WorldWideScience

Sample records for Kyrgyzstan

  1. Economic Aspects of Defence in Kyrgyzstan

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    Tolga Saruc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a country survey of the Kyrgyz defence economy. Kyrgyzstan is small landlocked country situated in Eastern Central Asia. It borders Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and China, with a population of nearly five million people. Although The Kyrgyz Republic introduced the most liberal reforms in Central Asia, its economy remains unstable with low level of economic growth. Moreover, Kyrgyzstan has a weak state structure, a history of ethnic tension, inequality and poverty. Defence burden of economy is 1.3 in 2006. Because of lack of capacity of Kyrgyz armed forces, the country faces Uzbek government military activities in the outside and political instability inside the country. The first part of the paper presents a brief economic background of Kyrgyzstan, its armed forces and its structure. The remains of the paper focus on the macroeconomic impacts of the defence spending in Kyrgyzstan. The study concludes that defence expenditure of Kyrgyzstan is less than optimal and it retards the development of the economy.

  2. Radioactive situation in Kyrgyzstan: problems and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major problems of the environment contamination in Kyrgyzstan is the development of radioactive and toxic pollution caused by nuclear tests, technogene accidents which took place in neighboring countries, and breach of safe storage and destruction of uranium and hazardous waste tailings. Long-term nuclear tests in various areas of the world and the accident at the NPP have caused the origin of stratospheric deposit of artificial radionuclides, the fallout of which have led to radioactive pollution of the biosphere. Maximum fallout have been observed in the latitudinal zone of 40-60 degrees and in the mountainous regions. As a result of many years of research the main sources of radioactive contamination have been established. It is shown that stratospheric or tropospheric and local fallout have permanently exposed the territory of Kyrgyzstan to the pollution by radionuclides. A brief description of radioactive contamination of the environment in Kyrgyzstan from remote external sources and atmospheric mechanisms of its transfer delineated on the basis of long-term observation of geophysical and atmospheric parameters and regular radiation monitoring have been presented. The investigated mechanisms can be used to interpret the sharp increase of the radioactive background and to estimate the risk to the environment and human health. Some methodological questions about the influence of geophysical conditions on the territorial distribution of contamination have bee considered. The tropospheric mechanism of contamination transfer for different seasons of year has been suggested. The uranium tailings located in mountain regions near densely populated areas and and groundwater basins are the internal sources of radioactive contamination in Kyrgyzstan. Waste products of uranium production present a real treat for the environment and public health. The problem of environment security in connection with destruction of uranium tailings has been discussed. Till now there has not been conducted assessment of radioactive contamination consequences to the environment and human health in this region. The impact of ionization radiation on people health has been presented

  3. HIV-1 genetic variants in Kyrgyzstan

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    V Laga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: During the last two decades, HIV-1 has been spreading rapidly in former Soviet Union republics including Kyrgyzstan. The current molecular monitoring of HIV-infection epidemic is carried out in Russia only with no or limited data from the other FSU countries. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic variants circulating in Kyrgyzstan. Methods: Blood collection from the HIV-infected patients was carried out by local specialists with the informed consent and the questionnaire was answered by each of the patients. The total number of samples was 100. The washed cell pellets were transferred to Moscow following with proviral DNA extraction, PCR amplification and gag, pol and env genes sequencing. The phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences using neighbor-joining method was carried out by MEGA 3 program. The preliminary data were obtained in 22 samples isolated from PBMC of HIV-infected patients from Kyrgyzstan. Results: Among the samples studied 6 (27.3% samples belonged to a subtype CRF02_AG, 16 samples - to subtype A (A1. One of the samples belonging to CRF02_AG, probably, is a recombinant between CRF02_AG and A1. There was no major drug resistance mutations in the samples studied. The minor mutations were presented in small proportions: 1 in PR (L10I, 6 in RT (A62V - in 3 samples, V108G, E138A, Y181F, M184I, L210M - on one sample and 1 in IN (L74M. It was impossible to associate the distribution of mutations with HIV-1 genetic variant. The V3 loop (env gene in 17 samples was analyzed for tropism using geno2pheno program; all samples were found to be R5-viruses. Conclusion: The HIV-1 subtype A seems to dominate in Kyrgyzstan like in other FSU countries. The recombinant CRF02_AG epidemiologically linked to Uzbekistan is quite widespread. The rest of Kyrgyzstan collection is under investigation and the data will be refined soon.

  4. Het cyanide ongeval in Barskoon (Kyrgyzstan)

    OpenAIRE

    Cleven RFMJ; Bruggen M van

    2012-01-01

    On May 20, 1998, a truck with 20 tons of sodium cyanide crashed and fell into the Barskoon River (Kyrgyzstan). This small stream, used by the local population for irrigation and drinking water purposes, flows into Lake Issyk-Kul, a major tourist resort. As a result of the accident, some 1700 - 1800 kg of sodium cyanide (NaCN) was released directly into the river, some 8 km upstream the village of Barskoon. The cyanide spill evoked a strong commotion among the populatio...

  5. Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Relations: Cooperation in Political and Educational Spheres

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    Dinara Murzaeva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1991, Kyrgyzstan gained its independence, and started establishing direct links with the world beyond the Soviet frontier. To conduct foreign relations Kyrgyzstan opened its embassies and/or consulates in almost 30 countries. Turkey is one of the key partners for Kyrgyzstan and plays an important role in the country’s foreign relations (Note 1. This article aims to look at the development of Kyrgyzstan-Turkey relations from 1991 till 2012 focusing on the aspects of the political and educational cooperation. Cooperation in the political sphere is studied by looking at official statements at all levels and, participation and collaboration in multilateral structures. As for the educational sphere, the focus is mainly on Turkey’s various initiatives such as Turkish schools and universities, as well as student exchange programs that can be seen as one of the ‘soft power’ tools inevitably promoting Turkish culture and values. The paper shows asymmetric relationship in which Kyrgyzstan seeks to pursue multi-vector policy rendering certain limitations in the relationship. Kyrgyzstan is essentially eager to receive Turkish foreign policy initiatives. Turkish presence in Kyrgyzstan has mostly been confined to spheres of education and economy. This reliance on ‘soft power’ is attributed to the fact that Turkey seems to, at least for now, lack resources and willingness to challenge Russia, China and USA in the competition for political and military influence in Central Asia.

  6. New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Lazkov, Georgy; Sennikov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia i...

  7. Kyrgyzstan - a virtual narco-state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupatadze, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Numerous myths have surrounded the drug trade in Central Asia over the past two decades. Analysts writing on the issue and the law enforcement structures of the respective countries often have no complete and accurate information about the scale of the trade, the different groups involved and the role of drugs-related money in politics. Generally there are two dominating views: the first considers Kyrgyzstan to be a virtual narco-state and overstates the involvement of politicians and police officials; the alternative underestimates the role of state representatives, describes the smuggling as more decentralised and chaotic and emphasises the role of organised crime gangs and radical Islamic organisations. Based on the interviews in the field conducted in January-March 2012, this paper analyses these alternative perspectives and the empirical evidence supporting these views. It highlights methodological problems relating to research on similar issues, elucidates networks of smuggling and their links with politics and reflects on complexities in addressing these challenges. PMID:24565739

  8. The Discourses of Romanticism and Heroism in the Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Aijarkyn

    2014-01-01

    After the two so-called ?colored revolutions? of March 24, 2005 and April 7, 2010 in Kyrgyzstan the ideas about the future development produced by political, traditional elite groups and academics are shaped into the certain discourses that reflect socio-cultural and political projects including real events and processes along with imagined reality. Among the inconsistent and incoherent discourses which take place in the social rhetoric of Kyrgyzstan, two dominant discourses – about Kyr...

  9. Molecular Epidemiology and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Livestock Brucella melitensis Isolates from Naryn Oblast, Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Imanseitov, Joldoshbek; Ballif, Marie; Schu?rch, Nadia; Paniga, Sandra; Pilo, Paola; Tonolla, Mauro; Benagli, Cinzia; Akylbekova, Kulyash; Jumakanova, Zarima; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of human brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan has been increasing in the last years and was identified as a priority disease needing most urgent control measures in the livestock population. The latest species identification of Brucella isolates in Kyrgyzstan was carried out in the 1960s and investigated the circulation of Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, B. ovis, and B. suis. However, supporting data and documentation of that experience are lacking. Therefore, typing of Brucella spp. and ...

  10. Comparing genetic diversity and population structure of common beans grown in Kyrgyzstan using microsatellites

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Hegay; Mulatu Geleta; Tomas Bryngelsson; Larisa Gustavsson; Helena Persson Hovmalm; Rodomiro Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important export crop in Kyrgyzstan. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of genetic diversity, determine the population structure, and relate to the main gene pools grown in Kyrgyzstan. Twenty-eight common bean accessions (including five Kyrgyz cultivars, and main references from the Mesoamerica and South America) were evaluated with microsatellites. Nine polymorphic microsatellites were used to estimate genetic diversity and heterozygosity...

  11. An innovative national health care waste management system in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toktobaev, Nurjan; Emmanuel, Jorge; Djumalieva, Gulmira; Kravtsov, Alexei; Schüth, Tobias

    2015-02-01

    A novel low-cost health care waste management system was implemented in all rural hospitals in Kyrgyzstan. The components of the Kyrgyz model include mechanical needle removers, segregation using autoclavable containers, safe transport and storage, autoclave treatment, documentation, recycling of sterilized plastic and metal parts, cement pits for anatomical waste, composting of garden wastes, training, equipment maintenance, and management by safety and quality committees. The gravity-displacement autoclaves were fitted with filters to remove pathogens from the air exhaust. Operating parameters for the autoclaves were determined by thermal and biological tests. A hospital survey showed an average 33% annual cost savings compared to previous costs for waste management. All general hospitals with >25 beds except in the capital Bishkek use the new system, corresponding to 67.3% of all hospital beds. The investment amounted to US$0.61 per capita covered. Acceptance of the new system by the staff, cost savings, revenues from recycled materials, documented improvements in occupational safety, capacity building, and institutionalization enhance the sustainability of the Kyrgyz health care waste management system. PMID:25649402

  12. Avalanche risk assessment for the link Osh - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarkulova, Kydyr

    2015-04-01

    The Bishkek-Osh road is main North-South ground transportation connection between the two major cities of Kyrgyzstan. One of the causes for frequent interruptions and closures between November and May is the avalanche risk due to local terrain characteristics and orographically induced precipitation maxima during winter. As a first step towards more effective prediction and implementation of mitigating measures the development of a digital avalanche inventory ('avalanche cadastre') has been initiated. This is aiming at modeling regional risk, and prioritizes the implementation of protective infrastructures in the most avalanche-prone zones. In addition, this helps with continuous monitoring of avalanche behaviour and the assessment of potential influence of climate change. For the parameterisation of models and support of decisions, details about avalanche incidences need to be collected. Historical data collected during Soviet time serve as an important baseline, complemented by more recent data. Overall, developing such a geo database shall be useful and effective for future planning at the Ministry of Emergency Services. This paper demonstrates important parameters to be collected and critical role of historical data as a baseline. Geodatabases are being developed on ArcGIS and used locally for planning preventive measures.

  13. Environmental Journalism in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan: Reporting Scarce amid Environmental and Media Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Independence for the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia has not led to press freedom, solutions to pressing environmental problems, or development of effective grassroots nongovernmental organizations. This article examines relations between journalists and environmental nongovernmental organizations, and it…

  14. Seismic investigation of Lake Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, C.; Naudts, L.; De Mol, L.; De Batist, M.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Issyk-Kul is located in an intramontane basin of the Tien Shan mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. It has formed in a tectonically active region with W-E striking major thrust zones north and south of the lake. The lake's modern surface level is at 1607 m above sea level, maximum depth in the central basin of the lake is roughly 670 m, and the total water volume is around 1736 km3. The lake is elongated with 180 km in west-east and 60 km in south-north direction. With a surface area of 6232 km2, Lake Issyk-Kul is the second largest lake in the higher altitudes. The lake is characterized by two large delta areas at its western and eastern end, with the deltaic area being as wide as up to 60 km in the eastern and 40 km in the western part, and by steep slopes at the northern and southern shore with only a rather narrow shallower shelf area. The lake contains the sediments of the past up to several million years, and has been proposed as a future target for deep drilling within ICDP. Three seismic surveys by Russian and Belgian groups in 1982, 1997 and 2001 revealed a thick sediment infill in Lake Issyk-Kul. At both the western and the eastern end of the lake, large delta systems were formed by actual and previous inlets, namely the Tyup and Djyrgalan rivers in the eastern part of the lake (still active) and the Chu River at the western end (currently bypassing the lake). Large sub-aquatic channel systems are visible in the lake's bathymetry in the shallower part of the delta systems close to the river mouths. They were quite likely formed by these rivers during a former lake level lowstand. The delta system consists of stacked prograding delta lobes with a characteristic topset-foreset-bottomset configuration. These lobes together with sub-aerial terraces found at several spots around the lake witness lake level fluctuations of up to >400 m. The sediments in the central plain of Lake Issyk-Kul are mainly well-layered with many turbiditic sequences intercalated with pelagic background sedimentation. Sediments are slightly inclined towards south with increasing angles with depth, suggesting a halfgraben structure of the lake basin. Mass transport deposits such as debris flows are a common feature close to the steeper flanks around the central plain. The southern flank is characterized by many small terraces and several canyons that are related to the small inlets at the southern shore. The northern flank, however, shows a small, shallow shelf area of 25 to 30 m water depth. This area is characterized by glacial outwash sediments brought to the lake by small rivers that drain the large terminal moraines which are located north of the lake.

  15. Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

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    Berner, U.; Scheeder, G.; Kus, J. [Section Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, BGR, Hannover (Germany); Voigt, S.; Schneider, J.W. [Geological Inst., TU Bergakademic Freiberg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Along the northern foothills of the Turkestan-Alai Range (SW Kyrgyzstan), a 1000 to 1500m thick succession of Mesozoic deposits is exposed recording regional changes of the paleo-landscape during Triassic to Cretaceous times. Detailed litho- and biofacies analyses, conducted by the TU Bergakademie Freiberg since 2006, provided for the first time a nearly complete columnar section of the continental Triassic Madygen Formation of Kyrgyzstan. Organic petrographical and organic geochemical methods (including RockEval pyrolyses, and biomarker analyses) have been applied to a suite of terrestrial sedimentary rocks of Triassic age with the intention to identify the depositional environment. Our investigations suggest that the potential source rocks of the terrestrial pluvial Madygen Formation might generate predominantly gaseous hydrocarbons at higher maturities. (orig.)

  16. Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan

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    Ana Navas-Acien

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86 ?g/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD 13.5 (3.6 hours a day and 5.8 (1.4 days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS.

  17. HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question. PMID:24342741

  18. Environmental Effects of Possible Landslides in the Areas of Radioactive Waste Storage in Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the problems caused by the location of uranium mine and mill tailings in the mountainous regions of Kyrgyzstan which are subject to potentially disrupting natural events such as landslides and flooding. It describes the modelling analyses which have been carried out to provide an improved predictive capability of potential future events. On the basis of these analyses, strategies have been developed to avoid some of the worst consequences of the natural events. (author)

  19. Eager to Leave? Intentions to Migrate Abroad among Young People in Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Agadjanian, Victor; Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Kumskov, Gennady

    2008-01-01

    This study examines young people’s intentions to migrate abroad in Kyrgyzstan, focusing in particular on differences between Asian and European-origin ethnic groups. The multivariate analyses of recent survey data show that even after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and social embeddedness Europeans are significantly more inclined to migrate than Asians. Whereas no gender differences in migration intentions among either group are detected, marriage, childbearing, and social ca...

  20. The State as Investment Market : An Analytical Framework for Interpreting Politics and Bureaucracy in Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Engvall, Johan

    2011-01-01

    What type of state has emerged in post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan, and what kind of theoretical framework must we develop to understand its behavior and performance? This study argues that the logic of political and bureaucratic organization follows that of an investment market in which public offices are purchased with the expectation of yielding a favorable return. This theory represents a novel perspective on the post-communist state which has hitherto either been premised on modernization theory o...

  1. Canine echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan: using prevalence data adjusted for measurement error to develop transmission dynamics models

    OpenAIRE

    Ziadinov, I.; Mathis, A.; Trachsel, D; Rysmukhambetova, A.; Abdyjaparov, T A; Kuttubaev, O. T.; Deplazes, P; Torgerson, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A cross-sectional study of dogs in four villages in rural Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Echinococcus spp. A total of 466 dogs were examined by arecoline purgation for the presence of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. In addition, a faecal sample from each dog was examined for taeniid eggs. Any taeniid eggs found were investigated using PCR techniques (multiplex and single ...

  2. Demographic Journeys along the Silk Road : Marriage, Childbearing, and Migration in Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Nedoluzhko, Lesia

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the limited demographic literature on Central Asia – the region through which led the great Silk Road – an ancient route of trade and cultural exchange between East and West. We focus on Kyrgyzstan and countries in its immediate neighborhood: Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. We analyze the dynamic interplay between marriage, childbearing, and migration, and examine fertility intentions and intentions to migrate as predictors of demographic outcomes. The thesis consists of...

  3. The Discourses of Romanticism and Heroism in the Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijarkyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After the two so-called ?colored revolutions? of March 24, 2005 and April 7, 2010 in Kyrgyzstan the ideas about the future development produced by political, traditional elite groups and academics are shaped into the certain discourses that reflect socio-cultural and political projects including real events and processes along with imagined reality. Among the inconsistent and incoherent discourses which take place in the social rhetoric of Kyrgyzstan, two dominant discourses – about Kyrgyz nomads and National heroes - have provoked ardent debates for many years. This article describes and analyzes the above mentioned discourses in order to reveal their contents, character and effects. I will present the results of my field research that includes the analysis of publications, political leaders’ speeches, transcript materials from different intellectual group discussions, interviews with academics and participants of April 7 ?revolution?. I will illustrate that these discourses cover both political and socio-cultural issues connected with the imagined reality instead of solving short-term and long-term problems in certain aspects of Kyrgyzstan life. I believe that under the umbrella of political Romanticism they reflect an intention of some elite groups to have much more influence on the political processes and to redistribute symbolical power.

  4. Comparing genetic diversity and population structure of common beans grown in Kyrgyzstan using microsatellites

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    Sergey Hegay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important export crop in Kyrgyzstan. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of genetic diversity, determine the population structure, and relate to the main gene pools grown in Kyrgyzstan. Twenty-eight common bean accessions (including five Kyrgyz cultivars, and main references from the Mesoamerica and South America were evaluated with microsatellites. Nine polymorphic microsatellites were used to estimate genetic diversity and heterozygosity. The number of alleles per microsatellite locus ranged from 2 to 4 and there were a total of 24 alleles. The observed heterozygosity of each accession over all loci ranged from 0 to 1.11 (with an average of 0.05, while the expected average heterozygosity was 0.08, which could reflect the self-pollinating breeding behavior of common beans. The analysis of molecular variance further revealed that 94.71% of the total variation was accounted by differences among accessions (Fst =0.947; p

  5. Childhood exposures to Rn-222 and background gamma radiation in the uranium provinces of south Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project was undertaken in southern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It was speculated that the radiation doses in these areas would be sufficiently high and dispersed to facilitate a case–control study where the radiation doses to leukaemia subjects/their siblings could be compared with those received by control children. As a precursor a pilot project was undertaken to confirm radiation exposures in the region. This was undertaken in association with regional childhood cancer treatment centres. Children from families affected by childhood leukaemia were monitored for 1 month for external ?-radiation dose and for exposure to radon gas. 28 children from families in Kazakhstan and from 31 families in Kyrgyzstan were monitored. The median measured radon in air concentration recorded in Kazakhstan was 123 Bq m?3 and in Kyrgyzstan was 177 Bq m?3. These represent 24-h average indoor/outdoor values. In the case of the ?-doses the mean annual dose was 1.2 mGy for Kazakhstan and 2.1 mGy for Kyrgyzstan. Overall, the results suggest that the populations studied receive similar annual radiation doses to those received by populations living in other areas with enhanced natural radioactivity and that further study of Kazakh and Kyrgyz populations would not facilitate a successful case–control study for childhood leukaemia

  6. The Accommodation of Children and Young People in Kyrgyzstan by the System of Education, and the Problem of Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiuliundieva, N.

    2006-01-01

    Kyrgyzstan, like other countries of the former Soviet Union, traditionally occupied a relatively high position in the world from the standpoint of the average level of education of its population. Any gender inequality when it came to obtaining an education was insignificant by international standards. However, the conversion to market relations,…

  7. Coping with the energy crisis: Impact assessment and potentials of non-traditional renewable energy in rural Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyrgyz energy sector is characterised by a dramatic energy crisis that has deprived a substantial part of the population from access to energy. Non-traditional renewable energy sources have emerged as a promising alternative in providing basic energy services to the rural poor. Based on qualitative interview data from local households and project planners, this study sets out to assess impacts, limitations and barriers of non-traditional renewable energy projects in rural areas in Kyrgyzstan. This study argues that recent renewable energy efforts from multilateral international agencies, the private sector, and nongovernmental organisations exhibit great potential in creating tangible benefits and improving basic energy services, but have so far been inefficient in establishing and replicating sustainable and long-term energy solutions. Existing practices need to be improved by attaching greater importance to the capacities and real needs of the rural poor. The guidance of integrated programmes and policies along with alternative financing schemes and awareness-raising are urgently needed to leverage local success stories and to facilitate a sustainable energy development in rural Kyrgyzstan. - Highlights: ? We examine 11 rural households and 5 project planners in rural Kyrgyzstan. ? We assess impacts of non-traditional renewable energies compared with conventional fuels. ? Renewable energies exhibit a range of tangible benefits for rural users. ? Limitatinefits for rural users. ? Limitations concern performance, durability, repair, acceptance, finance and policy. ? Renewable energy is a promising alternative for rural households in Kyrgyzstan.

  8. Uranium in natural waters sampled within former uranium mining sites in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New data are presented on 238U concentrations in surface and ground waters sampled at selected uranium mining sites in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan and in water supplies of settlements located in the vicinity of these sites. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used for 238U determination in all cases. In addition, for data accuracy assessments purposes, a sub-set of these samples was analysed by high-resolution alpha spectrometry, following standard radiochemical separation and purification. Our data show that drinking waters sampled at various settlements located close to the uranium mining sites are characterised by relatively low uranium concentrations (1.9 - 35.9 ?g L-1) compared to surface waters sampled within the same sites. The latter show high concentrations of total uranium, reflecting the influence from the radioactive waste generated as a result of uranium ore production. (author)

  9. Proposal for a probabilistic local level landslide hazard assessment model: The case of Suluktu, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn; Fornes, Petter; Cepeda, Jose Mauricio; Ekseth, Kristine Helene; Eidsvig, Unni; Ormukov, Cholponbek

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are a significant threat to human life and the built environment in many parts of Central Asia. To improve understanding of the magnitude of the threat and propose appropriate risk mitigation measures, landslide hazard mapping is needed both at regional and local level. Many different approaches for landslide hazard mapping exist depending on the scale and purpose of the analysis and what input data are available. This paper presents a probabilistic local scale landslide hazard mapping methodology for rainfall triggered landslides, adapted to the relatively dry climate found in South-Western Kyrgyzstan. The GIS based approach makes use of data on topography, geology, land use and soil characteristics to assess landslide susceptibility. Together with a selected rainfall scenario, these data are inserted into a triggering model based on an infinite slope formulation considering pore pressure and suction effects for unsaturated soils. A statistical model based on local landslide data has been developed to estimate landslide run-out. The model links the spatial extension of the landslide to land use and geological features. The model is tested and validated for the town of Suluktu in the Ferghana Valley in South-West Kyrgyzstan. Landslide hazard is estimated for the urban area and the surrounding hillsides. The case makes use of a range of data from different sources, both remote sensing data and in-situ data. Public global data sources are mixed with case specific data obtained from field work. The different data and models have various degrees of uncertainty. To account for this, the hazard model has been inserted into a Monte Carlo simulation framework to produce a probabilistic landslide hazard map identifying areas with high landslide exposure. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013], under grant agreement n° 312972 "Framework to integrate Space-based and in-situ sENSing for dynamic vUlnerability and recover Monitoring" (SENSUM).

  10. An international degree, social ties and return: when international graduates make a career back home in Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Thieme, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Student mobility is increasing worldwide, and Kyrgyzstan is no exception. This study looks at students who returned after their degree and highlights the increasing transnational, networked character of professionals, emphasizing not only the phys­ical presence of migrants, but also the value of knowledge transfer. Transnationalism can be maintained without moving physically, for example through interaction with international donor agencies in the country or through an in-depth application o...

  11. Bismarck meets Beveridge on the Silk Road: coordinating funding sources to create a universal health financing system in Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Kutzin, Joseph; Ibraimova, Ainura; Jakab, Melitta; O’Dougherty, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    Options for health financing reform are often portrayed as a choice between general taxation (known as the Beveridge model) and social health insurance (known as the Bismarck model). Ten years of health financing reform in Kyrgyzstan, since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, provide an excellent example of why it is wrong to reduce health financing policy to a choice between the Beveridge and Bismarck models. Rather than fragment the system according to the insu...

  12. The 2008 Nura earthquake sequence at the Pamir-Tian Shan collision zone, southern Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippl, C.; Ratschbacher, L.; Schurr, B.; Krumbiegel, C.; Rui, H.; Pingren, L.; Abdybachaev, U.

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed the 5 October 2008, Mw 6.6 Nura earthquake, which occurred in the border triangle between Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and China, and its aftershock series based on locally recorded seismic data. More than 3000 aftershocks were detected and located, using a double-difference technique and a regional 3-D velocity model. Moment tensors for the main event and the 42 largest aftershocks were determined by full-waveform inversion of long-period displacement seismograms. The Nura main shock was a shallow (˜3.4 km deep) reverse faulting event and occurred on an approximately east striking rupture plane situated east of the Alai Valley, along the Pamir Frontal Thrust of the Trans Alai Range, the leading edge of the Pamir Thrust System. Its presumed rupture plane dips steeply (˜59°) southward. The aftershocks constitute several distinct clusters that can be attributed to the activation of an array of individual faults including the one that was presumably broken by the main shock. Background seismicity occurred mainly further south, behind the crest of the Trans Alai Range, in an approximately east trending zone of dextral transpressional motion in the interior of the Pamir Thrust System. We show that nearly all reactivated structures lie in regions that experienced an increase in Coulomb stress due to the main shock rupture. The Nura earthquake sequence indicates slip partitioning between north-south shortening that creates large earthquakes along the Pamir Frontal Thrust, and lateral movement in the interior of the Pamir Thrust System.

  13. Implementing Istanbul Protocol standards for forensic evidence of torture in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Alejandro; Crosby, Sondra; Xenakis, Stephen; Iacopino, Vincent

    2015-02-01

    The Kyrgyz government declared a policy of "zero tolerance" for torture and began reforms to stop such practice, a regular occurrence in the country's daily life. This study presents the results of 10 forensic evaluations of individuals alleging torture; they represent 35% of all criminal investigations into torture for the January 2011-July 2012 period. All individuals evaluated were male with an average age of 34 years. Police officers were implicated as perpetrators in all cases. All individuals reported being subjected to threats and blunt force trauma from punches, kicks, and blows with objects such as police batons. The most common conditions documented during the evaluations were traumatic brain injury and chronic seizures. Psychological sequelae included post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder, which was diagnosed in seven individuals. In all cases, the physical and psychological evidence was highly consistent with individual allegations of abuse. These forensic evaluations, which represent the first ever to be conducted in Kyrgyzstan in accordance with Istanbul Protocol standards, provide critical insight into torture practices in the country. The evaluations indicate a pattern of brutal torture practices and inadequate governmental and nongovernmental forensic evaluations. PMID:25623194

  14. The 24 July 2008 outburst flood of Zyndan glacier lake, Ysyk-Köl region, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narama, C.; Duishonakonov, M.; Kääb, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2009-04-01

    On 24 July 2008, a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) occurred in the Zyndan River, the Ysyk-Köl region, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and many livestock (horse, sheep, fish), and caused heavy damage destroying a bridge, road, two homes, and crops of agriculture fields. We researched the damege after two days of the GLOF. Using kinematic GPS we measured the decrease of the glacier lake area, and the according drop of the water level through the outburst. Glacier lake area of about 0.03 km2 reduced after the collapse, more than 400,000 m3 of water were discharged. While the initial flood discharge was relatively small, it increased substantially and was carrying large boulders after 30 minutes. When spreading further downstream, the dirty waters trapped eight people on islands between the stream branches. The flood discharge continued to rise until midnight and began to decrease again around 3 AM the next morning. The lake at 3771 m asl is located in front of the west Zyndan glacier at the head of the Zyndan River basin. The glacier lake had developed rapidly due to glacier shrinkage caused by recent atmospheric warming. Reasons for the outburst included melting of dead ice inside the moraine that dammed the lake. The villages downstream escaped heavy damage, because the main flood changed its direction, away from the water reservoir along the village and towards another river.

  15. The Inylchek Glacier in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia: Insight on Surface Kinematics from Optical Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Nobakht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain chains of Central Asia host a large number of glaciated areas that provide critical water supplies to the semi-arid populated foothills and lowlands of this region. Spatio-temporal variations of glacier flows are a key indicator of the impact of climate change on water resources as the glaciers react sensitively to climate. Satellite remote sensing using optical imagery is an efficient method for studying ice-velocity fields on mountain glaciers. In this study, temporal and spatial changes in surface velocity associated with the Inylchek glacier in Kyrgyzstan are investigated. We present a detailed map for the kinematics of the Inylchek glacier obtained by cross-correlation analysis of Landsat images, acquired between 2000 and 2011, and a set of ASTER images covering the time period between 2001 and 2007. Our results indicate a high-velocity region in the elevated part of the glacier, moving up to a rate of about 0.5 m/day. Time series analysis of optical data reveals some annual variations in the mean surface velocity of the Inylchek during 2000–2011. In particular, our findings suggest an opposite trend between periods of the northward glacial flow in Proletarskyi and Zvezdochka glacier, and the rate of westward motion observed for the main stream of the Inylchek.

  16. Training of front-line health workers for tuberculosis control: Lessons from Nigeria and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schelokova Irina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Efficient human resources development is vital for facilitating tuberculosis control in developing countries, and appropriate training of front-line staff is an important component of this process. Africa and Central Asia are over-represented in global tuberculosis statistics. Although the African region contributes only about 11% of the world population, it accounts for at least 25% of annual TB notifications, a proportion that continues to increase due to poor case management and the adverse impact of HIV/AIDS. Central Asia's estimated current average tuberculosis prevalence rate of 240/100 000 is significantly higher than the global average of 217/100 000. With increased resources currently becoming available for countries in Africa and Central Asia to improve tuberculosis control, it is important to highlight context-specific training benchmarks, and propose how human resources deficiencies may be addressed, in part, through efficient (retraining of frontline tuberculosis workers. This article compares the quality, quantity and distribution of tuberculosis physicians, laboratory staff, community health workers and nurses in Nigeria and Kyrgyzstan, and highlights implications for (retraining tuberculosis workers in developing countries.

  17. Morphometric development and changes in the growth and development dynamics of Japanese quail populations bred in Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Tulobaev, Askarbek; Alpak, Hasan; Bektemirova, Damira; Turdubaeva, Aynura

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the live weight development phases from hatchling to adolescent bird of Japanese quails bred in Kyrgyzstan, and to determine the age-related changes in body measurements. Adolescent birds were found to have a body length (distance between first vertebra thoracalis to end of sacrum) coefficient of 3.0, a sternum front to rear end length coefficient of 3.3, a tibia length of 2.34, and a pelvic width (distance between right and left acetabulum) c...

  18. Glacier characteristics and changes in the Sary-Jaz River Basin (Central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan) – 1990–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Osmonov, Azamat; Bolch, Tobias; Xi, Chen; Kurban, Alishir; Guo, Wanqing

    2013-01-01

    The water discharge from the heavily glacierized Sary-Jaz River Basin (Eastern Kyrgyzstan) is of high importance for the very arid Tarim Basin located in Xinjiang (north-western China). We investigated glacier changes in the entire Sary-Jaz River Basin, which covers a large part of the Central Tien Shan, for the period from 1990 to 2010 based on Landsat ‘TM’/‘ETM+’data. We found 1310 glaciers (>0.1 km²), which covered 2055 ± 41.1 km² (?18% of the entire basin) in 1990. The glacie...

  19. Environmental Impact and Remediation of Uranium Tailings and Waste Rock Dumps at Mailuu-Suu in Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the environmental situation in the former uranium mining and milling region of Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan), the approach to environmental remediation of the waste facilities (tailings ponds and waste dumps) and the results achieved so far. It starts with an outline of the history of the environmental remediation project which has received international attention and is seen as a pilot project for further remediation activities of former uranium mining and milling sites in the region. Apart from technical aspects, the paper draws conclusions with respect to the administrative environment, institutional capacity building and the local availability of resources needed to successfully implement a complex remediation project. (author)

  20. Development of Triad approach based system for ecological risk assessment for contaminated areas of Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydralieva, Kamilia; Uzbekov, Beksultan; Khudaibergenova, Bermet; Terekhova, Vera; Jorobekova, Sharipa

    2014-05-01

    This research is aimed to develop a high-effective system of an ecological risk assessment and risk-based decision making for anthropogenic ecosystems, with particular focus on the soils of the Kyrgyz Republic. The study is focused on the integration of Triad data including chemical, biological and ecotoxicological soil markers to estimate the potential risk from soils of highly anthropized areas impacted by deposition of different pollutants from mining operation. We focus on technogenic areas of Kyrgyzstan, the former uranium-producing province. Triad-based ecological risk assessment for technogenic sites are not currently used in Kyrgyzstan. However, the vitality of such research is self-evident. There are about 50 tailing dumps and more than 80 tips of radioactive waste which are formed as a result of uranium and complex ores (mercury, antimony, lead, cadmium and etc) mining around the unfavorable aforementioned places. According to the Mining Wastes' Tailings and Fills Rehabilitation Centre established in 1999 by a special Government's Resolution, one of the most ecologically dangerous uranium tailings resides in Kadzhi-Say. Although uranium processing is no longer practiced in Kadzhi-Say, a large number of open landfills and uranium ore storages still remain abandoned at the vicinity of this settlement. These neglected sites have enormous problems associated with soil erosion known as "technogenic deserts". The upper soil horizons are deprived of humus and vegetation, which favor the formation of low-buffer landscapes in the zones of maximum contamination. As a result, most of these areas are not re-cultivated and remain in critical environmental condition (Bykovchenko, et al., 2005; Tukhvatshin, 2005; Suranova, 2006). Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites will be integrated. The following Triad-based parameters will be employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous substances), 2) ecological parameters (assessing changes in microorganism's community structure and functions, bioindication); and 3) toxicological bioassays (utilizing classical endpoints such as survival and reproduction rates, genotoxicity). The output will be consisted of 3 indexes: 1) Environmental Risk Index, quantifying the level of biological damage at population-community level, 2) Biological Vulnerability Index, assessing the potential threats to biological equilibria, and 3) Genotoxicity Index, screening genotoxic effects. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) will be used to integrate a set of environmental Triad data to be obtained during the project, which will be carried out in order to estimate the potential risk from soil contamination of the highly anthropized areas of Kadzhi-Say, which have been impacted by deposition of heavy metals. The basis of the development under this research is studies with a particular focus concerning the biocenosis mapping of Kyrgyz soils (Mamytova et al., 2003, 2010), investigations on interaction of humic substances with soil contaminants (Jorobekova, Kydralieva, Khudaibergenova, 2004; Khudaibergenova, 2005, 2007), and in addition, technical approach for ecotoxicological assessment of soils (Terekhova, 2007, 2011). Soil ecotoxicological estimation has been studied with a battery of tests using test-organisms of many trophic levels. Currently, bioindication of soils with various humus states is under study (Senesi, Yakimenko 2007; Yakimenko, et al., 2008).

  1. Quantitative Biostratigraphic Analysis of Central Asia with Implications for the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, W. N.; Hopkins, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Central Asia lies at a nexus both in terms of geology and evolutionary biogeography. With the convergence of the Indian and Asian plates creating high rates of deformation over broad regions, shortening of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic basement rocks has created a rich history of late Cenozoic sedimentary basins. In fact, Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active country in the world. Additionally, Central Asia is a biogeographic crossroads, facilitating the intercontinental migrations of distant faunas from North American, Europe, Africa, and Southern Asia. With such an active geologic and biological evolution, the usefulness of temporal constraints is apparent. However, the continental collision environment has provided few volcanic rocks suitable for radiometric dating. Therefore, while less precise, the biostratigraphic analysis of Central Asia I present is an ideal method for both establishing ages and correlating between disparate basins. The last several decades provided great advancements in quantitative biostratigraphic methods applied to marine microfossils from drill cores. While these newer methods such as RASC (ranking and scaling), its sister program CASC, and CONOP (constrained optimization) provide a clear improvement over older methods such as graphic correlation, they have yet to be applied to terrestrial vertebrate faunas. Graphic correlation only allows comparison between two stratigraphic columns at a time and is heavily weighted by the initial selection of a type section. Both RASC and CONOP compare all stratigraphic sections simultaneously, eliminating type section bias. Previous vertebrate biostratigraphy methods attempted to predict FADs and LADs with the assumption they are generally minimum estimates. RASC instead establishes average stratigraphic ranges for each taxon and with CASC actually provides confidence intervals for each prediction, reducing the potential error resulting from reworking. CONOP generates maximum stratigraphic ranges observed in all sections, yet also includes error bars for the estimates of each biological event such as an extinction or origination. Used in conjunction, RASC, CASC, and CONOP provide both a solid evaluation of land mammal ages or zones for Central Asia and a predictive composite column for new late Cenozoic fossil localities. With a high degree of endemicity and migration, Central Asia cannot rely on the European Neogene Mammal Zones. This study aims to support and evaluate the emerging Asian biostratigraphic and geochronologic framework. With little fossil material currently collected from Kyrgyzstan, this study also sets a temporal framework for future paleontological work. Material is included from countries with much better constrained biostratigraphic records, preferably associated with existing radiometric dates. Specifically included were sites from Asiatic Russia, Mongolia, Western China, India, and Nepal. This geographic range is selected both to preserve the signal of faunas endemic to the Himalayan and Tibetan highlands, but also to provide a large enough sample to account for the well-known problems with the terrestrial fossil record such as high sampling errors and diachrony.

  2. [PCR-RFLP and sequencing studies of malaria vectors (Diptera, Culicidae, Anopheles) in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriacheva, I I; Zvantsov, A B; Gordeev, M I; Bezzhonova, O V; Usenbaev, N T; Ezhov, M N

    2011-01-01

    The results of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, obtained after treatment of PCR-products with restriction endonuclease CfoI, could identify two members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex: An. maculipennis and An. artemievi. Treatment of amplification products with restriction endonuclease BsuI gave rise to fragment lengths of 192 and 218 bp, characteristic of An. artemievi, in the populations of the Talas (settlement of Kizil-Adyr, Kara-Bura District), Dzhelalabad (towns of Tashkumyr and Kara-Kul), and Osh (town of Gulcha, Alai District; village of Langar, Kara-Suisky District) Regions. After treatment of PCR-products with restriction endonuclease BstACI, fragment lengths of 292 and 150 bp, characteristic of An. messeae, were obtained for the mosquitoes of Issyk-Kul (town of Balykchi) and Naryn (settlement of Kochkorka, Kochkor District) Regions. To identify the molecular forms of An. superpictus, the investigators sequenced the amplification products obtained by PCR with 5.8S and 28S rRNA gene-specific primers. Analysis of the primary structure of the second internal transcribed spacer, by using the international databases, has indicated that molecular form X is prevalent in the study districts of Kyrgyzstan. The COI-COII region of the mitochondrial genome of the vector also underwent PCR-RFLP analysis. Three new haplotypes with restriction patterns of about 540, 420, 200, 150, 140 bp, about 540, 360, 280, 150, 140 bp, and about 580, 540, and 150, 140 bp have been identified along with the previously described haplotype X characterized by restriction products of 540, 420, 260, 150, and 140 bp in length. PMID:21476255

  3. Geophysical investigation and dynamic modelling of unstable slopes: case-study of Kainama (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneels, G.; Bourdeau, C.; Torgoev, I.; Havenith, H.-B.

    2008-10-01

    The presence of massive Quaternary loess units at the eastern border of the Fergana Basin (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia) makes this area particularly prone to the development of catastrophic loess earthflows, causing damages and injuries almost every year. Efficient disaster management requires a good understanding of the main causes of these mass movements, that is, increased groundwater pressure and seismic shaking. This paper focuses on the Kainama earthflow, mainly composed of loess, which occurred in 2004 April. Its high velocity and the long run-out zone caused the destruction of 12 houses and the death of 33 people. In summer 2005, a field survey consisting of geophysical and seismological measurements was carried out along the adjacent slope. By combination and geostatistical analysis of these data, a reliable 3-D model of the geometry and properties of the subsurface layers, as shown in the first part of the paper, was created. The analysis of the seismological data allowed us to point out a correlation between the thickness of the loess cover and the measured resonance frequencies and associated amplification potential. The second part of this paper is focused on the study of the seismic response of the slope by numerical simulations, using a 2-D finite difference code named FLAC. Modelling of the seismic amplification potential along the slope confirmed the results obtained from the seismological survey-strong amplifications at the crest and bottom of the slope where there is a thick loess cover and almost no amplification in the middle part of the slope. Furthermore, dynamic slope stability analyses were conducted to assess the influence of local amplifications and increased groundwater pressures on the slope failure. The results of the dynamic modelling, although preliminary, show that a combination of seismic and hydrologic origin (pore pressure build-up during the seismic shaking) is the most probable scenario responsible for the 2004 failure.

  4. Phased Remediation Approach for Prevention of Risks Linked with Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of the town of Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals from tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, we evaluated measures to be taken by the authorities to reduce the radiological exposure of the population and to prevent environmental pollution by radionuclides and heavy metals in case of loss of tightness of dams and damage to dumps and heaps from mining and milling by land and mudslides and proposed sustainable remedial options, accepted by the public. A radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu-Suu, located downstream of the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine-waste dump. The actual external exposure is around 1.2 mSv a-1 at both locations and exposure from radon is around 3 mSv a-1 at Mailuu-Suu and around 10 mSv a-1 at Kara Agach. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu-Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the very conservative hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (?10-30 mSv a-1). Additional dose from irrigation with Mailuu-Suu river water is small in actual conditions (o 3, the potential of such a disaster to occur is non-negligible. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options are evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilization and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu-Suu River valley are studied (translocation of other tailings, tunnel to deviate river, partial protection of river from landslide blockage). It was proposed to acquire a phased approach in time performing urgent limited stabilization options for Tailing No 3, improve the stability of the Tailing No 3 by COLMIX-columns in the medium-term, while investigating and evaluating further two long term remedial options: the translocation of the tailings and the long-right-bank river diversion tunnel. (author)

  5. Experience of the multi-parameters electromagnetic monitoring in the area of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraev, A.; Antaschuk, K.; Simakov, A.

