This project was carried out to establish long-term tactical partnership with foreign research institutions for technology exchanges and facilities, and to develop cooperation projects for the core technology. Technical bases for inviting foreign R and D centers to Jeonbuk province has been established through consulting discussion and signing arrangement on cooperation between ARTI and the partner institute. Discussion in-depth on an R and D center of Russian IBMP in Jeonbuk has been made and an agendum for the R and D center was submitted to the 13th Korea-Russian Federation Joint Committee on Nuclear Cooperation. Based on consensus that technology exchange and enhanced collaboration would be reciprocally beneficial, the second ARTI-TARRI joint seminar is scheduled at Jeongeup in September 2009, when further discussion will be made on the subsidiary arrangement to KAERI-JAEA MOU. An consultant meeting was done in order to strengthen international cooperation and to get advice on attracting foreign R and D centers at the Provincial Office in May 2009. A fact finding visit to iThemba LABS in south Africa was made to conclude a Letter of Understanding (LOU) for cooperation in R and D of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. The established collaborative relationship with world-leading research institutes such as IBMP, TARRI and iThemba LABS can make a role for inviting in the near future foreign R and D centers to Jeonbuk Province, and surely give a tactical influence on radiation industries in the Jeonbuk Province
Experimental and theoretical results are reported obtained by staff of the IPP-Prague in the years 1979-1980 concerning high-frequency heating of plasma in tokamaks, interaction of relativistic electron beams with a plasma, and applied plasma physics. Preliminary experiments on additional hf heating in a small TM-1-MH tokamak and the new data acquisition and processing system Andromeda are described in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3 the specifications of the high-power electron accelerator REBEX 2 and some of the applied diagnostic systems (X-ray detectors and equipment for the Thomson scattering of laser light) are described in detail. Work in applied plasma physics is concentrated to thin film formation and plasma chemistry (Chpt.4). In theoretical papers in the last chapter several interesting questions of high-frequency plasma heating and beam plasma interaction are discussed (e.g., particle transport in hf-heated plasma, reflexing electron beam phenomena, particle trapping). (;.U.)
Progress for 1979-1980 is reported from the following research groups and/or areas: research medicine; Donner Pavilion; Peralta Cancer Research Institute; environmental physiology; radiation biophysics and structural biophysics. Abstracts have been prepared for the 61 separate research programs described in this report for inclusion in the Energy Data Base
Techniques for validly comparing astronomical observations of Jupiter in the period 1979-1980 are defined, and details of the observations are presented. The necessity of establishing a common scale of observations, in terms of the measurements of the bands of Jupiter and the anotation of limb observations in all reports is stressed. The opposition of Jupiter with Regulus and Mars is described, together with phenomena occurring in the south south temperate zone, the south south temperate band, and zone south of the south temperate zone. Observations of the south temperate band, as well as the two equatorial bands with a 60 mm lens, are reviewed. Shape changes and positions of the White Oval Spots are reported, and detection of disturbances in the south tropical zone at 200 deg is noted. The traverse of the Great Red Spot across the viewed hemisphere is traced and found to remain stationary at 58 deg. The persistence of a white spot in the equatorial zone south and dark spots in the north north equatorial band are mentioned.
The annual report concentrates result of investigations in the field of the production of radioisotopes, the synthesis of radioactive compounds and their characterization. Main topics are the production of "9"9Mo and the application of radioactive compounds in nuclear medicine especially as radiopharmaceuticals. A list of publications and lectures is enclosed. (author)
The objectives of this surveillance are twofold: (1) to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining abortions, and (2) to eliminate preventable mortality and morbidity related to abortion. This report documents the most recent data availabl...
This is a detailed technical and scientific report on the safety, reliability, and economics of power plants and on availability and failure statistics of power plant operators. VGB activities in the field of R-D projects are reviewed. The members' committees and their activities are listed as well as VGB meetings and seminars. (GL)
Innovations arising from Australian research and development are reported. Two categories of submission are defined: those which are in production or use and those which have reached prototype design or pilot plant stage and appear to be of value. Innovations in the field of nuclear science are: a radon analyser, uranium tails management, technetium-99m generator, enrichment of uranium by gas ultracentrifuge, programmable radiometric assay monitor, a borehole core analyser, intrinsic germanium detector for uranium borehole logging, underground operations at a uranium mine, neutron moisture meter and apparatus for the determination of deuterium in water at natural levels. Names to whom requests for further information should be addressed are included
The Medical and Health Sciences Division conducts research programs relevant to neoplastic, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular diseases. Basic biological science, nuclear medicine, and epidemiology provide an integrated approach to solving biomedical problems directly related to occupational medicine and environmental health effects. The central theme of this research is focused on both the mechanisms and risk assessments of diseases caused by accidental exposure to chemical toxicants derived from fossil and synthetic fuels or to radiation. A major reorganizational change made this past year restructured the division into two branches. The environmental and health sciences branch contains a cancer and pulmonary research section, an interdisciplinary task group section, a cardiovascular research section, and a research support section. The radiation and nuclear medicine branch consists of a radiation and nuclear medicine section and an occupational epidemiology section. In addition, special task groups have been created to provide an interdisciplinary team approach in certain research efforts. Information included in this booklet summarizes research results and related activities for the period from October 1, 1979, to September 30, 1980
Further wind tunnel experiments on resuspension are presented. In one, the effect of natural weathering was investigated. The grass was exposed to natural wind and rain between measurement periods. Results showed that natural weathering reduced the concentration of the tungstic oxide (WO_3) tracer found in the air in subsequent resuspension measurements at least as rapidly as exposure to high winds alone. Another experiment showed that 60% of the WO_3 resuspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within 4 m. Finally, resuspension from grass of 2 ?m and 5 ?m iron oxide particles and of ferric chloride applied in solution are reported and compared with tungstic oxide and silt. After the first few hours, the resuspension rate increased in the order: submicron WO_3 powder, silt, ferric chloride, 2 ?m particles, 5 ?m particles, with a ratio of about a hundred between the highest and lowest. The problem of extrapolating from small-scale experiments to contamination on a larger scale is discussed. Resuspension factors for grassland in N W Europe appear to be comparable with those observed in more arid conditions in the USA, but resuspension formulae previously proposed by American workers are probably conservative by about an order of magnitude if applied in Europe. (author)
The work of the research establishments, projects undertaken and public sector undertakings of the Department of Atomic Energy during the financial year 1979-80 is surveyed. The research and development activities of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Bombay, the Reactor Research Centre at Kalpakkam, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research at Bombay, the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics at Calcutta and the Tata Memorial Centre at Bombay are described. An account of the progress of heavy water production plant projects, the Madras and Narora Atomic Power Projects, the MHD project and the 100 MW thermal research reactor R-5 Project at Trombay is given. Performance of the Tarapur and Rajasthan Atomic Power Stations, Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad, Atomic Minerals Division, ISOMED (the radiation sterilisation plant for medical products) at Bombay, the Indian Rare Earths Ltd., the Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., and the Electronics Corporation of India Ltd., Hyderabad is reported. (M.G.B.)
Goals of the program are to increase plant availability by determining the response of core component materials, by developing a comprehensive fuel performance data base, and by developing accurate models and computer codes. Currently, there are twenty-two active projects that range in scope from test reactor experiments of advanced fuel types to large-scale testing of prototypic fuel assemblies. During 1979 and 1980, several projects produced significant results concerning: (1) power reactor fuel performance, particularly fission gas release, fuel swelling, clad oxidation, fuel rod growth, and fuel rod bow, (2) test reactor fuel performance of new fuel types, particularly fission gas release and fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, and (3) fuel rod reliability modeling
This report has been prepared as one of a series which provide basic profiles of twelve licensed health professions in Maine. The professions covered by the Health Manpower Resource Inventories are: allopathic physicians, osteopathic physicians, registere...
D. R. Lemieux
IODP-MI/JOI Large Igneous Province Workshop; Coleraine, United Kingdom, 22-25 July 2007 Catastrophic massive volcanism and contemporaneous environmental change have punctuated Earth history for at least the past 3.5 billion years. Geodynamic and magmatic processes associated with large igneous province (LIP) formation interact with crustal structure and tectonic setting to produce various expressions of LIPs, the most common of which are oceanic plateaus, magma-dominated divergent continental margins, and continental flood basalts. Environmental and biotic perturbations simultaneous with LIP formation include climate changes, mass extinctions, accelerated evolutionary rates, oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), and variations in ocean chemistry. Exploring these relationships promises exciting science.
Coffin, Millard F.; Neal, Clive
Full Text Available Hebei Province and Shandong Province are the neighbors with many common points as well as different points.Both of them are the big agricultural provinces and make lots of measures to push the agricultureindustrialization which is seemed as the matchmaker of farmers and markets and can push the industrialrestructuring in rural area and can improve the income of farmers. However after years of development there is awide difference between the two Provinces in the field of agriculture industrialization. This paper is going tomake a comparative analysis of agriculture industrialization between the two provinces. Then try to find theweakness of agriculture industrialization in Hebei Province and finally find the policies to narrow the differenceand push the agriculture industrialization in Hebei Province.
Full Text Available In the study, three different solar power generating systems (including solar thermal and PV are analyzed, according to same climate data in Jiayuguan, Gansu province. Solar parabolic trough and tower thermal power systems are selected as typical thermal system. Parabolic trough system and polycrystalline silicon cell are maturity and popularized in the world and tower system is developed to commercial stage in recent year. Then calculated and analyzed the generating capacity and economic characters of three power systems. The results can be used to support technology choice, operation and design optimization.
Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.
Three types of interior provinces have been tested by exploratory drilling for their petroleum potential: three Tertiary nonmarine basins, two Jurassic and Cretaceous flysch and fold belts, and a Paleozoic thrust belt. Although the presence of hydrocarbons has not yet been demonstrated, the present data base is too limited to make a definitive assessment of hydrocarbon potential. During the 1983-84 field seasons, the authors acquired new gravity data and collected rock samples in and adjacent to the Yukon flats and the Nenana basins. These basins contain upper Tertiary, primarily nonmarine, sedimentary rock in extensional graben and half-graben complexes that are superimposed across preexisting terrane boundaries. The location and development of the basins result from strike-slip motion along the Tintina and Denali fault systems. Adjacent to the basins and within the fault systems are thick sections of nonmarine lower Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in deformed basin remnants. If these lower Tertiary rocks are present beneath the upper Tertiary fill, their greater depth and advanced maturation could enhance the hydrocarbon generative potential. Gravity modelling suggests the Tertiary fill is at least 3 km thick in the deeper parts of the basins and may be significantly thicker.
Kirschner, C.E.; Fisher, M.A.; Bruns, T.R.; Stanley, R.G.
Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.
The main results are in the following three areas: (1) examination of a diffusion model for PdH system, (2) connection between the diffusion model and other physical models, (3) related problems. Advances made during the third year of this project, particularly in understanding the physical model for hydrogen diffusion, make it possible to begin to meet some of the long-range objectives described in the initial proposals of 1977-1978.
