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1

Kyrgyzstan: Health system review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Kyrgyzstan has undertaken wide-ranging reforms of its health system in a challenging socioeconomic and political context. The country has developed two major health reform programmes after becoming independent: Manas (1996 to 2006) and Manas Taalimi (2006 to 2010). These reforms introduced comprehensive structural changes to the health care delivery system with the aim of strengthening primary health care, developing family medicine and restructuring the hospital sector.Major service delivery improvements have included the introduction of new clinical practice guidelines, improvements in the provision and use of pharmaceuticals, quality improvements in the priority programmes for mother and child health, cardiovascular diseases, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, strengthening of public health and improvements in medical education. A Community Action for Health programme was introduced through new village health committees, enhancing health promotion and allowing individuals and communities to take more responsibility for their own health. Health financing reform consisted of the introduction of a purchaser provider split and the establishment of a single payer for health services under the state-guaranteed benefit package (SGBP). Responsibility for purchasing health services has been consolidated under the Mandatory Health Insurance Fund (MHIF), which pools general revenue and health insurance funding. Funds have been pooled at national level since 2006, replacing the previous pooling at oblast level. The transition from oblast-based pooling of funds to pooling at the national level allowed the MHIF to distribute funds more equitably for the SGBP and the Additional Drug Package. Although utilization of both primary care and hospital services declined during the 1990s and early 2000s, it is increasing again. There is increasing equality of access across regions, improved financial protection and a decline in informal payments, but more efforts will be required in these areas in the future.

Ibraimova A; Akkazieva B; Ibraimov A; Manzhieva E; Rechel B

2011-01-01

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Human alveolar echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human echinococcosis is a reportable disease in Kyrgyzstan. Between 1995 and 2011, human alveolar echinococcosis increased from <3 cases per year to >60 cases per year. The origins of this epidemic, which started in 2004, may be linked to the socioeconomic changes that followed the dissolution of the former Soviet Union.

Usubalieva J; Minbaeva G; Ziadinov I; Deplazes P; Torgerson PR

2013-07-01

3

The Revolution in Kyrgyzstan: A Social Studies Educator's Eyewitness Account  

Science.gov (United States)

This article relates a story about the unfolding of the recent revolution in Kyrgyzstan told by an insider who was an unlikely "captive" of the events in the capital, Bishkek. Over a seven-day period this past March, protest demonstrations paralyzed the country, military and police protection evaporated, the government collapsed, the president…

Wilen, William W.

2005-01-01

4

Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where the…

Junisbai, Azamat K.

2010-01-01

5

Rotavirus genotype distribution in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, 2007-2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first study to present rotavirus genotype distribution in children admitted to a hospital with acute gastroenteritis in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan from January 2007 through December 2009. In total, 858 rotavirus ELISA-positive samples were characterized by RT-PCR, with a considerable geographical and seasonal variation in genotype distribution observed during the study. The globally common genotypes (G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8], G12P[8] and G12P[6]) accounted for 81.5-88.2% of the infections in Kyrgyzstan and 72.3-79.3% of the infections in Kazakhstan. The predominant genotypes were G1P[8], G2P[4] and G3P[8]. G1P[8] was the dominating genotype in Kyrgyzstan, detected in 51-64.7% of the samples. A similar predominance was not seen for G1P[8] in Kazakhstan, with a shift to G2P[4] predominance being seen in 2008. G9P[8] was a rare genotype in both countries, whereas G12 was detected in between 2.2% and 7.6% of the samples. The surveillance period was characterized by many co-circulating genotypes, and eight unusual combinations (G1P[4], G2P[8], G2P[6], G3P[4], G9P[4], G12P[4], G9P[9] and G10P[4]) were detected. This study provides important baseline data on rotavirus genotypes in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in the pre-vaccine era, and the results may indicate that the two licensed vaccines can be expected to prevent rotavirus disease in these countries. PMID:23078218

Vainio, Kirsti; Latipov, Renat; Utegenova, Elmira; Kasymbekova, Kaliya; Juraev, Rivojiddin; Asilova, Mukhayyo; Flem, Elmira

2012-10-19

6

Rotavirus genotype distribution in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, 2007-2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is the first study to present rotavirus genotype distribution in children admitted to a hospital with acute gastroenteritis in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan from January 2007 through December 2009. In total, 858 rotavirus ELISA-positive samples were characterized by RT-PCR, with a considerable geographical and seasonal variation in genotype distribution observed during the study. The globally common genotypes (G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8], G12P[8] and G12P[6]) accounted for 81.5-88.2% of the infections in Kyrgyzstan and 72.3-79.3% of the infections in Kazakhstan. The predominant genotypes were G1P[8], G2P[4] and G3P[8]. G1P[8] was the dominating genotype in Kyrgyzstan, detected in 51-64.7% of the samples. A similar predominance was not seen for G1P[8] in Kazakhstan, with a shift to G2P[4] predominance being seen in 2008. G9P[8] was a rare genotype in both countries, whereas G12 was detected in between 2.2% and 7.6% of the samples. The surveillance period was characterized by many co-circulating genotypes, and eight unusual combinations (G1P[4], G2P[8], G2P[6], G3P[4], G9P[4], G12P[4], G9P[9] and G10P[4]) were detected. This study provides important baseline data on rotavirus genotypes in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in the pre-vaccine era, and the results may indicate that the two licensed vaccines can be expected to prevent rotavirus disease in these countries.

Vainio K; Latipov R; Utegenova E; Kasymbekova K; Juraev R; Asilova M; Flem E

2013-05-01

7

Representative seroprevalences of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new human brucellosis cases per 100,000 people in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences worldwide. In Kyrgyzstan, the currently used diagnostic tests in humans and animals are the Rose Bengal Test and the Huddleson test. A national representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, cattle, sheep, and goats was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 4,936 livestock sera and 1,774 human sera were tested in Naryn, Chuy, and Osh Oblasts. The overall apparent seroprevalences of brucellosis were 8.8% in humans (95% CI 4.5-16.5), 2.8% (95% CI 1.6-4.9%) in cattle, 3.3% (95% CI 1.5-6.9%) in sheep, and 2.5% (95% CI 1.4-4.5%) in goats. Naryn Oblast had the highest seroprevalences in humans and sheep. More men than women were seropositive (OR = 1.96; P human brucellosis exposure, measured by serological tests, was more than ten times higher than the annual incidence of reported clinical brucellosis cases. This indicates an under-reporting of human brucellosis cases, even if only a fraction of seropositive people have clinical symptoms. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan and warrants rapid effective intervention, among others, by mass vaccination of sheep and goats but also of cattle. PMID:22143553

Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Dürr, Salome; Toktobaev, Nurjan; Doherr, Marcus G; Schueth, Tobias; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

2011-12-06

8

Diabetes in Kyrgyzstan: changes between 2002 and 2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health system reform in Kyrgyzstan is seen as a relative success story in central Asia. Initially, most attention focused on structural changes, and it is only since 2006 that the delivery of care and the experience of health service users have risen on the agenda. One exception from the earlier period was a rapid appraisal of the management of diabetes, undertaken in 2002. Using that study as a baseline, we describe the findings of a new evaluation of diabetes management, undertaken in 2009, using the Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, now implemented in seven countries. Access to care has improved through the creation of the Family Medical Centres and the deployment of endocrinologists to them. Another improvement is the access to insulin and related medicines, although assessment of the procurement system reveals that the government is getting very poor value for money. Looking ahead, there are grounds for optimism that the passage of the law on diabetes may progressively have a greater impact. Although the law is not yet fully implemented, it has enabled the diabetes associations to defend the rights of their members. This increased capacity is credited with some improvements in diabetes care.

Beran D; Abdraimova A; Akkazieva B; McKee M; Balabanova D; Yudkin JS

2013-04-01

9

Diabetes in Kyrgyzstan: changes between 2002 and 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health system reform in Kyrgyzstan is seen as a relative success story in central Asia. Initially, most attention focused on structural changes, and it is only since 2006 that the delivery of care and the experience of health service users have risen on the agenda. One exception from the earlier period was a rapid appraisal of the management of diabetes, undertaken in 2002. Using that study as a baseline, we describe the findings of a new evaluation of diabetes management, undertaken in 2009, using the Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, now implemented in seven countries. Access to care has improved through the creation of the Family Medical Centres and the deployment of endocrinologists to them. Another improvement is the access to insulin and related medicines, although assessment of the procurement system reveals that the government is getting very poor value for money. Looking ahead, there are grounds for optimism that the passage of the law on diabetes may progressively have a greater impact. Although the law is not yet fully implemented, it has enabled the diabetes associations to defend the rights of their members. This increased capacity is credited with some improvements in diabetes care. PMID:23125073

Beran, David; Abdraimova, Aida; Akkazieva, Baktygul; McKee, Martin; Balabanova, Dina; Yudkin, John S

2012-11-05

10

External Powers’ Influence Upon the Reform and Political Elites in Present Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Formerly perceived as an ‘island of democracy’, Kyrgyzstan is now characterised as a ‘failed state’. After the March 2005 revolutionary upheaval, President K. Bakiev has been searching for a way to consolidate the ruling elite. What was the impact of external powers and international policies upon the last four years’ socio-political transformation in the country? How were the images of Kyrgyzstan constructed and manipulated from within and outside? Based upon field interviews, open sources and statistics, this research focuses on the influences of Russia, China, the USA and EU, as well as Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan on Kyrgyz political elites’ development after March 2005. Against the background of multi-dimensional and quite open foreign policy, economic integration and social networks in Kyrgyzstan developed in closer co-operation with Russia and Kazakhstan.

Dr. Irina Morozova

2009-01-01

11

Rotavirus infection in hospitalized children and estimates of disease burden in Kyrgyzstan, 2005-2007.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To estimate the rotavirus-associated burden in Kyrgyzstan, we conducted hospital surveillance among children <5 years old with diarrhoea during 2005-2007. Of 3756 children hospitalized with diarrhoea, 26% had rotavirus detected in stool samples by an enzyme immunoassay. The virus genotype G1P[8] was identified in 60% of 190 characterized samples from 2005 to 2006. The estimated risk for rotavirus hospitalization by age 5 years was 1 in 28 children. One quarter of all gastroenteritis hospitalizations in children <5 years old in Kyrgyzstan may be attributable to rotavirus. Rotavirus vaccination could be an important health intervention to reduce the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis.

Flem ET; Kasymbekova KT; Vainio K; Gentsch J; Abdikarimov ST; Glass RI; Bresee JS

2009-11-01

12

Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was developed using GAMS 2.25 software. Application of the model to the Akbura River basin indicated efficiencies in the proposed institutional rules especially in low water years.

Akmal Karimov; Murat Yakubov; Andrew Noble; Kahramon Jumabaev; Oyture Anarbekov; Jusipbek Kazbekov; Nazir Mirzaev; Ahmad Alimdjanov

2010-01-01

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Demographic Journeys along the Silk Road : Marriage, Childbearing, and Migration in Kyrgyzstan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis contributes to the limited demographic literature on Central Asia – the region through which led the great Silk Road – an ancient route of trade and cultural exchange between East and West. We focus on Kyrgyzstan and countries in its immediate neighborhood: Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. We ...

Nedoluzhko, Lesia

14

Environmental Journalism in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan: Reporting Scarce amid Environmental and Media Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Independence for the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia has not led to press freedom, solutions to pressing environmental problems, or development of effective grassroots nongovernmental organizations. This article examines relations between journalists and environmental nongovernmental organizations, and it…

Freedman, Eric

2011-01-01

15

Molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility of livestock Brucella melitensis isolates from Naryn Oblast, Kyrgyzstan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The incidence of human brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan has been increasing in the last years and was identified as a priority disease needing most urgent control measures in the livestock population. The latest species identification of Brucella isolates in Kyrgyzstan was carried out in the 1960s and investigated the circulation of Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, B. ovis, and B. suis. However, supporting data and documentation of that experience are lacking. Therefore, typing of Brucella spp. and identification of the most important host species are necessary for the understanding of the main transmission routes and to adopt an effective brucellosis control policy in Kyrgyzstan. Overall, 17 B. melitensis strains from aborted fetuses of sheep and cattle isolated in the province of Naryn were studied. All strains were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, rifampin, ofloxacin, streptomycin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis showed low genetic diversity. Kyrgyz strains seem to be genetically associated with the Eastern Mediterranean group of the Brucella global phylogeny. We identified and confirmed transmission of B. melitensis to cattle and a close genetic relationship between B. melitensis strains isolated from sheep sharing the same pasture.

Kasymbekov J; Imanseitov J; Ballif M; Schürch N; Paniga S; Pilo P; Tonolla M; Benagli C; Akylbekova K; Jumakanova Z; Schelling E; Zinsstag J

2013-01-01

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Molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility of livestock Brucella melitensis isolates from Naryn Oblast, Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of human brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan has been increasing in the last years and was identified as a priority disease needing most urgent control measures in the livestock population. The latest species identification of Brucella isolates in Kyrgyzstan was carried out in the 1960s and investigated the circulation of Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, B. ovis, and B. suis. However, supporting data and documentation of that experience are lacking. Therefore, typing of Brucella spp. and identification of the most important host species are necessary for the understanding of the main transmission routes and to adopt an effective brucellosis control policy in Kyrgyzstan. Overall, 17 B. melitensis strains from aborted fetuses of sheep and cattle isolated in the province of Naryn were studied. All strains were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, rifampin, ofloxacin, streptomycin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis showed low genetic diversity. Kyrgyz strains seem to be genetically associated with the Eastern Mediterranean group of the Brucella global phylogeny. We identified and confirmed transmission of B. melitensis to cattle and a close genetic relationship between B. melitensis strains isolated from sheep sharing the same pasture. PMID:23469294

Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Imanseitov, Joldoshbek; Ballif, Marie; Schürch, Nadia; Paniga, Sandra; Pilo, Paola; Tonolla, Mauro; Benagli, Cinzia; Akylbekova, Kulyash; Jumakanova, Zarima; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob

2013-02-28

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Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov (Amaryllidaceae), a new species from Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This species is the second member of Allium sect. Spathulata F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch, being different from Allium spathulatum F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch in larger, broader, obtuse and more intensely purple-coloured tepals, and in a more robust habit. It is a local endemic of Babash-Ata Mt. Range situated east of Fergana Valley in Kyrgyzstan, recommended for legal protection as Endangered because of the very small population size in its only locality. PMID:23794934

Sennikov, Alexander N; Lazkov, Georgy A

2013-04-02

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Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov (Amaryllidaceae), a new species from Kyrgyzstan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Allium formosum Sennikov & Lazkov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This species is the second member of Allium sect. Spathulata F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch, being different from Allium spathulatum F.O.Khass. & R.M.Fritsch in larger, broader, obtuse and more intensely purple-coloured tepals, and in a more robust habit. It is a local endemic of Babash-Ata Mt. Range situated east of Fergana Valley in Kyrgyzstan, recommended for legal protection as Endangered because of the very small population size in its only locality.

Sennikov AN; Lazkov GA

2013-01-01

19

Man-caused uranium contamination of biosphere objects in the territory of Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents data on uranium content in water, soils and plants in the territories of the largest uranium geochemical provinces of Kyrgyzstan where uranium mining and production complexes functioned and operated until the 1960s. The migration of uranium and its contamination of the biosphere are discussed. The paper provides recommendations on using natural phytomeliorants that would discriminate uranium, fix the ground, reduce the risk of mudflows formation and the degree of uranium contamination of the territory, and also facilitate the recovery of the disturbed natural mountainous ecosystems. PMID:17000552

Bykova, E I; Gorborukova, L P; Kostenko, E S; Namazbekova, S Sh

2006-01-01

20

Man-caused uranium contamination of biosphere objects in the territory of Kyrgyzstan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper presents data on uranium content in water, soils and plants in the territories of the largest uranium geochemical provinces of Kyrgyzstan where uranium mining and production complexes functioned and operated until the 1960s. The migration of uranium and its contamination of the biosphere are discussed. The paper provides recommendations on using natural phytomeliorants that would discriminate uranium, fix the ground, reduce the risk of mudflows formation and the degree of uranium contamination of the territory, and also facilitate the recovery of the disturbed natural mountainous ecosystems.

Bykova EI; Gorborukova LP; Kostenko ES; Namazbekova SSh

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Dog ownership, dog behaviour and transmission of Echinococcus spp. in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan, and the incidence of human infection has increased substantially since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Domestic dogs are hosts of Echinococcus spp. and play an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The demography, ecology and behaviour of dogs are therefore relevant in studying Echinococcus spp. transmission. Dog demographics, roles of dogs, dog movements and faecal environmental contamination were assessed in four rural communities in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan. Arecoline purge data revealed for the first time that E. granulosus, E. canadensis and E. multilocularis were present in domestic dogs in the Alay Valley. Surveys revealed that many households had dogs and that dogs played various roles in the communities, as pets, guard dogs or sheep dogs. Almost all dogs were free to roam, and GPS data revealed that many moved outside their communities, thus being able to scavenge offal and consume rodents. Faecal environmental contamination was high, presenting a significant infection risk to the local communities.

VAN Kesteren F; Mastin A; Mytynova B; Ziadinov I; Boufana B; Torgerson PR; Rogan MT; Craig PS

2013-08-01

22

Bismarck meets Beveridge on the Silk Road: coordinating funding sources to create a universal health financing system in Kyrgyzstan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Options for health financing reform are often portrayed as a choice between general taxation (known as the Beveridge model) and social health insurance (known as the Bismarck model). Ten years of health financing reform in Kyrgyzstan, since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in...

Kutzin, Joseph; Ibraimova, Ainura; Jakab, Melitta; O’Dougherty, Sheila

23

Challenges of Applying a Student-Centered Approach to Learning in the Context of Education in Kyrgyzstan  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenge of maximizing student learning has been paramount in many societies. This issue has become especially salient in the context of drastic social and political changes that have taken place in countries such as Kyrgyzstan. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, teachers and students are confronted with new ways of thinking, which are…

de la Sablonniere, Roxane; Taylor, Donald M.; Sadykova, Nazgul

2009-01-01

24

Childhood exposures to Rn-222 and background gamma radiation in the uranium provinces of south Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The project was undertaken in southern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It was speculated that the radiation doses in these areas would be sufficiently high and dispersed to facilitate a case-control study where the radiation doses to leukaemia subjects/their siblings could be compared with those received by control children. As a precursor a pilot project was undertaken to confirm radiation exposures in the region. This was undertaken in association with regional childhood cancer treatment centres. Children from families affected by childhood leukaemia were monitored for 1 month for external ?-radiation dose and for exposure to radon gas. 28 children from families in Kazakhstan and from 31 families in Kyrgyzstan were monitored. The median measured radon in air concentration recorded in Kazakhstan was 123 Bq m(-3) and in Kyrgyzstan was 177 Bq m(-3). These represent 24-h average indoor/outdoor values. In the case of the ?-doses the mean annual dose was 1.2 mGy for Kazakhstan and 2.1 mGy for Kyrgyzstan. Overall, the results suggest that the populations studied receive similar annual radiation doses to those received by populations living in other areas with enhanced natural radioactivity and that further study of Kazakh and Kyrgyz populations would not facilitate a successful case-control study for childhood leukaemia.

Priest ND; Hoel D; Uralbekov B; Baizakova DO; Burkitbayev M

2013-09-01

25

Childhood exposures to Rn-222 and background gamma radiation in the uranium provinces of south Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The project was undertaken in southern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It was speculated that the radiation doses in these areas would be sufficiently high and dispersed to facilitate a case-control study where the radiation doses to leukaemia subjects/their siblings could be compared with those received by control children. As a precursor a pilot project was undertaken to confirm radiation exposures in the region. This was undertaken in association with regional childhood cancer treatment centres. Children from families affected by childhood leukaemia were monitored for 1 month for external ?-radiation dose and for exposure to radon gas. 28 children from families in Kazakhstan and from 31 families in Kyrgyzstan were monitored. The median measured radon in air concentration recorded in Kazakhstan was 123 Bq m(-3) and in Kyrgyzstan was 177 Bq m(-3). These represent 24-h average indoor/outdoor values. In the case of the ?-doses the mean annual dose was 1.2 mGy for Kazakhstan and 2.1 mGy for Kyrgyzstan. Overall, the results suggest that the populations studied receive similar annual radiation doses to those received by populations living in other areas with enhanced natural radioactivity and that further study of Kazakh and Kyrgyz populations would not facilitate a successful case-control study for childhood leukaemia. PMID:22727647

Priest, N D; Hoel, D; Uralbekov, B; Baizakova, D O; Burkitbayev, M

2012-06-21

26

Coping with the energy crisis: Impact assessment and potentials of non-traditional renewable energy in rural Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyrgyz energy sector is characterised by a dramatic energy crisis that has deprived a substantial part of the population from access to energy. Non-traditional renewable energy sources have emerged as a promising alternative in providing basic energy services to the rural poor. Based on qualitative interview data from local households and project planners, this study sets out to assess impacts, limitations and barriers of non-traditional renewable energy projects in rural areas in Kyrgyzstan. This study argues that recent renewable energy efforts from multilateral international agencies, the private sector, and nongovernmental organisations exhibit great potential in creating tangible benefits and improving basic energy services, but have so far been inefficient in establishing and replicating sustainable and long-term energy solutions. Existing practices need to be improved by attaching greater importance to the capacities and real needs of the rural poor. The guidance of integrated programmes and policies along with alternative financing schemes and awareness-raising are urgently needed to leverage local success stories and to facilitate a sustainable energy development in rural Kyrgyzstan. - Highlights: ? We examine 11 rural households and 5 project planners in rural Kyrgyzstan. ? We assess impacts of non-traditional renewable energies compared with conventional fuels. ? Renewable energies exhibit a range of tangible benefits for rural users. ? Limitations concern performance, durability, repair, acceptance, finance and policy. ? Renewable energy is a promising alternative for rural households in Kyrgyzstan.

2012-01-01

27

Understanding the "Russian mortality paradox" in Central Asia: evidence from Kyrgyzstan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the former Soviet republics of central Asia, ethnic Russians have exhibited higher adult mortality than native ethnic groups (e.g., Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek) in spite of the higher socioeconomic status of ethnic Russians. The mortality disadvantage of ethnic Russians at adult ages appears to have even increased since the breakup of the Soviet Union. The most common explanation for this "Russian mortality paradox," is that deaths are better reported among ethnic Russians. In this study, we use detailed mortality data from Kyrgyzstan between 1959 and 1999 to evaluate various explanations for the Russian mortality paradox: data artifacts, migration effects, and cultural effects. We find that the most plausible explanation is the cultural hypothesis because the personal behaviors that appear to generate a large part of the observed mortality differences (alcohol consumption, in particular) seem to be closely tied to cultural practices. We examine the implications of this finding for understanding the health crisis in post-Soviet states.

Guillot M; Gavrilova N; Pudrovska T

2011-08-01

28

The Bishkek vertical array (BIVA): acquiring strong motion data in Kyrgyzstan and first results  

Science.gov (United States)

We present results from a vertical array of accelerometers that was recently installed in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) with the long-term aim of recording strong motion data. Taking advantage of recordings of a Mb 4.7 earthquake that occurred 40 km from the array site during the installation phase, we provide results of some preliminary data analysis. First, estimates of the S-wave velocity and Qs structure are deduced by the inversion of the deconvolved wavefield between the sensors in the borehole. Furthermore, the application of the nonstationary ray decomposition Kinoshita (Earth Planets Space 61:1297-1312, 2009) allowed at least three reflectors in the shallow velocity structure below the array to be identified. The complex nature of the wavefield (with up-going, down-going waves, and converted phases) due to the coarse, unconsolidated subsoil structure is highlighted by means of numerical simulations of ground motion.

Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Ullah, S.; Orunbaev, S.; Usupaev, S.; Moldobekov, B.; Echtler, H.

2013-04-01

29

Insectoacaricidal and deterrent activities of extracts of Kyrgyzstan plants against three agricultural pests  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 139 extracts from 123 plant species of 38 families of the Kyrgyzstan flora were assessed for their insectoacaricidal and behavior-modifying activities against three species of phytophagous pests: the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Perg. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), the twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and the grain aphid Shizaphis graminum Rond. (Homoptera: Aphididae). Western flower thrips larvae were found to be highly tolerant to the plant extracts. The most active extracts against the spider mite were Ailanthus altissima L. (leaves) and roots of Convolvulus krauseanus Regel. and Schmalh., against the grain aphid - of Anabasis aphylla L., roots of Ungernia severtzovii (Regel) B. Fedtsch. and Ferula foetida (Bunge) Regel, and against the thrips - of the Silene sussamyrica Lazkov (aerial part). Extracts from these plants caused significant pest mortality, reduced reproductive potential and deterred pests from feeding on suitable host plants. Extracts of these plants could serve as the foundation for the development of new botanical insecticides.

Chermenskaya TaisiyaD; Stepanycheva ElenaA; Shchenikova AnnaV; Chakaeva AnaraSh

2010-09-01

30

Uranium in natural waters sampled within former uranium mining sites in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] New data are presented on 238U concentrations in surface and ground waters sampled at selected uranium mining sites in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan and in water supplies of settlements located in the vicinity of these sites. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used for 238U determination in all cases. In addition, for data accuracy assessments purposes, a sub-set of these samples was analysed by high-resolution alpha spectrometry, following standard radiochemical separation and purification. Our data show that drinking waters sampled at various settlements located close to the uranium mining sites are characterised by relatively low uranium concentrations (1.9 - 35.9 ?g L-1) compared to surface waters sampled within the same sites. The latter show high concentrations of total uranium, reflecting the influence from the radioactive waste generated as a result of uranium ore production. (author)

2011-01-01

31

An innovative tool for landslide susceptibility mapping in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Kyrgyzstan is among the most exposed countries in the world to landslide susceptibility. The high seismicity of the area, the presence of high mountain ridges and topographic relieves, the geology of the local materials and the occurrence of heavy precipitations represent the main factors responsible for slope failures. In particular, the large variability of material properties and slope conditions as well as the difficulties in forecasting heavy precipitations locally and in quantifying the level of ground shaking call for harmonized procedures for reducing the negative impact of these factors. Several studies have recently been carried out aiming at preparing landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; however, some of them - qualitative-based - suffer from the application of subjective decision rules from experts in the classification of parameters that influence the occurrence of a landslide. On the other hand, statistical methods provide objectivity over qualitative ones since they allow a numerical evaluation of landslide spatial distribution with landslide potential factors. For this reason, we will make use of a bivariate technique known as Weight-Of-Evidence method to evaluate the influence of landslide predictive factors. The aim of this study is to identify areas in Kyrgyzstan being more prone to earthquake-triggered landslides. An innovative approach which exploits the new advances of GIS technology together with statistical concepts is presented. A range of conditioning factors and their potential impact on landslide activation is quantitatively assessed on the basis of landslide spatial distribution and seismic zonation. Results show areas which are more susceptible to landslides induced by earthquakes. Our approach can be used to fill the gap of subjectivity that typically affects already performed qualitative analysis. The resulting landslide susceptibility map represents a potentially supportive tool for disaster management and planning activities at regional level; furthermore, it can be used as a starting point for further constraining the analysis which might also consider meteorological influences and for carrying out an extension to all Central Asian countries in the framework of cross-border activities.

Saponaro, Annamaria; Pilz, Marco; Wieland, Marc; Bindi, Dino; Parolai, Stefano

2013-04-01

32

Police education as a component of national HIV response: Lessons from Kyrgyzstan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Recognition of the police's role in shaping HIV spread and prevention among people who inject drugs, sex workers, and other at-risk groups has generated interest in educational interventions targeting law enforcement. With input from civil society, trainings covering HIV prevention science, policy, and occupational safety were developed and delivered to cadets and active-duty police across Kyrgyzstan. METHODS: We administered a multi-site cross-sectional survey of Kyrgyz police to assess whether having undergone HIV trainings was associated with improved legal and public health knowledge, positive attitudes toward public health programs and policies, occupational safety awareness, and intended practices . RESULTS: In a 313-officer sample, 38% reported undergoing the training. In a multivariate analysis, training was associated with the officer being significantly more likely to support referring individuals to public health organizations (aOR 2.21; 95%CI 1.33-3.68), expressing no intent to extrajudicially confiscate syringes (aOR 1.92; 95%CI 1.09-3.39), and better understanding sex worker detention procedure (aOR 2.23; 95%CI 1.19-4.46), although trainee knowledge of policy on routine identification checks for sex workers was significantly lower (aOR 3.0; 95%CI 1.78-5.05). Training was also associated with improved occupational safety knowledge (aOR 3.85; 95%CI 1.66-8.95). CONCLUSION: Kyrgyzstan's experience suggest that police trainings have the potential to improve the integration of policing and public health efforts targeting at-risk groups. Regardless of the legal environment, such structural approaches should be considered elsewhere in Central Asia and beyond. As these initiatives gain acceptance, further research is needed to inform their design and tailoring.

Beletsky L; Thomas R; Shumskaya N; Artamonova I; Smelyanskaya M

2013-07-01

33

Training of front-line health workers for tuberculosis control: Lessons from Nigeria and Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Efficient human resources development is vital for facilitating tuberculosis control in developing countries, and appropriate training of front-line staff is an important component of this process. Africa and Central Asia are over-represented in global tuberculosis statistics. Although the African region contributes only about 11% of the world population, it accounts for at least 25% of annual TB notifications, a proportion that continues to increase due to poor case management and the adverse impact of HIV/AIDS. Central Asia's estimated current average tuberculosis prevalence rate of 240/100 000 is significantly higher than the global average of 217/100 000. With increased resources currently becoming available for countries in Africa and Central Asia to improve tuberculosis control, it is important to highlight context-specific training benchmarks, and propose how human resources deficiencies may be addressed, in part, through efficient (re)training of frontline tuberculosis workers. This article compares the quality, quantity and distribution of tuberculosis physicians, laboratory staff, community health workers and nurses in Nigeria and Kyrgyzstan, and highlights implications for (re)training tuberculosis workers in developing countries.

