities for occurrence of not only severe man-induced catastrophes, but also natural ones; (4) An especially grave situation has been created on trans boundary lands of these continue, due to the lack of common ecological and geochemical monitoring systems, that increases political and economic tension between the countries and generating negative migration processes; (5) risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes are not only regional but also global by nature, since they entail contamination of vast lands, the basins of the Black, Caspian and Kara Seas, that of the Arctic Ocean and, consequently, the entire World Ocean; (6) opportunity to perform deliberate attacks of terrorists with the using of explosives, that are able to cause man-induced catastrophes and stimulate natural calamities (earthquakes, mud flows, landslips, etc.). It is easier to implement attacks of terrorists there due to the intersection of main lines, an available border with current centers of international terrorism, located in Chechnya, Afghanistan and some others. The hazard is especially great for new independent states, where the system of safety, boundary and customs control, that of strict visa control and other state safety measures have not yet been formed. Consequences of terrorist attacks in the regions will be followed by major human and huge material losses, and extremely negative irreversible global scale environmental effects. The humankind has faced the majority of the above issues for the first time and, therefore, there are no good suitable methods provided for their solving. A purposeful activity of all countries of the world community is required. Program's results of Program 3 will be used in the following: (1) When developing a methodology/strategy to regulate and manage risks in emergencies; (2) when mapping risk allocation by various lands; (3) when developing a common system for emergency prevention/elimination. Our Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAS) has own experience in these scientific directions (http://www.ibrae.ac.ru). This Program will promote the realization of concept of substantial development with growth of economical cooperation and stability, decreasing of political stress not only for the countries- participants, but also at global scale for all countries, located at the continent. (author)

184

Chemical analyses in the World Coal Quality Inventory  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI) was to collect and analyze a global set of samples of mined coal during a time period from about 1995 to 2006 (Finkelman and Lovern, 2001). Coal samples were collected by foreign collaborators and submitted to country specialists in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Program. However, samples from certain countries, such as Afghanistan, India, and Kyrgyzstan, were collected collaboratively in the field with USGS personnel. Samples were subsequently analyzed at two laboratories: the USGS Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory located in Denver, CO and a commercial laboratory (Geochemical Testing, Inc.) located in Somerset, PA. Thus the dataset, which is in Excel (2003) format and includes 1,580 samples from 57 countries, does not have the inter-laboratory variability that is present in many compilations. Major-, minor-, and trace-element analyses from the USGS laboratory, calculated to a consistent analytical basis (dry, whole-coal) and presented with available sample identification information, are sorted alphabetically by country name. About 70 percent of the samples also have data from the commercial laboratory, which are presented on an as-received analytical basis. The USGS initiated a laboratory review of quality assurance in 2008, covering quality control and methodology used in inorganic chemical analyses of coal, coal power plant ash, water, and sediment samples. This quality control review found that data generated by the USGS Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory from 1996 through 2006 were characterized by quality practices that did not meet USGS requirements commonly in use at the time. The most serious shortcomings were (1) the adjustment of raw sample data to standards when the instrument values for those standards exceeded acceptable limits or (2) the insufficient use of multiple standards to provide adequate quality assurance. In general, adjustment of raw data to account for instrument 'drift' is an acceptable practice within strictly defined limits. During the denoted period, USGS required that the maximum adjustment of instrument values, guided by calibration standards, was not allowed to exceed 10 percent. However, in some cases, the Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory released data that were adjusted by more than 10 percent and (or) were not constrained by an adequate number of control standards. Original instrument values no longer exist for about 80 percent of the analyses during this period; therefore, the acceptability of drift corrections for most of the samples analyzed cannot be determined. For these reasons, the WoCQI data from the USGS Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory should be used with care. For more information, individuals may contact laboratory management at EnergyLabs@usgs.gov with specific questions about particular datasets or analytical attributes. Standard USGS sampling methods were provided and recommended to collaborators, but the analyzed samples may or may not be representative of their locale; for some samples, only limited information is available concerning sample provenance. Single samples cannot represent spatial or temporal variability within a coal area. Geochemical datasets of U.S. coals can be found in the COALQUAL database (Bragg and others, 1997) and the National Coal Quality Inventory (Hatch and others, 2006), as only non-U.S. sample data are presented in the WoCQI. Although the WoCQI does not contain worldwide coverage of coal deposits, it is truly a unique and valuable compilation. The information in the WoCQI should prove useful for identifying possible areas for future global coal research.