The results of joint investigation of radioactivity in the Baltic Sea, provided by the Institute of Radiation Protection (Helsinki, Finland) and the Khlopin Radium Institute (Leningrad, USSR) in 1979 and 1980 are reported. The comparison of results of int...
A. Salo M. Pukhakainen R. Saksen K. Tuomainen L. N. Lazarev
The report describes the Hearing Resource Program at Phoenix (AZ) Union High School District 210, a resource program serving 72 hearing impaired high school students as well as screening incoming freshmen for hearing loss. The program goal was to enable the students to complete their required classes successfully and graduate from high school.…
Wheeler, Linda; Finley, Mary Jane
Strontium 90, a most toxic among the beta emitting radionuclides, is found in the environment originating mostly from the global fallout from nuclear tests. Radioactive concentration of this radionuclide was measured in air-borne particulates, precipitation, surface water, seasonal vegetables and other items of diet. The report describes a radiochemical procedure for the separation of Y 90 by solvent extraction leading to the determination of Sr 90 content in the environmental and biological samples. The report also presents data on the concentration of Sr 90 in the biomedia at PINSTECH during 1979-80. The values of these concentrations are fairly comparable to those published in the current literature. (author)
A qualitative description is given of research in the following areas: particle physics in relativistic astrophysics and cosmology; phenomenology of weak and electromagnetic interactions; strong interaction physics and quark-parton physics; quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and fundamental problems; and groups, gauges, and grand unified theories. Reports on this work have already been published, or will be, when it is completed
The content of strontium-90 in reindeer meat is presented. The meat samples were taken from the autumn and winter slaughters in the northern part of Sweden after the fallout from the nuclear tests during the 1960s and 1970s. The strontium activity measurements were performed using a chemical analysis. The content of cesium-137 and the Sr/Cs activity ratio for the reindeer meat samples is also presented and the Sr/Ca ratio is discussed. (Authors)
The resonance lines of Mg+ and C+++ have been studied in the spectrum of zeta Aurigae during 1979 and 1980. A model of the K-star wind far from the K star and its interaction with the B star in the system has been derived. The data suggest a mass loss rate from the K star of 2 x 10-8 M/sub sun/ yr-1. The rate of accretion by the B star of material from the K supergiant is such that the matter accreted in the course of about 10 years is of the order of the total mass of the photosphere of the B star
Topics discussed include the following: Reactor related activities--(Physics, Radiochemistry, Health physics & nuclear medicine, Computing, Engineering); Isotope Geology; NERC Radiocarbon Laboratory; Teaching; Building; Committees; Staff at the Centre; Pu...
The territory of Brazil coincides almost entirely with the South American Platform, the crystalline core of the continent. Its basement is composed of ancient metamorphic and igneous rocks and it has not suffered any tectonic regeneration since the beginning of the Phanerozoic. Sedimentary rocks with almost horizontal bedding cover this crystalline basement. This latter shows ages as old as Early Precambrian, although ages between 500 and 1000 m.y. are conspicuously frequent. The cratonic areas became consolidated more than 1700 m.y. ago, whereas the fold belts formed essentially between 500 and 1700 m.y. ago. The sedimentary cover accumulated from the Early Silurian in three large intracratonic basins, until the platform became completely stabilized. A Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous reactivation, caused by the break-up of the ancient Gondwana continent, created another basin sequence chiefly along the Atlantic continental margin. Based on the nature of the crystalline basement rocks and the sedimentary cover, ten structural provinces can be distinguished: Rio Branco Province, in the north of the country, occupied by the Guyana Shield and still only poorly known, with an important fold belt developed during the so-called Transamazonian Cycle (2000 ± 200m.y.) with high-grade metamorphic rocks and only slight influence of later events. Tapajós Province, in central Brazil, corresponding to the Amazonas or GuaporéCraton, showing chiefly Precambrian crystalline rocks and behaving as an cratonic area during the Phanerozoic. Sa˜o Francisco Province, located on the Atlantic Shield, with its basement covered by rocks of different ages, chiefly affected by the Brasiliano Cycle (between 1000 and 500 m.y.) and constituting another cratonic area. Tocantins Province, between the Amazonas and Sa˜o Francisco Cratons, with the oldest rocks in its centre (ages over 2600 m.y.), and at the eastern and western borders metamorphic sequences of various fold belts, and almost no Phanerozoic deposits. Mantiqueira Province, located along the southern part of the Atlantic coast, affected chiefly by the Brasiliano folding cycle. Borborema Province, in the northeast Brazilian fold belt, affected by the Brasiliano Cycle in a very complex way, and with important faulted zones. It was reactivated in Phanerozoic times, when also sedimentary covers accumulated. Amazonas Province, represented by the Amazonas sedimentary basin (syneclise), and subdivided into four parts by three important arcs. Parnaiba Province, coinciding with the Piauf — Maranha˜o syneclise, and filled with a rather thick sedimentary sequence. ParanáProvince, the sedimentary basin of southern Brazil, in which the well-known Late Paleozoic glaciation features are found, and which possesses an extensive cover of basaltic rocks of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. Coastal Province and Continental Margin, the youngest structural unit, developed during the separation of the continent and represented by rift-valleys and coastal basins filled with Mesozoic-Cenozoic deposits of various kinds.
de Almeida, F. F. M.; Hasui, Y.; de Brito Neves, B. B.; Fuck, R. A.
Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs
Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)
Full Text Available In order to study Indian National Congress in Punjab during 1900-1929, it is necessary to give an idea about the foundation and growth of Congress at all India level, without which the picture in different provinces about the growth of Congress activities would not be clear. The regional study is closely interlinked with the wider growth of All India National Congress. No picture of regional and local level organization can be properly constructed without forming a picture of National Level organization.
... The Prairie Water Policy Symposium (2005) The Prairie Water Policy Symposium (PWPS) was hosted by IISD on September 22-23, 2005, in Winnipeg, at The Forks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. This event brought together approximately 100 policy-makers, researchers and scientists from across the country. Realizing Opportunities: Emissions trading in Manitoba (2004) (PDF - 1.4 mb) IISD served as the Secretariat for a Manitoba task force on emissions trading and released a report on how the province could take advantage of economic opportunities....
The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4o latitude by 1/3o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)
A contribution to the lichen flora of Turkey presented. A total of 123 lichen species belonging to Ascomycotina are reported from 7 different localities in Usak Province in the Aegean Region of Turkey. Of these, 115 are new for Usak Province. For every each species, the habitat pattern and distribution data are presented.
The geochemical cycle of U shows that, since 2.5 Ga ago, part of the crustal U has been returning to the mantle. This is due to the setting up of the convective cycle that altered the primordial element distribution in geospheres governed by gravity alone. Mantle material with U excess has been recognized by Pb isotopic studies in the source mantle regions for alkaline magmatism, but alkaline magmatism does not balance the U excess in the mantle. Therefore, mantle regions which are enriched in U, Th, light rare earth elements, K and other incompatible elements should be stored somewhere beneath the lithosphere. The uranium provinces representing crustal geochemical anomalies may correspond to the site of underlying mantle anomalies. This possibility has been tested in the Latium region (Central Italy), which is considered to be a very recent uranium province. The Latium region corresponds to a mantle uplift with anomalous geophysical characteristics. The magmatic suites extracted from the anomalous mantle indicate mantle metasomatic processes. The enrichment factor for incompatible elements added to the source mantle region of the alkaline magmatism has been calculated. Another supply of fluids depositing incompatible elements in shallow crustal environment has been detected and evaluated also. Regional mineralizations may correspond to this fraction of fluids supply that can percolate outside the volcanic system. Those elements that have been added to the magmatic chamber after the magma extraction from the mantle (U, Hg, Sb, As, Ba, Sr, F, S) form huge concentrations in and around the volcanic system. The isotopic composition of the different types of mineralizations and alterations shows constant values which do not relate to magmatic or to sedimentary origins. 9 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs
Full Text Available Most local governments in Indonesia are relatively left behind in terms of e-government implementation. According to Indonesian e-government road map, Indonesia has only reached the third phase of the action. This article will discuss the diversity of features, popularity, and information richness on the website of the provinces in Indonesia. The population of study is the website of 33 provinces in Indonesia. The research result show that the traffic does not depend on information richness and number of web features. There were differences in information richness and real traffic rank among the provinces outside Java with Java.
Tigre Province is in northern Ethiopia between Eritrea on the north and east, and Begemdir and Wollo on the south. The area is comprised of five main physiographic units: Danakil Depression, Escarpment, Tigre and Eritrea Plateau, Semien Mountains and the Western Lowlands. The first two drain into the closed drainage basin of Dallol whilst the other three drain into the Nilo Through the Tezeke, Mareb and Barka River. Three main rock complexes build up the prospect area. The metamorphic and intrusive rocks of the Precambrian basement, the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Sediments and Tertiary Trap Volcanics, and the Young Sedimentary and Volcanic Rocks of the Danakil Depression. The only existing geological data on this area is represented by maps assembled from different sources on very large scale. Thanks to interactive computer processing, it is becoming possible to trace, on the relief as it appears on the display unit, lithological boundaries and the faults which affect them, measuring each of their geometric characteristics. Image processing coupled with pattern recognition programs has made it possible to take into consideration landscape units combining morphological, botanical and geological signatures, and more generally to quantify the morphological elements. Satellite images (Landsat TM and Spot XS) have been processed to produce thematic maps.
Marini, A.; Melis, Maria T.
Full Text Available Scientists is the key to stimulate economic progress. First, in Shannxi Province the paper describes the distribution of young technology rising star winners since 2009, second, it uses the SWOT method to analyze the status of these talents. Finally, it suggests the Shaanxi province government should protect the young scientists, providing them with the superior treatment, a favorable political environment and exceptional room for improvement.
Full Text Available Touristic investments play an important role in marketing the tourism in Karaman province. The main reason whythis study is conducted in this region with a high tourism potential is that Karaman province does not have atourism investment guide prepared so far. Our projections will serve for this purpose. In this study, touristicfunction ratio, hotel management function ratio, product-market analysis, perception map throughmulti-dimensional scaling method and TOPSIS method have been used.
Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume III. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: production, unsponsored research
This document consists of the following papers: inorganic geochemistry studies of the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; lithology studies of upper Devonian well cuttings in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; possible effects of plate tectonics on the Appalachian Devonian black shale production in eastern Kentucky; preliminary depositional model for upper Devonian Huron age organic black shale in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; the anatomy of a large Devonian black shale gas field; the Cottageville (Mount Alto) Gas Field, Jackson County, West Virginia: a case study of Devonian shale gas production; the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field: a geological study of the relationships of Ohio Shale gas occurrences to structure, stratigraphy, lithology, and inorganic geochemical parameters; and a statistical analysis of geochemical data for the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field.
Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.
Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume II. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: regional structure, surface structure, surface fractures, hydrology
This volume comprises appendices giving regional structure data, surface structure data, surface fracture data, and hydrology data. The fracture data covers oriented Devonian shale cores from West Virginia, Ohio, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky. The subsurface structure of the Eastern Kentucky gas field is also covered. (DLC)
Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.