Awofeso Niyi; Schelokova Irina; Dalhatu Abubakar

2008-01-01

34

Radioecological and radiobiogeochemical situation of flood-lands of river Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: In the end of XX c. in connection with increased texnogenium of biosphere accompanying wide application of mineral fertilizers, accumulation in environment wastes of a mining industry, household wastes and other, technogenium biogeochemical provinces and new associations of chemical elements arise. It is known, that sharp deficiency or the surplus in environment of biologically active elements results in diseases of animals, plants and a man. On the territory of Kyrgyzstan and other countries biogeochemical provinces with deficiency and surplus I, F, Cu, Cu, V, Ca, Sr, Se, U and Hg are investigated. The doctrine about biogeochemical provinces finds practical realization in medicine and agriculture (preventive maintenance of endemical diseases, synthesis of medicines, manufacture of micro fertilizers etc.). Selection of samples of soil, natural waters and plants carried out by a way of platforms on the certain routes with the account of landscape-geochemical and meteorological conditions. Processing of samples carried out in biogeochemistry laboratory of an environment GEOCHI of RAS and Biology-soil institute NAS of KR with use of soil and geological cards at an advice of the geologists and soil scientists of Kyrgyzstan. Concentration of triselementis was being by AAC, Spectrofluorimetrical and etc. methods. During operation of a uranium deposit Mailuu-Suu (1946-1968 years) more than 10 thousand tons of uranium were extracted. According to the scientific geologists and geochemists, radioactive wastes in the given site, are quantitatively equivalent to size of the extracted uranium. In tail-depository the huge weights of residual uranium and it long-lived of isotopes (Th-230, Ra-226 etc.), hence, radio-activity tail-depositories will be kept long. Now condition of these damps and storehouses contains in a so pitiable condition, that radioactive wastes, heavy metals and the toxic substances pollute an environment. And, most dangerous sites are in landslide-dangerous zones or possible food by waters of the river Mailuusuu now. In pool of the river mud flows are often. For example, 1958 as a result of failure on tail-depository No 7 on the river has passed radioactive mud torrent with the charge more than 200 m3/s In the whole water p. Mailuusuu on our received data is unsuitable for drinking and cultural - household usage. The highest concentration after the attitude LPC (limit-permissible-concentration) is characteristic for Se (up to 20 times), and the level does not change in all extent of the river. Further is accumulated Fe up to 8 times more, is especial 2 and 5 points, and Hg, Cd and Al up to 2 times. It is necessary especially to note, that in r.Kulmen-Sai (inflow r.Mailuusuu are marked the increased contents of uranium up to 5 times, where the inhabitants use water for watering and economic needs. The concentration of other investigated microelements in the river at a level ore is lower LPC. Till current of the river the level of concentration Hg, Cd and Se does not vary almost, it is constant, on other elements of the certain laws is not revealed

2004-01-01

35

Frequency distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis and other helminths of foxes in Kyrgyzstan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A study of the helminth fauna of foxes from Naryn Oblast in central Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the abundance of Echinococcus multilocularis in a district where a high prevalence of this parasite had previously been detected in dogs. A total of 151 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were investigated in a necropsy study. Of these 96 (64%) were infected with E. multilocularis with a mean abundance of 8669 parasites per fox. This indicates that red foxes are a major definitive host of E. multilocularis in this country. This also demonstrates that the abundance and prevalence of E. multilocularis in the natural definitive host are likely to be high in geographical regions where there is a concomitant high prevalence in alternative definitive hosts such as dogs. In addition Mesocestoides spp., Dipylidium caninum, Taenia spp., Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Capillaria and Acanthocephala spp. were found in 99 (66%), 50 (33%), 48 (32%), 46 (30%), 9 (6%), 34 (23%) and 2 (1%) of foxes, respectively. The prevalence but not the abundance of E. multilocularis decreased with age. The abundance of D. caninum also decreased with age. The frequency distribution of E. multilocularis and Mesocestoides spp. followed a zero-inflated negative binomial distribution, whilst all other helminths had a negative binomial distribution. This demonstrates that the frequency distribution of positive counts and not just the frequency of zeros in the data set can determine if a zero-inflated or non-zero-inflated model is more appropriate. This is because the prevalences of E. multolocularis and Mesocestoides spp. were the highest (and hence had fewest zero counts) yet the parasite distribution nevertheless gave a better fit to the zero-inflated models.

Ziadinov I; Deplazes P; Mathis A; Mutunova B; Abdykerimov K; Nurgaziev R; Torgerson PR

2010-08-01

36

Determinants of neonatal and under-three mortality in Central Asian countries: Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Several studies dealt with factors associated with childhood mortality, especially in developing countries, but less is known about former communistic countries. We therefore analyzed the factors affecting mortality rates among children in the Central Asian countries Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. We focused on the impact of living place (rural versus urban) and age dependency (neonatal versus under-three mortality) on the mortality risk. Methods: We used the Demographic and Health Surveys data (DHS) for the three Central Asian countries. The combined data set included information about 2867 children under the age of three, 135 of whom died. We studied three multiple logistic regression models: for the mortality under the age of three, for neonatal mortality (1st month of life) and for mortality in 2nd-36th month of life. Results: Under-three mortality was independently associated with living in a rural versus urban area (OR 1.69 (CI 1.11-2.56)), birth order and mother not being currently married vs. married (OR 0.52 (CI 0.25-1.08)). There was a lower risk of mortality for children living in larger families (six or more household members vs. less than six, OR 0.45 (CI 0.30-0.65)). Living in a rural area was more strongly associated with mortality in 2-36 month of life than with neonatal mortality. Differences between countries were greater in neonatal mortality than in mortality between 2nd-36th month of life. Conclusions: This study suggests that urban-rural differences with respect to childhood mortality in these countries persist after adjusting for several socioeconomic factors.

Akmatov, Manas K.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael Thomas; Krämer, Alexander

2006-01-01

37

High-pressure mafic oceanic rocks from the Makbal Complex, Tianshan Mountains (Kazakhstan & Kyrgyzstan): Implications for the metamorphic evolution of a fossil subduction zone  

Science.gov (United States)

The Makbal Complex in the western Tianshan Mountains of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan consists of HP/UHP metasedimentary host rocks which enclose various HP mafic blocks or boudins. These mafic rocks comprise rare eclogites (sensu stricto and sensu lato), garnet amphibolites (retrograded eclogites) and a newly discovered glaucophanite (glaucophane–garnet–omphacite bearing rock).

Meyer, Melanie; Klemd, Reiner; Konopelko, Dmitry

2013-09-01

38

Increased prevalence of group A ?-hemolytic streptococcus among an ethnic population in Kyrgyzstan detected by the rapid antigen detection test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of rheumatic fever (RF) has markedly increased in the last 10 years in Kyrgyzstan. Therefore, investigating the prevalence of group A ?-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), which is the cause of RF, in the Kyrgyzstan population is crucial. We studied 189 subjects: 59 children [29 with RF and/or rheumatic heart disease (RHD)] and 130 adults (15 with RHD). The average age of the subjects was 41.0±10.0 years (range 8 months to 72 years). A general clinical examination and medical history including eating habits was carried out. The prevalence of GABHS was tested using the highly sensitive rapid antigen detection test (RADT) to detect the outcrop of streptococcus antigen in smears taken from the mucosal surface of the tonsils or the back of the throat. GABHS antigen was positive in 70 of a total 189 subjects [37.0%; 22/59 children (37.2%), 48/130 adults (36.9%)]. In patients with RF/RHD (n=44), GABHS was positive in 14 subjects [31.8%; 8/29 children (27.6%), 6/15 adults (40.0%)]. Thirty-two subjects with RF/RHD had frequent episodes of tonsillopharyngitis. In subjects without RF/RHD (n=145), GABHS was positive in 56 subjects [38.6%; 14/30 children (46.6%), 42/115 adults (36.5%)]. Thirty of these subjects had frequent episodes of tonsillopharyngitis. Of the 130 adults, the most-consumed dairy products included yoghurt (n=115; 88.4%), milk kasha (n=75; 57.7%) and milk (n=40; 30.7%). Of the 115 subjects in the yoghurt-consuming group, 44 (38.2%) had positive results for GABHS. In the non-yoghurt-consuming group, 4/15 subjects (26.6%) had positive results for GABHS. Using RADT for GABHS, a high prevalence of GABHS antigen was detected not only in patients with RF/RHD, but also in the healthy population (without RF/RHD). The low GABHS prevalence in children with RF/RHD (27.6%) was probably due to corresponding antibiotic therapy. In conclusion, the high prevalence of GABHS is one of the main reasons for the rapid increase in RF/RHD in Kyrgyzstan, and RADT would be an effective tool for its detection. PMID:21479499

Omurzakova, Nazgul A; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Sato, Tomoo; Izumi, Toshihiko; Azakami, Kazuko; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Fujii, Ryoji; Yagishita, Naoko; Aratani, Satoko; Kabaeva, Zuhra S; Mirrakhimov, Mirsaid M; Kami, Masahiro; Maruyama, Ikuro; Osame, Mitsuhiro; Yokota, Shunpei; Nishioka, Kusuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro

39

CIS as a successor of the Soviet Union: who is financially responsible for the uranium waste storage sites in Kyrgyzstan?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: As the Second World War came to an end and the Cold War just started, the Soviet Union was faced with a problematic necessity of the nuclear weapons' production. Indeed, the Soviet Empire was in the extreme need of such weapons since their possession was viewed as an only guarantee of peaceful relations between USSR and United States. Exactly in that period the Soviet Union started its intensive exploitation of the large radioactive ore deposits (basically, uranium and radium), located on the territory of the present-day Kyrgyzstan. Throughout the post-war cold period and right up to mid-80s Kyrgyzstan had been one of the leading producers of uranium in the Soviet Union. In fact, the first Soviet atomic bomb was produced using Kyrgyz uranium. In the intense arms race with United States there was no time to concern oneself with environmental and demographic protection of the exploited territory, unfortunately. The role of the Kyrgyz ASSR (Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) was to provide raw materials, concurrently being a conveniently remote place to treat foreign radioactive ores (imported from Eastern Germany and Czechoslovakia) and serving as a burial place for their wastes. Creating an enormous amount of the radioactive wastes, the uranium and radium ore deposits were located in immediate proximity to highly populated areas; in the basins of transboundary rivers; and in the seismic-active regions of the Republic. As it could be legitimately assumed, the Soviet Union was not deeply obsessed with the environmental peculiarities of the treated area and did not give a damn to its protection, being solely interested in the maximization of the uranium extraction. In 1991, immediately after the Soviet Union's dissolution, the Russian Federation officially proclaimed itself its successor. Consequently, it was Russia that received the bigger part of a huge military potential (particularly, nuclear one) of its predecessor, including the nuclear weapons' arsenal. Yet, the newly independent Kyrgyz Republic was left alone with an enormous amount of uranium waste, which was extracted on the Kyrgyz territory to produce these nuclear armaments. As a consequence of the Soviet policy, uranium waste storage sites represent a direct danger to the environment of present-day Kyrgyzstan. Therefore, Russia as the official successor of the Soviet Empire should help the Kyrgyz Republic to deal with this costly and extensive problem. These environmental issues serve as a basis for the given work. In turn, research will be primarily concentrated on several the most problematic radioactive waste storage sites, namely, the Mailuu-Suu, Kadji-Say, Kara-Balta, and Ak-Tuz uranium storages. Today, Kyrgyzstan has 50 radioactive waste storage sites, located throughout its territory and contained altogether about 300 million tons of wastes. In general, it could be suggested that the financial responsibility could be delegated to the Kyrgyz government; the Central Asian Community; Russia. It is clear with the first instance, the Kyrgyz government, as it ought to deal with the environmental problems of its country. The situation is more sophisticated and arguable in terms of second and third instance, namely, the Central Asian Community and, particularly, Russia. This paper is designed to prove not only the necessity for their involvement, but rather their responsibility for the present-day situation with the Kyrgyz storage sites. As regards the other Central Asian States, it is in their interests since they are under immediate threat of being affected. Concerning Russia, it is rather a moral right to demand its assistance than a legally legitimate one. All information, related to uranium, its extraction and further utilization was totally classified and only revealed after the Soviet Union's dissolution. Only in 1994 did the Kyrgyz public become acquainted with the truly poor environmental conditions of the newly fledged Republic. Yet, no radically efficient measures had been undertaken during the following 6 years of Kyrgyz independe

2001-01-01

40

Bismarck meets Beveridge on the Silk Road: coordinating funding sources to create a universal health financing system in Kyrgyzstan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Options for health financing reform are often portrayed as a choice between general taxation (known as the Beveridge model) and social health insurance (known as the Bismarck model). Ten years of health financing reform in Kyrgyzstan, since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, provide an excellent example of why it is wrong to reduce health financing policy to a choice between the Beveridge and Bismarck models. Rather than fragment the system according to the insurance status of the population, as many other low- and middle-income countries have done, the Kyrgyz reforms were guided by the objective of having a single system for the entire population. Key features include the role and gradual development of the compulsory health insurance fund as the single purchaser of health-care services for the entire population using output-based payment methods, the complete restructuring of pooling arrangements from the former decentralized budgetary structure to a single national pool, and the establishment of an explicit benefit package. Central to the process was the transformation of the role of general budget revenues - the main source of public funding for health - from directly subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services on behalf of the entire population by redirecting them into the health insurance fund. Through their approach to health financing policy, and pooling in particular, the Kyrgyz health reformers demonstrated that different sources of funds can be used in an explicitly complementary manner to enable the creation of a unified, universal system.

Kutzin J; Ibraimova A; Jakab M; O'Dougherty S

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Assessment of the radiological impact of gamma and radon dose rates at former U mining sites in Kyrgyzstan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to gamma radiation, radon and thoron was carried out at the former uranium mining and processing sites in Shekaftar, Minkush and Kadji Sai in Kyrgyzstan. Gamma dose rate measurements were made using various field instruments and radon/thoron measurements were carried out using discriminative radon ((222)Rn)/thoron ((220)Rn) solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time including at least three seasonal periods in a year, in different outdoor and indoor public and residential environments at the selected uranium legacy sites. The results showed that gamma, Rn and Tn doses were in general low, which consequently implies a low/relatively low radiological risk. The major radiation hazard is represented by abandoned radioactive filtration material that was being used as insulation by some Minkush residents for a longer period of time. Annual radiation doses of several hundred mSv could be received as a consequence of using this material in their houses. The radiation doses deriving from external radiation (gamma dose rate), indoor radon and thoron with their short-lived progenies in several cases exceeded national as well as international standards. Current doses of ionizing radiation do not represent any serious hazard to the health of the resident public, but this issue should be adequately addressed to further reduce needless exposure of resident public to ionizing radiation.

Lespukh E; Stegnar P; Usubalieva A; Solomatina A; Tolongutov B; Beishenkulova R

2013-09-01

42

Assessment of the radiological impact of gamma and radon dose rates at former U mining sites in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to gamma radiation, radon and thoron was carried out at the former uranium mining and processing sites in Shekaftar, Minkush and Kadji Sai in Kyrgyzstan. Gamma dose rate measurements were made using various field instruments and radon/thoron measurements were carried out using discriminative radon ((222)Rn)/thoron ((220)Rn) solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time including at least three seasonal periods in a year, in different outdoor and indoor public and residential environments at the selected uranium legacy sites. The results showed that gamma, Rn and Tn doses were in general low, which consequently implies a low/relatively low radiological risk. The major radiation hazard is represented by abandoned radioactive filtration material that was being used as insulation by some Minkush residents for a longer period of time. Annual radiation doses of several hundred mSv could be received as a consequence of using this material in their houses. The radiation doses deriving from external radiation (gamma dose rate), indoor radon and thoron with their short-lived progenies in several cases exceeded national as well as international standards. Current doses of ionizing radiation do not represent any serious hazard to the health of the resident public, but this issue should be adequately addressed to further reduce needless exposure of resident public to ionizing radiation. PMID:23260850

Lespukh, E; Stegnar, P; Usubalieva, A; Solomatina, A; Tolongutov, B; Beishenkulova, R

2012-12-20

43

Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1949-1967, a U mine, a coal-fired thermal power plant and a processing plant for the extraction of U from the produced ash were operated at the Kadji Sai U mining site in Tonsk district, Issyk-Kul County, Kyrgyzstan. The Kadji Sai U legacy site represents a source of contamination of the local environment by naturally occurring radionuclides and associated trace elements. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals at the site, field expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2008 by the Joint collaboration between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (JNKKT) project and the NATO SfP RESCA project. In addition to in situ gamma and Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water and sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of radionuclides and trace metals in water from Issyk-Kul Lake were in general low, but surprisingly high for As. Uptake of U and As was also observed in fish from the lake with maximum bioconcentration factors for liver of 1.6 and 75, respectively. The concentrations of U in water within the Kadji Sai area varied from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L, except for downstream from the mining area where U reached a factor of 10 higher, 0.2 mg/L. Uranium concentrations in the drinking water of Kadji Sai village were about the level recommended by the WHO for drinking water. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratio reflected equilibrium conditions in the mining pond, but far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching 2.3 for an artesian well). Uranium, As and Ni were mainly present as low molecular mass (LMM, less than 10 kDa) species in all samples, indicating that these elemental species are mobile and potentially bioavailable. The soils from the mining sites were enriched in U, As and trace metals. Hot spots with elevated radioactivity levels were easily detected in Kadji Sai and radioactive particles were observed. The presence of particles carrying significant amount of radioactivity and toxic trace elements may represent a hazard during strong wind events (wind erosion). Based on sequential extractions, most of the elements were strongly associated with mineral matter, except for U and As having a relatively high remobilization potential. Low Kd was obtained for U (3.5 × 10(2) L/kg d.w.), intermediate Kds (~3 × 10(3) L/kg d.w.) were obtained for (226)Ra, As and Ni, while a high Kd (2.2 × 10(5) L/kg d.w.) were obtained for Pb. The accumulation of metals in fish gills reflected the LMM species in the Issyk-Kul water, and did not show any bioaccumulation. The muscle Hg concentrations in all fish species were low and did not represent any health risk even for groups at risk. Total gamma and Rn dose rate to man amounted to about 12 mSv/y, while the highest calculated dose rate for non-human species based on the ERICA Assessment Tool were obtained in terrestrial plants (164 ?Gy/h) due to the Ra exposure. The results obtained showed that radiation doses to resident public at all of the investigated sites in the Kadji Sai area were in general relatively low. Low radiological risk and no detrimental health impact on resident public can be expected at these sites. However, exposure to Rn and Tn in the living environment can be further reduced by implementing simple countermeasures such as ventilation of dwelling cellars. More focus in the Kadji Sai area should probably be put on trace elements, especially the As uptake in fish in Lake Issyk-Kul. PMID:22898665

Lind, O C; Stegnar, P; Tolongutov, B; Rosseland, B O; Strømman, G; Uralbekov, B; Usubalieva, A; Solomatina, A; Gwynn, J P; Lespukh, E; Salbu, B

2012-08-13

44

Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During 1949-1967, a U mine, a coal-fired thermal power plant and a processing plant for the extraction of U from the produced ash were operated at the Kadji Sai U mining site in Tonsk district, Issyk-Kul County, Kyrgyzstan. The Kadji Sai U legacy site represents a source of contamination of the local environment by naturally occurring radionuclides and associated trace elements. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals at the site, field expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2008 by the Joint collaboration between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (JNKKT) project and the NATO SfP RESCA project. In addition to in situ gamma and Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water and sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of radionuclides and trace metals in water from Issyk-Kul Lake were in general low, but surprisingly high for As. Uptake of U and As was also observed in fish from the lake with maximum bioconcentration factors for liver of 1.6 and 75, respectively. The concentrations of U in water within the Kadji Sai area varied from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L, except for downstream from the mining area where U reached a factor of 10 higher, 0.2 mg/L. Uranium concentrations in the drinking water of Kadji Sai village were about the level recommended by the WHO for drinking water. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratio reflected equilibrium conditions in the mining pond, but far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching 2.3 for an artesian well). Uranium, As and Ni were mainly present as low molecular mass (LMM, less than 10 kDa) species in all samples, indicating that these elemental species are mobile and potentially bioavailable. The soils from the mining sites were enriched in U, As and trace metals. Hot spots with elevated radioactivity levels were easily detected in Kadji Sai and radioactive particles were observed. The presence of particles carrying significant amount of radioactivity and toxic trace elements may represent a hazard during strong wind events (wind erosion). Based on sequential extractions, most of the elements were strongly associated with mineral matter, except for U and As having a relatively high remobilization potential. Low Kd was obtained for U (3.5 × 10(2) L/kg d.w.), intermediate Kds (~3 × 10(3) L/kg d.w.) were obtained for (226)Ra, As and Ni, while a high Kd (2.2 × 10(5) L/kg d.w.) were obtained for Pb. The accumulation of metals in fish gills reflected the LMM species in the Issyk-Kul water, and did not show any bioaccumulation. The muscle Hg concentrations in all fish species were low and did not represent any health risk even for groups at risk. Total gamma and Rn dose rate to man amounted to about 12 mSv/y, while the highest calculated dose rate for non-human species based on the ERICA Assessment Tool were obtained in terrestrial plants (164 ?Gy/h) due to the Ra exposure. The results obtained showed that radiation doses to resident public at all of the investigated sites in the Kadji Sai area were in general relatively low. Low radiological risk and no detrimental health impact on resident public can be expected at these sites. However, exposure to Rn and Tn in the living environment can be further reduced by implementing simple countermeasures such as ventilation of dwelling cellars. More focus in the Kadji Sai area should probably be put on trace elements, especially the As uptake in fish in Lake Issyk-Kul.

Lind OC; Stegnar P; Tolongutov B; Rosseland BO; Strømman G; Uralbekov B; Usubalieva A; Solomatina A; Gwynn JP; Lespukh E; Salbu B

2013-09-01

45

Bismarck meets Beveridge on the Silk Road: coordinating funding sources to create a universal health financing system in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Options for health financing reform are often portrayed as a choice between general taxation (known as the Beveridge model) and social health insurance (known as the Bismarck model). Ten years of health financing reform in Kyrgyzstan, since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, provide an excellent example of why it is wrong to reduce health financing policy to a choice between the Beveridge and Bismarck models. Rather than fragment the system according to the insurance status of the population, as many other low- and middle-income countries have done, the Kyrgyz reforms were guided by the objective of having a single system for the entire population. Key features include the role and gradual development of the compulsory health insurance fund as the single purchaser of health-care services for the entire population using output-based payment methods, the complete restructuring of pooling arrangements from the former decentralized budgetary structure to a single national pool, and the establishment of an explicit benefit package. Central to the process was the transformation of the role of general budget revenues - the main source of public funding for health - from directly subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services on behalf of the entire population by redirecting them into the health insurance fund. Through their approach to health financing policy, and pooling in particular, the Kyrgyz health reformers demonstrated that different sources of funds can be used in an explicitly complementary manner to enable the creation of a unified, universal system. PMID:19649370

Kutzin, Joseph; Ibraimova, Ainura; Jakab, Melitta; O'Dougherty, Sheila

2009-07-01

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A large industrial pollution problem on the Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan border: Soviet production of mercury and stibium for the Soviet military  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Soviet industry of mercury and stibium was located in South-East Fergana in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan boarder. Khaidarken combine produced high pure mercury (99.9997 percent) since 1940, it was the second source in the World (after Almadena, Spain). Maximal production was 790 t in 1990, after Transitional Shock about 300 tons a year. Tail was established in 1967. There is special tube 5500 m transporting pulp to tail. The pulp contains about 0,003 mg/liter mercury, 0,005 mg/liter arsenic, 21 mg/liter stibium, etc. Pulp is cleaned by aluminum sulfuric and mortar. After drying and compressing by itself the concentrations rises: mercury 90-250 mg/kg, arsenic 190-400, stibium 800-1700 mg/kg. Environment pollution problem contains three kinds: ground water infiltration; old tube corroding some places (leaking from chink of tube) - both mentioned lead to vegetables cumulating; combine work spreading mercury by air to settlement Khaidarken. Kadamjay enterprise for stibium (mines, combine, purify plant, tails) began work in 1936. Most part of production used in soviet military. Maximal production was 17.000 t clearing ore in 1990, after USSR collapse 1-6 t/year. Tremendous tails and dams (total 150 mln t) remains non re-cultivated until now. The tails contain electrolysis wastage: sodium-sulfides, sulfites, sulfates; stibium; arsenic; cadmium; stibium; etc. Seven deposits (tail-damp really) established 1976, total square 76.1 thousands sq m, total volume 250 thousand cub m. The deposits over-filled, contents filtrating - little saline or lakes generated (one situated 50m near Uzbekistan boarder). River Shakhimardan flow to Uzbekistan (settlement Vuadil, Ferghana town). There are health damage indices in the areas.(author)

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From scheme to system: social health insurance funds and the transformation of health financing in Kyrgyzstan and Moldova.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the paper is to bring evidence and lessons from two low- and middle-income countries (LMIs) of the former USSR into the global debate on health financing in poor countries. In particular, we analyze the introduction of social health insurance (SHI) in Kyrgyzstan and Moldova. To some extent, the intent of SHI introduction in these countries was similar to that in LMIs elsewhere: increase prepaid revenues for health and incorporate the entire population into the new system. But the approach taken to universality was different. In particular, the SHI fund in each country was used as the key instrument in a comprehensive reform of the health financing system, with the new revenues from payroll taxation used in an explicitly complementary manner to general budget revenues. From a functional perspective, the reforms in these countries involved not only the introduction of a new source of funds, but also the centralization of pooling, a shift from input- to output-based provider payment methods, specification of a benefit package, and greater autonomy for public sector health care providers. Hence, their reforms were not simply the introduction of an SHI scheme, but rather the use of an SHI fund as an instrument to transform the entire system of health financing. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The study uses administrative and household data to demonstrate the impact of the reforms on regional inequality and household financial burden. FINDINGS: The approach used in these two countries led to improved equity in the geographic distribution of government health spending, improved financial protection, and reduced informal payments. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY: The comprehensive approach taken to reform in these two countries, and particularly the redirection of general budget revenues to the new SHI funds, explain much of the success that was achieved. This experience offers potentially useful lessons for LMIs elsewhere in the world, and for shifting the global debate away from what we see as a false dichotomy between SHI and general revenue-funded systems. By demonstrating that sources are not systems, these cases illustrate how, in particular by careful design of pooling and coverage arrangements, the introduction of SHI in an LMI context can avoid the fragmentation problem often associated with this reform instrument.

Kutzin J; Jakab M; Shishkin S

2009-01-01

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Real-time risk assessment in seismic early warning and rapid response: a feasibility study in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are considered to be an effective, pragmatic, and viable tool for seismic risk reduction in cities. While standard EEWS approaches focus on the real-time estimation of an earthquake's location and magnitude, innovative developments in EEWS include the capacity for the rapid assessment of damage. Clearly, for all public authorities that are engaged in coordinating emergency activities during and soon after earthquakes, real-time information about the potential damage distribution within a city is invaluable. In this work, we present a first attempt to design an early warning and rapid response procedure for real-time risk assessment. In particular, the procedure uses typical real-time information (i.e., P-wave arrival times and early waveforms) derived from a regional seismic network for locating and evaluating the size of an earthquake, information which in turn is exploited for extracting a risk map representing the potential distribution of damage from a dataset of predicted scenarios compiled for the target city. A feasibility study of the procedure is presented for the city of Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan, which is surrounded by the Kyrgyz seismic network by mimicking the ground motion associated with two historical events that occurred close to Bishkek, namely the 1911 Kemin ( M = 8.2; ±0.2) and the 1885 Belovodsk ( M = 6.9; ±0.5) earthquakes. Various methodologies from previous studies were considered when planning the implementation of the early warning and rapid response procedure for real-time risk assessment: the Satriano et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 98(3):1482-1494, 2008) approach to real-time earthquake location; the Caprio et al. (Geophys Res Lett 38:L02301, 2011) approach for estimating moment magnitude in real time; the EXSIM method for ground motion simulation (Motazedian and Atkinson, Bull Seismol Soc Am 95:995-1010, 2005); the Sokolov (Earthquake Spectra 161: 679-694, 2002) approach for estimating intensity from Fourier amplitude spectra; and the Tyagunov et al. (Nat Hazard Earth Syst Sci 6:573-586, 2006) approach for risk computation. Innovatively, all these methods are jointly applied to assess in real time the seismic risk of a particular target site, namely the city of Bishkek. Finally, the site amplification and vulnerability datasets considered in the proposed methodology are taken from previous studies, i.e., Parolai et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am, 2010) and Bindi et al. (Soil Dyn Earthq Eng, 2011), respectively.

Picozzi, M.; Bindi, D.; Pittore, M.; Kieling, K.; Parolai, S.

2013-04-01

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Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007). Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative financial experiences of pharmacy initiatives to inform future projects and advance access to medicines goals.

Waning Brenda; Maddix Jason; Soucy Lyne

2010-01-01

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Case study: Kyrgyzstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT The paper discusses the importance of Open Source (OS hereinafter) technology for national Information Communication Technology (ICT hereinafter) development and E-Government for developing countries as a general strategy for overcoming the digital divide. The paper highlights the opportunities presented to the developing countries by the growing world-wide movement for use of OS systems, namely, the ability to promote the transfer of technological know-how and the growth of local IT professionals, the possibility of providing IT solutions within the limited financial means of a developing country, and the ability to strengthen the legal use of software. The paper

Baktybek Abdrisaev; Zamira Djusupova; Alexey Semyonov

2005-01-01

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'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector.

Spicer Neil; Bogdan Daryna; Brugha Ruairi; Harmer Andrew; Murzalieva Gulgun; Semigina Tetiana

2011-01-01

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Three-dimensional passive imaging of complex seismic fault systems: evidence of surface traces of the Issyk-Ata fault (Kyrgyzstan)  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, an increasing number of seismological imaging studies are published taking advantage of the increasing popularity of analysing empirical Green's functions obtained from high-frequency ambient seismic noise. However, especially on a local scale results could potentially be biased in regions where topography is not small compared to the wavelength and the penetration depth of the considered waves. Current 2-D seismic techniques are often inadequate when solving such 3-D geophysical problems, which include the complication of seismic imaging for cases where there are pronounced relief effects. For example, information about the geologic subsurface structure and deformational patterns is necessary for accurate site characterization and seismic hazard assessment. Here we show that an ad hoc passive seismic tomography approach can identify and describe complex 3-D structures, which can help to accurately and efficiently map the shear-wave velocities of the surficial soil layers, even in cases of significant topography relief. We test our technique by using simulations of seismic noise for a simple realistic site and show for a real data set across the Issyk-Ata fault, Kyrgyzstan, which is located at southern border of the capital, Bishkek, this novel approach has identified two different small fault branches and a clear shear-wave velocity contrast across the fault.

Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Bindi, Dino

2013-09-01

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Kyrgyzstan’s Fragmented Police and Armed Forces  

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Full Text Available This article is a first attempt to analyze the underlying reasons behind the unprofessional behavior of the Kyrgyz military and police during ethnic conflict in Osh on June 10-14, 2010. It argues that the higher military leadership in Bishkek shares a common distrust of the Tashkent regime and overall uncertainly about power sharing two months after regime change, while lower level personnel may have provoked the Uzbek minority, because of their nationalist feelings (the majority of police and army personnel are ethnic Kyrgyz) and overall frustration with the fragmented political leadership. The situation was further exacerbated by the lack of political control over the security forces and their lack of adequate training to deal with civic unrest.