Tewalt, Susan J., (compiler); Belkin, Harvey E.; SanFilipo, John R.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Palmer, Curtis A.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Finkelman, Robert B.; Park, Andy J.

2010-01-01

185

Traditional applications and novel approaches in Lu-Hf geochronology  

Science.gov (United States)

Lutetium-Hf geochronology is currently becoming a routine method for dating metamorphism of garnet bearing rocks, such as eclogites. Prograde garnet growth ages are mostly preserved because blocking temperatures exceed 630 °C [1] and prograde Lu zoning patterns have even been observed in samples that were exposed to temperatures above 800 °C [2]. Here we discuss Lu-Hf ages from various eclogite localities, such as the Northern Tianshan, Kyrgyzstan (~ 470 Ma), the Kola Peninsula, Russia (~ 1900 Ma) [3], Cuba (~70 Ma and ~124 Ma), Alpine Corsica (~ 34 Ma) and the Tauern Window (~32.7 Ma). Age precisions are in the order of 0.1 to 1 % and all ages can be safely attributed to the timing of garnet growth. Some samples, however, contain two garnet populations which complicates Lu-Hf geochronology. In the Adula Nappe (Central Alps) relict garnet has survived a second orogenic cycle, including subduction to mantle depth. By carefully separating the two garnet populations present within the same eclogite sample we obtained a minimum Variscan age of 333 Ma and a maximum Alpine age of 38 Ma [4]. A similar relationship is now evident in samples from the Tauern Window (Eastern Alps), where only one population of garnet generation is visible macroscopically. However, few relics of Variscan garnet inside Alpine garnet are observed in electron microprobe element maps and are also evident from isotopic heterogeneity in 176Lu/177Hf vs. 176Hf/177Hf space. Garnet relics stemming from previous metamorphic events are frequently observed in HP units around the world and the Lu-Hf system is a promising tool to resolve the respective growth ages. Apart from garnet, lawsonite Lu-Hf geochronology was recently identified as a new tool to investigate subduction processes [5]. Here we present a lawsonite Lu-Hf isochron 37,6 ± 1.4 Ma (MSWD = 0.30; n =5) from a lawsonite blueschist from Alpine Corsica. The lawsonite slightly predates the timing of garnet growth (~34 Ma) in three eclogite samples, collected from other paleogeographic units of Alpine Corsica. The age discrepancy between lawsonite and garnet could be used to calculate subduction rates. Most importantly however, the Lu-Hf system provides virtually the first reliable tool for dating low grade blueshist assemblages. [1] Skora, S., Baumgartner, L.P., Mahlen, N.J., Lapen, T.J., Johnson, C.M. and Bussy, F. (2008) Estimation of a maximum Lu diffusion rate in a natural eclogite garnet. Swiss J. Geosci. DOI: 10.1007/s00015-008-1268-y. [2] Schmidt A., Mezger K. and O'Brien P.J. (2011) The time of eclogite formation in the ultrahigh pressure rocks of the Sulu terrane. Constraints from Lu-Hf garnet geochronology. Lithos. DOI: 10.1016/j.lithos.2011.04.004. [3] Herwartz D., Skublov S.G., Berezin A.V. and Melnik A.E. (accepted) First Lu-Hf garnet ages of eclogites from the Belmorian Mobile Belt, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Doklady Earth Sciences [4] Herwartz D., Nagel T. J., Münker C., Scherer E. E. and Froitzheim N. (2011) Tracing two orogenic cycles in one eclogite sample by Lu-Hf garnet chronometry. Nature Geoscience 4, 178-183. [5] Mulcahy S.R., King R.L. and Vervoort J. D. (2009) Lawsonite Lu-Hf geochronology: A new geochronometer for subduction zone processes. Geology 37, 987-990.