Full Text Available Background: The blastocyst implantation in any place other than uterus cavity endometrium is called ectopic pregnancy. The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is different in various countries. This study has been conducted to investigate the epidemiology of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010.Materials and Methods: The present study is a retrospective descriptive study. The data on 872 ectopic pregnancies were extracted by questionnaires from the files in the records department of hospitals and delivery centers in Hamadan province during 2000-2010. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-16 software.Results: The frequency of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010 was averagely 2.6 per 1000 pregnancies. Tubal pregnancy with 95.2% is the most prevalent type of ectopic pregnancy most of which had occurred in the right tube (52.4%. Most ectopic pregnancies (52.2% were in the age group of 25-34.Conclusion: The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during the mentioned years has been 2.6 in 1000 pregnancies, which is lower compared to many existing data. However, the prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in this province has increased over time, so that it has become 3.3 times as much from 2000-2010.
All projects listed in this report have been submitted for publication as journal articles or DOE reports. Projects include: McGlynn, S.P., Felps, W.S. and Scott, J.D., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XVIII. Vibronic Doubling in Methyl Iodide; Findley, G.L. and McGlynn, S.P., The Generalized Genetic Code. A Modification of Code Universality; Findley, G.L. and McGlynn, S.P., Fundamental Spectroscopic Studies of Some Atmospheric Pollutants; McGlynn, S.P., Azumi, T. and Kumar, D., The Colors of Post-Transition-Metal Salts; Lewis, J.W., Nauman, R.V., Boulder, D.B., Jr. and McGlynn, S.P., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XIX. Low-Energy Rydberg States of Azulene; Felps, W.S., Scott, J.D., and McGlynn, S.P., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XX. Vibronic Doubling in Alkyl Bromides; Felps, W.S. and McGlynn, S.P., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XXI. Intermediate Coupling in Simple Bromides; McGlynn, S.P. and Felps, W.S., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XXII. The ..pi.. ..-->.. 4s Transition of ClCN; Chattopadhyay, S., McGlynn, S.P. and Findley, G.L., Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Phosphites, Phosphates and Substituted Phosphates; and Scott, John D., A Perturbed Linear Molecule Model for the Spectroscopy of Almost Linear Molecules. (PSB)
McGlynn, S P
All projects listed in this report have been submitted for publication as journal articles or DOE reports. Projects include: McGlynn, S.P., Felps, W.S. and Scott, J.D., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XVIII. Vibronic Doubling in Methyl Iodide; Findley, G.L. and McGlynn, S.P., The Generalized Genetic Code. A Modification of Code Universality; Findley, G.L. and McGlynn, S.P., Fundamental Spectroscopic Studies of Some Atmospheric Pollutants; McGlynn, S.P., Azumi, T. and Kumar, D., The Colors of Post-Transition-Metal Salts; Lewis, J.W., Nauman, R.V., Boulder, D.B., Jr. and McGlynn, S.P., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XIX. Low-Energy Rydberg States of Azulene; Felps, W.S., Scott, J.D., and McGlynn, S.P., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XX. Vibronic Doubling in Alkyl Bromides; Felps, W.S. and McGlynn, S.P., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XXI. Intermediate Coupling in Simple Bromides; McGlynn, S.P. and Felps, W.S., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XXII. The ? ? 4s Transition of ClCN; Chattopadhyay, S., McGlynn, S.P. and Findley, G.L., Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Phosphites, Phosphates and Substituted Phosphates; and Scott, John D., A Perturbed Linear Molecule Model for the Spectroscopy of Almost Linear Molecules
A summary is provided of the first of three years of experimental and theoretical research on free-forced convection flows in cavity-type solar receivers. New experimental and theoretical results are presented and discussed. The implication of these findings, with respect to the future thrust of the research program, is clarified as well as is possible at the present time. Following various related conclusions a summary and tentative schedule of work projected for year two of research are presented.
Three years of data on factors associated with death losses and health costs in Ontario feedlot calves were analyzed. The results support the previously reported findings; however, significant differences in the third year (1980-81) of the study were noted. Calf groups that were "mixed" after arrival in the feedlot or had a larger than average number of calves (means = 142) had increased death losses and health costs. Calf groups whose ration was changed from dry hay to hay silage or corn sil...
Martin, S. W.; Meek, A. H.; Davis, D. G.; Johnson, J. A.; Curtis, R. A.
The results of the second residential energy consumption survey are presented. Data on consumption and expenditures are presented for the year April 1979 through March 1980. Tables are also presented which indicate the cost and incidence of major insulation added to US households in 1978 and 1979. The tables are from the final data file that contains imputations for missing data and includes information from the mail questionnaires. This report contains selected tabulations for each of the four Census regions for the period 1978-1980. Included are: a summary of findings showing comparisons in residential energy consumption between the 1978 to 1979 and 1979 to 1980 time periods a description of how the survey was conducted, a statement about the limitations of the data including relatve standard errors, a copy of the survey forms, and a glossary.
The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton which underlies portions of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, and much of Wyoming. The cratonic block consists of Archean age granite-gneiss with interspersed greenstone belts and related supracrustal terranes exposed in the cores of several Laramide uplifts. Resources found in the Province and in the adjacent accreted Proterozoic terrane include banded iron formation, Au, Pt, Pd, W, Sn, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, and diamonds. The Province shows many similarities to the mineral-rich cratons of the Canadian shield, the Rhodesian and Transvaal cratons of southern Africa, and the Pilbara and Yilgarn blocks of Western Australia, where much of the world's precious and strategic metal and gemstone resources are located.
Hausel, W. D.; Edwards, B. R.; Graff, P. J.
Presents a general picture of the energy scene in the Basque Provinces. Gives details of energy sources, energy consumption and provides an energy balance. The article relates entirely to the Basque Provinces.
In order to address long healthcare waits, political and professional groups have recommended sending patients to other provinces for diagnostic procedures or treatment. We investigated the feasibility of such recommendations, specifically, whether residence in one province can impede access to MRIs in another province. We contacted all public MRI facilities in Canada and found no difference in wait times between prospective in- and out-of-province patients, although wait times were highly va...
Revah, Giselle; Bell, Chaim
With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced
Response to Intervention (RTI) is at a beginning stage in the Saskatchewan province as well as in other parts of Canada. One needs only to enter RTI and the names of any of the Canadian provinces into any widely used search engine to see the marked difference in the availability of information about RTI when the Canadian provinces and individual…
Kemp-Koo, Debra; Claypool, Tim
The majority of studies investigate the effect of income on life satisfaction at either individual or country level. This study contributes with analysis at the (sub-national) province level across West European countries. I use a unique dataset Eurobarometer 44.2 Bis that is representative of province populations in a multilevel model. Provinces…
This site provides all information, instructions, downloadable materials, and links to online materials for an exercise developed for use in a Geology of the National Parks course. Using the provided maps, groups of 3 to 6 students are asked to identify between 8 and 12 geologic provinces based on topography, the age of rocks, and the rock types. As a result of this exercise, students will become familiar and comfortable with reading maps and legends, learn basic rock types and how geologic time is divided, define geologic provinces that will form an outline for learning the geology of the U.S., and be able to discuss the maps they create based on what they've learned. This exercise is intended for one of the first class meetings of the quarter or semester and ideally students will approach this exercise without much or any prior knowledge of the geology of the United States.
Full Text Available This study is to probe into the market development and management mode of colleges and universities in Hunan province, which it is very important to utilize the stadiums resources and promote economic development. Literature, questionnaire survey and the analysis of the data are used. The results show that the market development of stadiums is conducted in the majority of stadiums (80% of colleges and universities in Hunan province. But only a small part of stadiums are developed in the process of market development of stadiums and a large number of stadiums are not in use. The main reason is that there are no good management teams in the market development, leading to much problems in the process of management, this study attempts to put forward many reasonable proposals, aiming at problems.
Full Text Available Coastal dunes habitats at Buenos Aires provinceare in a fragmentation and habitat loss process dueto related human activities. Knowledge on theherpetofauna of Buenos Aires province coasthabitats is plentiful for some species of lizards andscarce for most amphibians and snakes. With theaim to present a list on the amphibians andreptiles of the coastal dune habitats in BuenosAires province we recorded species coming fromfield work, cited in literature, and vouchersspecimens deposited in herpetological collections.We recorded 35 species in six sectors thatrepresent the last remnants of coastal dunes ingood conservation status. The Mar Chiquita andFaro Querandí Reserves represent an importantcontribution to the conservation of several speciesthat inhabit coastal dune habitats. It is necessaryto increase the knowledge on biodiversity in thosehabitats in order to develop conservation strategies.
Full Text Available Majka and Klimaszewski (2010 surveyed the Aleocharinae fauna of the Maritime Provinces of Canada, reporting that 203 species were known in the region. They also added 16 new provincial records from the region. Inadvertently, they neglected to provide new provincial records of three species that were indicated as occurring in Nova Scotia in Table 1 (pp. 23-33 of their results. This omission is rectified below wherein Gyrophaena modesta Casey, Gyrophaena subnitens Casey, and Placusa vaga Casey are all newly recorded as occurring in Nova Scotia. Klimaszewski et al. (2010, pp. 77 also erroneously reported Tachyporus nitidulus as occurring in Prince Edward Island. There are no records of this adventive Palaearctic species from the province, although it is more widely distributed in Nova Scotia than hitherto reported. Additional records of T. nitidulus are provided of from Nova Scotia.