Erica Marat

2011-01-01

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Mid- to Late Holocene climate development in Central Asia as revealed from multi-proxy analyses of sediments from Lake Son Kol (Kyrgyzstan)  

Science.gov (United States)

A mid-Holocene shift from predominantly wet to significantly drier climate conditions, attributed to the weakening of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), is documented in numerous palaeoclimate records from the monsoon-influenced parts of Asia, e.g. the Tibetan Plateau and north- and southeastern China. In contrast, Holocene climate development in the arid regions of mid-latitude Central Asia, located north and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, is less well-constrained but supposed to have been influenced by a complex interaction between the mid-latitude Westerlies and the ASM. Hence, well-dated and highly resolved palaeoclimate records from Central Asia might provide important information about spatio-temporal changes in the regional interplay between Westerlies and ASM and thus aid the understanding of global climate teleconnections. As a part of the project CADY (Central Asian Climate Dynamics), aiming at reconstructing past climatic and hydrological variability in Central Asia, several sediment cores were recovered from alpine Lake Son Kol (41° 48'N, 75° 12'E, 3016 m a. s. l.) in the Central Tian Shan of Kyrgyzstan. A radiocarbon-dated sediment sequence of 154.5 cm length, covering approximately the last 6000 years, was investigated by using a multi-proxy approach, including sedimentological, (bio)geochemical, isotopic and micropalaeontological analyses. Preliminary proxy data indicate hydrologically variable but predominantly wet conditions until ca. 5100 cal. a BP, characterized by the deposition of finely laminated organic-carbonatic sediments. In contrast to monsoonal Asia, where a distinct trend towards drier conditions is observed since the mid-Holocene, the hydrologically variable interval at Lake Son Kol was apparently followed by an only short-term dry episode between ca. 5100 and 4200 cal. a BP. This is characterized by a higher ?D of the C29 n-alkanes, probably reflecting increased evapotranspiration. Also pollen, diatom and ostracod data point towards drier climate conditions. Higher ?15N values during this period may also reflect increased evaporation but could also be related to dust input of NOx, being in agreement with high amounts of fine-grained minerogenic material. Further periods of higher ?15N values and contents of fine-grained minerogenic material occurred at 3600-3000 and 2000-1600 cal. a BP. However, as biogeochemical data indicate no further distinct dry episodes since about 4200 cal. a BP, these intervals most probably reflect increased dust deposition. Finally, a trend towards wetter climate conditions can be observed during the last ca. 1500 years, reflected by high ostracod and diatom diversity and (bio)geochemical data. The absence of a pronounced drying trend since the mid-Holocene, as observed in monsoonal Asia, is largely consistent with results from other regional palaeoclimate records and might reflect the predominant influence of the strengthening mid-latitude Westerlies on regional climate since this time.

Lauterbach, Stefan; Dulski, Peter; Gleixner, Gerd; Hettler-Riedel, Sabine; Mingram, Jens; Plessen, Birgit; Prasad, Sushma; Schwalb, Antje; Schwarz, Anja; Stebich, Martina; Witt, Roman

2013-04-01

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The international classification of functioning, disability and health--children and youth (ICF-CY): testing its utility in classifying information from eco-cultural family interviews with ethnically diverse families with children with disabilities in Kyrgyzstan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to test the utility of the International classification of functioning, disability and health--children and youth's (ICF-CY) Environmental Factors component by classifying family interview data from two ethnically and culturally diverse--Kyrgyz and Uzbek--families that have children with various types of disabilities in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. METHODS: The eco-cultural family interview (EFI) was used to interview four Kyrgyz and four Uzbek families. The obtained data were analysed by using manifest content analysis; identified units of meaning named as 'EFI items' and 'EFI concepts' were then linked to the ICF-CY's codes by application of ten linkage rules. RESULTS: The analysis of transcribed interviews identified 669 EFI items and 745 EFI concepts. The linking of EFI items to the ICF-CY showed: 92 EFI items and concepts were linked to nd (not definable); 104 items were linked to nc (not covered by the ICF-CY); 15 items were categorised as pf (personal factors); 21 items were linked to categories found in Activities and Participation; and 3 were linked to Body Functions components. The rest of EFI items and concepts were linked to categories of the Environmental Factors component. CONCLUSION: The codes included into Chapters 1, 2 and 5 of the ICF-CY environmental component can be easily assigned to the relevant EFI items. There is a necessity to add more codes in Chapters 3 and 4 of the Environmental Factors component, and the inclusion of a separate component of Personal Factors into the classification is suggested.

Zakirova-Engstrand R; Granlund M

2009-01-01

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INTELLIGENTSIA PERSONNEL TRAINING IN KYRGYZSTAN IN GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR  

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Full Text Available During Great Patriotic War, despite all the difficulties of wartime the Republic trained intelligentsia personnel, who had to fulfill the task of seamless combination of ideologic impact, cultural and educational work with specific military-administrative activities

Gulnara D. Dzhunushalieva

2011-01-01

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Three Universities in Georgia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan: The Struggle against Corruption and for Social Cohesion  

Science.gov (United States)

Universities may contribute to a nation's social cohesion through both direct and indirect means. In their syllabi they may include techniques necessary for understanding complex social problems. Faculty may model good behaviour in terms of listening and understanding points of view that may contradict their own. University administrators may…

Heyneman, Stephen P.

2007-01-01

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Oil and gas resources of the Fergana Basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgyzstan)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analysis is part of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA`s) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). This one for the Fergana Basin is an EIA first for republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU). This was a trial study of data availability and methodology, resulting in a reservoir-level assessment of ultimate recovery for both oil and gas. Ultimate recovery, as used here, is the sum of cumulative production and remaining Proved plus Probable reserves as of the end of 1987. Reasonable results were obtained when aggregating reservoir-level values to the basin level, and in determining general but important distributions of across-basin reservoir and fluid parameters. Currently, this report represents the most comprehensive assessment publicly available for oil and gas in the Fergana Basin. This full report provides additional descriptions, discussions and analysis illustrations that are beneficial to those considering oil and gas investments in the Fergana Basin. 57 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

1995-01-01

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[Morphological variablility in the chigger mite species Neotrombicula sympatrica (Acariformes: Trombiculidae) from Kyrgyzstan  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aberrations (quantitative chaetotactic deviations, i.e. decreasing or increasing of setae numbers and variations in arrangement of setae) and anomalies (qualitative chaetotactic deviations, for example, partial reduction of scutum, shortening of a seta more than 1.5-2 times, merging of setae) were recorded for 13 taxonomically important morphological structures in the chigger mite species Neotrombicula sympatrica Stekolnikov, 2001. 3308 specimens were studied as a total. 17.2% of them had various morphological deviations. The most common types of aberrations were observed in the number and positions of genualae I (94 specimens), AM seta (79 spec.) and sternal setae (77 spec.). The aberrations of sternal and coxal setae were usually interrelated: the sternal seta was "transferred" from the sternal area onto the coxa, or the other way round take place. The specimens having aberrations of sternal setae were twice as numerous as the specimens with aberrations of coxal setae (77 against 35). The specimens with aberrations of dorsal setae and mastitarsala were very rare (2 spec. each). Among anomalies, the presence of nude galeal seta (91 spec.) and scutal anomalies (66 spec.) were prevalent. The most frequently one form of deviation only was observed in one specimen of N. sympatrica. Nevertheless, the specimens simultaneously having several aberrations or anomalies were also found. 17 types of such combinations were observed, that counts 20.6% of all specimens with deviations. Symmetric deviations, namely the presence of two nude galeal setae (31 spec.), presence of 2 genualae on both legs I (4 spec.), presence of 2 AM (2 spec.) and symmetric reduction of scutal angles (1 spec.), sometimes cause troubles in diagnostics. The quarter of variance in N. sympatrica and in the species N. monticola Schluger et Davydov, 1967 formerly studied by the author turned out as almost identical. The specimens with deviations counted 14.5% of all studied specimens in the latter species. However, the structures of variance in these species is different. In N. monticola, the aberrations of humeral setae were dominant (71.6%) (Kharadov, Chirov, 2001), while in N. sympatrica, the aberrations of other structures were prevalent: genualae I (24.8%), AM (20.9%) and sternal setae (20.4%).

Kharadov AV

2002-09-01

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Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: The City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).  

Science.gov (United States)

The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice. PMID:24068306

Sim, Natasha M; Wilson, David C; Velis, Costas A; Smith, Stephen R

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: The City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice.

Sim NM; Wilson DC; Velis CA; Smith SR

2013-10-01

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Designing Social Inquiry in Central Asia – A Case Study of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan  

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Full Text Available Central Asia offers a potential smorgasbord for researchers engaged in comparative analysis. Common shared characteristics of these states have provided and continue to provide opportunities for advances in our understanding of political and social phenomena of global importance, including state building, democratisation, nationalism and economic development. However, in conducting comparative case study research in Central Asia, researchers should be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of different comparative approaches. This article reviews and critiques one approach to comparative analysis that has become increasingly dominant in social science research, particularly in the US. Comparing events in two Central Asian countries during 2005, a period of heightened risk of colour revolution, the article highlights both strengths and weaknesses of this increasingly dominant approach, arguing instead for a more inclusive and pragmatic approach to comparative analysis both in Central Asia and to case study comparisons more generally as the best way to advance our understanding of important social and political phenomena.

Robert Kevlihan

2013-01-01

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Trace fossils from Silurian and Devonian turbidites of the Chauvay area, southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan  

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Full Text Available The siliciclastic turbidite successions (Pul’gon and Dzhidala Formations) that crop out in the eastern part of the Chauvay River valley, are marked on geological maps as a belt of terrigenous deposits of Silurian–Devonian age. They resemble deposits of overbank areas and depositional lobes of deep sea fans, and display common trace fossils particularly on lower surfaces of sandstone beds. Sixteen ichnotaxa representing four morphological groups have been distinguished. The trace fossil assemblages suggest their affiliation to the Nereites ichnofacies. Various branched, preturbidite forms predominate in both examined units, although the assemblages of individual units differ slightly in composition. In the Pulg’on Formation, small, densely distributed burrows commonly occur on lower surfaces of sandstone beds. Shallow burrowing depth together with relatively low diversity trace fossil assemblages indicate lowered oxygenation of the sea floor.

Micha? WARCHO?; Stanis?aw LESZCZY?SKI

2009-01-01

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Threat assessment report. Regulatory aspects of the remediation and rehabilitation of nuclear legacy in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the Soviet period, the uranium mining operations in Central Asia served as one of the main uranium producers for the Soviet Union (SU) military complex. The regulatory standards for exposure and emissions control to all Soviet Republics were administered by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and were the same across the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the former Soviet Republics became independent, but also inherited the legacy in the form of wastes, including those from uranium ore processing and tailings and old Soviet regulatory documents, which are mostly inconsistent with the international standards and guidances and need substantial improvements. Many radioactive waste storage facilities in Central Asia, especially in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, are located in regions of seismic activity, in landslide- and mud flow-prone areas and areas subject to flooding and high ground water levels, and near the banks of the rivers that form the base of the large water basin of the Central Asian region. Many tailings are situated near towns, other populated areas and state borders, and they represent a long-term hazard to health and the environment. In regard to the legal and regulatory framework, it should be noted that none of the Central Asian countries have a National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management developed and approved by the Governments. Existing regulatory documents do not address the issues regarding safety assessments and safety cases or the implementation of long-term institutional control and monitoring of the abandoned dumps with radioactive wastes (RW) or future RW disposal sites, neither during operation nor after their closure. There is also a need to develop safety criteria (reference levels) and determine measures to be taken for existing exposure situations (past practices). In addition, there is a lack of safety requirements for different types of disposal facilities in accordance with the different categories of radioactive waste. Safety criteria and clearance levels are also not established. The NRPA, with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in the Central Asian countries to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and RW management in the Central Asian countries. Based on threat assessments that have been completed in each Central Asian country during the year 2010, this document focuses on the existing regulatory problems at the legacy sites and projects will address the regulatory documents which should be developed first. It is clear that in order to remove the threat connected with radioactive wastes, both that which has already been accumulated as a result of previous activity and that which is currently being generated in significant amounts and will be produced in the future, it is necessary to at least develop and implement: A National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management, including strategies for disposal of each category of the RW, allocation of responsibilities and financial assurance for these activities; Safety requirements on the design, siting, construction, operation, closure and establishment of the institutional control needed for disposal facilities in accordance with the approved national policy and strategy on radioactive waste management; and New classifications of radioactive waste according to the recently published international recommendations, including identification of corresponding categories; In addition, it is clear that in order to remove the threats connected with extensive territories contaminated by radionuclides, the rehabilitation of these areas is required and, accordingly, it is necessary to develop regulations on: Quantitative criteria defining reference levels for existing exposure situations, considering its justification, optimization and

2011-01-01

65

Prevalence of Group A b-Hemolytic Streptococcus Among Children with Tonsillopharyngitis in Kyrgyzstan: The Difficulty of Diagnostics and Therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatic fever (RF) is well known disease as a result of frequent complication of the group A b-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) tonsillopharyngitis, have noticeably grown for the last 15 years among young generation in the Kyrgyz Republic. It is important to hold a study about the prevalence of RF and GABHS and their susceptibility to antibiotics in the Kyrgyz Republic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have studied 200 children with chronic tonsillopharyngitis at the National Center of Pediatrics and Child Surgery in Bishkek (the Kyrgyz Republic) from August till September 2008. 188 (48 out of them are with RF) out of total 200 children are Kyrgyz and 12 are Russian (2 out of them are with RF). 111 out of total are female (34 out of them are with RF) and 89 are male (17 out of them are with RF). The average age of the subjects is 10.9±6.0 (from 3 to 17 years old). The presence of GABHS was assessed using two ways: by the rapid antigen detection test (RADT) for outcrop of streptococcus antigen in smear from mucosal surface of tonsils, and by bacterial culture analysis (BA). RADT was used to determine its specificity and sensitivity in order to recommend practitioners its further wide use. Furthermore, the discovered culture of GABHS have been investigated on susceptibility to antibiotics by disc-diffusion method. RESEARCH RESULTS: GABHS antigen was positive in 72 (36.0 %) subjects from RADT and in 80 (40.0%) subjects from BA out of 200 total subjects. In the patients with RF (n=51), GABHS was positive in 18 (35.2%) subjects by RADT and in 24 (47.0%) subjects by BA. In the subjects without RF (n=149), GABHS was positive in 54 (36.2%) subjects by RADT and in 56 (37.5%) by BA. Among 80 GABHS positive results sensitive to antibiotics were: to penicillin only 10 (12.5%), to ampicillin-29 (36.2%), to amoxicillin-36 (45.0%), to ceftriaxon - 31 (38.7%), to roxithromycin - 21 (26.2%), to erythromycin- 19 (23.7%). It is noted that 21 (26.2%) GABHS positive results were absolutely resistant for all these tested antibiotics. RADT showed that its specificity is 85% as well as its sensitivity is equal to 67.5%. CONCLUSION: In this study the sensitivity of RADT was low; therefore, the negative results of RADT don't exclude presence of GABHS. High prevalence of GABHS antigen demonstrates not only in patients with RF, but also among healthy children (without RF) of the Kyrgyz Republic. The high prevalence of GABHS at children with RF (47.0%), probably, presents a low sensitivity to antibiotics and irregular secondary prophylaxis. Significant presence of GABHS among healthy children (37.5%) requires improvement of primary prevention to prevent further spread of RF and Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) in the country.

Omurzakova NA; Yamano Y; Saatova GM; Alybaeva MS; Nishioka K; Nakajima T

2010-01-01

66

American boots and Russian vodka : external factors in the colour revolutions of Georgia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan Amerikanische Boots und russischer Wodka: externe Faktoren in den farbigen Revolutionen von Georgien, Ukraine und Kirgistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'Der Beitrag untersucht die Rolle von externem Druck in der Welle der sogenannten 'farbigen Revolutionen'. Durch die Analyse dreier konkreter Fallbeispiele - der Rosenrevolution in Georgien (2003), der orangenen Revolution in der Ukraine (2004) und der Tulpenrevolution in Kirgisistan (2005) - versuc...

Ó Beacháin, Donnacha; Polese, Abel

67

Conclusions and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This article presents general problems of countries Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan-leakage of dangerous matters and industry pollutions, transboundary pollutions of environment, the problems of tailing pits, climate change, public health

2005-01-01

68

Proceedings of reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceeding of the conference covers different aspects of solid state physics and concludes 173 papers. Scientist and specialists from Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan took part in the conference

1996-01-01

69

Notes on some Lepidoptera Tortricidae from Central Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Faunistic data of some Lepidoptera Tortricidae collected in mountainous localities of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenija, are reported. The total number of species recorded is 69; some of them are of special biogeographical interest.

Pasquale Trematerra

70

Notes on some Lepidoptera Tortricidae from Central Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Faunistic data of some Lepidoptera Tortricidae collected in mountainous localities of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenija, are reported. The total number of species recorded is 69; some of them are of special biogeographical interest.

Pasquale Trematerra

2012-01-01

71

Policing the Silk Road: Do the Central Asian States Need the United States and Russia to Create and Maintain Stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis argues that U.S. and Russian influence in the Central Asian states of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, aids in regional stability. By embracing the assistance of both the United States and Russia, the Central A...

I. W. Charamut

2005-01-01

72

Law, Social Norms and Welfare as Means of Public Administration: Case Study of Mahalla Institutions in Uzbekistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite numerous challenges, since its independence, Uzbekistan, with the exception of the May 2005 Andijan events, has enjoyed extraordinary political stability and not recorded any considerable cases of interethnic or interfaith conflict, regime change or civil war, whereas neighboring Kyrgyzstan,...

Urinboyev, Rustamjon

73

The politico-institutional foundation of economic transition in Central Asia: Lessons from China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Central Asia is increasingly the focus of intense international attention because of its geopolitical and economic importance as well as its unsettled transition processes. Central Asian countries, i.e., Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, faced enormous challenges when...

Ahrens, Joachim

74

Banking system in Kyrgyz Republic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concep...

Sagbansu, Lutfu

75

Drivers of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries: Evidence from a FAVAR analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the likely sources of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) over the last dec-ade (1999-2010). Evidence is based on country VARs augmented by a regional com-mon factor structure (FAVAR model). The models inc...

Dreger, Christian; Fidrmuc, Jarko

76

Drivers of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries: evidence from a FAVAR analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the likely sources of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) over the past decade (1999-2008). The analysis is based on country VAR models augmented by a regional common factor structure (FAVAR model). The mo...

Dreger, Christian; Fidrmuc, Jarko

77

Old MacDonald to Uncle Sam.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This publication contains six lessons for elementary, middle, and high school classrooms developed by writers from Belarus, Croatia, Hungary, Kyrgyzstan, Romania, Russia, and the United States. The authors of these lessons were participants in the Training of Writers program developed and conducted by the National Council on Economic Education,…

McCorkle, Sarapage, Ed.; Suiter, Mary, Ed.

78

Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first…

Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.

2007-01-01

79

Faculty Development and Quality Assurance in the EU ERAMIS Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the ERAMIS project is to create anetwork of Masters degrees “Informatics as a SecondCompetence” in nine beneficiary universities of Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan and Russia. This contribution presents howfaculty development is organized and quality assuranceimplemented inside this project.

Agathe Merceron; Jean-Michel Adam; Sergio Luján-Mora; Marek Milosz; Arto Toppinen

2012-01-01

80

Mining in the former USSR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article describes minerals mining in countries of the former USSR (i.e. Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Moldova and the Baltic states). Minerals covered include coal, natural gas, oil, iron ore, non-ferrous metals and limestone.

Levine, R.M. (US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Division of International Minerals)

1993-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008â??July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

82

The European Union-Central Asia: in the light of the New Strategy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Central Asia is a region strategically located at the crossroads of the two continents: Asia and Europe. The region is represented by five states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) with different level of economic development and with the population amounting to over 6...

Abdulhamidova, Nurangez

83

The European Union-Central Asia : in the light of the New Strategy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Central Asia is a region strategically located on the crossroads of the two continents. The region is represented by five states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) with different level of economic development and with the population amounting to over 60 million people....

Abdulhamidova, Nurangez

84

Household survey data for research on well-being and behavior in Central Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper summarizes the micro-level survey evidence from Central Asia generated and analyzed between 1991 and 2012. We provide an exhaustive overview over all accessible individual and household-level surveys undertaken in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - and of al...

Brück, Tilman; Esenaliev, Damir; Kroeger, Antje; Kudebayeva, Alma; Mirkasimov, Bakhrom; Steiner, Susan

85

Regulatory Support Program in Central Asia. Progress and new bilateral project with the State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Republic of Uzbekistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A meeting of the regional regulatory support program in Central Asia (CA) was held in May 25 to 26, 2011 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where parties discussed ongoing bilateral cooperation between the NRPA and the regulatory bodies of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Author)

2011-01-01

86

U.S. Interests in Central Asia: Policy Priorities and Military Roles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current U.S. military presence in Central Asia is something of an historical accident. The question is whether or not it is also an anomaly. For the first ten years after Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan became independ...

O. Oliker D. A. Shlapak

2005-01-01

87

Household survey data for research on well-being and behavior in Central Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper summarizes the micro - level survey evidence from Central Asia generated and analyzed between 1991 and 2012. We provide an exhaustive overview over all accessible individual and household - level surveys undertaken in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - and o...

Brück, Tilman; Esenaliev, Damir; Kroeger, Antje; Kudebayeva, Alma; Mirkasimov, Bakhrom; Steiner, Susan

88

Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasus and Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Following the First Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late nineteen-ninetieth, TAEK, besides the cooperation with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Scientific Organisations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

2003-01-01

89

Regulatory Support Program in Central Asia. Progress and new bilateral project with the State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Republic of Uzbekistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A meeting of the regional regulatory support program in Central Asia (CA) was held in May 25 to 26, 2011 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where parties discussed ongoing bilateral cooperation between the NRPA and the regulatory bodies of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Author)

NONE

2011-07-01

90

Empirical Analysis of Kyrgyz Trade Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Being naturally located between two big markets in Europe and Asia, Kyrgyzstan together with other Central Asian countries does not have a direct access to sea ports. Landlockedness limits volumes of international trade and creates obstacles for economic growth. Results of statistical analysis show that Kyrgyz trade neither follows Heckscher-Ohlin model nor intra-industry trade model. Another finding is that open and liberal trade policy of Kyrgyzstan has a large positive effect on trade volumes, suggesting that bilateral trade will expand markedly if country continues liberalization of its trade policy with other countries. Quality of infrastructure and transportation costs play a crucial role for landlocked countries and a free trade agreement with other countries looks like a good opportunity to overcome natural barriers and diversify their trade.

Elvira KURMANALIEVA

2008-01-01

91

Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone and the Collective Security Treaty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In February 1997 Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan decided to establish Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone (CANWFZ). As a matter of fact, negotiations on establishing that zone started in 1998 when Kyrgyzstan proposed draft basic element of a treaty on CANWFZ. After almost two years rather successful work on drafting the treaty, since April 2000 no meetings take place between diplomats of the five Central Asian states. It is recognized by many experts that it is the Tashkent 1992 Collective Security Treaty (CST) which caused a deadlock. Usually CST is interpreted as allowing the deployment of Russian nuclear weapons on the territory of the CST member states, for example, of Kazakhstan. However, more detailed analysis shows, that CST cannot a serious obstacle for creating CANWFZ

1992-01-00

92

The emergence of echinococcosis in central Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, there was an increase in the number of cases of human echinococcosis recorded throughout central Asia. Between 1991 and 2001 incidence rates of cystic echinococcosis (CE) increased by 4 fold or more. There also appeared to be increases in prevalence of CE in livestock and prevalences of Echinococcus granulosus reported in dogs. The increase in human echinococcosis was associated with changes in livestock husbandry, decline in veterinary public health services, increases in dog populations and increased poverty, all of which served to promote transmission of E. granulosus. A few years after reports of increased transmission of E. granulosus, the first reports of E. multilocularis infection in dogs were recorded. Further studies indicated that in both Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan prevalences of up to 18% were present. Recently there has been a dramatic increase in the number of cases of human alveolar echinococcosis recorded in Kyrgyzstan with over 60 cases reported in 2011. PMID:23659353

Torgerson, P R

2013-05-10

93

The emergence of echinococcosis in central Asia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, there was an increase in the number of cases of human echinococcosis recorded throughout central Asia. Between 1991 and 2001 incidence rates of cystic echinococcosis (CE) increased by 4 fold or more. There also appeared to be increases in prevalence of CE in livestock and prevalences of Echinococcus granulosus reported in dogs. The increase in human echinococcosis was associated with changes in livestock husbandry, decline in veterinary public health services, increases in dog populations and increased poverty, all of which served to promote transmission of E. granulosus. A few years after reports of increased transmission of E. granulosus, the first reports of E. multilocularis infection in dogs were recorded. Further studies indicated that in both Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan prevalences of up to 18% were present. Recently there has been a dramatic increase in the number of cases of human alveolar echinococcosis recorded in Kyrgyzstan with over 60 cases reported in 2011.

Torgerson PR

2013-05-01

94

Communication received from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation to the Agency concerning a statement of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Agency has received a communication dated 30 August 2005 from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation, attaching a statement by the heads of State of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan adopted at the Moscow session of the Collective Security Council of the Collective Security Treaty Organization on 23 June 2005. The communication from the Russian Federation and, as requested therein, its attachment, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

2005-08-30

95

Radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya river (II)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article contains the results obtained during the radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya River, which was conducted within the frames of international collaboration of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and USA. The data on the nature of radionuclide distribution of uranium and thorium rows in bottom and soil is presented. Reasons of formation of the observed dependence of the obtained results on the distance from the source are discussed. (author)

2004-01-01

96

Patterns of public support for price increases on alcohol in the former Soviet Union.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To measure levels of public support for price increases on beer and spirits in nine former Soviet Union countries and to examine the characteristics influencing such support. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 with 18,000 respondents aged 18+ in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. RESULTS: The lowest level of support for price increases on beer were in Georgia (men 5%, women 9%) and Armenia (men 5%, women 11%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 30%, women 38%), Azerbaijan (men 27%, women 37%) and Russia (men 23%, women 34%). The lowest levels of support for price increases on spirits were Armenia (men 8%, women 14%) and Georgia (men 14%, women 21%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 38%, 47% women) and Moldova (men 36%, women 43%). Characteristics associated with supporting price increases included gender (women), higher education, good economic situation, lower alcohol consumption and greater knowledge of harmful alcohol behaviour. CONCLUSION: Alcohol price increases are an effective means to reduce hazardous alcohol use. Despite opposition in some groups, there is evidence of public support for alcohol price increases in the study countries.

Roberts B; Stickley A; Murphy A; Kizilova K; Bryden A; Rotman D; Haerpfer C; McKee M

2012-07-01

97

Outlook on non-proliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkish speaking countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 nuclear power plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, great efforts were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the first Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join to European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasian Region. So, there are significant developments in cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owning to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's TAEK, besides the cooperation with various countries, has involved to cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. These protocols enable parties to organize join projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the join studies and make join efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. The joint activities carried out are given as follows: '1st Eurasia Conference of Nuclear Science and its Application' organized in Turkey on 23-27 October 2000 by TAEK with co-organizers from the related organizations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan and sponsored by IAEA and OECD/NEA; '2nd Eurasia Conference of Nuclear Science and its Application' will be organized at Almaty on 16-19 September 2002 by Nuclear Physics Institute of National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan with the related organizations of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan as co-organizers; joint Eurasia Nuclear Bulletin' covering activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy in these countries will be published in mid 2002. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban treaty (CTBT). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

2002-01-01

98

Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among turkish speaking countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 Nuclear Power Plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non proliferation of nuclear weapons, great affords were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides the co operations with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. The joint activities carried out are given as follows: '1st Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Applications' organized in Turkey on 23-27.10. 2000 by TAEK with co organizers from the related organizations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and sponsored by IAEA and OECD/NEA, '2nd Eurasia Conference' organized at Almaty on 16-19.09.2002 by Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan with the related organizations of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan as co organizers, NATO Workshop on Environmental Protection Against Radioactive Pollution by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan at Almaty on 16-19.09.2002, joint 'Eurasia Nuclear Bulletin' covering activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy in these countries published in August 2002. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (Cabot). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

2002-01-01

99

Loneliness: its correlates and association with health behaviours and outcomes in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU)--a region where loneliness has been little studied to date. METHODS: Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries--Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine--in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress). RESULTS: The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control) were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova. CONCLUSIONS: Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU.

Stickley A; Koyanagi A; Roberts B; Richardson E; Abbott P; Tumanov S; McKee M

2013-01-01

100

Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Market analysis of some mercury-containing products and their mercury-free alternatives in selected regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the study was to gather information on certain mercury containing products from selected developing countries (DCs) with economics in transition (CiZs) from four UN regions. Then countries involved in surveys were Kenya and Senegal (Africa), China and India (Asia), Kyrgyzstan and Russia (Eastern Europe), Brazil and Mexico (Latin America). The study gives an overview about selected mercury-containing products and their mercury-free alternatives in these countries: thermometers and blood pressure maters used in hospitals and medical practices, thermometers for use at home, skin-lightening products, common batteries and dental materials. Information was gathered from local retailers, health care workers, professionals and consumers.

Uram, Eric [International POPs Elimination Network (IPEN), Goeteborg (Sweden); Bischofer, Barbara P.; Hagemann, Sven [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

2010-03-15

102

Kirguizistán, 2007: oportunidades y desafíos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2005, President Akayev fell as a result of a popular revolution, something that seemed impossible among the regimes of Central Asia. The year 2006 was marked by the new President Bakiev’s attempt to stabilize the situation of the country and to start up the constitutional reform. The year 2007 began, nevertheless, with a return to the authoritarianism of the previous stage, although maintaining the democratic appearance. In the article, the main issues that require a more urgent reform for the quick stabilization of Kyrgyzstan are presented: institutional, economic, territorial, the Islamism and the foreign influences.

Antonio Alonso

2007-01-01

103

1997 Asia/Pacific mining yearbook and suppliers`; Ninth annual ed.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The yearbook contains collection of articles covering various aspects of the mineral and mining industries of: Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Fiji, New Caledonia, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Khazakhstan. It also contains a survey of the 1996 top 50 Australian New Zealand mining companies, and a listing of major mining companies in the Asia Pacific. A mining products and services buyers` guide and directory listing of companies is also included.

NONE

1997-12-31

104

Underthrusting of Tarim beneath the Tien Shan and deep structure of their junction zone: Main results of seismic experiment along MANAS Profile Kashgar-Song-Köl  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of reflection CMP seismic profiling of the Central Tien Shan in the meridional tract 75-76° E from Lake Song-Köl in Kyrgyzstan to the town of Kashgar in China are considered. The seismic section demonstrating complex heterogeneous structure of the Earth’s crust and reflecting its near-horizontal delamination with vertical and inclined zones of compositional and structural differentiation was constructed from processing of initial data of reflection CMP seismic profiling, earthquake converted-wave method (ECWM), and seismic tomography. The most important is the large zone of underthrusting of the Tarim Massif beneath the Tien Shan.

Makarov, V. I.; Alekseev, D. V.; Batalev, V. Yu.; Bataleva, E. A.; Belyaev, I. V.; Bragin, V. D.; Dergunov, N. T.; Efimova, N. N.; Leonov, M. G.; Munirova, L. M.; Pavlenkin, A. D.; Roecker, S.; Roslov, Yu. V.; Rybin, A. K.; Shchelochkov, G. G.