Herwartz, D.; Nagel, T. J.; Sandmann, S.; Vitale Brovarone, A.; Rexroth, S.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Froitzheim, N.; Kröner, A.; Skublov, S. G.; Münker, C.

2012-04-01

186

Magnetotelluric monitoring experiment at the northern Tien Shan seismogenic zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. High-density array MT soundings of the crust in the seismically active northern Tien Shan were performed using Phoenix MTU-5 stations in the Bishkek Geodynamic Polygon, at the junction of the Chu basin and the Kyrgyz Range. The MT transfer functions were determined to an accuracy of 1-2% (amplitude) and about 0.5-0.8 deg (phase) in most of 145 soundings. Preliminary analysis of the collected data aimed at estimating the geoelectrical dimensionality. The Bahr decomposition analysis indicated the presence of local 3D structures in the crust of the area superposed on the regional 2D structure. As a result of 2D inversion of amplitude and phase data with Randy Mackie codes, the geoelectric cross-sections along MT profiles have been constructed. Inversion models image upper-mid crustal zone of enhanced conductivity of the Issyk-Ata fault. Resistivity of this conductive zone is not exceeding 100 ohm-m. The conductor is connected to the surface structure and its upper part coincides with the line of Issyk-Ata fault on the surface. The low resistivity zone in the southern part of the investigated area is gently plunged into the southern direction beneath the rise of the Kyrgyz Range. Apparently, this zone represents large crust's zone of tectonic decollement and weakening with high fluid-gas environment permeability with properties of the waveguide. Next actual implication reveals from comparison of local seismicity spatial distribution aof local seismicity spatial distribution and resistivity structure. One can clearly see the high seismicity clustering around the edge of conductive zones, thus we suggest that the local seismicity results either from the migration of the fluids to less permeable crust or from local stress concentration near the structural boundaries. So, presented results of high resolution magnetotelluric survey show that geoelectric imaging of fault zones deliver us the unique information of deep structure features and sometimes it can give us new unexpected tectonic explanations for studied objects. In addition to these structural EM investigations in 2003 Research Station RAS (Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan) and Phoenix Geophysics (Toronto, Canada) jointly installed two permanent stations at the seismogenic zone near Bishkek for monitoring natural and artificial electromagnetic fields, using Phoenix magnetotelluric equipment MTU-5D. MT parameters computed daily for the whole period of these observations are presented. Wavelet analysis was executed for the time series of daily average values of apparent resistivity (modules and phases) for two stationary stations of ?? measurements since autumn of 2003. The time intervals till a few months duration with abnormal behaviour of apparent resistivity variations in the period sounding range T=5-100s are marked, but for all that the maximum of change makes only the first percents. Such long-term change of resistivity has correlation with seismic activity in the region and, probably, can reflect the activation period of the structures in the mid-low crust at the Northern Tien Shan. The work was supported by RBRF grant 07-05-00594a.

187

Snow algae in an ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains  

Science.gov (United States)