Cockroach surveys using sticky traps were conducted in urban areas of 14 Thailand provinces. At least 30 houses in each province were randomly sampled for cockroaches. Each house was trapped in three areas: kitchen, bedroom and outside. A total of 2,648 cockroaches was caught by 550 out of 1,542 traps (35.7%), from 337 of the 514 houses (65.6%). Overall, relative density ranged from 2.6 to 9.1 with an average of 5.2 cockroaches/house. On the average, 47.7% of the cockroaches were caught in the kitchen, 24.4% and 27.9% were caught in the bedroom and outside of dwellings, respectively. There were 10 species of cockroaches caught from the 14 provinces: Periplaneta americana (60.9%), Periplaneta brunnea (15.4%), Neostylopyga rhombiofolia (9.6%), Periplaneta australasiae (9.2%), Pycnoscelis surinamensis (3.3%), Blatella germanica (0.6%), Periplaneta fuliginosa (0.5%), Supella longipalpa (0.3%), Blatella lituricollis (0.15%) and Nauphoeta cinerea (0.05%), belonging to six genera. According to the surveys in this study, Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta brunnea were the most abundant cockroach species in urban Thailand, whereas the kitchen was the major habitat. PMID:11813661
Tawatsin, A; Thavara, U; Chompoosri, J; Kong-ngamsuk, W; Chansang, C; Paosriwong, S
The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) commissioned researchers from the University of Zambia to conduct a socioeconomic survey and census of "spontaneously settled" Zairean and Angolan refugees in the Northwestern Province of Zambia in 1982. The sample consisted of 188 Angolans, 201 Zaireans, and 2 South Africans. The difficulties experienced by refugees in Northwestern Province in achieving integration were related to a combination of factors including the lack of a clear national policy on refugees and refugee status, a national concern for maintaining security, the popular belief that aliens are responsible for an increasing crime rate, the desire by immigration officials for stricter laws to control alien infiltration, conflict between traditional and modern leaders, and Zambia's deteriorating economic situation. In spite of the problems described, the integration of refugees into existing communities is a desirable goal and should be encouraged. One should not assume that self-settling refugees are able to live with ethnic kin, receive assistance and hospitality, and thus are better off than those in camps. The Zambian case provides ample evidence that integration is not easy even with kin support, shared ethnicity, language, and historical connections. Moreover, given the fact that Zambia will continue to receive refugees it is vital that there is a well defined refugee policy and an administrative mechanism for implementing that policy at all levels. This will be particularly important in Zambia as it will undoubtedly continue to receive large influxes of refugees, from countries such as Namibia, Uganda, Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa. PMID:12267853
Freund, P J; Kalumba, K
The history, achievements and current status of wheat mutation breeding in Shandong province are briefly reviewed. The common used techniques and steps for mutation breeding of wheat are introduced. Suggestions and prospect of wheat mutation breeding in Shandong province are listed. (authors)
We propose a model to study economic convergence in the tradition of neoclassical growth theory. We employ a novel stochastic set-up of the Solow (1956) model with shocks to both capital and labor. Our novel approach identifies the speed of convergence directly from estimating the parameters which determine equilibrium dynamics. The inference on the structural parameters is done using a maximum-likelihood approach. We estimate our model using growth and population data for Chinaâ??s provinces from 1978 to 2010. We report heterogeneity in the speed of convergence both across provinces and time. The Eastern provinces show a higher tendency of convergence, while there is no evidence of convergence for the Central and Western provinces. We find empirical evidence that the speed of convergence decreases over time for most provinces.
Pan, Lei; Posch, Olaf
Large igneous provinces (LIPs) define unusual periods in Earth History which are associated with massive volcanism, supercontinent fragmentation, and oceanic anoxic events (OAE). The High Arctic LIP (HALIP) includes lava flows, sills and dykes that are scattered around the Arctic Ocean. It is probably the least known volcanic province due to the remoteness of the outcrops and the harshness of the arctic environment. The HALIP is defined as a long lasting (ca. 50 Ma) diffuse volcanic period punctuated by two distinct volcanic events: the ~120-130 Ma Barremian and the ~80-90 Ma Turonian events. In this contribution, we sub-divided the HALIP into two separate LIPs: (1) the ~120-130 Ma Early Cretaceous BLIP which was related to the opening of the Canada Basin, and (2) the ~80-90 Ma Late Cretaceous SLIP which was related to the formation of the Alpha Ridge. New seismic data show that an extensive BLIP sill complex is present in a province exceeding 150,000 km2 in the eastern Barents Sea. The intrusions were mainly injected into Permian to Jurassic age sediments. The BLIP extends beyond the Barents Sea with outcrops on Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Arctic Canada (Sverdrup Basin and Ellesmere Island) and Bennett Island. Stratigraphic correlations show that lava flows are interbedded with Barremian sediments on Svalbard and Franz Josef Land. New radiometric Ar-Ar ages of the volcanic rocks also support a Barremian age. The massive injection of hot magma into organic-rich sediments in the Barents Sea basins caused organic matter maturation and formation of thermogenic gas and oil. We estimate that about 9000 Gt of carbon was potentially degassed from the contact aureoles. This corresponds to 82 x1012 barrels of oil equivalent. If the metamorphic gas was rapidly released to the atmosphere near the Barremian-Aptian boundary it could have triggered the OAE1a. However, some of the hydrocarbons were likely trapped in the basins, and we note that theworld class Shtockman gas field that is directly overlying a large sill complexes emplaced in Triassic sediments in the eastern Barents Sea.
Polteau, Stéphane; Planke, Sverre; Faleide, Jan Inge; Svensen, Henrik; Myklebust, Reidun
We evaluated the prevalence and consequences of human myiasis among people involved in animal husbandry and butchers among 6 counties in Fars Province, Iran using a descriptive cross sectional survey. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate knowledge, community perceptions and practices. Three hundred two herders shepherds and butchers were included in the study. Eighty-eight point three percent of subjects had experienced myiasis during their job experiences. Seventy-one point five percent had become infected in barns. Pharyngeal myiasis was reported by 87% of subjects. The most likely cause of myiasis in subjects was the sheep botfly, Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae). Age and job experiences did not have an effect on the knowledge and practice regarding myiasis of subjects. Academic educational level had no significant effect on knowledge but did have a significant effect on practices. A myiasis education program needs to be created to better control and prevent this problem. PMID:23431828
Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Rafinejad, Javad; Alipour, Hamzeh; Biglarian, Akbar
Full Text Available Background: There is very little information about the mosquito fauna of Qom Province, central Iran. By now only three species; Anopheles claviger, An. multicolor, and An. superpictus have been reported in the province. To study mosquito fauna and providing a primary checklist, an investigation was carried out on a collection of mosquitoes in this province.Methods: To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae fauna, larval collections were carried out from different habitats on 19 occasions using the standard dipping technique during spring and summer 2008 and 2009.Results: In total, 371 mosquito larvae were collected and morphologically identified including 14 species representing four genera: Anopheles claviger, An. marteri, An. turkhudi, An. superpictus, Culex arbieeni, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Cx. modestus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. territans, Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. subochrea, and Ochlerotatus caspius s.l. All species except for An. claviger and An. superpictus were collected for the first time in the province. All larvae were found in natural habitats. The association occasions and percentages of the mosquito larvae in Qom Province were discussed.Conclusion: There are some potential or proven vectors of different human and domesticated animal pathogens in Qom Province. The ecology of these species and the unstudied areas of Qom Province need to be investigated extensively.
Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and therefore represents a major problem in public health.The aim of this study was to find and evaluate province-specific estimate of incidence in males by age groups for prostate cancer in Golestan province, Iran. The data used in this study were collected in a cancer registry program that was conducted by Health Deputy of Golestan province in IRAN for a period of 1 year (2004. Prostate cancer data was identified and collected in the population based cancer registries through the 18 Pathology Laboratories (where male populations referred to these centers and using a structured questionnaire, trained personnel conducted in-person interviews to collect information on prostate cancer in Golestan province. Prostate cancer incidence among males in Golestan province was 5.17/100000 in gerenal. But the highest rate (ASR: 215.87/100,000 among males were showen to be in age 80-85. The incidence of prostate cancer in age 80-84 has risen sharply and it was the lowest in age 50-54 (ASR: 5.18/100,000. According to this information Golestan province harbor a rather incidence for prostate cancer (in age 80-84, comparable to the lower incidence rate reported in the world. For the present time it can be said that prostate cancer in males appear to be one of the most prevalent and serious type of cancer in Golestan province.
Full Text Available Background: There is very little information about the mosquito fauna of Qom Province, central Iran. By now only three species; Anopheles claviger, An. multicolor, and An. superpictus have been reported in the province. To study mosquito fauna and providing a primary checklist, an investigation was carried out on a collection of mosquitoes in this province.Methods: To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae fauna, larval collections were carried out from different habitats on 19 occasions using the standard dipping technique during spring and summer 2008 and 2009. Results: In total, 371 mosquito larvae were collected and morphologically identified including 14 species representing four genera: Anopheles claviger, An. marteri, An. turkhudi, An. superpictus, Culex arbieeni, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Cx. modestus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. territans, Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. subochrea, and Ochlerotatus caspius s.l. All species except for An. claviger and An. superpictus were collected for the first time in the province. All larvae were found in natural habitats. The association occasions and percentages of the mosquito larvae in Qom Province were discussed.Conclusion: There are some potential or proven vectors of different human and domesticated animal pathogens in Qom Province. The ecology of these species and the unstudied areas of Qom Province need to be investigated extensively.
Full Text Available Based on the introduction of the concepts of logistics and logistics center, this paper analyzed the status and problems of Jilin Province’s logistics center, and proposed the steps, principles and factors for site selection of logistics center. Then by listing and comparing nine kinds of logistics center site selection method, including Analytic Hierarchy Process, Cluster Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm, Weight Grade Method, P-Median Method, System Simulation Method, Fuzzy quality function method, Dijkstra Method, we chose the best site selection method, namely the center of gravity method. Finally, this paper found out the exact logistics center location of Jilin Province with the center of gravity method.
Full Text Available Background: Sistan and Balouchestan province is one of areas in Iran that have the highest malaria incidence. We have tried to investigate the epidemiology of malaria in this province. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated epidemiological data of all malaria cases from April 2008 to March 2011 in this province. Results: In our study Plasmodium vivax was the most type of malaria. Malaria incidence was more in men and rural than female and urban. 22.7% of all cases were foreigners. Malaria incidence has had two picks. Conclusion: Malaria control interventions should be focused on high risk group and based on incidence peak.
Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.
The magnetic anomalies of the high arctic are dominated by a large domain (1000 x 1700 km; the High Arctic Magnetic High, HAMH) consisting of numerous high-amplitude magnetic high ridges with a complex set of orientations and by other smaller, but still fundamentally highly magnetic, domains. The magnetic potential anomaly field (also known as pseudogravity) of the HAMH shows a single large intensity high and underscores the crustal-scale thickness of this geophysical feature (which also forms a prominent anomaly on satellite magnetic maps). The seafloor morphology of this region includes the complex linear trends of the Alpha and Mendeleev ridges, but the magnetic expression of this domain extends beyond the complex bathymetry to include areas where Canada Basin sediments have covered the complex basement topography. The calculated magnetic effect of the bathymetric ridges matches some of the observed magnetic anomalies, but not others. We have analyzed and modeled the distinctive HAMH and other smaller magnetic high domains to generate estimates of their volume and to characterize the directionality of their component features. Complimentary processing and modeling of high arctic gravity anomalies allows characterization of the density component of these geophysical features. Spatially, the HAMH encompasses the Alpha and Mendeleev "ridges," that are considered to represent a major mafic igneous province. The term "Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province" is given to a domain mapped by tracing magnetic anomalies in a recent map published by AAPG (Grantz and others, 2009). On this map the province is described as "alkali basalt with ages between 120 and 90 Ma". New seismic and bathymetric data, collected as part of on-going research efforts for definition of extended continental shelf, are revealing new details about the Alpha ridge. One interesting development is the possible identification of a supervolcano that may represent a major locus of igneous activity. In the broader Arctic region, the term High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP) refers to (now) scattered parts of a major plume-type basaltic eruption, many of which also show as magnetic highs on the current data compilation. Rocks that contribute to this province have been mapped in Arctic Canada, Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land and the DeLong Islands. Most HALIP volcanic rocks do not have reliable reported radiometric ages but seem to indicate two pulses of magmatism of around 130-120 Ma and 90-80 Ma. There are many fundamental open questions regarding the evolution of the Arctic, particularly for the opening and development of the Amerasian side. The mafic igneous rocks and their roots that make up large igneous provinces are a good target for regional magnetic interpretation. Our goal is to use a data-driven approach to characterize the geometries and volumes these features as the expression of major mafic (basaltic) elements to aid in tectonic reconstruction and understanding.