2010-03-01

105

Sampling and Surveying Hard-to-Reach Populations for Demographic Research: A Study of Female Labor Migrants in Moscow, Russia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because household-based survey designs are notoriously ineffective in studying hard-to-reach groups such as irregular migrants, these groups, however numerically large they may be, are rarely represented in demographic analyses. In this paper, we report on the application of a workplace-based stratified probability sampling design, response rate, and item-specific refusals in a recent study of irregular female migrants from Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan working in bazaars, eateries, and small retail outlets in Moscow, Russia. We argue that workplace-based survey, while not flawless, provides a uniquely feasible and cost-effective tool for studying irregular migrants and other marginalized groups.

Victor Agadjanian; Natalya Zotova

2012-01-01

106

The 234U/238U concentration ratio reflects migration of contaminants f uranium mining areas in Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New data are presented on the concentrations and isotopic composition of uranium in surface and ground water from the former Kurdai (Kazakhstan) and Shekaphtar (Kyrgyzstan) uranium mining ; sites. The results show that the uranium concentrations in surface waters within the Kurdai site . are in the range 25-1888 microgramdm-3, which are higher than the international accepted drinking water level (EPA). The uranium concentrations in waters at the Shekaphtar site are in the range of 2-24 microgram dm-3. The 234U/238U isotope ratio has been used to characterize the influence of the mining activity on the downstream river systems. (author)(tk)

2008-01-01

107

Slope stability monitoring from microseismic field using polarization methodology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerical simulation of seismoacoustic emission (SAE) associated with fracturing in zones of shear stress concentration shows that SAE signals are polarized along the stress direction. The proposed polarization methodology for monitoring of slope stability makes use of three-component recording of the microseismic field on a slope in order to pick the signals of slope processes by filtering and polarization analysis. Slope activity is indicated by rather strong roughly horizontal polarization of the respective portion of the field in the direction of slope dip. The methodology was tested in microseismic observations on a landslide slope in the Northern Tien-Shan (Kyrgyzstan).

Yu. I. Kolesnikov; M. M. Nemirovich-Danchenko; S. V. Goldin; V. S. Seleznev

2003-01-01

108

Communication dated 11 September 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 11 September 2006, from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the IAEA regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006 in Semipalatinsk by the leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the enclosed information regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

2006-09-11

109

Analysis of China's Agricultural Exports to Five Central Asian Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper uses the statistical description and the constant market share model to analyze the Chinese agricultural product export to Central Asian countries. It discovered that the establishments the SCO Shanghai cooperation organization and cooperation process promote agricultural exports; agricultural products from China to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan is mainly attributed to the scale factor; in recent years, competition factor becomes the more important one. Owing to the market fluctuating, it restricted the exporting process in a certain degree. We can enhance the process in organization, construction, agricultural technology and marketing research.Keywords: The five Central Asian Countries; Agricultural products; Export; Scale effect; Competition effect

Jian CHEN; Buwajian Abula

2012-01-01

110

A survey of East Palaearctic Hersiliola Thorell, 1870 (Araneae, Hersiliidae), with a description of three new genera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three new genera and eight new species of Hersiliidae are described from the East Palaearctic (Afganistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan). The genus Hersiliola Thorell, 1870 (Araneae: Hersiliidae) is revised, and four new species are described. The genus includes nine species: H. afghanica Roewer, 1960 (Afghanistan); H. esyunini sp. n. (Uzbekistan); H. foordi sp. n. (Iran); H. lindbergi sp. n. (Afghanistan); H. macullulata (Dufour, 1831) (type species; from Spain and Algeria to Israel and Yemen); H. simoni (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872) (from Spain and Morocco to Israel); H. sternbergsi sp. n. (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan); H. versicolor (Blackwall, 1865) (Cape Verde); and H. xinjiangenis (Liang & Wang, 1989) (Xinjiang, China). A new genus Duninia gen. n. is described, with two new species, Duninia baehrae sp. n. (type species; Turkmenistan) and D. rheimsae sp. n. (Iran). A new genus Deltshevia gen. n. is described, with two new species, Deltshevia danovi sp. n. (type species; Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan) and D. gromovi sp. n. (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan). The widely ranging Central Asian Hersiliola pallida Kroneberg, 1875 (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) is transferred to a new monotypic genus, Ovtsharenkoia gen. n.

Yuri Marusik; Victor Fet

2009-01-01

111

Knowledge of the health impacts of smoking and public attitudes towards tobacco control in the former Soviet Union.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To describe levels of knowledge on the harmful effects of tobacco and public support for tobacco control measures in nine countries of the former Soviet Union and to examine the characteristics associated with this knowledge and support. METHODS: Standardised, cross-sectional nationally representative surveys conducted in 2010/2011 with 18?000 men and women aged 18 years and older in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Respondents were asked a range of questions on their knowledge of the health effects of tobacco and their support for a variety of tobacco control measures. Descriptive analysis was conducted on levels of knowledge and support, along with multivariate logistic regression analysis of characteristics associated with overall knowledge and support scores. RESULTS: Large gaps exist in public understanding of the negative health effects of tobacco use, particularly in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Moldova. There are also extremely high levels of misunderstanding about the potential effects of 'light' cigarettes. However, there is popular support for tobacco control measures. Over three quarters of the respondents felt that their governments could be more effective in pursuing tobacco control. Higher levels of education, social capital (membership of an organisation) and being a former or never-smoker were associated with higher knowledge on the health effects of tobacco and/or being more supportive of tobacco control measures. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing public awareness of tobacco's health effects is essential for informed decision-making by individuals and for further increasing public support for tobacco control measures.

Roberts B; Stickley A; Gilmore AB; Danishevski K; Kizilova K; Bryden A; Rotman D; Haerpfer C; McKee M

2012-06-01

112

The comorbidity of hypertension and psychological distress: a study of nine countries in the former Soviet Union.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems in those with physical ailments are often overlooked, especially in the former Soviet Union (fSU) where this comorbidity has received little attention. Our study examines the comorbidity of psychological distress and hypertension in the fSU. METHODS: Nationally representative household survey data from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine in 2001 and 2010 were analysed to compare the levels of psychological distress in people with and without self-reported hypertension. Multivariate regression analysed determinants of psychological distress in hypertensive respondents, and prevalence rate ratios were calculated to compare the change in distress between the two groups. RESULTS: There were significantly higher levels of psychological distress among hypertensive respondents (9.9%) than in the general population (4.9%), and a significant association between the two conditions [odds ratio (OR) = 2.27 (1.91; 2.70)]. Characteristics associated with distress among hypertensive respondents included residing in Armenia or Kyrgyzstan, being female, over age 50, with a poor economic situation, lower education, poor emotional support and limited access to medical drugs. Levels of distress declined between 2001 and 2010, but at a lesser rate in hypertensive respondents [rate ratio (RR) = 0.85 (0.75; 0.95)] than non-hypertensive respondents [RR = 0.65 (0.56; 0.75)]. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant association between psychological distress and hypertension in the region.

Footman K; Roberts B; Tumanov S; McKee M

2013-03-01

113

Changes in smoking prevalence in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union between 2001 and 2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We sought to present new data on smoking prevalence in 8 countries, analyze prevalence changes between 2001 and 2010, and examine trend variance by age, location, education level, and household economic status. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in 2010 in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. We compared smoking prevalence with a related 2001 study for the different countries and population subgroups, and also calculated the adjusted prevalence rate ratios of smoking. RESULTS: All-age 2010 smoking prevalence among men ranged from 39% (Moldova) to 59% (Armenia), and among women from 2% (Armenia) to 16% (Russia). There was a significantly lower smoking prevalence among men in 2010 compared with 2001 in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia, but not for women in any country. For all countries combined, there was a significantly lower smoking prevalence in 2010 than in 2001 for men aged 18 to 39 years and men with a good or average economic situation. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking prevalence appears to have stabilized and may be declining in younger groups, but remains extremely high among men, especially those in lower socioeconomic groups.

Roberts B; Gilmore A; Stickley A; Rotman D; Prohoda V; Haerpfer C; McKee M

2012-07-01

114

The comorbidity of hypertension and psychological distress: a study of nine countries in the former Soviet Union.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems in those with physical ailments are often overlooked, especially in the former Soviet Union (fSU) where this comorbidity has received little attention. Our study examines the comorbidity of psychological distress and hypertension in the fSU. METHODS: Nationally representative household survey data from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine in 2001 and 2010 were analysed to compare the levels of psychological distress in people with and without self-reported hypertension. Multivariate regression analysed determinants of psychological distress in hypertensive respondents, and prevalence rate ratios were calculated to compare the change in distress between the two groups. RESULTS: There were significantly higher levels of psychological distress among hypertensive respondents (9.9%) than in the general population (4.9%), and a significant association between the two conditions [odds ratio (OR) = 2.27 (1.91; 2.70)]. Characteristics associated with distress among hypertensive respondents included residing in Armenia or Kyrgyzstan, being female, over age 50, with a poor economic situation, lower education, poor emotional support and limited access to medical drugs. Levels of distress declined between 2001 and 2010, but at a lesser rate in hypertensive respondents [rate ratio (RR) = 0.85 (0.75; 0.95)] than non-hypertensive respondents [RR = 0.65 (0.56; 0.75)]. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant association between psychological distress and hypertension in the region. PMID:23480878

Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Tumanov, Sergei; McKee, Martin

2013-03-12

115

Central Asia: a major emerging energy player in the 21st century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewable energy sources. The paper examines the energy industries in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan and looks at energy renewable in neighbouring Xinjian in China. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term. 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

James P. Dorian

2005-03-15

116

Tuberculosis, drug use and HIV infection in Central Asia: An urgent need for attention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Rates of tuberculosis in Central Asia are extremely high, and even more alarming are the very high rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. In addition, rates of HIV infection related to injection drug use seems to be rising as well, thus creating conditions for a potentially devastating co-epidemic of TB/HIV and MDR-TB/HIV which would have terrible consequences for public health in these countries. CURRENT STATUS: In many countries of Central Asia, diagnosis of tuberculosis still rests on clinical grounds or simple technologies such as chest radiograph and sputum smear examination. Modern molecular techniques such as GenExpert are being introduced in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, and perhaps soon in Kyrgyzstan. Treatment of TB is still often centered around prolonged inpatient stay at TB hospitals. Only a minority of patients with HIV infection are receiving ART, and TB and HIV services are not well integrated. Needle exchange programs are becoming increasingly available, but opioid substitution therapy is rarely used in Central Asia. TB, drug treatment and HIV services are generally not well-integrated. CONCLUSIONS: To combat this developing storm, integration of TB services, HIV care, and substance abuse treatment programs is needed urgently to allow efficient and effective diagnosis and treatment of these conditions in a coordinated manner.

Schluger NW; El-Bassel N; Hermosilla S; Terlikbayeva A; Darisheva M; Aifah A; Galea S

2013-08-01

117

Cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasian and Central Asian countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: On the first call for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and became the member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in the same year. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with other countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides building cooperation with various countries, has involved in cooperating with related institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. The joint activities carried out mainly are given as follows: Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Application - First Conference organized in the year 2000 in Turkey, Second Conference at Almaty? in 2002 and Third Conference at Tashkent in 2004, sponsored by international organizations as IAEA and (OECD/NEA), NATO. Training Course on Industrial Application of Irradiation Technology organized by TAEK and Academy of Science of Azerbaijan and sponsored by IAEA at Baku in 2003. Joint Eurasia Nuclear Bulletincovering activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy in these countries published yearly since 2002. After 2006 Baku Conference the bulletin will be published in two years in parallel with Conference organization. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and have become members to IAEA.

118

FARKLILIK S?YASET? ÜZER?NDEN BA?IMSIZ KIRGIZ?STAN’DA ÇOKKÜLTÜRLÜLÜK VE ÇOKD?LL? E??T?M POL?T?KALARI  

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Full Text Available The troubled relationship between identity and difference as part of describing democratic theory in the light of the politics of difference became the hotly debated topic in the last period. We can approach to this problematic relationship the case of Kyrgyzstan as general in Central Asia, where carried out perspectives of educational language policy and planning. In this study will be available queries related to how to find a right way in macro and micro planes in a democracy, the data obtained by querying, presumptions, observations, results and assessments. We must approach to the problem of national identity as a general problem of culture. In order to explain how are reflected common and unique feeling which can be cover all entire nation, why sometimes can be formed a common behavior patterns it’s seen as sine qua non to hit the road with this approach. In fact, there is living more nationality than the states in the world. Therefore, common experiences which created the nation, in other words, the historical experiences are forming some symbols/signs (language) which strengthens the belief of unity and integrity. For that, it seems quite challenging to hold multicultural states together and proceeds in a way. In this sense, fieldwork was Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia, as it submitted a multicultural social structure and due to the descriptive statistical procedure, which obtained from the Kyrgyzstan Statistics Committee, there is given a great importance to the phenomenon of cultural democracywhich is able to eliminatethe ethnic conflicts. By the simplest words cultural democracy means freedom of communication. Indeed, all democratic politics based on culture and defends the right that everyone achieves to culture. Every community found a cultural identity as a source of inspiration for the creative assets for themselves. Therefore, should be stored the right and the duty of all peoples to live and maintain their own cultural presence. For this reason, educational policies and planning carries a fairly large importance as a principal transmitter of culture, especially in multinational societies. Therefore, the question of this study suggests its importance with extremely reasonable and valid factors.in this platform.

Emine Yavasgel

2013-01-01

119

Political Regimes in Central Asia: Crisis of Legitimacy, Political Violence and Uncertain Prospects  

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Full Text Available This article analyses the present-day transition and political context of each of the states that comprise the former Soviet region of Central Asia since their independence: the internal changes they have undergone, the creation of their own institutions and regional and international relations. This evolution, especially with regard to the deficiencies in democracy and legitimacy of the majority of the current governments, based, in many cases, on personalist, authoritarian regimes, points to an uncertain future for a region in which, too frequently, its rulers have used all the means at their disposal (persecution of political opposition, disregard for human rights, constraint of the mass media and NGOs, etc.) to guarantee their continuance in power. This article also includes an analysis of the most recent events, such as the Andijan (Uzbekistan) massacre, the‘revolution’ without changes in Kyrgyzstan, and the authoritarian drift of Turkmenistan, which leads to conclusions filled with uncertainties for future political scenarios.

Mohammad-Reza Djalili; Thierry Kellner

2005-01-01

120

Toward a New Policy for Scientific and Technical Communication: the Case of Kyrgyz Republic  

CERN Multimedia

The objective of this policy paper is to formulate a new policy in the field of scientific and technical information (STI) in Kyrgyz Republic in the light of emergence and rapid development of electronic scientific communication. The major problem with communication in science in the Republic is lack of adequate access to information by scientists. An equally serious problem is poor visibility of research conducted in Kyrgyzstan and, as consequence, negligible research impact on academic society globally. The paper proposes an integrated approach to formulation of a new STI policy based on a number of policy components: telecommunication networks, computerization, STI systems, legislation & standards, and education & trainings. Two alternatives were considered: electronic vs. paper-based scientific communication and development of the national STI system vs. cross-national virtual collaboration. The study results in suggesting a number of policy recommendations for identified stakeholders.

Djenchuraev, N

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

[Differential diagnostics of neuroinfections: Lyme disease].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the article the clinical case of development of arthritis is examined for a patient with Laymborreliozom, exposed on territory of Kyrgyzstan. It is well-proven that a chronic flow can flow continuously and with relapses. The compatible clinical and serum criteria of diagnosis of illness are not developed. It is needed to take into account at interpretation of results of tests, that level of antiborrelioznykh antibodies, and frequency of exposure depend on the terms of inspection, beginning of therapy and stage of illness. Along with antibiotikoterapiey nosotropic treatment which consists in setting of nesteroidnykh protivovospalitel'nykh facilities and at a necessity glyukokortikoidov is used. Choice of preparations and dose depend on clinical displays and weight of flow.

Lobanchenko OV; Khlyzova IA; Zholdoshev KZh

2012-01-01

122

Russia Factor in the problem of Aral Lake(Aral’s Sand) According to the German Sources  

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Full Text Available The water is a kind of food without an alternative. The guaranteed usage of water is a basis for civilization that indicates the importance of water. The Aral Sea in Central Asia was the fourth largest lake of the world; today there is only 10 % of old size. The pollutive characteristics of industry in East Europe and the harmful applications of political decision makers caused ecological problems in the Aral Sea basin. Today the ecological problem in Aral Sea became a political problem among the sharers of that problem, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, and affected the safety of region. Within the framework of Aral Sea ecological problem, at first the strategies developed by EU and Russia caused to enlargement of the problem instead of solving it.The expedience conflict of regional and global powers in Central Asia was appeared and a solution could not be produced till today.

Necati ?yikan

2013-01-01

123

Current problems of power supply and energy policy in Central Asia; Aktuelle Probleme der Energiewirtschaft und Energiepolitik in Zentralasien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Power supply is an increasing problem in Central Asia. Ever since the republics of Central Asia overcame the recession of the nineties, economic growth had a steady rate of 5-10 percent. This causes increased energy demand. The second problem is the unbalanced distribution of energy sources and the fact that, in contrast to the times of the Soviet Union, there is no regional balancing in the form of competence trading. For example, Kyrgyzstan and Tadzhikistan have a lack of energy sources and also a lack of foreign currency which prevents energy imports. In consequence, there are attempts to make better use of the available hydroenergetic potential by constructing hydroelectric power plants and dams on the big rivers Amudarja and Syrdarja. The sufferers will be Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both countries need the water of the big rivers for watering their fields in the summer season. The third problem is the adverse ecological effect of dam and hydroelectric power plant construction. (orig.)

Trouchine, A. [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Internationale Entwicklungs- und Umweltforschung; Giese, E. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geographie

2006-02-15

124

Facts and Perspectives of Water Reservoirs in Central Asia: A Special Focus on Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The political transformation of the Central Asian region has induced the implosion of the interconnected physical hydraulic infrastructure and its institutional management system. Land-locked Central Asian countries, with their climatic conditions and transboundary water resources, have been striving to meet their food security, to increase agricultural production, to sustain energy sectors, and to protect the environment. The existing water reservoirs are strategic infrastructures for irrigation and hydropower generation. Upstream countries (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan) favor the reservoirs’ operation for energy supply, while downstream countries (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan) push for irrigation use. This paper provides an overview of the current challenges and perspectives (technical, institutional, and legal regulations) and presents recommendations for the sustainable management of man-made water reservoirs in Uzbekistan.

Shavkat Rakhmatullaev; Frédéric Huneau; Philippe Le Coustumer; Mikael Motelica-Heino; Masharif Bakiev

2010-01-01

125

Uranium series radionuclides in surface waters from the Shu river (Kazakhstan).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb have been determined in surface waters collected along the course of the Shu River, lying on the border between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. In the study area, the river runs through some of the largest uranium deposits worldwide, which were actively exploited during the nuclear weapons and nuclear energy programmes of the former Soviet Union. The data show an increasing trend in uranium concentrations downstream the river from the city of Tokmak to the city of Shu, with good correlation between total uranium concentrations and total dissolved solids. Data on uranium isotopes disequilibrium show the presence of technogenic uranium inputs into the Shu River downstream from the city of Karasu, evidenced by a decrease in the measured (234)U/(238)U isotopic ratio from 1.63 in uncontaminated sites to 1.29 in sites affected by past mining activities.

Burkitbayev M; Uralbekov B; Nazarkulova S; Matveyeva I; León Vintró L

2012-04-01

126

Health conditions among workers who participated in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

People who took part in the Chernobyl accident cleanup have been registered upon their return to Kyrgyzstan since 1991, and their children since 1992. Later, citizens affected by the Semipalatinsk and Chelyabinsk contamination incidents were included for registration and health care purposes. The effects of the nuclear waste depositories in the Mailuu-Suu region were examined with the assistance of the Kansas University Medical Center (United States of America). All these investigations of affected people indicate apparent increases in a number of symptoms and illnesses when compared to the rest of the population. Sample sizes ranged from several hundred to several thousand. Above-normal radiation levels and/or the stress and fear of living in contaminated area can lead to significant increases in nervous disorders, cardiovascular diseases and other problems. The most significant increase was in the suicide rate.

Kamarli Z; Abdulina A

1996-01-01

127

Multiple Origins of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1 Outbreaks, 2003-2007  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia 1, which caused outbreaks of disease in Asia during 2003–2007. Since 2004, the region affected by outbreaks of this serotype has increased from disease-endemic countries in southern Asia (Afghanistan, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan) northward to encompass Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, several regions of the People’s Republic of China, Mongolia, Eastern Russia, and North Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus capsid protein 1 (VP1) gene sequences demonstrated that the FMDV isolates responsible for these outbreaks belonged to 6 groups within the Asia 1 serotype. Some contemporary strains were genetically closely related to isolates collected historically from the region as far back as 25 years ago. Our analyses also indicated that some viruses have spread large distances between countries in Asia within a short time.

Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Zakharov, Valery; Scherbakov, Alexey; Zhang, Zhidong; Shang, You-Jun; Liu, Zai-Xin; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Sanyal, Aniket; Hemadri, Divakar; Tosh, Chakradhar; Rasool, Thaha J.; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Schumann, Kate R.; Beckham, Tammy R.; Linchongsubongkoch, Wilai; Ferris, Nigel P.; Roeder, Peter L.; Paton, David J.

2009-01-01

128

A review of medical and substance use co-morbidities in Central Asian prisons: Implications for HIV prevention and treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: HIV incidence in Central Asia is rising rapidly. People who inject drugs (PWIDs) contribute greatest to the epidemic, with more than a quarter of all HIV cases being in the criminal justice system (CJS). This review assembled and aggregated recent data on drug-related health problems and respective healthcare services in the CJS of Central Asia and the Republic of Azerbaijan. METHODS: Online databases and published literature (peer-reviewed and gray) were reviewed. Additionally, prison officials in the 6 countries were invited to participate in a survey and prison administrators from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan completed it. RESULTS: The data on conditions and healthcare in Central Asian prisons are inconsistent and lack unbiased details. Reporting is primarily based on "official" disease registries, which markedly underestimate prevalence. Even these limited data, however, indicate that HIV prevalence and drug-related health problems are high, concentrated and, in some countries, rising rapidly in CJS. Only some of the range of HIV prevention interventions recommended by international organizations have been implemented in the region with two of the crucial interventions, needle and syringe exchange programs (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST), only available in prisons in Kyrgyzstan, with Tajikistan implementing a pilot NSP and contemplating introduction of prison-based OST. CONCLUSIONS: Despite deficiencies in routine health reporting and insufficient HIV sentinel surveillance undertaken in prisons, the data available on the concentration of HIV within at-risk populations in prisons indicate a necessity to broaden the range and increase the scale the scale of HIV prevention and treatment services.

Vagenas P; Azbel L; Polonsky M; Kerimi N; Mamyrov M; Dvoryak S; Altice FL

2013-08-01

129

Prevalence and factors associated with the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that since the collapse of the Soviet Union there has been a sharp growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in some former Soviet countries. However, as yet, comparatively little is known about the use of CAM in the countries throughout this region. Against this background, the aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of using alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in eight countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) and to examine factors associated with their use. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Living Conditions, Lifestyles and Health (LLH) survey undertaken in eight former Soviet countries (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine) in 2001. In this nationally representative cross-sectional survey, 18428 respondents were asked about how they treated 10 symptoms, with options including the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the treatment of differing symptoms by such practitioners in these countries. RESULTS: The prevalence of using an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner for symptom treatment varied widely between countries, ranging from 3.5% in Armenia to 25.0% in Kyrgyzstan. For nearly every symptom, respondents living in rural locations were more likely to use an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner than urban residents. Greater wealth was also associated with using these practitioners, while distrust of doctors played a role in the treatment of some symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The widespread use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in some fSU countries and the growth of this form of health care provision in the post-Soviet period in conditions of variable licensing and regulation, highlights the urgent need for more research on this phenomenon and its potential effects on population health in the countries in this region.

Stickley A; Koyanagi A; Richardson E; Roberts B; Balabanova D; McKee M

2013-01-01

130

Assessment of the radiological impact of gamma and radon dose rates at former U mining sites in Central Asia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to gamma radiation, radon and thoron was carried out at selected former uranium mining and processing sites in the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Gamma dose rate measurements were made using various field instruments and radon/thoron measurements were carried out using discriminative radon ((222)Rn)/thoron ((220)Rn) solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time, including at least three seasonal periods in a year, in different outdoor and indoor public and residential environments at the selected uranium legacy sites. The results showed that gamma, Rn and Tn doses were in general low, which consequently implies a low/relatively low radiological risk. The major radiation hazard is represented by abandoned radioactive filtration material that was being used as insulation by some Minkush residents (Kyrgyzstan) for a longer period of time. Annual radiation doses of several hundred mSv could be received as a consequence of using this material domestically. In addition, the gamma and Rn/Tn dose rates at Digmai, Tajikistan, could reach values of several 10 mSv/a. The doses of ionizing radiation deriving from external radiation (gamma dose rate), indoor radon and thoron with their short-lived progenies in several cases exceeded the recommended annual effective dose threshold level of 10 mSv. At none of the sites investigated did the individual annual effective doses exceed 30 mSv, the internationally recommended value for considering intervention. Current doses of ionizing radiation do not represent a serious hazard to the health of the resident public, but this issue should be adequately addressed to further reduce needless exposure of the resident public to ionizing radiation.

Stegnar P; Shishkov I; Burkitbayev M; Tolongutov B; Yunusov M; Radyuk R; Salbu B

2013-09-01

131

Drinking in the Commonwealth of Independent States--evidence from eight countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To describe the frequency of alcohol consumption and beverage preferences in eight countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Populations of Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation and Ukraine. PARTICIPANTS: Representative samples of the adult population of each country (overall sample size 18,428; response rates: 71-88%). MEASUREMENTS: A standardised questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers to examine alcohol consumption frequency and usual intakes of beer, wine and strong spirits. FINDINGS: Between 11 and 34% of males and 26-71% of females reported never drinking alcohol. Abstention was lowest in the Russian Federation and Belarus, two traditional spirits-drinking countries. It was particularly high in Kyrgyzstan and Georgia, two countries with a relatively low frequency of alcohol consumption but large amounts consumed per occasion (particularly Georgia). On the contrary, Moldovan respondents drank frequently, but consumed smaller amounts per occasion. As expected, spirits were consumed in largest amounts in traditional spirits-drinking countries, as well as Armenia and wine in traditional wine-drinking countries. Beer consumption was relatively high in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan (males), particularly in young respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Although cross-country comparisons of alcohol intake should be interpreted cautiously, this study suggested that drinking patterns in the countries examined are not entirely typical of usual dry/wet drinking cultures, and confirms that the CIS is very diverse in terms of drinking patterns and beverage preferences. The study provides an important baseline for future comparisons as markets open to new products, as has been the case elsewhere in Europe.

Pomerleau J; McKee M; Rose R; Haerpfer CW; Rotman D; Tumanov S

2005-11-01

132

Assessment of the radiological impact of gamma and radon dose rates at former U mining sites in Central Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to gamma radiation, radon and thoron was carried out at selected former uranium mining and processing sites in the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Gamma dose rate measurements were made using various field instruments and radon/thoron measurements were carried out using discriminative radon ((222)Rn)/thoron ((220)Rn) solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time, including at least three seasonal periods in a year, in different outdoor and indoor public and residential environments at the selected uranium legacy sites. The results showed that gamma, Rn and Tn doses were in general low, which consequently implies a low/relatively low radiological risk. The major radiation hazard is represented by abandoned radioactive filtration material that was being used as insulation by some Minkush residents (Kyrgyzstan) for a longer period of time. Annual radiation doses of several hundred mSv could be received as a consequence of using this material domestically. In addition, the gamma and Rn/Tn dose rates at Digmai, Tajikistan, could reach values of several 10 mSv/a. The doses of ionizing radiation deriving from external radiation (gamma dose rate), indoor radon and thoron with their short-lived progenies in several cases exceeded the recommended annual effective dose threshold level of 10 mSv. At none of the sites investigated did the individual annual effective doses exceed 30 mSv, the internationally recommended value for considering intervention. Current doses of ionizing radiation do not represent a serious hazard to the health of the resident public, but this issue should be adequately addressed to further reduce needless exposure of the resident public to ionizing radiation. PMID:23291151

Stegnar, P; Shishkov, I; Burkitbayev, M; Tolongutov, B; Yunusov, M; Radyuk, R; Salbu, B

2013-01-03

133

Seismic triggering of landslides. Part B: Simulation of dynamic failure processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From field observations it is possible to establish correlations between geological conditions and landslide occurrence. However, in general, it is difficult to assess the affect of individual factors on slope instability because of their mutual interaction. In addition, the dynamic effect of propagating seismic waves significantly increases the complexity of the slope stability problem. Wave diffraction, reflection and focusing effects are dependent on local geological conditions and make it difficult to analyse dynamic sliding mechanisms using field observations alone. As a consequence, in order to examine the influence of various geological and seismic factors on slope movements, it is often necessary to produce numerical models. This paper describes the results of such models as applied to two case studies in Kyrgyzstan: the Ananevo rockslide, located in granite, and the Suusamyr debris slump-flow, situated within soft sediments (see Part A: Havenith et al., 2003). Discrete element modelling (UDEC), adapted both to the discontinuous character of fractured rock and to the heterogeneity of layered mediums, was used. This permitted simulation of deformation mechanisms, including seismically induced bending, block tilting, and slip. Particular attention was paid to the interaction between deformation mechanisms, site-specific amplification effects, and subsurface structure.

H.-B. Havenith; A. Strom; F. Calvetti; D. Jongmans

2003-01-01

134

EFFECT OF LEARNING ANXIETY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE AS TURKISH ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An anxiety emerges both as one of the individual's existential factors and as one of the concepts used to express the intrapsychic situations as a result of interactions and experiences with physical and social environment. In the related scientific researches, a foreign language learning anxiety was observed to be taken into consideration as separate from the general anxiety conceptualization. According to these studies anxiety is noticed more in psycho-motor production-focused listening and speaking skills, as well as is originated from the fear of communication, exam anxiety and fear of negative grading. According to the these findings, it is assumed to create an ideal teaching environment in classes where individuals will be more motivated free from an anxiety and to adopt a teaching and learning strategies. In this research, anxiety categories that are occurred in learning environment was identified with the help of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) developed by Horwitz and Cope (1986), that is frequently used in the literature. In addition, by the data obtained from exam anxiety scale developed by Sarason (1984), it aimed to study in what extent the exam anxiety effect the academic achievement of Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Manas University Preparatory classes students on Turkish language. According to the interpretation of empirical data obtained by multivariate statistical techniques, it was suggested to reduce the negative effects of anxiety in the learning process.

Kadir YO?URTÇU; Gökçe YO?URTÇU

2013-01-01

135

Path dependencies and institutional bricolage in post-Soviet water governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following their independence, the two Central Asian states of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan decided on similar water governance reforms: transfer of local irrigation management to water user associations, introduction of pricing mechanisms, and establishment of hydrographic management principles. In both states, however, proper implementation is lacking. This paper aims to explain this contradiction and focuses on agricultural water governance reforms at the local level as an interdependent part of a multilevel water governance structure.Based on empirical findings, four variables through which the neopatrimonial context in both countries impacts water governance are identified: the decision-making process, the agricultural sector, the local governance institutions, and internal water-institutional linkages. A historical-institutionalist perspective shows how path dependencies limit reform effectiveness: institutionalised Soviet and pre-Soviet patterns of behaviour still shape actors’ responses to new challenges. Consequently, rules and organisations established formally by the state or international donor organisations are undermined by informal institutions. Yet, informal institutions are not only an obstacle to reform, but can also support it. They are not static but dynamic. This is elucidated with the concept of 'institutional bricolage', which explains how local actors recombine elements of different institutional logics and thereby change their meaning.