Snow algae are photosynthetic microorganisms and are living on the surfase of glaciers. They grow on melting surface from spring to summer and their biomass and community structure are changed with physical and chemical conditions on glaciers. Ice cores drilled from glaciers also contain snow algae that grew in the past. Studying biomass and community structure of snow algae in ice cores could reveal the temporal variation in snow algae in the past, and also environmental conditions relating propagation of snow algae. In this study, we anlalyzed snow algae preserved in an ice core of Grigoriev Ice cap located in eastern Kyrgyzstan of the central Asia, and to describe their temporal variations for the last 200 years. The ice core drilling was carried out on September in 2007 on the Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains. A 87 m long ice core from the surface to the bedrock was recovered at the top of the ice cap. The core was horizontally cut every 5 cm (total 1212 samples). The samples were melted and preserved as a 3% formalin solution. After the sample water was filtered through a hydrophilized PTFE membrane filter, observed by microscope. Snow algae in the sample water were counting. The algal biomass was represented by the cell number per unit water volume. Here, we showed the results between the surface to the 64 m in depth. We also analyzed the snow algal communities on the surface of the ice cap collected from five different sites from the top down to the terminus. Microscopy revealed that the ice core contained three taxa of filamentous cyanobacteria, an unicellular cyanobacterium, and two green algae. They were also found on the ice or snow surface of the i Ice cap. The quantitative analyses of the algae in the part of upper 64 m deep of the ice core samples revealed that the algal biomass varied significantly and showed many peaks. Furthermore, the biomass profile differed among the taxa. The filamentous cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 4.6 x 103?m3 mL-1 (mean: 56?m3 mL-1 ), the unicellular cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 3.0 x 104?m3 mL-1 (mean: 1.2 x 103?m3 mL-1 ), and Green algae varied from 0.0 to 2.3 x 104?m3 mL-1 (mean: 2.2 x 103?m3 mL-1 ). Based on the dating by pollen grains, the 64 m core covers 237 years. The results suggest that the snow algae did not grow every year on the top of the ice cap, and their biomass and community structure varied greatly from year to year. The total biomass after the 1960s was significantly higher than those before the 1950s. This suggested suggests that the surface conditions changed more favorable to the growth of algae in the 1960s. Annal variation of the algal biomass was found to be significantly correlated with air temperature at the nearest observing station from Grigoriev the iIce cap and hydrogen stable isotope (?D) in the ice core. The results suggest that the algal growth is more preferable in warmer year.

Honda, M.; Takeuchi, N.; Sera, S.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.; Naoki, K.; Aizen, V. B.

2012-12-01

188

Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geotechnical barrier is an important component of a geological repository and consists of compacted bentonite surrounding radioactive waste containers. Its most important functions are, to retard the radionuclide migration into the biosphere and to prevent groundwater contact with containers. lt is therefore of central importance to investigate the bentonite material on its capacity to sorb radionuclides under near-natural chemical and physical conditions. The purpose of this work was to study the adsorption of uranium(VI) on bentonit and on montmorillonite-standards at high uranium concentrations. Thereby, a special account was given to the calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation, which leads to the formation of very stable and mobile uncharged Ca2UO2(CO3)3 complex. Results of batch experiments showed that the dicalcium-uranyl-tricarbonate complexation lowers the uranium(VI) sorption on natural clay (bentonite) by a factor of up to 3. After 21 days of contact time, about 40 % and 20 % of the initial uranium(VI)concentration were sorbed on Na-bentonite and ea-bentonite, respectively, from a solution with Ca2UO2(CO3)3 dominating the uranium(VI) speciation. On the contrary, about 55 % of the initial uranium(VI)-concentration were sorbed on thes clays from the solution, in which (UO2)2CO3(OH)3- complex dominated the uranium(VI) - complex dominated the uranium(VI) speciation. Thus uranium(VI) sorption is more strongly influenced by the solution composition than by bentonite type. Na-bentonite should be used instead of ea-bentonite as a geotechnical barrier, since calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation may be a realistic scenario. Further SEM-EDX and HREM-EDX studies showed that uranium(VI) sorption occurred predominantly on montmorillonite, which is the main component of bentonite. Uranium(VI) sorption on bentonite's accessory Minerals (pyrite, calcite, mica, and feldspar) was not observed. Investigation of uranium(VI) sorption on four montmorillonite-standard, which are distinguished by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling uranium releases from tailings into the aquatic system. The results showed that uranium(VI) speciation in water samples is controlled by p