Saltus, R. W.; Oakey, G.; Miller, E. L.; Jackson, R.
Macroinvertebrates are commonly used as biomonitors to detect pollution impacts in estuaries. In this study we identified estuarine benthic invertebrates that could be used to detect presence or absence of pollution in the Virginian Biogeographic Province using available monitor...
This book is about the Gulf and Peninsular Province of the Californias: Geological and geophysical maps; Regional geophysics and geology; Physical oceanography, primary productivity, and sedimentology, and Hydrothermal processes.
Dauphin, J.P.; Simoneit, B.R.T.
Full Text Available The fauna of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae from Lorestan province, western Iran is studied in this paper. A total 56 species from 19 genera and 5 subfamilies (including, Curculioninae, Ceutorhynchinae, Entiminae, Hyperinae, Lixinae were collected.
Full Text Available The Bushehr Province of Iran contains the type localities of three scorpion taxa, Mesobuthus eupeus phillipsii (Pocock, 1889, Orthochirus iranus Kova?ík, 2004, and Scorpio maurus townsendi (Pocock, 1900. Apart from them, Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807, Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905, Hottentotta saulcyi (Simon, 1880, Odontobuthus bidentatus Lourenço & Pézier, 2002, Razianus zarudnyi (Birula, 1903, and Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1862 have also been known to occur in the province. Collections made by a team under Shahrokh Navidpour (Razi Reference Laboratory of Scorpion Research, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Ahvaz, Khoozestan, Iran reveal four additional species recorded from the province for the first time: Buthacus macrocentrus (Ehrenberg, 1828, Compsobuthus jakesi Kova?ík, 2003, Orthochirus farzanpayi (Vachon & Farzanpay, 1987, and Orthochirus stockwelli (Lourenço et Vachon, 1995. In addition, Compsobuthus persicus sp. n. is described as a species new to science, bringing the total species count to 14. A key to all species of scorpions found in Bushehr Province is presented.
It is narrated a historic about the anomalies descovered in Lagoa Real province (BA), focusing the aspects related to geology, mineralization, drillings data and reserves evaluation. Geologic and radiometric maps of the anomalies are shown. (A.B.)
A four-year old girl and her mother were assisted at the Hospital de Clínicas for 0.7 cm wide papules with a black central core and a white hyperkeratotic halo of fourteen days of development. The girl presented these lesions on the second and fourth toe of one of her feet, and her mother on the ankle. Among the known antecedents were a trip to Chaco Province and their habit of walking barefooted. After the papule incision, both antiseptic treatment and cleaning of the lesion, were performed. The exudate extracted from the wound was sent to the Parasitology laboratory for diagnosis. With low-power amplification (100 X), portions of an arthropod with numerous characteristic Tunga penetrans eggs were identified. The patients received antibiotic therapy and tetanus immunization. Tungiasis, which originated in America, is a cutaneous parasitosis caused by Tunga penetrans. In endemic areas, it is advisable to wear shoes in order to avoid the penetration of the flea into the skin. The presence of this flea should be suspected whenever hyperkeratotic papules with a black central core appear, mainly in the sub and periungual areas, soles, ankles and/or heels of the feet. PMID:19831312
Menghi, C I; Comunale, E; Gatta, C L
Geological and geophysical researches and exploration works conducted in the Russian Arctic offshore during the last two decades indicate the presence of extensive sedimentary basins. The data coverage in this vast continental margin is uneven, and the reliability of hydrocarbon prediction varies significantly from one basin to the next. Nevertheless, the existence of a major frontier Barents-Northern Kara Oil and Gas Province (BNKP) is quite evident. The BNKP encompasses the Barents Sea and the Northern Kara Sea subbottom, the islands along the shelf edge, the Kola Peninsula shelf, the Arkhangelsk coastal territory, and a large part of the northernmost Komi Republic. The total area of BNKP is close to 1,500,000 sq. km, and the sediments in the deepest depocenter (South Barents Basin) reach 16--18 km. Vast areal extent, great thickness of sedimentary cover, favorable conditions for oil and gas generation and accumulation, presence of oil and gas fields in all major sequences suggest a very high hydrocarbon potential for the BNKP.
Gramberg, I.S. [All-Union Inst. of Marine Geology and Mineral Exploration, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shcola, A.I. [Oil Data International Inc., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of northern Sumatra. This pair of natural-color images from Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument shows a small area along the Sumatran coast in Aceh province where the tsunami smashed its way ashore. In this region, the wave cut a swath of near-total destruction 1.5 kilometers (roughly one mile) in most places, but penetrating farther in many others. Some of these deeper paths of destruction can be seen especially dramatically in the larger-area ETM+ images linked to above. (North is up in these larger images.) ETM+ collects data at roughly 30 meter resolution, complimenting sensors like NASA's MODIS (onboard both Terra and Aqua satellites) which observed this area at 250-meter resolution to give a wide view and ultra-high-resolution sensors like Space Imaging's IKONOS, which observed the same region at 4-meter resolution to give a detailed, smaller-area view. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the Landsat 7 Science Project Office
The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs
Abstract ?-Thalassemia (?-thal) encompasses a spectrum of mutations including deletion and point mutations on the ?-globin chains that is characterized by a reduction or complete absence of ?-globin genes. Most of the ?-thal cases are deletions involving one (?(+)) or both (?(0)) ?-globin genes, although point mutations (?(T)? or ??(T)) are found as well. In this study, 314 individuals with low hematological values, normal Hb A2 who were not affected with ?-thal or iron deficiency, were investigated for the presence of ?-thal mutations. The most common deletion was -?(3.7) (rightward) with a frequency of 70.7%, followed by ?(-5 nt) (-TGAGG) (8.7%), -?(4.2) (leftward) (4.7%), the polyadenylation signal (polyA2) site (AATAAA?>?AATGAA) (4.2%), -(?)(20.5) (3.8%), Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS, ?142, Stop?Gln; HBA2: c.427T?>?C] (2.9%), polyA1 (AATAAA?>?AATAAG) and ?(codon 19) (GCG?>?GC-, ?2) (16%), and -?-(MED) (0.9%). The results of this study may be valuable for designing a plan for carrier screening, premarital genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis (PND) and reducing excessive health care costs to an affordable level in Isfahan Province, Iran. PMID:24826792
Karamzade, Arezo; Mirzapour, Hadi; Hoseinzade, Majid; Asadi, Sara; Gholamrezapour, Tahere; Tavakoli, Parvaneh; Selebi, Mansoor
This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the...
Piotr Osyczka; Kenan Yazici; Ali Aslan
Background: The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran.Methods: During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites.Results: Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8%) were found infected with different helminthic ...
Kamranrashani, B.; Eb, Kia; Mobedi, I.; Mohebali, M.; Zarei, Z.; Gh. Mowlavi; Hajjaran, H.; Abai MR; Sharifdini, M.; Kakooei, Z.; Mirjalali, H.; Charedar, S.
The development of circular economy is the strategic choice of Jilin Province to improve overall competitiveness. This article described specific measures of the development of circular economy in Jilin Province from five aspects as follows: the building of circular economy industrial park and business groups, the development of modern agriculture, improve the utilization of water resources, as well as the construction of laws and regulations.
Full Text Available Recently, I’ve happened to learn from a lot of articles, websites, and TV shows that the Italians – though I guess the same holds for other European countries – are escaping from cities to find their sanctuary in the province. Major reason is said to be the search for a better quality of life. So be it. Readers might be tempted – or forced – to infer that the province allows for better lifestyle. But better than what?
Ardeshir Sheikhazadi; Mohammad Hasan Ghadyani
Full Text Available Based on interpreting carbon footprint’s definition and its effecting factors, making positive analyses by using the data of cities in Hunan Province from 2005 to 2009, this paper constructs the calculating model of carbon footprint and analyses the relationship between carbon footprint and population, economy development level, industrial structure and energy structure. Meanwhile, on the basis of above analyses, this paper puts forward effective ways to advance the low-carbon development of Hunan Province from four aspects.
Full Text Available The development of circular economy is the strategic choice of Jilin Province to improve overall competitiveness. This article described specific measures of the development of circular economy in Jilin Province from five aspects as follows: the building of circular economy industrial park and business groups, the development of modern agriculture, improve the utilization of water resources, as well as the construction of laws and regulations.
In this study, which was performed in 2007 a statistical investigation has been performed on the occurrence frequency, type of cancer and the relevance of this disease with age and sex in Kermanshah Province. Gathering the information of patient’s medical reports between 2002 and 2006 and analyzing those using SPSS software showed that in this province after skin cancer, bladder cancer has the highest rate of occurrence unlike the world statistics. This analysis indicated that urban cancer ...
Mirmomeni, M. H.; Mohammadi, F.; Sisakhtnezhad, S.; Hashemi, R.; Gh. Nazari
We here estimate the economic impact of hunting (both biltong and trophy) on South Africa's Northern Cape province economy. This study used the input-output (social accounting matrix) and multiplier analyses to evaluate the economic impact of hunting in the regional economy of the Northern Cape province. Data on biltong hunting were derived from a national survey conducted in 2007 and data on trophy hunting were derived from the Professional Hunting Association of South Africa (PHASA). The re...
Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville; Merwe, Petrus
Between July 2005 and November 2006 the gastro-intestinal helminths of 15 Helmeted guineafowls and a single Crested guineafowl from Musina, Limpopo Province were examined, and in July and August 2005 helminths were collected from five Helmeted guineafowls from Mokopane in the same province. The acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus gallinarum, the cestodes Abuladzugnia gutterae, Davainea nana, Hymenolepis cantaniana, Numidella numida, Octopetalum numida, Ortleppolepis multiuncinata, Porogynia paronai...
Junker, Kerstin; Boomker, Jacob Diederik Frederik
Based on the long-term located observation of forest ecosystem, and by using the 2006 forest resources inventory data of Liaoning Province and the forest industry standard of the People's Republic of China( LY/T 1721-2008, specification for assessment of forest ecosystem services in China), an evaluation was made on the material quantity and services value of main forest ecosystems in fourteen cities of Liaoning Province. In this province, the forest ecosystem services value supplied by water storage, soil conservation, C fixation, O2 release, nutrients accumulation, environment purification, biodiversity conservation, and forest recreation in 2006 was 2591.72 x 10(8) yuan, which was 8.54 times of the forestry production value and 28.02% in the GDP of the province. The services value of water storage, biodiversity conservation, C fixation, and O2 release occupied 79.09% of the total, being the main forest ecosystem services in the province. Economic forest and shrub had smaller per unit services value but larger area, and hence, their ecosystem services value should not be ignored. Abies fargesii forest, Phellodendron amurense forest, Juglans mandshurica forest, and Fraxinus mandshurica forest were the representative zonal vegetations in Liaoning Province, which had high value in biodiversity conservation. Under the effects of climate and other factors, the forest area and forest quality in west Liaoning were lower than those in east Liaoning. PMID:20879539
Wang, Bing; Lu, Shao-wei; You, Wen-zhong; Ren, Xiao-xu; Xing, Zhao-kai; Wang, Shi-ming
Full Text Available ackground: In Iran colorectal cancer (CRC incidence varies among various places. But we do not have any validate data that deeply explored the difference of CRC in Kerman province by national average. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of colon cancer within a 12-year period in Kerman province and to find whether the incidence of CRC in Kerman compared with the total incidence found in Iran. Methods: Data on colorectal cancer was collected from all histopathology departments around the Kerman Province during 1991 – 2002 retrospectively. The crude and age-standardized incidence rates per 1 million populations were calculated based on the 1996 census data and the population growth rate. Results: During this study total number of 551 new cases of colorectal cancer in Kerman province had been diagnosed. Age St andardized Rate of colon cancer in males and females were 50 (95% CI: 44 -56 and 53 (95% CI: 46-59 cases per 1,000,000 population per year, respectively . The risk ratio in females relative to males was not significant in any type of colon cancer. We did not find any difference for each year during the entire study period. Conclusion: The ASR of colorectal cancer in Kerman province was quite lower than the average rate in the whole country. This study showed that, the risk of acquiring colon cancer was constant. We concluded that the risk of colorectal cancer in Kerman province was much lower than the entire country.