Jenniver Sehring

2009-01-01

136

National independence and nonproliferation in the new states of Central Asia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five independent states emerged in Central Asia from the breakup of the USSR. One of these states, Kazakhstan, possesses nuclear weapons. The other four of these states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are not known to possess nuclear weapons, however they occupy a geostrategic position which makes them important to non-proliferation efforts. The present report profiles the capabilities and intentions of these four Central Asian states. The analysis of capabilities suggests that none of these states has the capability to develop a usable nuclear weapon. However, all of these countries-- especially Uzbekistan--have components of the old Soviet nuclear weapons complex which are now orphans. They have no use for these facilities and must either re-profile them, destroy them, or transfer them. The analysis of intentions suggests that the dynamics of national independence have created a situation in which Uzbekistan has hegemonic designs in the region. Implications for retarding nuclear proliferation in the Central Asian region are examined. Opportunities for outside influence are assessed.

Gleason, G.

1993-12-01

137

Relative Efficiency of Iranian Health Sector among Some Islamic Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Government Healthcare expenditure in many countries reaches to 6 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Efficiency of these expenditures is very important, and any change in this expenditure have notable effects on economic variables. Present study was aimed to estimate the ef- ficiency of Iran government healthcare expenditures among some Islamic countries. Methods: We use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method to measuring efficiency of health sector in 24 Islamic countries in period 2000-05. This method takes data on countries outputs and inputs, and measures the efficiency of a particular country by its distance from the ‘outer envelope’ of the data. Estimated efficiency score shows country’s efficiencies in expenditure transmuting to good health indicators. Results: Our findings shows that Standardized Death rate, Under Five Year Mortality rate, and Un- dernourishment Prevalence is main causes of Iranian health sector’s deficiency. Estimated overall ef- ficiency for Iranian health sector is 0.31 that point very low efficiency among other Islamic countries. Conclusion: Efficient health expenditure size for Iran is one third of current spending. DEA method specify full efficient units and denote for each country one or more references to improve its efficiency. To improve Iran healthcare expenditures we suggest Kyrgyzstan and Indonesia model.

E Hoseini Nasab; M Basakha

2009-01-01

138

Reduction of radiometric miscalibration--applications to pushbroom sensors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework-Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME)-considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program) scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data.

Rogass C; Spengler D; Bochow M; Segl K; Lausch A; Doktor D; Roessner S; Behling R; Wetzel HU; Kaufmann H

2011-01-01

139

Vulnerability to Poverty in select Central Asian Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the extant literature either income or consumption expenditures as measured over short periods of time have been regarded as a proxy for the material well-being of households. However, economists have long recognized that a household's sense of well-being depends not just on its average income or expenditures, but also on the risks it faces and its ability to deal with these risks. Hence vulnerability is a more satisfactory measure of welfare. In this study we used the concept of vulnerability as expected poverty to assess the household vulnerability to poverty in four Central Asian countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Except for Tajikistan, headcount poverty and vulnerability rates are significantly different. We also find that vulnerability differs significantly across households by location and selected household characteristics. In this paper we use a simple empirical measurement that allows estimating the headcount vulnerability to poverty using cross-section data. This measurement is based on the strong assumption that households have the same conditional distribution of consumption in a stationary environment. While this approach cannot capture all dimensions of vulnerability, it at least begins to raise the policy issue that vulnerability should be considered alongside poverty.

Raghbendra Jha; Tu Dang

2009-01-01

140

Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flour, first grade flour and high grade flour. The samples were analyzed using classical mycological and immunoassay methods in order to detect mycotoxins producing fungi species. We isolated overall 27 species belonging to 7 genera. Mycotoxins producing species like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium cyclopium were detected in the stored grains and in mechanically-cleaned grains. The species of Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium genera dominated in roughly-milled flour samples, so this site of flour manufacture still has a risk and danger of contamination with mycotoxins producing fungus. Only the final product i.e. the high grade flour lacked any fungal contamination. We recommend to scrutinize flour samples at the last stages of processing, particularly in the mills like ?1, ?1 and ?4.

T.D. Doolotkeldieva

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Transmission ecosystems of Echinococcus multilocularis in China and Central Asia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY From continental to regional scales, the zoonosis alveolar echinococcosis (AE) (caused by Echinococcus multilocularis) forms discrete patches of endemicity within which transmission hotspots of much larger prevalence may occur. Since the late 80s, a number of hotspots have been identified in continental Asia, mostly in China, wherein the ecology of intermediate host communities has been described. This is the case in south Gansu, at the eastern border of the Tibetan plateau, in south Ningxia, in the western Tian Shan of Xinjiang, and in the Alay valley of south Kyrgyzstan. Here we present a comparative natural history and characteristics of transmission ecosystems or ecoscapes. On this basis, regional types of transmission and their ecological characteristics have been proposed in a general framework. Combining climatic, land cover and intermediate host species distribution data, we identified and mapped 4 spatially distinct types of transmission ecosystems typified by the presence of one of the following small mammal 'flagship' species: Ellobius tancrei, Ochotona curzoniae, Lasiopodomys brandtii or Eospalax fontanierii. Each transmission ecosystem had its own characteristics which can serve as a reference for further in-depth research in the transmission ecology of E. multilocularis. This approach may be used at fine spatial scales to characterize other poorly known transmission systems of the large Eurasian endemic zone, and help in consideration of surveillance systems and interventions.

Giraudoux P; Raoul F; Afonso E; Ziadinov I; Yang Y; Li L; Li T; Quéré JP; Feng X; Wang Q; Wen H; Ito A; Craig PS

2013-06-01

142

Los retos de la cooperación regional en Asia central: Más sombras que luces en la gestión de los recursos hídricos compartidos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Examining the situation in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tayikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) is an interesting excercice in order to analyze the evolution of the international environmental security concept. As an exemple of how environmental changes may come to acquire an entity such as to be perceived as a threat when they combine with inequitable allocation of resources, we focus on shared water resources management. The framework at international level should be the two main instruments in this field, the 1992 Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes and the 1997 Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. On the one hand, Central Asian States have shown only a weak commitment to these international regimes. On the contrary, they have prioritized the former URSS’s model of water and energy exchange. This model, as being unsustainable and inequitable, favors the extreme dichotomy between the two major competing uses of water in the region (irrigation and hydropower production). On the other hand, some sub-regional institutions served to clarify the articulation of water management structures. However, because of important issues on their internal organization, they have not been able to achieve their mission and their efforts seems to be directed to seek stability and the status quo in Central Asia.

Mar Campins Eritja

2010-01-01

143

Ukraine and Russia: major InterNICHE outreach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During October 2005, InterNICHE National Contacts Anya Yushchenko and Lena Maroueva, and Co-ordinator Nick Jukes, began a large-scale promotion of alternatives across the Ukraine and Russia. The InterNICHE outreach produced a number of positive results: presentations, demonstrations and training in alternatives to over 500 teachers and students; agreements at two institutes to replace harmful animal use in education across a whole department and faculty respectively; information gathering, and discussions with teachers about potential future replacement; reaching a massive audience through positive media coverage; and empowerment of campaigners, including InterNICHE National Contacts who successfully organised the majority of the activities. To continue the successes, funds to enlarge the Russian micro-Loan System of alternatives and to make donations of alternatives to institutes are urgently needed. Support for broadening the InterNICHE impact across Ukraine, Russia and Asian republics through the distribution of translated literature, video, freeware alternatives and web-based resources is also required. Such activity not only supports the development of a progressive, humane education, but impacts positively on animal use in research and testing by creating an environment more conducive to alternatives in general. This is important now as animal testing laboratories consider relocating in or sub-contracting to ex-Soviet countries and in central Asia. New InterNICHE connections have already been made with Belarus, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan, and there are many open doors.

Jukes N

2005-01-01

144

Cooperação e poder: a Organização de Cooperação de Shangai como expressão da política externa chinesa para a Ásia Central  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan established the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. This international organization represents the first Chinese initiative in building an international security organization. This article aims to study the Chinese Foreign Policy for Central Asia from the perspective of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. We seek to answer how this international organization enables the Chinese state to achieve its interests in Central Asia. / No início do século XXI, Cazaquistão, China, Quirguistão, Rússia, Tajiquistão e Uzbequistão criaram a Organização de Cooperação de Shangai. A proeminência dessa organização internacional está no fato de ela representar a primeira iniciativa chinesa na construção de um organismo internacional de segurança. O presente artigo tem por objetivo estudar a Política Externa Chinesa para a Ásia Central sob a ótica da Organização de Cooperação de Shangai. Como problemática, busca- se responder de que maneira essa organização internacional possibilita ao Estado chinês atingir seus interesses na região centro asiática.

Andréa Freire Lucena; Helder Paulo Machado Silva

2011-01-01

145

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS), are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan) which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

T. Schöne; C. Zech; K. Unger-Shayesteh; V. Rudenko; H. Thoss; H.-U. Wetzel; A. Zubovich

2012-01-01

146

Plant extracts from central Asia showing antiinflammatory activities in gene expression assays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant natural products remain a good resource for the discovery of novel pharmaceuticals. A mouse macrophage-based quantitative, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) system was optimized to screen plant extracts for antiinflammatory activities using three well known genetic markers of inflammation. Plants used for extraction were taxonomically identified and vouchered species from two Central Asian countries, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, collected through the International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) program. The mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin 1beta and inducible nitric oxide synthase genes in RAW macrophages was determined quantitatively in response to treatment with plant extracts applied at 100 microg/mL. The screening of 1000 extracts from 449 plant species belonging to 68 plant families resulted in 75 extracts (7.5%) showing strong (75% or higher inhibition) activity against at least one target gene. Many extracts showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of activities against each target gene. Extracts identified from this screen were able to reduce inflammatory symptoms in vivo, thereby validating the screening approach.

Dey M; Ripoll C; Pouleva R; Dorn R; Aranovich I; Zaurov D; Kurmukov A; Eliseyeva M; Belolipov I; Akimaliev A; Sodombekov I; Akimaliev D; Lila MA; Raskin I

2008-07-01

147

Has global fund support for civil society advocacy in the former Soviet Union established meaningful engagement or 'a lot of jabber about nothing'?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although civil society advocacy for health issues such as HIV transmission through injecting drug use is higher on the global health agenda than previously, its impact on national policy reform has been limited. In this paper we seek to understand why this is the case through an examination of civil society advocacy efforts to reform HIV/AIDS and drugs-related policies and their implementation in three former Soviet Union countries. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine by national researchers with representatives from a sample of 49 civil society organizations (CSOs) and 22 national key informants. We found that Global Fund support resulted in the professionalization of CSOs, which increased confidence from government and increased CSO influence on policies relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs. Interviewees also reported that the amount of funding for advocacy from the Global Fund was insufficient, indirect and often interrupted. CSOs were often in competition for Global Fund support, which caused resentment and limited collective action, further weakening capacity for effective advocacy.

Harmer A; Spicer N; Aleshkina J; Bogdan D; Chkhatarashvili K; Murzalieva G; Rukhadze N; Samiev A; Walt G

2013-05-01

148

Malaria Status in Economic Cooperation Countries; Achievement and Gaps toward United Nations Millennium Development Goals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Evaluating the malaria status of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) member countries relation to goal 6 of 3rd Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which includes have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria. METHODS: By 2009, we reviewed the MDGs reports, extracted the data from surveillance system, published, and unpublished data. The main stakeholders, from both governmental and international organizations in the country have been visited and interviewed by the research team as part of the data validation process. RESULTS: The malaria incidence is very heterogeneous among ECO countries, which differ less than 200 cases in total country in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan to 82,564 cases (2,428/100,000) in Afghanistan and 59,284 cases (881/100,000) in Pakistan and about 18/100,000 in Iran in 2008. Malaria has been a major public health problem in Pakistan and Afghanistan and will continue to pose serious threat to millions of people due to poor environmental and socioeconomic conditions conducive to the spread of disease. The main malaria endemic areas of Iran are in southeastern part of the country; consist of less developed provinces that are bordered in the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan. There are little valid information about proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures indicators. CONCLUSION: All ECO countries could achieve MDGs malaria indicators by 2015 except Pakistan and Afghanistan, unless preparing urgent intervention programs to fulfill the goals.

Holakouie Naieni K; Malekafzali H; Rashidian A; Vazirian P; Moradi G; Mirzazadeh A; Mirmohammadkhani M; Shamshiri A

2012-01-01

149

The persistence of irregular treatment of hypertension in the former Soviet Union.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the leading causes of avoidable mortality in the former Soviet Union (fSU). In previous work, the authors described patterns of irregular hypertension treatment in eight countries of the fSU in 2001. This paper presents new data on changes in the use of hypertension treatment in the same countries. METHODS: Using household survey data from 18?420 (2001) and 17?914 (2010) respondents from Armenia, Azerbaijan (2010 only), Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine, the authors describe changes in rates of irregular treatment use (less than daily) between 2001 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression was also used to analyse the characteristics associated with irregular treatment. RESULTS: Irregular treatment was extremely high at 74% in 2001 and only fell to 68% in 2010 (all countries combined). Irregular treatment remained particularly high in 2010 in Armenia (79%), Kazakhstan (73%) and Moldova (73%). Recurring characteristics associated with irregular treatment included gender (men), younger age, higher fitness levels, and consuming alcohol and tobacco. CONCLUSIONS: Irregular hypertension treatment continues to be a major problem in the countries of the fSU and requires an urgent response.

Roberts B; Stickley A; Balabanova D; Haerpfer C; McKee M

2012-11-01

150

Exposure Estimation from Multi-Resolution Optical Satellite Imagery for Seismic Risk Assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Given high urbanization rates and increasing spatio-temporal variability in many present-day cities, exposure information is often out-of-date, highly aggregated or spatially fragmented, increasing the uncertainties associated with seismic risk assessments. This work therefore aims at using space-based technologies to estimate, complement and extend exposure data at multiple scales, over large areas and at a comparatively low cost for the case of the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. At a neighborhood scale, an analysis of urban structures using medium-resolution optical satellite images is performed. Applying image classification and change-detection analysis to a time-series of Landsat images, the urban environment can be delineated into areas of relatively homogeneous urban structure types, which can provide a first estimate of an exposed building stock (e.g., approximate age of structures, composition and distribution of predominant building types). At a building-by-building scale, a more detailed analysis of the exposed building stock is carried out using a high-resolution Quickbird image. Furthermore, the multi-resolution datasets are combined with census data to disaggregate population statistics. The tools used within this study are being developed on a free- and open-source basis and aim at being transparent, usable and transferable.

Marc Wieland; Massimiliano Pittore; Stefano Parolai; Jochen Zschau

2012-01-01

151

Changing patterns of fruit and vegetable intake in countries of the former Soviet Union.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess how the frequency of low fruit and vegetable consumption has changed in countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) between 2001 and 2010 and to identify factors associated with low consumption. DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys. A standard questionnaire was administered at both time points to examine fruit and vegetable consumption frequency. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between demographic, socio-economic and health behavioural variables and low fruit and vegetable consumption in 2010. SETTING: Nationally representative population samples from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. SUBJECTS: Adults aged 18 years and older. RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2010 notable changes occurred in fruit and vegetable consumption in many countries resulting in a slight overall deterioration in diet. By 2010 in six countries about 40 % of the population was eating fruit once weekly or less often, while for vegetables the corresponding figure was in excess of 20 % in every country except Azerbaijan. A worse socio-economic situation, negative health behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and rural residence were all associated with low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. CONCLUSIONS: International dietary guidelines emphasise the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption. The scale of inadequate consumption of these food groups among much of the population in many FSU countries and its link to socio-economic disadvantage are deeply worrying. This highlights the urgent need for a greater focus to be placed on population nutrition policies to avoid nutrition-related diseases in the FSU countries.

Krull Abe S; Stickley A; Roberts B; Richardson E; Abbott P; Rotman D; McKee M

2013-05-01

152

Access to HIV counseling and testing among people who inject drugs in Central Asia: Strategies for improving access and linkages to treatment and care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: As a population profoundly affected by the HIV epidemic and in critical need of linkages to HIV treatment and care, PWID in Central Asia remain largely underserved. This paper provides an overview of the current state of HIV testing and counseling in Central Asia for PWID, identifies main barriers leading to gaps in service delivery, and discusses implications for improving strategies that promote HIV testing for PWID. METHODS: We reviewed a number of sources for this paper including unpublished government reports, published papers, and Ministries of Health of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan country progress reports to the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) for 2012. RESULTS: Between 29 and 65% of PLWH in some Central Asian countries have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months. The rates have been increasing in the recent years but still are relatively low. Stigma, discrimination, human rights violations, and repressive legislation are barriers to HTC for people who inject drugs (PWID). CONCLUSION: The use of innovative evidence-based HTC models, such as community mobile-vans, self-testing at home, and rapid HIV testing among PWID in Central Asia are discussed and recommendations given regarding amendments in legislation and scaling up of existing community-based pilot projects to support HIV testing among PWID in CA.

Terlikbayeva A; Zhussupov B; Primbetova S; Gilbert L; Atabekov N; Giyasova G; Ruziev M; Soliev A; Saliev D; El-Bassel N

2013-07-01

153

The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

PASSELL, HOWARD D.; BARBER, DAVID S.; BETSILL, J. DAVID; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.; MOHAGHEGHI, AMIR H.; SHANKS, SONOYA T.; YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV,BAJGABYL; VALENTINA,ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN,VLADIMIR; POZNIAK,VICTOR

2002-04-02

154

The Nuvruz Project: Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Transboundary Rivers End of Year One Reports  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors. The Navruz project has a duration of three years. This document contains the reports from each of the participating institutions following the first year of data collection. While a majority of samples from the Navruz project are within normal limits, a preliminary analysis does indicate a high concentration of selenium in the Kazakhstan samples. Uzbekistan samples contain high uranium and thorium concentrations, as well as elevated levels of chromium, antimony and cesium. Additionally, elevated concentrations of radioactive isotopes have been detected at one Tajikistan sampling location. Further analysis will be published in a subsequent report.

YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV, BAJGABYL; VALENTINA, ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN, VLADIMIR; POZNIAK, VICTOR; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.

2002-09-01

155

10 points about buying C.I.S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On October 16, 1992, the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) settled the antidumping case against the CIS republics by imposing price and volume quotas on CIS uranium imported into the United States. Bound by a suspension agreement, each of the six uranium-producing CIS republics is responsible for restricting the flow of imports to the US-either directly or indirectly. (As the NUKEM Market Report went to press, the Ukraine government notified the DOC of its intent not to terminate the suspension agreement.) This action is to prevent undercutting price levels in the US domestic uranium markets. What follows are ten points about everything you should know about importing uranium from the uranium-producing CIS republics- Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Newcomers to the CIS scene should follow this simple roadmap and be aware of the issues they face as importers in terms of Commerce/Customs requirements and documentation and where to get them, when to buy the material and how to transport it, how to deal effectively with CIS exporters, and how to avoid unnecessary complications when buying CIS.

1993-01-01

156

Nuclear science and its application. Book of abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The specialists and scientists from the following countries - Azerbaijan, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Austria, USA, Tajikistan, Russia took part at the Fourth Eurasian Conference devoted to Nuclear Science and its application, held in Baku during 31 Oct - 03 Nov 2006. The main activity of this conference has covered a wide range of topics that are of a great importance for countries in Eurasia. The fields which were considered included present state and prospective of nuclear energy development, fundamental issues of nuclear sciences, regional environmental problems and application of nuclear technologies. The special attention is given to problems of non-proliferation and prevention of illicit trafficking. This book consists of 4 sections, one part of plenary reports, then the author indexes are given here and at the end of this book there is a shift of addresses of all the participants. Section 1 is devoted to consideration of using the nuclear energy. Section 2 is devoted to solving of the basic problems of nuclear physics. Radiation ecology considered in section 3. Section 4 is devoted to consideration of application of nuclear technologies in industry, medicine and agriculture.

2006-11-03

157

State-Propagated Narratives about a National Defender in Central Asian States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between narratives propagated by the state about a historical national hero and a contemporary soldier's professional ideology in the post-Soviet Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). It argues that while elite-maintained mass publishing of cohesive narratives about a vividly drawn historical persona, male and warrior, trigger at raising a loyal soldier unified with his compatriots on the basis of cultural values and objects of loyalty, state elites seek to link a contemporary army recruit with his historical predecessors who fought for unity, integrity, and  dominance of the nation. But the link inevitably merges with ethno-centric ideas of protecting the cultural community identified with the narrative, as opposed to a physical entity within the state borders. State elites  reinforce the significance of military experience of the titular ethnic entity in accordance with their own political interests. Narratives about a national defender articulate what the political elites expect from the military service but are restrained from depicting in official policy documents. In order to reach effective results, the Central Asian states retained the same Soviet tools of cultivating patriotism as the basis for the army's internal discipline, but primordial characters have also been incorporated into the indoctrination.

Erica Marat

2007-01-01

158

The specter of post-communism: women and alcohol in eight post-Soviet states.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because men have borne the heaviest burden of premature mortality in the former Soviet Union, women have for the most part been overlooked in studies of the health crisis in this part of the world. A considerable body of research points to alcohol consumption among males as a primary lifestyle cause of premature mortality. However, the extent to which alcohol use has penetrated the female population following the collapse of communism and how this consumption is associated with other social factors is less well-understood. Accordingly, this paper investigates alcohol consumption in eight republics of the former USSR - Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine using data collected in 2001. More specifically, discussion of gender role transformations and the historical experiences of women during the Soviet era emphasize two potentially important social influences examined in this analysis: psychological distress and Soviet political ideology. Findings suggest that distress is only weakly statistically associated with frequent drinking behavior among women, but results for political ideology show that this factor is statistically and significantly associated with drinking behaviors. Alcohol consumption was not particularly common among women under communism, but trends have been changing. Our discussion suggests that, after the collapse of the Soviet state, women are more able to embrace behavioral practices related to alcohol, and many may do so as an overt rejection of traditional Soviet norms and values. Findings are also discussed within the context of current epidemiological trends and future research directions in these eight republics.

Hinote BP; Cockerham WC; Abbott P

2009-04-01

159

Central Asia: A major emerging energy player in the 21st century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term. (author)

2006-01-01

160

Transmission ecosystems of Echinococcus multilocularis in China and Central Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY From continental to regional scales, the zoonosis alveolar echinococcosis (AE) (caused by Echinococcus multilocularis) forms discrete patches of endemicity within which transmission hotspots of much larger prevalence may occur. Since the late 80s, a number of hotspots have been identified in continental Asia, mostly in China, wherein the ecology of intermediate host communities has been described. This is the case in south Gansu, at the eastern border of the Tibetan plateau, in south Ningxia, in the western Tian Shan of Xinjiang, and in the Alay valley of south Kyrgyzstan. Here we present a comparative natural history and characteristics of transmission ecosystems or ecoscapes. On this basis, regional types of transmission and their ecological characteristics have been proposed in a general framework. Combining climatic, land cover and intermediate host species distribution data, we identified and mapped 4 spatially distinct types of transmission ecosystems typified by the presence of one of the following small mammal 'flagship' species: Ellobius tancrei, Ochotona curzoniae, Lasiopodomys brandtii or Eospalax fontanierii. Each transmission ecosystem had its own characteristics which can serve as a reference for further in-depth research in the transmission ecology of E. multilocularis. This approach may be used at fine spatial scales to characterize other poorly known transmission systems of the large Eurasian endemic zone, and help in consideration of surveillance systems and interventions. PMID:23734823

Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Afonso, Eve; Ziadinov, Iskender; Yang, Yurong; Li, Li; Li, Tiaoying; Quéré, Jean-Pierre; Feng, Xiaohui; Wang, Qian; Wen, Hao; Ito, Akira; Craig, Philip S

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Central Asia: A major emerging energy player in the 21st century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term. (author)

Dorian, James P. [International Energy Economist, 6201 Benalder Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20816 (United States)

2006-03-15

162

Investigation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central Asia and Caucasus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Various threats to civilization such as natural and man-induced catastrophes, international terrorism, ecological imbalance, global climate change and others hazards have been recently increased in number. Today catastrophic processes are notable for a high degree of organization The humankind has faced the majority of hazards for the first time; therefore, there are no analogues and recipes to be used for their solving. Catastrophe risk have increased so much and joint efforts of the entire world immunity are required. One of the most effective ways to solve the issue can be estimation of risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes. Here we pay attention to the main regions, having the high seismic activities, where it is possible to stimulate natural calamities in this way or cause man-induced catastrophes with huge negative effects of international scale in Central Asia and Caucasus: Uranium, antimony and mercury tailing storages in Tian-Shan mountains. The possible terrorism acts here create the serious danger for Russian and USA military air bases, functioned near large Kyrgyzstan capital Bishkek city. The large Hydroelectric Stations with their huge dams and reservoirs, located near big industrial cities, different natural mines tailing storages, including Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Polygon in East Kazakhstan

2005-01-01

163

Transition in Central Asia: Growth with Increasingly Greater Inequality?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses the economic evolution of the former Soviet states of Central Asia since their independence, especially in regard to growth and in comparison with growing inequality. The following topics are considered: first of all, the initial conditions in whichthe economic transition of these countries began; secondly, the transformations of widely varying scope (different “routes of transition”) that these economies have experienced, from an almost non-reform (Turkmenistan) or a gradual or partial reform (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan), to a large-scale reform (Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan); and thirdly, the economic performance of the Central Asian states, which, with the exception of Uzbekistan, has been quite poor and has generated what we could call two kinds of “duality”: one which is generated by the expansion of extracting industries (oil, gas and metals), to the detriment of other sectors fundamental to the countries’ development, and another one originating from the growingunequal distribution of income among the population. While the first of these “dualities” cannot be maintained as a long-term development strategy, the second one could culminate in social agitation and instability, even in the medium term, which could contribute to thedestabilisation of the already fragile and volatile region of Central Asia.

Max Spoor

2005-01-01

164

Remediation project planning at the uranium production legacy sites. Lesson learned from the best international practice and challenges for developing countries - 59043  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The former Soviet Union countries such as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine, where uranium production legacy sites are located (such as mines, waste rock piles, pits, chemical and hydrometallurgical plants, tailing dumps, etc.) are currently facing the challenge of making these objects environmentally safe. These countries share a common history of the uranium mining and milling industry, similar regulatory shortcomings and uncertainties regarding the strategy justification for such remediation projects. They also have to deal with scarcity of financial resources for long-term remediation programmes, and lack of experience with planning and management of environmental remediation projects at former uranium production sites. In the recent years, IAEA-supported programmes of international technical co-operation (the projects RER/0986 and RER/3010) were advancing actively, as well as those sponsored by the UNDP, EurAsEC and others, all aiming to assist with the preparedness and performance of future remediation projects. As demonstrated by analysis, effectiveness of the many programmes largely depends on the nations' level of preparedness to carry out remediation projects in accordance with the international standards. This paper presents the lessons learned from analyses of the different type of projects, which were already implemented or which are still in plan in different countries

2012-01-01

165

'Navruz' International project - the first results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Navruz' international project is subjected to purpose of a transparency increase for the Central Asia countries in the nuclear sphere and incorporates 4 states: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.The project is supported by the Sandia National Laboratory of USA Department of Energy. The representative from Kazakhstan in this project is the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (INP of NNC RK). The gist of the project comprises in ecological and radiation monitoring of the Amu-Darya and Syrdarya rivers, those aquatories are adjoined to all these listed participant-counters. The project duration is 2 years. Each country defines 15 control points on their territory. Two times a year (in spring and autumn) on these points the environment objects the sampling (water, soil, bottom sediments, plants) will be selected for further examination. There are natural radionuclides (236Ra, 228Th, 210Pb, 137Cs, 90Sr, 239Pu, 241Am) and toxic impurities (U, Pb, Se, Sb, As, Be and others) used for controlled parameters for examined objects. As administrators of analytical works two organizations (INP of NNC RK, Almaty, Kazakhstan) and INP AN RUz (Tashkent, Uzbekistan)) were determined. In the paper the field works results of the first expedition (November-December 2000) of the INP of NNC RK and analytical works of selected samples of the environmental objects were presented.

2001-01-01

166

Uluslararas? Güvenlik: Olmak ya da Olmamak (International Security: To Be or Not To Be)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Three Greats (USA, USSR and GB) fixed their areas of influence during the Postdam Conference, which paved the end of the WW II. But the rivalry especially between the USA and USSR brought about emergence of the bipolar world. The Cold War that longed by the collapse of the USSR determined geopolitical and strategical strugles of the Great Powers in Europe and other places. Though there established a relatively peaceful environment in Europe for about 50 years, the USA and its independent allies experienced a serial of military interventions from 1948 on. After the September 11, 2001, the USA opened military bases in Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan and Uzbekistan, with the approval of the Russian Federation, and thus gained geopolitic success. After the collapse of the USSR, Russian troops intervened in some events in various places for peace keeping or struggle with terrorism. In this way, a "relative peace" was established after about 50 years from the WW II. This essay focuses on the critical developments after the end of the bipolar world.

Inar Gitsba

2010-01-01

167

Crystallographic analysis of the structure of livingstonite HgSb4S8 from refined data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An X-ray diffraction study of mineral livingstonite (HgSb4S8) from Khaydarkan (Kyrgyzstan) has been performed on a Bruker Nonius X8Apex diffractometer with a 4K CCD detector (R = 0.031). The unit-cell parameters were found to be a = 30.1543(10) A, b = 3.9953(2) A, c = 21.4262(13) A, ? = 104.265(1)o, V = 2501.7(2) A3, Z = 8, dcalcd = 5.013 g/cm3, and sp. gr. A2/a. It was confirmed that livingstonite belongs to rod-layers structures. In one type of layer, two double Sb2S4 chains are bound by disulfide groups [S2]2- (S-S 2.078(2) A); in the other type, these chains are bound via Hg2+ cations. A crystallographic analysis confirmed the existence of independent pseudotranslational ordering in the cation and anion matrices, which is characteristic of the lozenge-like structures of sulfides and sulfosalts.