    2013-12-01

    Development of the multi-parameters electromagnetic (EM) monitoring technology in frequency range 0.1 Hz - 1 MHz is carried out in the area of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan). The technology includes registration of such EM earthquake precursors, as apparent resistivity variations, ULF magnetic and electrotelluric anomalies, electromagnetic emission and ionosphere disturbances. Two types of equipment are used for the EM monitoring: the audiomagnetotelluric system ACF-4M (0.1-1000 Hz) and the radiomagnetotelluric system RMT-F (1-1000 kHz). The equipment ensure time series registration of electric and magnetic field components, robust data processing, spectral parameters calculations, apparent resistivity and impedance phase determination. The integrated multi-parameters monitoring of the considered precursors is carried out simultaneously and obtaining of informative parameters is differed by methods of measured time series data processing only. For the apparent resistivity variations monitoring we apply the audiomagnetotelluric sounding method in frequency range 7-300 Hz with the sufficiently large investigation depth for decreasing of seasonal and daily factors influence, temperature changes and other weather conditions. In this frequency range natural EM fields are quite stable for reliable data obtaining in any time of day and season with accuracy 0.3 % for apparent resistivity. For ULF magnetic, electrotelluric and electromagnetic emission anomalies study we use the wide-band registration of time-series of electric and magnetic fields in frequency range from 0.1 Hz up to 1 MHz. Ionosphere disturbances are studied in radio (observations of remote radio transmitter's signals) and audio (Schumann resonances observations) frequency ranges. EM emission anomaly was registered before the earthquake of M=3.3 on 4 April 2013 in the monitoring station at 100 km distance to the West from the earthquake epicenter (Issyk-Kul lake area). In the dynamic spectrum of magnetic field horizontal component the anomaly is seen in intervals 10-25 and 70-100 kHz (Fig. 1). The duration of the anomaly is approximately 2 hours before the earthquake. This work was supported by the RFBR (project 13-05-12091). Fig. 1. An example of anomaly in the dynamic spectrum of magnetic field in radio frequency range 10-100 kHz before the earthquake of M=3.3 on 4 April 2013 in the area of Bishkek

  6. Canine echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan: using prevalence data adjusted for measurement error to develop transmission dynamics models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadinov, I; Mathis, A; Trachsel, D; Rysmukhambetova, A; Abdyjaparov, T A; Kuttubaev, O T; Deplazes, P; Torgerson, P R

    2008-08-01

    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A cross-sectional study of dogs in four villages in rural Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Echinococcus spp. A total of 466 dogs were examined by arecoline purgation for the presence of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. In addition, a faecal sample from each dog was examined for taeniid eggs. Any taeniid eggs found were investigated using PCR techniques (multiplex and single target PCR) to improve the diagnostic sensitivity by confirming the presence of Echinococcus spp. and to identify E. granulosus strains. A total of 83 (18%) dogs had either E. granulosus adults in purge material and/or E. granulosus eggs in their faeces as confirmed by PCR. Three genotypes of E. granulosus: G1, G4 and the G6/7 complex were shown to be present in these dogs through subsequent sequence analysis. Purge analysis combined with PCR identified 50 dogs that were infected with adult E. multilocularis and/or had E. multilocularis eggs in their faeces (11%). Bayesian techniques were employed to estimate the true prevalence, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the procedures used and the transmission parameters. The sensitivity of arecoline purgation for the detection of echinococcosis in dogs was rather low, with a value of 38% (credible intervals (CIs) 27-50%) for E. granulosus and 21% (CIs 11-34%) for E. multilocularis. The specificity of arecoline purgation was assumed to be 100%. The sensitivity of coproscopy followed by PCR of the isolated eggs was calculated as 78% (CIs 57-87%) for E. granulosus and 50% (CIs 29-72%) for E. multilocularis with specificity of 93% (CIs 88-96%) and 100% (CIs 97-100%), respectively. The 93% specificity of the coprological-PCR for E. granulosus could suggest coprophagia rather than true infections. After adjusting for the sensitivity of the diagnostic procedures, the estimated true prevalence of infection of E. granulosus was 19% (CIs 15-25%) and the infection pressure in the dog population was estimated to be 0.29 infections per year (CIs 0.014-0.75). Logistic regression analysis failed to identify any significant risk factors for infections for E. granulosus. After adjusting for the sensitivity of the test procedures, the estimated true prevalence for E. multilocularis was 18% (CIs 12-30%). Dogs that were restrained had a significantly lower prevalence of E. multilocularis of 11% (CIs 6-29%) compared with 26% in free-roaming dogs (CIs 17-44%) and independently within these groups hunting dogs were more likely to be infected than non-hunting dogs. PMID:18371969

  7. The range split-spectrum method for ionosphere estimation applied to the 2008 Kyrgyzstan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomba, Giorgio; Eineder, Michael

    2015-04-01

    L-band remote sensing systems, like the future Tandem-L mission, are disrupted by the ionized upper part of the atmosphere called ionosphere. The ionosphere is a region of the upper atmosphere composed by gases that are ionized by the solar radiation. The extent of the effects induced on a SAR measurement is given by the electron density integrated along the radio-wave paths and on its spatial variations. The main effect of the ionosphere on microwaves is to cause an additional delay, which introduces a phase difference between SAR measurements modifying the interferometric phase. The objectives of the Tandem-L mission are the systematic monitoring of dynamic Earth processes like Earth surface deformations, vegetation structure, ice and glacier changes and ocean surface currents. The scientific requirements regarding the mapping of surface deformation due to tectonic processes, earthquakes, volcanic cycles and anthropogenic factors demand deformation measurements; namely one, two or three dimensional displacement maps with resolutions of a few hundreds of meters and accuracies of centimeter to millimeter level. Ionospheric effects can make impossible to produce deformation maps with such accuracy and must therefore be estimated and compensated. As an example of this process, the implementation of the range split-spectrum method proposed in [1,2] will be presented and applied to an example dataset. The 2008 Kyrgyzstan Earthquake of October 5 is imaged by an ALOS PALSAR interferogram; a part from the earthquake, many fringes due to strong ionospheric variations can also be seen. The compensated interferogram shows how the ionosphere-related fringes were successfully estimated and removed. [1] Rosen, P.A.; Hensley, S.; Chen, C., "Measurement and mitigation of the ionosphere in L-band Interferometric SAR data," Radar Conference, 2010 IEEE , vol., no., pp.1459,1463, 10-14 May 2010 [2] Brcic, R.; Parizzi, A.; Eineder, M.; Bamler, R.; Meyer, F., "Estimation and compensation of ionospheric delay for SAR interferometry," Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2010 IEEE International , vol., no., pp.2908,2911, 25-30 July 2010

  8. Discovery of low aluminium nevadaite from the Kara-Chagyr Area, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, V. Y.; Pautov, L. A.; Agakhanov, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The rare phosphate—nevadaite has been found at Kara-Chagyr (Batken region, Kyrgyzstan) in a zone of alteration of vanadium bearing “black shales”. It occurs as blue crusts of spherulitic aggregates of tiny tabular crystals (0.1-10 ?m). It is associated with metahewettite, hummerite, carnotite, minyulite, fluellite, crandallite, variscite, and woodhouseite. Optical properties: n = 1.542-1.555, D meas (for aggregates) = 2.58(1) g/cm3, D calc = 2.582 g/cm3. The most intense X-ray powder reflections are as follows: [ d/ n, Å, ( I meas), ( hkl)]: 9.54 (80) (020), 6.03 (100) (200), 5.61 (100) (130), 3.91 (60) (310), 3.41 (80) (041), 2.982 (100) (241), 2.804 (60) (331), 2.672 (70) (061), 1.845 (60) (352) 1.507 (70) (243). Calculated cell dimensions are: a = 12.072(10) Å, b = 18.958(15) Å, c = 4.969(5) Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°, V = 1137.2 Å3. Electron microprobe analyses gives (wt %): (observed (average of 8 analyses); (calculated for 22H2O)): P2O5 34.69 (31.85), SiO2 0.25 (0.24), Al2O3 25.61 (23.50), V2O 5.58 (5.13), Fe2O3 0.48 (0.46), MnO 0.03 (0.03), CuO 10.79 (9.90), ZnO 0.69 (0.65), CaO 0.18 (0.15), MgO 0.17 (0.17), K2O 0.08 (0.08), F 7.40 (6.79), H2O 17.16 (by diff.) (23.90), -F2 =O bar 3 .11 ( bar 2 .86), total 100.00 (100.00).The crystal-chemical formula of the mineral is (Cu{2.2/+2}?2.03V{1.21/+3}Al0.15Zn0.14Fe0.10Mg0.07Ca0.05K0.03Mn0.01)6.00(Al8.00(P7.93Si0.07O32)F6.32(OH)2.98 · 22(H2O) for the ideal number of water molecules. Nevadaite from Kara-Chagyr differs from that from the type locality, Gold Quarry (Nev., USA), by its lower Al content. The IR-spectrum, and microphotographs of nevadaite and associated minerals are given.

  9. CIS as a successor of the Soviet Union: who is financially responsible for the uranium waste storage sites in Kyrgyzstan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As the Second World War came to an end and the Cold War just started, the Soviet Union was faced with a problematic necessity of the nuclear weapons' production. Indeed, the Soviet Empire was in the extreme need of such weapons since their possession was viewed as an only guarantee of peaceful relations between USSR and United States. Exactly in that period the Soviet Union started its intensive exploitation of the large radioactive ore deposits (basically, uranium and radium), located on the territory of the present-day Kyrgyzstan. Throughout the post-war cold period and right up to mid-80s Kyrgyzstan had been one of the leading producers of uranium in the Soviet Union. In fact, the first Soviet atomic bomb was produced using Kyrgyz uranium. In the intense arms race with United States there was no time to concern oneself with environmental and demographic protection of the exploited territory, unfortunately. The role of the Kyrgyz ASSR (Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) was to provide raw materials, concurrently being a conveniently remote place to treat foreign radioactive ores (imported from Eastern Germany and Czechoslovakia) and serving as a burial place for their wastes. Creating an enormous amount of the radioactive wastes, the uranium and radium ore deposits were located in immediate proximity to highly populated areas; in the basins of transboundary rivers; and in the seismic-active regions of the Republic. As it could be legitimately assumed, the Soviet Union was not deeply obsessed with the environmental peculiarities of the treated area and did not give a damn to its protection, being solely interested in the maximization of the uranium extraction. In 1991, immediately after the Soviet Union's dissolution, the Russian Federation officially proclaimed itself its successor. Consequently, it was Russia that received the bigger part of a huge military potential (particularly, nuclear one) of its predecessor, including the nuclear weapons' arsenal. Yet, the newly independent Kyrgyz Republic was left alone with an enormous amount of uranium waste, which was extracted on the Kyrgyz territory to produce these nuclear armaments. As a consequence of the Soviet policy, uranium waste storage sites represent a direct danger to the environment of present-day Kyrgyzstan. Therefore, Russia as the official successor of the Soviet Empire should help the Kyrgyz Republic to deal with this costly and extensive problem. These environmental issues serve as a basis for the given work. In turn, research will be primarily concentrated on several the most problematic radioactive waste storage sites, namely, the Mailuu-Suu, Kadji-Say, Kara-Balta, and Ak-Tuz uranium storages. Today, Kyrgyzstan has 50 radioactive waste storage sites, located throughout its territory and contained altogether about 300 million tons of wastes. In general, it could be suggested that the financial responsibility could be delegated to the Kyrgyz government; the Central Asian Community; Russia. It is clear with the first instance, the Kyrgyz government, as it ought to deal with the environmental problems of its country. The situation is more sophisticated and arguable in terms of second and third instance, namely, the Central Asian Community and, particularly, Russia. This paper is designed to prove not only the necessity for their involvement, but rather their responsibility for the present-day situation with the Kyrgyz storage sites. As regards the other Central Asian States, it is in their interests since they are under immediate threat of being affected. Concerning Russia, it is rather a moral right to demand its assistance than a legally legitimate one. All information, related to uranium, its extraction and further utilization was totally classified and only revealed after the Soviet Union's dissolution. Only in 1994 did the Kyrgyz public become acquainted with the truly poor environmental conditions of the newly fledged Republic. Yet, no radically efficient measures had been undertaken during the following 6 years of Kyrgyz independe

  10. Hydrochemistry and land cover in the upper Naryn river basin, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K.; Dernedde, Y.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H. G.

    2009-04-01

    Economic and social changes at the end of the 20th century affected land use decisions and land management in the Central Asian republics of the former Soviet Union. Amongst others, land tenure changed from mainly collectivized to private land, and in consequence, land management (e.g. soil treatment and fertilization practices) altered. Apart from agricultural pollutants and the impact of irrigation management, water resources are threatened by waste dumps remaining from mining activities. However, recent studies on the effect of land use changes on ecohydrology in Central Asia remain scarce. In a preliminary study, current land use and hydrochemistry in the upper Naryn Valley (Kyrgyzstan) was analyzed in 2008. Climate is semi-arid, and annual precipitation is approximately 300 mm. Precipitation peak occurs in early summer, while the rest of the year is rather dry. Crop and hay production prevail in the valley bottom. Environmental conditions in the mountains support pastoralism with a shift between summer and winter pastures. Agriculture depends on irrigation to a great deal as precipitation is seasonal and the vegetation period usually is the dry period. Today, production is mainly for subsistence purposes or local markets. The Naryn river is the headwater of the of the Syrdarya river which is one of the major sources of irrigation water in the Aral Sea basin. Hence, the ecohydrological condition of the contributing rivers is of major importance for the irrigation management downstream. Nevertheless, information on current ecohydrological conditions and land use which may affect the distribution and chemical composition of the rivers is lacking. In the presented study, basic hydrochemical measurements in the Naryn river and its tributaries were made. In situ measurements comprised electrical conductivity, ammonia and nitrate measurements, among others. While electrical conductivity varies greatly between the Naryn river and its tributaries, ammonia and nitrate concentrations remain below detection limit for the most part. The study shows that tributaries of high electrical conductivity do not affect hydrochemistry of the main river during summer because glacier and snow melt dominates runoff generation. Daily cycles of increased runoff due to snow and ice melt in the afternoon could be observed along the tributaries in the upper parts of the study area. Effects of agricultural production on ecohydrology remain weak as application of fertilizers and pesticides is currently low due to financial constraints. The data will be linked to land use data derived from satellite image products in order to analyse the effect of land cover and land cover changes on ecohydrological processes. Former observation of remote sensing data and related literature showed evidence for a change in land use management in the Naryn Valley. In 2008 training areas of land use classes for a supervised classification of 2008 remote sensing data have been recorded. A land use classification of the Naryn Valley on the base of Landsat ETM+ Data of 2008 and 1993 was done to get information on land use change on a regional scale. The classification uses spectral and spatial data in a hard classifier and object oriented combined approach. Comparing the two datasets with respect to changes in pattern of irrigated area and pasture area, change in cultivated crops and the change of agricultural cell sizes gives further information for hydrological modeling and land use monitoring purposes.

  11. Optical and Radar Satellite Remote Sensing for Large Area Analysis of Landslide Activity in Southern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessner, S.; Behling, R.; Teshebaeva, K. O.; Motagh, M.; Wetzel, H. U.

    2014-12-01

    The presented work has been investigating the potential of optical and radar satellite remote sensing for the spatio-temporal analysis of landslide activity at a regional scale along the eastern rim of the Fergana Basin representing the area of highest landslide activity in Kyrgyzstan. For this purpose a multi-temporal satellite remote sensing database has been established for a 12.000 km2 study area in Southern Kyrgyzstan containing a multitude of optical data acquired during the last 28 years as well as TerraSAR-X and ALOS-PALSAR acquired since 2007. The optical data have been mainly used for creating a multi-temporal inventory of backdated landslide activity. For this purpose an automated approach for object-oriented multi-temporal landslide detection has been developed which is based on the analysis of temporal NDVI-trajectories complemented by relief information to separate landslide-related surface changes from other land cover changes. Applying the approach to the whole study area using temporal high resolution RapidEye time series data has resulted in the automated detection of 612 landslide objects covering a total area of approx. 7.3 km². Currently, the approach is extended to the whole multi-sensor time-series database for systematic analysis of longer-term landslide occurrence at a regional scale. Radar remote sensing has been focussing on SAR Interferometry (InSAR) to detect landslide related surface deformation. InSAR data were processed by repeat-pass interferometry using the DORIS and SARScape software. To better assess ground deformation related to individual landslide objects, InSAR time-series analysis has been applied using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) method. Analysis of the results in combination with optical data and DEM information has revealed that most of the derived deformations are caused by slow movements in areas of already existing landslides indicating the reactivation of older slope failures. This way, InSAR analysis can contribute to the early recognition of landslide activation prior to the onset of larger slope failure and thus support early warning. Overall, combined analysis of optical and radar data enables systematic spatio-temporal derivatioin of ongoing and backdated landslide activity for subsequent GIS-based landslide hazard assessment.

  12. Long bone histology of the stem salamander Kokartus honorarius (Amphibia: Caudata) from the Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutschas, Pavel; Stein, Koen

    2015-04-01

    Kokartus honorarius from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Kyrgyzstan is one of the oldest salamanders in the fossil record, characterized by a mixture of plesiomorphic morphological features and characters shared with crown-group salamanders. Here we present a detailed histological analysis of its long bones. The analysis of a growth series demonstrates a significant histological maturation during ontogeny, expressed by the progressive appearance of longitudinally oriented primary vascular canals, primary osteons, growth marks, remodelling features in primary bone tissues, as well as progressive resorption of the calcified cartilage, formation of endochondral bone and development of cartilaginous to bony trabeculae in the epiphyses. Apart from the presence of secondary osteons, the long bone histology of Kokartus is very similar to that of miniaturized temnospondyls, other Jurassic stem salamanders, miniaturized seymouriamorphs and modern crown-group salamanders. We propose that the presence of secondary osteons in Kokartus honorarius is a plesiomorphic feature, and the loss of secondary osteons in the long bones of crown-group salamanders as well as in those of miniaturized temnospondyls is the result of miniaturization processes. Hitherto, all stem salamander long bong histology (Kokartus, Marmorerpeton and 'salamander A') has been generally described as having paedomorphic features (i.e. the presence of Katschenko's Line and a layer of calcified cartilage), these taxa were thus most likely neotenic forms. The absence of clear lines of arrested growth and annuli in long bones of Kokartus honorarius suggests that the animals lived in an environment with stable local conditions. PMID:25682890

  13. Street-Level Bureaucrats at Work: A Municipality-Level Institutional Analysis of Community-Based Natural Resource Management Implementation Practice in the Pasture Sector of Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibke Crewett

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article looks into lowest-level policy implementers’ (street-level bureaucrats’ role in donor-initiated natural resource governance reforms. The article employs an institutional analysis framework with a specific policy implementation focus. A multiple case study reviews a resource user information campaign during the early phase of a community-based pasture management reform in Kyrgyzstan. It finds implementation rule simplification by policy implementers at the expense of full resource user involvement as a result of an insufficient contextual fit of the formal information rules. The results emphasize the need of well-designed implementation rules in order to ensure full and equitable resource user involvement in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM.

  14. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddix Jason

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007. Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative financial experiences of pharmacy initiatives to inform future projects and advance access to medicines goals.

  15. Differential structural and geomorphic mountain-front evolution in an active continental collision zone: the NW Pamir, southern Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, M. R.; Hilley, G. E.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Coutand, I.

    2003-04-01

    Western, central, and eastern segments of the Trans Alai mountain front in the northern Pamir of Kyrgyzstan have accommodated varying degrees of approachment of the Pamir orogen with respect to the Tien Shan mountains to the north. Ongoing collision between the northwestern corner of the Indian indenter and Eurasia has resulted in closure of the intramontane Alai Valley, which separates the Tien Shan and Trans Alai (Pamir) ranges. The different segments highlight the processes of shaping tectonically active mountain fronts in a semi-arid environment. In this study, we have characterized this variation in processes with compilations of regional tectonic information, detailed geologic and geomorphic maps, topographic analyses, and interpretation of seismic reflection data. Along the sinuous western segment of the mountain front, dextrally oblique thrusting has created a wide (>500m) zone of highly erodible fault gouge. This fault zone impinges on the southern Tien Shan, but complete basin closure is prevented by erosion of the westward-flowing Kyzilsu River; the Kyzilsu valley forms the only outlet and is the vestige of a formerly contiguous sedimentary basin linking the Tarim Basin of China with the Tadjik Depression in the west. Numerous large landslides rooted in the fault zone have covered the trace of the active fault, which is partially undercut by the Kyzilsu River. Older, large landslides in this setting are associated with different levels of fluvial terraces of the former or present course of the Kyzilsu River, suggesting a causative relation between lateral fluvial scouring, failure of mechanically weak mountain fronts, ongoing faulting, and mass transfer. Along the linear central segment, deformation is confined to a narrow single south-dipping thrust fault that juxtaposes Pliocene/Pleistocene and Holocene conglomerates. In this sector, the mountain front has numerous Holocene offsets. This prevailing structural style and the long-term deformation are underscored by multiple flights of gently sloping pediments and glaciogenic terrace surfaces that abruptly terminate at the steep mountain front, which also forms the boundary with the wide regraded piedmont. In contrast, closure between the Pamir and Tien Shan mountains is complete along the eastern segment. The eroded and sinuous mountain front has been tectonically inactive during late Quaternary time. Small drainage basin areas and low stream power apparently were not conducive to maintaining an eastern outlet to the Tarim Basin. Active deformation has stepped back into the orogen and now is concentrated along the Markansu Fault and within the Tien Shan to the north. The large drainage-basin area of the Kyzilsu River and constant, glacially-fed runoff guarantee that an effective interplay between tectonic uplift and erosion is maintained. Therefore, the geomorphically different mountain-front segments highlight the relations between tectonic uplift, geomorphic processes, which in turn are controlled by lithology, topography, and the history of sediment routing throughout the landscape.

  16. Case study: Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baktybek Abdrisaev

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The paper discusses the importance of Open Source (OS hereinafter technology for national Information Communication Technology (ICT hereinafter development and E-Government for developing countries as a general strategy for overcoming the digital divide. The paper highlights the opportunities presented to the developing countries by the growing world-wide movement for use of OS systems, namely, the ability to promote the transfer of technological know-how and the growth of local IT professionals, the possibility of providing IT solutions within the limited financial means of a developing country, and the ability to strengthen the legal use of software. The paper

  17. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV\\/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV\\/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV\\/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector.

  18. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmer Andrew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84, service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58 and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86. Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because of multiple, complex, and interrelated barriers to HIV/AIDS service utilisation at the service delivery level. Factors external to, as well as within, the health sector are key to understanding the access deficit in the FSU where low or concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemics are prevalent. Funders of HIV/AIDS programmes need to consider how best to tackle key structural and systemic drivers of access including prohibitionist legislation on drugs use, limited transparency and low staff salaries within the health sector.

  19. A narrative review of visceral leishmaniasis in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, the Crimean Peninsula and Southern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkova, Margarita V; Ponirovsky, Evgeny N; Morozov, Evgeny N; Zhirenkina, Ekaterina N; Razakov, Shavkat A; Kovalenko, Dmitriy A; Schnur, Lionel F; Schönian, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    There is an extensive body of medical and scientific research literature on visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Crimean Peninsula and the southern part of The Russian Federation that is written in Russian, making it inaccessible to the majority of people who are interested in the leishmaniases in general and VL in particular. This review and summary in English of VL in what was Imperial Russia, which then became the Soviet Union and later a number of different independent states intends to give access to that majority. There are numerous publications in Russian on VL and, mostly, those published in books and the main scientific journals have been included here. The vast geographical area encompassed has been subdivided into four main parts: the southern Caucasus, covering Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia; Central Asia, covering Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; the Crimean Peninsula and the northern Caucasus, which is part of The Russian Federation. Only rare cases of VL have been recorded in the northern Caucasus and Crimean Peninsula. In the other countries mentioned, human VL has been more intense but epidemics like those associated with L. donovani in India and East Africa have not occurred. For most of the countries, there are sections on the distribution, clinical aspects, the causative agent, the reservoirs and the vectors. Serological surveys and research into therapy are also covered. Recent studies on VL in Uzbekistan covered the application of serological, biochemical and molecular biological methods to diagnose human and canine VL, to identify the leishmanial parasites causing them in Uzbekistan and neighbouring Tajikistan and the epidemiology of VL in the Namangan Region of the Pap District, Eastern Uzbekistan. More recently, two studies were carried out in Georgia investigating the prevalence of human and canine VL, and the species composition of phlebotomine sand flies and their rates of infection with what was probably L. infantum in Tbilisi, eastern Georgia and Kutaisi, a new focus, in western Georgia. Though published in English, summaries of this information have been included where relevant to update the parts on VL in Uzbekistan and Georgia. PMID:26077778

  20. Kyrgyzstan’s Fragmented Police and Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Marat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a first attempt to analyze the underlying reasons behind the unprofessional behavior of the Kyrgyz military and police during ethnic conflict in Osh on June 10-14, 2010. It argues that the higher military leadership in Bishkek shares a common distrust of the Tashkent regime and overall uncertainly about power sharing two months after regime change, while lower level personnel may have provoked the Uzbek minority, because of their nationalist feelings (the majority of police and army personnel are ethnic Kyrgyz and overall frustration with the fragmented political leadership. The situation was further exacerbated by the lack of political control over the security forces and their lack of adequate training to deal with civic unrest.

  1. Glaciers, permafrost and snow in the upstream Naryn catchments, Kyrgyzstan - Distribution, characteristics and trends for the water budget under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duishonakunow, Murataly; King, Lorenz; Usubaliev, Ryskul; Moldobekov, Bolot

    2014-05-01

    There is strong scientific consciousness among scientist that the global climate is warming and that glaciers and permafrost worldwide are rapidly responding to this trend. A strong glacial retreat in the Central Asian mountains was especially intensive during the last decades. Its impact on water resources is noteworthy for the arid regions of the Kyrgyz Republic. This research assesses recent glacial and periglacial changes and their impact on water resources of the Upstream Naryn catchments. Naryn River is the largest river of Kyrgyzstan. It flows from east to west at a length of more than 700 km before reaching Syr-Darya. A period of 45 years (1965-2010) was analyzed using 1:25,000 scale topographic maps and ALOS/AVNIR satellite imagery. The result shows that the glacier area decreased by 17.4% in the Akshyirak mountain massif, 20.8% in the Borkoldoy mountain, 21.9% in the Jetim mountain, 24.6% in the Jetimbel mountain, 28.9% in the Naryn mountain, 20.8% in the Sook mountain, 20.9% in the Terskey mountain (South slope glaciers) and 17.8% in the Uchemchek mountain ranges. The accelerated glacial retreat will have strong effects concerning periods of water shortage in densely populated areas especially for the agriculture. Also the increase of frequent glacial induced hazards (e.g. GLOFs) is obvious. Whereas the additional runoff supplied by glaciers is well-known, the contribution of slowly melting ground-ice and perennial snow fields is almost unknown. However, this periglacial contribution is significant in the extremely arid mountain areas of the Central Tianshan. Hence, our research was to include this contribution to the water balance. The geomorphology of the study area was mapped, and a network of 18 high resolution thermistor strings and mini data loggers was installed. Hourly temperatures were recorded at various depths of up to 132 cm. The measurements started August 2010, covered three full years, and show that permafrost is wide-spread above 3300 m. a.s.l., the lowermost permafrost areas have been found even below 2700 meters. A ten year observation period (2001 - 2011) of the Tian-Shan Meteorological Station located at 3659 meters a.s.l. is of special interest. It testifies the thawing and development of the active layer with maximum depths observed early August. During the period 2010 to 2013, an average active layer depth of 300 cm depth was reached here. With the detailed identification of parameters determining the active layer thickness and the study of thaw dynamics, large scale modeling of the state of the permafrost in the Central Tian Shan is attempted. It can be shown, that not only negative glacier mass balances but also the degradation of permafrost with melting of ground ice and the reduction of perennial snow patches over the last 12 years contributes considerably to additional run-off.

  2. Mid- to Late Holocene climate development in Central Asia as revealed from multi-proxy analyses of sediments from Lake Son Kol (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Stefan; Dulski, Peter; Gleixner, Gerd; Hettler-Riedel, Sabine; Mingram, Jens; Plessen, Birgit; Prasad, Sushma; Schwalb, Antje; Schwarz, Anja; Stebich, Martina; Witt, Roman

    2013-04-01

    A mid-Holocene shift from predominantly wet to significantly drier climate conditions, attributed to the weakening of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), is documented in numerous palaeoclimate records from the monsoon-influenced parts of Asia, e.g. the Tibetan Plateau and north- and southeastern China. In contrast, Holocene climate development in the arid regions of mid-latitude Central Asia, located north and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, is less well-constrained but supposed to have been influenced by a complex interaction between the mid-latitude Westerlies and the ASM. Hence, well-dated and highly resolved palaeoclimate records from Central Asia might provide important information about spatio-temporal changes in the regional interplay between Westerlies and ASM and thus aid the understanding of global climate teleconnections. As a part of the project CADY (Central Asian Climate Dynamics), aiming at reconstructing past climatic and hydrological variability in Central Asia, several sediment cores were recovered from alpine Lake Son Kol (41° 48'N, 75° 12'E, 3016 m a. s. l.) in the Central Tian Shan of Kyrgyzstan. A radiocarbon-dated sediment sequence of 154.5 cm length, covering approximately the last 6000 years, was investigated by using a multi-proxy approach, including sedimentological, (bio)geochemical, isotopic and micropalaeontological analyses. Preliminary proxy data indicate hydrologically variable but predominantly wet conditions until ca. 5100 cal. a BP, characterized by the deposition of finely laminated organic-carbonatic sediments. In contrast to monsoonal Asia, where a distinct trend towards drier conditions is observed since the mid-Holocene, the hydrologically variable interval at Lake Son Kol was apparently followed by an only short-term dry episode between ca. 5100 and 4200 cal. a BP. This is characterized by a higher ?D of the C29 n-alkanes, probably reflecting increased evapotranspiration. Also pollen, diatom and ostracod data point towards drier climate conditions. Higher ?15N values during this period may also reflect increased evaporation but could also be related to dust input of NOx, being in agreement with high amounts of fine-grained minerogenic material. Further periods of higher ?15N values and contents of fine-grained minerogenic material occurred at 3600-3000 and 2000-1600 cal. a BP. However, as biogeochemical data indicate no further distinct dry episodes since about 4200 cal. a BP, these intervals most probably reflect increased dust deposition. Finally, a trend towards wetter climate conditions can be observed during the last ca. 1500 years, reflected by high ostracod and diatom diversity and (bio)geochemical data. The absence of a pronounced drying trend since the mid-Holocene, as observed in monsoonal Asia, is largely consistent with results from other regional palaeoclimate records and might reflect the predominant influence of the strengthening mid-latitude Westerlies on regional climate since this time.

  3. Turanite, Cu{sup 2+}{sub 5}(V{sup 5+}O{sub 4}){sub 2} (OH){sub 4}, from the Tyuya-Muyun radium-uranium deposit, Osh district, Kyrgyzstan: a new structure for an old mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolova, E.; Hawthorne, F.C. [Univ. of Manitoba, Dept. of Geological Sciences, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)]. E-mail: elena_sokolova@umanitoba.ca; Karpenko, V.V.; Agakhanov, A.A.; Pautov, L.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Leninskii, Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: pla@fmm.ru

    2004-06-15

    The crystal structure of turanite, Cu-{sup 2+}(V{sup 5+}O{sub 4}){sub 2} (OH){sub 4}, from the Tyuya-Muyun Ra-U deposit, the Alai Ridge foothills, Osh district Kyrgyzstan, triclinic, space group P1, a 5.3834(2), b 6.2736(3), c 6.8454(3) Angstrom, {alpha} 86.169(1), {beta} 91.681(1), {gamma} 92.425(1){sup o} V 230.38(2) Angstrom{sup 3}, Z = 1, has been solved by direct methods and refined to an R index of 2.2% based on 1332 observed [F{sub o} > 4{sigma}F] unique reflections measured with MoK{alpha} X-radiation and a Bruker P4 diffractometer equipped with a CCD detector. Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave CuO 62.94, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} 28.90, H{sub 2}O 5.85, sum 97.69 wt.%; the amount of H{sub 2}O was determined by crystal-structure analysis. The resulting empirical formula on the basis of 12 anions (including OH = 4 apfu) is Cu{sup 2+} {sub 4.97})(V{sup 5+}O{sub 4}){sub 2} (OH){sub 4.08}. There are three distinct Cu sites fully occupied by Cu{sup 2+} and octahedrally coordinated by four O atoms and two (OH) groups, with = 2.115 Angstrom. The (Cu{phi}{sub 6}) octahedra ({phi} = O, OH) form a sheet of edge-sharing octahedra (with vacancies, oct : vac = 5 : 1) parallel to (011). On each side of the vacant octahedron, a (VO{sub 4}) tetrahedron is attached to three anions of the sheet and points away from the sheet to be attached to an anion of the adjacent sheet. Thus the (Cu{phi}{sub 6}) octahedra and (VO{sub 4}) tetrahedra constitute a framework, within which the sheets are also linked by hydrogen bonding from (OH) groups of one sheet to O anions of adjacent sheets. Turanite can be considered as a framework structure with interrupted sheets of (C{phi}{sub 6}) octahedra decorated by (VO{sub 4}) tetrahedra, and is related to the structures of cornubite, cianciulliite, gordaite, bechererite, chalcophyllite, ramsbeckite and simonkolleite. (author)

  4. Turanite, Cu2+5(V5+O4)2 (OH)4, from the Tyuya-Muyun radium-uranium deposit, Osh district, Kyrgyzstan: a new structure for an old mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of turanite, Cu-2+(V5+O4)2 (OH)4, from the Tyuya-Muyun Ra-U deposit, the Alai Ridge foothills, Osh district Kyrgyzstan, triclinic, space group P1, a 5.3834(2), b 6.2736(3), c 6.8454(3) Angstrom, ? 86.169(1), ? 91.681(1), ? 92.425(1)o V 230.38(2) Angstrom3, Z = 1, has been solved by direct methods and refined to an R index of 2.2% based on 1332 observed [Fo > 4?F] unique reflections measured with MoK? X-radiation and a Bruker P4 diffractometer equipped with a CCD detector. Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave CuO 62.94, V2O5 28.90, H2O 5.85, sum 97.69 wt.%; the amount of H2O was determined by crystal-structure analysis. The resulting empirical formula on the basis of 12 anions (including OH = 4 apfu) is Cu2+ 4.97)(V5+O4)2 (OH)4.08. There are three distinct Cu sites fully occupied by Cu2+ and octahedrally coordinated by four O atoms and two (OH) groups, with = 2.115 Angstrom. The (Cu?6) octahedra (? = O, OH) form a sheet of edge-sharing octahedra (with vacancies, oct : vac = 5 : 1) parallel to (011). On each side of the vacant octahedron, a (VO4) tetrahedron is attached to three anions of the sheet and points away from the sheet to be attached to an anion of the adjacent sheet. Thus the (Cu?6) octahedra and (VO4) tetrahedra constitute a framework, within which the sheets are also linked by hydrogen bonding from (OH) groups of one sheet to O anions of adjacent sheets. Turanite can be considered as a framework structure with interrupted sheets of (C?6) octahedra decorated by (VO4) tetrahedra, and is related to the structures of cornubite, cianciulliite, gordaite, bechererite, chalcophyllite, ramsbeckite and simonkolleite. (author)

  5. Bismarck meets Beveridge on the Silk Road: coordinating funding sources to create a universal health financing system in Kyrgyzstan / Quand Bismarck rencontre Beveridge sur la Route de la soie: coordination des sources de financement pour créer un système universel de financement de la santé au Kyrgyzstan / Bismarck y Beveridge en la Ruta de la Seda: coordinación de las fuentes de financiación de un sistema de cobertura sanitaria universal en Kirguistán

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joseph, Kutzin; Ainura, Ibraimova; Melitta, Jakab; Sheila, O' Dougherty.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Las opciones de reforma de la financiación de la salud se resumen a menudo como un dilema entre los sistemas basados en los impuestos generales (el llamado modelo Beveridge) y el seguro social de enfermedad (conocido como modelo Bismarck). La experiencia de diez años de reforma de la financiación sa [...] nitaria que ha acumulado Kirguistán desde que se implantó el fondo del seguro obligatorio de enfermedad en 1997 brinda un ejemplo excelente para demostrar que la reducción del problema de la financiación de la salud a la mera elección entre el modelo Beveridge y el modelo Bismarck constituye un error. En lugar de fragmentar el sistema considerando la población asegurada y la no asegurada, como han hecho muchos otros países de ingresos bajos y medios, las reformas llevadas a cabo en Kirguistán se guiaron por el objetivo de implantar un solo sistema para toda la población. Entre las iniciativas más importantes de esas reformas cabe citar la función y el desarrollo gradual del fondo de seguro médico obligatorio como el único comprador de servicios de atención sanitaria para toda la población, usando métodos de pago basados en los resultados; la plena reestructuración de los arreglos de mancomunación de los recursos, pasando de la antigua estructura presupuestaria descentralizada a un solo fondo común nacional; y el establecimiento de un paquete de prestaciones bien delimitado. Un aspecto fundamental del proceso fue la transformación de la función de los ingresos generales del presupuesto, principal fuente de financiación pública de la salud, que pasaron de subvencionar directamente el suministro de servicios a subvencionar la compra de servicios en nombre de toda la población a través del fondo del seguro de enfermedad. Replanteándose de ese modo su política de financiación de la salud, en particular la mancomunación de recursos, los reformadores del sistema de salud de Kirguistán han demostrado que es posible crear un sistema unificado y universal usando fondos de distinta procedencia de forma claramente complementaria. Abstract in english Options for health financing reform are often portrayed as a choice between general taxation (known as the Beveridge model) and social health insurance (known as the Bismarck model). Ten years of health financing reform in Kyrgyzstan, since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in [...] 1997, provide an excellent example of why it is wrong to reduce health financing policy to a choice between the Beveridge and Bismarck models. Rather than fragment the system according to the insurance status of the population, as many other low- and middle-income countries have done, the Kyrgyz reforms were guided by the objective of having a single system for the entire population. Key features include the role and gradual development of the compulsory health insurance fund as the single purchaser of health-care services for the entire population using output-based payment methods, the complete restructuring of pooling arrangements from the former decentralized budgetary structure to a single national pool, and the establishment of an explicit benefit package. Central to the process was the transformation of the role of general budget revenues - the main source of public funding for health - from directly subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services on behalf of the entire population by redirecting them into the health insurance fund. Through their approach to health financing policy, and pooling in particular, the Kyrgyz health reformers demonstrated that different sources of funds can be used in an explicitly complementary manner to enable the creation of a unified, universal system

  6. Trends in traffic collisions and injuries in Kyrgyzstan, 2003-2007 / Tendances des accidents et des blessures de la route au Kirghizistan sur la période 2003-2007 / Tendencias en las colisiones y las lesiones de tráfico en Kirguistán, entre 2003 y 2007

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viola, Artikova; Michael E, Thompson; Elena, Platonova; Gerald F, Pyle; Samat, Toimatov.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos sobre las colisiones de vehículos motorizados, las lesiones y las muertes resultantes en Kirguistán para servir de apoyo al desarrollo de una política basada en la evidencia. MÉTODOS: Los datos sobre colisiones de vehículos motorizados y las estadísticas s [...] obre lesiones entre 2003 y 2008 procedieron de fuentes oficiales suministradas por el Departamento de Seguridad Vial y el Centro de Información Médica de la República, perteneciente al Ministerio de Sanidad. Los datos fueron analizados y comparados con los datos procedentes de estudios realizados en otros países de ingresos medios y bajos. RESULTADOS: Se observó una marcada heterogeneidad entre las diversas fuentes de datos. Las colisiones de vehículos motorizados provocadas por los conductores se duplicaron en el periodo comprendido entre 2003 y 2007. Durante dicho periodo, aumentó el parte de colisiones de vehículos motorizados, las muertes y las lesiones resultantes en un 34%, 33% y 47%, respectivamente. Dichos aumentos fueron proporcionalmente mayores que el crecimiento de la población o de los vehículos motorizados registrados. La proporción de lesiones atribuibles a las colisiones de vehículos motorizados aumentó un 14% y la tasa de mortalidad relacionada con este tipo de colisiones aumentó un 39% entre 2003 y 2007. CONCLUSIÓN: En Kirguistán están aumentando las colisiones de vehículos motorizados, al igual que el número de personas lesionadas o fallecidas por este motivo. Revertir esta tendencia implicará una colaboración más estrecha entre las agencias pertinentes y un sistema de vigilancia completo, además de mejoras operativas en la asistencia médica de urgencias, nuevas leyes de seguridad vial que se hagan cumplir de forma estricta y mejoras en la infraestructura de transportes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiological data on motor vehicle collisions, injuries and deaths in Kyrgyzstan to inform evidence-based policy development. METHODS: Data on motor vehicle collision and injury statistics covering 2003-2007 were obtained from official sources provided by the Department o [...] f Traffic Safety and the Ministry of Health's Republican Medical Information Centre.The data were analysed and compared with data derived from studies in other low- and middle-income countries. FINDINGS: Large heterogeneity between data sources was noted. Motor vehicle collisions caused by drivers increased twofold between 2003 and 2007. Reported motor vehicle collisions, deaths and injuries increased by 34%, 33% and 47%, respectively, over that period. Such increases were proportionately greater than the growth in population or in the number of registered motor vehicles.The proportion of injury attributable to motor vehicle collisions increased by 14% and the collision-related mortality rate increased by 39% in 2003-2007. CONCLUSION: In Kyrgyzstan, the number of motor vehicle collisions is rising and so is the number of those who are injured or killed in them. Reversing this trend will call for closer collaboration among relevant agencies and for a comprehensive surveillance system, along with operational improvements in emergency medical care, new and strictly enforced passenger safety laws and improvements to the transportation infrastructure.

  7. Remittances and children's capabilities: New evidence from Kyrgyzstan, 2005 - 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Kroeger, Antje; Anderson, Kathryn H.

    2011-01-01

    The Kyrgyz Republic is one of the largest recipients of international remittances in the world; from a Balance of Payments measure of remittances, it ranked tenth in the world in 2008 in the ratio of remittances to GDP, a rapid increase from 30th place in 2004. Remittances can be used to maintain the household's standard of living by providing income to families with unemployed and underemployed adult members. Remittances can also be used to promote investment not only in businesses and commu...

  8. Probabilistic seismic risk of the territory of Bishkek city, Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For seismic risk analysis were gathered information about district's seismicity, tectonics, topography, and engineering--geotechnical conditions, which present in apartments, infrastructures and demographies. All of these informations are joined within the limits of GIS for father probabilistic evaluations from different losses levels from earthquake, and also definitions of effective arrangements by reaction. There were given analysis of obtained results with the purpose to take into the consideration and falling of seismic risk's levels

  9. Quaternary deformation in the Eastern Pamirs, Tadzhikistan and Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, M. R.; Frisch, W.; Hamburger, M. W.; Ratschbacher, L.; Semiletkin, S.; Zamoruyev, A.; Sturchio, N.

    1995-10-01

    Active deformation in the eastern Pamir of Central Asia is concentrated on the margins of the orogen with minor deformation within the high terrain. Along the Trans-Alai mountain front at the northern perimeter of the orogen, Quaternary thrusting is documented by uplifted pediments, now at >500 m above the piedmont, Holocene fault scarps, and large earthquakes with N to NW oriented P axes. Seismicity in the interior of the orogen outlines a N-S belt that includes normal faulting events with E-W oriented T axes. N-S striking, active normal faults in the interior Lake Karakul region are compatible with these earthquakes; they define an asymmetric graben with a master fault at the western basin margin. In the southern Pamirs, dextral strike-slip faults root in the dextral Karakorum Fault, which bounds the Pamirs to the east. A mixture of dextral and reverse offsets totalling 135 m in Pleistocene terraces and 8 m in late Pleistocene/Holocene deposits demonstrates contemporary transpression, indicating average displacement rates of Alai, the northward migration of thrusting, and the scarcity of other large-scale shortening features within the eastern Pamirs suggest that this part of the orogen moves northward en bloc and causes the progressive annihilation of the intermontane Alai Valley. Widespread dextral shear in the eastern Pamirs, both to the south and north of the extensional Karakul depression, and combined dextral strike-slip and normal faulting in the Muji-Tashgorgan graben of the Chinese Pamirs are interpreted as localized space accommodation phenomena, formed during progressive transfer of compressional deformation along a dextral strike-slip deformation zone with extensional stepovers.