Abstract Background In Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam, malaria is still an important health problem and most cases are found in the mountainous, forested border areas where ethnic minority groups live. The objectives of this study were to obtain a better joint understanding of the malaria situation along the border and, on the basis of that, improve malaria control methods through better cooperation between the two countries. Methods ...
Full Text Available (Received 11 April, 2009 ; Accepted 8 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Cancer is the second most common cause of death in developed countries and third in less developed countries. The incidence of the different histological types of cancer varies greatly between various populations and is attributed to occupational, social, cultural, racial, and geographic influences. The objective of this study was to determine and register all cases of cancer among population of Mazandaran province, during the year of ????.Materials and methods: Characteristics of all registered malignancies were obtained from records in histopathology and radiology clinical, hospitals and deaths certificated in Mazandaran using the International Classification of Disease (ICD, with data being analyzed using ASR, Excel and spss soft ware.Results: A total of ?.??? patients with cancers were found during this study. These, ?.??????.???? were males and ?.??? (??.??%? females. Age standardized rate (ASR for all cancers in males and females were ?1?.????????? and ???.????????? Respectively. The most common malignancies among females were breast (??.????? skin (??.????, colon and rectum cancers (??.????.In men, stomach (42.41??, skin (??.???? and esophagus (?.???? were the most common cancers respectively. Infiltrating duct carcinoma, was the most common histopathological types of tumors (69.???? in breast cancer. The most common morphology in stomach cancer was adenocarcinoma, (??.????.Conclusion: Distribution of malignant disorders in our population is different from other regions. Therefore, it appears necessary to have a valid health policy for prevention. Consequently, it is necessary to have a valid health policy for prevention and control of this problem.Key words: J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(72: 61-65 (Persian.
Faezeh Norouzi Nejad1
Full Text Available During dry season it is easily recognized that smoke will emerge at certain place both in Sumatra and Kalimantan that is in peatland. The worst situation occurred when fire burnt buried log in the logged over area where the fire fighter did not have any experience and knowledge on how to work with fire in peatland. Finally it had been found that one of the reasons why firefighter failed to fight fire in peatland is because they do not have any knowledge and experience on it. In order to know the fire behavior characteristics in different level of peat decomposition for fire management and sustainable management of the land for the community, research done in Pelalawan area, Riau Province, Indonesia, during dry season 2001. Three level of peat decomposition named Sapric, Hemic, and Fibric used. To conduct the research, two 400 m2 of plot each was established in every level of the peat decomposition. Burning done three weeks following slashing, cutting and drying at different time using circle method. During burning, flame length, rate of the spread of fire, flame temperature and following burning fuel left and the depth of peat destruction were measured. Results of research shown that in sapric site where sapric 2 has fuel load 9 ton ha-1 less than sapric 1, fire behavior was significantly different while peat destructed was deepest in sapric 2 with 31.87 cm. In hemic site where hemic 2 has fuel load 12.3 ton ha-1 more than hemic 1, fire behavior was significantly different and peat destructed deeper than hemic 1 that was 12.6 cm. In fibric site where fibric 1 has fuel load 3.5 ton ha-1 more than fibric 1, fire behavior was significantly different that has no burnt peat found. This results found that the different fuel characteristics (potency, moisture, bed depth, and type at the same level of peat decomposition will have significantly different fire behavior as it happened also on the depth of peat destruction except fibric. The same condition occurred in the fire behavior at different level of peat decomposition.
BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO
There are relatively rich uranium mines in regions of Saghand and Bafgh in Yazd province. This survey was carried out to provide a map of ambient gamma radiation of Yazd province and the probable effects of the existence of these mines on background radiation dose rates. Materials and methods: The measurements of the outdoor and indoor-environmental exposures (including cosmic and terrestrial components) were accomplished by a portable Geiger Muller detector in the five areas in each of eight big cities of Yazd province. Results: the average exposure rates of indoor and outdoor ambient of Yazd province were 13.9 k± 0.7 v?Rh-1 and 11.6 k 0.8 v?Rh-1 respectively. The average dose rates in air, resulting from gamma background radiation of indoor and outdoor were 122 ?± 6.8 nSvh-1 and 101.4 ?± 7.4 nSvh-1 respectively. The annual average of equivalent dose in air was found to be 1.03 k 0.05 mSv, and the annual average of effective dose was 0.72 mSv. Conclusion: The results of this study in comparison with the same measurements in some other cities in Iran such as lsfahan and Tabriz, proves that the existence of Uranium mines doesn't affect gamma background radiation of Yazd province
According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.
Missallati, A.A. (Agip (N.A.M.E.)Ltd., Tripoli (Libya))
Full Text Available In order to make an in-depth analysis to mutual relations and multi-interest of the strategic investment management model in province, it utilizes the game theory, and researches the basic elements in the game model, which it establishes, including the assumptions, strategies, objectives and functions of the two players. Finally, it quotes the imperfect information static game model, and takes the first level sealed price auction game model as the quintessence to describe and analyze the game behavior in the strategic investment management in province, so that it can provide the opinion and suggestion for all the gambling players’ decision-making, meet with the economical globalization and the dog-eat-dog new situation, grasp the strategic opportunity, strengthen the management from the strategic perspective unceasingly, and upgrade the provincial economic development strength.
Key words: Province, Strategic Investment Management, Game Theory
Full Text Available Drought can occur at such times when variables such as rainfall depth, run-off, soil moisture, etc. show a deficiency, or variables such as temperature show an increase, or when ground water level shows a decrease in comparison with the average level. Therefore, drought can be evaluated with respect to agricultural, meteorological, or hydrological variability. In this research, considering the meteorological aspects, the method by Herbst et al., later modified by Mohan and Rangacharia, was applied in drought evaluation in Fars Province, Iran. Monthly rainfall measurements over a period of 21 years for 51 stations obtained from Fars Regional Water Board, were used in the analysis. Maps showing lines of iso-duration and iso-intensity lines were developed for the province. Based on the results, northeast, southeast, south, and southwestern parts of the province have the highest potential for being affected by drought events.
Full Text Available There are some arboviral and parasitic diseases which are transmitted by culicine mosquitoes in Iran. Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae were collected by dipping method and identified in Kahnooj district, Kerman province, south-eastern Iran, during October and November, 2003 including; Culex (Culex bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. (Maillotia deserticola, Cx. (Cux. laticinctus, Cx. (Cux. perexiguus, Cx. (Cux. pipiens, Cx.(Cux. quin- quefasciatus, Cx.(Cux. sinaiticus, Cx.(Cux. theileri, Cx.(Cux. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta (Allotheobaldia longiareolata, and Uranotaenia (Pseudoficalbia unguiculata. In this study, Ur.unguiculata was identified in Kerman province for the first time. Fauna and ecology of Culicinae need more investigations in this province.
Full Text Available Aim: It was to record the level of professional burnout in health professionals working in hospitals of Athens and provincial towns, targeting to track differences between work sector , as well as between Athens and province areas. Material and Methods: 448 nurses of Athens’ and provincial hospitals, working in internal medicine department, surgery and emergency department were included in the study. Descriptive statistics was performed, while T-test was used for within groups’ comparison. Statistical significance level was set at p=0.05. SPSS 16.0 was used. Results: 34% exhibited high emotional exhaustion, 44% high depersonalization and 60% low personal achievement. Nurses in province areas exhibited higher depersonalization. Workers in the surgery department exhibited statistically lower mean values in the subscales of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization compared to those working in the two other sectors. Conclusion: Nurses working in province areas and in medical/ emergency departments were the most vulnerable to professional burnout syndrome.
Full Text Available Ten species of scorpions belonging to three families are reported from the Lorestan Province of Iran. Of these, five species are recorded from the province for the first time: Hottentotta zagrosensis Kova?ík, 1997; Mesobuthus eupeus phillipsii (Pocock, 1889; Orthochirus iranus Kova?ík, 2004; Razianus zarudnyi (Birula, 1903; and Scorpio maurus townsendi (Pocock, 1900. One new species is described, Hottentotta lorestanus sp. n.; it can be easily distinguished from the other four species of the genus known from Iran by its coloration; it is the only Iranian species which has the entire pedipalps yellow and the metasomal segments I to IV greenish gray. Also presented is a key to all species of scorpions found in the province.
To establish reference doses of periapical radiography in Chonnam Province, Korea. The target-skin distances were measured for dental patient's 1235 exposures including 345 mandibular molar areas. Each periapical radiation exposure was simulated with exactly the same patients exposure parameters and the simulated radiation doses were measured utilizing Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billadal, Sweden). The measurements were done in 44 dental clinics with 49 dental x-ray sets in Chonnam Province for one or two weeks at each dental clinic during year 2006. The third quartile patient surface doses were 2.8 mGy for overall periapical exposures and 3.2 mGy for periapical mandibular molar exposures. The third quartile patient surface doses in Chonnam Province can be used as a guide to accepted clinical practice to reduce patient radiation exposure for the surveyed reference doses were below the recommended dental periapical radiography dose of 7 mGy by IAEA.
Phase I studies included updating and completing the USGS GEOTHERM file for California and compiling all data needed for a California Geothermal Resources Map. Phase II studies included a program to assess the geothermal resource at Calistoga, Napa County, California. The Calistoga effort was comprised of a series of studies involving different disciplines, including geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and geophysical studies.
Youngs, L.G.; Bacon, C.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Higgins, C.T.; Majmundar, H.H.; Taylor, G.C.