2010-01-01

168

Note from the Editor-in-Chief  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eventful few months in the Caucasus, Russia and wider Eurasia precede our Spring 2010 issue. Of course, the dramatic civic upheaval in Kyrgyzstan, the suicide bomb attacks in the Moscow metro and the victory of a more pro-Russian leader in Ukraine’s presidential elections top the list. In the meantime, the Turkish–Armenian thaw appears to be at the deadlock. Armenia has suspended the process following Ankara’s insistence that Yerevan works first to find a sustainable solution to the Karabakh problem, something for which Baku has been repeatedly calling. For its part, Azerbaijan’s government has serious concerns that by overemphasizing the protocols and not considering Baku’s position, Armenia and the West are thus ignoring the Karabakh issue. At a historic summit in Baku attended by religious leaders from around the world, including Catholicos Garegin II, head of the Armenian Apostolic Church, calls for a peaceful solution have emerged. The need for all nations concerned to heed these calls is great

Nasimi Aghayev

2010-01-01

169

The Navruz experiment. Cooperative monitoring for radionuclides and metals in Central Asia transboundary rivers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In March of 2000, scientists from four nuclear physics research institutes in the Central Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and the U.S. Sandia National Laboratories embarked on a three-year cooperative transboundary river monitoring experiment. The experiment, named Navruz (meaning 'new beginning'), uses standardized methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: (1) to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; (2) to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and (3) to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources. Contamination of these rivers is a result of growing population, urbanization, agricultural uses, and radioactive and metals contamination from a legacy of uranium mining, industry, and other activities of the former Soviet Union. The project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of the importance of these contaminants to public health and political stability in Central Asia. Moreover, the method of enabling scientists from bordering countries to study a transboundary problem, can lead to a greater scientific understanding, consensus on necessary mitigation steps, and ultimately the political resolution of the issue. The project scope, approach, and preliminary results are presented. (author)

2005-01-01

170

Cancer epidemiology and control in North-Western and Central Asia - past, present and future.  

Science.gov (United States)

The North-Western and Central region of Asia stretches from Turkey through Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, to Iran and Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan and Afghanistan. These countries in the main share Turkic, Iranian or Caucasus ethnicity and culture and can be considered as a regional entity for cooperation in control of cancer. The present review of cancer registry and other epidemiological data was undertaken to provide an evidence base for cancer control programs and pointers to possible research collaboration. The most prevalent cancer site in males is the lung in the Western part of the region and the stomach in most of Iran and Central Asia, followed by the oesophagus in the latter two. Bladder cancer is comparatively frequent throughout. In females breast cancer is number one, generally followed by gastric, oesophageal or cervical lesions. However, there are interesting differences between countries or regions, particularly regarding the stomach. General tendencies for increase in adenocarcinomas but decrease in squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cancer point to change in environmental influence over time. Variation in risk factors depends to some extent on the level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control, underlying the necessity for cooperation. PMID:20553066

Moore, Malcolm A; Eser, Sultan; Igisinov, Nurbek; Igisinov, Saginbek; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Mousavi-Jarrahi, Alireza; Ozentürk, Gülsün; Soipova, Mashhura; Tuncer, Murat; Sobue, Tomotaka

2010-01-01

171

Cancer epidemiology and control in North-Western and Central Asia - past, present and future.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The North-Western and Central region of Asia stretches from Turkey through Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, to Iran and Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan and Afghanistan. These countries in the main share Turkic, Iranian or Caucasus ethnicity and culture and can be considered as a regional entity for cooperation in control of cancer. The present review of cancer registry and other epidemiological data was undertaken to provide an evidence base for cancer control programs and pointers to possible research collaboration. The most prevalent cancer site in males is the lung in the Western part of the region and the stomach in most of Iran and Central Asia, followed by the oesophagus in the latter two. Bladder cancer is comparatively frequent throughout. In females breast cancer is number one, generally followed by gastric, oesophageal or cervical lesions. However, there are interesting differences between countries or regions, particularly regarding the stomach. General tendencies for increase in adenocarcinomas but decrease in squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cancer point to change in environmental influence over time. Variation in risk factors depends to some extent on the level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control, underlying the necessity for cooperation.

Moore MA; Eser S; Igisinov N; Igisinov S; Mohagheghi MA; Mousavi-Jarrahi A; Ozentürk G; Soipova M; Tuncer M; Sobue T

2010-01-01

172

Reduction of Radiometric Miscalibration—Applications to Pushbroom Sensors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework—Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME)—considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program) scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data.

Christian Rogaß; Daniel Spengler; Mathias Bochow; Karl Segl; Angela Lausch; Daniel Doktor; Sigrid Roessner; Robert Behling; Hans-Ulrich Wetzel; Hermann Kaufmann

2011-01-01

173

The closed Lake Issyk-Kul as an indicator of global warming in Tien-Shan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lake Issyk-Kul is the seventh deepest lake in the world situated inCentral Asiain theTien-ShanMountainsat the elevation of 1607 m above sea level. This area belongs toKyrgyzstan. From 1927 to 1997 the water level decreased by 3.4 m, and increased by 0.93 m from 1997 to 2011. The article analyzes the impact of the global warming on the Lake Issyk-Kul thermal regime and the components of its water balance: river discharge, precipitation, evaporation and lake level variations. It shows that the global warming has entailed the increase of the Lake Issyk-Kul water temperature down to the maximum depths, and river discharge increase due to the glaciers melting and the evaporation from the lake surface. The air temperature increase of 1 ? results in river discharge increas and lake level rise of 44 mm/year and surface evaporation increase of 88 mm/year. TheLakeIssyk-Kullevel increase after 1997, which takes place in the situation of global warming, was caused by the activation of the West air masses transport and increase of precipitation in autumn.

Vladimir V. Romanovsky; Saadat Tashbaeva; Jean-François Crétaux; Stephane Calmant; Vanessa Drolon

2013-01-01

174

Sustainable Land Management in the Pamir Alai Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on identifying of possible opportunities for local people, living in Pamir Alai region of Kyrgyzstan, particularly in Kashka Suu and Alaiku, by conducting analysis of such value chains as wool production and collection of berries and medicinal herbs. Identification of key features of these two value chains provides insight into which entities benefit from the value of products, and provides the basis for projecting possible additional income to the populations in the areas. Economic opportunities available for local population in Kashka Suu and Alaiku are very limited. Lack of opportunities linked to harsh terrain and climatic conditions makes livestock, including wool production, and collection of wild resources, are the most available sources of income for local communities. Population, living in Kashka Suu and Alaiku, is unable to produce good quality wool competitive even on domestic market, but investments in wool sector could help to improve livelihoods. Berries also play an important role in generating income, especially in off agricultural season. Income from berries is managed by women, and used for purchasing goods for family. Medicinal and aromatic plants and herbs sub sector is totally undeveloped and plays important role only for subsistence purposes.

Kenesh Shapakov; Jyldyz Tabaldieva; Altynai Davletalieva

2011-01-01

175

CrisisGroup  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Crisis Group (ICG) is a private, multinational organization "committed to strengthening the capacity of the international community to anticipate, understand and act to prevent and contain conflict." The ICG, which is chaired by former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari, is headquartered in Brussels and has advocacy offices in Washington DC, New York, and Paris. The organization currently operates field projects in nineteen crisis-affected countries and four continents: Algeria, Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, Sudan, and Zimbabwe in Africa; Myanmar, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan in Asia; Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia in Europe; and Colombia in Latin America. Teams of political analysts gather information from a wide range of sources, assess local conditions, and produce regular analytical reports, containing "practical recommendations targeted at key international decision-takers." For those users interested in exploring publications on issues related to conflict prevention and management, this is definitely a place to start. The heading "Browse by publication type," located on the main website, will allow users to browse a variety of resoures such as reports, briefings, speeches, podcasts and other multimedia and the latest news releases.

2002-01-01

176

Management of environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sustainable waste management and disposal is a societal challenge in terms of economics, public health and environmental impact. The situation in developing countries, and in particular those subject to extreme natural hazards, results in increased overall risk as governments prioritize investments to issues of perceived higher economic importance. This dissertation investigates environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia. Environmental risk from municipal solid waste landfill sites encompasses a wide range of topics within socio-economics, physical sciences and engineering and therefore necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach. The underlying study is an accumulative result of a three-year collaborative research project (Contract No. INCO-CT-2005-516732) funded within the Eu Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). The international cooperation involved European, Russian and Central Asian research partners forming a multi-disciplinary consortium covering: GIS technologies, geology / hydrogeology geophysics and geotechnical engineering; landfill design and operation and waste management. understanding the relevant socio-economic aspects and legislative frameworks was necessary to prepare results and recommendations to address stakeholders in the Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and uzbekistan. (author)

2009-01-01

177

3D and 2D inversion of magnetotelluric data from the continental collision zone in the Pamirs and Tien Shan, Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Many geodynamic processes governing intra-continental collisional orogeny are largely unexplained and controversial. A key question is the state and dynamic behaviour of the lithosphere at middle and lower crustal levels while continental collision progresses. The Pamir - Tien Shan region in Central Asia may be the best location on Earth to study such lithospheric deformation processes in situ. The mountain ranges and high plateaus formed at the tip of the north-western Indian promontory through the Cenozoic experienced rates of shortening similar to the adjacent Himalaya-Tibet system. Today, the Pamir - Tien Shan orogenic belt hosts some of the deepest active intra-continental subduction zones on Earth and absorbs the highest strain rate over the shortest distance that is manifested in the India-Asia collision zone. The multi-disciplinary Tien Shan - Pamir Geodynamic Program (TIPAGE) was designed to address some of the geodynamic key questions in this region. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out in concert with other geophysical and geological observations in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, predominantly along a 350 km long and 50 km wide corridor from southern Tajikistan to Osh in Kyrgyzstan across the Pamir Plateau and southern Tien Shan mountain ranges. In total we recorded MT data at 178 stations, 26 of them combine long-period and broad band recordings. We present and compare 2D and 3D MT inversion results. Strike analysis of the data revealed an overall mean geo-electric strike direction consistent with the predominant tectonic trends. 2D inversion yields a reasonable data fit, with exception of some sites which exhibit phases above 90 degrees. 3D inversion was carried out with the ModEM package. We inverted for all four impedance tensor components and the vertical magnetic transfer functions. Topography was also included. The 3D models are generally in agreement with the 2D results but achieve a better data fit, particularly phases which could not be fitted with 2D inversion. The MT inversions reveal an upper crust of the Pamirs, which is generally resistive, with embedded conductive parts correlating to suture zones. Several distinct zones of high conductivity appear beneath the southern Pamirs and the central/northern Pamir at mid crustal levels, possibly reaching mantle depths. We interpret the southern mid-crust conductor as hot and partially molten, viscous felsic material. To the north, the conductor is bound by a resistive block which correlates with the miocene gneiss of the Muskol dome. The second conductive zone north of the Muskol dome could originate from brittle and fractured crust. Faults and old deformation zones can form pathways for aqueous fluids in the crust. When highly mineralized fluids penetrate fractured brittle areas, the entire region can become conductive. Further north, the seismically active Main Pamir Thrust which separates the Pamir from the Tien Shan corresponds to a sharp, south-dipping conductivity contrast between resistive upper crust in the Pamirs and conductive crust beneath the Alai valley.

Sass, Paul; Ritter, Oliver; Rybin, Anatolii; Batalev, Vladislav

2013-04-01

178

Ionizing radiation sources management in the Commonwealth of Independent States - CIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation sources cover a broad band of power: from powerful NPP reactors and research reactors to portable radioisotope ionizing radiation sources applied in medicine, agriculture, industry and in the energy supply systems of remote facilities. At present, scales and use field of radionuclide sources in the CIS have the tendency to increase. In this connection, the issues of ionizing radiation sources management safety at all stages of their life cycle, from production to treatment, have been of a great importance. The materials on ionizing radiation sources inventory and treatment in the CIS (Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Ukraine) are presented in the report. It is shown that in some republics, there is difficulty in ionizing radiation sources accounting and control system; the national regulatory and legal framework bases regulating activity on radioactive sources use, localization and treatment require update. Many problems are connected with the sources beyond state accounting. The problem of ionizing radiation sources use safety is complicated by the growing activity of various terrorist groups. The opportunity to use ionizing radiation sources with terrorism goals requires the application of defined systems of security and physical protection at all stages of their management. For this purpose a collective, with all CIS countries, organization of radioactive sources accounting and control as well as countermeasures on their illegal transportation and use are necessary. In this connection, the information collection regarding situation with providing of ionizing radiation sources safety, conditions of equipment and storage facilities, radioactive materials accounting and control system in the CIS countries is vitally needed.

2006-01-01

179

The Virtual Silk Highway -- Connectivity for Central Asia and the Caucasus  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation focuses on Internet for research and education communities in the countries along the Great Silk Road, eight republics of the Former Soviet Union (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia) and Afghanistan. When the Internet became a standard science tool in the nineties, connectivity to this area was limited to analog telephone lines. The TAE fiber was installed from Istanbul via Tashkent to Shanghai, but it was based on international ISDN telephone calls at 10 per minute, unaffordable to communities with salaries of 300 per month. Satellites offered connectivity on short notice at better prices but funding by the communities was out of the question. Aid programs stepped in, connecting individual institutes across the area to the outside world. ISPs catered to those who could afford it, such as universities selling MBA courses, but Internet for research and education was lacking. In 2001, the NATO Science Programme added to its grants to institutes a multi-year program of providing a shared satellite service for international connectivity to all the countries above. National connectivity and solving the ``last mile problem'' was also funded, provided that a National Research and Education Network (NREN) organization was created in the country. SILK-1 ran 2002-6 for 3.5m providing 30Mbps west->east and 6Mbps east->west. QOS was implemented for video and audio conferencing. Co-funding by NRENs and others was established, but sustainability is still outstanding. Only recently, affordable fiber (<1k/month for 1 Mbps) is offered in parts of the area, so the RFP of SILK-2 in 2006 was issued in a technology-neutral way. No fiber bids were received, but a cheaper satellite service providing a total of 120/30Mbps for 3.5m in 2007-8. With fiber initiatives under way, it is hoped that part of SILK-2 can switch to fiber in 2009.

Frese, Hans

2007-04-01

180

Good Health at Low Cost 25 years on: lessons for the future of health systems strengthening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 1985, the Rockefeller Foundation published Good health at low cost to discuss why some countries or regions achieve better health and social outcomes than do others at a similar level of income and to show the role of political will and socially progressive policies. 25 years on, the Good Health at Low Cost project revisited these places but looked anew at Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Thailand, and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which have all either achieved substantial improvements in health or access to services or implemented innovative health policies relative to their neighbours. A series of comparative case studies (2009-11) looked at how and why each region accomplished these changes. Attributes of success included good governance and political commitment, effective bureaucracies that preserve institutional memory and can learn from experience, and the ability to innovate and adapt to resource limitations. Furthermore, the capacity to respond to population needs and build resilience into health systems in the face of political unrest, economic crises, and natural disasters was important. Transport infrastructure, female empowerment, and education also played a part. Health systems are complex and no simple recipe exists for success. Yet in the countries and regions studied, progress has been assisted by institutional stability, with continuity of reforms despite political and economic turmoil, learning lessons from experience, seizing windows of opportunity, and ensuring sensitivity to context. These experiences show that improvements in health can still be achieved in countries with relatively few resources, though strategic investment is necessary to address new challenges such as complex chronic diseases and growing population expectations.

Balabanova D; Mills A; Conteh L; Akkazieva B; Banteyerga H; Dash U; Gilson L; Harmer A; Ibraimova A; Islam Z; Kidanu A; Koehlmoos TP; Limwattananon S; Muraleedharan VR; Murzalieva G; Palafox B; Panichkriangkrai W; Patcharanarumol W; Penn-Kekana L; Powell-Jackson T; Tangcharoensathien V; McKee M

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Prevalence and psychosocial determinants of nicotine dependence in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Despite the high prevalence of smoking in the former Soviet Union (fSU), particularly among men, there is very little information on nicotine dependence in the region. The study aim was to describe the prevalence of nicotine dependence in 9 countries of the fSU and to examine the psychosocial factors associated with nicotine dependence. METHODS: Cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys using multistage random sampling were conducted in 2010 with men and women aged 18 years and over in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. The main outcome of interest was nicotine dependence using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Multivariate regression analysis was then used to explore the influence of a range of psychosocial factors on higher nicotine dependence. RESULTS: Mean nicotine dependence among men in the region as a whole was 3.96, with high dependence ranging from 17% in Belarus to 40% in Georgia. Among women, mean dependence was 2.96, with a prevalence of high dependence of 11% for the region. Gender (men), younger age of first smoking, lower education level, not being a member of an organization, bad household economic situation, high alcohol dependence, and high psychological distress showed significant associations with higher nicotine dependence. CONCLUSIONS: High nicotine dependence among men was recorded in a number of study countries. Findings highlight the need for tobacco programmes to target early age smokers and less educated and poorer groups and suggest common ground for programmes seeking to reduce nicotine dependence, harmful alcohol use, and psychological distress.

Roberts B; Gilmore A; Stickley A; Kizilova K; Prohoda V; Rotman D; Haerpfer C; McKee M

2013-01-01

182

INVESTIGATION OF CRUSTAL MOTION IN THE TIEN SHAN USING INSAR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

Mellors, R J

2011-02-25

183

Malaria Status in Economic Cooperation Countries; Achievement and Gaps Toward United Nations Millennium Development Goals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Evaluating the malaria status of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) member countries relation to goal 6 of 3rd Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which includes have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria.Methods: By 2009, we reviewed the MDGs reports, extracted the data from surveillance system, published, and unpublished data. The main stakeholders, from both governmental and international organizations in the country have been visited and interviewed by the research team as part of the data validation process.Results: The malaria incidence is very heterogeneous among ECO countries, which differ less than 200 cases in total country in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan to 82,564 cases (2,428/100,000) in Afghanistan and 59,284 cases (881/100,000) in Pakistan and about 18/100,000 in Iran in 2008. Malaria has been a major public health problem in Pakistan and Afghanistan and will continue to pose serious threat to millions of people due to poor environmental and socioeconomic conditions conducive to the spread of disease. The main malaria endemic areas of Iran are in southeastern part of the country; consist of less developed provinces that are bordered in the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan. There are little valid information about proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures indicators.Conclusion: All ECO countries could achieve MDGs malaria indicators by 2015 except Pakistan and Afghanistan, unless preparing urgent intervention programs to fulfill the goals.

K Holakouie Naieni; H Malekafzali; A Rashidian; P Vazirian; G Moradi; A Mirzazadeh; M Mirmohammadkhani; A Shamshiri

2012-01-01

184

Spatio-temporal development of high-mountain lakes in the headwaters of the Amu Darya River (Central Asia)  

Science.gov (United States)

The sources of the Amu Darya, one of the major Central Asian rivers draining to the Aral Sea, are located in the glacierized high-mountain areas of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan. There, climate change and the resulting retreat of glaciers have led to the formation of numerous new glacial lakes. Other lakes in the area are embedded in older glacial landscapes (erosion lakes) or retained by block or debris dams (e.g., Lake Sarez). A multi-temporal lake inventory is prepared and analysed, based on remotely sensed data. Corona images from 1968 are used as well as more up-to-date ASTER and Landsat 7 scenes. 1642 lakes are mapped in total, 652 out of them are glacial lakes. 73% of all lakes are located above 4000 m a.s.l. Glacial lakes, abundant in those areas where glacier tongues retreat over flat or moderately steep terrain, have experienced a significant growth, even though changes are often superimposed by short-term fluctuations. The analysis results also indicate a shifting of the growth of glacial lakes from the south western Pamir to the central and northern Pamir during the observation period. This trend is most likely associated with more elevated contribution areas in the central and northern Pamir. The lakes of the other types have remained constant in size in general. The lake development reflects changes in the state of the water resources in the study area on the one hand and determines the level of lake outburst hazards on the other hand.

Mergili, Martin; Müller, Johannes P.; Schneider, Jean F.

2013-08-01

185

Micro- and meso-level influences on obesity in the former Soviet Union: a multi-level analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists on obesity in the former Soviet Union (fSU), particularly its micro- and meso-level determinants. The objectives of this study were to determine age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of self-reported overweight and obesity in nine fSU countries; explore the relationship between individual and household (micro-level) factors and obesity; and explore the relationship between features of nutritional and physical environments (meso-level) and obesity. METHODS: Data were collected from 18,000 adults using household surveys and from 333 communities using community profiles in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine in 2010. Individual- and community-level determinants of self-reported obesity (body mass index ? 30 kg/m(2)) were analysed using multi-level random intercept logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 13% of the males and 18% of the females were categorized as obese. Factors associated with obesity in males were older age, increasing educational achievement, declining self-reported health, alcohol consumption and automobile ownership. Males who were current smokers, not married and perceived physical activity to be important were less likely to be obese. For females, obesity was associated with older age, completion of secondary-level education, declining self-reported health and average household financial situation. Unmarried women were less likely to be obese. Multi-level analysis indicated that individuals living in communities with higher presence of garbage were more likely to be obese. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine both micro- and meso-level influences on obesity in fSU using multi-level analysis. Findings indicate a similar obesity risk profile to countries in Western Europe and North America.

Watson K; Roberts B; Chow C; Goryakin Y; Rotman D; Gasparishvili A; Haerpfer C; McKee M

2013-04-01

186

Smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Smoking rates and corresponding levels of premature mortality from smoking-related diseases in the former Soviet Union (fSU) are among the highest in the world. To reduce this health burden, greater focus on smoking cessation is needed, but little is currently known about rates and characteristics of cessation in the fSU. METHODS: Nationally representative household survey data from a cross-sectional study of 18,000 respondents in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine were analyzed to describe patterns of desire and action taken to stop smoking, quit ratios (former ever-smokers as a percent of ever-smokers, without a specified recall period), and help used to stop smoking. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze characteristics associated with smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking. RESULTS: Quit ratios varied from 10.5% in Azerbaijan to 37.6% in Belarus. About 67.2% of respondents expressed a desire to quit, and 64.9% had taken action and tried to stop. The use of help to quit was extremely low (12.6%). Characteristics associated with cessation included being female, over 60, with higher education, poorer health, lower alcohol dependency, higher knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Characteristics associated with desire to stop smoking among current smokers included younger age, poorer health, greater knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. CONCLUSIONS: Quit ratios are low in the fSU but there is widespread desire to stop smoking. Stronger tobacco control and cessation support are urgently required to reduce smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality.

Footman K; Roberts B; Stickley A; Kizilova K; Rotman D; McKee M

2013-09-01

187

Criminal victimisation and health: examining the relation in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous research suggests that criminal victimisation can impact negatively on both physical and psychological health. However, as yet, little is known about crime and its effects on population health in the former Soviet Union (fSU) - despite a sharp growth in crime rates in the countries in this region after the collapse of the communist system. Given this gap in current knowledge, this study examined two forms of crime, theft and violent victimisation, in nine fSU countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Using nationally representative data from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study collected from 18,000 respondents in 2010/11, the study had two main objectives: (1) to identify which demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with being a victim of crime; (2) to examine the relation between criminal victimisation and two health outcomes - self-rated health and psychological distress. We found that similar factors were associated with experiencing both forms of crime among respondents. Those who were younger, not married and who consumed alcohol more frequently were at increased risk of victimisation, while greater social capital was associated with lower odds for victimisation. Low education increased the risk of experiencing violence by 1.5 times. Victimisation was strongly associated with poorer health: victims of violence were 2.5 and 2.9 times more likely to report poor self-rated health and psychological distress, respectively, while the corresponding figures for theft victimisation were 1.9 and 1.8. The strong association we observed between criminal victimisation and poorer individual health suggests that, in addition to policies that reduce rates of crime, more research is now urgently needed on victimisation. Specifically, researchers should ascertain whether the association with poor health is causal, determine its potential mechanisms, and evaluate interventions that might mitigate its impact on health that are contextually appropriate in the fSU.

Stickley A; Koyanagi A; Roberts B; Rotman D; McKee M

2013-08-01

188

Uzbekistan - nonproliferation and continuous activities on countering nuclear materials and other radioactive sources illicit trafficking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Countering illicit trafficking of nuclear weapon and its components is an important task in the modern world. For this reason, at the borders and customs points the control of transportation is to be conducted in order to determine radioactive and fissile materials in them. This report presents the results of works performed in the period of 2001 - 2005 years on the program for development of radiation monitors and equipping the Uzbekistan border customs points with them, in order to fight the smuggling of nuclear and radioactive materials. The Republic of Uzbekistan is located on the transit transportation crossroad, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Western Europe - to the North, and Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and others - to the South. Therefore, this program is important for saving peace in the world and fighting any attempts to create nuclear weapon in the region. The radiation monitoring equipment is installed at the border customs points through which the transportation enters the Uzbekistan and at the Tashkent International Airport where passengers arrive by air. Also, the customs points are equipped through which the transportation quits for South and international passenger depart. The radiation portal monitors are designed by CIS Aspect (Dubna, Moscow region), however, we develop our own portal monitoring system which can be produced after certification. The Institute of Nuclear Physics provides the technical expertise that includes installation, calibration, maintenance, and secondary alarm response; mobile response units are being developed to rapidly and accurately identify seized material and recommend handling procedures. At present we are accumulating information on the alarm from the Yantar - type radiation monitor at the customs check-points and examining characteristics of the system to improve the results of our research.

2006-11-03

189

Micro-analytical characterisation of radioactive heterogeneities in samples from Central Asian TENORM sites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present work focuses on the use of micro-analytical techniques to demonstrate the heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides and metals in soils collected at Former Soviet Union mining sites in Central Asia. Based on digital autoradiography, radionuclides were heterogeneously distributed in soil samples collected at the abandoned uranium mining sites Kurday, Kazakhstan, Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan and Taboshar, Tajikistan. Using electron microscopy interfaced with X-ray microanalysis submicron - mm-sized radioactive particles and rock fragments with U, As, Se and toxic metals on the surfaces were identified in Kurday and Kadji Sai samples. Employing scanning and tomographic (3D) synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-SRXRF) and synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray diffraction (?-SRXRD) allowed us to observe the inner structure of the particles without physical sectioning. The distribution of elements in virtual crosssections demonstrated that U and a series of toxic elements were rather heterogeneously distributed also within individual radioactive TENORM particles. Compared to archived data, U in Kadji Sai particles was present as uraninite (U4O9+y or UO2+x) or Na-zippeite ((Na4(UO2)6[(OH)10(SO4)3]·4H2O), i.e. U minerals with very low solubility. The results suggested that TENORM particles can carry substantial amount of radioactivity, which can be subject to re-suspension, atmospheric transport and water transport. Thus, the potential radioecological and radioanalytical impact of radioactive particles at NORM and TENORM sites worldwide should be taken into account. The present work also demonstrates that radioecological studies should benefit from the use of advanced methods such as synchrotron radiation based techniques.

Lind OC; De Nolf W; Janssens K; Salbu B

2013-09-01

190

Changing patterns of fruit and vegetable intake in countries of the former Soviet Union.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To assess how the frequency of low fruit and vegetable consumption has changed in countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) between 2001 and 2010 and to identify factors associated with low consumption. DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys. A standard questionnaire was administered at both time points to examine fruit and vegetable consumption frequency. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between demographic, socio-economic and health behavioural variables and low fruit and vegetable consumption in 2010. SETTING: Nationally representative population samples from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. SUBJECTS: Adults aged 18 years and older. RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2010 notable changes occurred in fruit and vegetable consumption in many countries resulting in a slight overall deterioration in diet. By 2010 in six countries about 40 % of the population was eating fruit once weekly or less often, while for vegetables the corresponding figure was in excess of 20 % in every country except Azerbaijan. A worse socio-economic situation, negative health behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and rural residence were all associated with low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. CONCLUSIONS: International dietary guidelines emphasise the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption. The scale of inadequate consumption of these food groups among much of the population in many FSU countries and its link to socio-economic disadvantage are deeply worrying. This highlights the urgent need for a greater focus to be placed on population nutrition policies to avoid nutrition-related diseases in the FSU countries. PMID:23701712

Krull Abe, Sarah; Stickley, Andrew; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Abbott, Pamela; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

2013-05-23

191

Criminal victimisation and health: examining the relation in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research suggests that criminal victimisation can impact negatively on both physical and psychological health. However, as yet, little is known about crime and its effects on population health in the former Soviet Union (fSU) - despite a sharp growth in crime rates in the countries in this region after the collapse of the communist system. Given this gap in current knowledge, this study examined two forms of crime, theft and violent victimisation, in nine fSU countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Using nationally representative data from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study collected from 18,000 respondents in 2010/11, the study had two main objectives: (1) to identify which demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with being a victim of crime; (2) to examine the relation between criminal victimisation and two health outcomes - self-rated health and psychological distress. We found that similar factors were associated with experiencing both forms of crime among respondents. Those who were younger, not married and who consumed alcohol more frequently were at increased risk of victimisation, while greater social capital was associated with lower odds for victimisation. Low education increased the risk of experiencing violence by 1.5 times. Victimisation was strongly associated with poorer health: victims of violence were 2.5 and 2.9 times more likely to report poor self-rated health and psychological distress, respectively, while the corresponding figures for theft victimisation were 1.9 and 1.8. The strong association we observed between criminal victimisation and poorer individual health suggests that, in addition to policies that reduce rates of crime, more research is now urgently needed on victimisation. Specifically, researchers should ascertain whether the association with poor health is causal, determine its potential mechanisms, and evaluate interventions that might mitigate its impact on health that are contextually appropriate in the fSU. PMID:23849241

Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

2013-05-13

192

Uncertainties in hydrological modelling and its consequences for water management in Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Central Asia features an extreme continental climate with mostly arid to semi-arid conditions. Due to low precipitation and therefore low water availability, water is a scarce resource and often the limiting factor in terms of socio-economic development. The aim of this model study is to compare the uncertainties of hydrological modelling induced by global and regional climate datasets and to calculate the impacts on estimates of local water resources. Within this integrated model study the hydrological and water use model WaterGAP 3 (Global Assessment and Prognosis) is being applied to all river basins located in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Mongolia in five arc minutes spatial resolution (~ 6 x 9 km per grid cell). First of all, water abstractions for the sectors households, irrigation, livestock, manufacturing industries, and electricity production are being computed and fed into the hydrological module of WaterGAP. Then, water fluxes of the terrestrial water cycle are being modelled. The performance of the model is then being evaluated by comparing modelled and observed river discharge for the time period 1971 to 2000. As WaterGAP input, various global and regional climate datasets are available for the study region. In detail, these are the global TS dataset of the Climate Research Unit (CRU), the WATCH forcing data (WFD) developed within the EU-FP6 Project WATer and global CHange (WATCH) and the regional Aphrodités Water Resources dataset. Finally, the uncertainties in modelled water availability induced by the different datasets are quantified to point out the consequences for a sustainable water management. The results show that the datasets differ in both aspects, temporal and spatial goodness. At this, not only differences between the regional and the global datasets, but also among the global datasets are evident.