  10. Political instability, revolution: Comparison between Kyrgyzstan and Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Ryskulov, Urmat

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare the data such as government effectiveness, voice of accountability, and corruption indexes of the Kyrgyz Republic and Georgia as a consequence of political instability or revolution. The purpose of the country selection was due to their common similarities such as: they both are CIS countries, they both went through a revolution, and the degree of their economies are almost the same. Special attention is given to the reasons of the revolution in these coun...

  11. 75 FR 67013 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ...of August 26, 2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence...section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act...million from the United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund for...

  12. Radioecological problems in a region of natural-uranium province (Kyrgyzstan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : At present the attempts have been made in our Republic for solving the problems concerning heritage of uranium ores extraction and processing in places where several thousands of tons of radioactively polluted wastes are accumulated, posing potential threat for contamination of the environment and for people's health. The scientists of the Kyrgyz Republic and other countries actively work over the above mentioned problems solution : several international ISTC, IAEA and other projects were fulfilled, the material and technical basis of specialized laboratories became better, the results were obtained for presentation and discussion. In all these laboratories different kinds of effective semi-conductor germanium detectors were used for analysis of radionuclides gamma-spectra in tail materials and samples of the environment

  13. Labour Migration and Human Capital in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan: Impact of Accession to the SES

    OpenAIRE

    Vinokurov, Evgeny; Pereboyev, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The oil-rich economies of Russia and Kazakhstan started growing in the 2000’s, and the consequence was a rapid rise of labour migration in the post-Soviet space. Within a decade labour migration became a highly visible phenomenon with significant economic and social consequences. It completely redefined the state of the economy in a number of post-Soviet republics.

  14. Oil and gas resources of the Fergana Basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgyzstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This analysis is part of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA`s) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). This one for the Fergana Basin is an EIA first for republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU). This was a trial study of data availability and methodology, resulting in a reservoir-level assessment of ultimate recovery for both oil and gas. Ultimate recovery, as used here, is the sum of cumulative production and remaining Proved plus Probable reserves as of the end of 1987. Reasonable results were obtained when aggregating reservoir-level values to the basin level, and in determining general but important distributions of across-basin reservoir and fluid parameters. Currently, this report represents the most comprehensive assessment publicly available for oil and gas in the Fergana Basin. This full report provides additional descriptions, discussions and analysis illustrations that are beneficial to those considering oil and gas investments in the Fergana Basin. 57 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Training of front-line health workers for tuberculosis control: Lessons from Nigeria and Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Schelokova Irina; Awofeso Niyi; Dalhatu Abubakar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Efficient human resources development is vital for facilitating tuberculosis control in developing countries, and appropriate training of front-line staff is an important component of this process. Africa and Central Asia are over-represented in global tuberculosis statistics. Although the African region contributes only about 11% of the world population, it accounts for at least 25% of annual TB notifications, a proportion that continues to increase due to poor case management and t...

  16. Trends in out-of-pocket payments for health care in Kyrgyzstan, 2001–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Falkingham, Jane; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Baschieri, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Within the countries of the former Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz Republic has been a pioneer in reforming the system of health care finance. Since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, the country has gradually moved from subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services through the ‘single payer’ of the health insurance fund. In 2002 the government introduced a new co-payment for inpatients along with a basic benefit package. A key objectiv...

  17. Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: the City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Natasha M; Wilson, David C; Velis, Costas A; Smith, Stephen R

    2013-10-01

    The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice. PMID:24068306

  18. Trends in out-of-pocket payments for health care in Kyrgyzstan, 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkingham, Jane; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Baschieri, Angela

    2010-09-01

    Within the countries of the former Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz Republic has been a pioneer in reforming the system of health care finance. Since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, the country has gradually moved from subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services through the 'single payer' of the health insurance fund. In 2002 the government introduced a new co-payment for inpatients along with a basic benefit package. A key objective of the reforms has been to replace the burgeoning system of unofficial informal payments for health care with a transparent official co-payment, thereby reducing the financial burden of health care spending for the poor. This article investigates trends in out-of-pocket payments for health care using the results of a series of nationally representative household surveys conducted over the period 2001-2007, when the reforms were being rolled out. The analysis shows that there has been a significant improvement in financial access to health care amongst the population. The proportion paying state providers for consultations fell between 2004 and 2007. As a result of the introduction of co-payments for hospital care, fewer inpatients report making payments to medical personnel, but when they are made, payments are high, especially to surgeons and anaesthetists. However, although financial access for outpatient care has improved, the burden of health care payments amongst the poor remains significant. PMID:20332252

  19. [The problems of radioecology and radiation safety of the former uranium production in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The article summarizes the history and problems of the former uranium production (tailing and waste dumps), the current status and their possible impact on the environment. Also given are the priority radio-ecological and radiobiogeohemichal problems for the medium term, as well as legal and regulatory framework. PMID:25507625

  20. Elevation changes of Inylchek Glacier during 1974–2007, Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan derived from remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shangguan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Glacier melt is an important source of fresh water for the arid regions surrounding the Tian Shan. Inylchek Glacier (650 km2 is the largest glacier in Tian Shan consisting of two branches (northern Inylchek glacier and southern Inylchek glacier separated by the regularly draining Lake Merzbacher. However, little is known about volume and mass changes of the last decades. In this study, we investigated the changes of glacier area and glacier surface elevation from 1974 until 2007 and the surface velocity between 2003 and 2011 using multi-temporal remote-sensing data. The main flow direction of Southern Inylchek Glacier tongue showed strong velocities of ?100 m a?1 with a slight decreasing tendency between 2002/03 and 2010/11. The end of the tongue however, is likely stagnant as the main flow is directed towards Lake Merzbacher. The total glacier area increased by 1.3 ± 0.1 km2 (?0.2% within the studies period though southern Inylchek Glacier shrank consecutive since 1974. The overall area gain was caused by the strong increase of northern Inylchek Glacier of 3.7 ± 0.3 km2 between 1990–1999. A comparison of glacier surface elevation using multi-temporal digital elevation models derived from KH9-Hexagon (1974, SRTM (1999, ALOS (2006 and SPOT5-HRG (2007 revealed an overall elevation difference of Inylchek Glacier of ?0.5 ± 0.1 m a?1 for the period of 1974–2007. The northern glacier branch showed on average no significant surface elevation change (0.1 ± 0.1 m a?1 during 1974 and 2007 while a significant lowering of 0.7 ± 0.1 m a?1 was observed for the southern branch. The overall negative values are mainly due to the period 1974–1999. A possible thickening of 0.5 ± 0.5 m a?1 occurred between 1999 and 2007 where a clear thickening was measured in the accumulation area of the southern branch. We also identified the thickening with a maximum of about ?150 m close to the end of the northern Inylchek Glacier tongue for the period 1974–1999. This is possibly due to a surge event which happened between 1990 and 1999 according to the area change data. The ablation region of southern Inylchek Glacier showed considerable lowering rates especially in the distal part of the tongue with low velocity despite thick debris coverage.

  1. Threat assessment report. Regulatory aspects of the remediation and rehabilitation of nuclear legacy in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Soviet period, the uranium mining operations in Central Asia served as one of the main uranium producers for the Soviet Union (SU) military complex. The regulatory standards for exposure and emissions control to all Soviet Republics were administered by the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and were the same across the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the former Soviet Republics became independent, but also inherited the legacy in the form of wastes, including those from uranium ore processing and tailings and old Soviet regulatory documents, which are mostly inconsistent with the international standards and guidances and need substantial improvements. Many radioactive waste storage facilities in Central Asia, especially in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, are located in regions of seismic activity, in landslide- and mud flow-prone areas and areas subject to flooding and high ground water levels, and near the banks of the rivers that form the base of the large water basin of the Central Asian region. Many tailings are situated near towns, other populated areas and state borders, and they represent a long-term hazard to health and the environment. In regard to the legal and regulatory framework, it should be noted that none of the Central Asian countries have a National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management developed and approved by the Governments. Existing regulatory documents do not address the issues regarding safts do not address the issues regarding safety assessments and safety cases or the implementation of long-term institutional control and monitoring of the abandoned dumps with radioactive wastes (RW) or future RW disposal sites, neither during operation nor after their closure. There is also a need to develop safety criteria (reference levels) and determine measures to be taken for existing exposure situations (past practices). In addition, there is a lack of safety requirements for different types of disposal facilities in accordance with the different categories of radioactive waste. Safety criteria and clearance levels are also not established. The NRPA, with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in the Central Asian countries to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and RW management in the Central Asian countries. Based on threat assessments that have been completed in each Central Asian country during the year 2010, this document focuses on the existing regulatory problems at the legacy sites and projects will address the regulatory documents which should be developed first. It is clear that in order to remove the threat connected with radioactive wastes, both that which has already been accumulated as a result of previous activity and that which is currently being generated in significant amounts and will be produced in the future, it is necessary to at least develop and implement: A National Policy and Strategy for Radioactive Waste Management, including strategies for disposal of each category of the RW, allocation of responsibilities and financial assurance for these activities; Safety requirements on the design, siting, construction, operation, closure and establishment of the institutional control needed for disposal facilities in accordance with the approved national policy and strategy on radioactive waste management; and New classifications of radioactive waste according to the recently published international recommendations, including identification of corresponding categories; In addition, it is clear that in order to remove the threats connected with extensive territories contaminated by radionuclides, the rehabilitation of these areas is required and, accordingly, it is necessary to develop regulations on: Quantitative criteria defining reference levels for existing exposure situations, consid

  2. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Kumbel oxidized W-Cu-Mo skarn and Au-W stockwork deposit in Kyrgyzstan, Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.

    2015-02-01

    The Kumbel deposit is located within a metallogenic belt of W-Mo, Cu-Mo, Au-W, and Au deposits along the Late Paleozoic active continental margin of Tien Shan. The deposit is related to a Late Carboniferous multiphase pluton, with successive intrusive phases from early olivine monzogabbro through monzonite-quartz monzonite to granodiorite and granite, with the latest monzogabbro-porphyry dikes. The deposit represents an example of a complex W-Cu-Mo-Au magmatic-hydrothermal system related to magnetite-series high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic igneous suite. It contains large bodies of W-Cu-Mo oxidized prograde and retrograde skarns, with abundant andradite garnet, magnetite, and especially hematite, as well as K-feldspar, molybdoscheelite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite, with transitions to zones of intense quartz-K-feldspar (with minor andradite and hematite) veining. The skarns are cut by quartz-carbonate ± adularia ± sericite veins (locally sheeted) and stockworks bearing scheelite and minor Cu, Zn, Pb sulfides, as well as Au, Bi, Te, and As mineralization. The association of these veins with the oxidized skarns and magnetite-series intrusion is consistent with the general oxidized, intrusion-related W-Mo-Cu-Au type of deposit, with an affinity to the alkalic (silica-saturated) Cu-Au ± Mo porphyry deposits. The fluid inclusion data show the predominance of magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous chloride fluid during the formation of skarns and quartz-carbonate-scheelite-sulfide veins. The high fluid pressures (˜1,750 bars), together with their high temperature (up to 600 °C) and high salinity (˜50-60 wt% NaCl-equiv.), suggest the formation of skarns and quartz-K-feldspar-andradite-hematite veins under conditions typical of magmatic-hydrothermal transition (depth of ?4-5 km) of intrusion-related mineralized system, possibly by exsolution of the fluids from crystallizing magma. The auriferous quartz-carbonate-scheelite-sulfide veins formed from high to moderate salinity (from ˜40 to <20 wt% NaCl-equiv.) and high pressure (from ˜1,200 bars to 850-900 bars) aqueous chloride fluids under decreasing temperature (from ˜370 to 120 °C). The massive deposition of molybdoscheelite in retrograde skarn and scheelite in quartz-carbonate-scheelite-sulfide veins could correspond to enrichment of fluids in Ca (up to 18-25 wt% CaCl2), likely from crystallizing magma.

  3. Assessment of the main natural radionuclides, minor and trace elements in soils and sediments of the Shu valley (near the border of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New data on the concentrations of the main gamma-emitting radionuclides, minor and trace elements, and isotopes of uranium (with Ra-226 as a daughter product of U-238) and thorium in soils and sediments of the Shu valley (from the river Chon-Kemin to the river Kuragatty downstream the river Shu) are presented, determined by high-resolution gamma-spectrometry, k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis and alpha-spectrometry with appropriate radiochemical separations of the samples, respectively. The results obtained showed an aquatic migration pathway of most of the trace elements and radionuclides and predicted water pollution downstream the river Shu. The scandium method showed pollution by As, Br, Ca, Cr, Zr of the Tasotkel dam impoundment and by Ca and Cr of the river Shu below its confluence with the river Kuragatty. According to the disequilibrium isotopic method for uranium (using the isotopic ratio U-234/U-238), areas with accumulation and leaching processes were estimated for soils and sediments of the river Shu and its main inflows. (author)

  4. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Maddix Jason; Waning Brenda; Soucy Lyne

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the ...

  5. What does a comparison between Latvia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan tell about the cognition and institutions as social capital in the extended market order?

    OpenAIRE

    Baafi Antwi, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers cognition and institution as social capital. Its starts from the freedom of Economic report. It was noticed that the core tenants of the freedom of Economics are deeply embedded in the core tenants of social capital which also has strong linkages to culture. Culture also relates to the mind of the people and their way of thinking, by setting the framework within which all interaction that take place can be viewed as crucial elements underlying the of lives in the larger ...

  6. Mass changes of Southern and Northern Inylchek Glacier, Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan, during ?1975 and 2007 derived from remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, D. H.; Bolch, T.; Ding, Y. J.; Kröhnert, M.; Pieczonka, T.; Wetzel, H. U.; Liu, S. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Glacier melt is an essential source of freshwater for the arid regions surrounding the Tian Shan. However, the knowledge about glacier volume and mass changes over the last decades is limited. In the present study, glacier area, glacier dynamics and mass changes are investigated for the period ~1975-2007 for Southern Inylchek Glacier (SIG) and Northern Inylchek Glacier (NIG), the largest glacier system in Central Tian Shan separated by the regularly draining Lake Merzbacher. The area of NIG increased by 2.0 ± 0.1 km2 (~1.3%) in the period ~1975-2007. In contrast, SIG has shrunk continuously in all investigated periods since ~1975. Velocities of SIG in the central part of the ablation region reached ~100-120 m a-1 in 2002/2003, which was slightly higher than the average velocity in 2010/2011. The central part of SIG flows mainly towards Lake Merzbacher rather than towards its terminus. The measured velocities at the distal part of the terminus downstream of Lake Merzbacher were below the uncertainty, indicating very low flow with even stagnant parts. Geodetic glacier mass balances have been calculated using multi-temporal digital elevation models from KH-9 Hexagon (representing the year 1975), SRTM3 (1999), ALOS PRISM (2006) and SPOT-5 high-resolution geometrical (HRG) data (2007). In general, a continuous mass loss for both SIG and NIG could be observed between ~1975 and 2007. SIG lost mass at a rate of 0.43 ± 0.10 m w.e. a-1 and NIG at a rate of 0.25 ± 0.10 m w.e. a-1 within the period ~1975-1999. For the period 1999-2007, the highest mass loss of 0.57 ± 0.46 m w.e. a-1 was found for NIG, whilst SIG showed a potential moderate mass loss of 0.28 ± 0.46 m w.e. a-1. Both glaciers showed a small retreat during this period. Between ~1975 and 1999, we identified a thickening at the front of NIG with a maximum surface elevation increase of about 150 m as a consequence of a surge event. In contrast significant thinning (>0.5 m a-1) and comparatively high velocities close to the dam of Lake Merzbacher were observed for SIG, indicating that Lake Merzbacher enhances glacier mass loss.

  7. Surface rupture along the Chon Aksu and Aksu (eastern) segments of the 1911 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrowsmith, J. R.; Crosby, C. J.; Korjenkov, A. M.; Mamyrov, E.; Povolotskaya, I. E.

    2004-12-01

    The 1911 Ms 8.2 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake is one of the largest intraplate reverse-faulting events to occur historically. It ruptured a 200 km E-W trending zone in the northern Tien Shan. Description of the characteristics of major historic earthquakes, such as the Chon-Kemin event, provide data on the primary deformation and its initial geomorphic degradation, thus informing paleoseismological investigations. Trace geometry and offset distribution are key parameters for the interpretation of the seismotectonic setting and mechanical interaction with other regional structures. The Chon-Kemin earthquake's relationship to other large regional earthquakes, notably the 1887 Ms 7.3 Verny and 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik events, indicates a strong interaction between structures in this portion of the Tien Shan. We reconnoitered most of the Chon-Kemin rupture belt and associated mass movements and conclude that many of the 1911 features are still well preserved. We emphasized mapping and description of the easternmost 50 km of the rupture, along the Aksu (easternmost) and Chon-Aksu segments. Moving from east to west, 1-3 m high fault scarps and warped Holocene terraces discontinuously cut the piedmonts north and northeast of the town of Anan'evo. The rupture closely follows the mountain front and enters the range just below the Anan'evo landslide (formed in the earthquake). Scarp heights are 2-4 m. West of the Tegermenty River, the left-stepping rupture is continuous and consists of sub parallel strands in places. Between the Sutubulak and the Aksu River crossing, some of the tallest scarps are present, with heights of 6 - 10 m. The generally north-dipping fault zone has low south dips in the near surface as the thrust has driven the hanging wall over the south-sloping piedmont. This change in dip is likely responsible for the formation of E-W extensional faults in the hanging wall. Given the shallow fault dips and tall scarps in this area, 1911 displacement is probably > 10 m. The Aksu segment ends in a 5 km wide left step through the Kok Bel Pass into the Chon Asku Valley. Fault scarps are 2-4 m high and a small corral, offset in 1911, shows no evidence for strike-slip displacement. In the Kok Bel Pass, the hanging wall (northwestern) is crossed by numerous clear and straight fault scarps trending mostly NE. The eastern 9 km of the Chon Aksu segment preserves the most spectacular tectonic landforms from the 1911 rupture. Scarps are typically uphill-facing and 6-8 m high in this reach with some domal uplifts deforming Pleistocene fluvial terraces. Two tectonically dammed lakes were formed by the 1911 earthquake. In addition, the Chon Aksu river was offset with the upstream side uplifted about 6 m. In the upper Chon Aksu Valley, the rupture is not well expressed, because of vigourous fluvial, periglacial and glacial activity. Notable fractures on ridgetops on the south side of the valley across from the Kulugan Tash rockfall are well preserved, but their formation as primary ground rupture or shaking induced settling is ambiguous. For 5 km west of the Kulugan Tash, no landforms were unambiguously attributable to ground rupture. Together with 1911 earthquake features in the study area, we also observed scarps and mass movements belonging to paleoseismic catastrophes. They indicate recurrence of major earthquakes along this structure during the Holocene and late Pleistocene.

  8. IDEOLOGICAL APPROACHES OF FOLKLORE STUDIES IN KYRGYZSTAN ON THE SOVIET UNION PERIOD: ERSOLTONOY EPIC EXAMPLE SOVYETLER B?RL??? DÖNEM?NDE KIRGIZ?STAN’DA FOLKLOR ÇALI?MALARINDA ?DEOLOJ?K YAKLA?IMLAR: ER SOLTONOY DESTANI ÖRNE??

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÇER?BA?

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Folklore, emerged in the 19th century with the romance movement as a tool of nationalizm, acted as shield aganist discriminative movements in the countries which weren’t able to achieve political unity. Political movement, which doesn’t consist freedom of expression and based on single party system like socialism, nazism and communism, wanted to take advantage of all communication channels for propaganda purpose. These movements imposed important folklore products which was considered as a means of communication and interaction. One of these is to understand the judgements values and develop policies on this judgements, other is to ensure harmony between the regime and people-more clearly by formatting fort he purpose of regime.Socialism which is of the movements using folklore for the ideological purpose have benefited from folklore to make people of occupied countries for he emperialist purpose compatible. Epic type, decorated with elements of romantics and nationalism, is used to increase nationalism by the Turks tribes where oral culture is dominant during the war period at ordinary times has taken spokemanship of proletariat class. Such work has been tested on the Kyrgyz Turks which were nomadic horseman and interested in the type of epic proceeding from Er Soltonoy’s of Kyrgyz Turks. 19. yüzy?lda ortaya ç?kan romantizm hareketiyle ulusla?man?n bir arac? olarak görülen folklor ürünleri, siyasi birli?ini sa?layamam?? ülkeler taraf?ndan d??tan gelecek ayr??t?r?c? ak?mlara kar?? kalkan görevini görmü?tür. Nazizm, Sosyalizm ve Komünizm gibi tek parti sistemine dayanan ve ifade özgürlü?ünün olmad??? siyasi ak?mlar ise halka ula?abilecekleri bütün ileti?im kanallar?ndan propaganda amac?yla yararlanmak istemi?ler; bu ak?mlar dönemin ileti?im araçlar?ndan say?lan folklor ürünlerine de bu ba?lamda önemli görevler yüklemi?lerdir. Bu görevlerden biri, halk?n de?er yarg?lar?n? anlamaya ve bu de?er yarg?lar? üzerinde politikalar geli?tirmeye yönelikken, di?eri de geli?tirilen bu politikalarla halk?n de?er yarg?lar? üzerinde oynama yaparak halkla rejim aras?nda uyum sa?lamak, daha aç?k bir ifade ile halk? rejimin amaçlar? do?rultusunda biçimlendirerek ferdin kendisi olmas?n? de?il “rejimin adam?” olmas?n? sa?lamakt?r. Folkloru ideolojik amaçlar do?rultusunda kullanan ak?mlardan biri olan Sosyalizm, emperyalist amaçlarla i?gal etti?i ülke vatanda?lar?n? sistemle uyumlu hale getirmek için folklor ürünlerinden çok s?k yararlanm??t?r. Özellikle sözlü kültürün hâkim oldu?u Türk boylar?nda romantik ve milliyetçi ö?elerle süslü destan türü, sava? döneminde milliyetçili?in dozunu art?rmak için kullan?rken, ola?an dönemlerde proletarya s?n?f?n?n sözcülü?üne büründürülmü?tür. Bu tip çal??malar atl?-göçebe özelliklerini yak?n zamana kadar sürdüren ve destan türüne özel bir ilginin oldu?u K?rg?z Türkleri üzerinde de denenmi?tir. Bu çal??mada K?rg?z Türklerinin Er Soltonoy Destan? örne?inden yola ç?karak destan türü üzerinde yap?lan ideolojik tahrifatlar üzerinde durulacakt?r.

  9. Rapakivi granites within Phanerozoic collisional orogens as a possible consequence of continental subduction and following exhumation of the Precambrian crust: Evidences from the Permian Jangart rapakivi in South Tien Shan collisional belt, Eastern Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomovich, Leonid I.; Trifonov, Boris A.

    2014-12-01

    All worldwide known rare occurrences of Phanerozoic A-type granites with typical rapakivi texture do not usually have any significant volume of contemporaneous basic rocks in magmatic association and occur only in those collisional orogens, which border ancient cratons and contain HP-UHP metamorphic terranes, suggesting connection of their petrogenesis with a deep continental subduction and subsequent exhumation of the ancient crust. Early Permian Jangart rapakivis and genetically related leucogranites and Li-mica granites widely spread within the Saryjaz syntaxis, which is distinguished by the shortest distance between the Tarim craton and Caledonian Kazakh continent, collided in the Late Carboniferous with the possibly deepest continental subduction of the Tarim under the South Tien Shan collisional belt. Rapakivi plutons occur within the remarkable huge (20 × 120 km) mega-mélange (mega-breccia) terrane of diapiric (not tectonic) origin, which was identified by the latest geological data and deciphering of satellite imagery. According to geophysical data the most of subducted Tarim continental crust was trapped within lithospheric mantle and never exhumed. But in the Saryjaz syntaxis, where the collisional suture has been subjected to flecsure-like oroclinal bending due to sinistral strike-slip tectonics during oblique collision between the Tarim and Kazakh plates, the subduction channel was weakened and exhumation occurred. The suggested P-T-t path of exhumed slices of the subducted Tarim continental crust presumes a relatively long (around 20 Ma) residence time on a mantle depth as well as additional internal radiogenic heating and rapid (around 2 Ma) isothermal exhumation, which were favorable for extensive melting and subsequent rapakivi formation. Phanerozoic rapakivis originated from the same ancient lower crust granulite source rocks as their abundant Proterozoic counterparts but mechanism of heating and melting of those source rocks was radically different.

  10. The first results of environmental impact study of the production complex Ak-Tyuz according to the Protocol of the 3rdMeeting of Kyrgyzstan-Kazakhstan Intergovernmental Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations of radionuclide and elemental composition of selected samples of the environment items were made. The method of instrumental gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of individual radionuclides in two samples of bottom sediments. The method of X-ray fluorescence analysis was used to study the elemental composition of the same samples of bottom sediments. All results of research activities clearly show the negative impact of the industrial zone Ak-Tyuz on radionuclide and elemental composition of water in Kichi-Kemin River.

  11. Notes on some Lepidoptera Tortricidae from Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Trematerra

    2012-01-01

    Faunistic data of some Lepidoptera Tortricidae collected in mountainous localities of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenija, are reported. The total number of species recorded is 69; some of them are of special biogeographical interest.

  12. Proceedings of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceeding of the conference covers different aspects of solid state physics and concludes 173 papers. Scientist and specialists from Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan took part in the conference

  13. Electricity in Central Asia: Market and investment opportunity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.

  14. Uranium industry legacy. Problems and ways forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is devoted to uranium industry legacy of Kyrgyzstan. Data on tailings and rock piles is presented. Data on ongoing works and projects on remediation of uranium tailings is presented as well.

  15. Uranium Deposits Radioactive Hazards

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Assessment of Radioactive Hazard of Developed Jilskiy (Kyrgyzstan), Adrasman and Taboshar (Tajikistan) Uranium Deposits, Development and Typification of Actions on Rehabilitation of the Areas and Facilities for the Central Asia Region

  16. Find an Allergist/Immunologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Republic Congo Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland ... Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea Kosovo Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Dem Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab ...

  17. Empirical Analysis of Kyrgyz Trade Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Kurmanalieva, Elvira

    2008-01-01

    Being naturally located between two big markets in Europe and Asia, Kyrgyzstan together with other Central Asian countries does not have a direct access to sea ports. Landlockedness limits volumes of international trade and creates obstacles for economic growth. Results of statistical analysis show that Kyrgyz trade neither follows Heckscher-Ohlin model nor intra-industry trade model. Another finding is that open and liberal trade policy of Kyrgyzstan has a large positive effect on trade vol...

  18. The Art of Survival: Kyrgyz Labor Migration, Human Capital, and Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vinokurov, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    Age, education, income discrepancy, and unemployment level are the main factors that define the portrait of the Kyr-gyz labor migrant. Remittances shape the present state of the Kyrgyz economy;the quality of human capital, and its future. Efficiently functioning social networks abroad play a significant role in a migrant's decision to work abroad, and his or her choice of destination and job. That labor has freedom of movement is essential to Kyrgyzstan’s accession to the Belarus-K...

  19. Commentary - The Early Days of Central Asian Military Integration: the Kyrgyz National Division of the Red Army in 1927-1928

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ohayon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the sociology of a national division of the Red Army in the early days of its formation in Kyrgyzstan, as described in two documents about soldiers of Kyrgyz nationality in 1927 and 1928. At that time the Soviet Army was not seeking to substantially increase its numbers but rather recruiting in line with the intentions of the nationality policy, by integrating ethnic groups and regions that had been ignored by the high command. Kyrgyzstan is a striking exampl...

  20. Regulatory Support Program in Central Asia. Progress and new bilateral project with the State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Republic of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    A meeting of the regional regulatory support program in Central Asia (CA) was held in May 25 to 26, 2011 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where parties discussed ongoing bilateral cooperation between the NRPA and the regulatory bodies of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Author)

  1. Regulatory Support Program in Central Asia. Progress and new bilateral project with the State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Republic of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meeting of the regional regulatory support program in Central Asia (CA) was held in May 25 to 26, 2011 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where parties discussed ongoing bilateral cooperation between the NRPA and the regulatory bodies of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Author)

  2. Skills Needs Analysis. Conference on Continuing Vocational Training (Turin, Italy, November 9-10, 1998). Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    Participants in the Conference on Continuing Vocational Training (CVT) represented 13 countries from Central and Eastern Europe, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Uzbekistan, European Union (EU) countries, European Commission, and European Training Foundation. The conference aimed to increase awareness among policymakers and social partners on CVT's…

  3. The Challenges of Lifelong Learning: Report of a Seminar Involving the New Independent States and Mongolia, February 2002. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    To help the New Independent States and Mongolia address central issues related to lifelong learning, the European Training Foundation organized a project on lifelong learning that involved the following countries: Armenia; Belarus; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; the Russian Federation; Ukraine; and Uzbekistan. The project's principal…

  4. The Cultural and Ecological "Worlds" of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie; Allspaw, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    With a grant through Indiana University's Inner Asian & Uralic National Resource Center, the authors developed an online, five-week unit that discusses the cultural and ecological "worlds" of central Asia, specifically the countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan. There are two main ideas throughout this…

  5. Planned Transitions from Education into Employment in a Managed Post-Communist Market Economy: A Case Study in Samarkand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ken; Teshmatullo, Akhamadov; Firdavsiy, Kurbanov; Sarateppo, Boltaev; Tholen, Jochen

    2007-01-01

    This article arises from case studies in 2006 of 20 businesses in Samarkand (Uzbekistan), surveys of their up to 30-year-old employees (r = 419), follow-up interviews with eight of these employees, and matched samples in Almaty (Kazakhstan) and Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan). The main difference between education in Samarkand (and Uzbekistan in general) and…

  6. A Management Tool Kit on Training Needs Assessment and Programme Design: An Integrated Resource for Management Development in Transition Countries. Companion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document presents a management tool kit on training needs assessment and program design for countries in transition to a market economy. Chapter 1 describes the tool's development within the framework of the project called Strengthening of Partnership between Management Training Institutions and Companies, Ukraine-Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan

  7. Faculty Development and Quality Assurance in the EU ERAMIS Project

    OpenAIRE

    Agathe Merceron; Jean-Michel Adam; Sergio Luján-Mora; Marek Milosz; Arto Toppinen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the ERAMIS project is to create a
    network of Masters degrees “Informatics as a Second
    Competence” in nine beneficiary universities of Kazakhstan,
    Kyrgyzstan and Russia. This contribution presents how
    faculty development is organized and quality assurance
    implemented inside this project.

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.58) is Kyrgyzstan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2003. The list shows the dates on which the present 137 Member States became Members

  9. Empirical Analysis of Kyrgyz Trade Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira KURMANALIEVA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Being naturally located between two big markets in Europe and Asia, Kyrgyzstan together with other Central Asian countries does not have a direct access to sea ports. Landlockedness limits volumes of international trade and creates obstacles for economic growth. Results of statistical analysis show that Kyrgyz trade neither follows Heckscher-Ohlin model nor intra-industry trade model. Another finding is that open and liberal trade policy of Kyrgyzstan has a large positive effect on trade volumes, suggesting that bilateral trade will expand markedly if country continues liberalization of its trade policy with other countries. Quality of infrastructure and transportation costs play a crucial role for landlocked countries and a free trade agreement with other countries looks like a good opportunity to overcome natural barriers and diversify their trade.

  10. Assessment of cattle genetic introgression into domestic yak populations using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, X B; Jianlin, H.; Wang, G; Rege, J E O; Hanotte, O.

    2010-01-01

    Hybridization between yak Poephagus grunniens and taurine Bos taurus or indicine B. indicus cattle has been widely practiced throughout the yak geographical range, and gene flow is expected to have occurred between these species. To assess the impact of cattle admixture on domestic yak, we examined 1076 domestic yak from 29 populations collected in China, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and Russia using mitochondrial DNA and 17 autosomal microsatellite loci. A cattle diag...

  11. Silurian-Devonian active-margin deep-marine systems and palaeogeography, Alai Range, Southern Tien Shan, Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, KT; Koren, TN; Lytochkin, VN; Siveter, DJ

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of Mid-Palaeozoic successions in the northern part of the Alai Range (Kyrgyzstan and bordering Uzbekistan), Southern Tien Shan, Central Asia, has identified a Silurian-Devonian deep-marine depositional system of basin-slope facies-associations. Here, we document the stratigraphy and sedimentology of a region in Central Asia that, through conflict, has become inaccessible for geological research. The turbidite-dominated Pul'gon Formation (Silurian) accumulated in sea-floor depressions...

  12. Sustainable Land Management in the Pamir Alai Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kenesh Shapakov; Jyldyz Tabaldieva; Altynai Davletalieva

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on identifying of possible opportunities for local people, living in Pamir Alai region of Kyrgyzstan, particularly in Kashka Suu and Alaiku, by conducting analysis of such value chains as wool production and collection of berries and medicinal herbs. Identification of key features of these two value chains provides insight into which entities benefit from the value of products, and provides the basis for projecting possible additional income to the populations in the areas....

  13. Banking system in Kyrgyz Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Sagbansu, Lutfu

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concepts are essential for avoiding harmful problems, development stable and solvent banking system. These developments include the more effective regulation of the entry and exit of banks, removal of ob...

  14. International Conference 'Uranium legacy of Soviet Union in Central Asia: problems and way forward' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the conference is to discuss safe management of uranium mill tailings, remediation activities foreseen under Eurasian Economic Community in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, existing problems and ways forward. A conference on this topic in Tajikistan with the support of the International Science and Technology Center and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority is relevant and very important taken into account foreseen remediation activities starting from 2013.

  15. Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasus and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Following the First Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late nineteen-ninetieth, TAEK, besides the cooperation with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Scientific Organisations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peacef activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

  16. Proceedings of the International Conference and Young Researchers' Forum: 'Natural resource use in Central Asia: institutional challenges and the contribution of capacity building'. Held in Giessen, 1st October 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mirza Nomman; Pawlowski, Ira

    2013-01-01

    [LIST OF CONTENT] SH. KENJABAEV, I. FORKUTSA, M. BACH, H.G. FREDE: Performance evaluation of the BUDGET model in simulating cotton and wheat yield and soil moisture in Fergana valley ... 1 / KANAYIM TESHEBAEVA, HENRIETTE SUDHAUS, H.-U. WETZEL, SIGRID ROESSNER, HELMUT ECHTLER AND ALEXANDER ZUBOVICH: Radar remote sensing for surveying and monitoring of earthquakes and mass movements in Southern Kyrgyzstan ... 15 / DAVRON ABSALYAMOV: Efficiency of wheat and cotton producing farms in Uzbekistan: ...

  17. Assessing development strategies to achieve the MDGs in Asia: Macroeconomic strategies of MDG achievement in the Kyrgyz Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Mogilevsky, Roman; Omorova, Anarkul

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims at analyzing macroeconomic and financial strategies, which are to ensure achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the Kyrgyz Republic. The paper is based on results of simulations generated through the application of standard MAMS, a computable general equilibrium model adjusted to the country situation and calibrated with data of Kyrgyzstan. MAMS-model-based simulation results indicate that a continuation of the current policies under the baseline scenario wou...

  18. The European Union-Central Asia: in the light of the New Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulhamidova, Nurangez

    2009-01-01

    Central Asia is a region strategically located at the crossroads of the two continents: Asia and Europe. The region is represented by five states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) with different level of economic development and with the population amounting to over 60 million people. The region is rich in energy resources represented by oil, gas, coal and water resources. The thesis analyses, assesses and scrutinises one of the topical issues of the contempora...

  19. Xinjiang:A centre-periphery conflict in display.

    OpenAIRE

    Winje, Truls

    2007-01-01

    1.0. Xinjiang: An introduction. The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) is situated in the northwestern corner of the People?s Republic of China (PRC), and borders Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Russia and Mongolia. As China?s largest province it amounts to a sixth of its land area, contains huge deposits of oil and gas, and furthermore, houses the China?s nuclear test facilities. A glance at a map of the region reveals Xinjiang?s remoteness,...

  20. The European Union-Central Asia : in the light of the New Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulhamidova, Nurangez

    2009-01-01

    Central Asia is a region strategically located on the crossroads of the two continents. The region is represented by five states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) with different level of economic development and with the population amounting to over 60 million people. The region is rich in energy resources, represented by oil, gas, coal and hydropower resources. The thesis analyses, assesses and scrutinises one of the topical issues of the contemporary internat...

  1. Drivers of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries: evidence from a FAVAR analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dreger, Christian; Fidrmuc, Jarko

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the likely sources of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) over the last dec-ade (1999-2010). Evidence is based on country VARs augmented by a regional com-mon factor structure (FAVAR model). The models include nominal exchange rates, the common factor of exchange rates in the CIS countries, and international drivers such as global trade, share prices, and oil price. Global, regional and idiosyncrati...

  2. Communication received from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation to the Agency concerning a statement of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agency has received a communication dated 30 August 2005 from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation, attaching a statement by the heads of State of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan adopted at the Moscow session of the Collective Security Council of the Collective Security Treaty Organization on 23 June 2005. The communication from the Russian Federation and, as requested therein, its attachment, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  3. Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge

    OpenAIRE

    DI CRISTOFARO, Julie; Pennarun, Erwan; Mazières, Stéphane; Myres, Natalie M; Lin, Alice A; Temori, Shah Aga; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Witzel, Michael; King, Roy J.; Underhill, Peter A.; Villems, Richard; Chiaroni, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Despite being located at the crossroads of Asia, genetics of the Afghanistan populations have been largely overlooked. It is currently inhabited by five major ethnic populations: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmen. Here we present autosomal from a subset of our samples, mitochondrial and Y- chromosome data from over 500 Afghan samples among these 5 ethnic groups. This Afghan data was supplemented with the same Y-chromosome analyses of samples from Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and updated...

  4. Analysis of China's Agricultural Exports to Five Central Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Buwajian Abula; Chen, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the statistical description and the constant market share model to analyze the Chinese agricultural product export to Central Asian countries. It discovered that the establishments the SCO Shanghai cooperation organization and cooperation process promote agricultural exports; agricultural products from China to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan is mainly attributed to the scale factor; in recent years, competition factor becomes the more important one. Owing to the market ...

  5. Researching the future of pastoralism in central Asia's mountains: examining development orthodoxies

    OpenAIRE

    Kerven, Carol; Steimann, Bernd; Dear, Chad; Ashley, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    This paper synthesizes research findings on contemporary mountain pastoralism in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, based on a longer review characterizing mountain agropastoralism in Central Asia. We focus here on the principal issues that have been emphasized over the past two decades in policy, programs, and projects regarding pastoralism in Central Asia's mountains. We conclude that this emphasis has largely been driven by two unproven orthodoxies about The extent and causes of pasture degra...

  6. Factors Influencing Portfolio Yield of Microfinance Institutions in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, Karel; Turbat, Batbayar

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of portfolio yield of microfinance institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Mongolia, Afghanistan, and China over the period 1998-2011. We confirm that targeting women borrowers improves the financial results of microfinance institutions whereas the effectiveness of group lending or advantages of rural lending, in contrast to the initial expectations, were not confirmed. We also consider the contributions of different governance f...

  7. Good health at low cost 25 years on: Lessons for the future of health systems strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Balabanova, D.; Mills, A; Conteh, L.; Akkazieva, B; Banteyerga, H; Dash, U; Gilson, L.; Harmer, A; Ibraimova, A; Islam, Z; Kidanu, A; Koehlmoos, TP; Limwattananon, S.; Muraleedharan, VR; Murzalieva, G

    2013-01-01

    In 1985, the Rockefeller Foundation published Good health at low cost to discuss why some countries or regions achieve better health and social outcomes than do others at a similar level of income and to show the role of political will and socially progressive policies. 25 years on, the Good Health at Low Cost project revisited these places but looked anew at Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Thailand, and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which have all either achieved substantial improvements...

  8. Good Health at Low Cost 25 years on: lessons for the future of health systems strengthening.

    OpenAIRE

    Balabanova, D.; Mills, A; Conteh, L.; Akkazieva, B; Banteyerga, H; Dash, U; Gilson, L.; Harmer, A; Ibraimova, A; Islam, Z; Kidanu, A; Koehlmoos, TP; Limwattananon, S.; Muraleedharan, VR; Murzalieva, G

    2013-01-01

    In 1985, the Rockefeller Foundation published Good health at low cost to discuss why some countries or regions achieve better health and social outcomes than do others at a similar level of income and to show the role of political will and socially progressive policies. 25 years on, the Good Health at Low Cost project revisited these places but looked anew at Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Thailand, and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which have all either achieved substantial improvements...

  9. Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Doolotkeldieva

    2010-01-01

    Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flo...

  10. Radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains the results obtained during the radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya River, which was conducted within the frames of international collaboration of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and USA. The data on the nature of salinity of water, alfa- and beta-activity of water, bottom, water plants, and soil was obtained. Dependence of the obtained results on the distance form the source is discussed. The major life-providing arteries for the great region of Central Asia are Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. There are many countries next to the pools of these rivers: Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. There is a great concern caused by the shortage of supply of fresh water, severe epidemiological situation, and radiation conditions along of the pools of these rivers. Such conditions have developed as a result of intensive economic and industrial activities, and also of geological and geochemical features of this region. One of the most serious aspects of this problem is the weak scrutiny level of influence of large deposits of natural uranium and consequences of technological and industrial activities. Since November, 2000 Scientifics of four of the listed countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) have come to an agreement carrying out the teamwork on studying and monitoring the environment in the pools of Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers [1]. Collaborator of these works is CooperativeCollaborator of these works is Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, USA. During three expeditions each country in 15 control sites on their territory has conducted field researches and has obtained the samples of elements of the environment. Laboratory researches were carried out in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The first results were obtained in (2,3) and later in [4].Currently, the analysis of the data on salinity of water and alpha- and beta- activities of samples along Syr-Darya River is presented

  11. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  12. The closed Lake Issyk-Kul as an indicator of global warming in Tien-Shan

    OpenAIRE

    Romanovsky, Vladimir V.; Saadat Tashbaeva; Jean-François Crétaux; Stephane Calmant; Vanessa Drolon

    2013-01-01

    Lake Issyk-Kul is the seventh deepest lake in the world situated inCentral Asiain theTien-ShanMountainsat the elevation of 1607 m above sea level. This area belongs toKyrgyzstan. From 1927 to 1997 the water level decreased by 3.4 m, and increased by 0.93 m from 1997 to 2011. The article analyzes the impact of the global warming on the Lake Issyk-Kul thermal regime and the components of its water balance: river discharge, precipitation, evaporation and lake level variations. It shows that the ...

  13. Communication dated 11 September 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 11 September 2006, from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the IAEA regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006 in Semipalatinsk by the leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the enclosed information regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  14. Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, Aleksandra; Zhukovsky, Michael; Veselinovic, Nenad; Zunic, Zora S

    2010-01-01

    Water (226)Ra concentration in springs was measured in regions with high indoor radon: Ural, North Caucasus (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Piestany (Slovakia), and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). This paper presents the results for (226)Ra concentration above 0.03 Bq l(-1). Radium in water could indicate indoor radon problem in the region and water investigation is useful at the initial stage of radon survey. Even low (226)Ra concentration in water (0.1-0.6 Bq l(-1)) caused high (226)Ra activity in travertine (up to 1500 Bq kg(-1)), which resulted in indoor radon concentration above 2000 Bq m(-3) (Niska Banja). PMID:19853463

  15. Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water 226Ra concentration in springs was measured in regions with high indoor radon: Ural, North Caucasus (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Piestany (Slovakia), and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). This paper presents the results for 226Ra concentration above 0.03 Bq l-1. Radium in water could indicate indoor radon problem in the region and water investigation is useful at the initial stage of radon survey. Even low 226Ra concentration in water (0.1-0.6 Bq l-1) caused high 226Ra activity in travertine (up to 1500 Bq kg-1), which resulted in indoor radon concentration above 2000 Bq m-3 (Niska Banja).