ONDRAF, the National Body for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials, has been given new duties mainly regarding management of foreign waste on national territory, management of spent fuel and decommissioning of nuclear installations. The purpose of the amending Act is also to secure financing of the safe management of nuclear waste, enriched fissile materials and certain plutonium-bearing material as well as that of fresh and spent fuel the use of which has not been decided. The 1991 Act further provides for the financing of decommissioning operations and for the constitution of funds to meet cases of bankruptcy or default by producers. (NEA)
The results of dispersion model calculations of maximum annual, 24 hour and 3 hour average ground level SO2 concentrations for selected areas in the region (AQOR) is described. The primary purpose of the model calculations was to assist EPA Region III and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources in determining the attainment or nonattainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for SO2 in the Beaver Valley and Monongahela Valley Air Basins exclusive of Allegheny County. All of the dispersion model calculations were made using the LONGZ and SHORTZ dispersion models with 1980 compliance emissions inventories containing 492 major SO2 sources located within the AQOR and in Ohio and West Virginia near the western border of the AQOR.
This volume discusses new activities at the Division of Engineering and Applied Science at Caltech, lists its Sherman Fairchild Distinguished Scholars and all instructional staff, and reports on research projects in the following subject areas: aeronautics; applied mathematics; mechanical civil, electrical and environmental engineering; materials science; applied and biofluid mechanics; materials science; applied physics; bioinformation systems; and computer science. (LCL)
The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.
In Turkey which is one of the main olive producing countries in the world, in the Aegean Region some provinces are coming forth in respect of olive existence. Since Akhisar district constitutes half of the olive existence in Manisa province it was found to be worth research. In order to detect olive existence and sector improvement in Akhisar and in selected villages a face to face survey has been held among farmers. Survey results were evaluated by the SPSS programme. At the end of the evalu...
Meltem Sesli; Aysun Tokmakoglu
A new chlorogomphid, Chlorogomphus (Orogomphus) auripennis spec. nov. (holotype male; Mt Nankunshan, Longmen County, Guangdong Province, China, 20. V. 2008) is described and illustrated. It is the first species belonging to the subgenus Orogomphus recorded from mainland China. The holotype will be deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. Chlorogomphus auratus Martin, 1910 and Chloropetalia selysi (Fraser, 1929) are recoded from Chinese territory for the first time. The total number of Chlorogomphidae in China reaches 20. Description of the hitherto unknown female of Chlorogomphus yokoii Karube, 1995 is provided. PMID:24869880
Zhang, Hao-Miao; Cai, Qing-Hua
The establishment of the province friendship between Blekinge (Sweden) and Yunnan (China) has lead to a coperation agreement between two local Universities: Blekinge Institute of Technology and Kunming University of Science and Technology. It leads to the development of the cooperation of two provices in the fields of culture, business and education.
Kao-walter, Sharon; Huang, Yayu
Full Text Available In the year 2003, the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF of the phylum Glomeromycota in cultivated and uncultivated soils of the Lubuskie province was investigated. The occurrence of AMF was examined based on 56 root and rhizosphere soils collected under 7 species of cultivated and uncultivated plants growing in 28 localities. Spores of AMF were isolated from both field-collected samples and trap cultures. They were revealed in 100% of field soils and 93.8% of trap cultures and represented 7 of the 8 recognized genera of the Glomeromycota. The arbuscular fungi occurring distinctly more frequently in the soil and root samples examined were members of the genus Glomus. The species of AMF most frequently occurring in cultivated soils of the Lubuskie province were G. claroideum, G. constrictum, G. deserticola and G. mosseae, whereas G. claroideum, G. constrictum, G. deserticola, G. mosseae, and S. dipurpurescens were more frequently found in uncultivated sites. The analysis of similarity of the species composition of AMF populations in sites of the Lubuskie province and the Western Pomeranian province earlier examined showed that (1 the occurrence in Poland of most taxa of these fungi detected in the study presented here is even and does not change with time, (2 the communities of AMF area are stable, despite the arduousness resulting from the agricultural and chemical practices conducted, and (3 the species diversity of the plants cultivated in a long period of time has no influence on the species composition of populations of AMF.
Soils from all over the province of Caceres (Spain) were studied by gamma spectrometry to determine their 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations. The rock types are fundamentally granites, shales and sedimentary materials. The analyses were designed for three different studies of the radionuclide concentration: at the surface, as a function of depth, and as a function of grain size. (author)
Hunan province is rich in agriculture products and their by-products. The processing and preservation of those products after porduction is an urgent problem to solve. However, radiation techniques can solve the problem of the processing and preservation of part of those products which can not be solved by normal ways. Only in Changsha area, the products such as leather and their products, dried and fresh fruit, medical equipments, industrial chemicals and so on, which can be provided to irradiate, weigh over 1 x 105 tons a year. In order to advance the research and application of radiation techniques in the province, over 40 units have been investigated in the province and other provinces. Since 1983, six informal discussions or demonstration meetings were held. 15 pieces of various reports and materials have been put forward. The necessity, possibility, size, place, development aim and united research of building a radiation centre have been scientificly demonstrated and a certain basis have been provided for building radiation centre
This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally. PMID:24566052
Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua
Full Text Available This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the “Result Chain” logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally.
There are 110 million people in Sichuan Province, China. Although most of the people in cities of Sichuan use river water, which contains low levels of radon, as potable water, people in countryside and in some communities of big cities still use well water as domestic consumption. This paper reports the radon concentrations in well water investigated in four cities, i.e. Chengdu, Chongqing, Leshan and Leijiang in Sichuan Province. Of the 80 wells investigated, the radon concentrations range from 3.5 to 181.6 KBqm-3. Of the four cities, Chongqing has the highest well water radon concentration with the average 49.6 ± 54.1 KBqm-3 and the greatest variation. The investigation in four cities showed that the radon concentrations in well water are much higher than that in tap-water. In Chongqing where there are complex geological structures, mainly granite stratum, for example, the average radon concentration in well water is 112 times higher than that in the tap-water, and even much higher than that in river water in Yangtse River, Jialing River, Jinsha River and Mingjiang River. The population in four cities is about one sixth of the total population in Sichuan Province. Because of the common use of well water and the high radon concentrations in well water in Sichuan Province, the health effect of radon in well water to the public should be stressed. (author)
Full Text Available On base designed and approved methodical, algorithmic and dataware is offered create the information system on the map Simbirsk province XIX ages Russia. The information resource has no analogue and can be used in scholastic, reference and professional purpose.
Shekotilov V. G.
To determine the cause of a 2008 outbreak of aseptic meningitis in Shandong Province, China, we analyzed samples from outbreak patients and coxsackievirus B3 samples collected during 1990–2010 surveillance. The cause of the outbreak was coxsackievirus B3, genogroup D. Frequent travel might increase importation of other coxsackievirus B3 genogroups.
Tao, Zexin; Song, Yanyan; Li, Yan; Liu, Yao; Jiang, Ping; Lin, Xiaojuan; Liu, Guifang; Song, Lizhi; Wang, Haiyan; Xu, Aiqiang
A P-Wave model of a 384 km long Ocean Bottom Seismometer profile has been modelled by use of ray-tracing. The profile, Bear Island South (BIS-2008), crossses the transtensional Vestbakken Volcanic Province and the boundary between northern Atlantic oceanic crust of the Barents Sea continental platform. This study is a part of
Sørensen, Asude Arslan
An overview is given of the environmental quality in the Dutch province Noord-Holland in the year 2002. Special attention is paid to safety, energy, agriculture and the airport Schiphol. The report is available in electronic form in parts, discussing Social developments, the quality of Air, Soil, and Water, Public Health, Nature, Safety, Energy, Agriculture, and Schiphol (airport)
Full Text Available Collections made by a team of Shahrokh Navidpour (Razi Reference Laboratory of Scorpion Research, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Ahvaz, Khoozestan, Iran include 17 of the 19 species known to inhabit Khoozestan Province, and form the basis of this paper. Among them are two new species (Hottentotta khoozestanus sp. n. and Vachoniolus iranus sp. n., Compsobuthus jakesi Kova?ík, 2003 previously known only from Iraq, and five species representing first records for the province: Buthacus macrocentrus (Ehrenberg, 1828; Odontobuthus bidentatus Lourenço & Pézier, 2002; Orthochirus farzanpayi (Vachon et Farzanpay, 1987; Orthochirus stockwelli (Lourenço et Vachon, 1995 comb. n.; and Scorpio maurus townsendi (Pocock, 1900. In contrast, Orthochirus zagrosensis Kova?ík, 2004, as described from Khoozestan, stands corrected to Kohkiloye & Boyer Ahmad, Esfahan, Fars, Kerman, and Yazd Provinces. Occurrences of Hottentotta schach (Birula, 1905 and Compsobuthus garyi Lourenço et Vachon, 2001 could not be verified for Khoozestan, but are nevertheless included, and the uncertain taxonomic position of the latter is discussed. A large collection of Orthochirus iranus Kova?ík, 2004 allowed the study of intraspecific variation and resulted in the observation that trichobothrium d2 on the dorsal surface of pedipalp femur may be fully developed, reduced, or absent. Since the presence or absence of trichobothrium d2 is the only character separating Orthochirus Karsch, 1892 from Paraorthochirus Lourenço et Vachon, 1995, it follows that Paraorthochirus is a synonym of Orthochirus, syn. n. Also presented is a key to all species of scorpions found in the province.
Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the health policy makers and programmers in prevention, treatment and medical education more than before , in relation to preparing application and executive plans in Hamadan province for mental health.
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Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors that affects growth and development of plants. Temperatures above the resistance limit of plants, namely called heat stress, tend to decrease the plants physiological activities. During the ripening period of wheat, when maximum temperature is above 30°C, minimum relative humidity is below 30%, and at the same time wind speed is equal to or more than 3m/s, a kind of heat stress occurs. This weather condition results in a series of adverse effects that tend to decrease yield. When such a set of aforementioned weather elements occur in one day, that day is said to be critical. The occurrence of such critical situation in southern provinces of the country during ripening period of wheat is probable. Thus in this study by using two definitions for critical days, i.e., the frequency and intensity of heat stress, and by analyzing daily data based on the available dates of plant and harvest of wheat crop, findings were examined. Results show that in main regions of wheat planting in Khosistan province these critical days during sensitive period of wheat crop varies from 3 to 9, and on average, 4 days of which are very critical. In Zahedan and Khash in the province of Sistan and Baluchistan the mean critical days are 5 and 4 respectively. Critical days in Saravan are 12 and in Iranshahr are 6 of which 3 days in Saravan and 2 days in Iranshahr found to be very critical. In Hormozgan province critical days occur only in special years. In cities of Bushehr and Bandar-e-Daier in the province of Bushehr there is only one critical day and that occurs in sensitive period. The results are generalized to same-climate plains.
Noohi, K.; Fatahi, E.; Kamali, Gh. A.
Full Text Available Esophagus cancer is one of the most common cancers in women and therefore represents a major problem in public health. The main aim of this study was to find and describe province-specific estimates of incidence in females by age groups for esophagus cancer. The data used in this study were collected in a cancer registry that was conducted by Health Deputy of Golestan province for a period of 1 year (2004. The age distribution was collected according to the following age strata: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84 and 85 above. Esophagus cancer data was identified and collected through the 18 Pathology Laboratory centers (where female populations were referred to these centers in Golestan province. A total of 348 primary cancer cases were captured. From these 32 cases were of esophagus cancer. There were 26 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (81.25%, and 1 adenocarcinoma (3.12%. Esophagus cancer incidence among females in Golestan province was 7.62/100000. But esophagus cancer with the highest ASR: 127.91/100,000 was in age 75-79. The incidence of esophagus cancer in age over 75-79 has risen sharply and it was the lowest in age 30-34 (ASR: 1.68/100,000. Presently it can be said that esophagus cancer in females appears to be one of the most prevalent and serious types of cancer (especially squamous cell carcinoma in Golestan province and esophagus cancer is rising with ageing.