Malsy, Marcus; aus der Beek, Tim; Flörke, Martina

2013-04-01

193

Literature review of HIV among female sex workers in the Central Asian Republics, Afghanistan, and Mongolia: Contexts and convergence with drug use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Central Asia is culturally and demographically diverse, both between and within its respective countries. That diversity is represented in the range of individual, network, community, and structural risks for female sex workers (FSWs) regionally. FSWs have several risk factors for HIV acquisition and transmission including behavioral, biological, and structural risk factors. Across Central Asia, sexual risks have become conflated with risks associated with injection and non-injection illicit drug use. METHODS: Peer-reviewed literature databases and gray literature were searched for articles on sex work in Central Asia. The medial subject heading (MeSH) of "sex work" was cross-referenced with terms associated with Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Afghanistan. RESULTS: HIV prevalence data for FSWs suggest sustained or increasing prevalence in the region. There are increasing data directly linking HIV among FSWs to injection drug use; odds of HIV are up to 20 times higher among FSWs reporting injecting drug use. Though injecting drug use among FSWs is rare in some settings, recreational drugs and alcohol use limits other risk reduction behaviors, such as condom use. CONCLUSIONS: The Central Asian HIV epidemic has traditionally been assumed to be driven nearly exclusively by drug use, resulting in surveillance systems focused on parenteral transmission. The reviewed data highlight limited attention to characterizing the burden of HIV and risk factors for HIV acquisition and transmission among FSWs who use drugs. Moving forward will require enhanced HIV surveillance and research to inform HIV prevention approaches to address all levels of HIV risks affecting FSWs in Central Asia.

Baral S; Todd CS; Aumakhan B; Lloyd J; Delegchoimbol A; Sabin K

2013-08-01

194

Redressing the epidemics of opioid overdose and HIV among people who inject drugs in Central Asia: The need for a syndemic approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that opioid overdose and HIV infection are burgeoning intertwined epidemics among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Central Asia. To date, however, research on overdose and its associations with HIV risks among PWID in Central Asia remains virtually absent. This paper aims to provide a regional overview of the hidden epidemic of overdose and how it is linked to HIV among PWID in Central Asia, using a syndemic framework that is guided by risk environment research. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search of peer-reviewed publications and gray literature on opioid overdose and its associations with HIV in five countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) as well as on policies and programs that address these co-occurring epidemics. RESULTS: Regional data indicate high rates of fatal and non-fatal overdose among PWID. Evidence suggests mortality rates from overdose exceed HIV/AIDS as the leading cause of death among PWID. The syndemic framework suggests multiple macro-level and micro-level environmental risk factors that drive the co-occurring epidemics of HIV and overdose. This framework identifies several interacting biological and behavioral risks that result in additive effects for HIV and overdose. CONCLUSION: The high rates of overdose and its associations with HIV underscore the need for a syndemic approach that considers overdose on parity with HIV. Such an approach should focus on the biological, behavioral and structural interactions between these epidemics to reduce social suffering, morbidity and mortality among PWID in Central Asia.

Gilbert L; Primbetova S; Nikitin D; Hunt T; Terlikbayeva A; Momenghalibaf A; Ruziev M; El-Bassel N

2013-08-01

195

Contesting danger : a new agenda for policy and scholarship on Central Asia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Western geopolitical discourse misrepresents and constructs Central Asia as an inherently and essentially dangerous place. This pervasive ‘discourse of danger’ obscures knowledge of the region, deforms scholarship and, because it has policy implications, actually endangers Central Asia. This article identifies how the region is made knowable to a US–UK audience through three mutually reinforcing dimensions of endangerment: Central Asia as obscure, oriental, and fractious. This is evidenced in the writings of conflict resolution and security analysts, the practices of governments, the activities of international aid agencies and numerous lurid films, documentaries and novels. The article first establishes the tradition of inscribing danger to Central Asia, in both academic and policy discourse, from the colonial experience of the nineteenth century through to the post-Soviet transition and subsequent considerations of the region in terms of the war on terror. It considers several examples of this discourse of danger including the popular US TV drama about presidential politics, The West Wing, the policy texts of ‘Washingtonian security analysis’ and accounts of danger, insecurity and urban violence in the Ferghana Valley. It is argued that popular policy and academic texts are relatively consistent across the three dimensions of endangerment. This argument is demonstrated through a discussion of how policy-making and practice is informed by this discourse of danger and of how the discourse of danger is contested within the region. The example of urban violence in Osh, Kyrgyzstan and Jalalabad, Afghanistan in 2010 demonstrates how opportunities to mitigate conflict may have been lost due to the distortions of this discourse of danger. It concludes by raising the challenge to policy-makers, journalists and academics to contest this western geopolitical discourse and provide better accounts of how danger is experienced by Central Asians.

Heathershaw, John; Megoran, Nick

2011-01-01

196

GREAT REBELLION OF 1916 in KYRGYZ: URKÜN 1916 KIRGIZ BÜYÜK ?SYANI: ÜRKÜN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The revolution in 1916 was one of the biggest tragedies in the politics of the Russian Empire was to have Kyrgyzstan as its colony. For instance, the best places were given to russians, local people were forced to move to rural area. The main reason was a call for men into Russia’s Central Asian colonies to serve in the Tsarist army fighting in World war I. The first uprising was in Khojent on july 4 th 1916 and the movement spread to other parts of Turkestan. Kyrgyz Turks were killed by the Russian forces and settlers. Kyrgyz population from the North of the country were killed. And another 120.000 fled across the border to China 1916 ?syan? K?rg?z tarihinin en büyük trajedilerinden biridir. Bu olay K?rg?zistan’da Ürkün olarak bilinir. Rus ?mparatorlu?u K?rg?zistan’da koloni politikas? uygulam??t?r. En iyi yerler Ruslara verilmi? yerli halk kendi topra??ndan edilerek k?rsal alanlara göç ettirilmi?tir. Ayaklanman?n temel nedeni ise I. Dünya Sava??nda Çarl???n Rusya’n?n geri hizmetlerinde çal??mak üzere Türkistanl?lar? ça??rmas? olmu?tur. Ayaklanma 4 Temmuz 1916’da Hocent’te ba?lam??t?r daha sonra Türkistan’?n di?er k?s?mlar?na yay?lm??t?r. K?rg?z Türkleri Rus askerleri ve Rus yerle?imciler taraf?ndan öldürülmü?tür. Ülkenin kuzeyindeki ayaklanmac?lar öldürülmü? di?er 120 bini Çine kaçm??t?r.

Füsun KARA

2011-01-01

197

Marriage formation as a process intermediary between migration and childbearing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In studies of differences in fertility between migrants and non-migrants, marriage interferes because migration can be motivated by an impending marriage or can entail entry into a marriage market with new opportunities. One would therefore expect elevated fertility after migration, although a competing theory states that on the contrary fertility ought to be reduced in the time around the move because migration temporarily disturbs the life of the migrant. In any case marriage appears as a process that is intermediary between migration and childbearing. To handle such issues it pays to have a technique that allows the analyst to separate any disruptive effects of migration from any boosting effects of marriage in studies of childbearing. The purposes of the present paper are (i) to remind us that such a technique is available, in fact is straightforward, and (ii) to apply the technique to further analyze a set of data on migration and first-time parenthood in Kyrgyzstan recently used by the second author and Gunnar Andersson. The technique has the neat feature that it allows us to operate with several "clocks" at the same time. In the analysis of first births we keep track of time since migration (for migrants) and time since marriage formation (for the married) beside the respondent's age (for women at childbearing ages); in other connections there may be more clocks. For such analyses we make use of a flexible graphical housekeeping device that allows the analyst to keep track of a feature like whether migration occurs before or after marriage, or at the same time. This is a half-century-old flow chart of statuses and transitions and is not much more complex than the famous Lexis diagram, which originated with Gustav Zeuner, as we now know. These reflexions were first presented at a symposium dedicated to Professor Zeuner.

Jan M. Hoem; Lesia Nedoluzhko

2008-01-01

198

La jama?at al Tabligh en Asie centrale : réactivation des liens islamiques avec le sous continent indien et insertion dans un islam mondialisé The Jama?at al Tabligh in Central Asia : revival of Islamic links with the Indian subcontinent and integration with a globalized Islam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Très fortes jusqu’à l’arrivée de la Russie en Asie centrale au XIXe siècle, notamment sous la dynastie moghole originaire d’Asie centrale, les relations islamiques entre l’Inde et l’Asie centrale ont été considérablement amoindries pendant la période russe et soviétique où l’islam centrasiatique était particulièrement coupé du monde musulman. Toutefois, à la faveur des indépendances en 1991, un important processus de recréation de liens voire d’intégration, permet à l’islam d’Asie centrale de se mettre en réseau avec l’islam du monde entier, turc, arabe, mais aussi indien. Ce dernier, sans doute le moins étudié par la communauté des chercheurs sur l’Asie centrale, s’implante en force dans toute la région, mais plus particulièrement au Kirghizstan et au Kazakhstan, grâce au dynamisme d’une organisation islamique, née dans l’Inde britannique des années 1920, la Jama?at al Tabligh. Non radical et apolitique, prêchant un « islam minimal » qui insiste sur les vertus de la foi et de la pratique, l’islam de cette mouvance semble bénéficier du soutien tacite des autorités politiques en place, qui trouvent dans la Jama?at al Tabligh un allié dans leur lutte contre l’islam contestataire de l’ordre établi.After two centuries of close relationships, especially under the Mughals, Islamic ties between India and Central Asia were considerably weakened after the Tsarist colonization and the subsequent Soviet religious repression and ideological isolation. However, when Central Asian post-Soviet republics became independent in 1991, they renewed all kinds of links with the Indian subcontinent. And the revival of Central Asian Islam benefited from international sources of Islamic inspiration from Turkey, the Arab countries as well as from India. The last one drew less attention from analysts than the other sources of influence, although it has gained ground through the past years all over the region with a particular highlight in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, where the India-based Jama?at al Tabligh has met with a significant success. This Islamic organization established in British India in the 1920s defines itself as a non-radical and non-political movement, promoting a "basic" Islamic faith and practice. So far, the Jama?at al Tabligh has been, in fact, tacitly supported by local authorities who would rather use them as a shield against more radical Islamic groups who openly oppose the established regime.

Bayram Balci

2012-01-01

199

Swedish support programme on nuclear non-proliferation in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] At the request of the Swedish Government, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has established a support and co-operation programme in the area of nuclear non-proliferation with Russia and several of the republics of the former Soviet Union. The Programme was initiated in 1991 and an overall goal is to accomplish national means and measures for control and protection of nuclear material and facilities, in order to minimise the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The objective of the Swedish Support Programme is to help each, so called, recipient State to be able to, independently and without help from outside, take the full responsibility for operating a national non-proliferation system and thereby fulfil the requirements imposed through the international legal instruments. This would include both the development and implementation of a modern nuclear legislation system, and the establishment of the components making up a national system for combating illicit trafficking. The support and co-operation projects are organised in five Project Groups (i.e. nuclear legislation, nuclear material control, physical protection, export/import control, and combating of illicit trafficking), which together cover the entire non-proliferation area. Up till June 2000, support and co-operation projects, completed and on-going, have been carried out in ten States, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, programmes have been initiated during the first part of 2000 with Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In addition, assistance has been given to Poland on a specific nuclear material accountancy topic. All projects are done on request by and in co-operation with these States. The total number of projects initiated during the period 1991 to June 2000 is 109, thereof 77 have been completed and 32 are currently on-going. It is the convinced understanding and opinion of the Swedish Support Programme Management that the States in question are seriously motivated and are carrying out an ambitious work to develop and improve their national non-proliferation regimes, in spite of their shortcomings concerning financial and human resources. For those States, with which Sweden has established support and co-operation programmes with 'full-scope' non-proliferation objectives, it is judged that the goals reached, up till now, are very satisfactory, and that the States in question have come a long way towards the fulfilment of international requirements. The Programme is now entering a third phase and the future Programme plans are currently under consideration. A broad outlook of the future activities is made in chapter D of this report

2000-06-00

200

Peru Mercury Inventory 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in other products such as batteries and computer electronics is not recycled and may ultimately be released to the environment.

Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Swedish support programme on nuclear non-proliferation in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the request of the Swedish Government, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has established a support and co-operation programme in the area of nuclear non-proliferation with Russia and several of the republics of the former Soviet Union. The Programme was initiated in 1991 and an overall goal is to accomplish national means and measures for control and protection of nuclear material and facilities, in order to minimise the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The objective of the Swedish Support Programme is to help each, so called, recipient State to be able to, independently and without help from outside, take the full responsibility for operating a national non-proliferation system and thereby fulfil the requirements imposed through the international legal instruments. This would include both the development and implementation of a modern nuclear legislation system, and the establishment of the components making up a national system for combating illicit trafficking. The support and co-operation projects are organised in five Project Groups (i.e. nuclear legislation, nuclear material control, physical protection, export/import control, and combating of illicit trafficking), which together cover the entire non-proliferation area. Up till June 2000, support and co-operation projects, completed and on-going, have been carried out in ten States, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, programmes have been initiated during the first part of 2000 with Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In addition, assistance has been given to Poland on a specific nuclear material accountancy topic. All projects are done on request by and in co-operation with these States. The total number of projects initiated during the period 1991 to June 2000 is 109, thereof 77 have been completed and 32 are currently on-going. It is the convinced understanding and opinion of the Swedish Support Programme Management that the States in question are seriously motivated and are carrying out an ambitious work to develop and improve their national non-proliferation regimes, in spite of their shortcomings concerning financial and human resources. For those States, with which Sweden has established support and co-operation programmes with 'full-scope' non-proliferation objectives, it is judged that the goals reached, up till now, are very satisfactory, and that the States in question have come a long way towards the fulfilment of international requirements. The Programme is now entering a third phase and the future Programme plans are currently under consideration. A broad outlook of the future activities is made in chapter D of this report.

Ek, P.; Andersson, Sarmite [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Wredberg, L. [ILG Consultant Ltd., Vienna (Austria)

2000-06-15

202

Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Turkic Republics and Turkey: Economic and Business Dimensions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An ever-increasing globalization in last century is enforcing many countries to come together and create organizations to take advantage of a greater power in the global stage both in political and economic issues. Regional organizations are one form of such organizations. In addition to many of such groups, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is an intergovernmental mutual-security organization which was founded in 2001 by the leaders of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In a short period of time since then SCO has proved itself to be a powerful organization promising to be an authority in Central Asian region. The research at hand is formed to investigate the development of this organization along with its effect on Turkey as well as the member countries. This effect is also analyzed in two dimensions. The place of SCO in region is analyzed not only in terms of economic side but also the business side. The fact that business and economics are difficult to isolate from each other, makes it a necessity to use this approach, thus, making this study a valuable source. Key words: Shanghai Cooperation Organization; Turkic Republics; Central Asia; Transitional EconomiesRésumé: Une mondialisation en constante croissance dans le siècle dernier oblige de nombreux pays de se réunir et de créer des organisations afin de profiter d'un plus grand pouvoir dans les événements politiques et économiques au niveau international. Les organisations régionales sont une forme de ces organisations. A part de ces groupes, l’Organisation de coopération de Shanghai (OCS) est une organisation intergouvernementale de sécurité mutuelle, fondée en 2001 par les dirigeants de la Chine, la Russie, le Kazakhstan, le Kirghizistan, le Tadjikistan et l'Ouzbékistan. Dans un court laps de temps depuis lors, OCS s'est avérée être une organisation puissante promettant d'être une autorité en Asie centrale.La présente recherche est ménée pour enquêter sur le développement de cette organisation ainsi que son effet sur la Turquie et les pays membres. Cet effet est également analysé en deux dimensions. Le statut de l'OCS dans la région est analysé non seulement du point de vue économique mais aussi commercial. Le fait que le commerce et l'économie sont difficiles à isoler l’un de l’autre exige une nécessité d'utiliser cette approche, ce qui rend cette étude une source précieuse. Mots clés: Organisation de coopération de Shanghai; Républiques turques; Asie central; Économies transitionnelles

Lutfu Sagbansua; Nurettin Can

2011-01-01

203

Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polonium-210 in water and (210)Pb and (210)Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of (210)Pb and (210)Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of (210)Po was higher than for (210)Pb, and the accumulation of (210)Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg(-1) ww). Although the average activity concentration of (210)Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25-327 Bq kg(-1) ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported (210)Po into the liver, and that the distributions of (210)Po and (210)Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for (210)Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of (210)Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 10(5), >2.5 × 10(4) and >1.4 × 10(4), respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log (210)Po in liver and ?(15)N could indicate biomagnification of (210)Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for (210)Po, the concentration of (210)Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake.

Skipperud L; Jørgensen AG; Heier LS; Salbu B; Rosseland BO

2013-09-01

204

Change detection over Sokolov open-pit mining area, Czech Republic, using multi-temporal HyMAP data (2009-2010)  

Science.gov (United States)

Two HyMap images acquired over the same lignite open-pit mining site in Sokolov, Czech Republic, during the summers of 2009 and 2010 (12 months apart), were investigated in this study. The site selected for this research is one of three test sites (the others being in South Africa and Kyrgyzstan) within the framework of the EO-MINERS FP7 Project (http://www.eo-miners.eu). The goal of EO-MINERS is to "integrate new and existing Earth Observation tools to improve best practice in mining activities and to reduce the mining related environmental and societal footprint". Accordingly, the main objective of the current study was to develop hyperspectral-based means for the detection of small spectral changes and to relate these changes to possible degradation or reclamation indicators of the area under investigation. To ensure significant detection of small spectral changes, the temporal domain was investigated along with careful generation of reflectance information. Thus, intensive spectroradiometric ground measurements were carried out to ensure calibration and validation aspects during both overflights. The performance of these corrections was assessed using the Quality Indicators setup developed under a different FP7 project-EUFAR (http://www.eufar.net), which helped select the highest quality data for further work. This approach allows direct distinction of the real information from noise. The reflectance images were used as input for the application of spectral-based change-detection algorithms and indices to account for small and reliable changes. The related algorithms were then developed and applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to map spectral changes over the space of a year. Using field spectroscopy and ground truth measurements on both overpass dates, it was possible to explain the results and allocate spatial kinetic processes of the environmental changes during the time elapsed between the flights. It was found, for instance, that significant spectral changes are capable of revealing mineral processes, vegetation status and soil formation long before these are apparent to the naked eye. Further study is being conducted under the above initiative to extend this approach to other mining areas worldwide and to improve the robustness of the developed algorithm.

Adar, S.; Notesco, G.; Brook, A.; Livne, I.; Rojik, P.; Kopacková, V.; Zelenkova, K.; Misurec, J.; Bourguignon, A.; Chevrel, S.; Ehrler, C.; Fisher, C.; Hanus, J.; Shkolnisky, Y.; Ben Dor, E.

2011-10-01

205

Universal access to care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: an analysis of surveillance data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The prospects for global tuberculosis control in the near future will be determined by the effectiveness of the response of countries to their burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR; resistance to, at least, isoniazid and rifampicin) tuberculosis. During the 2009 World Health Assembly, countries committed to achieve universal access to MDR-tuberculosis care by 2015. We assessed the progress towards the 2015 targets achieved by countries accounting for 90% of the estimated MDR-tuberculosis cases in the world in 2011. METHODS: We analysed data reported to WHO by 30 countries expected to have more than 1000 MDR-tuberculosis cases among notified patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in 2011. FINDINGS: In the 30 countries, 18% of the estimated MDR-tuberculosis cases were enrolled on treatment in 2011. Belarus, Brazil, Kazakhstan, Peru, South Africa, and Ukraine each detected and enrolled on treatment more than 50% of their estimated cases of MDR-tuberculosis. In Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Russia, enrolments increased steadily between 2009 and 2011 with a mean yearly change greater than 50%: however, in these countries enrolment in 2011 was low, ranging from 4% to 43% of the estimated cases. In the remaining countries (Afghanistan, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Mozambique, Burma, Nepal, Nigeria, North Korea, Pakistan, South Korea, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam) progress in detection and enrolment was slower. In 23 countries, a median of 53% (IQR 41-71) patients with MDR-tuberculosis successfully completed their treatment after starting it in 2008-09. INTERPRETATION: Six countries (Belarus, Brazil, Kazakhstan, Peru, South Africa, and Ukraine) can achieve universal access to MDR-tuberculosis care by 2015 should they sustain their current pace of progress. In other countries a radical scale-up will be needed for them to have an effect on their MDR-tuberculosis burden. Unless barriers to diagnosis and successful treatment are urgently overcome, and new technologies in diagnostics and treatment effectively implemented, the global targets for 2015 are unlikely be achieved. FUNDING: WHO.

Falzon D; Jaramillo E; Wares F; Zignol M; Floyd K; Raviglione MC

2013-08-01

206

Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS), countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. METHODS: Using 2005-2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan), we examined associations between individual and community socioeconomic status with current modern contraceptive use (MCU) among N?=?55,204 women aged 15-49 married or in a union. Individual socioeconomic status was measured using quintiles of wealth index and education level (higher than secondary school, secondary school or less). Community socioeconomic status was measured as the percentage of households in the poorest quintile of the nationals household wealth index (0%, 0-25%, or greater than 25%). We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate associations adjusted for age, number of children, urban/rural, and socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: MCU varied by country from 14% (in Azerbaijan) to 62% (in Belarus). Overall, women living in the poorest communities were less likely than those in the richest to use modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval?=?0.76, 0.89). Similarly, there was an increasing odds of MCU with increasing individual-level wealth. Women with a lower level of education also had lower odds of MCU than those with a higher level of education (aOR?=?.75, 95%CI?=?0.71, 0.79). In country-specific analyses, community-level socioeconomic inequalities were apparent in 4 of 10 countries; in contrast, inequalities by individual-level wealth were apparent in 7 countries and by education in 8 countries. All countries in which community-level socioeconomic status was associated with MCU were in Central Asia, whereas at the individual-level inequalities of the largest magnitude were found in the Caucasus. There were no distinct patterns found in Eastern European countries. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in Central Asian countries, whereas individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in the Caucasus. It is important to consider multilevel contextual determinants of modern contraceptive use in the development of reproductive health and family planning programs.

Janevic T; Sarah PW; Leyla I; Elizabeth BH

2012-01-01

207

Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the Russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010  

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Full Text Available A series of wildfires broke out in Western Russia starting in late July of 2010. Harmful particulates and gases released into the local Russian atmosphere have been reported, as have possible negative consequences for the global atmosphere. In this study, an extremely hazy area and its transport trajectory on Russian wildfires were analysed using aerosol optical depth (AOD) images retrieved via the synergy method from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. In addition, we used trace gases (NO2 and SO2) and CO2 products measured using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data, vertical distribution of AOD data retrieved from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data, the mass trajectory analyses, synoptic maps from a HYSPLIT model simulation and ground-based data, including AERONET (both AOD and Ångström exponent) data and PM2.5. First, an Optimal Smoothing (OS) scheme was used to develop more precise and reliable AOD data based on multiple competing predictions made using several AOD retrieval models; then, integrated AOD and PM2.5 data were related using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), and the integrated AOD and visibility data were related using the 6S radiative transfer code. The results show that the PM2.5 concentration is enhanced by a factor of 3–5 as determined from both satellite and in situ observations with peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 500 ?g m3. Also, the visibility in many parts of Russia, for instance in Moscow, was less than 100 m; in some areas, the visibility was less than 50 m. Additionally, the possible impact on neighbouring countries due to long-transport was analysed for 31 July and 15 August 2010. A comparison of the satellite aerosol products and ground observations from the neighbouring countries suggests that wildfires in Western Russian had little impact on most european and asian countries, the exceptions being Finland, Estonia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. However, a possible impact on the Arctic region was identified; such an effect would have a serious influence on the polar atmospheric enviroment, and on animals such as polar bears.

L. Mei; Y. Xue; G. de Leeuw; J. Guang; Y. Wang; Y. Li; H. Xu; L. Yang; T. Hou; X. He; C. Wu; J. Dong; Z. Chen

2011-01-01

208

Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS), countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. Methods Using 2005–2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan), we examined associations between individual and community socioeconomic status with current modern contraceptive use (MCU) among N?=?55,204 women aged 15–49 married or in a union. Individual socioeconomic status was measured using quintiles of wealth index and education level (higher than secondary school, secondary school or less). Community socioeconomic status was measured as the percentage of households in the poorest quintile of the nationals household wealth index (0%, 0–25%, or greater than 25%). We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate associations adjusted for age, number of children, urban/rural, and socioeconomic variables. Results MCU varied by country from 14% (in Azerbaijan) to 62% (in Belarus). Overall, women living in the poorest communities were less likely than those in the richest to use modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval?=?0.76, 0.89). Similarly, there was an increasing odds of MCU with increasing individual-level wealth. Women with a lower level of education also had lower odds of MCU than those with a higher level of education (aOR?=?.75, 95%CI?=?0.71, 0.79). In country-specific analyses, community-level socioeconomic inequalities were apparent in 4 of 10 countries; in contrast, inequalities by individual-level wealth were apparent in 7 countries and by education in 8 countries. All countries in which community-level socioeconomic status was associated with MCU were in Central Asia, whereas at the individual-level inequalities of the largest magnitude were found in the Caucasus. There were no distinct patterns found in Eastern European countries. Conclusions Community-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in Central Asian countries, whereas individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in the Caucasus. It is important to consider multilevel contextual determinants of modern contraceptive use in the development of reproductive health and family planning programs.

Janevic Teresa; Sarah Pallas W; Leyla Ismayilova; Elizabeth Bradley H

2012-01-01

209

333?Asthma in the CIS-region: The Prevalence and Peculiarities of the Course.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BackgroundIn this study there has been analyzed the data from epidemiological studies on the prevalence and peculiarities of the course of bronchial asthma (BA) among the adult (Ad), children (Ch) and teenagers (Tg) in the CIS-region (CIS-R) over the past 5 to 10 years.MethodsThere has been used the results of studies of ISAAC, Statistical Reports (SR) of the Republic Ministries of Health and Medical facilities; the literature data.ResultsIt has been established that BA is dominated in the structure of allergic diseases (ADs) of the CIS-R. BA, on average, suffer from 7 to 48.3% Ad and from 4 to 31% Ch. The highest incidence of BA among the population, especially Ad is observed in Armenia, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan. The actual incidence among Ch and Tg was 21 to 40%, for the Ad-23 to 48%. In this case, the diagnosis of BA was recorded by the SR in only 2.3% of children (Tg-3.2%, Ch-1.5%), and Ad-less than 1%. In the structure of the severity of BA among Ch and Tg, and Ad are dominated by mild forms of the disease (60 to 90% and 35 to 55% respectively) as mild intermittent or mild persistent BA, which in most cases are not diagnosed and do not receive adequate, timely assessment. The share of severe and moderate BA according to the age accounted for between 2 and 48%. The structure of BA recorded by statistical morbidity, dominated the moderate or severe forms of BA.ConclusionsThus, an analysis of existing data revealed that the mild forms of BA were dominated. The true incidence is much higher, as the uptake to the doctor takes place only in cases of the disease formed, earlier symptoms often go undetected. Often BA has been diagnosed at later stages with severe disease and complications. Unified account of the early features of ADs in a particular region will not only develop a National Prevention Program of ADs in the CIS-R, identify the main ways of their implementation, but also will allow to plan Allergic service in each region, important element of which is education and training of primary care physicians to identify early symptoms of ADs.

Slavyanskaya T; Sepiashvili RI

2012-02-01

210

Parametric numerical study of seismic slope stability and the Newmark method  

Science.gov (United States)

2D dynamic modelling of seismic slope stability is applied to a landslide-prone area in Central Asia, the Mailuu-Suu Valley, situated in the south of Kyrgyzstan. The calculations are made with models constructed from over 30 profiles located in the target area, presenting different geological, tectonic and morphological settings. One part of the profiles were selected within landslide zones, the other part was selected in stable areas. Many of the landslides are complex slope failures involving falls, rotational sliding and/or planar sliding and flows. These input data were extracted from a 3D structural geological model built with the GOCAD software. Geophysical and geomechanical parameters were defined on the basis of results obtained by multiple surveys performed in the area over the past 15 years. These include geophysical investigation, seismological experiments and ambient noise measurements. Dynamic modelling of slope stability is performed with the UDEC version 4.01 software that is able to compute deformation of discrete elements. Inside these elements both elasto-plastic and purely elastic materials (similar to rigid blocks) were tested. Various parameter variations were tested to assess their influence on the final outputs. For a few models groundwater flow is included. The total parametric study involved more than 100 different models (about 800 computation hours). Preliminary results allow us to compare Newmark displacements computed using different GIS approaches (Jibson et al., 1998; Miles and Ho, 1999, among others) with the displacements computed using the original Newmark method (Newmark, 1965, here simulated seismograms were used) and displacements produced along joints by the corresponding 2D dynamical models. The generation of seismic amplification and its impact on peak-ground-acceleration, Arias Intensity and permanent slope movements (total and slip on joints) is assessed for numerous morphological-lithological settings (curvature, slope angle, surficial geology, various layer dips and orientations) throughout the target area. The final results of our studies should allow us to define the limitations of the simplified GIS-based Newmark displacement modelling; thus, the verified method would make landslide susceptibility and hazard mapping in seismically active regions more reliable.

Havenith, Hans-Balder; Torgoev, Almaz; Lamair, Laura

2013-04-01

211

Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A series of wildfires broke out in western Russia starting in late July of 2010. Harmful particulates and gases released into the local Russian atmosphere have been reported, as have possible negative consequences for the global atmosphere. In this study, an extremely hazy area and its transport trajectory on Russian wildfires were analysed using aerosol optical depth (AOD) images retrieved via the synergy method from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. In addition, we used trace gases (NO2 and SO2) and CO2 products measured using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data, vertical distribution of AOD data retrieved from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data, the mass trajectory analyses, synoptic maps from a HYSPLIT model simulation and ground-based data, including AERONET (both AOD and Ångström exponent) data and PM2.5. First, an Optimal Smoothing (OS) scheme was used to develop more precise and reliable AOD data based on multiple competing predictions made using several AOD retrieval models; then, integrated AOD and PM2.5 data were related using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), and the integrated AOD and visibility data were related using a 6S model. The results show that the PM2.5 concentration is 3–5 times the normal amount based on both satellite data and in situ values with peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 500 ?g m?3. Also, the visibility of many parts of Russia, even Moscow, was less than 100 m; in some areas, the visibility was less than 50 m. Additionally, the possible impact on neighbouring countries due to the long-transport effect was also analysed during 31 July and 15 August 2010. A comparison of the satellite aerosol products and ground observations from the neighbouring countries suggests that wildfires in western Russian have had little impact on most European and Asian countries, the exceptions being Finland, Estonia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. However, a possible impact on the Arctic region was also identified; such an effect would have a serious influence on the polar atmospheric environment and on animals such as polar bears.

L. Mei; Y. Xue; G. de Leeuw; J. Guang; Y. Wang; Y. Li; H. Xu; L. Yang; T. Hou; X. He; C. Wu; J. Dong; Z. Chen

2011-01-01

212

Establishing a Collaborative Effort to Assess The Contribution to High Asian Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The improved understanding of the regional water resources of High Asia is a cross-boundary exercise and in order to achieve this goal, University of Colorado scientists are working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located across High Asia (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes both joint research and capacity building that will enhance the scientific understanding of the regional hydrology through augmented field programs and technical training. The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the separate contributions from seasonal snow melt and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the Himalaya, Karakoram, Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges. While it is generally accepted that the melt from glacier ice and seasonal snow is a significant component of High Asian water resources, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains uncertain. To accomplish project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to temperature-index melt models to estimate runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt models are driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. We are comparing the melt volume time series generated from temperature-index models with measured river discharge volumes and comparing the regional scale results with local sub-basin studies based on energy balance modeling approaches. We are also evaluating the accuracy of the melt model results using isotopic and geochemical tracers to identify and quantify the sources of water (ice melt, snow melt, rainfall and ground water) flowing into selected rivers representing the major hydro-climates of the study area. With our Asian partners, we are assessing the performance of the various melt models. Examples of the various tasks and methodologies to achieve the overall project goals are summarized and preliminary results are presented for the Upper Indus Basin for the period 2000-2012.