  16. Reaction of the dams behind the Toktoguol and Kurpsa hydroelectric power plants to repeated earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchuk, A.N.; Umralin, K.B.; Moldebehov, Z.I. [and others

    1994-11-01

    The region where the chain of Naryn hydroelectric power plants are located in the Kyrgyzstan Republic is a seismically active area of Central Tien-Shan and is comparatively well known in seismological respects. No means of measuring the dams themselves, however, were ever incorporated as an instrumental base of investigation. The seismometric possibilities of embedded monitoring-measuring apparatus were disclosed by O.Yu. Schmidt Institute of Earth Physics and have made is possible to evaluate the reactions of dams to seismic effects and of excited seismicity, when residual deformations due to repeated tremors of different force and direction are accumulated over an extended period of time.

  17. NRPA develops regulatory cooperation with Central Asian authorities for nuclear safety and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the NRPA has initiated a regional regulatory cooperation project with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to improve regulations on nuclear safety, radiation protection and environmental issues, and assist the countries in re mediating radioactively contaminated sites. There is a critical lack in the regulatory basis for carrying out such remediation work, including a lack of relevant radiation and environmental safety norms and standards, licensing procedures and requirements for monitoring, as well as expertise to transform such a basis into practice. (Author)

  18. Foregoing medicines in the former Soviet Union: changes between 2001 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, Katharine; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Alimbekova, Gulzhan; Pachulia, Merab; Rotman, David; Gasparishvili, Alexander; McKee, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Pharmaceutical costs dominate out-of-pocket payments in former Soviet countries, posing a severe threat to financial equity and access to health services. Nationally representative household survey data collected in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine were analysed to compare the level of population having to forego medicines in 2001 and 2010. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess differences between populations of different economic status, and rural and urban populations. A substantial proportion of the population did forego medicines in 2010, from 29.2% in Belarus to 72.9% in Georgia. There was a decline in people foregoing medicines between 2001 and 2010; the greatest decline was seen in Moldova [rate ratio (RR)=0.67 (0.63; 0.71)] and Kyrgyzstan [RR=0.63 (0.60; 0.67)], while very little improvement took place in countries with a higher Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and greater GNI growth over the decade such as Armenia [RR=0.92 (0.87; 0.96)] and Georgia [RR=0.95 (0.92; 0.98)]. Wealthier, urban populations have benefited more than poorer, rural households in some countries. Countries experiencing the greatest improvement over the study period were those that have implemented policies such as price controls, expanded benefits packages, and encouragement of rational prescribing. Greater commitment to pharmaceutical reform is needed to ensure that people are not forced to forego medicines. PMID:25263591

  19. A survey of East Palaearctic Hersiliola Thorell, 1870 (Araneae, Hersiliidae, with a description of three new genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new genera and eight new species of Hersiliidae are described from the East Palaearctic (Afganistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The genus Hersiliola Thorell, 1870 (Araneae: Hersiliidae is revised, and four new species are described. The genus includes nine species: H. afghanica Roewer, 1960 (Afghanistan; H. esyunini sp. n. (Uzbekistan; H. foordi sp. n. (Iran; H. lindbergi sp. n. (Afghanistan; H. macullulata (Dufour, 1831 (type species; from Spain and Algeria to Israel and Yemen; H. simoni (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872 (from Spain and Morocco to Israel; H. sternbergsi sp. n. (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; H. versicolor (Blackwall, 1865 (Cape Verde; and H. xinjiangenis (Liang & Wang, 1989 (Xinjiang, China. A new genus Duninia gen. n. is described, with two new species, Duninia baehrae sp. n. (type species; Turkmenistan and D. rheimsae sp. n. (Iran. A new genus Deltshevia gen. n. is described, with two new species, Deltshevia danovi sp. n. (type species; Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and D. gromovi sp. n. (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan. The widely ranging Central Asian Hersiliola pallida Kroneberg, 1875 (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan is transferred to a new monotypic genus, Ovtsharenkoia gen. n.

  20. The Program Assessment Guide: an approach for structuring contextual knowledge and experience to improve the design, delivery, and effectiveness of nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, David; Corsi, Allison; Hoey, Lesli; Faillace, Silvana; Houston, Robin

    2011-11-01

    As evidence from small-scale trials has accumulated concerning the efficacy of low-cost interventions to address undernutrition, the design, implementation, and strengthening of large-scale programs to deliver these interventions has become a high priority. This scaling up process involves a large number of technical, logistical, administrative, political, and social considerations and little research exists on how to address these in a systematic way. This paper introduces the Program Assessment Guide (PAG), a set of analysis and decision tools that seeks to fill this gap, and reports on its application in Kyrgyzstan and Bolivia. The PAG places a special focus on eliciting and systematizing contextual knowledge and experience through a structured, participatory workshop and is grounded in theory, principles, and experience from program planning, management, change management, and intervention planning. When applied in Kyrgyzstan and Bolivia, the PAG was successful in helping workshop participants identify key implementation bottlenecks, questionable assumptions in the program theory, and feasible ways to address some of the shortcomings. These experiences also identified the need for a number of modifications to the PAG related to the workshop design itself, the preparations prior to the workshop, and follow-up after the workshop. The PAG represents one approach for strengthening decisions related to the design and large-scale implementation of interventions. The development and full-scale testing of alternative methods such as these for strengthening program analysis and decision making is an important and intellectually challenging subject for further research. PMID:21956957

  1. HOLY KYRGZS’S CALPACK / KUTSAL KIRGIZ KALPA?I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Metin ARIKAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Calpack, in today’s Kyrgyzstan, is not only defined as a head craftwore in towns which is remembered barely during national and religiousbairams but also it emerged as a concrete sample of Kyrgyz nationalphilosophy, which has been kept alive from mythological era to epic era andfrom epic era to present day by the colors it involved and the motifs itcarried. Irregardless of the social statues, calpacks can be observed on nearlyall Kyrgyz men’s heads and even this particular feature of calpack makes itan important element to analyze not only for Kyrgyz culture but also for thecommon Turkish culture. Our aim is to determine the various values ofcalpack which have been survived from past to present.

  2. Localized temporal change of the Earth's inner core boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lianxing

    2006-11-10

    Compressional waves of an earthquake doublet (two events occurring in the South Sandwich Islands on 1 December 1993 and 6 September 2003), recorded at three seismic stations in Russia and Kyrgyzstan and reflected off Earth's inner core boundary, arrived at least from 39 to 70 milliseconds earlier in the 2003 event than in the 1993 event. Such changes indicate that Earth's inner core radius enlarged locally beneath middle Africa by 0.98 to 1.75 kilometers between the times of these two events. Changes of the inner core radius may be explained by either a differential motion of the inner core, assuming that irregularities are present at the inner core boundary and fixed to the inner core, or a rapid growth of the inner core by this amount. PMID:17008488

  3. Application of Global Positioning Measurements to Continental Collision in the Pamir-Tien Shan Region, Central Asia and GPS Survey of the Western Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Michael W.; Reilinger, Robert E.; Hager, Bradford H.; Molnar, Peter

    1997-01-01

    In this report, we summarize what we have accomplished with five years of funding from NASA under its DOSE program, and with a comparable level of funding from NSF. We describe the development of a GPS network in the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan of the former Soviet Union, the analysis of data, and the main results. This discussion presents the state of the current network, which has grown significantly since the termination of our DOSE grants, with continued support both from NSF through its continental dynamics program and from NASA's SENH program. Although grants from NASA's DOSE program did not support this growth not directly, it did so indirectly by building the infrastructure that has enabled further expansion in an area where otherwise there would be only a small GPS presence. We note how the network has grown over time, but the emphasis of this discussion is on the quantity and quality of measurements that we have made.

  4. Current problems of power supply and energy policy in Central Asia; Aktuelle Probleme der Energiewirtschaft und Energiepolitik in Zentralasien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouchine, A. [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Internationale Entwicklungs- und Umweltforschung; Giese, E. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geographie

    2006-02-15

    Power supply is an increasing problem in Central Asia. Ever since the republics of Central Asia overcame the recession of the nineties, economic growth had a steady rate of 5-10 percent. This causes increased energy demand. The second problem is the unbalanced distribution of energy sources and the fact that, in contrast to the times of the Soviet Union, there is no regional balancing in the form of competence trading. For example, Kyrgyzstan and Tadzhikistan have a lack of energy sources and also a lack of foreign currency which prevents energy imports. In consequence, there are attempts to make better use of the available hydroenergetic potential by constructing hydroelectric power plants and dams on the big rivers Amudarja and Syrdarja. The sufferers will be Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both countries need the water of the big rivers for watering their fields in the summer season. The third problem is the adverse ecological effect of dam and hydroelectric power plant construction. (orig.)

  5. Political Regimes in Central Asia: Crisis of Legitimacy, Political Violence and Uncertain Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Djalili

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the present-day transition and political context of each of the states that comprise the former Soviet region of Central Asia since their independence: the internal changes they have undergone, the creation of their own institutions and regional and international relations. This evolution, especially with regard to the deficiencies in democracy and legitimacy of the majority of the current governments, based, in many cases, on personalist, authoritarian regimes, points to an uncertain future for a region in which, too frequently, its rulers have used all the means at their disposal (persecution of political opposition, disregard for human rights, constraint of the mass media and NGOs, etc. to guarantee their continuance in power. This article also includes an analysis of the most recent events, such as the Andijan (Uzbekistan massacre, the‘revolution’ without changes in Kyrgyzstan, and the authoritarian drift of Turkmenistan, which leads to conclusions filled with uncertainties for future political scenarios.

  6. Tectono-Stratigraphic framework and Palaeozoic evolution of the Chinese South Tianshan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeiev, D. V.; Biske, Yu. S.; Wang, Bo; Djenchuraeva, A. V.; Getman, O. F.; Aristov, V. A.; Kröner, A.; Liu, Hongsheng; Zhong, Linglin

    2015-03-01

    A stratigraphic and structural study was carried out in the central part of the Chinese South Tianshan (STS) within a 50-100 km-wide transect centered on the Dushanzi-Kuqa road (83°-85° E). Our data elucidate the tectonic structure and evolution of the Palaeozoic sedimentary basin, document overthrust structures in the late Carboniferous-early Permian orogenic belt and suggest correlations between the western and eastern segments of the STS in Kyrgyzstan and China. We recognise a series of lithotectonic units in the study area that have different stratigraphic characteristics and were formed within (a) continental margin and slope of the Kazakhstan continent, (b) Turkestan (South Tianshan) ocean, (c) intra-oceanic carbonate sea-mounts, which at least partly evolved on top of an extinct island arc, (d) a back-arc oceanic-crust basin, (e) external deeper marine and internal shallow-marine areas of the Tarim shelf and (f) Tarim craton. The overall structure of the basin was similar within Kyrgyzstan and China. The main distinction of the western areas is a lack of ophiolites on the southern flank of the belt, a poorly expressed arc in the axial part, and a more complicated facial setting of the central area, where carbonate banks were separated by deeper marine depressions with cherty deposits. The eastern sector is defined by a continental arc that evolved on the northern margin of the Tarim craton in the Silurian and became separated from the continent in the latest Silurian-early Devonian. There is also a middle Palaeozoic metamorphic belt on the southern flank of the STS. A pre-Carboniferous unconformity, previously assumed throughout the study area, is only confirmed within the continental massifs of Kazakhstan and Tarim. As in the western areas, the unconformity does not exist within the STS. Continuous sedimentation in the STS occurred from the Early Devonian to the early Bashkirian in marginal parts of the belt and up to Gzhelian age in the axial part. Convergence began in the Bashkirian (320-315 Ma) and caused subduction of oceanic crust in the northern and southern areas of the STS to the north and south, respectively. A back arc basin in the south was closed in the Moscovian, and since that time top-to-the-south thrusting and overthrusting prevailed throughout the STS. The time of onset of collision of Kazakhstan with Tarim was not younger in age than Kasimovian, based on the age of initiation of a turbidite foreland basin on the northern margin of Tarim. Thrust deformation during the Late Pennsylvanian to early Permian was synchronous within Kyrgyzstan and China; it occurred in a collisional setting and was accompanied by accumulation of turbidites and olistostromes. Broad termination of thrusting, followed by folding and uplift of the area in the middle Asselian indicates the beginning of a rigid collisional phase. Emplacement of early Permian stitching granite plutons in the STS and adjacent areas of Kazakhstan and Tarim completes the formation of the collisional orogen within Kyrgyzstan and northwestern China.

  7. Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishchenko, Aleksandra [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, S. Kovalevskoy St., 20A, 620219, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: onischenko@ecko.uran.ru; Zhukovsky, Michael [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, S. Kovalevskoy St., 20A, 620219, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Veselinovic, Nenad; Zunic, Zora S. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, ECE LAB, Mike Alasa St., 12-14, 11000, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-04-15

    Water {sup 226}Ra concentration in springs was measured in regions with high indoor radon: Ural, North Caucasus (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Piestany (Slovakia), and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). This paper presents the results for {sup 226}Ra concentration above 0.03 Bq l{sup -1}. Radium in water could indicate indoor radon problem in the region and water investigation is useful at the initial stage of radon survey. Even low {sup 226}Ra concentration in water (0.1-0.6 Bq l{sup -1}) caused high {sup 226}Ra activity in travertine (up to 1500 Bq kg{sup -1}), which resulted in indoor radon concentration above 2000 Bq m{sup -3} (Niska Banja)

  8. Revision of Heringina Aczél, 1940 (Diptera: Tephritidae), with description of a new species from Iran and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namin, Saeed Mohamadzade; Korneyev, Severyn V

    2015-01-01

    The genus Heringina Aczél, 1940 is revised and shown to belong to the Tephritis group of genera and is closely related to Tephritis and Multireticula. Literature records are revised, and available collection material is listed. The genus includes two species: H. guttata (Fallén 1814) originally described from the sand dunes of southern Sweden and occurring from the Baltic region through Ukraine and Caucasus to Turkey, Iran, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, and Heringina arezoana sp. nov., found in Iran and eastern Turkey. Both species are described, illustrated, and keyed. Host plants and localization of larvae remain unknown; adult flies of both species are commonly swept from (but never reared) flower heads of Helichrysum arenarium. Other records of host plants listed by Boie (1847) and repeated in most important European monographs, are obviously based on misidentified flies. Possible relationships of Heringina with Tephritis and Multireticula are discussed. PMID:25947794

  9. Russia Factor in the problem of Aral Lake(Aral’s Sand According to the German Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati ?yikan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The water is a kind of food without an alternative. The guaranteed usage of water is a basis for civilization that indicates the importance of water. The Aral Sea in Central Asia was the fourth largest lake of the world; today there is only 10 % of old size. The pollutive characteristics of industry in East Europe and the harmful applications of political decision makers caused ecological problems in the Aral Sea basin. Today the ecological problem in Aral Sea became a political problem among the sharers of that problem, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, and affected the safety of region. Within the framework of Aral Sea ecological problem, at first the strategies developed by EU and Russia caused to enlargement of the problem instead of solving it.The expedience conflict of regional and global powers in Central Asia was appeared and a solution could not be produced till today.

  10. Toward a New Policy for Scientific and Technical Communication: the Case of Kyrgyz Republic

    CERN Document Server

    Djenchuraev, N

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this policy paper is to formulate a new policy in the field of scientific and technical information (STI) in Kyrgyz Republic in the light of emergence and rapid development of electronic scientific communication. The major problem with communication in science in the Republic is lack of adequate access to information by scientists. An equally serious problem is poor visibility of research conducted in Kyrgyzstan and, as consequence, negligible research impact on academic society globally. The paper proposes an integrated approach to formulation of a new STI policy based on a number of policy components: telecommunication networks, computerization, STI systems, legislation & standards, and education & trainings. Two alternatives were considered: electronic vs. paper-based scientific communication and development of the national STI system vs. cross-national virtual collaboration. The study results in suggesting a number of policy recommendations for identified stakeholders.

  11. Geotechnical and numerical studies of slope instability in loess deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrova, R.; Stahlmann, J.; Bourdeau, C.; Havenith, Hb.

    2009-04-01

    The mass movements occurred in loess accumulations often cause catastrophic damages to infrastructure and lose to the human lives. The failure in loess deposits can occur in gently terrains as happened in Tajik Republic in 1989. The earthquake with magnitude 5.5 hit the suburb of town. During this event the liquefaction effects developed consequently to lead to the catastrophic landslides. The loess failure related case is Kainama landslide (Fergana Valley, Kyrgyzstan) that killed 33 people. Potential relation between site effects and pore pressure build up causing liquefaction is the main thrust of this research. Methodology of the seismic slope stability investigation included determination of the mechanical strength properties and numerical modelling of a slope failure. In order to simulate the slope it is essential to gather the strength parameters of soil that present the conditions of the material in the nature. The main emphasis has been put to the geotechnical studies. To better understand the slope failure in loess body the two landslide sites in Fergana Valley (Kyrgyzstan) were selected to collect the loess specimens. Mechanism of deformation of loess material determined in terms of standard geotechnical tests. The natural water content in specimens is low, ranging from 12,8 % to 21% . The first investigation site occurred in Tertiary sediments has a low mean of the plasticity index (12% - 16 %). The climate data were analysed in order to correlate with slope failure cases. The development of landslides in investigating areas is truly connected with variation of physical and mechanical properties of loess material that is respectively related to geological and tectonic conditions of an area. To arrange the connection between site effects and pore pressure build up we used the numerical modelling with a finite difference code (FLAC 2D and 3D). These simulations give an opportunity to better clarify site effect impact to the slope and its role to cause liquefaction effects regarding to the slope failure initiation.

  12. Quantifying landscape resilience using vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, I. M. S.; Gergel, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape resilience refers to the ability of systems to adapt to and recover from disturbance. In pastoral landscapes, degradation can be measured in terms of increased desertification and/or shrub encroachment. In many countries across Central Asia, the use and resilience of pastoral systems has changed markedly over the past 25 years, influenced by centralized Soviet governance, private property rights and recently, communal resource governance. In Kyrgyzstan, recent governance reforms were in response to the increasing degradation of pastures attributed to livestock overgrazing. Our goal is to examine and map the landscape-level factors that influence overgrazing throughout successive governance periods. Here, we map and examine some of the spatial factors influencing landscape resilience in agro-pastoral systems in the Kyrgyzstan Republic where pastures occupy >50% of the country's area. We ask three questions: 1) which mechanisms of pasture degradation (desertification vs. shrub encroachment), are detectable using remote sensing vegetation indices?; 2) Are these degraded pastures associated with landscape features that influence herder mobility and accessibility (e.g., terrain, distance to other pastures)?; and 3) Have these patterns changed through successive governance periods? Using a chronosequence of Landsat imagery (1999-2014), NDVI and other VIs were used to identify trends in pasture condition during the growing season. Least-cost path distances as well as graph theoretic indices were derived from topographic factors to assess landscape connectivity (from villages to pastures and among pastures). Fieldwork was used to assess the feasibility and accuracy of this approach using the most recent imagery. Previous research concluded that low herder mobility hindered pasture use, thus we expect the distance from pasture to village to be an important predictor of pasture condition. This research will quantify the magnitude of pastoral degradation and test assumptions regarding sustainable pastoral management. As grazing is the most extensive land use on Earth, understanding the broad-scale factors that influence the resilience of pastoral systems is an important issue globally.

  13. Towards Cross-Border Landslide Hazard and Risk Assessment in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponaro, A.; Pilz, M.; Wieland, M.; Pittore, M.; Bindi, D.; Parolai, S.

    2014-12-01

    The countries of Central Asia are known to be among the most exposed in the world to landslide hazard and risk. In the past, several devastating slope failures have caused intense economic and human losses across the entire region. The large variability of local geological materials, difficulties in forecasting heavy precipitation locally, and problems in quantifying the level of ground shaking, call for harmonized procedures to better quantify landslide hazard. Moreover, due to uncontrolled urban expansion in mountainous areas, a growth in vulnerability of exposed population as well as overall risk has to be expected. In order to mitigate landslide risk, novel and strategic approaches are required mainly for enhanced understanding of causal factors, for reducing exposure to hazards, and for controlling land-use practices in a harmonized transnational way. We have already presented a regional landslide susceptibility assessment for Kyrgyzstan. First results allow for the identification of most potential landslide areas all over the country, with sufficient degree of accuracy. Based on this, we hereby propose a procedure for obtaining cross-border risk map of earthquake-induced landslides among central Asian countries, by employing statistical tools and updated input information in such remote and data-scarce regions. The method is initially applied to Kyrgyzstan where the majority of input parameters is available, and subsequently extended to Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. At first, the influence of diverse potential parameters (topography, geology, tectonic lineaments) as well as seismic triggering to landslide activation is evaluated. Elements at risk are then analyzed in relation to landslide hazard, and their vulnerability is hence established. A sensitivity analysis is carried out, and results are validated to an independent dataset.

  14. Kyrgyz Libraries Community – Co-Operation for Development: New Challenges and New Approaches = K?rg?z Kütüphane Toplulu?u – Geli?im ?çin ??birli?i: Yeni F?rsatlar ve Uygulamalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battalova, Sania

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available “Kyrgyz Libraries Information Consortium”, one of the largest library associations in the country, celebrates its 10th anniversary. The Consortium was established in 2002 and through membership, it comprises more than 400 libraries within Kyrgyzstan, including the National Library, the State Patent and Technical Library, the Library of the Academy of Science, and many other academic and regional libraries. The Consortium’s creation was an answer to the challenges the country faced: lack of information, very low level of technological development, no budget for collection development, lack of cooperation and collaboration between libraries in the country as well as with the international library community. The history and development of the Consortium, the Consortium mission, its goals, its main initiatives and the strategic directions to be taken are presented in the article. The importance of library development and how libraries in developed countries established strong and effective organizations are reviewed and analyzed here. This paper also presents the challenges and approaches that must be taken for future development of libraries in Kyrgyzstan. / “K?rg?z Kütüphaneleri Bilgi Konsorsiyumu” ülkedeki en büyük kütüphanecilik derneklerinden biridir ve kurulu?unun onuncu y?l dönümünü kutlamaktad?r. Bu Konsorsiyum 2000 y?l?nda kurulmu? olup, üyelik say?s? sonucu K?rg?zistan içinde toplam 400'den fazla kütüphaneyi kapsamaktad?r. Konsorsiyum içinde Milli Kütüphane (The National Library, Devlet Patent ve Teknik Kütüphanesi (State Patent and Technical Library, Bilim Akademisi Kütüphanesi (Library of the Academy ofScience, ile bunlar?n yan?s?ra çok say?da akademik ve bölgesel kütüphaneler de yer almaktad?r. Konsorsiyum’un kurulu?u ülkede kar??la??lan güçlüklere bir kar?? ç?k?? olmu?tur: yetersiz bilgi, çok dü?ük düzeyli teknik geli?meler, koleksiyon geli?tirmek için bütçe ayr?lmamas?, ülkedeki kütüphaneler aras? i?birli?i ve beraber çal??ma al??kanl???n?n olmamas? gibi sorunlar?n yan? s?ra,uluslararas? kütüphanelerle ili?kilerin de kopuk olmas? gibi güçlükler say?labilir. Konsorsiyum’un tarihi ve geli?im süreci oldu?u kadar, misyonu, amaçlar?, giri?imleri ve izlenecek stratejik hedefleri bu makalede ele al?nm??t?r. Geli?mi? ülkelerde kütüphanelerin önemi ve bunlar?n nas?l güçlü ve etkin kurumlar olarak geli?tikleri incelenerek burada sunulmu?tur. Makalede ayni zamanda K?rg?z?stan’da kütüphanelerin geli?tirilmesi için kar??la??lan güçlükler ve gelecek için izlenmesi gereken yakla??mlar üzerinde durulmaktad?r.

  15. Preliminary results from receiver function analysis in a seismological network across the Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Sippl, Christan; Schurr, Bernd; Mechie, James; Minaev, Vlad; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gadoev, Mustafo; Abdybachaev, Ulan A.

    2010-05-01

    The multi-disciplinary TIen Shan-PAmir GEodynamic (TIPAGE) program aims to investigate the dynamics of the orogeny of the Tien Shan and Pamir mountains, which are situated in south Kyrgyzstan and east Tajikistan in Central Asia. Deformation and uplift accompanied by crustal thickening is mainly induced by the collision between the Indian and Eurasian continental plates. As a local feature this collision provides the world's largest active intra-continental subduction zone. Within the framework of the TIPAGE program we operate a temporary seismic array consisting of 32 broadband and 8 short period seismic stations for a period of two years (from 2008 to 2010) covering an area of 300 x 300 km over the main part of the central Pamir plateau and the Alai-range of the southern Tien Shan. In the first year 24 broadband stations were set up in a 350-km long north-south profile geometry from Osh in southern Kyrgyzstan to Zorkul in south-eastern Tajikistan with approximately 15 km station spacing. We perform a receiver function (RF) analysis of converted P and S waves from teleseismic earthquakes at epicentral distances of 35-95 degrees with a minimum magnitude of 5.5. Therefore we decompose their wavefields by rotating the coordinate systems of the recorded seismograms from a N,E,Z into a SH,SV,P system. RFs are isolated by deconvolution of the P-component from the SH- and SV-component. They provide a robust tool to locate discontinuities in wave velocity like the Moho and thus represent the method of choice to determine crustal thickness. First results show a crustal thickness of 70-80km. Xenolith findings from depths of 100km reported by Hacker et al. (2005) give indication for even higher values. The N-S profile geometry will produce a high resolution RF image to map the gross crustal and lithospheric structure. In addition a 2D network with additional 16 stations will enable an investigation of lateral structure variation. We give an introduction to the project and methodology as well as a presentation of our preliminary most recent results on crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio along the profile from the data of the first year.

  16. Reduction of Radiometric Miscalibration—Applications to Pushbroom Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Roessner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework—Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME—considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data.

  17. CrisisGroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Crisis Group (ICG) is a private, multinational organization "committed to strengthening the capacity of the international community to anticipate, understand and act to prevent and contain conflict." The ICG, which is chaired by former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari, is headquartered in Brussels and has advocacy offices in Washington DC, New York, and Paris. The organization currently operates field projects in nineteen crisis-affected countries and four continents: Algeria, Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, Sudan, and Zimbabwe in Africa; Myanmar, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan in Asia; Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia in Europe; and Colombia in Latin America. Teams of political analysts gather information from a wide range of sources, assess local conditions, and produce regular analytical reports, containing "practical recommendations targeted at key international decision-takers." For those users interested in exploring publications on issues related to conflict prevention and management, this is definitely a place to start. The heading "Browse by publication type," located on the main website, will allow users to browse a variety of resoures such as reports, briefings, speeches, podcasts and other multimedia and the latest news releases.

  18. Genome analysis of seven species of Kengyilia (Triticeae: Poaceae) with FISH and GISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Quanwen; Wang, Richard R-C; Lei, Yuting; Yu, Feng; Li, Yuan; Wang, Haiqing; Chen, Zhiguo

    2013-11-01

    The genome compositions and genetic relationships of seven species of Kengyilia were assessed using a sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technique. Five species, K. kokonorica, K. rigidula, K. hirsuta, K. grandiglumis, and K. thoroldiana, are native to Qinghai (China). The other two, K. alatavica and K. batalinii, are distributed in Xinjiang (China) and Kyrgyzstan, respectively. Each chromosome could be easily identified using chromosome markers (45S rDNA, 5S rDNA, pAs1, and AAG repeats) by FISH and allocated to the St, P, or Y genome by GISH. Molecular karyotype comparison indicated that K. alatavica and K. batalinii were distinct from the Qinghai species in all three genomes. These results support that the species of Kengyilia from Central Asia and the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau have independent origins. Genomic differentiation was still detected among the species of Kengyilia from Qinghai. Specifically, a common species-specific pericentric inversion was identified in both K. grandiglumis and K. thoroldiana, and an identical St-P non-Robertsonian translocation was frequently detected in K. hirsuta. The Qinghai species formed three genetic groups, K. kokonorica-K. rigidula, K. hirsuta, and K. grandiglumis-K. thoroldiana. The possible role of species-specific inversions and translocations in the evolution of StPY species is discussed. PMID:24299103

  19. Circus monkeys or change agents? Civil society advocacy for HIV/AIDS in adverse policy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Neil; Harmer, Andrew; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the factors enabling and undermining civil society efforts to advocate for policy reforms relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs in three countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. It examines how political contexts and civil society actors' strengths and weaknesses inhibit or enable advocacy for policy change - issues that are not well understood in relation to specific policy areas such as HIV/AIDS, or particular regions of the world where national policies are believed to be major drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The study is based on in-depth interviews with representatives of civil society organizations (CSOs) (n = 49) and national level informants including government and development partners (n = 22). Our policy analysis identified a culture of fear derived from concerns for personal safety but also risk of losing donor largesse. Relations between CSOs and government were often acrimonious rather than synergistic, and while we found some evidence of CSO collective action, competition for external funding - in particular for HIV/AIDS grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was often divisive. Development partners and government tend to construct CSOs as service providers rather than advocates. While some advocacy was tolerated by governments, CSO participation in the policy process was, ultimately, perceived to be tokenistic. This was because there are financial interests in maintaining prohibitionist legislation: efforts to change punitive laws directed at the behaviors of minority groups such as injecting drug users have had limited impact. PMID:22036298

  20. Seismic triggering of landslides. Part B: Simulation of dynamic failure processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-B. Havenith

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From field observations it is possible to establish correlations between geological conditions and landslide occurrence. However, in general, it is difficult to assess the affect of individual factors on slope instability because of their mutual interaction. In addition, the dynamic effect of propagating seismic waves significantly increases the complexity of the slope stability problem. Wave diffraction, reflection and focusing effects are dependent on local geological conditions and make it difficult to analyse dynamic sliding mechanisms using field observations alone. As a consequence, in order to examine the influence of various geological and seismic factors on slope movements, it is often necessary to produce numerical models. This paper describes the results of such models as applied to two case studies in Kyrgyzstan: the Ananevo rockslide, located in granite, and the Suusamyr debris slump-flow, situated within soft sediments (see Part A: Havenith et al., 2003. Discrete element modelling (UDEC, adapted both to the discontinuous character of fractured rock and to the heterogeneity of layered mediums, was used. This permitted simulation of deformation mechanisms, including seismically induced bending, block tilting, and slip. Particular attention was paid to the interaction between deformation mechanisms, site-specific amplification effects, and subsurface structure.

  1. 10 points about buying C.I.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On October 16, 1992, the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) settled the antidumping case against the CIS republics by imposing price and volume quotas on CIS uranium imported into the United States. Bound by a suspension agreement, each of the six uranium-producing CIS republics is responsible for restricting the flow of imports to the US-either directly or indirectly. (As the NUKEM Market Report went to press, the Ukraine government notified the DOC of its intent not to terminate the suspension agreement.) This action is to prevent undercutting price levels in the US domestic uranium markets. What follows are ten points about everything you should know about importing uranium from the uranium-producing CIS republics- Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Newcomers to the CIS scene should follow this simple roadmap and be aware of the issues they face as importers in terms of Commerce/Customs requirements and documentation and where to get them, when to buy the material and how to transport it, how to deal effectively with CIS exporters, and how to avoid unnecessary complications when buying CIS

  2. New Strains of Streptomyces as Producers of Biofungicides and Biological Stimulators for Protection of the Shoots and Seedlings of Tiang-Shang Spruce Fir (Picea Schrenkiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Doolotkeldieva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available During this work we detected 5 species of pathogenic fungi that damage seedlings and saplings of the Tiang-Shang spruce fir, which cause a perceptible damage to the coniferous nurseries of Northern Kyrgyzstan and require activities to protect the woods. The biological activity of Streptomyces metabolites for raising the resistance of seedlings to phytopathogenic fungi was tested in laboratory and field conditions during three seasons. In order to evaluate the biological activity of Streptomyces preparations as biological agents, we have soaked the seeds in the suspension of Streptomyces metabolites with the concentrations of 50, 100, 500 mg per liter. In other variant, the seeds were at first processed in the culture of pathogenic fungi as infectious drowning of sprouts (Fusarium, Alternaria, crown rot of sprouts (Sclerotinia graminearum Elen. and grey dew of needles (Hypodermella sulsigena Tub., then they were treated in the suspension of Streptomyces. Also we have used a spraying treatment with the suspension of Streptomyces metabolites of the one-year-old seedlings of Tiang-Shang spruce fir already staggered and dying from infectious drowning. The best results against the Alternaria culture were demonstrated by the use of preparation S. griseogromogenes 2?-8 at the concentration of 500 mgs per liter, which provided the safety of sprouts to 80.2%. Preparations of S. rubrogriseus ??2-5, S. wistariopsis ??3-13 and S. griseogromogenes 2?-8 were effective in protection of sprouts from Fusarium sp. cultures. They provided safety of sprouts to 80% on average.

  3. Nuclear science and its application. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specialists and scientists from the following countries - Azerbaijan, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Austria, USA, Tajikistan, Russia took part at the Fourth Eurasian Conference devoted to Nuclear Science and its application, held in Baku during 31 Oct - 03 Nov 2006. The main activity of this conference has covered a wide range of topics that are of a great importance for countries in Eurasia. The fields which were considered included present state and prospective of nuclear energy development, fundamental issues of nuclear sciences, regional environmental problems and application of nuclear technologies. The special attention is given to problems of non-proliferation and prevention of illicit trafficking. This book consists of 4 sections, one part of plenary reports, then the author indexes are given here and at the end of this book there is a shift of addresses of all the participants. Section 1 is devoted to consideration of using the nuclear energy. Section 2 is devoted to solving of the basic problems of nuclear physics. Radiation ecology considered in section 3. Section 4 is devoted to consideration of application of nuclear technologies in industry, medicine and agriculture

  4. The closed Lake Issyk-Kul as an indicator of global warming in Tien-Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Romanovsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake Issyk-Kul is the seventh deepest lake in the world situated inCentral Asiain theTien-ShanMountainsat the elevation of 1607 m above sea level. This area belongs toKyrgyzstan. From 1927 to 1997 the water level decreased by 3.4 m, and increased by 0.93 m from 1997 to 2011. The article analyzes the impact of the global warming on the Lake Issyk-Kul thermal regime and the components of its water balance: river discharge, precipitation, evaporation and lake level variations. It shows that the global warming has entailed the increase of the Lake Issyk-Kul water temperature down to the maximum depths, and river discharge increase due to the glaciers melting and the evaporation from the lake surface. The air temperature increase of 1 ? results in river discharge increas and lake level rise of 44 mm/year and surface evaporation increase of 88 mm/year. TheLakeIssyk-Kullevel increase after 1997, which takes place in the situation of global warming, was caused by the activation of the West air masses transport and increase of precipitation in autumn.

  5. Combined wind, hydropower and photovoltaic systems for generation of electric power and control of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the present day energy consumption and potentialities of utilization of wind- and hydropower resources in some Central and Southern Asian Republics, in particular, in the Republic of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan are presented. The maximum consumption of electric power is observed in winter time when hydropower is the minimum, but wind power is the maximum. At the same time water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those which use water for generation of electric power. It is proposed that the utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy will facilitate the proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia. In the future in Tajikistan, wind power systems with a capacity of 30-100 MW and more will be installed, providing power balance of the country in winter; hence saving water in reservoirs, especially in drought years. This will provide the integration of electricity generated by wind, hydroelectric power and photovoltaic system in the unified energy system of the country. (author)

  6. Integrating Alpine Adventure and Citizen Science in the Greater Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, H.

    2014-12-01

    As earth scientists, we are drawn together by our fascination with the natural world. On alpine climbing expeditions in the Greater Ranges of Asia during 2012-14, I had the opportunity to contribute to the scientific understanding and stewardship of the places I visit for personal fulfillment. Using the "matchmaking" services of Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation, I was connected with researchers to conduct field studies in some of the world's highest and most remote mountains. Here, I present work from two projects: 1) Assessing the role of biological weathering in shaping high altitude landscapes in the Pamir Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and 2) Understanding the effects of anthropogenic biomass burning on glacial thinning in the Everest Region, Nepal. Both collaborative efforts succeeded in collecting valuable data from challenging environments using a small research budget. As a scientist with expertise in terrestrial paleoclimate and stable isotope geochemistry, these projects served to expand my research horizons and areas of professional interest. Citizen science can not only add a sense of value to otherwise selfish endeavors such as high altitude climbing, but also serve to connect scientists with the communities who appreciate their efforts most.

  7. National independence and nonproliferation in the new states of Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, G.

    1993-12-01

    Five independent states emerged in Central Asia from the breakup of the USSR. One of these states, Kazakhstan, possesses nuclear weapons. The other four of these states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are not known to possess nuclear weapons, however they occupy a geostrategic position which makes them important to non-proliferation efforts. The present report profiles the capabilities and intentions of these four Central Asian states. The analysis of capabilities suggests that none of these states has the capability to develop a usable nuclear weapon. However, all of these countries-- especially Uzbekistan--have components of the old Soviet nuclear weapons complex which are now orphans. They have no use for these facilities and must either re-profile them, destroy them, or transfer them. The analysis of intentions suggests that the dynamics of national independence have created a situation in which Uzbekistan has hegemonic designs in the region. Implications for retarding nuclear proliferation in the Central Asian region are examined. Opportunities for outside influence are assessed.

  8. Vulnerability to Poverty in select Central Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghbendra Jha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the extant literature either income or consumption expenditures as measured over short periods of time have been regarded as a proxy for the material well-being of households. However, economists have long recognized that a household's sense of well-being depends not just on its average income or expenditures, but also on the risks it faces and its ability to deal with these risks. Hence vulnerability is a more satisfactory measure of welfare. In this study we used the concept of vulnerability as expected poverty to assess the household vulnerability to poverty in four Central Asian countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Except for Tajikistan, headcount poverty and vulnerability rates are significantly different. We also find that vulnerability differs significantly across households by location and selected household characteristics. In this paper we use a simple empirical measurement that allows estimating the headcount vulnerability to poverty using cross-section data. This measurement is based on the strong assumption that households have the same conditional distribution of consumption in a stationary environment. While this approach cannot capture all dimensions of vulnerability, it at least begins to raise the policy issue that vulnerability should be considered alongside poverty.

  9. Co-Evolutions of Ecosystems, Societies, and Economy in Dryland Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiquan; Ouyang, Zutao; John, Ranjeet; Dong, Gang; Fan, Peilei

    2015-04-01

    This presentation aims at the interactive changes of the natural system (NS) and the human system (HS) as well as the feedbacks in time and space for dryland Asia where multiple administrative units from several countries experience similar climates, ecosystems, cultures, and traditions but different governments, land uses, economic development, and demographic changes (e.g., ethnical composition). We compiled and examined the changes in major measures for ecosystems (e.g., PAR, LAI, GPP, ET), economy (GDP, export/import, EGS), and human demography (e.g., population, health, education) between 1981 through 2011 (30+ variables) for six Central Asian countries (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan) and two East Asian countries (Mongolia and China). Particular attention was made to understand the co-evolutions of the ratios between the elements of HS and NS, such as: GDP: GPP, PET: FWW, R: PDSI, EGS: GPP, etc., so that feedbacks and interactions can be empirically studied. Spatial and temporal changes of each measure, as well as their ratios, were quantified to highlight the relative contributions of human activities (e.g., policy) and biophysical changes (e.g., climate). We found some tight connections between the HS and NS variables, but the co-evolutions have to be understood in the context of governments, policy, and other major institutional shifts.

  10. Los retos de la cooperación regional en Asia central: Más sombras que luces en la gestión de los recursos hídricos compartidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Campins Eritja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the situation in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tayikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan is an interesting excercice in order to analyze the evolution of the international environmental security concept. As an exemple of how environmental changes may come to acquire an entity such as to be perceived as a threat when they combine with inequitable allocation of resources, we focus on shared water resources management. The framework at international level should be the two main instruments in this field, the 1992 Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes and the 1997 Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. On the one hand, Central Asian States have shown only a weak commitment to these international regimes. On the contrary, they have prioritized the former URSS’s model of water and energy exchange. This model, as being unsustainable and inequitable, favors the extreme dichotomy between the two major competing uses of water in the region (irrigation and hydropower production. On the other hand, some sub-regional institutions served to clarify the articulation of water management structures. However, because of important issues on their internal organization, they have not been able to achieve their mission and their efforts seems to be directed to seek stability and the status quo in Central Asia.

  11. Euroasian Integration Process and Effective Institutional Mechanism Creation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article "Euroasian Integration Process and Effective Institutional Mechanism Creation Problems" author investigates the problem of effective and balanced decision-making mechanism in the integration communities creation. Process of the Customs union creation on the Euroasian space began relatively long ago. Creation of such union was started by the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in the 1995. The same year Republic of Kazakhstan joined an integration process. A little later Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan joined the Customs union – in 1996 and in 1999 respectively. Author on the basis of careful study of the decision-making mechanisms in the Customs union, CIS, EurAsEC and EU, carries out the comparative analysis of the specified mechanisms. Author conducts detailed analytics, gives opinions of jurists, state and public figures, proves own opinions. On the basis of the comparative research conducted by the author the criteria of legal mechanism of decision-making in the integration process efficiency are researched and discussed, what allows to speak about the integration of the legal system. At the end of the article author draws a conclusion that coordination of sovereign desires of states in the integration community represents difficult and many-sided process which has to be based on the balanced decision-making mechanism, which is a main criterion of the institutional mechanism of integration efficiency.

  12. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  13. Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Doolotkeldieva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flour, first grade flour and high grade flour. The samples were analyzed using classical mycological and immunoassay methods in order to detect mycotoxins producing fungi species. We isolated overall 27 species belonging to 7 genera. Mycotoxins producing species like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium cyclopium were detected in the stored grains and in mechanically-cleaned grains. The species of Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium genera dominated in roughly-milled flour samples, so this site of flour manufacture still has a risk and danger of contamination with mycotoxins producing fungus. Only the final product i.e. the high grade flour lacked any fungal contamination. We recommend to scrutinize flour samples at the last stages of processing, particularly in the mills like ?1, ?1 and ?4.

  14. Investigation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central Asia and Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Various threats to civilization such as natural and man-induced catastrophes, international terrorism, ecological imbalance, global climate change and others hazards have been recently increased in number. Today catastrophic processes are notable for a high degree of organization The humankind has faced the majority of hazards for the first time; therefore, there are no analogues and recipes to be used for their solving. Catastrophe risk have increased so much and joint efforts of the entire world immunity are required. One of the most effective ways to solve the issue can be estimation of risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes. Here we pay attention to the main regions, having the high seismic activities, where it is possible to stimulate natural calamities in this way or cause man-induced catastrophes with huge negative effects of international scale in Central Asia and Caucasus: Uranium, antimony and mercury tailing storages in Tian-Shan mountains. The possible terrorism acts here create the serious danger for Russian and USA military air bases, functioned near large Kyrgyzstan capital Bishkek city. The large Hydroelectric Stations with their huge dams and reservoirs, located near big industrial cities, different natural mines tailing storages, including Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Polygon in East Kazakhstan

  15. Remediation project planning at the uranium production legacy sites. Lesson learned from the best international practice and challenges for developing countries - 59043

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The former Soviet Union countries such as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine, where uranium production legacy sites are located (such as mines, waste rock piles, pits, chemical and hydrometallurgical plants, tailing dumps, etc.) are currently facing the challenge of making these objects environmentally safe. These countries share a common history of the uranium mining and milling industry, similar regulatory shortcomings and uncertainties regarding the strategy justification for such remediation projects. They also have to deal with scarcity of financial resources for long-term remediation programmes, and lack of experience with planning and management of environmental remediation projects at former uranium production sites. In the recent years, IAEA-supported programmes of international technical co-operation (the projects RER/0986 and RER/3010) were advancing actively, as well as those sponsored by the UNDP, EurAsEC and others, all aiming to assist with the preparedness and performance of future remediation projects. As demonstrated by analysis, effectiveness of the many programmes largely depends on the nations' level of preparedness to carry out remediation projects in accordance with the international standards. This paper presents the lessons learned from analyses of the different type of projects, which were already implemented or which are still in plan dy implemented or which are still in plan in different countries

  16. Türkiye’nin Orta Asya ve Kafkasya’daki Bölgesel Politikas?nda Enerji Güvenli?i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Özkan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and after Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, which have many common denominators with Turkey in terms of language, religion and culture, gained independence in the Central Asia and the Caucasus; regional policy of Turkey, which was indifferent to the region during the Cold War, changed seriously. In this study, foreign policy Turkey has pursued in theCentral Asia and Caucasus after the end of the Cold War was analyzed within context of energy supply security. Increasing importance of the energy supply security concept in international politics was examined, how the rich oil and natural gas reserves of the Central Asia and Caucasus turned the region into the focus of interest of the regional and global actors was analyzed, andthe “new great game”, which many claim started in the region, was investigated. Pipeline projects such as Baku-Tiflis-Ceyhan and Nabucco that were developed to transport the hydrocarbon reserves of the region to the international markets, regional policies the global and regional actors pursue within the context of energy supply security, and reflections of these policies to the foreign policy Turkey pursues in the region were examined.actors over the routes the oil and natural gas reserves of the region will be transported to the international markets will continue and Turkey will become one of the key countries of the east-west as well as the north-south energy corridor.