189

Problems of radiation safety at mined out uranium properties in Uzbekistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Republic of Uzbekistan was one of the main uranium production areas in former Soviet Union for more than 40 years. About 150 uranium production facilities have been constructed for that time in connection with hydrothermal and sedimentary-metamorphic deposits of the fold basement and stratal-infiltration deposits of the sedimentary cover. 18 of these facilities are located in Tadzhikistan and Kyrgyzstan along the boundary with Uzbekistan. Exploration and operation activities in the deposits located in the fold basement were in general in form of mining. It was resulted in essential violation of landscape, development of various underground excavations, damps, tailing impoundments, lower grade stockpiles. All these need large volume of radioactive decontamination and restoration activities. 54 sites from 67 (80%) located in the territory of Uzbekistan need radioactive decontamination and restoration now. Very serious radiation settings have occurred in some of these sites nowadays. Radioactive dumps of Cherkesar-I and Cherkesar-II mined out uranium deposits are out of any control in Fergana valley in Pap region of Namangan province. The radioactive materials are collected in dumps covered with neutral ground. The cover is washed out in some places by rains. Intensity of gamma radiation is 300 to 450 ?r/h, radon exhalation is up to 7 Bk/m2*sec (while the normal level is up to 1 Bk/m2*sec). Water runs out from mothballed mines and its microelement composition is close to the composition of the technological solution. The water contains a number of very toxic elements (beryllium, manganese, iron, and aluminum). Water concentration of radionuclides is uranium - 23.4 Bk/1 (the normal level is 9.6), radon - 1433 (80), radium - 15.9 (0.94). The same set of the toxicants has been found in bottom sediment of a stream, its total alpha-activity reaches 35 to 81 KBk/kg. The spring water runs to a small valley and then to a village where the water is used for cattle watering and irrigation, that is hazardous for the local people health. Living in stone houses is also hazardous as they have been built of damp material and plastered with sand from Uigursai uranium deposit located in vicinity with the village. 250 living and public buildings have been examined. Gamma-activity level of 60 to 120 ?r/h was observed in 50% of them, radon exhalation is 200-500 to 3000 Bk/m3 (normal level is 100). The village habitants suffer from increasing rate of disease of blood, circulation and respiratory organs, urogenital system and oncologic diseases. Similar situation can be seen in other mined-out uranium facilities of the Republic (Yangiabad, Rezak, Shakaptar and others). Radiation setting is happier in the cover mined-out facilities because the underground leaching (UL) technique, which is much more environmentally safer, was used there. However, local contamination of surface of the UL sites and, mainly, underground water of ore-bearing horizon occurs and preserves for a long time using this technique. Main reasons of the contamination are: technologic solution spillings, disbalance of pumping-in and pumping-out, solutions remained in leaching areas, running out of these solutions into neighbouring horizons. Sulphuric acid underground leaching has lead to essential deterioration of environmental condition of ore bearing horizon underground water in the site under operation. The underground water was assayed for 27 components. Major of them noticeably exceeds the ultimate permissible concentrations. These are, before all, the solvent components - sulphate-ions and ions of hydrogen, leached elements - uranium, iron, aluminum, manganese, some heavy metals and other toxic elements, products of technological processing - nitrates and others. The highest contamination rate was observed for sulphates - 20 times and more, aluminum and uranium - hundreds times, iron and beryllium - thousand times. In spite of the fact that areas of contamination in case of underground leaching are rather small and, as a rule, not exceed 100 m - 150 m radius from the UL