Armstrong, Richard; Barrett, Andrew; Brodzik, Mary Jo; Fetterer, Florence; Horodyskyj, Ulyana; Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Racoviteanu, Adina; Rasmussen, Al; Raup, Bruce; Williams, Mark; Wilson, Alana

2013-04-01

213

Radioisotopic parameters of the Syr-Darya river basin water at the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the framework of the International Cooperation Program in the sphere of the transboundary monitoring of the rivers between the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, and the United States of America (Navruz, ISTC KR-850 Project), in addition, in the Kyrgyz Republic, the isotopic content (isotopic ratio of 234U/ 238U=? ), and the uranium content (CU) in the waters was measured. The isotopic ratio 234U/ 238U=? of the waters of the rivers Naryn and Kara-Daria basins has no anomalous values of 234U/ 238U, which indicates the absence of the man-caused uranium in these rivers. The results of determination of the activity ratio of 234U/ 238U and uranium content in the Mailuu-Suu river basin are of great interest. In the upper reaches of the Mailuu-Suu river the uranium content is 0.4 10-6 g/l (0.8 10-6 g/l in the flood period), in Mailuu-Suu town (after the tailing dump) - (3 †4) 10-6 g/l, i.e. this value is an order of magnitude higher, and at the border with Uzbekistan - 1.8 ?10-6 g/l (3.2 ?10-6 g/l in the period of flooding), which is lower as compared with the town. Correspondently, there are changes in the activity ratio from 1.39 (in the upper reaches of the river) to 1.05 (in the town), and 1.32 (1.12 duriborder with Uzbekistan. This situation indicates, first, the enrichment of the waters of the rivers with the man-caused uranium ( ?=1), and its subsequent sorption along the river stream. The obtained results indicate the absence of the man-caused uranium in the whole stream of the Naryn and Kara-Daria rivers on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic, and lack of noticeable contamination of the waters of the Mailuu-Suu river with the man-caused uranium from the tailing dumps of the Western Mining-Chemical Plant (WMCP, Mailuu-Suu). It also should be noted that the share of the man-caused uranium, transported to Uzbekistan by the Mailuu-Suu river does not exceed 20-30%, and the total uranium content in these waters is much lower then MPC, and lower then that in the drinking water of the Chui valley of the Kyrgyz Republic. (author)

2004-01-01

214

New data on the composition and crystal structure of galkhaite (Hg,Cu)6(Cs,Tl)(As,Sb)4S12  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of galkhaite from the Gal-Khaya deposit (Yakutia, Russia) and Chauvay Mine (Kyrgyzstan) has been examined by electron microprobe. A significant Cs content (up to 6.64 wt %) has been established in the mineral from both deposits; earlier, it had been not detected by either chemical or spectral analyses. The empirical formulas of galkhaite are (Hg4.89Cu0.92Zn0.07)5.88(Cs0.71Tl0.17)0.88(As3.98Sb0.17)4.15 S12.10 and (Hg4.64Cu0.98Zn0.34)5.96 (Cs0.85Tl0.04)0.89(As3.68Sb0.42)4.10S12.05 at the Gal-Khaya deposit and Chauvay Mine, respectively. The crystal structure of galkhaite from the Chauvay Mine (cubic, I43 m, a = 10.4144(1) Å, V = 1129.5(2) Å3, Z = 2) for the composition [Hg4.83(Cu,Zn)0.98?](Cs0.71Tl0.14?) (As3.44Sb0.56)S12 has been determined by direct methods and refined to R = 0.0203. The structure of galkhaite is a framework consisting of vertex-shared [(Hg,Cu)-S4 2.5068(3) Å] tetrahedrons of the same orientation as large cavities formed in the initial sphalerite structural type due to eight anion vacancies: two [S4]-tetrahedrons at the point of origin and at the center of the I-cell and 12 cation vacancies as 2 cation octahedrons around the 000 and {raise0.5exhboxriptstyle 1 kern-0.1em/lower0.25exhboxriptstyle 2}{raise0.5exhboxriptstyle 1 kern-0.1em/lower0.25exhboxriptstyle 2}{raise0.5exhboxriptstyle 1 kern-0.1em/lower0.25exhboxriptstyle 2} sites.

Vasil'Ev, V. I.; Pervukhina, N. V.; Borisov, S. V.; Magarill, S. A.

2010-12-01

215

Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polonium-210 in water and (210)Pb and (210)Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of (210)Pb and (210)Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of (210)Po was higher than for (210)Pb, and the accumulation of (210)Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg(-1) ww). Although the average activity concentration of (210)Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25-327 Bq kg(-1) ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported (210)Po into the liver, and that the distributions of (210)Po and (210)Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for (210)Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of (210)Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 10(5), >2.5 × 10(4) and >1.4 × 10(4), respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log (210)Po in liver and ?(15)N could indicate biomagnification of (210)Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for (210)Po, the concentration of (210)Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake. PMID:22513216

Skipperud, L; Jørgensen, A G; Heier, L S; Salbu, B; Rosseland, B O

2012-04-17

216

Estimation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central asia and the Caucasus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: It is our international Program with the participation of 6 countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. For all presented regions we single out the following typical factors that significantly increase a risk of implementing natural and man-induced catastrophes: (1) these regions are located in the mountain areas with the high seismic level (5- 9 grades by Richter scale); (2) the largest mountain rivers have cascades of powerful hydroelectric stations with their sizeable reservoirs and huge high dams (>100m); (3) on the regions' densely populated lands there are plenty of mines for extraction of metals/minerals, industrial facilities and plants with U-tailing dumps and burrows of varied pollutants with using the different radioactive, toxic and poisonous substances in their technologies; (3) the man-induced activity here increases probabilities for occurrence of not only severe man-induced catastrophes, but also natural ones; (4) An especially grave situation has been created on trans boundary lands of these continue, due to the lack of common ecological and geochemical monitoring systems, that increases political and economic tension between the countries and generating negative migration processes; (5) risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes are not only regional but also global by nature, since they entail contamination of vast lands, the basins of the Black, Caspian and Kara Seas, that of the Arctic Ocean and, consequently, the entire World Ocean; (6) opportunity to perform deliberate attacks of terrorists with the using of explosives, that are able to cause man-induced catastrophes and stimulate natural calamities (earthquakes, mud flows, landslips, etc.). It is easier to implement attacks of terrorists there due to the intersection of main lines, an available border with current centers of international terrorism, located in Chechnya, Afghanistan and some others. The hazard is especially great for new independent states, where the system of safety, boundary and customs control, that of strict visa control and other state safety measures have not yet been formed. Consequences of terrorist attacks in the regions will be followed by major human and huge material losses, and extremely negative irreversible global scale environmental effects. The humankind has faced the majority of the above issues for the first time and, therefore, there are no good suitable methods provided for their solving. A purposeful activity of all countries of the world community is required. Program's results of Program 3 will be used in the following: (1) When developing a methodology/strategy to regulate and manage risks in emergencies; (2) when mapping risk allocation by various lands; (3) when developing a common system for emergency prevention/elimination. Our Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAS) has own experience in these scientific directions (http://www.ibrae.ac.ru). This Program will promote the realization of concept of substantial development with growth of economical cooperation and stability, decreasing of political stress not only for the countries- participants, but also at global scale for all countries, located at the continent. (author)

2006-01-01

217

Building momentum to minimize highly enriched uranium use, improve nuclear security and combat nuclear terrorism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Much has been done to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism under the auspices of international programs such as the G-8 Global Partnership, the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism, and the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. Despite the practical progress in removing the threat that terrorist groups could obtain the fissile material for an improvised nuclear device, however, much more work remains. In 1980, the 59 states participating in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation agreed that the civilian use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) should be minimized. Decades later, and despite dramatic new threats to world peace, the pledge to forego the use of HEU is not yet universal or legally binding. Nor have improvements to the physical security of this material been sufficient in many locations. This paper surveys the international measures that have been taken towards the formation of an international norm to minimize BEU risks through established mechanisms and suggests several additional approaches that may help to solidify support for practical measures and accelerate the process of civil HEU minimization and improved security globally. HEU reduction requires global cooperation: eliminating a small holding of HEU at a single facility or upgrading its security does not greatly reduce terrorist risks overall. Policymakers must be sure that their counterparts in other states arc engaged in similar efforts. A global HEU minimization norm would validate each nation's efforts, no matter how small, and provide a disincentive for inaction. Clearer standards for the security of this material and commitments to meet these standards would serve the same purpose. While each failure 10 act poses its own risks, it also erodes the usefulness of HEU elimination programs elsewhere and sends the wrong political message to the rest of the world. Moreover, it is technically impossible to minimize the largest REU holdings-those at fuel cycle facilities-until the end users of HEU no longer demand this material. And it should be noted that nearly all HEU trafficking cases involve material originating from fuel cycle facilities. Both practical and political considerations demand greater high level attention to minimizing HEU and improving its security. Great technological progress has been made since programs were initiated to convert reactors and medical isotope production processes, remove and reduce nuclear materials worldwide, and protect at-risk nuclear materials from theft and sabotage. The new technical capabilities have not been translated into significant reductions in HEU use, however, due to a lack of overarching political solutions. To date, only a few countries have indicated formally their support for HEU minimization, among them Iceland, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden in the context of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons review process, though there have been international calls for HEU minimization in other fora, including the G-8 'Action Plan on Nonproliferation' issued at the Sea Island summit of 2004 and the 2007 Astana joint statement of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. New measures are needed, however, to make these commitments real. With this in mind, the James Martin Center for Non-proliferation Studies has led an effort to draft HEU guidelines, modeled in part on the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (INFCIRC/549). There is international interest in such guidelines. France, for example, called for the adoption of HEU guidelines at the 2007 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2010 NPT Review Conference. HEU guidelines would codify best management practices, allow states to commit to national management strategies, and provide updated security recommendations, as this paper discusses in detail. While HEU guidelines are voluntary measures aimed at states, there are also ways that nuclear enterprises and other stakeholder groups can move the policy process forward. The adoption of resolutions by such groups can be good for business and

2009-04-03

218

Anavatanlar?ndan Sekiz Ülkeye Da??t?lm?? Bir Halk: Ah?ska Türkleri A People Scattered From Their Native Land to Eight Countries: Ahiska (Meskhetian) Turks  

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Full Text Available Ahiska or Meskhet Turks definations are geographical denominations, not etnic ones. Ahiska region and Turks living in this region was a natural part of Anatolian Turks as geopraphical and demographic. The precense of the Turks in this region known as Meskhetia in the history is based on ancient times. In the 11th century Seljuk conquests and then in the 12th century settlement of the Kipchak Turks, who came the region at the invitation of the Georgian king David who failed in fighting against Seljuks, enhanced the Turkish population at once. Thus, the Turks effectuated a full domination on the area in terms of the populatin. After a short time, in the middle 13th century Kipchaks declared their independence and founded their state named “Atabekler Devleti”. In history, this land dominated by The Kipchaks is known and displayed as Sa-Atabago (land of Atabegs) by Georgians, too. The Atabegs Principality was captured by Ottoman State towards the end of 16th century and this principality was reorganized as Cildir Shire and Ahiska was done its capital city. In this region people have the same cultural codes with Anatolian Turks living on northeastern provinces of Turkey. Meskhetian Turks were exiled to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in 1944 when they lived in a province located in the southwest of Georgia and northeast of Turkey, and known as “Samtshe-Cavaheti” under the administrational umbrella of Georgia. Having not been allowed turning back to their hometowns, Meskhetian Turks live mostly in eight countries now and keep the characteristics of their dialect to a great extent which can be regarded as the following of Eastern Anatolian dialects. Ah?ska ya da Mesket Türkleri tan?mlar? etnik de?il co?rafi bir adland?rma olup, Ah?ska bölgesi ve Türkleri Anadolu Türklü?ünün co?rafi ve demografik bak?mdan tabii devam?d?r. Tarihte Meskhetia olarak da bilinen bölgedeki Türk varl??? çok eski devirlere dayanmakta olup, 11. yüzy?ldaki Selçuklu fetihleri ve Selçuklularla mücadelede yetersiz kalan Gürcü kral?n?n daveti ile 12. yüzy?lda K?pçak Türklerinin de bölgeye gelerek yerle?mesi bölgeyi tamamen Türkle?tirmi?tir. Gürcü Krall??? içinde güçlenen K?pçaklar 13. yüzy?l ortalar?nda ba??ms?zl?klar? ilan etmi?ler ve hâkim olduklar? bu bölgeler tarihte, Gürcüler taraf?ndan da, Atabek Yurdu olarak an?lm??t?r. Akkoyunlu, Karakoyunlu, Safevî Türk devletleri himayesinde varl???n? sürdüren Atabekler Devleti 16. yüzy?l?n sonlar?na do?ru Osmanl? Devletine kat?lm?? ve merkezi Ah?ska olan Ç?ld?r Eyaleti olarak yeniden düzenlenmi?tir. Bölgede K?pçak ve O?uz Türklerinin kayna?mas? ile olu?an topluluk, Artvin ve Erzurum illerimizin Çoruh nehri ve kollar? etraf?nda ve Ardahan ilimizin Posof ilçesi ve çevresinde ya?ayan Türklerle tarih boyunca dil ve kültür bak?m?ndan ayn? kodlara sahip olmu?tur. Ah?ska Türkleri, Gürcistan’?n Güney-Bat?s?nda, Türkiye’nin Kuzey-Do?usunda yer alan, günümüzde Gürcistan’?n idari yap?s? içinde “Samtshe-Cavaheti” olarak adland?r?lan vilayette ya?arken 1944 y?l?nda Özbekistan, Kazakistan ve K?rg?zistan’a sürgün edilmi?tir. Geçen 68 y?l içinde, sürgün edildikleri topraklara dönü?lerine imkân tan?nmayan Ah?ska Türkleri günümüzde ba?l?ca sekiz ülkede ya?amakta ve Do?u Anadolu a??zlar?n?n bir devam? niteli?indeki a??z özelliklerini büyük ölçüde korumaktad?rlar.

Erdinç DEM?RAY

2012-01-01

219

Resistance to implementing policy change: the case of Ukraine/ Résistance à la mise en ?uvre du changement politique: cas de l?Ukraine/ Resistencia a aplicar los cambios de política: el caso de Ucrania  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La tuberculosis constituye un importante problema de salud pública en Europa oriental. Desde 1990, la incidencia de la enfermedad ha seguido aumentando en Belarús, la Federación de Rusia y Ucrania, así como en las repúblicas asiáticas centrales de Kazajstán, Kirguistán, Tayikistán y Uzbekistán. Europa oriental, y en particular la Federación de Rusia y Ucrania, afrontan además el reto de salud pública que supone la rápida extensión de la epidemia de tubercul (more) osis multirresistente (MDR-TB). De los 17 283 casos mundiales de tuberculosis multirresistente notificados en 2004, más del 60% (10 595) se dieron en la Región de Europa, la gran mayoría de ellos en Europa oriental, incluidos los estados bálticos de Estonia, Letonia y Lituania. Un dato especialmente preocupante es que, al igual que en África, el éxito del tratamiento DOTS en Europa oriental es sustancialmente inferior a la media en comparación con otras regiones del mundo, y la cobertura DOTS y la tasa de detección de casos bacilíferos siguen siendo los menores del mundo. Globalmente, estos problemas que, como África, sufre Europa oriental siguen siendo el principal obstáculo para alcanzar los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio relacionados con la tuberculosis en Europa. Ucrania presenta unas epidemias cada vez más graves de tuberculosis, tuberculosis multirresistente y VIH, con el telón de fondo de las epidemias de enfermedades de transmisión sexual y de consumidores de drogas inyectables. Pese a los intentos realizados, Ucrania no ha logrado implementar su política de tratamiento DOTS, debido a los problemas de organización de los sistemas de salud y a unos mecanismos de financiación y pago a los proveedores que han creado desincentivos para aplicar los cambios, y por añadidura la oposición que la estrategia DOTS ha encontrado entre los altos funcionarios y los médicos ha dificultado las actividades de implementación. Abstract in english Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in eastern Europe. Since 1990, the incidence rates of TB have continued to increase in Belarus, the Russian Federation, the Ukraine and the central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Eastern Europe, and in particular the Russian Federation and the Ukraine, also face the public health challenge of an escalating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemic. Of the 17 283 global MDR-T (more) B cases reported in 2004, over 60% (10 595) were from the European region and the vast majority of these from eastern Europe, including the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Of particular concern is the fact that, along with Africa, treatment success for DOTS in eastern Europe is substantially below average when compared with other regions of the world, and DOTS coverage and smear-positive case detection rate remain the lowest in the world. Collectively, along with Africa, these problems in eastern Europe remain the principal obstacle to meeting the Millennium Development Goals for TB in Europe. The Ukraine has worsening epidemics of TB, MDR-TB and HIV, against a background of epidemics of sexually transmitted illness (STI) and injecting drug users (IDUs). The TB and HIV epidemics are converging. In spite of attempts, the Ukraine has failed to implement DOTS policy due to health systems organization, financing and provider payment systems that created disincentives to change while opposition by policy-makers and clinicians to DOTS strategy hindered implementation efforts.

Atun, Rifat; Olynik, Igor

2008-02-01

220

Magnetotelluric monitoring experiment at the northern Tien Shan seismogenic zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. High-density array MT soundings of the crust in the seismically active northern Tien Shan were performed using Phoenix MTU-5 stations in the Bishkek Geodynamic Polygon, at the junction of the Chu basin and the Kyrgyz Range. The MT transfer functions were determined to an accuracy of 1-2% (amplitude) and about 0.5-0.8 deg (phase) in most of 145 soundings. Preliminary analysis of the collected data aimed at estimating the geoelectrical dimensionality. The Bahr decomposition analysis indicated the presence of local 3D structures in the crust of the area superposed on the regional 2D structure. As a result of 2D inversion of amplitude and phase data with Randy Mackie codes, the geoelectric cross-sections along MT profiles have been constructed. Inversion models image upper-mid crustal zone of enhanced conductivity of the Issyk-Ata fault. Resistivity of this conductive zone is not exceeding 100 ohm-m. The conductor is connected to the surface structure and its upper part coincides with the line of Issyk-Ata fault on the surface. The low resistivity zone in the southern part of the investigated area is gently plunged into the southern direction beneath the rise of the Kyrgyz Range. Apparently, this zone represents large crust's zone of tectonic decollement and weakening with high fluid-gas environment permeability with properties of the waveguide. Next actual implication reveals from comparison of local seismicity spatial distribution and resistivity structure. One can clearly see the high seismicity clustering around the edge of conductive zones, thus we suggest that the local seismicity results either from the migration of the fluids to less permeable crust or from local stress concentration near the structural boundaries. So, presented results of high resolution magnetotelluric survey show that geoelectric imaging of fault zones deliver us the unique information of deep structure features and sometimes it can give us new unexpected tectonic explanations for studied objects. In addition to these structural EM investigations in 2003 Research Station RAS (Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan) and Phoenix Geophysics (Toronto, Canada) jointly installed two permanent stations at the seismogenic zone near Bishkek for monitoring natural and artificial electromagnetic fields, using Phoenix magnetotelluric equipment MTU-5D. MT parameters computed daily for the whole period of these observations are presented. Wavelet analysis was executed for the time series of daily average values of apparent resistivity (modules and phases) for two stationary stations of ?? measurements since autumn of 2003. The time intervals till a few months duration with abnormal behaviour of apparent resistivity variations in the period sounding range T=5-100s are marked, but for all that the maximum of change makes only the first percents. Such long-term change of resistivity has correlation with seismic activity in the region and, probably, can reflect the activation period of the structures in the mid-low crust at the Northern Tien Shan. The work was supported by RBRF grant 07-05-00594a.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Uranium Mining in Paraguay: An opportunity to improve the environmental regulations in mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: In many respects uranium mining is much the same as any other mining activity. In Paraguay under the Environmental Law, as well as many other South American countries, projects must have environmental permits prior to commencing, and must comply with all environmental, safety and occupational health conditions applicable. Increasingly, these activities are regulated by international standards, with external audits. The capacity for enforcement varies from the experience and tradition in mining production. Mining in Paraguay is a very recent activity; and as well as the Environmental Authority was recently created in 2000; therefore the environmental legislation for mining is not developed. Once the mining activity is approved, open pits or shafts and drives are dug, waste rock and overburden is placed in engineered dumps. Tailings from the ore processing must be placed in engineered dams or underground. Finally the whole site must be rehabilitated at the end of the project. Meanwhile air and water pollution must be avoided. The nuclear Renaissance in the world is a result of the high prices of oil and governments commitments on reducing the Greenhouse Effect Emissions under the Kyoto protocol: many governments expressed their willingness to increment their uranium predictions as well as the nuclear energy generation. Representatives of the Paraguayan Government after a meeting of the National council of Defense had stated that the issue of uranium exploration and has a strategic significance, and it has requested the preparation of environmental regulations to regulate this activity. The sector development strategy has also been discussed within the National Council of Defense. In this regard upon request of the National Environmental Authority and with support from USAID cooperation a process of preparing regulations for uranium mining has initiated by considering the cases of remediation and liabilities left by uranium mining in Australia - Nabarlek; Gabon-Mounana; Australia - Valle South Alligator; Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Once the uranium mining process and risks were evaluated by the authorities, and taking into considerations that the process is common to all metalliferous mining, and are well recognized and understood, the government decided to prepare an Environmental Regulation for General Mining. Also a particular regulation for uranium mining was prepared and was included in the Standards Protocols and Term of References for Uranium Mining. The proposed regulation states the follow stages of the process: mine site rehabilitation assessment, environmental risk assessment to determine what environmental assets are at greatest risk from multiple threats, assessment of the biophysical impact of mining on people; assessment of the impact of uranium mining and chemical and biological control regimes to ensure that the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are protected from the operation of mines in the region. Finally in the Environmental Management Plan an environmental monitoring is implemented for early detection of effects in the environment, arising from dispersion of mine waters during the rain and wet season. It is expected that with the proposed environmental regulation, uranium mining will be encourage in Paraguay. (author)

2009-01-01

222

Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics  

Science.gov (United States)

Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal Maoist insurgency. (5) Glacier lakes are in many cases very fragile and their natural dams routinely rupture, causing devastating floods. A rising regional terrorist threat in several countries could target these dams and precipitate calamitous and terrifying results. (6) Over the next century, retreating glaciers may open new corridors for trade and human migration across the Himalaya and pave the way for possible new economic, military and political alliances in the region. (7) Glacier retreat might open new sanctuaries for terrorists and open new corridors for possible ground-based military offensive action across the HKH ranges. The documentation of glacier characteristics that may influence their trafficability, and projections of future glacier extent and behavior are relevant to wide ranging concerns of the region's inhabitants. Satellite remote sensing and mapping of glaciers is one approach to defining and monitoring the problems and opportunities presented by HKH glaciers. Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) is a joint USGS/NASA Pathfinder project that has formed a global consortium of glaciologists in several regional centers that are mapping and monitoring the HKH glaciers using repeat-pass ASTER and Landsat ETM+ data. We are currently building a comprehensive satellite multispectral image and GIS database that is providing detailed information on the state and rates of change of each glacier in the HKH region and other areas of the world. Merging these results with DEMs allows a predictive capability that could be useful in policy development and security planning.

Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

2002-05-01

223

Mouvements migratoires entre la Turquie et les Républiques turcophones du Caucase et d’Asie centrale Migratory movements between Turkey and the Turkish-speaking republics of Caucasia and Central Asia. Religious impacts  

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Full Text Available Forte de ses liens de parenté culturelle avec les Républiques turcophones d’Asie centrale – Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan, Ouzbékistan, Turkménistan et Tadjikistan –, la Turquie a été le point départ d’un important mouvement migratoire en direction de ces États à partir du début de la décennie 1990, au moment où les États en question recouvraient leur indépendance survenue avec la fin de l’Union soviétique. Multiforme, cette migration a véhiculé un important message religieux, dans les deux sens, mais surtout en provenance de Turquie et à destination des principales villes d’Asie centrale. C’est le principal sujet d’investigation de cette étude. Le commerce et la coopération éducative furent les principaux outils déployés par les migrants turcs partis souvent en tant que missionnaires pour ré-islamiser l’Asie centrale, que de nombreux mouvements islamiques turcs jugeaient devoir être remise dans le giron de la civilisation islamique après plus de soixante-dix ans d’une domination soviétique caractérisée par une politique antireligieuse prononcée. Quatre principaux mouvements islamiques turcs se sont fait remarquer en Asie centrale dans cette œuvre de prosélytisme. Le plus important est sans conteste celui fondé par Sait Nursi dont les disciples ont été très actifs dès 1990 dans l’envoi de littérature islamique en Asie centrale. Par ailleurs, un disciple de Sait Nursi, Fethullah Gülen, a fondé un vaste réseau éducatif animé par des jeunes éducateurs partis d’Anatolie pour s’investir dans différentes villes d’Asie centrale. Une autre mouvance, dite suleymanci, du nom de son fondateur Suleyman Tunahan, a, par le biais de la migration turque, ouvert plusieurs petites madrasas dans divers États d’Asie centrale. Enfin, des disciples de la confrérie dite nakshibendiyya, du nom de son fondateur Bahaduddin Nakshibend, un mystique du xve siècle originaire de Boukhara, ont également envoyé des milliers de migrants turcs dans le cadre de plusieurs projets missionnaires. Amenée à s’enraciner dans ses villes d’expatriation en Asie centrale, cette migration turque a déjà très nettement marqué de son empreinte l’islam de ces pays, plus particulièrement au Turkménistan, au Kazakhstan et au Kirghizstan qui ont d’excellentes relations politiques avec la Turquie. Ainsi, bon nombre de nouvelles élites religieuses dans ces pays ont été formées dans le cadre de la coopération avec les mouvements missionnaires turcs et leurs disciples qui ont immigré en Asie centrale. S’inscrivant en marge de la politique officielle turque de coopération en matière religieuse avec les pays d’Asie centrale, les migrants turcs n’en rendent pas moins un grand service à la diplomatie d’Ankara dans la région en l’aidant indirectement à se constituer une sphère d’influence dans cet espace turcophone qui occupe une place notable dans la nouvelle politique extérieure de la Turquie.With the fall of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, a wave of migrants left Turkey for the newly independent Turkish-speaking Central Asian republics with which the country had strong cultural ties – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. As a result of this multiform movement, an important religious message travelled in both directions, but especially from Turkey to the main Central Asian cities. This article focuses on this message. Turkish migrants, who were often missionaries, used commerce and cooperation initiatives in education as two main tools to re-Islamise Central Asia. For many Turkish Islamic movements, it was important to bring this region back into the fold after over 70 years of domination by a Soviet government with a strongly anti-religious policy. As part of this proselytizing, four key Turkish Islamic movements became visible in Central Asia. The largest was undoubtedly that founded by Said Nursi, whose disciples were active in sending Islamic literature to Central Asia from 1990. One of Said Nursi’s disc

Bayram Balci

2010-01-01

224

Les écoles néo-nurcu de Fethullah Gülen en Asie centrale : implantation, fonctionnement et nature du message véhiculé par le biais de la coopération éducative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Depuis la fin de l'URSS, l'Asie centrale turque (l'Ouzbékistan, le Turkménistan et le Kirgistan) ont émergé sur la scène géo-politique et ont nourri le débat identitaire en Turquie. Alors que l'Etat turc attribue une grande importance géopolitique à ces républiques, la présence turque dans ces pays résulte plus de l'engagement d'acteurs privés parmi lesquels la communauté de Fethüllâh Gülen, leader de la branche du mouvement nurcu fondée par Said Nursi (1873-1960). À l'aube de l'indépendance des pays d'Asie centrale, la communauté de Fethüllâh Gülen, est à l'apogée de son pouvoir d'influence en Turquie car il profite d'un important réseau dans le système éducatif qui sert sa stratégie en Asie centrale. Cette communauté a inauguré dès septembre 2002 des douzaines d'écoles privées montées par des professeurs nurcu en partenariat avec des enseignants d'Asie centrale et grâce au soutien du mécénat et à l'action missionnaire du mouvement éducatif. Comme tout mouvement missionnaire, le groupe de Fethüllâh Gülen, développe une idéologie et transmet un message pour la diffusion d'un islam moderne, légèrement teinté de mysticisme. La diffusion de l'éthique musulmane est d'ailleurs la première motivation des missionnaires nurcu d'Asie centrale. Néanmoins, à cause de la suspicion et même de la paranoïa qui ont cours dans ces États post-soviétiques, contre toutes les formes de mouvements religieux, les écoles nurcu ont dû focaliser leur enseignement plus sur la turcité que sur l'islam ce qui explique les bonnes relations que ces communautés ont avec les États turcs d'Asie, alors qu'elles le sont beaucoup moins avec la Turquie. Alors que le mouvement de Fethüllâh Gülen est très apprécié en Asie centrale pour ses activités éducatives, il n'a aucune garantie d'être établi durablement dans la région. De fait, actuellement, la majorité de ses missionnaires sont des Turcs anatoliens. L'éducation d'élites locales va prendre plus de temps ; elle dépendra de la rapidité à laquelle les nouveaux régimes évolueront vers plus de tolérance pour les différents mouvements politiques et religieux.Since the break up of USSR, Turkic Central Asia - Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan et Kyrgyzstan - emerged on the geopolitical scene and fed the identity debate in Turkey. Although the Turkish state grants these republics a new and high geopolitical importance, Turkish presence in the region results more from the commitment of private actors, among which one should distinguish the community of Fethullah Gülen, leader of a branch of the nurcu movement funded by Said Nursi (1873-1960). On the eve of independence in Central Asia, the community of Fethullah Gülen stands at the peak of its power and influence in Turkey. It benefits from a large and powerful educational network that serves its implementation strategy for Central Asia. With the support of businessmen and missionary education professionals, this community inaugurates as soon as September 1991 dozens of private schools run by nurcu professors together with their Central Asian partners. Businessmen from Turkey and Central Asia provide the financial support necessary for the development of such schools, out of which will emerge the next elites of the nation with a close relationship to the movement. Like any missionary movement, the group of Fethullah Gülen carries an ideology and spreads a message for the dissemination of an Islam based on modernity and slightly tinged with mysticism. Spreading Islamic ethics is definitely the priority motivation for nurcu missionaries in Central Asia. However, because of the strong suspicion and paranoia among those post-Soviet states against any kind of religious movement, nurcu schools in order to strengthen their presence focus more on turcity than on Islamic ethics. Their contribution to the dissemination of turcity explains the good relations this religious community has been maintaining with the Turkish state in Central Asia while their relations are

Bayram Balci

2009-01-01