  17. Transition in Central Asia: Growth with Increasingly Greater Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Spoor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the economic evolution of the former Soviet states of Central Asia since their independence, especially in regard to growth and in comparison with growing inequality. The following topics are considered: first of all, the initial conditions in whichthe economic transition of these countries began; secondly, the transformations of widely varying scope (different “routes of transition” that these economies have experienced, from an almost non-reform (Turkmenistan or a gradual or partial reform (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, to a large-scale reform (Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan; and thirdly, the economic performance of the Central Asian states, which, with the exception of Uzbekistan, has been quite poor and has generated what we could call two kinds of “duality”: one which is generated by the expansion of extracting industries (oil, gas and metals, to the detriment of other sectors fundamental to the countries’ development, and another one originating from the growingunequal distribution of income among the population. While the first of these “dualities” cannot be maintained as a long-term development strategy, the second one could culminate in social agitation and instability, even in the medium term, which could contribute to thedestabilisation of the already fragile and volatile region of Central Asia.

  18. Path dependencies and institutional bricolage in post-Soviet water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniver Sehring

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Following their independence, the two Central Asian states of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan decided on similar water governance reforms: transfer of local irrigation management to water user associations, introduction of pricing mechanisms, and establishment of hydrographic management principles. In both states, however, proper implementation is lacking. This paper aims to explain this contradiction and focuses on agricultural water governance reforms at the local level as an interdependent part of a multilevel water governance structure.Based on empirical findings, four variables through which the neopatrimonial context in both countries impacts water governance are identified: the decision-making process, the agricultural sector, the local governance institutions, and internal water-institutional linkages. A historical-institutionalist perspective shows how path dependencies limit reform effectiveness: institutionalised Soviet and pre-Soviet patterns of behaviour still shape actors’ responses to new challenges. Consequently, rules and organisations established formally by the state or international donor organisations are undermined by informal institutions. Yet, informal institutions are not only an obstacle to reform, but can also support it. They are not static but dynamic. This is elucidated with the concept of 'institutional bricolage', which explains how local actors recombine elements of different institutional logics and thereby change their meaning.

  19. Feast or famine: 1992 spot market review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was nothing temperate about the uranium spot market in 1992. It was a year of extremes. Demand took off at a brisk pace early in the year as utilities, enticed by low U3O8 prices and interest rates, stepped up their discretionary purchases. With the NUKEM price range sinking to an all-time low of US$6.75-7.70 in November 1991, utilities reckoned that prices had bottomed out and decided to buy and hold material. Indeed, the upper end of NUKEM's range remained below $8.00 per lb for much of the first half of 1992. The main cause of low prices was the flood of imports from the crumbling Soviet Union and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]. The CIS republics quickly embraced a free-market philosophy to boost their faltering economies, and several hoped to use uranium as a source of badly-needed hard currency. But they were about to get a harsh introduction to capitalism. It came in the form of government intervention, in both the US and Europe. In May, the US Department of Commerce made its preliminary determination that the uranium-producing republics of the CIS were selling material in the US at less than fair market value. The antidumping case was eventually settled in October when the CIS republics [Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan] signed suspension agreements subjecting CIS origin uranium to price and quantity quotas in the US

  20. Sustainable Land Management in the Pamir Alai Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenesh Shapakov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on identifying of possible opportunities for local people, living in Pamir Alai region of Kyrgyzstan, particularly in Kashka Suu and Alaiku, by conducting analysis of such value chains as wool production and collection of berries and medicinal herbs. Identification of key features of these two value chains provides insight into which entities benefit from the value of products, and provides the basis for projecting possible additional income to the populations in the areas. Economic opportunities available for local population in Kashka Suu and Alaiku are very limited. Lack of opportunities linked to harsh terrain and climatic conditions makes livestock, including wool production, and collection of wild resources, are the most available sources of income for local communities. Population, living in Kashka Suu and Alaiku, is unable to produce good quality wool competitive even on domestic market, but investments in wool sector could help to improve livelihoods. Berries also play an important role in generating income, especially in off agricultural season. Income from berries is managed by women, and used for purchasing goods for family. Medicinal and aromatic plants and herbs sub sector is totally undeveloped and plays important role only for subsistence purposes.

  1. After dumping agreement: A two-tiered market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its largest increase since July 1990, the NUKEM price range for this month ended up at $9.50-$10.50. On October 16th, destined to become a landmark date in uranium industry history, the republics of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine and the Russian Federation signed quantitative restraint agreements with the US Department of Commerce. Predictably, prices jumped significantly as sellers withdrew from the market. With Commerce's initial calculation of a $7.95 market price for determining the level of CIS imports over the next six months, it appears quite certain that prices for non-CIS origins will continue to rise. (CIS imports can only begin when Commerce determines that the market price has hit $13). There is the possibility that a two-tiered market could emerge in the future with lower prices being paid for CIS origins by those utilities not affected by Euratom or Commerce restrictions. However, at this point, most potential buyers falling into this category have opted to maintain a wait-and-see approach

  2. Management of environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable waste management and disposal is a societal challenge in terms of economics, public health and environmental impact. The situation in developing countries, and in particular those subject to extreme natural hazards, results in increased overall risk as governments prioritize investments to issues of perceived higher economic importance. This dissertation investigates environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia. Environmental risk from municipal solid waste landfill sites encompasses a wide range of topics within socio-economics, physical sciences and engineering and therefore necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach. The underlying study is an accumulative result of a three-year collaborative research project (Contract No. INCO-CT-2005-516732) funded within the Eu Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). The international cooperation involved European, Russian and Central Asian research partners forming a multi-disciplinary consortium covering: GIS technologies, geology / hydrogeology geophysics and geotechnical engineering; landfill design and operation and waste management. understanding the relevant socio-economic aspects and legislative frameworks was necessary to prepare results and recommendations to address stakeholders in the Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and uzbekistan. (author)

  3. International Scientific Conference on "Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The International Scientific Conference on "Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials" is a traditional representative forum devoted to the discussion of fundamental problems of radiation physics and its technical applications. The first nine conferences were held four times in Tomsk, then in Ulan-Ude (Russia), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), Tashkent (Uzbekistan), Sharm El Sheikh (Egypt), and the island of Cyprus. The tenth conference was held in Tomsk, Russia. The program of the Conference covers a wide range of technical areas and modern aspects of radiation physics, its applications and related matters. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: • Physical and chemical phenomena in inorganic materials in radiation, electrical and thermal fields; • Research methods and equipment modification states and properties of materials; • Technologies and equipment for their implementation; • The use of radiation-thermal processes in nanotechnology; • Adjacent to the main theme of the conference issues The conference was attended by leading scientists from countries near and far abroad who work in the field of radiation physics of solid state and of radiation material science. The School-Conference of Young Scientists was held during the conference. The event was held with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects № 14-38-10210 and № 14-02-20376.

  4. Understanding the Linkages Between Climate, Land Use, and Land Degradation in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolik, I. N.; Tatarskii, V.; Shemyakina, O.; Shiklomanov, A. I.; Shkolnik, I.

    2014-12-01

    Central Asia has experienced dramatic climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic changes in the past century. They include warming climate, frequent droughts, significant changes in land cover and land use (LCLU), desiccation of the Aral Sea and increase in dust storms, massive water management projects, formation and then disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the subsequent formation of the five independent countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan). These changes have regional and global implications via the climate and socioeconomic systems. The presentation will present results of an integrated analysis aimed at synthesis of changes that have occurred in drylands of Central Asia in the context of socioeconomic transformations and climate variability and change since the 1950s. The analysis uses historical LCLU records, multiple US Earth-observing satellite products, climatological and socioeconomic data, crop production data, and results of climate and wind erosion modeling. The aim is to characterize and understand how drylands have been changed by human activities and by climate, with an emphasis on managed ecosystems related to agricultural activities and food production. The extent and dynamics of land degradation "hot spots" are identified and examined to ascertain the contribution from natural and anthropogenic stressors.

  5. 3D and 2D inversion of magnetotelluric data from the continental collision zone in the Pamirs and Tien Shan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Paul; Ritter, Oliver; Rybin, Anatolii; Batalev, Vladislav

    2013-04-01

    Many geodynamic processes governing intra-continental collisional orogeny are largely unexplained and controversial. A key question is the state and dynamic behaviour of the lithosphere at middle and lower crustal levels while continental collision progresses. The Pamir - Tien Shan region in Central Asia may be the best location on Earth to study such lithospheric deformation processes in situ. The mountain ranges and high plateaus formed at the tip of the north-western Indian promontory through the Cenozoic experienced rates of shortening similar to the adjacent Himalaya-Tibet system. Today, the Pamir - Tien Shan orogenic belt hosts some of the deepest active intra-continental subduction zones on Earth and absorbs the highest strain rate over the shortest distance that is manifested in the India-Asia collision zone. The multi-disciplinary Tien Shan - Pamir Geodynamic Program (TIPAGE) was designed to address some of the geodynamic key questions in this region. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out in concert with other geophysical and geological observations in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, predominantly along a 350 km long and 50 km wide corridor from southern Tajikistan to Osh in Kyrgyzstan across the Pamir Plateau and southern Tien Shan mountain ranges. In total we recorded MT data at 178 stations, 26 of them combine long-period and broad band recordings. We present and compare 2D and 3D MT inversion results. Strike analysis of the data revealed an overall mean geo-electric strike direction consistent with the predominant tectonic trends. 2D inversion yields a reasonable data fit, with exception of some sites which exhibit phases above 90 degrees. 3D inversion was carried out with the ModEM package. We inverted for all four impedance tensor components and the vertical magnetic transfer functions. Topography was also included. The 3D models are generally in agreement with the 2D results but achieve a better data fit, particularly phases which could not be fitted with 2D inversion. The MT inversions reveal an upper crust of the Pamirs, which is generally resistive, with embedded conductive parts correlating to suture zones. Several distinct zones of high conductivity appear beneath the southern Pamirs and the central/northern Pamir at mid crustal levels, possibly reaching mantle depths. We interpret the southern mid-crust conductor as hot and partially molten, viscous felsic material. To the north, the conductor is bound by a resistive block which correlates with the miocene gneiss of the Muskol dome. The second conductive zone north of the Muskol dome could originate from brittle and fractured crust. Faults and old deformation zones can form pathways for aqueous fluids in the crust. When highly mineralized fluids penetrate fractured brittle areas, the entire region can become conductive. Further north, the seismically active Main Pamir Thrust which separates the Pamir from the Tien Shan corresponds to a sharp, south-dipping conductivity contrast between resistive upper crust in the Pamirs and conductive crust beneath the Alai valley.

  6. 3D and 2D inversion of MT data from the continental collision zone in the Pamirs and Tien Shan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, P.; Ritter, O.; Rybin, A.; Batalev, V.

    2012-12-01

    Many geodynamic processes governing intra-continental collisional orogeny are largely unexplained and controversial. A key question is the state and dynamic behaviour of the lithosphere at middle and lower crustal levels while continental collision progresses. The Pamir - Tien Shan region in Central Asia may be the best location on Earth to study such lithospheric deformation processes in situ. The mountain ranges and high plateaus formed at the tip of the north-western Indian promontory through the Cenozoic experienced rates of shortening similar to the adjacent Himalaya-Tibet system. Today, the Pamir - Tien Shan orogenic belt hosts some of the deepest active intra-continental subduction zones on Earth and absorbs the highest strain rate over the shortest distance that is manifested in the India-Asia collision zone. The multi-disciplinary Tien Shan - Pamir Geodynamic Program (TIPAGE) was designed to address some of the geodynamic key questions in this region. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out in concert with other geophysical and geological observations in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, predominantly along a 350 km long and 50 km wide corridor from southern Tajikistan to Osh in Kyrgyzstan across the Pamir Plateau and southern Tien Shan mountain ranges. In total we recorded MT data at 178 stations, 26 of them combine long-period and broad band recordings. We present and compare 2D and 3D MT inversion results. Strike analysis of the data revealed an overall mean geo-electric strike direction consistent with the predominant tectonic trends. 2D inversion yields a reasonable data fit, with exception of some sites which exhibit phases above 90 degrees. 3D inversion was carried out with the ModEM package. We inverted for all four impedance tensor components and the vertical magnetic transfer functions. Topography was also included. The 3D models are generally in agreement with the 2D results but achieve a better data fit, particularly phases which could not be fitted with 2D inversion. The MT inversions reveal an upper crust of the Pamirs, which is generally resistive. Two distinct zones of high conductivity appear beneath the southern Pamirs and the central/northern Pamir at mid crustal levels, possibly reaching mantle depths. We interpret the southern conductor as hot and partially molten, viscous felsic material. To the north, the conductor is bound by a resistive block which penetrates the entire crust. The resistive structure seems to correlate with the miocene gneiss of the Muskol dome. The second conductive zone north of the Muskol dome could originate from brittle and fractured crustal material. Faults can form pathways for aqueous fluids in the crust. When highly mineralized fluids penetrate fractured brittle deformation zones, the entire region can become conductive. Further north, the seismically active Main Pamir Thrust which separates the Pamir from the Tien Shan corresponds to a sharp, south-dipping conductivity contrast between resistive upper crust in the Pamirs and conductive crust beneath the Alai valley.

  7. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water requirement in Afghanistan. (In particular, there is a conflict of interests concerning the functioning of the Toktogul reservoir: Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan are interested in the irrigation regime of operations of reservoir; Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are interested in the energy conditions of its functioning.) In the national diagnostic reports the numerical parameters of the water resources use dynamics for previous years, and also estimation of water resources do not coincide, that complicates development of principles and criteria of the intergovernmental water distribution. It also indirectly influences the solution of the water cost problem. Discrepancy of the specified settlement data is explained, basically, differences of techniques and algorithms of accounts. In the principal theses of national water strategy of all Central Asian states developed in the end of 90s years, it was marked the necessity of development of the uniform methodical approaches for the strong water consumption rates. The perspective water requirements should be estimated proceeding from the national economic programs of each state. In this connection the coordination by all interested states of region both the uniform approach for estimations of the future water consumption and the uniform settlement base for the improving of models and procedures of the intergovernmental water distribution is admitted as an urgent need. One of the corner-stone tasks in the framework of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution is development of the unified method for estimation of irrigation water requirements, because one of the main consumers of water resources in the Central Asian states is irrigation. Last years authors were conducting investigations on development of new modification of the Heat and Water Balances Model (HWBM) and its adaptation to estimation of irrigation water requirements in arid an semi-arid regions in the framework of the INCO-COPERNICUS project "Adaptation of Efficient Water Use Criteria in Marginal Regions of Europe and Middle

  8. Nuclear material in the NIS. Experience and progress in enhancing security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The break-up of the former Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in the creation of 14 newly independent States (NIS), besides the Russian Federation. Eleven States are known to have nuclear activities (including mining activities). These are Armenia, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Three other States are known to have no nuclear activity or mining activity. These are Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Turkmenistan. All 14 States have acceded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Safeguards agreements have been signed with 12 of the States. There are nine States where a safeguards agreement is in force: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, and three States - Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia - have signed safeguards agreements which are pending ratification. Azerbaijan was the latest State to sign a safeguards agreement, in 1999. Eight States have signed the Additional Protocol. The Additional Protocol has entered into force in four of the NIS: Azerbaijan, Latvia, Lithuania, and Uzbekistan. Long before the individual NIS ratified the NPT and signed the safeguards agreements, IAEA experts and safeguards staff went on technical visits to locations where the State informed the Agency that there was nuclear material. The purposes of these visits were to advise the country on the initial inventory declarations and possible safeguards tory declarations and possible safeguards activities for each facility, to explain these activities to facility and State representatives, and to demonstrate safeguards equipment that would be used, thereby preparing the facility for eventual inspections. A wide variety of different types of nuclear facilities (uranium mining, fuel fabrication plant, commercial nuclear power plants, research reactors, and storage facilities) are located in the NIS. With most NIS becoming parties to the NPT as non-nuclear weapon States, there has been an acute need in these States for considerable assistance for the establishment of the necessary structure and resources to ensure that their commitments to non-proliferation are fully implemented in a timely manner. A number of IAEA Member States (donor States) offered and provided assistance to the NIS on a bilateral level to set up an appropriate State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) which includes Import/Export Control and Physical Protection of Nuclear Material in each State. The IAEA and these donor States established the Coordinated Technical Support Programme (CTSP) to ensure that the support given to the NIS was done in a coordinated and transparent manner and to avoid duplication of effort. The IAEA has played a coordinating role for the past eight years by helping to identify detailed needs in individual States, by providing a platform for Member States to identify areas where they could provide the optimum support, and in developing and preparing the Coordinated Technical Support Plans. The donor and recipient countries regularly meet in Vienna to review the focus and implementation status of the coordinated technical support activities in the NIS

  9. United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs): Helping to Ensure the Integration of Nuclear Techniques with other Development Initiatives and Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA and the Department of Technical Cooperation in particular, rely on harmonious and collaborative work with numerous partners over a broad range of policy levels to promote peace and development through the peaceful application of nuclear science and technology. The Strategy and Partnership Section (TCSPS) of the Division of Programme Support and Coordination is at the forefront of developing and maintaining successful partnerships with the IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation. Part of the work of TCSPS involves streamlining the Country Programme Framework (CPF) process and building networks that support the United Nations one house approach. Country Programme Frameworks are programming tools that provide a frame of reference for technical cooperation between the IAEA and its Member States in the medium term (4-6 years). They provide a concise framework for national development needs or problems that can be addressed using nuclear science and technology. In support of the IAEA's efforts to align and provide leverage for its technical cooperation activities within the larger development context, the CPF preparation process now makes extensive use of national development plans and United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs). UNDAFs are the planning framework for the development operations of the UN system at the country level and not only help to ensure that the application of nuclear techniques is integrated with existing development initiatiegrated with existing development initiatives and plans, but also assist identifying areas where such techniques might be usefully deployed. In the past two years, 13 UNDAFs have been signed, reflecting the IAEA's focus on optimizing development activities at the country level. Currently the Secretariat is engaged in 22 ongoing UNDAF processes to ensure that the TC programme is aligned with the national development priorities reflected in these frameworks. One outstanding example of the work that is possible within the UNDAF framework is demonstrated in a soil conservation project in Tajikistan (TAD5005) entitled 'Developing Soil Conservation Strategies for Improved Soil Health', part of a technical cooperation effort that began with the assessment of soil erosion and sedimentation for land use. In former years limited capacity to monitor national resources has led to poverty due to widespread soil erosion that has affected agricultural lands. A lack of essential soil redistribution information made it impossible for the nation to assess, monitor and address the processes of accelerated natural resource degradation. The technical cooperation project was developed as a result of Tajikistan's identified need for improved national capacities and facilities to provide the basis for soil erosion modelling and land use planning. The IAEA is providing expert advice in field sampling design, laboratory set-up and data interpretation and training, to contribute to a better understanding of the main factors affecting Tajikistan's soil redistribution. As a result of this assistance, sustainable natural resource management will be possible, based on the identification of cost-effective soil conservation measures. This project has become associated with the project on Sustainable Land Management in the High Pamir and Pamir-Alai Mountains (PALM), an integrated transboundary initiative of the governments of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan and has involved numerous partners: - The Global Environment Facility (GEF), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and other donors who provided financial support to PALM; - The State agencies for environment protection and forestry in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; - Partnerships were established with the University of Bern's Centre for Development and Environment through the National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, and with scientists from Moscow State University; - GEF directed complementary resources to the project through the PALM mechanism; - The United Nations University (UNU) helped to coordinate project activities. These

  10. Shifting mountain snow patterns in a changing climate from remote sensing retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedieu, J P; Lessard-Fontaine, A; Ravazzani, G; Cremonese, E; Shalpykova, G; Beniston, M

    2014-09-15

    Observed climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on environmental systems and society. In this context, many mountain regions seem to be particularly sensitive to a changing climate, through increases in temperature coupled with changes in precipitation regimes that are often larger than the global average (EEA, 2012). In mid-latitude mountains, these driving factors strongly influence the variability of the mountain snow-pack, through a decrease in seasonal reserves and earlier melting of the snow pack. These in turn impact on hydrological systems in different watersheds and, ultimately, have consequences for water management. Snow monitoring from remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to address the question of snow cover regime changes at the regional scale. This study outlines the results retrieved from the MODIS satellite images over a time period of 10 hydrological years (2000-2010) and applied to two case studies of the EU FP7 ACQWA project, namely the upper Rhone and Po in Europe and the headwaters of the Syr Darya in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia). The satellite data were provided by the MODIS Terra MOD-09 reflectance images (NASA) and MOD-10 snow products (NSIDC). Daily snow maps were retrieved over that decade and the results presented here focus on the temporal and spatial changes in snow cover. This paper highlights the statistical bias observed in some specific regions, expressed by the standard deviation values (STD) of annual snow duration. This bias is linked to the response of snow cover to changes in elevation and can be used as a signal of strong instability in regions sensitive to climate change: with alternations of heavy snowfalls and rapid snow melting processes. The interest of the study is to compare the methodology between the medium scales (Europe) and the large scales (Central Asia) in order to overcome the limits of the applied methodologies and to improve their performances. Results show that the yearly snow cover duration increases by 4-5 days per 100 m elevation during the accumulation period, depending of the watershed, while during the melting season the snow depletion rate is 0.3% per day of surface loss for the upper Rhone catchment, 0.4%/day for the Syr Darya headwater basins, and 0.6%/day for the upper Po, respectively. Then, the annual STD maps of snow cover indicate higher values (more than 45 days difference compared to the mean values) for (i) the Po foothill region at medium elevation (SE orientation) and (ii) the Kyrgyzstan high plateaux (permafrost areas). These observations cover only a time-period of 10 years, but exhibit a signal under current climate that is already consistent with the expected decline in snow in these regions in the course of the 21st century. PMID:24842410

  11. National Legislation and Regulations in the Uranium Legacy Radiation Safety of the Former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many uranium legacy sites in Russia and ex-Soviet republics in the Central Asia, which are decommissioned now. In Russia, there is a number of operating uranium mines and ore milling facilities to be decommissioned after termination of their life cycle. Today, the list of Russian subsoil areas of the federal significance includes 135 uranium deposits. The uranium legacy management is accompanied with the environmental impact. The intensity of such impact depends on the amount of generated waste, degree of its confining and dispersion in the environment. The whole question reduces itself to the following: to what extent this impact is harmful to the environment and human health. The proper regulation of this problem is a criterion for the safe work. Today, the advanced guidance document is under development 'Health-care requirements for design and operation of facilities for uranium ore mining and milling'. In order to enhance the regulatory framework, the following tasks are urgent: introduction of the existing exposure situation in the national laws and regulations in compliance with the ICRP statutory system; development criteria for remediation of sites and their gradual return to uncontrolled use. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary SNF and Radioactive Wastes storage; review of possibilities and methods for optimization of the remediation strategies under development; identification of the special category - R W originated from the uranium ore mining and milling. Some regulatory problems assume to be solved under the Eurasian Economic Community inter-state target programme 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines'. Within this programme, by examples of the uranium legacy facilities in Kyrgyzstan and in Tajikistan, posed to trans-border disasters and required urgent remediation, the experience will be gained to be applied in other Eurasian Economic Community member states. Harmonization of national legislation and regulations in radiation safety is provided for.

  12. Development and evaluation of a water level proportional water sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P.; Lange, A.; Doppler, T.

    2013-12-01

    We developed and adapted a new type of sampler for time-integrated, water level proportional water quality sampling (e.g. nutrients, contaminants and stable isotopes). Our samplers are designed for sampling small to mid-size streams based on the law of Hagen-Poiseuille, where a capillary (or a valve) limits the sampling aliquot by reducing the air flux out of a submersed plastic (HDPE) sampling container. They are good alternatives to battery-operated automated water samplers when working in remote areas, or at streams that are characterized by pronounced daily discharge variations such as glacier streams. We evaluated our samplers against standard automated water samplers (ISCO 2900 and ISCO 6712) during the snowmelt in the Black Forest and the Alps and tested them in remote glacial catchments in Iceland, Switzerland and Kyrgyzstan. The results clearly showed that our samplers are an adequate tool for time-integrated, water level proportional water sampling at remote test sites, as they do not need batteries, are relatively inexpensive, lightweight, and compact. They are well suited for headwater streams - especially when sampling for stable isotopes - as the sampled water is perfectly protected against evaporation. Moreover, our samplers have a reduced risk of icing in cold environments, as they are installed submersed in water, whereas automated samplers (typically installed outside the stream) may get clogged due to icing of hoses. Based on this study, we find these samplers to be an adequate replacement for automated samplers when time-integrated sampling or solute load estimates are the main monitoring tasks.

  13. The Costs of Benefit Sharing: Historical and Institutional Analysis of Shared Water Development in the Ferghana Valley, the Syr Darya Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkhom Soliev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions on water-energy-food nexus generally lack a historical perspective and more rigorous institutional analysis. Scrutinizing a relatively mature benefit sharing approach in the context of transboundary water management, the study shows how such analysis can be implemented to facilitate understanding in an environment of high institutional and resource complexity. Similar to system perspective within nexus, benefit sharing is viewed as a positive sum approach capable of facilitating cooperation among riparian parties by shifting the focus from the quantities of water to benefits derivable from its use and allocation. While shared benefits from use and allocation are logical corollary of the most fundamental principles of international water law, there are still many controversies as to the conditions under which benefit sharing could serve best as an approach. Recently, the approach has been receiving wider attention in the literature and is increasingly applied in various basins to enhance negotiations. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the costs associated with benefit sharing, particularly in the long run. The study provides a number of concerns that have been likely overlooked in the literature and examines the approach in the case of the Ferghana Valley shared by Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan utilizing data for the period from 1917 to 2013. Institutional analysis traces back the origins of property rights of the transboundary infrastructure, shows cooperative activities and fierce negotiations on various governance levels. The research discusses implications of the findings for the nexus debate and unveils at least four types of costs associated with benefit sharing: (1 Costs related to equity of sharing (horizontal and vertical; (2 Costs to the environment; (3 Transaction costs and risks of losing water control; and (4 Costs as a result of likely misuse of issue linkages.

  14. Automated complex of radiation control of movement of fissile and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the frame of grant FA-A11-F072 automated radiation control complex on the basis of multi-detector system was elaborated. The following problems were solved during the study: system configuration including standards, elemental basis, interfaces, information exchange protocols, signals, power supply units, construction details and so on. The functional schemes of constituent pars and the complex as a whole were elaborated including software algorithms and the construction of radiation monitor. In 2010 the experimental prototype of radiation control complex was manufactured and software for microcontrollers was elaborated. Long time laboratory tests of the system including temperature ones were fulfilled and the scientific technical documentation was prepared. The experimental sample of detection system of fissile and other radioactive materials was installed at Bekabad UZMETKOMBINAT enterprise. Installed system comprises two pillars of radiation portal monitor with 8 gamma detectors, power supply unit, data processing unit, commutation and interface transformation unit, indication and alarm elements, server on IBM PC basis and software. Installed system was officially commissioned in May 2011 at railway scales of enterprise, where the initial radiation control of incoming metal scrap rakes place. From this time up to now a lot of cases of elevated radiation level in the scrap coming from Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan were detected by radiation control system, ere detected by radiation control system, the most frequent cause of alarms being 226Ra radionuclide. In all cases of alarms caused by radioactive materials in contaminated scrap the performers of the present project of INP AS RU conducted additional radiation research and issued expertise conclusions. Thus the radiation control system elaborated and manufactured in INP proved its reliability in detection of radioactive substances and in prevention of radiation contamination of metal products. (author)

  15. Navruz Project: Sharing radioactivity data for the rivers of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Navruz Project is an international, collaborative, transboundary data collection and data sharing project for rivers in the Aral Sea basin engaging scientist and water managers from Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tadjikistan, Uzbekistan and the United States. Standardized sampling and data collection methods assure that data are comparable across international borders, and data are shared among all partners and public through a website at http://ironside.sandia.gov/Central/centralasia.html. As a result of measurement of pollution of water and bottom sediments, the areas with high concentration of radionuclides are revealed. In particular, the Akhangaran and Syr-Darya rivers were studied and it was shown that the beta- and an alpha-activity of Akhangaran river water is significant in the sampling point 19 (former uranium mine). Migration of uranium series radionuclides up to a water deposit (point 21) is observed. At the inflow to the water deposit a small aura of uranium salts was formed due to migration of soluble salts of uranium. However, at confluence of Akhangaran and Syr-Darya the increase of both total beta- and alpha-activity is observed occurring, apparently, due to drainage waters. The beta- and alpha-activity of Syr-Darya river water gradually grows and reaches 1.02 and 0.65 Bq/L, respectively. This increase is possibly caused by the human technogenic activity. Thus, it is necessary to note that the alpha-activity level of water exceeds permissible level for drinking water in practically all investigated points. For the Akhangaran river, alpha-activity of bottom sediments is significant and subjected to seasonal fluctuations (autumn - increase, spring - decrease). Migration of radionuclides in bottom sediments can be observed at the distance up to 60 km from the point where the pollution source is located, which is especially pronounced for uranium series nuclides. This demonstrates the geochemical properties of uranium, and shows that salts of uranium are more mobile, than salts of thorium. (author)

  16. Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-B. Havenith

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

  17. Strain partitioning at the eastern Pamir-Alai revealed through SAR data analysis of the 2008 Nura earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshebaeva, Kanayim; Sudhaus, Henriette; Echtler, Helmut; Schurr, Bernd; Roessner, Sigrid

    2014-06-01

    On 2008 October 5, a magnitude 6.6 earthquake struck the eastern termination of the intermontane Alai valley between the southern Tien Shan and the northern Pamir of Kyrgyzstan. The shallow thrust earthquake occurred in the footwall of the Main Pamir thrust, where the Pamir orogen is colliding with the southern Tien Shan mountains. We measure the coseismic surface displacements using SAR (Synthetic Aperture RADAR) data; the results show clear gradients in the vertical and horizontal directions along a complex pattern of surface ruptures and active faults. To integrate and to interpret these observations in the context of the regional tectonics, we complement the SAR data analysis with seismological data and geological field observations. While the main moment release of the Nura earthquake appears to be on the Pamir Frontal thrust, the main surface displacements and surface rupture occurred in the footwall along the NE-SW striking Irkeshtam fault. With InSAR data from ascending and descending tracks along with pixel offset measurements, we model the Nura earthquake source as a segmented rupture. One fault segment corresponds to high-angle brittle faulting at the Pamir Frontal thrust and two more fault segments show moderate-angle and low-friction thrusting at the Irkeshtam fault. Our integrated analysis of the coseismic deformation argues for rupture segmentation and strain partitioning associated to the earthquake. It possibly activated an orogenic wedge in the easternmost segment of the Pamir-Alai collision zone. Further, the style of the segmentation may be associated with the presence of Palaeogene evaporites.

  18. Slope stability under seismic activity and precipitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeau, C.; Havenith, H.-B.

    2009-04-01

    Processes leading to slope failures are often difficult to describe / understand since they involve complex interactions of seismic, geological and hydro-meteorological factors. To date, we are still puzzled by the triggering of the Kainama loess earthflow in April 26 2004, in the Gulcha region (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia), in the transitional zone between the Fergana Basin in the north and the Alai Range in the south. Indeed, numerical simulations conducted so far and using the 2D finite difference code FLAC have shown that the Kainama slope failure is not of purely static origin and cannot be related to a high water table. In addition, the modelling of successive small magnitude earthquakes similar to the ones that struck the Kainama slope a few weeks before the triggering of the loess earthflow, has shown that small permanent deformations develop along and within the slope. The remaining question is whether a slope that suffered from repetitive but moderate seismic activity prior to groundwater level rise (spring rains and snow melting) is prone to a delayed failure. The scope of the present study is therefore to incorporate in the modelling the effect of spring rains. Slope stability will be assessed considering various rainfall scenarios characterized by the intensity and the duration of the precipitations. Besides, we will take into account the slope geometry degradation due to previous and small extent failures caused by seismic shaking. The implications of such a work are important to support the need for the maintain of an active protection of populations in mountainous areas hit by earthquakes since slopes that do not fail co-seismically may result in mass movements after heavy rains in mid / long term.

  19. Late Cenozoic tectonic development of the intramontane Alai Valley, (Pamir-Tien Shan region, central Asia): An example of intracontinental deformation due to the Indo-Eurasia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutand, I.; Strecker, M. R.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Hilley, G.; Thiede, R. C.; Korjenkov, A.; Omuraliev, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Pamir indentor of the northwestern Himalayan syntaxis is a first-order feature demonstrating partly the northward extent of deformation due to the Cenozoic Indo-Eurasia collision. The Alai Valley of Kyrgyzstan at the northern end of the indentor is a strategically positioned, E-W trending intramontane basin that constrains the timing and extent of crustal deformation in this area of the collision zone. To quantify the convergence accommodated across the Alai Valley during the Late Cenozoic, we collected structural and stratigraphic field data, reviewed existing Soviet literature, and analyzed migrated seismic reflection profiles to construct and restore two regional sections crosscutting the basin. Our study suggests that the development, progressive closure, and conversion of this formerly marine basin into a terrestrial intramontane basin result from two main deformation events: (1) Distributed north-south contraction took place during the late Oligocene-early Miocene, accommodated one third to half of the total shortening and was followed by the formation of a regional erosion surface; and (2) N-S shortening resumed in the mid-Miocene and continues today. During this second episode the thrust front migrated southward, localized along the Trans Alai ranges, and failed to reactivate earlier Neogene structures. Horizontal shortening of about 35% across the Alai Valley implies relatively low strain rates and displacement rates of about 4.18-4.69 × 10-16 s-1 and 0.66-0.78 mm yr-1, respectively, for the last 25 Myr. Our study confirms other regional observations indicating that contractional deformation occurred far in the interior of the Asian continent as early as the late Oligocene.

  20. Central Asia Active Fault Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

    2014-05-01

    The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late Pleistocene landforms observed near the fault trace.

  1. Ionizing radiation sources management in the Commonwealth of Independent States - CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation sources cover a broad band of power: from powerful NPP reactors and research reactors to portable radioisotope ionizing radiation sources applied in medicine, agriculture, industry and in the energy supply systems of remote facilities. At present, scales and use field of radionuclide sources in the CIS have the tendency to increase. In this connection, the issues of ionizing radiation sources management safety at all stages of their life cycle, from production to treatment, have been of a great importance. The materials on ionizing radiation sources inventory and treatment in the CIS (Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Ukraine) are presented in the report. It is shown that in some republics, there is difficulty in ionizing radiation sources accounting and control system; the national regulatory and legal framework bases regulating activity on radioactive sources use, localization and treatment require update. Many problems are connected with the sources beyond state accounting. The problem of ionizing radiation sources use safety is complicated by the growing activity of various terrorist groups. The opportunity to use ionizing radiation sources with terrorism goals requires the application of defined systems of security and physical protection at all stages of their management. For this purpose a collective, with all CIS countries, organization of radioactive sources accounting and control as well as countermeasures on their illegal transportation and use are necessary. In this connection, the information collection regarding situation with providing of ionizing radiation sources safety, conditions of equipment and storage facilities, radioactive materials accounting and control system in the CIS countries is vitally needed

  2. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  3. WRITTEN “BATTALNAME”S IN TURKIC KAZAKH AND A REVIEW OF “TYNYSHLYKOULU’S BATTALNAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah C?C?O?LU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Battal Gazi is a Muslim commander showing great heroism in Umayyad-Byzantine wars in the process of spreading Islam. During intensifying Turkish-Byzantine struggles after the conquest of Anatolia by the Turks, it is seen that this unforgettable hero was symbolized in the struggles of the Turks with the same feelings and purposes like their ancestors. Containing epics occurring around the personality of his historical-epic story “Battalname” gains a special importance as an example of the most common post Islamic legends which are formed on the basis of Turkish epic saga tradition. Seyyid Battal Gazi is the first Turkish epic that emerged in Anatolia. This epic began to be transferred to writing starting from the 11-12th century and many copies of the epic which were written on various dates in verse and prose have survived to the present day. In our study, it was determined that the span of this epic is not limited only with Anatolia, it has a span of all Turkish world geography. It was revealed that many other written copies of the epic in different Turkish dialects are available in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tatarstan, different from the written copies of Anatolia. In this study, information was given about the epic of Seyyid Battal Gazi which contains the texts of the Kazakh Turkic manuscripts and printed copies and among those identified ones a review about Tynyshlykoulu copy (T?n??l?ko?lu that is prominent in terms of the volume and scope was presented.

  4. GREAT REBELLION OF 1916 in KYRGYZ: URKÜN 1916 KIRGIZ BÜYÜK ?SYANI: ÜRKÜN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Füsun KARA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The revolution in 1916 was one of the biggest tragedies in the politics of the Russian Empire was to have Kyrgyzstan as its colony. For instance, the best places were given to russians, local people were forced to move to rural area. The main reason was a call for men into Russia’s Central Asian colonies to serve in the Tsarist army fighting in World war I. The first uprising was in Khojent on july 4 th 1916 and the movement spread to other parts of Turkestan. Kyrgyz Turks were killed by the Russian forces and settlers. Kyrgyz population from the North of the country were killed. And another 120.000 fled across the border to China 1916 ?syan? K?rg?z tarihinin en büyük trajedilerinden biridir. Bu olay K?rg?zistan’da Ürkün olarak bilinir. Rus ?mparatorlu?u K?rg?zistan’da koloni politikas? uygulam??t?r. En iyi yerler Ruslara verilmi? yerli halk kendi topra??ndan edilerek k?rsal alanlara göç ettirilmi?tir. Ayaklanman?n temel nedeni ise I. Dünya Sava??nda Çarl???n Rusya’n?n geri hizmetlerinde çal??mak üzere Türkistanl?lar? ça??rmas? olmu?tur. Ayaklanma 4 Temmuz 1916’da Hocent’te ba?lam??t?r daha sonra Türkistan’?n di?er k?s?mlar?na yay?lm??t?r. K?rg?z Türkleri Rus askerleri ve Rus yerle?imciler taraf?ndan öldürülmü?tür. Ülkenin kuzeyindeki ayaklanmac?lar öldürülmü? di?er 120 bini Çine kaçm??t?r.

  5. Contesting danger : a new agenda for policy and scholarship on Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heathershaw, John; Megoran, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Western geopolitical discourse misrepresents and constructs Central Asia as an inherently and essentially dangerous place. This pervasive ‘discourse of danger’ obscures knowledge of the region, deforms scholarship and, because it has policy implications, actually endangers Central Asia. This article identifies how the region is made knowable to a US–UK audience through three mutually reinforcing dimensions of endangerment: Central Asia as obscure, oriental, and fractious. This is evidenced in the writings of conflict resolution and security analysts, the practices of governments, the activities of international aid agencies and numerous lurid films, documentaries and novels. The article first establishes the tradition of inscribing danger to Central Asia, in both academic and policy discourse, from the colonial experience of the nineteenth century through to the post-Soviet transition and subsequent considerations of the region in terms of the war on terror. It considers several examples of this discourse of danger including the popular US TV drama about presidential politics, The West Wing, the policy texts of ‘Washingtonian security analysis’ and accounts of danger, insecurity and urban violence in the Ferghana Valley. It is argued that popular policy and academic texts are relatively consistent across the three dimensions of endangerment. This argument is demonstrated through a discussion of how policy-making and practice is informed by this discourse of danger and of how the discourse of danger is contested within the region. The example of urban violence in Osh, Kyrgyzstan and Jalalabad, Afghanistan in 2010 demonstrates how opportunities to mitigate conflict may have been lost due to the distortions of this discourse of danger. It concludes by raising the challenge to policy-makers, journalists and academics to contest this western geopolitical discourse and provide better accounts of how danger is experienced by Central Asians.

  6. Topographic site effects: numerical studies and a possible application to the regional Newmark approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgoev, Almaz; Havenith, Hans-Balder

    2015-04-01

    2D elasto-dynamic modelling of the seismic response was performed with the UDEC software (ver. 4.01, ITASCA). The numerical studies have been performed for six models constructed from real topographic settings of the landslide-prone slopes situated in the Mailuu-Suu River Valley, Southern Kyrgyzstan. The main focus of our studies was the development of proxies for a regional mapping of topographic site effects. The main parameter we studied was the Arias Intensity (Ia). This parameter is applied to the GIS-based Newmark method, which regionally maps the seismically-induced landslide susceptibility. This method performs a mapping of the Ia values via empirical attenuation laws, which mainly account for the regional geometric spreading. An input of site effects is generally not included in these laws. While total site effects normally integrate both geologic and topographic inputs, our paper focuses only on the pure topographic effects. The numerical studies showed that the amplification of the Arias Intensity depends on two main factors: the frequency content of the input signal and the site settings. The first parameter can be predicted for wide areas through attenuation laws. With respect to the impact of site settings on Ia amplification, our studies show that convex surface morphologies with a longer baseline induce amplification in the low frequency domain, while those with a shorter baseline amplify the seismic shaking in the higher frequency domain. The link between topographic site amplification and the size of a surface morphology is identified. Those developed proxies are adapted for application in conventional GIS software platforms.