190

Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples; Untersuchungen zur Uransorption an Bentonit bzw. Montmorillonit sowie von Uran in Umweltproben  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The geotechnical barrier is an important component of a geological repository and consists of compacted bentonite surrounding radioactive waste containers. Its most important functions are, to retard the radionuclide migration into the biosphere and to prevent groundwater contact with containers. lt is therefore of central importance to investigate the bentonite material on its capacity to sorb radionuclides under near-natural chemical and physical conditions. The purpose of this work was to study the adsorption of uranium(VI) on bentonit and on montmorillonite-standards at high uranium concentrations. Thereby, a special account was given to the calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation, which leads to the formation of very stable and mobile uncharged Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} complex. Results of batch experiments showed that the dicalcium-uranyl-tricarbonate complexation lowers the uranium(VI) sorption on natural clay (bentonite) by a factor of up to 3. After 21 days of contact time, about 40 % and 20 % of the initial uranium(VI)concentration were sorbed on Na-bentonite and ea-bentonite, respectively, from a solution with Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} dominating the uranium(VI) speciation. On the contrary, about 55 % of the initial uranium(VI)-concentration were sorbed on thes clays from the solution, in which (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}{sup -} complex dominated the uranium(VI) speciation. Thus uranium(VI) sorption is more strongly influenced by the solution composition than by bentonite type. Na-bentonite should be used instead of ea-bentonite as a geotechnical barrier, since calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation may be a realistic scenario. Further SEM-EDX and HREM-EDX studies showed that uranium(VI) sorption occurred predominantly on montmorillonite, which is the main component of bentonite. Uranium(VI) sorption on bentonite's accessory Minerals (pyrite, calcite, mica, and feldspar) was not observed. Investigation of uranium(VI) sorption on four montmorillonite-standard, which are distinguished by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling uranium releases from tailings into the aquatic system. The results showed that uranium(VI)

Azeroual, Mohamed

2010-09-22

191

Glaciers of Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter is the ninth to be released in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, a series of 11 chapters. In each of the geographic area chapters, remotely sensed images, primarily from the Landsat 1, 2, and 3 series of spacecraft, are used to analyze the specific glacierized region of our planet under consideration and to monitor glacier changes. Landsat images, acquired primarily during the middle to late 1970s and early 1980s, were used by an international team of glaciologists and other scientists to study various geographic regions and (or) to discuss related glaciological topics. In each glacierized geographic region, the present areal distribution of glaciers is compared, wherever possible, with historical information about their past extent. The atlas provides an accurate regional inventory of the areal extent of glacier ice on our planet during the 1970s as part of a growing international scientific effort to measure global environmental change on the Earth?s surface. The chapter is divided into seven geographic parts and one topical part: Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union (F-1), Glaciers of China (F-2), Glaciers of Afghanistan (F?3), Glaciers of Pakistan (F-4), Glaciers of India (F-5), Glaciers of Nepal (F?6), Glaciers of Bhutan (F-7), and the Paleoenvironmental Record Preserved in Middle-Latitude, High-Mountain Glaciers (F-8). Each geographic section describes the glacier extent during the 1970s and 1980s, the benchmark time period (1972-1981) of this volume, but has been updated to include more recent information. Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union are located in the Russian Arctic and various mountain ranges of Russia and the Republics of Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakstun. The Glacier Inventory of the USSR and the World Atlas of Ice and Snow Resources recorded a total of 28,881 glaciers covering an area of 78,938 square kilometers (km2). China includes many of the mountain-glacier systems of the world including the Himalaya, Karakorum, Tien Shan and Altay mountain ranges. The glaciers are widely scattered and cover an area of about 59,425 km2. The mountain glaciers may be classified as maritime, subcontinental or extreme continental. In Afghanistan, more than 3,000 small glaciers occur in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains. Most glaciers occur on north-facing slopes shaded by mountain peaks and on east and southeast slopes that are shaded by monsoon clouds. The glaciers provide vital water resources to the region and cover an area of about 2,700 km2. Glaciers of northern Pakistan are some of the largest and longest mid-latitude glaciers on Earth. They are located in the Hindu Kush, Himalaya, and Karakoram mountains and cover an area of about 15,000 km2. Glaciers here are important for their role in providing water resources and their hazard potential. The glaciers in India are located in the Himalaya and cover about 8,500 km2. The Himalaya contains one of the largest reservoirs of snow and ice outside the polar regions. The glaciers are a major source of fresh water and supply meltwater to all the rivers in northern India, thereby affecting the quality of life of millions of people. In Nepal, the glaciers are located in the Himalaya as individual glaciers; the glacierized area covers about 5,324 km2. The region is the highest mountainous region on Earth and includes the Mt. Everest region. Glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya have a total area of about 1,317 km2. Many recent glacier studies are focused on glacier lakes that have the potential of generating dangerous glacier lake outburst floods. Research on the glaciers of the middle-latitude, high-mountain glaciers of Asia has also focused on the information contained in the ice cores from the glaciers. This information helps in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic records, and the computer modeling of global climate change.

Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

2010-01-01

192

Formulation of humic-based soil conditioners  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of the study is to prepare soil conditioners (SC) able to carry out the following functions: (i) the chemical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the adjustment of pH, (ii) the balancing of inorganic nutrients, (iii) the physical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the improvement of water permeability, air permeability and water retention properties, and (iv) improvement of the ecological system concerning of useful microorganisms activity in the soil. The SC was made of a mixture of inorganic ingredients, a chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of which promoted improvement of physical characteristic of soil and enrichment by its mineral nutritious elements. In addition to aforesaid ingredients, this soil conditioner contains agronomical-valued groups of microorganisms having the function promoting the growth of the crop. As organic component of SC humic acids (HA) was used. HA serve many major functions that result in better soil and plant health. In soil, HA can increase microbial and mycorrhizal activity while enhancing nutrient uptake by plant roots. HA work as a catalyst by stimulating root and plant growth, it may enhance enzymatic activity that in turn accelerates cell division which can lead to increased yields. HA can help to increase crop yields, seed germination, and much more. In short, humic acids helps keep healthy plants health. The first stage goal was to evaluate mineral and organic ingredients for formulation of SC. Soil conditioners assessed included ash and slag. The use of slags has been largelly used in agriculture as a source of lime and phosphoric acid. The silicic acid of slags reduces Al-acitivity thus, promoting a better assimilation of P-fertilizer by plants. Additionally, silicic acid is also known to improve soil moisture capacity, thus enhancing soil water availability to plants. Physico-chemical characteristics of ash and slag were determined, as a total - about 20 samples. Results include: Chemical composition of (i) ash: 53-54% SiO2; 26-27% Al2O3; 3-5% Fe2O3; 1.7-2.9% CaO; 1.3-2.3% MgO; 0.5-0.8% Na2O; 1.0-1.5% K2O and; (ii), slag: 17-20% SiO2; 15-20% Al2O3; 30-40% CaO; 1-6% Fe2O3; 4-11% MgO. Of all samples assessed, per 5 samples from various regions with various compositions (high, average and low content of metal oxides) were selected and tested as component of SC in vegetative pot and field experiments, i.e., to study the immobilization processes including microorganisms and inorganic ingredients. This study helped to elucidate the influence of ash and slag composition on microbial development. The next stage was (i) to evaluate microbial activity of selected soils from Kyrgyzstan, (ii) to isolate microorganisms exhibiting antagonistic activity against pathogenic microorganisms present in the soil and, (iii) to utilize microbes as nutrient sources. Candidate microbial cultures were isolated from soils/crops and assessed as plant growth promoting microorganisms. The characteristics of the physiological groups of microorganisms were also investigated. Of different physiological groups of microorganisms selected, ca, 3 consortia of agronomical-valued microbial groups from undisturbed soils was selected as component of soil conditioners. Microorganisms, namely oligonitrophils, ammonifiers, nitrifiers, were tested based on beneficial bioactivity including plant biomass and stem length on commercial onion and lettuce crops. Our results demonstrate that all the combinations ash/slag, humic acids and consortium of beneficial agronomical-valued microbial groups into one environmentally friendly soil conditioner possessed equal or higher growth-promoting potential in relation to lettuce. However, our results demonstrated clearly that among studied scope of soil conditioners only one of them could be recommended for further study in terms of practical applications. Namely, it was mixture consisting of humic acids, ash and oligonitrophils as soil conditioning agent. Acknowledgement. This research was supported by the grant of ISTC KR-993.2.

Amanova, M. A.; Mamytova, G. A.; Mamytova, B. A.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

2009-04-01