  7. A plan for location calibration of IMS stations and near Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For purposes of monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, it is desirable to be able to locate seismic events routinely to within an uncertainty not greater than 1000 square km. From more than five years of experience with publication of the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) by the Prototype International Data Centre (PIDC), resulting in estimated locations for more than 100,000 seismic events, it is apparent that improved location accuracy is needed in order to reduce uncertainties below 1000 square km. In this paper, we outline a three-year program of applied research which commenced in March 2000 and which has the goal of achieving improved REB locations based upon data to be contributed to the International Data Centre from 30 IMS stations in Eastern Asia. Our first efforts will focus on the four IMS seismographic stations in Kazakhstan (AKT, BRV, KUR, MAK), together with IMS stations ZAL in Russia and AAK in Kyrgyzstan. Following the recommendations of two 'IMS Location Calibration Workshops' held in Oslo, Norway, in 1999 and 2000, our approach is to generate station-specific travel times for each observable seismic phase, as a function of distance and azimuth (and depth, where possible). Such travel times are obtained on the basis of (i) early studies based mainly on earthquake data (e.g. Nersesov and Rautian, 1964), (ii) Deep Seismic Sounding, and (iii) recent studies of nuclear and chemical explosions. We are also using (iv) an empiricaosions. We are also using (iv) an empirical approach in which phases are picked at IMS stations, for so-called Ground Truth events whose location is known quite accurately on the basis of additional data, obtained for example from local and regional networks. (author)

  8. An Assessment of Antibiotics Prescribed at the Secondary Health-Care Level in the Kyrgyz Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUNICHI SAKAMOTO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions in a secondary health care setting in Kyrgyzstan. A retrospective analysis was performed of antibiotic prescriptions in 251 inpatient records of patients admitted to the Sokuluk Territorial Hospital. A total of 19 different antibiotics were prescribed. Penicillin G (24.9%, gentamicin (16.1%, metronidazole (15.6% and cefazolin (14.5% were those most frequently prescribed. The major indications for antibiotics were diseases of the respiratory system (28.0%, injury, poisoning and certain other consequences from external causes (25.5%, and diseases of the digestive system (14.3%. Almost three-quarters of the antibiotics were used parenterally, 252 of which (58.9% were administered intramuscularly and 70 (16.4% intravenously. Forty-five percent of the patients received two antibiotics, and 12.0% received three antibiotics during their stay at the hospital. Antibiotic therapy proved inappropriate for 184 patients (73.3%. The most common reason given for inappropriateness was the unjustified (not indicated use of antibiotics in 143 (48.6% cases. There was a significantly higher inappropriate choice of antibiotics in gynecology (OR=2.70, 95% CI=1.02–7.69 when compared with that in other wards. Although antibiotics were prescribed in all cases post-operatively, noneof those patients were given pre-operative prophylactic antibiotics when indicated. We concluded that antibiotic prescriptions were seriously inappropriate in the Kyrgyz Republic with prescribing patterns failing to strictly adhere to the national guidelines. Adoption of an international standard and locally conformableguidelines of antibiotic use can help correct such problems.

  9. The Virtual Silk Highway -- Connectivity for Central Asia and the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Hans

    2007-04-01

    This presentation focuses on Internet for research and education communities in the countries along the Great Silk Road, eight republics of the Former Soviet Union (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia) and Afghanistan. When the Internet became a standard science tool in the nineties, connectivity to this area was limited to analog telephone lines. The TAE fiber was installed from Istanbul via Tashkent to Shanghai, but it was based on international ISDN telephone calls at 10 per minute, unaffordable to communities with salaries of 300 per month. Satellites offered connectivity on short notice at better prices but funding by the communities was out of the question. Aid programs stepped in, connecting individual institutes across the area to the outside world. ISPs catered to those who could afford it, such as universities selling MBA courses, but Internet for research and education was lacking. In 2001, the NATO Science Programme added to its grants to institutes a multi-year program of providing a shared satellite service for international connectivity to all the countries above. National connectivity and solving the ``last mile problem'' was also funded, provided that a National Research and Education Network (NREN) organization was created in the country. SILK-1 ran 2002-6 for 3.5m providing 30Mbps west->east and 6Mbps east->west. QOS was implemented for video and audio conferencing. Co-funding by NRENs and others was established, but sustainability is still outstanding. Only recently, affordable fiber (SILK-2 in 2006 was issued in a technology-neutral way. No fiber bids were received, but a cheaper satellite service providing a total of 120/30Mbps for 3.5m in 2007-8. With fiber initiatives under way, it is hoped that part of SILK-2 can switch to fiber in 2009.

  10. Uzbekistan - nonproliferation and continuous activities on countering nuclear materials and other radioactive sources illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Countering illicit trafficking of nuclear weapon and its components is an important task in the modern world. For this reason, at the borders and customs points the control of transportation is to be conducted in order to determine radioactive and fissile materials in them. This report presents the results of works performed in the period of 2001 - 2005 years on the program for development of radiation monitors and equipping the Uzbekistan border customs points with them, in order to fight the smuggling of nuclear and radioactive materials. The Republic of Uzbekistan is located on the transit transportation crossroad, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Western Europe - to the North, and Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and others - to the South. Therefore, this program is important for saving peace in the world and fighting any attempts to create nuclear weapon in the region. The radiation monitoring equipment is installed at the border customs points through which the transportation enters the Uzbekistan and at the Tashkent International Airport where passengers arrive by air. Also, the customs points are equipped through which the transportation quits for South and international passenger depart. The radiation portal monitors are designed by CIS Aspect (Dubna, Moscow region), however, we develop our own portal monitoring system which can be produced after certification. The Institute of Nuclear Physics provides the technical expertise that includes install technical expertise that includes installation, calibration, maintenance, and secondary alarm response; mobile response units are being developed to rapidly and accurately identify seized material and recommend handling procedures. At present we are accumulating information on the alarm from the Yantar - type radiation monitor at the customs check-points and examining characteristics of the system to improve the results of our research

  11. Micro-analytical characterisation of radioactive heterogeneities in samples from Central Asian TENORM sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work focuses on the use of micro-analytical techniques to demonstrate the heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides and metals in soils collected at Former Soviet Union mining sites in Central Asia. Based on digital autoradiography, radionuclides were heterogeneously distributed in soil samples collected at the abandoned uranium mining sites Kurday, Kazakhstan, Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan and Taboshar, Tajikistan. Using electron microscopy interfaced with X-ray microanalysis submicron – mm-sized radioactive particles and rock fragments with U, As, Se and toxic metals on the surfaces were identified in Kurday and Kadji Sai samples. Employing scanning and tomographic (3D) synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray fluorescence (?-SRXRF) and synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray diffraction (?-SRXRD) allowed us to observe the inner structure of the particles without physical sectioning. The distribution of elements in virtual crosssections demonstrated that U and a series of toxic elements were rather heterogeneously distributed also within individual radioactive TENORM particles. Compared to archived data, U in Kadji Sai particles was present as uraninite (U4O9+y or UO2+x) or Na-zippeite ((Na4(UO2)6[(OH)10(SO4)3]·4H2O), i.e. U minerals with very low solubility. The results suggested that TENORM particles can carry substantial amount of radioactivity, which can be subject to re-suspension, atmospheric transport and water transport. Thus, the potential radioecological and radioanalytical impact of radioactive particles at NORM and TENORM sites worldwide should be taken into account. The present work also demonstrates that radioecological studies should benefit from the use of advanced methods such as synchrotron radiation based techniques

  12. Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonium-210 in water and 210Pb and 210Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of 210Pb and 210Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of 210Po was higher than for 210Pb, and the accumulation of 210Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg?1 ww). Although the average activity concentration of 210Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25–327 Bq kg?1 ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported 210Po into the liver, and that the distributions of 210Po and 210Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for 210Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 105, >2.5 × 104 and >1.4 × 104, respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log 210Po in liver and ?15N could indicate biomagnification of 210Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for 210Po, the concentration of 210Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake

  13. Information Management Systems for Cultural Heritage and Conservation of World Heritage Sites. The Silk Roads Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Vileikis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of Information Management Systems (IMS in cultural heritage. IMS offer a set of tools for understanding, inventorying and documenting national, regional and World Heritage properties.  Information Management Systems can assist State Parties, stakeholders and heritage site managers involved in cultural heritage management and conservation by easily mining, sharing and exchanging information from multiple sources based on international standards. Moreover, they aim to record, manage, visualize, analyze and disseminate heritage information. In close collaboration with five Central Asian countries, namely, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan; a Belgian consortium headed by the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC, K.U.Leuven is developing the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (CHRIS. This Web-based Information Management System supports the preparation of the Central Asia Silk Roads serial and transnational nominations on the UNESCO World Heritage list. The project has been set up thanks to the financial support of the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO and in collaboration with UNESCO World Heritage Centre in conjunction with the People’s Republic of China and the Japanese Funds-in-Trust UNESCO project. It provides a holistic approach for the recording, documenta tion, protection and monitoring tasks as part of the management of these potential World Heritage Properties. The Silk Roads CHRIS is easily accessible to the general user, presented in a bilingual English and Russian frame and interoperable, i.e. open for other applications to connect to. In this way, all information for the nomination dossiers is easily verified regarding consistency and quality and ready for managing, periodic reporting and monitoring processes in the respect to the property listed. Fina lly, this study provides a general framework to establish the effectiveness and limits of the use of information systems for serial transnational nominations of World Heritage Properties and to demonstrate the potentials of an improved heritage documentation system.

  14. Gazprom: Russia's strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen years after the splitting up of the Soviet empire, Russia is looking again for huge international ambitions. Its main advantage in this power search will is its energy resources. Production area, but also transit area between Asia, central Asia, Caucasus and Europe, Russia is an inevitable partner and wishes to take advantage of this strategic position. Gazprom, the hugest gas company in the world, is totally under the control of the government. Therefore, the Kremlin has made gas its main political and diplomatic weapon. Such an energetic imperialisms has strong economical and political consequences on the rest of Europe as illustrated by the recent Ukrainian crisis. The reconstruction of an energy empire similar to the one of the hottest days of the cold war worries also the USA. This study is a collective work carried out by students of the Sciences Po school of Paris in the framework of the 'international organizations' seminar given by by A.M Lizin, president of the Belgium senate and chairwoman of the human rights commission of the organization for European security and cooperation. Content: Gazprom's international strategy, Gazprom: an omnipotent gas company, Gazprom's international strategy at the service of the Russian foreign policy, Gazprom's energy stake and strategies, Gazprom and Armenia, Gazprom and Azerbaijan, Gazprom and Belgium, Gazprom and Bielorussia, Gazprom and Iberia, French position in energy stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's difficulties in Hungary, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in front of Gazprom, Gazprom and the US strategy. (J.S.)

  15. Trace element analysis on speleothems using micro-XRF scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessen, Birgit; Tjallingii, Rik; Dudashvilli, Alexey; Cheng, Hai; Wolff, Christian; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.

    2015-04-01

    Non-destructive micro-XRF scanning is a well-established, accurate and efficient method for high-resolution geochemical analyses on finely laminated sediments, e.g. for distinguishing detrital and authigenic layers in lake sediments. To test this method's applicability on speleothems, micro-XRF scanning analyses were performed on finely polished speleothems using the EAGLE-III-XL micro-XRF scanner at GFZ Potsdam. This scanner can perform multi-element analyses over a predefined sampling profile at sampling rates between 20 and 250 micro m trace of samples no larger than 30 x 30 cm. We measured profiles on two late to mid Holocene stalagmites from caves of the Keklik and Uluu Too mountains near Osh (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia) with a spot size of 53 micro m. We ran each profile at least twice to obtain replicate measurements of the elements Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, and Sr. The caves are situated in Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous limestone formations at the SE rim of the Fergana Basin. Both speleothems are characterized by distinct alternating light and darker colored laminae that also reveal strong variations of trace elements and potentially provide information concerning variations in dust load, soil development, vegetation, precipitation and infiltration. One speleothem shows elevated Cl and S contents during relatively dry periods associated with salt dust input, probably derived from the Aral Sea region. Identification of the dry periods is further supported by stable oxygen and carbon isotope data. The multi-proxy chemical analyses suggest that Holocene humidity variations in this region are linked to variable strength of the North Atlantic westerlies regime. However, further validation of element variations in speleothems based on host rock and soil chemistry, monitored drip water composition and local climatic variations are needed to improve climatic and of environmental interpretations.

  16. Good Health at Low Cost 25 years on: lessons for the future of health systems strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Dina; Mills, Anne; Conteh, Lesong; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Banteyerga, Hailom; Dash, Umakant; Gilson, Lucy; Harmer, Andrew; Ibraimova, Ainura; Islam, Ziaul; Kidanu, Aklilu; Koehlmoos, Tracey P; Limwattananon, Supon; Muraleedharan, V R; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Palafox, Benjamin; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; McKee, Martin

    2013-06-15

    In 1985, the Rockefeller Foundation published Good health at low cost to discuss why some countries or regions achieve better health and social outcomes than do others at a similar level of income and to show the role of political will and socially progressive policies. 25 years on, the Good Health at Low Cost project revisited these places but looked anew at Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Thailand, and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which have all either achieved substantial improvements in health or access to services or implemented innovative health policies relative to their neighbours. A series of comparative case studies (2009-11) looked at how and why each region accomplished these changes. Attributes of success included good governance and political commitment, effective bureaucracies that preserve institutional memory and can learn from experience, and the ability to innovate and adapt to resource limitations. Furthermore, the capacity to respond to population needs and build resilience into health systems in the face of political unrest, economic crises, and natural disasters was important. Transport infrastructure, female empowerment, and education also played a part. Health systems are complex and no simple recipe exists for success. Yet in the countries and regions studied, progress has been assisted by institutional stability, with continuity of reforms despite political and economic turmoil, learning lessons from experience, seizing windows of opportunity, and ensuring sensitivity to context. These experiences show that improvements in health can still be achieved in countries with relatively few resources, though strategic investment is necessary to address new challenges such as complex chronic diseases and growing population expectations. PMID:23574803

  17. Broken foreland basins in the India-Eurasia collision zone and in the central Andes: tectonic, geomorphic and sedimentologic similarities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, M. R.; Bookhagen, B.; Hilley, G. E.; Kirby, E.; Sobel, E. R.

    2010-12-01

    Deformation in broken forelands may be accommodated far into the foreland by reactivation of crustal anisotropies, producing steep, but short-wavelength topography. The discontinuous nature of this deformation and potentially rapid rock uplift rates relative to those within fold-and-thrust belts favors sediment ponding behind active mountain ranges built atop reactivated geologic structures. In the realm of the greater Indo-Eurasian collision zone the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and China or the Qilian Shan comprise such settings, where ongoing shortening excises and uplifts basement blocks and eventually compartmentalizes a formerly contiguous foreland. In the Qilian Shan and ranges of NE Tibet, an early Tertiary foreland was disrupted by diachronous range growth and formation of isolated basins. Reconnection to external base level did not occur until Quaternary time. The Argentine Santa Barbara and Pampean ranges are examples of such environments in a non-collisional orogen. Here, several generations of transient basin fills were deposited and re-excavated in intermontane basins that are near the headwaters of rivers currently draining the broken foreland basin system. Despite differing settings, there similarities between basins in both environments, including: (1) multiple episodes of filling and excavation; (2) steep precipitation gradients; and, (4) highly disparate and diachronous deformation and uplift. Comparison of basin histories from the Andes and Central Asia suggests that these characteristics are the consequence of similar factors. First, deformation is typically localized along inherited crustal zones of weakness and the evolving topographic load above the reactivated faults. The high-angle structures produce large amounts of uplift for a given increment of shortening, facilitating rapid removal of cover sediments and exposing resistant lithologies. Second, transient basin fills typically occur where moisture-laden winds are prevented from reaching the basin headwaters by efficient orographic barriers. The internal drainage and sediment accumulation result from a threshold process in which active uplift of downstream topographic barriers steepens channels that traverse these ranges, while aggradation behind the uplifts must keep pace with the rise of the channel bed as rock uplift occurs. Internal drainage is favored as rock uplift rates increase, and bedrock erodibility and/or precipitation decrease. Finally, the rapid removal of sediments from these basins during drainage integration may contribute to changes in the crustal stress regime resulting in reactivation of faults. Finally, owing to the atmospheric circulation patterns, the basement-cored ranges may concentrate moisture on their windward sides. As the reverse-fault bounded blocks are very discontinuous, this results in the prevalence of structural gaps through which drainages may be routed and moisture-bearing winds may penetrate into the interior of the arid orogens and remove sedimentary fills, ultimately destroying plateau topography.

  18. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipperud, L.; Rosseland, B.O.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU (Norway); Stegnar, P. [Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Yunusov, M. [IA Vostokredmet (Tajikistan); Burkitbaev, L.M. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered mobile and potentially bioavailable. Looking at fish, high BCF (L/kg) especially for {sup 210}Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of {sup 210}Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. A linear correlation between log {sup 210}Po in liver and ?{sup 15}N could indicate bio-magnification of {sup 210}Po in liver of C. auratus. These legacy sites, containing enhanced levels of natural radioactive material as well as heavy metals, may represent a hazard having a potential radiological and chemical impact on man and the environment, and measures should be taken to reduce the environmental risk to man and biota. (authors)

  19. Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the Russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of wildfires broke out in Western Russia starting in late July of 2010. Harmful particulates and gases released into the local Russian atmosphere have been reported, as have possible negative consequences for the global atmosphere. In this study, an extremely hazy area and its transport trajectory on Russian wildfires were analysed using aerosol optical depth (AOD images retrieved via the synergy method from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. In addition, we used trace gases (NO2 and SO2 and CO2 products measured using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI data, vertical distribution of AOD data retrieved from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO data, the mass trajectory analyses, synoptic maps from a HYSPLIT model simulation and ground-based data, including AERONET (both AOD and Ångström exponent data and PM2.5. First, an Optimal Smoothing (OS scheme was used to develop more precise and reliable AOD data based on multiple competing predictions made using several AOD retrieval models; then, integrated AOD and PM2.5 data were related using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, and the integrated AOD and visibility data were related using the 6S radiative transfer code. The results show that the PM2.5 concentration is enhanced by a factor of 3–5 as determined from both satellite and in situ observations with peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 500 ?g m3. Also, the visibility in many parts of Russia, for instance in Moscow, was less than 100 m; in some areas, the visibility was less than 50 m. Additionally, the possible impact on neighbouring countries due to long-transport was analysed for 31 July and 15 August 2010. A comparison of the satellite aerosol products and ground observations from the neighbouring countries suggests that wildfires in Western Russian had little impact on most european and asian countries, the exceptions being Finland, Estonia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. However, a possible impact on the Arctic region was identified; such an effect would have a serious influence on the polar atmospheric enviroment, and on animals such as polar bears.

  20. Research and monitoring of radiation and ecological situation in Syrdarya river basin at the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Syrdarya River is the main life supporting fresh water artery of the South Kazakhstan. Alarming epidemiological situation in this area: almost all medical indicators of the health state of the inhabitants, including children, are much lower than averages for the republic. One of the main reasons of a high level of sickness in the South Kazakhstan is critical condition of ecological and radio-ecological situation in Syrdarya river basin [1-4]. One of the mechanism leading to this is intensive agricultural activity with use of mineral (phosphor, potassium, nitric) fertilizers. The most important and least studied peculiarity for this region is the presence of considerable reserves (more than 15% of the world reserves) of natural uranium (Karatau ridge and its spurs) and intensive industrial activity on its mining and processing. Many of these reserves have deposits of carbonaceous- siliceous schist characterized by very high 'hurricane' contents of rare and scattered elements. Such dangerous elements as V, Cr, Co, As, Se, Hg, Th and U are easily leached from these rocks by startle water and migrate in large quantities to the main water artery polluting it with radionuclides, heavy metals and toxic elements. Industrial activity connected with uranium mining (especially using the method of underground leaching) favors this process [2, 3]. It is necessary to note that these circumstances about the basins of main water arteries - Syrdarya and Amudarya - relate to both t- Syrdarya and Amudarya - relate to both the South Kazakhstan and other countries of the Central Asia. It became the base for investigation of level and character of contamination of these river basins on the territories of four countries of the Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. In this connection beginning from November 2000. International Project 'Navruz' is carried out. Its main goal is radio-ecological investigation and monitoring of these rivers and their inflows. The project is planned for 2 years, to be finished in September 2002, with the collaboration of Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, USA

  1. Recent hydrographic measurements in the Lake Issyk Kul: Coastal currents, thermohaline structure, water quality indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavialov, Peter; Osadchiev, Alexander; Pelevin, Vadim; Konovalov, Boris; Goncharenko, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Issyk Kul is a deep (670 m) terminal lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in eastern Kyrgyzstan. It is the tenth largest lake in the world by volume, and the second largest saline lake after the Caspian Sea. The lake is a Ramsar site of globally significant biodiversity. We report preliminary results of a field survey undertaken in the northern coastal part of the lake, off Cholpon-Ata township, on September 10-13, 2014. A fishery boat was used to carry out CTD profiling and water sampling at 16 stations. An UV fluorescent lidar working continuosly throughout the survey yielded surface concentrations of chlorophyll-a, suspended matter, and dissolved organic substances. In addition, we deployed 3 mooring stations equipped with current meters, all at approximately 15 m isobath, recording the velocity and direction of the near-bottom currents with 10 min sampling intervals. During the experiment, the coastal waters of the lake were fully mixed down to the depth of 15-20 m and nearly uniform vertically at salinity about 5 g/kg. The only exception referred to the areas adjacent to the mouths of small river and creeks, where stable salinity stratification developed at 0.01-0.03 g/kg per 1 m of depth. The temperature stratification generally followed the diurnal pattern. The dominant coastal currents were directed westward, which agrees with the established notion about the cyclonic character of the basin-scale circulation. Superimposed on this general cyclonic pattern, there was a persistent variability of currents at the periods of 17 to 24 hours, likely associated with the interplay between the inertial oscillation and signal of breeze in the wind forcing. There was an evidence of mesoscale eddies, possibly, associated with topographic features of the shoreline. The observed velocity in the near-bottom layer was about 9 cm/s on the average, with the maximum values exceeding 25 cm/s. The Issyk Kul lake is ultra-oligotrophic - the concentrations of chlorophyll-a were below 0.4 mcg/l in all cases. The suspended matter concentrations were also low, about 0.7 mg/l on average. Consequently, the water was very transparent, with Secchi depth exceeding 16 m. The ratio between the mineral and organic suspended matter in water is about 5. The water quality in the study area was good, no significant polutants were detected. Nevertheless, we documented an increase of concentration of dissolved organic matter increases near the coast, especially near resort infrastructure in Cholpon-Ata, pointing on detectable, although moderate, anthropogenic impact. The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant 14-50-00095.

  2. Underground gas storage in the World - 2013 (fifth Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. 'Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013' builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. The Survey includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries surveyed, 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned. The document includes 70 tables, 72 charts and figures, 44 country maps. The countries surveyed are: Europe : Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom. North America: Canada, USA. CIS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Asia/Oceania: Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Korea, Taiwan. Rest of the World: Argentina, Mexico, Iran

  3. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in other products such as batteries and computer electronics is not recycled and may ultimately be released to the environment.

  4. Development and characteristics of alpine lakes in the upper catchment of the Amu Darya river, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J. P.; Mergili, M.; Schneider, J. F.

    2012-04-01

    The Amu Darya is one of the most important rivers in the lowlands of Central Asia, ensuring the supply of irrigation water for agriculture in that arid region. Control of the water flow due to hydropower generation in Tajikistan (Norak Dam, planned Rogun Dam) is a highly political issue. The sources of the Amu Darya are located in the glacierized high-mountain areas of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan (Pamir, Alai and Hindukush mountains). These environments are highly dynamic systems particularly sensitive to climate fluctuations and changes. During the previous decades, numerous lakes have developed or enlarged in the forefields of the retreating glaciers. Other lakes in the area are embedded in older glacial landscapes or retained by rocky swells, block or debris dams. The latter two types of dams are usually formed by landslides or moraines, Usoi Dam impounding lake Sarez is the highest landslide dam in the world and goes back to an earthquake in 1911. Whilst the safety situation of Lake Sarez is still discussed controversially, a number of glacial lakes poses a threat to the mountain communities downstream. At least two significant glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) were recorded in the study are in the last ten years, one of which caused major destruction. Besides the hazards, lakes may also offer a potential for hydropower generation. Furthermore, they mirror the dynamics of the high-mountain environment and therefore indicate fluctuations and changes. Consequently, up-to date information on the lakes present in the watershed is required. A comprehensive multi-temporal lake inventory for the upper catchment of the Amu Darya river was prepared and analyzed, based on remotely sensed data. ASTER and Landsat scenes were used as well as Corona images from the late 1960s. The satellite information was complemented by helicopter surveys and in-detail field investigations of selected lakes in 2003, 2009 and 2011. Lake type, size, drainage and development were recorded for all lakes. More than 2000 lakes exist in the area, most of them are located between 4200 and 4800 m a.s.l., many of them are directly related to retreating glacier tongues. The detailed analysis was focussed on this type of lakes, most of which have experienced a significant growth over the observation period. Whilst there is evidence that the growth of some of the larger glacial lakes has decelerated in the last ten years, others are starting to evolve, illustrating the dynamics of the glacial and periglacial environment. Long-term changes are superimposed - and sometimes blurred - by intra- and inter-annual fluctuations.

  5. InSAR analysis of the coseismic deformation related to the 2008 Nura earthquake, Pamir-Alai mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshebaeva, K. O.; Sudhaus, H.; Echtler, H.; Roessner, S.; Motagh, M.; Schurr, B.; Zubovich, A. V.; Moldobekov, B.; Wetzel, U.

    2011-12-01

    A magnitude 6.6 earthquake struck the eastern Alai region near the town of Nura on 5th October 2008, causing 74 human fatalities and considerable destruction in the southern province of Osh, Kyrgyzstan. The earthquake ruptured a part the E-W trending Pamir Frontal Thrust as revealed by surface ruptures observed in the field, distribution of aftershocks and analyses of the tectonic geomorphology. In addition, the surface deformation measured with InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture RADAR) shows a clear co- or postseismic activation of the NE-SW oriented Irkeshtam thrust fault that is located north-eastwards from the Pamir Frontal Thrust. We present a source study on the Nura earthquake by using InSAR surface deformation measurements from ENVISAT (C-band) and ALOS (L-band) radar satellites. Our study aims to add information on earthquake source parameters gained in seismological studies such as fault extension and fault segmentation that will support further analyses on seismic hazard in the region. Measuring coseismic surface deformation using InSAR, however, is challenging in this region of high topographic relief. The Pamir-Alay ridge, which reaches elevations in excess of 7000 m, is covered by snow throughout the year. As a result, extensive loss of phase coherence and layover occurs in the processed C-band interferograms strongly limiting the deformation measurements here. In L-band interferograms of the ALOS satellite a ground deformation is measured that amounts to about 72 cm of relative uplift on the hanging wall of the Pamir Frontal Thrust and about 48 cm of uplift at the hanging wall of the Irkeshtam thrust fault. We also discuss the seismotectonic setting in the epicentral region. Long-term GPS observations over the Pamir-Alay zone show a NNW-SSE oriented shortening with a velocity of 10 up to 15 mm/yr - a rate that is a large part of the about 25 mm/yr of total convergence between the Pamir and Eurasia. Therefore, the analysis of the Nura earthquake potentially provides new insights into strain partitioning at the footwall of the Pamir Thrust and the processes of mountain building at the eastern end of Trans Alai range.

  6. [The epidemic situation with malaria in Uzbekistan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razakov, Sh A

    2000-01-01

    In the past five years (1994-1998), 223 cases of imported malaria were recorded in the Republic (Table 1), 190 of which were from countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and 33 from other countries. It is noteworthy that the number of cases imported from Tadjikistan--a country that borders eight of the Republic's 12 regions (oblasts)--has increased each year (12 in 1994, 69 in 1998). Some 25% of the population of our Republic live in the 67 cities and regions bordering Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan. 35.5% of the cases of imported malaria have been registered in Surkhandarin region, which borders Afghanistan and Tadjikistan. Seventy-four (imported) cases of malaria were registered in the Republic in 1998, of which 17 (23%) were children under 14 years of age. Cases were registered in eight regions of the Republic and in the city of Tashkent. Thirty-six patients were detected in Surkhandarin region. Malaria was imported mainly from Tajikistan (69 cases) and Azerbaijan (two cases), as well as from Afghanistan (two cases) and India (one case). The infectious agent of vivax malaria was identified in 94.6% of cases, while in four cases it was found to be that of falciparum malaria. Three cases of falciparum malaria were registered for the first time in Surkhandarin region (imported from Tadjikistan) and one in the city of Tashkent (imported from Afghanistan). A large proportion of malaria cases (53, or 71.6%) were detected in the period from June to September, which is the time of high risk of infection. In the first six months of 1999, 15 cases of imported tertian malaria were recorded in the country as a whole, with six in Tashkent and Surkhandarin region, two in Fergana region and one in Samarkand region. Importation occurred mainly from Tajikistan (12 cases), with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Afghanistan each accounting for one case. In order to prevent the spread of the infection from neighbouring malarious countries, steps are being taken to make medical personnel more alert to this threat, with the aims of ensuring prompt detection of people suspected of having malaria, improving the quality of laboratory diagnosis and treatment, and strengthening vector control. PMID:10900919

  7. Central Asia Water (CAWa) - A visualization platform for hydro-meteorological sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Vivien; Schroeder, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Water is an indispensable necessity of life for people in the whole world. In central Asia, water is the key factor for economic development, but is already a narrow resource in this region. In fact of climate change, the water problem handling will be a big challenge for the future. The regional research Network "Central Asia Water" (CAWa) aims at providing a scientific basis for transnational water resources management for the five Central Asia States Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. CAWa is part of the Central Asia Water Initiative (also known as the Berlin Process) which was launched by the Federal Foreign Office on 1 April 2008 at the "Water Unites" conference in Berlin. To produce future scenarios and strategies for sustainable water management, data on water reserves and the use of water in Central Asia must therefore be collected consistently across the region. Hydro-meteorological stations equipped with sophisticated sensors are installed in Central Asia and send their data via real-time satellite communication to the operation centre of the monitoring network and to the participating National Hydro-meteorological Services.[1] The challenge for CAWa is to integrate the whole aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations in a proper design of a monitoring infrastructure. The use of standardized interfaces to support data transfer and interoperability is essential in CAWa. An uniform treatment of sensor data can be realized by the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) , which makes a number of standards and interface definitions available: Observation & Measurement (O&M) model for the description of observations and measurements, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) for the description of sensor systems, Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for obtaining sensor observations, Sensor Planning Service (SPS) for tasking sensors, Web Notification Service (WNS) for asynchronous dialogues and Sensor Alert Service (SAS) for sending alerts. An OpenSource web-platform bundles the data, provided by the SWE web services of the hydro-meteorological stations, and provides tools for data visualization and data access. The visualization tool was implemented by using OpenSource tools like GeoExt/ExtJS and OpenLayers. Using the application the user can query the relevant sensor data, select parameter and time period, visualize and finally download the data. [1] http://www.cawa-project.net

  8. CITIZENSHIP OF THE TURKIC WORLD PROJECT/TÜRK DÜNYASI VATANDA?LI?I PROJES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra ALYILMAZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan gained their independence in 1991 and took their place on the international arena as the “Newly Independent Turkic Republics”. New Turkic Republics signed agreements on various fields with many countries, notably Turkey, Russia and China. These agreements New Turkic Republics signed generally have economic bases. Agreements with a priority of education and teaching, directed by common academic programs and common purposes, have not yet been implemented. To compensate for this shortcoming, a project with a final objective of “Turkic World Citizenship” was prepared and put into effect in 2013 under the arch of Atatürk University Middle East and Central Asia Caucasus Research and Administration Center within the scope of Scientific Research Projects (BAP. In this article, information about the scope and objectives of “Citizenship of the Turkic World Project”, which was started by Atatürk University and was participated by other institutions and organizations later on, is presented. Sovyetler Birli?i’nin da??lmas?ndan sonra 1991 y?l?nda Azerbaycan, Türkmenistan, Özbekistan, K?rg?zistan ve Kazakistan ba??ms?zl?klar?n? kazanm?? ve uluslararas? arenada “Ba??ms?z Yeni Türk Cumhuriyetleri” olarak yerlerini alm??lard?r. Yeni Türk Cumhuriyetleri ba?ta Türkiye, Rusya ve Çin olmak üzere pek çok ülke ile farkl? alanlarda anla?malar imzalam??lard?r. Yeni Türk Cumhuriyetleri’nin imzalad?klar? bu anla?malar genelde ekonomik temellere dayanmaktad?r. Ortak ders programlar?n?n ve ortak amaçlar?n yön verdi?i; önceli?i e?itim ve ö?retim olan anla?malar ise gerçekle?tirilememi?tir. Bu eksikli?i telafi etmek için Atatürk Üniversitesi Orta Do?u ve Orta Asya Kafkaslar Ara?t?rma ve Uygulama Merkezi bünyesinde Bilimsel Ara?t?rma Projeleri (BAP kapsam?nda 2013 y?l?nda nihai hedefi “Türk Dünyas? Vatanda?l???” olan bir proje haz?rlan?p uygulamaya konulmu?tur. Bu makalede Atatürk Üniversitesinde ba?lat?lan ve daha sonra baz? kurum ve kurulu?lar?n da payda? olduklar? “Türk Dünyas? Vatanda?l??? Projesi”, kapsam? ve hedefleri hakk?nda bilgi verilmektedir.

  9. Regional Air Pollutions in Three Different Regions of Asia From a Transcontinental Transport Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanart, P.; Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Liu, Y.; Akimoto, H.

    2007-12-01

    Asia is known as one of the regions with the fastest rate of growing in industrialization and urbanization. As a result, the rapid increases of large-scale air pollution in Asia emerge as a serious concern at both domestic and international levels. Apart from the problems of air quality degradation, emission control, environmental risk, and health effect in a domestic level, evidences from scientific studies indicate that by the long-range transport, Asian air pollution is becoming a global problem. Observations and model studies confirm that air pollution from Asia could be transported to North America or farther. In this work, we investigate the Asian air pollutions, in particular ozone and some other atmospheric components such as carbon monoxide and black carbon, from the ground- based observations in the three different regions, namely 1) background region of Siberia and central Asia, 2) highly anthropogenic region in eastern China, and 3) the rim region of the Asia-Pacific. In a transcontinental transport perspective, these regions are regarded as the inflow region, source region, and outflow region of Asia, respectively. From the results, it is found that the influences from large-scale emission in East Asia are observed clearly in the source region, and to the significant extent in the outflow region. For the inflow region of Asia, our data in Siberia and Kyrgyzstan indicate that air masses in this region are mostly intact from large-scale anthropogenic emission, and remain much of the global background atmospheric pollution characteristic. When the air masses are transported to source region, the air pollutants level increased sharply and frequent episodes of extremely high pollutions have been observed. Our results show good correlation between the residence time of air masses over the source region in eastern China and the observed levels of air pollutants verifying the strong enhancements by anthropogenic emissions from industrialization and urbanization. In the outflow region, air pollutants characteristics depend largely on the air mass climatology. In most cases, increases of air pollutants level are observed with the transport events directly from the source region.

  10. Swedish support programme on nuclear non-proliferation in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Swedish Government, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has established a support and co-operation programme in the area of nuclear non-proliferation with Russia and several of the republics of the former Soviet Union. The Programme was initiated in 1991 and an overall goal is to accomplish national means and measures for control and protection of nuclear material and facilities, in order to minimise the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The objective of the Swedish Support Programme is to help each, so called, recipient State to be able to, independently and without help from outside, take the full responsibility for operating a national non-proliferation system and thereby fulfil the requirements imposed through the international legal instruments. This would include both the development and implementation of a modern nuclear legislation system, and the establishment of the components making up a national system for combating illicit trafficking. The support and co-operation projects are organised in five Project Groups (i.e. nuclear legislation, nuclear material control, physical protection, export/import control, and combating of illicit trafficking), which together cover the entire non-proliferation area. Up till June 2000, support and co-operation projects, completed and on-going, have been carried out in ten States, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, programmes have been initiated during the first part of 2000 with Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In addition, assistance has been given to Poland on a specific nuclear material accountancy topic. All projects are done on request by and in co-operation with these States. The total number of projects initiated during the period 1991 to June 2000 is 109, thereof 77 have been completed and 32 are currently on-going. It is the convinced understanding and opinion of the Swedish Support Programme Management that the States in question are seriously motivated and are carrying out an ambitious work to develop and improve their national non-proliferation regimes, in spite of their shortcomings concerning financial and human resources. For those States, with which Sweden has established support and co-operation programmes with 'full-scope' non-proliferation objectives, it is judged that the goals reached, up till now, are very satisfactory, and that the States in question have come a long way towards the fulfilment of international requirements. The Programme is now entering a third phase and the future Programme plans are currently under consideration. A broad outlook of the future activities is made in chapter D of this report

  11. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered mobile and potentially bioavailable. Looking at fish, high BCF (L/kg) especially for 210Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. A linear correlation between log 210Po in liver and ?15N could indicate bio-magnification of 210Po in liver of C. auratus. These legacy sites, containing enhanced levels of natural radioactive material as well as heavy metals, may represent a hazard having a potential radiological and chemical impact on man and the environment, and measures should be taken to reduce the environmental risk to man and biota. (authors)

  12. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 ?g m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2 to 90 ?g m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 ?g m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources from Europe; South, East, and Central Asia; and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.

  13. Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Turkic Republics and Turkey: Economic and Business Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfu Sagbansua

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An ever-increasing globalization in last century is enforcing many countries to come together and create organizations to take advantage of a greater power in the global stage both in political and economic issues. Regional organizations are one form of such organizations. In addition to many of such groups, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO is an intergovernmental mutual-security organization which was founded in 2001 by the leaders of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In a short period of time since then SCO has proved itself to be a powerful organization promising to be an authority in Central Asian region. The research at hand is formed to investigate the development of this organization along with its effect on Turkey as well as the member countries. This effect is also analyzed in two dimensions. The place of SCO in region is analyzed not only in terms of economic side but also the business side. The fact that business and economics are difficult to isolate from each other, makes it a necessity to use this approach, thus, making this study a valuable source. Key words: Shanghai Cooperation Organization; Turkic Republics; Central Asia; Transitional EconomiesRésumé: Une mondialisation en constante croissance dans le siècle dernier oblige de nombreux pays de se réunir et de créer des organisations afin de profiter d'un plus grand pouvoir dans les événements politiques et économiques au niveau international. Les organisations régionales sont une forme de ces organisations. A part de ces groupes, l’Organisation de coopération de Shanghai (OCS est une organisation intergouvernementale de sécurité mutuelle, fondée en 2001 par les dirigeants de la Chine, la Russie, le Kazakhstan, le Kirghizistan, le Tadjikistan et l'Ouzbékistan. Dans un court laps de temps depuis lors, OCS s'est avérée être une organisation puissante promettant d'être une autorité en Asie centrale.La présente recherche est ménée pour enquêter sur le développement de cette organisation ainsi que son effet sur la Turquie et les pays membres. Cet effet est également analysé en deux dimensions. Le statut de l'OCS dans la région est analysé non seulement du point de vue économique mais aussi commercial. Le fait que le commerce et l'économie sont difficiles à isoler l’un de l’autre exige une nécessité d'utiliser cette approche, ce qui rend cette étude une source précieuse. Mots clés: Organisation de coopération de Shanghai; Républiques turques; Asie central; Économies transitionnelles

  14. Power-law decay characteristic of coda envelopes revealed from the analysis of regional earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W.; Sato, H.

    2005-12-01

    So far, coda envelopes for wide frequency bands with long lapse time range have been described by bending curves which have several systematic changes in decay rate with lapse time. However, for NS component seismograms of regional earthquakes, applying the Hilbert Transform to make envelope curves and taking regression analysis on the envelopes in period bands from 24 s to 1/6 s for a wide lapse time range up to 4,000 s instead of measuring the peak amplitudes of the coda used previously, we found coda envelopes show the feature of ``power-law'' decay and there is no systematic change of decay gradient except for once occurring around ScS arrival with lapse time. 157 seismic events recorded by 11 IRIS broadband seismic network stations during the period from 1988 to 2005 with focal depths shallower than 50 km (shallow events) and deeper than 150 km (deep events) and with epicentral distance less than 1,000 km from individual seismic station were collected in this study. The moment magnitude of selected events ranges from 4.7 to 7.8. The ``power-law'' decay characteristic of seismic envelopes indicates that the power spectrum of seismic coda could be simply expressed as of the form P( T, t) ~ t - ?, where t is lapse time and T is central period. We find that ? = 1.6-6.2 for before ScS arrival in all period bands and 0.6-5.3 for after ScS arrival ranging from 24 s to 3/2 s periods. The coda decay gradient at short periods is steeper than that at longer periods for both cases of before and after ScS arrival. In particular, a clear offset of coda amplitude associated with ScS arrival appears in Turkey, Kyrgyzstan and Bolivia at 4-8 s and 8-16 s period bands. These coda decay gradient change and offset behavior in coda envelopes around ScS arrival are not clear in seismograms of shallow events. The simple and distinct characteristics of seismic coda envelopes could provide reliable information to determine physical values such as seismic source parameters and to identify the regional difference of medium heterogeneity in the deep Earth.

  15. Influence of High Energy Electromagnetic Pulses on the Dynamics of the Seismic Process Around the Bishkek Test Area (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcharashvili, Teimuraz N.; Chelidze, Tamaz L.; Zhukova, Natalia N.

    2015-07-01

    Investigation of dynamical features of the seismic process as well as the possible influence of different natural and man-made impacts on it remains one of the main interdisciplinary research challenges. The question of external influences (forcings) acquires new importance in the light of known facts on possible essential changes, which occur in the behavior of complex systems due to different relatively weak external impacts. Seismic processes in the complicated tectonic system are not an exclusion from this general rule. In the present research we continued the investigation of dynamical features of seismic activity in Central Asia around the Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) test area, where strong electromagnetic (EM) soundings were performed in the 1980s. The unexpected result of these experiments was that they revealed the impact of strong electromagnetic discharges on the microseismic activity of investigated area. We used an earthquake catalogue of this area to investigate dynamical features of seismic activity in periods before, during, and after the mentioned man-made EM forcings. Different methods of modern time series analysis have been used, such as wavelet transformation, Hilbert Huang transformation, detrended fluctuation analysis, and recurrence quantification analysis. Namely, inter-event (waiting) time intervals, inter-earthquake distances and magnitude sequences, as well as time series of the number of daily occurring earthquakes have been analyzed. We concluded that man-made high-energy EM irradiation essentially affects dynamics of the seismic process in the investigated area in its temporal and spatial domains; namely, the extent of order in earthquake time and space distribution increase. At the same time, EM influence on the energetic distribution is not clear from the present analysis. It was also shown that the influence of EM impulses on dynamical features of seismicity differs in different areas of the examined territory around the test site. Clear changes have been indicated only in areas which, according to previous researches, have been characterized by anomalous increase of average rates of strain release and thus can be regarded as close to the critical state.

  16. Projected impacts of climate change on hydrology, water resource use and adaptation needs for the Chu and Talas cross-border rivers basin, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamil Iliasov, Shamil; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Lipponen, Annukka; Novikov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    The observed long-term trends, variability and projections of future climate and hydrology of the Chu and Talas transboundary rivers basin were analysed using a common approach for Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan parts of the basin. Historical, current and forecasted demands and main uses of water in the basin were elaborated by the joint effort of both countries. Such cooperative approach combining scientific data, water practitioners' outlook with decision making needs allowed the first time to produce a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on water resources in the Chu-Talas transboundary rivers basin, identify future needs and develop the initial set of adaptation measures and recommendations. This work was carried out under the project "Promoting Cooperation to Adapt to Climate Change in the Chu and Talas Transboundary Basin", supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Climate change projections, including air temperatures and rainfall in the 21st century were determined with a spatial resolution 0.5 degrees based on the integration of 15 climate change model outputs (derived from IPCC's 4th Assessment Report, and partially 5th Assessment Report) combined with locally-designed hydrology and glacier models. A significant increase in surface air temperatures by 3-6°C may be expected in the basin area, especially in summer and autumn. This change is likely to be accompanied by rainfall increase during the cold season and a decrease in the warm half of the year. As a result, a deterioration of moisture conditions during the summer-autumn period is possible. Furthermore, milder winters and hotter summers can be expected. Mountains will likely receive more liquid precipitation, than snow, while the area and volume of glaciers may significantly reduce. Projected changes in climate and glaciers have implications for river hydrology and different sectors of the economy dependent on water use. Assessment of agricultural sector vulnerability, which is the key water user in the basin, led to identification of the potential adaptation measures and discussion with relevant national and river basin authorities and the major stakeholders. Proposed adaptation measures range from technical - such as rehabilitation of irrigation systems to reduce water losses, modernize water reservoirs and adjust river regulation to environmental flow needs, changing land use and crop diversification - to policy and finance measures, including revision of subsidies, economic consideration of ecosystem services, etc. Next steps include a more detailed assessment of economics, effectiveness and feasibility of the initially proposed adaptation measures and additional research.

  17. The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies are necessary. Temporary seismic networks have been installed in several Central Asian cities (Bishkek and Karakol, Kyrgyzstan; Dushanbe, Tajikistan; Tashkent, Uzbekistan) within the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA), a regional program of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The empirically estimated site effects have already helped to improve real-time risk scenarios for Bishkek and will be applied to other major cities. - A crucial requirement for disaster risk reduction involves the analysis of the vulnerability of existing building inventories. Whereas traditional approaches are very time- and cost-consuming, and even impossible given the high rate of urbanization in Central Asian capitals, our integrated approach is based on satellite remote sensing and ground-based omni-directional imaging, providing building inventories and thus structural vulnerability over large areas (EMCA, GEM-IDCT). All mentioned activities are carried out within the framework of cooperation between GFZ and regional national institutes, in particular the Central Asian Institute for Applied Geosciences. Altogether, this comprehensive and long-term risk analyses and research program will lead to a better understanding of the coupling of endogene and exogene processes and the identification of their impact on society.

  18. [Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among patients with chronic hepatitis C infection in Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey: a five-year evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa?lik, ?mran; Mutlu, Derya; Öngut, Gözde; ?nan, Dilara; Ö?ünç, Dilara; Can Sarino?lu, Rabia; Özhak Baysan, Betil; Gültekin, Meral; Çolak, Dilek

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis. It is important to know the genotypes of HCV in the decision of the HCV related chronic hepatitis therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HCV genotypes determined at the Microbiology Laboratory of Akdeniz University Hospital, and to evaluate the changes in the distribution of the genotypes within the last five years. A total of 422 blood samples from HCV-RNA positive chronic hepatitis C patients (219 male, 203 female; age range: 8-79 yrs, mean age 46.3 ± 15.5 yrs) which were sent to our laboratory for genotyping between 2009-2013 period, were analyzed retrospectively. HCV-RNA extractions were performed in an automated system (EZ1 Virus Mini Kit v2.0, Qiagen, Germany), and a commercial reverse hybridization line probe-based assay (LIPA; GEN-C RT-PCR, Italy) was carried out for genotyping, For viral load determinations, a real-time PCR method (Cobas TaqMan HCV, Roche Diagnostics, Germany) was used. Demographic data of the patients were obtained from the hospital information systems and electronic patients' files. Out of the 422 patients, genotype 1b was detected in 63.3% (n= 267), genotype 1a in 14.7% (n= 62), genotype 3a in 11.1% (n= 47), genotype 2b in 0.9% (n= 4), genotype 4e in 0.2% (n= 1). The subtypes couldn't be determined for 5.4% (n= 23), 2.6% (n= 11) and 1.4% (n= 6) of the patients infected with genotype 1, 2 and 4, respectively. One (0.2%) patient, was coinfected with genotype 1 and 4. Of the patients, 40 were foreign-born (16 cases from Russia; 4 of each from Ukraine and Georgia; 3 of each from Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Germany; one of each from Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Chechnya, Moldova, Switzerland and Romania) and among these patients genotype 3a (19/40; 47.5%) was the most common genotype followed by genotype 1b (17/40; 42.5%). Median values of HCV viral load were 668.500 IU/ml (range: 2.000-9.630.000) in the whole group; while it was 732.000 IU/ml (range: 2.000-9.630.000) in patients infected with genotype 1 and 444.000 IU/ml (range: 2.650- 8.330.000) in patients infected with the other genotypes (p> 0.05). Patients infected with genotype 1 were found to be older than those infected with other genotypes (47 ± 15.7 and 39.5 ± 12.2, respectively; p 0.05). In conclusion, the determination of HCV genotypes is of crucial importance for treatment decision-making of chronic HCV infection. Besides, it also allows monitoring the changes in the epidemiology of HCV. In this study, although genotype 1b was determined as the most common HCV genotype, the detection of other genotypes was remarkable. This finding was attributed to the presence of many foreign national people in Antalya region which was a high capacity tourism area in Turkey. PMID:25052109

  19. Anavatanlar?ndan Sekiz Ülkeye Da??t?lm?? Bir Halk: Ah?ska Türkleri A People Scattered From Their Native Land to Eight Countries: Ahiska (Meskhetian Turks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinç DEM?RAY

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahiska or Meskhet Turks definations are geographical denominations, not etnic ones. Ahiska region and Turks living in this region was a natural part of Anatolian Turks as geopraphical and demographic. The precense of the Turks in this region known as Meskhetia in the history is based on ancient times. In the 11th century Seljuk conquests and then in the 12th century settlement of the Kipchak Turks, who came the region at the invitation of the Georgian king David who failed in fighting against Seljuks, enhanced the Turkish population at once. Thus, the Turks effectuated a full domination on the area in terms of the populatin. After a short time, in the middle 13th century Kipchaks declared their independence and founded their state named “Atabekler Devleti”. In history, this land dominated by The Kipchaks is known and displayed as Sa-Atabago (land of Atabegs by Georgians, too. The Atabegs Principality was captured by Ottoman State towards the end of 16th century and this principality was reorganized as Cildir Shire and Ahiska was done its capital city. In this region people have the same cultural codes with Anatolian Turks living on northeastern provinces of Turkey. Meskhetian Turks were exiled to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in 1944 when they lived in a province located in the southwest of Georgia and northeast of Turkey, and known as “Samtshe-Cavaheti” under the administrational umbrella of Georgia. Having not been allowed turning back to their hometowns, Meskhetian Turks live mostly in eight countries now and keep the characteristics of their dialect to a great extent which can be regarded as the following of Eastern Anatolian dialects. Ah?ska ya da Mesket Türkleri tan?mlar? etnik de?il co?rafi bir adland?rma olup, Ah?ska bölgesi ve Türkleri Anadolu Türklü?ünün co?rafi ve demografik bak?mdan tabii devam?d?r. Tarihte Meskhetia olarak da bilinen bölgedeki Türk varl??? çok eski devirlere dayanmakta olup, 11. yüzy?ldaki Selçuklu fetihleri ve Selçuklularla mücadelede yetersiz kalan Gürcü kral?n?n daveti ile 12. yüzy?lda K?pçak Türklerinin de bölgeye gelerek yerle?mesi bölgeyi tamamen Türkle?tirmi?tir. Gürcü Krall??? içinde güçlenen K?pçaklar 13. yüzy?l ortalar?nda ba??ms?zl?klar? ilan etmi?ler ve hâkim olduklar? bu bölgeler tarihte, Gürcüler taraf?ndan da, Atabek Yurdu olarak an?lm??t?r. Akkoyunlu, Karakoyunlu, Safevî Türk devletleri himayesinde varl???n? sürdüren Atabekler Devleti 16. yüzy?l?n sonlar?na do?ru Osmanl? Devletine kat?lm?? ve merkezi Ah?ska olan Ç?ld?r Eyaleti olarak yeniden düzenlenmi?tir. Bölgede K?pçak ve O?uz Türklerinin kayna?mas? ile olu?an topluluk, Artvin ve Erzurum illerimizin Çoruh nehri ve kollar? etraf?nda ve Ardahan ilimizin Posof ilçesi ve çevresinde ya?ayan Türklerle tarih boyunca dil ve kültür bak?m?ndan ayn? kodlara sahip olmu?tur. Ah?ska Türkleri, Gürcistan’?n Güney-Bat?s?nda, Türkiye’nin Kuzey-Do?usunda yer alan, günümüzde Gürcistan’?n idari yap?s? içinde “Samtshe-Cavaheti” olarak adland?r?lan vilayette ya?arken 1944 y?l?nda Özbekistan, Kazakistan ve K?rg?zistan’a sürgün edilmi?tir. Geçen 68 y?l içinde, sürgün edildikleri topraklara dönü?lerine imkân tan?nmayan Ah?ska Türkleri günümüzde ba?l?ca sekiz ülkede ya?amakta ve Do?u Anadolu a??zlar?n?n bir devam? niteli?indeki a??z özelliklerini büyük ölçüde korumaktad?rlar.

  20. Natural and anthropogenic multi-type hazards for loess territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyanova, Nadira; Zakirova, Zulfiya

    2013-04-01

    Central Asia (CA) is an extremely large region of varied geography from plains to high, rugged mountains (the region belongs to the Tien-Shan and Pamirs mountain system), vast deserts (Kara Kum, Kyzyl Kum, Taklamakan). The area of the CA region is including the territories of following countries: of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. CA is particularly exposed to natural hazards like earthquakes, landslide, rockfalls, avalanches, mudflows, flooding, high mountains lakes, sub flooding, and debris flow. This region is one of the most seismically active in the world. In XX century almost in each of five countries have occurred strong earthquakes with magnitude more than 7, led to human victims. Loess soils are widespread in this region in foothills, foothill plains and intermountain depressions. Loess can cause a number of engineering problems because loess undergoes structural collapse and subsidence due to saturation when both the initial dry density and initial water content are low. By comparison of the map of seismic zoning to a map of distribution of loess soils it is easy to be convinced that the territory of the majority of seismic areas are covering by collapsible loess soils with significant thickness (50-150 m). The natural hazards leads to a disaster, if it develops in an urbanized or industrial areas and directly affects people and economic objects. In this case, risk takes place with all its consequences especially on loess soil. In the past a formation of natural hazards was connected generally with two main groups of factors: geological structure and climatic conditions. Now to them the third factor - of human made influence was added. Intensive influence of human activity to the loess territories in CA for last 60 years is destruction of nature balance and changing in environment of loess land in zone with high seismic hazard. This processes primarily associated with following: 1) irrigation of new lands; 2) the developing of mining manufactures and their waste located in the foothill areas with high seismic risk and where manifested of dangerous geological processes as landslide, collapse, mud stream, rock falls and toxic contamination; 3) development of urbanization with manifestation of difference engineering geological processes in loess soil on the based of constructions in cities (collapse, liquefaction). That example of cascade effects when natural and anthropogenic multi type hazards in loess was the Gissar earthquake (1989) in Tajikistan when the earthquake of rather moderate intensity (M=5.2; H=5-7 km; I=7 - MSK scale) was triggered several landslides and mudslides connected with liquefaction of wetted loess and can cause a large number of human victims. In the pre 20 years steady irrigation of the slope area occurred for cotton field. This moistening has increase and the water content of the soil to wet 24-28%, up to a depth of 20-30 m that increased the vulnerability of this territory. The interactions between different natural hazards, include triggered, especially earthquakes, landslides, collapses, liquefaction in loess soil with taking account of anthropogenic hazard influence was investigate.

  1. Estimation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central asia and the Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is our international Program with the participation of 6 countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. For all presented regions we single out the following typical factors that significantly increase a risk of implementing natural and man-induced catastrophes: (1) these regions are located in the mountain areas with the high seismic level (5- 9 grades by Richter scale); (2) the largest mountain rivers have cascades of powerful hydroelectric stations with their sizeable reservoirs and huge high dams (>100m); (3) on the regions' densely populated lands there are plenty of mines for extraction of metals/minerals, industrial facilities and plants with U-tailing dumps and burrows of varied pollutants with using the different radioactive, toxic and poisonous substances in their technologies; (3) the man-induced activity here increases probabilities for occurrence of not only severe man-induced catastrophes, but also natural ones; (4) An especially grave situation has been created on trans boundary lands of these continue, due to the lack of common ecological and geochemical monitoring systems, that increases political and economic tension between the countries and generating negative migration processes; (5) risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes are not only regional but also global by nature, since they entail contamination of vast lands, the basins of the Black, Caspian and Kara Seas, that of the Arctic Ocean and, consequently, the entire World Ocean; (6) opportunity to perform deliberate attacks of terrorists with the using of explosives, that are able to cause man-induced catastrophes and stimulate natural calamities (earthquakes, mud flows, landslips, etc.). It is easier to implement attacks of terrorists there due to the intersection of main lines, an available border with current centers of international terrorism, located in Chechnya, Afghanistan and some others. The hazard is especially great for new independent states, where the system of safety, boundary and customs control, that of strict visa control and other state safety measures have not yet been formed. Consequences of terrorist attacks in the regions will be followed by major human and huge material losses, and extremely negative irreversible global scale environmental effects. The humankind has faced the majority of the above issues for the first time and, therefore, there are no good suitable methods provided for their solving. A purposeful activity of all countries of the world community is required. Program's results of Program 3 will be used in the following: (1) When developing a methodology/strategy to regulate and manage risks in emergencies; (2) when mapping risk allocation by various lands; (3) when developing a common system for emergency prevention/elimination. Our Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAS) has own experience in these scientific directions (http://www.ibrae.ac.ru). This Program will promote the realization of concept of substantial development with growth of economical cooperation and stability, decreasing of political stress not only for the countries- participants, but also at global scale for all countries, located at the continent. (author)

  2. Magnetotelluric monitoring experiment at the northern Tien Shan seismogenic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. High-density array MT soundings of the crust in the seismically active northern Tien Shan were performed using Phoenix MTU-5 stations in the Bishkek Geodynamic Polygon, at the junction of the Chu basin and the Kyrgyz Range. The MT transfer functions were determined to an accuracy of 1-2% (amplitude) and about 0.5-0.8 deg (phase) in most of 145 soundings. Preliminary analysis of the collected data aimed at estimating the geoelectrical dimensionality. The Bahr decomposition analysis indicated the presence of local 3D structures in the crust of the area superposed on the regional 2D structure. As a result of 2D inversion of amplitude and phase data with Randy Mackie codes, the geoelectric cross-sections along MT profiles have been constructed. Inversion models image upper-mid crustal zone of enhanced conductivity of the Issyk-Ata fault. Resistivity of this conductive zone is not exceeding 100 ohm-m. The conductor is connected to the surface structure and its upper part coincides with the line of Issyk-Ata fault on the surface. The low resistivity zone in the southern part of the investigated area is gently plunged into the southern direction beneath the rise of the Kyrgyz Range. Apparently, this zone represents large crust's zone of tectonic decollement and weakening with high fluid-gas environment permeability with properties of the waveguide. Next actual implication reveals from comparison of local seismicity spatial distribution aof local seismicity spatial distribution and resistivity structure. One can clearly see the high seismicity clustering around the edge of conductive zones, thus we suggest that the local seismicity results either from the migration of the fluids to less permeable crust or from local stress concentration near the structural boundaries. So, presented results of high resolution magnetotelluric survey show that geoelectric imaging of fault zones deliver us the unique information of deep structure features and sometimes it can give us new unexpected tectonic explanations for studied objects. In addition to these structural EM investigations in 2003 Research Station RAS (Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan) and Phoenix Geophysics (Toronto, Canada) jointly installed two permanent stations at the seismogenic zone near Bishkek for monitoring natural and artificial electromagnetic fields, using Phoenix magnetotelluric equipment MTU-5D. MT parameters computed daily for the whole period of these observations are presented. Wavelet analysis was executed for the time series of daily average values of apparent resistivity (modules and phases) for two stationary stations of ?? measurements since autumn of 2003. The time intervals till a few months duration with abnormal behaviour of apparent resistivity variations in the period sounding range T=5-100s are marked, but for all that the maximum of change makes only the first percents. Such long-term change of resistivity has correlation with seismic activity in the region and, probably, can reflect the activation period of the structures in the mid-low crust at the Northern Tien Shan. The work was supported by RBRF grant 07-05-00594a.

  3. THE PROJECT OF DEVELOPING CURRICULUM FOR TURKISH WORLD CITIZENSHIP IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION AND EVALUATING ITS EFFECTIVENESS/KÜLTÜRLER ARASI E??T?M BA?LAMINDA TÜRK DÜNYASI VATANDA?LI?I DERS PROGRAMI GEL??T?R?LMES? PROJES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal BAY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify how to design objectives, content, methods and, evaluation of the curriculum design which will be developed in the context of the project being carried out, called “Developing Curriculum for Turkish World Citizenship in the Context of Intercultural Education and Evaluating Its Effectiveness”. “Workshop of Turkish World Citizenship” was held with 80 researchers from 8 countries on the 22nd and 23rd of October, 2014 in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. Education, history, culture and language study groups were created in the workshop in which answers to the research questions were sought within focus group discussion method. As a result of analysis of data, it was emphasized that students who will attend to this course need to acquire common national, moral and cultural values, important mythological elements, important works of Turkish literature before and after Islam, and similarities and differences of the languages in Turkish World in terms of etymological, phonological and semantic features. In the study, it was determined that student-centered and interactive approach and methods need to be used to convey these characteristics to students. Supplementary assessment and evaluation techniques such as rubric and grid along with traditional assessment and evaluation need to be used to determine to what extent the students acquired the characteristics. Bu çal??man?n amac?, yürütülmekte olan “Kültürler Aras? E?itim Ba?lam?nda Türk Dünyas? Vatanda?l??? Ders Program? Geli?tirilmesi ve Etkilili?inin De?erlendirilmesi” ba?l?kl? proje kapsam?nda geli?tirilecek olan ders program? tasar?s?n?n hedef, içerik, e?itim durumlar? ve ölçme de?erlendirme boyutlar?n?n nas?l olmas? gerekti?inin belirlenmesidir. Ara?t?rma sorular?na cevap aramak için 22-23 Ekim 2014 tarihinde K?rg?zistan’?n ba?kenti Bi?kek’te 8 ülkeden 80 akademisyenin kat?l?m?yla “Türk Dünyas? Vatanda?l??? Çal??tay?” düzenlenmi?tir. Çal??tayda e?itim, tarih, kültür ve dil çal??ma gruplar? olu?turulmu? ve bu gruplarda ara?t?rma sorular?na Odak Gruplu Görü?me Yöntemi’yle cevaplar aranm??t?r. Verilerin analizi sonucunda Türk Dünyas?’n?n ortak millî, ahlaki ve kültürel de?erlerinin, önemli mitolojik unsurlar?n, ?slam öncesi ve sonras? Türk Edebiyat?n?n önemli eserlerinin, Türk Dünyas?’n?n ortak abide ?ahsiyetlerinin, Türk Dünyas?’ndaki dillerin fonetik, morfolojik, semantik… aç?lardan benzerlik ve farkl?l?klar?n?n bu dersi alacak ö?rencilere kazand?r?lmas? gerekti?i vurgulanm??t?r. Çal??mada bu özelliklerin kazand?r?lmas? sürecinde ö?renen merkezli ve interaktif yakla??m ve yöntemlerin kullan?lmas? gerekti?i belirlenmi?tir. Ö?rencilerin bu özelliklere ne kadar sahip olduklar?n?n belirlenmesinde ise geleneksel ölçme-de?erlendirme tekniklerinin yan? s?ra rubrik, grid gibi tamamlay?c? ölçme de?erlendirme tekniklerinin de kullan?lmas? gerekti?i vurgulanm??t?r.

  4. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many of these toxic dumps are vulnerable to seismically induced landsliding, release of reservoir water and breaching of very large (up to several km3) landslide-dammed lakes within the deep mountain valleys typical of the fault zone. The May 2008 earthquake in neighboring Sichuan, in which some 30 landslide-dammed lakes were created, may be useful in refining hazard scenarios developed from the multi-pronged analysis employed in our study. This analysis involves compiling all relevant existing data, such as seismic archives held in paper format, within the project GIS. Spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by these compiled data, together with focal mechanism determinations where possible, are combined with data on the distribution and nature of geological units to provide estimates of peak ground acceleration and the likely incidence of seismically-triggered slope instability. This compilation also identifies data deficiencies to be targeted using a portable seismometer network, geophysical and geodetic surveys, InSAR and other remote sensing data; all combined with geotechnical and palaeoseismological fieldwork. Initial results from this approach confirm the ground-shaking potential of Talas-Fergana rupture events, suggest a long-term slip rate as high as 15 mm a-1, and the occurrence of the last ground-rupturing event some 4-500 years BP. The lack of significant activity since that event suggests the Talas-Fergana structure may comprise a seismic gap within the Tien-Shan, highlighting the importance of hazard scenarios in proposing mitigation measures against potentially catastrophic threats, such as extensive pollution of irrigated lands in the Fergana Valley downstream from Toktogul on which some 10 million people depend.

  5. DGMK/OeGEW spring meeting of the exploration and production department. Proceedings; DGMK/OeGEW-Fruehjahrstagung des Fachbereichs Aufsuchung und Gewinnung. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the spring meeting 2009 of the exploration and production department of the German Society and Coal Science and Technology (DGMK, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Austrian Society of Petroleum Sciences (OeGEW, Vienna, Austria) at 27th and 28th April, 2009, in Celle (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Natural gas for Europe - Where does it come from, and how safe is it?; (2) Fluid dynamics in salt-encased carbonates; (3) Predicting petroleum fluid quality and quantity by using the PhaseKinetic approach for a basin modelling study in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin, offshore Newfoundland, Canada; (4) Models of geomechanical reservoirs for the prognosis of tectonic stresses and crack grids - concept and case study from the Sirte Basin / Libya; (5) A depositional model and sequence stratigraphic correlation for Ordovician glacial deposits, Illizi Basin, Algeria; (6) Palynology of the upper Silurian to Middle Devonian of wells from the Reggane Basin, southern Algeria; (7) Evaluation of heterogeneities in petroleum deposits by mans of asphaltene; (8) Experiments to reactions of n-alkanes with hematite in clastic reservoir rocks; (9) Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen Formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan); (10) Mud Volcanoes of Azerbaijan - Organic chemistry of ejected sediments; (11) Seismoelectric signatures for the determination of depositional parameters; (12) A workflow for the processing and imaging of Reflexion seismic data with CRS attributes; (13) Detection of altitude variations during production of natural gas or petroleum in the area of the San Jorge Basin by means of satellite radar interferometry; (14) (S)PWD - Development of a high resolution system for seismic exploratory work in the deep drilling; (15) Development of a discontinuum mechanics based computer algorithm in the FDM program FLAC3D for Frac dispersion in tigt gas reservoirs; (16) A fresh look at EOR screening criteria; (17) Drilling beyond oil and gas: A discussion about how technology will change to enhance drilling in urban areas; (18) STREICHER deep drilling system VDD 200.1 and its first application at the petroleum deposit Schoenebeek in The Netherlands; (19) Utilization of ultrafine heavy spar in horizontal boreholes illustrated by the drilling Mittelplate MP A 19a; (20) Damage of reservoirs by means of format flushing - causes, treatment and prevention; (21) Cost drivers of 4,000 to 5,000 m drillings in Germany; (22) Utilization of radial drilling in the RAG; (23) Motor driven rotary steerable system - utilization in horizontal storage drillings of RAG; (24) Technical measures for the enhancement of the lifetime of production installations in petroleum fields; (25) Utilization of a water treatment plant in the conveyor plant Aitingen; (26) Common generation of electricity and steam in the petroleum conveyor system Emlichheim with a combined heat and power generation plant; (27) Improved oil recovery in mature oil and gas fields using twin-screw multiphase pumps; (28) Utilization of the casing patch technology in the sealing of existing perforations for the subsequent stimulation of deposits; (29) Foamer applications at EMPG; (30) Use of integrated electronic and sensors to improve plunger lift modelling towards efficient liquid unloading in gas wells; (31) Replacement of the process control sysem at the Grossenkneten desulphurization plant; (32) Never again annular space activities?; (33) Improvement of the capacities of an underground natural gas deposit with sand problems by means of optimized variants of complementation; (34) 'Process Facilities benchmarking' of the OMV natural gas storage station Schoenkirchen-Reyersdorf; (35) Security of investment requires distinct regulations - Proposed solutions at utilization competitions according to underground storage formations; (36) Petrography and reservoir characteristics of upper triassic sandstones from a CO{sub 2} pilot storage site (Stuttgart Formation, Ketzin, Germany); (37)

  6. Traditional applications and novel approaches in Lu-Hf geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwartz, D.; Nagel, T. J.; Sandmann, S.; Vitale Brovarone, A.; Rexroth, S.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Froitzheim, N.; Kröner, A.; Skublov, S. G.; Münker, C.

    2012-04-01

    Lutetium-Hf geochronology is currently becoming a routine method for dating metamorphism of garnet bearing rocks, such as eclogites. Prograde garnet growth ages are mostly preserved because blocking temperatures exceed 630 °C [1] and prograde Lu zoning patterns have even been observed in samples that were exposed to temperatures above 800 °C [2]. Here we discuss Lu-Hf ages from various eclogite localities, such as the Northern Tianshan, Kyrgyzstan (~ 470 Ma), the Kola Peninsula, Russia (~ 1900 Ma) [3], Cuba (~70 Ma and ~124 Ma), Alpine Corsica (~ 34 Ma) and the Tauern Window (~32.7 Ma). Age precisions are in the order of 0.1 to 1 % and all ages can be safely attributed to the timing of garnet growth. Some samples, however, contain two garnet populations which complicates Lu-Hf geochronology. In the Adula Nappe (Central Alps) relict garnet has survived a second orogenic cycle, including subduction to mantle depth. By carefully separating the two garnet populations present within the same eclogite sample we obtained a minimum Variscan age of 333 Ma and a maximum Alpine age of 38 Ma [4]. A similar relationship is now evident in samples from the Tauern Window (Eastern Alps), where only one population of garnet generation is visible macroscopically. However, few relics of Variscan garnet inside Alpine garnet are observed in electron microprobe element maps and are also evident from isotopic heterogeneity in 176Lu/177Hf vs. 176Hf/177Hf space. Garnet relics stemming from previous metamorphic events are frequently observed in HP units around the world and the Lu-Hf system is a promising tool to resolve the respective growth ages. Apart from garnet, lawsonite Lu-Hf geochronology was recently identified as a new tool to investigate subduction processes [5]. Here we present a lawsonite Lu-Hf isochron 37,6 ± 1.4 Ma (MSWD = 0.30; n =5) from a lawsonite blueschist from Alpine Corsica. The lawsonite slightly predates the timing of garnet growth (~34 Ma) in three eclogite samples, collected from other paleogeographic units of Alpine Corsica. The age discrepancy between lawsonite and garnet could be used to calculate subduction rates. Most importantly however, the Lu-Hf system provides virtually the first reliable tool for dating low grade blueshist assemblages. [1] Skora, S., Baumgartner, L.P., Mahlen, N.J., Lapen, T.J., Johnson, C.M. and Bussy, F. (2008) Estimation of a maximum Lu diffusion rate in a natural eclogite garnet. Swiss J. Geosci. DOI: 10.1007/s00015-008-1268-y. [2] Schmidt A., Mezger K. and O'Brien P.J. (2011) The time of eclogite formation in the ultrahigh pressure rocks of the Sulu terrane. Constraints from Lu-Hf garnet geochronology. Lithos. DOI: 10.1016/j.lithos.2011.04.004. [3] Herwartz D., Skublov S.G., Berezin A.V. and Melnik A.E. (accepted) First Lu-Hf garnet ages of eclogites from the Belmorian Mobile Belt, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Doklady Earth Sciences [4] Herwartz D., Nagel T. J., Münker C., Scherer E. E. and Froitzheim N. (2011) Tracing two orogenic cycles in one eclogite sample by Lu-Hf garnet chronometry. Nature Geoscience 4, 178-183. [5] Mulcahy S.R., King R.L. and Vervoort J. D. (2009) Lawsonite Lu-Hf geochronology: A new geochronometer for subduction zone processes. Geology 37, 987-990.

  7. Eocene sea retreat out of Asia: paleogeography, controlling mechanisms and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Bosboom, Roderic; Proust, Jean-Noël; Mandic, Oleg; Villa, Giuliana; Grothe, Arjan; Stoica, Marius; Guo, Zhaojie; Krijgsman, Wout; Yang, Wei; Bougeois, Laurie; Aminov, Jovid; Ormukov, Cholponbec; Huang, Wentao

    2014-05-01

    The sediments of the Central Asian basins include the remnants of the easternmost extent of a large epicontinental sea. Before it retreated westward and eventually separated as the Paratethys Sea following the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), this shallow marine sea extended across the Eurasian continent from the Mediterranean Tethys in the west to the Tarim Basin in western China in the east. However, the paleogeography and the timing of the westward retreat of the proto-Paratethys Sea are too poorly constrained to identify its proposed controlling mechanisms and paleoenvironmental impacts. The sea supposedly entered Central Asia in the Cretaceous and five third-order marine incursions have been recognized from the Cretaceous-Paleogene sedimentary record, of which the last two transgressions are documented here. We studied the sea retreat in the Tarim Basin in western China, the Alai Valley and Ferghana Basin in southern Kyrgyzstan and the Afghan-Tajik Basin in south-western Tajikistan. Integrated bio-magnetostratigraphic dating shows that the sea retreated westward from the Tarim Basin in stepwise fashion. The major fourth transgression occurred during the Lutetian, after which the sea retreated from the southwest Tarim Basin paleodepocenter at ~41 Ma (base C18r). The last and fifth transgression was restricted to the westernmost margin of the Tarim basin and occurred during latest Bartonian-early Priabonian (base C17n.3n-base C16n.1n). At the level of precision of our dating, each of these marine incursions is apparently synchronous across the Tarim Basin suggesting rapid regional transgression/regression cycles in these shallow epicontinental basins with limited diachroneity. The shallow marine near-shore sediments of these last two transgressions can be convincingly correlated by litho- and biostratigraphy across Central Asia, showing for the first time that the sea may have largely retreated from Central Asia in the late Eocene. The lack of apparent diachroneity of the two last regressions and their concomitancy with the closure of the Turgai Strait in the late Lutetian, with short-term cooling events recognized in contemporary marine records, important late Eocene regressions documented in European basins (e.g. Paris Basin, Ebro Basin, and Transylvanian Basin) and with minor drops in global sea-level, suggest that the individual marine incursions may have been controlled by short-term global fluctuations in sea-level. On the other hand, the gradual continuous character of the marine-continental transitions and the westward paleogeographic step between the fourth and fifth incursions, separated by several millions of years, rather are typical of long-term tectonic control. Tectonism is likely related to the Eocene India-Asia collision and Pamir initiation to the south in agreement with the infilling with northward paleoflow directions observed in the investigated sections. This is confirmed here by paleomagnetic data from the southwest Tarim Basin showing that clockwise rotation initiated after the fourth marine incursion, probably in response to initial symmetric radial thrusting of the Pamir Mountains. However, the presence of a major disconformity in the southwest Tarim Basin at the EOT, associated with a major global sea-level fall, confirms that the Tarim Basin remained hydrologically connected to the Mediterranean Tethys in the Eocene and had not yet been isolated by tectonic uplift of the surrounding mountains. This is in agreement with previously reported late Oligocene-early Miocene exhumation ages of the Pamir-Kunlun orogenic system and proposed kinematic models suggesting that after late Oligocene-early Miocene initiation of slip along the Kashgar-Yecheng Transfer System along the Eastern Pamir. This is consistent with the paleomagnetic data presented here showing that after the Oligocene deformation became asymmetric with ceased clockwise rotation in the Tarim Basin and continued anticlockwise rotation on the western side in the Afghan-Tajik Basin. The stepwise sea retreat and disconformity are concur

  8. Applications of remote sensing and GIS in surface hydrology: Snow cover, soil moisture and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianwei

    Studies on surface hydrology can generally be classified into two categories, observation for different components of surface water, and modeling their dynamic movements. This study only focuses on observation part of surface water components: snow cover, soil moisture, and precipitation. Moreover, instead of discussion on the detailed algorithm and instrument technique behind each component, this dissertation pours efforts on analysis of the standard remotely sensed products and their applications under different settings. First in Chapter 2, validation of MODIS Terra 8-day maximum snow cover composite (MOD10A2) in the Northern Xinjiang, China, from 2000-2006, shows that the 8-day MODIS/Terra product has high agreements with in situ measurements as the in situ snow depth is larger or equal to 4 cm, while the agreement is low for the patchy snow as the in situ snow depth less than 4 cm. According to the in situ observation, this chapter develops an empirical algorithm to separate the cloud-covered pixels into snow and no snow. Continued long-term production of MODIS-type snow cover product is critical to assess water resources of the study area, as well as other larger scale global environment monitoring. Terra and Aqua satellites carry the same MODIS instrument and provide two parallel MODIS daily snow cover products at different time (local time 10:30 am and 1:30 pm, respectively). Chapter 3 develops an algorithm and automated scripts to combine the daily MODIS Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) snow cover products, and to automatically generate multi-day Terra-Aqua snow cover image composites, with flexible starting and ending dates and a user-defined cloud cover threshold. Chapter 4 systematically compares the difference between MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products within a hydrologic year of 2003-2004, validates the MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products using in situ measurements in Northern Xinjiang, and compares the accuracy among the standard MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products, and the new combined daily and multi-day composite from both MODIS Terra and Aqua daily products. In Chapter 5, utilizing the new cloud-low multi-day composite of MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products, several new methods are developed to study the spatiotemporal variation of snow cover conditions from different aspects at the Northern Xinjiang and on the Central Tianshan Mountains, mainly in China, partly covering Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Secondly, Chapter 6 investigates the feasibility to indirectly map root-zone soil moisture using optical remote sensing techniques and in situ measurements. Specifically, covariation of root-zone soil moisture with the normalized difference of vegetation index (NDVI) from MODIS observation is studied at three sites (New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas). The three sites represent two types of vegetation (shrub and grass) and two types of climate conditions: arid/semi-arid (New Mexico and Arizona) and humid (Texas). Results show that the root-zone soil moisture has significant linear correlation with vegetation (NDVI). Finally, Chapter 7 validates and compares the NEXRAD Stage III and MPE precipitation products using a high density rain gauge network on the Upper Guadalupe River Basin of the Texas Hill Country in 2001 and 2004. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. Modelling the influence of irrigation on the shrinking Aral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aus der Beek, Tim; Voss, Frank; Floerke, Martina

    2010-05-01

    The Aral Sea is fed by two tributaries, the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya, and often is considered as one of the most complex hydrological basins of the world. The shrinkage of the Aral Sea during the last 50 years, which has been caused by excessive irrigation projects, has led to numerous ecological, human and economical problems. This study focuses on historic modelling (1960-2002) of the Amu Darya (535,000 km²) and the Syr Darya (219,000 km²) to assess the influence of land-use change, i.e. conversion of non-cultivated land to irrigated crops, on the hydrological cycle and on the shrinkage of the Aral Sea. Therefore, we have compiled crop- and irrigation-specific land use maps in five year intervals from extensive literature and data base reviews. These maps are first applied within the WaterGAP irrigation model, which has been further developed to account for the seven major crops of Central Asia, to compute crop-specific net irrigation requirements. In combination with a newly set up data base on time series of irrigation project efficiencies for Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan we have also been able to depict crop-specific gross irrigation requirements. These results have then been applied within the WaterGAP hydrology model, where they alter the water balance of each affected grid cell, and thus, runoff generation. All irrigation and hydrology calculations have been conducted in daily time steps and five arc minutes spatial resolution (~ 8 x 10 km grid cells) for the entire Aral Sea basin. Climate forcing data for the 42 year period has been taken from the CRU TS2.1 data set. First results of this model experiment show that not only massive water abstractions have caused the changes in the hydrological regime of both rivers, but also poor land and water management has taken its toll. Between 1960 and 1990 a state driven land use conversion from locally adapted food crops, such as cereals, to water intensive cash crops, such as cotton, has taken place. This and other factors have led to nearly doubling of water withdrawals within the basin. One further example is the on-going construction of the Karakum Canal, which diverts about 18km³ per year from the Amu Darya to the Karakum Desert, causing immense changes in the hydrograph and inflow to the Aral Sea. Due to poor water management, i.e. transmission losses of up to ~12km³ per year and old irrigation systems, most of the diverted canal water cannot be used for irrigation purposes. The influence of climate change in the Aral Sea basin between 1960 and 2002 is evident. However, excessive water abstractions mask climate change induced hydrological regime changes.

  10. Building momentum to minimize highly enriched uranium use, improve nuclear security and combat nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Much has been done to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism under the auspices of international programs such as the G-8 Global Partnership, the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism, and the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. Despite the practical progress in removing the threat that terrorist groups could obtain the fissile material for an improvised nuclear device, however, much more work remains. In 1980, the 59 states participating in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation agreed that the civilian use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) should be minimized. Decades later, and despite dramatic new threats to world peace, the pledge to forego the use of HEU is not yet universal or legally binding. Nor have improvements to the physical security of this material been sufficient in many locations. This paper surveys the international measures that have been taken towards the formation of an international norm to minimize BEU risks through established mechanisms and suggests several additional approaches that may help to solidify support for practical measures and accelerate the process of civil HEU minimization and improved security globally. HEU reduction requires global cooperation: eliminating a small holding of HEU at a single facility or upgrading its security does not greatly reduce terrorist risks overall. Policymakers must be sure that their counterparts in other states arc engaged in similar efforts. A global HEU minimization norm woufforts. A global HEU minimization norm would validate each nation's efforts, no matter how small, and provide a disincentive for inaction. Clearer standards for the security of this material and commitments to meet these standards would serve the same purpose. While each failure 10 act poses its own risks, it also erodes the usefulness of HEU elimination programs elsewhere and sends the wrong political message to the rest of the world. Moreover, it is technically impossible to minimize the largest REU holdings-those at fuel cycle facilities-until the end users of HEU no longer demand this material. And it should be noted that nearly all HEU trafficking cases involve material originating from fuel cycle facilities. Both practical and political considerations demand greater high level attention to minimizing HEU and improving its security. Great technological progress has been made since programs were initiated to convert reactors and medical isotope production processes, remove and reduce nuclear materials worldwide, and protect at-risk nuclear materials from theft and sabotage. The new technical capabilities have not been translated into significant reductions in HEU use, however, due to a lack of overarching political solutions. To date, only a few countries have indicated formally their support for HEU minimization, among them Iceland, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden in the context of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons review process, though there have been international calls for HEU minimization in other fora, including the G-8 'Action Plan on Nonproliferation' issued at the Sea Island summit of 2004 and the 2007 Astana joint statement of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. New measures are needed, however, to make these commitments real. With this in mind, the James Martin Center for Non-proliferation Studies has led an effort to draft HEU guidelines, modeled in part on the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (INFCIRC/549). There is international interest in such guidelines. France, for example, called for the adoption of HEU guidelines at the 2007 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2010 NPT Review Conference. HEU guidelines would codify best management practices, allow states to commit to national management strategies, and provide updated security recommendations, as this paper discusses in detail. While HEU guidelines are voluntary measures aimed at states, there are also ways that nuclear enterprises and other stakeholder groups can move the policy process forward. The adoption of resolutions by

  11. Automated landslide identification based on temporal NDVI-trajectories using long-term optical multi-sensor time-series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Robert; Roessner, Sigrid; Segl, Karl; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Kaufmann, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Landslides are a world-wide occurring natural hazard leading to severe loss of life and infrastructure. Objective and dynamic landslide hazard assessment requires profound knowledge about spatiotemporal occurrence of landslides. Thus, landslide inventories, which are a prerequisite for landslide hazard and risk assessment, have to be as complete as possible in time and space. So far, for many parts of the world such multi-temporal landslide inventories are largely missing, because the preparation relies mainly on very time consuming and resource intensive conventional methods, i.e. visual interpretation of optical data aided by comprehensive field surveys. Against this background, long-term archives of satellite remote sensing data, such as the USGS level 1T Landsat-(E)TM database open up new opportunities for analysis of landslide occurrence at a regional scale. However, in order to achieve best possible temporal data coverage, multi-sensor data have to be used. In this study such a satellite remote sensing database has been established for an area of 12,000 km² in Southern Kyrgyzstan, which is strongly affected by landslides. The database consists of about 700 orthorectified multispectral mid- and high-resolution satellite remote sensing datasets acquired by Landsat-(E)TM, SPOT, IRS-1C (LISS3), ASTER and RapidEye during the last 27 years. This builds the methodological framework for developing a reliable and robust automated landslide identification approach with the potential for global applicability. The developed approach comprises automated multi-sensor pre-processing and multi-temporal change detection methods. Change detection requires a precise spatial alignment of the whole database. Therefore an automated image-to-image co-registration approach has been developed using time series of USGS level 1T Landsat-(E)TM data as spatial reference. Accuracy assessment has shown a high relative image-to-image accuracy of 17 m (RMSE) and a high absolute accuracy of 23 m (RMSE) of the whole co-registered multi-temporal database making it suitable for automated landslide detection at a regional scale. The developed change detection approach is based on the analysis of temporal NDVI-trajectories which are obtained for every pixel across the analysed time span. NDVI-trajectories represent specific temporal footprints of vegetation changes. They allow for automatic identification of landslide events due to landslide-specific footprints represented by short-term vegetation cover destruction as well as longer-term revegetation rates as effects of landslide related disturbance and dislocation of soil. In combination with DEM-derivatives (e.g. slope, stream order) the developed approach enables automated object-based identification of landslides of different sizes, shapes and in different stages of development (i.e. fresh failures, reactivations and relocations) and thus is suitable for mapping spatiotemporal landslide activity under varying natural conditions (land cover and lithology). This approach has been applied to the spatial and temporal high resolution RapidEye database acquired between 2009 and 2013 for the whole study area. In the result 612 landslides could be identified with sizes ranging between 125 and 750,000 m² representing a total landslide affected area of approx. 7.3 million m². Currently, this approach is extended to the whole multi-sensor time-series database.

  12. Chelyabinsk meteoroid: seismological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrynina, Anna; Chechelnitsky, Vladimir; Chernykh, Evgeny; Sankov, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    The aim of present work was analysis of seismological phenomena emerged due to Chelyabinsk airburst (15 February 2013). According to different astronomical and seismological agencies reports airburst coordinates and time vary over a wide range and its energy ranges from 70 kt to 1.4 Mkt of TNT equivalent (1 kt = 4.185·1012 J) [reports by NASA; USGS; CTBTO; Perm Regional Seismological Center; Kazakhstan Seismological Center; Department of Physics and Astronomy of University of Western Ontario; Le Pichon et al., 2013; Borovicka et al., 2013; Brown et al., 2013; Tauzin et al., 2013; Gokhberg et al., 2013; Seleznev et al., 2013]. We used records obtained by broadband seismic station global networks (Iris/Ida, Iris/USGS) and by regional networks (Iris/China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Baikal Regional Seismological Center). Data provided by IRIS Data Management System (Seattle, Washington, USA, www.iris.edu/). Seismogram visual analysis showed the presence at several stations of the seismic wave, which at the time of occurrence and form may be associated with the explosion of a meteoroid. It was recorded at 32 stations and is a short period motion (period T = 3-16 sec) for up to 1 minute. This wave was defined by us as the Rayleigh surface wave. Maximum epicentral distance at which confidently fixed surface wave is about 3650 km (station LSA, Tibet). At stations located farther away from the airburst site, the signal is noisy by surface waves from the earthquake Tonga (February 15, 2013, origin time 03:02:23.3, M=5.8, coordinates -19.72N, -174.48W, report by USGS). Spectral analysis showed that the recorded signal at short epicentral distances (up to 1300 km) is most manifest in the low frequency range - 0.25 (0.5) up to 1 Hz, while the remote stations for surface wave is lost in microseismic noise. A visual analysis of the arrival times of Rayleigh waves at seismic stations located at different epicentral distances are marked with their nonlinear: at close distances much lower rate than in the remote, and the average 2.4 and 3.2 km/s, respectively. This nonlinearity can be explained from the viewpoint of surface Rayleigh wave as a result of exposure to acoustic (infrasound) wave from the explosion of a meteoroid in atmosphere on the earth's surface [Tauzin et al., 2013; Ewing et al., 1957; Edwards et al., 2007]. The difference in the velocities of seismic and acoustic waves (velocity of propagation of sound waves in air is ~0.3 km/s) explains the relatively low rate of arrival of the surface wave at seismic stations close. The average surface wave velocity is 3.2 km/s. Dominant period method was used for estimation of surface wave attenuation - values obtained seismic Q and its dependence on frequency. Dependence of Q on the frequency is exponential: QR(f)=1700·exp1.2. Seismic energy was evaluated by surface wave magnitude (magnitude Ms and MS). To calculate the magnitude of the maximum amplitude used Ms surface wave measured at periods ranging from 18 to 22 sec, for calculating the magnitude MS - ranging from 3 to 60 sec. The resulting average values are equal magnitudes 4.1 and 4.2. Analysis of the azimuthal distribution of values for surface wave magnitude (Ms), the maximum amplitudes and frequencies of surface waves showed that these parameters have a distinct azimuthal orientation, oriented according to the flight path of the meteoroid. Fixed azimuthal orientation can be explained by the Doppler effect - the dependence of the oscillation frequency of the direction of motion of the source. The minimum and maximum

  13. Prevention of goiter in children who consume water contaminated with radionuclides (Uranium and Thorium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Background. Since the thyroid gland is the most susceptible to radiation (Buldakov L.A., Kalistratova V.S., 2003), the incidence of goiter is very high (32-37%) among the adolescents who live in the uranium biogeochemical areas and consume water contaminated with uranium and thorium. For these reasons, elaboration of measures for prevention of goiter in children who consume water contaminated with radionuclides is of great importance. Objective. Elaboration of measures for prevention of goiter in children who consume water contaminated with radionuclides. Materials and Methods. A total of 55 school children who reside in 10-15 km downstream the uranium biogeochemical provinces and consume the water from the river of Mayluu-Suu were subject to observation. The concentration of radionuclides in water was measured by standard Y-spectrometric device with a detector. To evaluate the efficacy of the preventive measures clinical methods were applied. All children under observation were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 71 children and Group II - 72 children. Prevention measures were first undertaken in 1995 - 1997 when the children were at the age of 1 - 2 years. By the time of the present study their age is about 16-18 years. Results. Concentration of uranium and thorium in water and silt of the river of Mayluu-Suu fluctuated depending on the season. In 2003-2004 uranium concentration in water ranged from 2.8 to 9.6 ?g / l, in silt - from 2.67 and 3.to 9.6 ?g / l, in silt - from 2.67 and 3.46 ?g/g. Thorium concentration - 0.025 and 0.097 ?g / l and 2.8 - 3.46?g / g, respectively; Cesium concentration in silt ranged from 86 and 98 Bq / kg. In group I all children administered tea concentrate produced from fruits and plants rich in vitamins and biologically active substances, trace elements, pectins which possess bile-and diuretic properties and sorbent properties with regards to radionuclides as well. To 2 teaspoons brewed in 400 ml of boiled water, before use of agitated, allowed to drink during the day. The term does not restrict the use of tea. Rhodiola rosea tincture and iodized salt were also administered alongside with the concentrates. In Group II (control group) children administered an iodized salt. The results of preventive measures were evaluated in March 2012. In Group I goiter was reported only in 2 (2.8%) of 71 children as compared to 23 (31.9%) out of 72 in Group II. Thus, for the prevention of goiter in children who consume water contaminated with radionuclides (uranium and thorium) in conditions of Mayluu-Suu it is recommended to administer therapeutic concentrates obtained from the herbs and fruits growing in Kyrgyzstan, and tinctures of Rhodiola rosea alongside with the iodized salt of high quality. Prevention of goiter may be initiated in early childhood. (author)

  14. Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 through 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    This Circular updates and supersedes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 03–083, "Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 to 2000," with the addition of supply and consumption estimates and analysis from 2001 through 2003 and revisions to the consumption estimates for 1998 through 2000. The text from Open-File Report 03–083 also has been updated in this Circular to include revisions to and expansion of the time-series coverage. The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States produced about 3.29 million metric tons (Mt) of asbestos and used approximately 31.5 Mt between 1900 and 2003. About half of this amount was used after 1960. In 2002, the last asbestos mine in the United States closed, marking the end of more than 110 years of U.S. asbestos production. Cumulative world production from 1900 through 2003 was about 181 Mt. If one assumes that unusually large stocks were not maintained and that world consumption roughly equaled production, then about half of the world production and consumption occurred between the end of 1976 and the end of 2003. The United States and Western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of Kazakhstan and Russia by the 1970s. After the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the decline in world production and consumption began to be evident in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The 1991 breakup of the Soviet Union, a major user of asbestos, resulted in a significant decline in asbestos consumption and production in former Soviet-bloc countries. Consumption and production in Kazakhstan and Russia increased through 2003 from 2001, albeit to a much lower level than in the 1980s. In 2003, world consumption was estimated to be 2.11 Mt, about 45 percent that of 1980. Relatively few countries in Asia, the Middle East, South America, and the former Soviet Union remained as the leading users of asbestos. China was the leading consuming nation, using an estimated 492,000 metric tons (t) in 2003. China was followed, in decreasing order of consumption, by Russia (429,000 t), India (192,000 t), Kazakhstan (174,000 t), Ukraine (156,000 t), Thailand (133,000 t), Brazil (78,400 t), and Iran (75,800 t). These eight countries accounted for 82 percent of the world's apparent consumption in 2003. Following Iran, in decreasing order of consumption by tonnage, were Uzbekistan (42,400 t), Vietnam (39,400 t), Indonesia (32,300 t), the Republic of Korea (23,800 t), Kyrgyzstan (23,700 t), Japan (23,400 t), and Mexico (20,100 t). Consumption in all other countries was estimated to be less than 15,000 t each in 2003. Sizable consumption increases occurred in Azerbaijan, China, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Thailand, and Ukraine between 2000 and the end of 2003. Consumption patterns in countries using less than 5,000 t per year were too erratic to ascertain any trends in their use of asbestos.

  15. Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radium in natural water springs presents two main problems in radiological protection. The first problem is the direct 226Ra ingestion during the water consumption. The second problem is concerning the fact that the elevated radium concentration in water springs is the source of possible soil contamination by 226Ra and high radon concentration in the atmosphere of the dwellings situated over the contaminated place. Due to high radiotoxicity 226Ra is characterized by low action level (0.5 Bq/l for drinking water) and a high sensitivity technique is required to measure such low concentrations. The developed method of 226Ra concentration measurements is based on emanation technique: the specific activity of 226Ra is determined by radon volume activity measurement in closed system during the water sample bubbling. The main measuring steps are: Degassing, sealing and storage of the water sample during at least 2 weeks; Absorption of background 222Rn in the inner volume of measuring system consisting of radon monitor AlphaGUARD, set of glass vials AlphaKIT and air pump AlphaPUMP; Transfer of water sample in the system and beginning of air bubbling through the sample. Measurement of 222Rn concentration in closed system (at least 10 values of radon concentration) The minimum detected specific activity of 226Ra in such technique is 0.03 Bq/l without any need for preliminary radiuq/l without any need for preliminary radium concentration. After 2 week interval the water sample can be repeatedly measured. The 226Ra in water was measured in 4 regions with high levels of radon in dwellings: Ural (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Caucasus (Russia) and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). It was founded that high radon concentration in water (400-600 Bq/l) is not always lead to radium presence in the sample. In practically all of measured samples the radium specific activity was either below action level or a little above it. A close correlation between 226Ra in water and radon in dwellings was found only in Niska Banja and Caucasus. For these places the formation of travertine during the interaction of radium in water and limestone is typical. It should be noted that low 226Ra specific activity in water (approx. 0.15-0.4 Bq/l) can lead to high radium specific activity in travertine (up to 1000-1500 Bq/kg) and extremely high indoor radon concentration. The maximum 226Ra specific activity was measured in spring waters 'Slavyanovskaya' and 'Smirnovskaya' sampled in Zheleznovodsk (Caucasus) - 4.1 and 2.1 Bq/l. It should be noted that these waters are traditionally used as a mineral waters prescribed for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders during more then 150 years

  16. Resistance to implementing policy change: the case of Ukraine / Résistance à la mise en œuvre du changement politique: cas de l’Ukraine / Resistencia a aplicar los cambios de política: el caso de Ucrania

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rifat, Atun; Igor, Olynik.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis constituye un importante problema de salud pública en Europa oriental. Desde 1990, la incidencia de la enfermedad ha seguido aumentando en Belarús, la Federación de Rusia y Ucrania, así como en las repúblicas asiáticas centrales de Kazajstán, Kirguistán, Tayikistán y Uzbekistán. Euro [...] pa oriental, y en particular la Federación de Rusia y Ucrania, afrontan además el reto de salud pública que supone la rápida extensión de la epidemia de tuberculosis multirresistente (MDR-TB). De los 17 283 casos mundiales de tuberculosis multirresistente notificados en 2004, más del 60% (10 595) se dieron en la Región de Europa, la gran mayoría de ellos en Europa oriental, incluidos los estados bálticos de Estonia, Letonia y Lituania. Un dato especialmente preocupante es que, al igual que en África, el éxito del tratamiento DOTS en Europa oriental es sustancialmente inferior a la media en comparación con otras regiones del mundo, y la cobertura DOTS y la tasa de detección de casos bacilíferos siguen siendo los menores del mundo. Globalmente, estos problemas que, como África, sufre Europa oriental siguen siendo el principal obstáculo para alcanzar los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio relacionados con la tuberculosis en Europa. Ucrania presenta unas epidemias cada vez más graves de tuberculosis, tuberculosis multirresistente y VIH, con el telón de fondo de las epidemias de enfermedades de transmisión sexual y de consumidores de drogas inyectables. Pese a los intentos realizados, Ucrania no ha logrado implementar su política de tratamiento DOTS, debido a los problemas de organización de los sistemas de salud y a unos mecanismos de financiación y pago a los proveedores que han creado desincentivos para aplicar los cambios, y por añadidura la oposición que la estrategia DOTS ha encontrado entre los altos funcionarios y los médicos ha dificultado las actividades de implementación. Abstract in english Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in eastern Europe. Since 1990, the incidence rates of TB have continued to increase in Belarus, the Russian Federation, the Ukraine and the central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Eastern Europe, and in particul [...] ar the Russian Federation and the Ukraine, also face the public health challenge of an escalating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemic. Of the 17 283 global MDR-TB cases reported in 2004, over 60% (10 595) were from the European region and the vast majority of these from eastern Europe, including the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Of particular concern is the fact that, along with Africa, treatment success for DOTS in eastern Europe is substantially below average when compared with other regions of the world, and DOTS coverage and smear-positive case detection rate remain the lowest in the world. Collectively, along with Africa, these problems in eastern Europe remain the principal obstacle to meeting the Millennium Development Goals for TB in Europe. The Ukraine has worsening epidemics of TB, MDR-TB and HIV, against a background of epidemics of sexually transmitted illness (STI) and injecting drug users (IDUs). The TB and HIV epidemics are converging. In spite of attempts, the Ukraine has failed to implement DOTS policy due to health systems organization, financing and provider payment systems that created disincentives to change while opposition by policy-makers and clinicians to DOTS strategy hindered implementation efforts.

  17. Seismotectonics of the Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, B.; Sippl, C.; Krumbiegel, C.; Yuan, X.; Ratschbacher, L.; Schneider, F.; Mechie, J.; Oimahmadov, I.; Gadoev, M.; Minaev, V.; Abdybachaev, U.; Orunbaev, S.; Negmatullaev, S.

    2011-12-01

    The over 7000m high peaks of the Trans-Alai and the on average over 4000m elevated Pamir plateau is in some way the mirrored equivalent of the Himalaya and Tibet plateau on the northwestern promontory of India-Eurasia collision. Current shortening across the Trans Alai of 13mm/a takes up about 1/3 of India-Eurasia convergence, only little less than across the Himalaya and the highest rate localized far away from a plate boundary. Accumulated Cenozoic shortening reaches also a magnitude similar to the adjacent Himalaya-Tibet system, yet was accommodated over about half the meridional width. There are other marked differences between the two systems. The Pamir is presumably thrusted over Eurasia rather than India and instead of a foreland basin another major orogen, the Tien Shan, stands between its frontal thrust and stable Eurasia. The Pamir and adjacent Hindu Kush feature vigorous intermediate depth (100-300km) mantle seismicity, an attribute absent beneath all other major continental orogens. We will report on a new earthquake data set collected during a field campaign between 2008 and 2010, when we operated a network of 40 seismic stations across the southern Tien Shan and Pamir mountain ranges in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. This is the first modern, digital and dense seismic network in the region. From more than 6000 well located earthquakes approximately two third are crustal. To derive robust source mechanisms and additional constraint on event depths, we use full waveform inversion of our local temporary and regional permanent seismic station recordings for events with magnitudes > 3.5. We use relocated hypocenters and fault plane solutions to describe the deformation pattern in the crust. Seismicity clusters in several well defined known and unknown structures. The Main Pamir Thrust (MPT) on the northern perimeter of the Pamir is clearly outlined by a string of earthquakes with thrust mechanisms, with the eastern part of the Alai valley more active than the western part. The largest earthquake we recorded, an M6.7, occurred at MPT's north-easternmost point, where the Alai valley closes and the Pamir collides with the Tien Shan. This is a region of significant structural complexity, where the MPT fans out in a series of northeast trending orographic features. The mainshock shows an almost pure thrust mechanism with one steeper (55°) and one more shallow (38°) nodal plane. The aftershock seismicity displays two lineaments forming a hockey stick like feature that tightly follows the orographic relief. The "blade" strikes approximately 85° in agreement with one nodal plane of the mainshock double couple. A cross section through the aftershocks reveals that the steeper, south-dipping nodal plane is the fault plane. The earthquake probably ruptured the very tip of the Pamir frontal thrust where it reaches the surface in the southern margin of the Alai valley. On the Pamir plateau deformation is mainly extensional with dextral components. One seismically active zone crosses the entire plateau from Lake Karakul to the Wakhan corridor of Afghanistan. High seismicity is also detected along the deeply incised valleys of the western Pamir.

  18. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal Maoist insurgency. (5) Glacier lakes are in many cases very fragile and their natural dams routinely rupture, causing devastating floods. A rising regional terrorist threat in several countries could target these dams and precipitate calamitous and terrifying results. (6) Over the next century, retreating glaciers may open new corridors for trade and human migration across the Himalaya and pave the way for possible new economic, military and political alliances in the region. (7) Glacier retreat might open new sanctuaries for terrorists and open new corridors for possible ground-based military offensive action across the HKH ranges. The documentation of glacier characteristics that may influence their trafficability, and projections of future glacier extent and behavior are relevant to wide ranging concerns of the region's inhabitants. Satellite remote sensing and mapping of glaciers is one approach to defining and monitoring the problems and opportunities presented by HKH glaciers. Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) is a joint USGS/NASA Pathfinder project that has formed a global consortium of glaciologists in several regional centers that are mapping and monitoring the HKH glaciers using repeat-pass ASTER and Landsat ETM+ data. We are currently building a comprehensive satellite multispectral image and GIS database that is providing detailed information on the state and rates of change of each glacier in the HKH region and other areas of the world. Merging these results with DEMs allows a predictive capability that could be useful in policy development and security planning.

  19. Seismicity of the Pamir and Hindu Kush: new constraints on regional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippl, C.; Schurr, B.; Schneider, F.; Yuan, X.; Mechie, J.; Haberland, C.; Gadoev, M.; Oimahmadov, I.; Abdybachaev, U.; Orunbaev, S.; Minaev, V.; Negmatullaev, S.; Rui, H.; Pingren, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Pamir and Hindu Kush regions in Central Asia host the most active zone of intracontinental seismic activity at intermediate depths (up to nearly 300km) in the world, which is still poorly understood in terms of its detailed structure and, most importantly, its origin. Being situated far from any typical subduction zone setting and displaying a change in its polarity along strike, this seismically active zone has been interpreted in numerous ways, e.g. as a single slab of Indian lithosphere originally subducted northwards which was subsequently overturned in its eastern part or as two adjacent subduction zones of opposing polarity. Several key questions concerning this region, among them the nature of subducted material (oceanic or continental?), the mechanism behind the generation of these intermediate-depth earthquakes and the region's tectonic framework have not been answered as of yet. As the seismological subpart of the TIPAGE project, we deployed a network of 40 seismometer stations for a total duration of two years (2008-2010) in Tajikistan and southern Kyrgyzstan, covering the Pamir mountains and surroundings. Complemented with two more temporary deployments and additional data from several permanent networks in adjacent areas, this constitutes a seismic dataset of unprecedented station density for this part of Central Asia. Showing the distribution of more than 9,500 earthquakes located with a highly precise double-difference method based on the cross-correlation of individual traces, fault plane solutions for shallow and deep earthquakes as well as preliminary results from traveltime tomography, we can resolve the exact geometry of the deep seismic zone and draw further constraints on the tectonic processes active in the region. The S-shaped region of intermediate-depth seismicity is clearly subdivided into two separate parts, hence termed Hindu Kush and Pamir seismic zones. The Hindu Kush seismic zone strikes due east-west at a latitude of about 36.4°N. Depth sections show that earthquakes extend from depths of 50 to around 250 km along a planar, steeply northward-dipping structure. Earthquakes are most frequent in the depth range from 180 to 220 km, whereas there is a seismic "gap" at about 150 km depth. Intriguingly, the Hindu Kush seismic zone features a small-scale reversal of dip polarity in its lower part (beneath the 150km gap) towards its eastern termination. The Pamir seismic zone forms an arc, the strike of which varies by 90 degrees from north-south at its southwestern end (where it borders the Hindu Kush seismic zone) to east-west at its eastern termination. The dip direction of the structure changes from due east to due south from west to east. Seismic activity outlines a narrow (10-15 km) Wadati-Benioff zone displaying a constant dip of about 50 degrees all along its extent. Whereas seismic activity ceases at depths of 130-150 km in the east, the south-western part of the zone shows earthquakes reaching depths of up to 240 km that outline a vertical structure beneath 150 km depth. All along the arc, the upper termination of seismic activity is found at depths of 60-80 km, leaving a gap to shallow seismic activity which is confined to the uppermost 20-25 km. Intermediate-depth earthquakes in the eastern Pamir and the low-velocity zone they are situated within can be linked with shallow seismic activity along the Main Pamir Thrust (MPT) further north, which implies ongoing intracontinental southward subduction, presumably of continental material, in the Alai Valley. Tracing the surface expression of the deep earthquakes along the Pamir arc, towards the southwest, proves complicated. It is possible that the western part of the Pamir seismic zone is linked to the ongoing east-west compression in the Tajik Depression seen by GPS, but evidence is scarce. Shallow seismic activity concentrates along the Pamir's northern rim (MPT) and in its western part, wheras the eastern Pamir is seismically quiet. Fault-plane solutions obtained by moment tensor inversion show predominance of sinistral st

  20. Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geotechnical barrier is an important component of a geological repository and consists of compacted bentonite surrounding radioactive waste containers. Its most important functions are, to retard the radionuclide migration into the biosphere and to prevent groundwater contact with containers. lt is therefore of central importance to investigate the bentonite material on its capacity to sorb radionuclides under near-natural chemical and physical conditions. The purpose of this work was to study the adsorption of uranium(VI) on bentonit and on montmorillonite-standards at high uranium concentrations. Thereby, a special account was given to the calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation, which leads to the formation of very stable and mobile uncharged Ca2UO2(CO3)3 complex. Results of batch experiments showed that the dicalcium-uranyl-tricarbonate complexation lowers the uranium(VI) sorption on natural clay (bentonite) by a factor of up to 3. After 21 days of contact time, about 40 % and 20 % of the initial uranium(VI)concentration were sorbed on Na-bentonite and ea-bentonite, respectively, from a solution with Ca2UO2(CO3)3 dominating the uranium(VI) speciation. On the contrary, about 55 % of the initial uranium(VI)-concentration were sorbed on thes clays from the solution, in which (UO2)2CO3(OH)3- complex dominated the uranium(VI) - complex dominated the uranium(VI) speciation. Thus uranium(VI) sorption is more strongly influenced by the solution composition than by bentonite type. Na-bentonite should be used instead of ea-bentonite as a geotechnical barrier, since calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation may be a realistic scenario. Further SEM-EDX and HREM-EDX studies showed that uranium(VI) sorption occurred predominantly on montmorillonite, which is the main component of bentonite. Uranium(VI) sorption on bentonite's accessory Minerals (pyrite, calcite, mica, and feldspar) was not observed. Investigation of uranium(VI) sorption on four montmorillonite-standard, which are distinguished by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling uranium releases from tailings into the aquatic system. The results showed that uranium(VI) speciation in water samples is controlled by p

  1. Formulation of humic-based soil conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanova, M. A.; Mamytova, G. A.; Mamytova, B. A.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of the study is to prepare soil conditioners (SC) able to carry out the following functions: (i) the chemical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the adjustment of pH, (ii) the balancing of inorganic nutrients, (iii) the physical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the improvement of water permeability, air permeability and water retention properties, and (iv) improvement of the ecological system concerning of useful microorganisms activity in the soil. The SC was made of a mixture of inorganic ingredients, a chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of which promoted improvement of physical characteristic of soil and enrichment by its mineral nutritious elements. In addition to aforesaid ingredients, this soil conditioner contains agronomical-valued groups of microorganisms having the function promoting the growth of the crop. As organic component of SC humic acids (HA) was used. HA serve many major functions that result in better soil and plant health. In soil, HA can increase microbial and mycorrhizal activity while enhancing nutrient uptake by plant roots. HA work as a catalyst by stimulating root and plant growth, it may enhance enzymatic activity that in turn accelerates cell division which can lead to increased yields. HA can help to increase crop yields, seed germination, and much more. In short, humic acids helps keep healthy plants health. The first stage goal was to evaluate mineral and organic ingredients for formulation of SC. Soil conditioners assessed included ash and slag. The use of slags has been largelly used in agriculture as a source of lime and phosphoric acid. The silicic acid of slags reduces Al-acitivity thus, promoting a better assimilation of P-fertilizer by plants. Additionally, silicic acid is also known to improve soil moisture capacity, thus enhancing soil water availability to plants. Physico-chemical characteristics of ash and slag were determined, as a total - about 20 samples. Results include: Chemical composition of (i) ash: 53-54% SiO2; 26-27% Al2O3; 3-5% Fe2O3; 1.7-2.9% CaO; 1.3-2.3% MgO; 0.5-0.8% Na2O; 1.0-1.5% K2O and; (ii), slag: 17-20% SiO2; 15-20% Al2O3; 30-40% CaO; 1-6% Fe2O3; 4-11% MgO. Of all samples assessed, per 5 samples from various regions with various compositions (high, average and low content of metal oxides) were selected and tested as component of SC in vegetative pot and field experiments, i.e., to study the immobilization processes including microorganisms and inorganic ingredients. This study helped to elucidate the influence of ash and slag composition on microbial development. The next stage was (i) to evaluate microbial activity of selected soils from Kyrgyzstan, (ii) to isolate microorganisms exhibiting antagonistic activity against pathogenic microorganisms present in the soil and, (iii) to utilize microbes as nutrient sources. Candidate microbial cultures were isolated from soils/crops and assessed as plant growth promoting microorganisms. The characteristics of the physiological groups of microorganisms were also investigated. Of different physiological groups of microorganisms selected, ca, 3 consortia of agronomical-valued microbial groups from undisturbed soils was selected as component of soil conditioners. Microorganisms, namely oligonitrophils, ammonifiers, nitrifiers, were tested based on beneficial bioactivity including plant biomass and stem length on commercial onion and lettuce crops. Our results demonstrate that all the combinations ash/slag, humic acids and consortium of beneficial agronomical-valued microbial groups into one environmentally friendly soil conditioner possessed equal or higher growth-promoting potential in relation to lettuce. However, our results demonstrated clearly that among studied scope of soil conditioners only one of them could be recommended for further study in terms of practical applications. Namely, it was mixture consisting of humic acids, ash and oligonitrophils as soil conditioning agent. Acknowledgement. This research was supported by the grant of ISTC KR-993.2.

  2. Mouvements migratoires entre la Turquie et les Républiques turcophones du Caucase et d’Asie centrale Migratory movements between Turkey and the Turkish-speaking republics of Caucasia and Central Asia. Religious impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Balci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Forte de ses liens de parenté culturelle avec les Républiques turcophones d’Asie centrale – Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan, Ouzbékistan, Turkménistan et Tadjikistan –, la Turquie a été le point départ d’un important mouvement migratoire en direction de ces États à partir du début de la décennie 1990, au moment où les États en question recouvraient leur indépendance survenue avec la fin de l’Union soviétique. Multiforme, cette migration a véhiculé un important message religieux, dans les deux sens, mais surtout en provenance de Turquie et à destination des principales villes d’Asie centrale. C’est le principal sujet d’investigation de cette étude. Le commerce et la coopération éducative furent les principaux outils déployés par les migrants turcs partis souvent en tant que missionnaires pour ré-islamiser l’Asie centrale, que de nombreux mouvements islamiques turcs jugeaient devoir être remise dans le giron de la civilisation islamique après plus de soixante-dix ans d’une domination soviétique caractérisée par une politique antireligieuse prononcée. Quatre principaux mouvements islamiques turcs se sont fait remarquer en Asie centrale dans cette œuvre de prosélytisme. Le plus important est sans conteste celui fondé par Sait Nursi dont les disciples ont été très actifs dès 1990 dans l’envoi de littérature islamique en Asie centrale. Par ailleurs, un disciple de Sait Nursi, Fethullah Gülen, a fondé un vaste réseau éducatif animé par des jeunes éducateurs partis d’Anatolie pour s’investir dans différentes villes d’Asie centrale. Une autre mouvance, dite suleymanci, du nom de son fondateur Suleyman Tunahan, a, par le biais de la migration turque, ouvert plusieurs petites madrasas dans divers États d’Asie centrale. Enfin, des disciples de la confrérie dite nakshibendiyya, du nom de son fondateur Bahaduddin Nakshibend, un mystique du xve siècle originaire de Boukhara, ont également envoyé des milliers de migrants turcs dans le cadre de plusieurs projets missionnaires. Amenée à s’enraciner dans ses villes d’expatriation en Asie centrale, cette migration turque a déjà très nettement marqué de son empreinte l’islam de ces pays, plus particulièrement au Turkménistan, au Kazakhstan et au Kirghizstan qui ont d’excellentes relations politiques avec la Turquie. Ainsi, bon nombre de nouvelles élites religieuses dans ces pays ont été formées dans le cadre de la coopération avec les mouvements missionnaires turcs et leurs disciples qui ont immigré en Asie centrale. S’inscrivant en marge de la politique officielle turque de coopération en matière religieuse avec les pays d’Asie centrale, les migrants turcs n’en rendent pas moins un grand service à la diplomatie d’Ankara dans la région en l’aidant indirectement à se constituer une sphère d’influence dans cet espace turcophone qui occupe une place notable dans la nouvelle politique extérieure de la Turquie.With the fall of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, a wave of migrants left Turkey for the newly independent Turkish-speaking Central Asian republics with which the country had strong cultural ties – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. As a result of this multiform movement, an important religious message travelled in both directions, but especially from Turkey to the main Central Asian cities. This article focuses on this message. Turkish migrants, who were often missionaries, used commerce and cooperation initiatives in education as two main tools to re-Islamise Central Asia. For many Turkish Islamic movements, it was important to bring this region back into the fold after over 70 years of domination by a Soviet government with a strongly anti-religious policy. As part of this proselytizing, four key Turkish Islamic movements became visible in Central Asia. The largest was undoubtedly that founded by Said Nursi, whose disciples were active in sending Islamic literature to Central Asia from 1990. One of Said Nursi’s disc

  3. Problems of radiation safety at mined out uranium properties in Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Republic of Uzbekistan was one of the main uranium production areas in former Soviet Union for more than 40 years. About 150 uranium production facilities have been constructed for that time in connection with hydrothermal and sedimentary-metamorphic deposits of the fold basement and stratal-infiltration deposits of the sedimentary cover. 18 of these facilities are located in Tadzhikistan and Kyrgyzstan along the boundary with Uzbekistan. Exploration and operation activities in the deposits located in the fold basement were in general in form of mining. It was resulted in essential violation of landscape, development of various underground excavations, damps, tailing impoundments, lower grade stockpiles. All these need large volume of radioactive decontamination and restoration activities. 54 sites from 67 (80%) located in the territory of Uzbekistan need radioactive decontamination and restoration now. Very serious radiation settings have occurred in some of these sites nowadays. Radioactive dumps of Cherkesar-I and Cherkesar-II mined out uranium deposits are out of any control in Fergana valley in Pap region of Namangan province. The radioactive materials are collected in dumps covered with neutral ground. The cover is washed out in some places by rains. Intensity of gamma radiation is 300 to 450 ?r/h, radon exhalation is up to 7 Bk/m2*sec (while the normal level is up to 1 Bk/m2*sec). Water runs out from mothballed mines and its microelement composition is close to the composition of the technological solution. The water contains a number of very toxic elements (beryllium, manganese, iron, and aluminum). Water concentration of radionuclides is uranium - 23.4 Bk/1 (the normal level is 9.6), radon - 1433 (80), radium - 15.9 (0.94). The same set of the toxicants has been found in bottom sediment of a stream, its total alpha-activity reaches 35 to 81 KBk/kg. The spring water runs to a small valley and then to a village where the water is used for cattle watering and irrigation, that is hazardous for the local people health. Living in stone houses is also hazardous as they have been built of damp material and plastered with sand from Uigursai uranium deposit located in vicinity with the village. 250 living and public buildings have been examined. Gamma-activity level of 60 to 120 ?r/h was observed in 50% of them, radon exhalation is 200-500 to 3000 Bk/m3 (normal level is 100). The village habitants suffer from increasing rate of disease of blood, circulation and respiratory organs, urogenital system and oncologic diseases. Similar situation can be seen in other mined-out uranium facilities of the Republic (Yangiabad, Rezak, Shakaptar and others). Radiation setting is happier in the cover mined-out facilities because the underground leaching (UL) technique, which is much more environmentally safer, was used there. However, local contamination of surface of the UL sites and, mainly, underground water of ore-bearing horizon occurs and preserves for a long time using this technique. Main reasons of the contamination are: technologic solution spillings, disbalance of pumping-in and pumping-out, solutions remained in leaching areas, running out of these solutions into neighbouring horizons. Sulphuric acid underground leaching has lead to essential deterioration of environmental condition of ore bearing horizon underground water in the site under operation. The underground water was assayed for 27 components. Major of them noticeably exceeds the ultimate permissible concentrations. These are, before all, the solvent components - sulphate-ions and ions of hydrogen, leached elements - uranium, iron, aluminum, manganese, some heavy metals and other toxic elements, products of technological processing - nitrates and others. The highest contamination rate was observed for sulphates - 20 times and more, aluminum and uranium - hundreds times, iron and beryllium - thousand times. In spite of the fact that areas of contamination in case of underground leaching are rather small and, as a rule, not exceed 100 m - 150 m radius from the UL

  4. Destan Gelene?inden Tarihi Romana: Tölögön Kas?mbek ve K?r?lan K?l?ç I,II From Legend Tradition to Historical Novels: Tölögön Kas?mbek and Broken Sword I,II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan OLPAK KOÇ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Being a social entity, humanity has been searching the ways of transferring their feelings, thoughts, imaginations and impressions to next generations all the time. Before written expressions became widespread, they used to try to accomplish this aim with the help of verbal folk literature. In this sense, epic had become the most significant tool to transfer experiences not only for individuals but also for communities. After written expressions became widespread, epic gave its place to written literature genres like novel and story. However, those narrative genres have been written by individual authors and they have reflected cultures which they had grown in to their works. Kyrgyz have a considerably old past. Interaction between Turkish Literature and Kyrgyz Literature had developed pretty limited because of several reasons. Especially in period when there was no relation with Kyrgyzstan, there had been very few publications about the Kyrgyz Literature. With increasing relations after the year of 1990, Kyrgyz Literature began known. Bringing K?r?lan K?l?ç I (Broken Sword I and K?r?lan K?l?ç II (Broken Sword II novels, which are belong to Tölögön Kas?mbek, in to Turkish Literature is the product of increasing interest in this period. It is important that how the man understand the story of existance and how he/she tell the existence of the public. Tölögön Kas?mbek, in his novels K?r?lan K?l?ç I ,II (Broken Sword I,II has told the adventure of kyrgyz people and how they’d been destroyed by being defeated by the Russians. The book can be accepted as a legendary historical novel within this aspects. We, in this study, will see how close are the epic motifs of the Tölögön who wrote the history of Kyrgyz, to the reali ty which the historical novels never leaves. Toplumsal bir varl?k olarak insan duygular?n?, dü?üncelerini, hayallerini, izlenimlerini her zaman bir sonraki nesle aktarman?n yolunu aram??t?r. Yaz?l? kültür yayg?nla?madan önce bunu sözlü halk edebiyat? türleri ile yapmaya çal??m??t?r. Bu anlamda destanlar sadece bireyin de?il milletlerin deneyimlerini aktarmada en önemli araç olmu?tur. Yaz?l? kültürün yayg?nla?mas? ile birlikte destanlar?n yerini roman, hikâye gibi edebi türler alm??t?r. Ancak bu anlat? türleri tek bir ki?i taraf?ndan yaz?lm??t?r. Fakat yazar içinde yeti?ti?i toplumun kültürünü yazd??? esere aktarmaktad?r. K?rg?zlar?n oldukça eskiye dayanan bir geçmi?leri vard?r. Türk yaz?n?n?n K?rg?z Edebiyat?yla ili?kisi, çe?itli etmenlere dayal? olarak oldukça s?n?rl? geli?mi?tir. Özellikle K?rg?zistan ile ili?kilerin olmad??? dönemde K?rg?z edebiyat?yla ilgili ne?riyat da çok az olmu?tur. 1990 y?l? sonras?nda artan ili?kilerle beraber K?rg?z edebiyat? tan?nmaya ba?lar. Tölögön Kas?mbek’e ait K?r?lan K?l?ç I- K?r?lan K?l?ç II romanlar?n?n Türkiye Türkçesine kazand?r?lmas? da bu dönemde artan ilginin bir ürünüdür. ?nsan?n var olu? öyküsünü nas?l anlad??? ve toplumun varl???n? nas?l anlatt??? önemlidir. Bu çerçeve de Tölögön Kas?mbek, destans? özellikler çerçevesinde ve tarihi roman ba?lam?nda de?erlendirilecek olan K?r?lan K?l?ç I ve II roman?nda K?rg?z halk?n?n var olu? serüvenini ve Ruslar kar??s?nda nas?l yenilgiye u?ray?p y?k?ld???n? anlatm??t?r. Tarihi roman henüz kesin olarak tan?m? yap?lamasa da tarihsel bir bilginin edebi duyarl?l?klar e?li?inde romana dönü?türülmesidir diyebiliriz. Biz bu çal??mam?zda K?rg?zlar?n?n tarihini yaz?ya döken Tölögön’ün destana ait motifleri tarihi roman?n elden b?rakmad??? gerçekli?e ne kadar yakla?t?rd???n? görece?iz.

  5. Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples; Untersuchungen zur Uransorption an Bentonit bzw. Montmorillonit sowie von Uran in Umweltproben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeroual, Mohamed

    2010-09-22

    The geotechnical barrier is an important component of a geological repository and consists of compacted bentonite surrounding radioactive waste containers. Its most important functions are, to retard the radionuclide migration into the biosphere and to prevent groundwater contact with containers. lt is therefore of central importance to investigate the bentonite material on its capacity to sorb radionuclides under near-natural chemical and physical conditions. The purpose of this work was to study the adsorption of uranium(VI) on bentonit and on montmorillonite-standards at high uranium concentrations. Thereby, a special account was given to the calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation, which leads to the formation of very stable and mobile uncharged Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} complex. Results of batch experiments showed that the dicalcium-uranyl-tricarbonate complexation lowers the uranium(VI) sorption on natural clay (bentonite) by a factor of up to 3. After 21 days of contact time, about 40 % and 20 % of the initial uranium(VI)concentration were sorbed on Na-bentonite and ea-bentonite, respectively, from a solution with Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} dominating the uranium(VI) speciation. On the contrary, about 55 % of the initial uranium(VI)-concentration were sorbed on thes clays from the solution, in which (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}{sup -} complex dominated the uranium(VI) speciation. Thus uranium(VI) sorption is more strongly influenced by the solution composition than by bentonite type. Na-bentonite should be used instead of ea-bentonite as a geotechnical barrier, since calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation may be a realistic scenario. Further SEM-EDX and HREM-EDX studies showed that uranium(VI) sorption occurred predominantly on montmorillonite, which is the main component of bentonite. Uranium(VI) sorption on bentonite's accessory Minerals (pyrite, calcite, mica, and feldspar) was not observed. Investigation of uranium(VI) sorption on four montmorillonite-standard, which are distinguished by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling uranium releases from tailings into the aquatic system. The results showed that uranium(VI)

  6. The development of detailed climatic scenarios for the Central Asia Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Tajikistan Republic over 10% of the territory is the zone of everlasting snow and glaciers. This territory requires strategic defence, as global anthropogenic increasing of temperature more perceptibly tells upon the regime of forming the river flow and activation of ice disintegration. Intense glaciers melting causes not only decreasing of the fresh water supply for Central Asia but also the formation of glacial lakes. Therefore there appears the danger of destructive mountain flows, which caused the human victims and land degradation not once. Under modern climatic conditions the area of the Pamirs and Alai's glaciers is decreasing annually by 1.2 sq. km. As a whole on region the tendency of decrease of emission of polluting substances from stationary sources in air pool is observed. If in 1990 the quantity of emission has made of 6793 thousand tons, by 1995 this size has decreased on 2084 thousand tons. The maximal contribution to total amount of emissions of polluting substances in an atmosphere has of Kazakhstan - 68%. The share of other countries of Central Asia is distributed as follows: Uzbekistan - 18%, Turkmenistan - 10%, Kyrgyzstan - 2% Tajikistan - 2%. In structure of manufacture of the electric power by Kazakhstan on a share of hydroelectric power station is 6-7%, dusty and coil - 79%, gas and fuel - oil - 12-13%. In structure of generating capacities of power stations of Uzbekistan the densities of thermal power stations makes 87.4%, hydroethermal power stations makes 87.4%, hydroelectric power stations - 12.6%. As power resources for manufacture of energy the share of gas makes 82.6%, black oil - 13%, coil - 4.4%. The constant escalating of thermal capacities results in an aggravation of an ecological problem of region. Emissions of harmful substances by boiler of thermal power stations at development 1.0 GWt.h. is: Flying ashes and not burned down fuel - 4.6 thousand tons, oxides of sulfur - 4.4. thousand tons, oxides of nitrogen - 1.0 thousand t., thus are used about 850 thousand tons of atmospheric oxygen. It is necessary to note, that 1.0 tons oxide of nitrogen 1.0 thousand tons of a nitric layer, that results in decrease of absorbability of rigid ultra-violet space radiations. The decrease of absorption results in increase of intensity of rigid ultra-violet radiation in areas UV-AND (400-315 nm) and UV-IN (315-280 nm). The radiation has erythem, carcinogenic, antimythotic (lethal for a crate), mythogenic and other properties. Recently published report on change of climate prepared within the framework of the convention UNO concerning change of climate, hydrometeoretical by a service of Uzbekistan, predicts negative consequences of influence of climate change on water resources. According to the given report for the period from 1957 for 1980, the glaciers in Central Asia have decreased by 19% in size. The Aral crisis is most vivid example of an ecological problem with serious socio-economic consequences, to which directly or all states of Central Asia are indirectly connected. The crisis situation caused by drying of the Aral Sea, has developed as a result of an agrarian orientation of economy on the basis of development of irrigation agriculture and growth irrevocable use of water on irrigation. The essential river drain in deltas of Amu Darya and Syrdarya is insufficient for preservation ecological system. Since 1961 the sea level was constantly lowered with growing speed from 20 up to 90 sm. per one year. There is an intensive drainage and salting of grounds in deltas of these rivers, deep degradation of hydromorph ecological system. Former bottom of the sea became a source dusty and salty of carries on change of a temperature is observed. Moreover annually from dried up parts of bottom of the sea by a wind rises in air about 75 million tons of salt and sand, which are already found out at top of Pamir glaciers. The observing network in Tajikistan Republic has a unique peculiarity, which differs it from similar networks in other countries. It is situated at the altitudes of 300 to 4,16

  7. The development of the detailed climatic scenarios for Central Asia region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Tajikistan Republic over 10% of the territory is the zone of everlasting snow and glaciers. This territory requires strategic defence, as global anthropogenic increasing of temperature more perceptibly tells upon the regime of forming the river flow and activation of ice disintegration. Intense glaciers melting causes not only decreasing of the fresh water supply for Central Asia but also the formation of glacial lakes. Therefore there appears the danger of destructive mountain flows, which caused the human victims and land degradation not once. Under modern climatic conditions the area of the Pamirs and Alai's glaciers is decreasing annually by 1.2 sq. km. As a whole on region the tendency of decrease of emission of polluting substances from stationary sources in air pool is observed. If in 1990 the quantity of emission has made of 6793 thousand tons, by 1995 this size has decreased on 2,084 thousand tons. The maximal contribution to total amount of emissions of polluting substances in an atmosphere has of Kazakhstan - 68%. The share of other countries of Central Asia is distributed as follows: Uzbekistan - 18%, Turkmenistan - 10%, Kyrgyzstan - 2% Tajikistan - 2%. In structure of manufacture of the electric power by Kazakhstan on a share of hydroelectric power station is 6-7%, dusty and coil - 79%, gas and fuel - oil - 12-13%. In structure of generating capacities of power stations of Uzbekistan the densities of thermal power stations makes 87.4%, hydro thermal power stations makes 87.4%, hydroelectric power stations - 12.6%. As power resources for manufacture of energy the share of gas makes 82.6%, black oil - 13%, coil -4.4%. The constant escalating of thermal capacities results in an aggravation of an ecological problem of region. Emissions of harmful substances by boiler of thermal power stations at development 1.0 GWt.h. is: Flying ashes and not burned down fuel - 4.6 thousand tons, oxides of sulfur - 4.4. thousand tons, oxides of nitrogen - 1.0 thousand t., thus are used about 850 thousand tons of atmospheric oxygen. It is necessary to note, that 1.0 tons oxide of nitrogen 1.0 thousand tons of a nitric layer, that results in decrease of absorbability of rigid ultra- violet space radiations. The decrease of absorption results in increase of intensity of rigid ultra-violet radiation in areas UV-AND (400-315 nm) and UV-IN (315-280 nm). The radiation has erythem, carcinogenic, antimythotic (lethal for a crate), mythogenic and other properties. Recently published report on change of a climate prepared within the framework of the convention UNO concerning change of a climate, hydrometeoretical by a service of Uzbekistan, predicts negative consequences of influence of change of a climate on a condition of water resources. According to the given report for the period with 1957 for 1980 the glaciers in Central Asia have decreased in the sizes on 19%. The Aral crisis is most vivid example of an ecological problem with serious socio-economic consequences, to which directly or all states of Central Asia are indirectly connected. The crisis situation caused by drying of the Aral Sea, has developed as a result of an agrarian orientation of economy on the basis of development of irrigation agriculture and growth irrevocable use of water on irrigation. The essential river drain in deltas of Amu Darya and Syrdarya is insufficient for preservation ecological system. Since 1961 the sea level was constantly lowered with growing speed from 20 up to 90 sm. per one year. There is an intensive drainage and salting of grounds in deltas of these rivers, deep degradation of hydromorph ecological system. Former bottom of the sea became a source dusty and salty of carries on change of a temperature is observed. Moreover annually from dried up parts of bottom of the sea by a wind rises in air about 75 mln. tons of salt and sand, which are already found out at top of Pamir glaciers. The observing network in Tajikistan Republic has a unique peculiarity, which differs it from similar networks in other countries. It is situated at th