Dr. Seyyed Mehdi Sedaghat
Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to find and describe province-specific estimates of incidence in females by age groups for esophagus cancer. The data used in this study were collected in a cancer registry that was conducted by Health Deputy of Golestan province for a period of 1 year (2004. The age distribution was collected according to the following age strata: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84 and 85 above. Esophagus cancer data was identified and collected through the 18 Pathology Laboratory centers (where female populations referred to these centers in Golestan province. A total of 348 primary cancer cases were captured. From these 32 cases was esophagus cancer. There were 26 squomous cell carcinoma (81.25%, 1 adenocarcinoma (3.12%. Esophagus cancer incidence among females in Golestan province was 7.62/100000. But esophagus cancer with the highest ASR: 127.91/100,000 was in age 75-79. The incidence of esophagus cancer in age over 75-79 has risen sharply and it was the lowest in age 30-34 (ASR: 1.68/100,000. For the present time it can be said that esophagus cancer in females appear to be one of the most prevalent and serious type of cancer (especially squomous cell carcinoma in Golestan province and esophagus cancer is rising with ageing.
Full Text Available Rhyolite and dacite lavas of the Mesoproterozoic upper Gawler Range Volcanics (GRV (>30 000 km3 preserved, South Australia, represent the remnants of one of the most voluminous felsic magmatic events preserved on Earth. Geophysical interpretation suggests eruption from a central cluster of feeder vents which supplied large-scale lobate flows >100 km in length. Pigeonite inversion thermometers indicate eruption temperatures of 950–1100 °C. The lavas are A-type in composition (e.g. high Ga/Al ratios and characterised by elevated primary halogen concentrations (~1600 ppm fluorine, ~400 ppm chlorine. These depolymerised the magma such that temperature-composition-volatile non-Arrhenian melt viscosity modelling suggests they had viscosities of <3.5 log ? (Pa s. These physicochemical properties have led to the emplacement of a Large Rhyolite Province, which has affinities in emplacement style to Large Basaltic Provinces. The low viscosity of these felsic magmas has produced a unique igneous system on a scale which is either not present or poorly preserved elsewhere on the planet. The Gawler Range Volcanic Province represents the erupted portion of the felsic end member of the family of voluminous, rapidly emplaced terrestrial magmatic provinces.
M. J. Pankhurst
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This paper constructs the econometrical model of the relationship between economic growth and logistics industry in Jilin province, analyzes quantitative relation between economic growth and logistics industry in Jilin province, measures the contribution of logistics industry on economic growth in Jilin province. The results show the status of logistics industry in economic development in Jilin province. The conclusions will supply some necessary proposals for decision-making of the development programming of logistics industry in Jilin province.
Key words: Logistics industry; Economic growth; Econometric model
Full Text Available Jilin Province is an agricultural province and agricultural products processing industry is an important pillar industry of economic development, but because of its particularity of resource endowment such as geographical location and climate conditions, while developing agricultural products processing industry, Jilin Province must control environmental cost, in order to keep the sustainable development of agricultural products processing industry. Only considering fully the sustainability of agricultural products processing industry, its long-term development can be obtained. The article analyzes the resource situation in Jilin Province, discusses the necessity and urgency of developing agricultural products processing industry in Jilin Province.
The principal characteristics of the Brazil-Angola Alkaline Carbonatite Province are defined and described with specific reference to tectonic setting and economic aspects. The economic aspects of the Brazilian uranium deposits are emphasised. The Brazil-Angola Alkaline-Carbonatite Province can be divided into six Brazilian sub-provinces and two Angolan sub-provinces. Correlation between the sub-provinces of Brazil and Angola remains speculative due to the lack of detailed information, especially age determinations on the Angolan rocks. However, an analysis of the tectonic and petrochemical aspects suggests that the two Brazilian sub-provinces situated along the littoral of Rio de Janeiro/ Sao Paulo and around the periphery of the Parana Basin may be more easily comparable to the two Angolan sub-provinces than the remaining four. (Author)
Full Text Available Development of the capital market has attracted external sources of finance to the great extent, promoted Jilin Province to change from an old industrial base to an advanced international manufacturing base and greatly enhanced the overall economic strength of Jilin Province. Nonetheless, considering the current situation, mobility of capital in economy of Jilin Province is not yet strong and insufficient capital is still an impediment to constrain economic and social development of Jilin Province. Through a survey and analysis of the development condition of capital market in Jilin Province, this article expounds the major problems existing in development of capital market in Jilin Province and puts forward solutions for development of capital market in Jilin Province.
OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.
Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin
Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.
Michalski, Joseph R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.
Full Text Available Many hoverfly species of faunal and zoogeographical interest are found in Serbia's northern province of Vojvodina due to the diversity of its biotopes. In this paper, the presence of 252 species of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae from 69 genera is documented. Five species are here recorded for the first time in Serbia: Anasimyia contracta Claussen & Torp Pedersen, 1980; Anasimyia transfuga (Linnaeus, 1758; Eristalinus megacephalus (Rossi, 1794; Helophilus hybridus Loew, 1846; and Mallota fuciformis (Fabricius, 1794. One species is recorded for the first time in Vojvodina: Cheilosia brunnipennis (Becker, 1894. The records of 12 species from Vojvodina Province are the only ones on the Balkan Peninsula, while the records of 15 species are the only ones in Serbia.
Full Text Available In Turkey which is one of the main olive producing countries in the world, in the Aegean Region some provinces are coming forth in respect of olive existence. Since Akhisar district constitutes half of the olive existence in Manisa province it was found to be worth research. In order to detect olive existence and sector improvement in Akhisar and in selected villages a face to face survey has been held among farmers. Survey results were evaluated by the SPSS programme. At the end of the evaluation it was determined that; there was an increase in lands reserved for olive growing, olive is being preffered against tobacco which is an important agricultural product, farmers are leaning towards the Domat type whose origin is in Akhisar, intensive agricultural techniques are implemented, diseases and harmful activities are at a minimum level in olive groves.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop indicators and to test the goodness of fit of the structural relationship model of indicators of cyberbullying among youths in Songkhla Province. The study was conducted with 480 youths, and confirmatory factor analysis was performed.The results of the study revealed that the indicators of cyberbullying among youths in Songkhla Province consisted of five factors with twenty-four indicators. The factor with the highest weight was slandering (b=0.90 consisting of five indicators, followed by revealing other people’s personal secrets (b=0.89 consisting of five indicators; identity theft (b=0.88 consisting of five indicators; deleting or blocking others from the group (b=0.65 consisting of four indicators; and flaming (b=0.17 consisting of five indicators. The linear structural model of cyberbullying among youths was in statistically significant congruence with empirical data.
The results of environmental tritium radioactivity level investigation in Zhejiang Province from 1988-1993 were showed. The tritium concentrations of seawater in Hangzhou Bay and Zhoushan Islands were 2.1 Bq/l and 1.8 Bq/l. The tritium concentrations of lake water, river water, pond water, rainwater and atmospheric vapour condensates were 1.6 Bq/l, 1.8 Bq/l, 3.0 Bq/l, 2.1 Bq/l and 2.2 Bq/l respectively. The tritium concentration in the free water of pine needle tissue was 2.5 Bq/l. The data indicated that environment of Zhejiang Province was not polluted from tritium produced by human activities except for nuclear test
In this paper, the emission and propagation of the noise generated by local roads in the Province of Turin is characterized, with the aim of elaborating a simplified model to calculate noise pollution levels in the region. Measurements are carried out in free field conditions at selected locations along roads considered representative of the territory under consideration. The data analysis is structured in two parts: first, the analysis of noise emission is carried out on the basis of vehicle...
The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10"'to 23 deg 25"'of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10"' to 58 deg 00"', having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio "8"7 Sr/"8"6 Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author)
Abstract Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50) were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and chi...
Wellhoner Mary; Cc, Lee Anne; Deutsch Karen; Wiebenga Mariette; Freytsis Maria; Drogha Sonam; Dongdrup Phuntsok; Lhamo Karma; Tsering Ojen; Tseyongjee; Khandro Dawa; Mullany Luke C; Weingrad Lee
Abstract Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of the cestode worm Echinococcus granulosus, which causes echinococcosis in human and some other mammalian. Iran is located in endemic zone of this disease and Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, due to existence of sheep husbandry jobs, has a potential for high prevalence of the disease, . Therefore, this investigation was carried out to study seroepidemiology of hydatic cyst in human in this area. In this descriptive study, 1000 serum samples from bl...
Yousefi Darani, H.; Avijgan, M.; Karimi, K.; Manouchehri, K.; Masood, J.
Sanukitoid series intrusions can be found throughout the Archean Karelian Province of the Fennoscandian shield. All sanukitoids share the same controversial elemental characteristics: they have high content of incompatible elements such as K, Ba, and Sr as well as high content of the compatible elements Mg, Cr, and Ni, and high Mg#. This composition is explained by an enriched mantle wedge origin in a Neoarchean subduction setting. This study concentrates on sanukitoid intrusions and tonalite...
Abstract Background Injection drug use (IDU) is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Drug use is illegal in China, all identified drug users are registered by Public Security Bureau, and most were sent to detention; most detainees engaged in high risk behaviours. In order to well understand the HIV/AIDS knowledge among detainees, a survey was conducted in different detention settings in Hunan province in 2008 to assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV among d...
Zhang Weidong; Wang Xinya; Chen Xi; Lv Fan
As China exhibited unprecedented rapid economic growth ever since its reform and openness, the development and sources of labor productivity has gradually come to the forefront. This paper studies the development and the source of labor productivity in 31 Chinese provinces during the period of 2000-2009. The labor productivity is investigated through an examination at both the levels and the growth rate. Particularly, we first look at the production function relationship, to see the contribut...
Su, Biwei; Heshmati, Almas
Keywords:iodine deficiency, iodine excess, endemic goiter, drinking water, iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid size, iodized salt, iodized oil, IQ, physical development, hearing capacity, epidemiology, meta-analysis, IDD, randomized trial, intervention, USA, Bangladesh, ChinaEndemic goiter can be caused both by iodine deficiency and iodine excess. Iodine deficiency was a public health problem in Jiangsu Province, China and has been eliminated through salt iodization in a majority of coun...
Songkhla Province is located on the eastern coast of the southern Thai Peninsula, bordering the Gulf of Thailand for approximately 107 km. Most of the basin’s foreshores have been extensively developed for housing, tourism and shrimp farming. The beaches are under deteriorating impacts, often causing sediment transport which leads to an unnaturally high erosion rate. This natural phenomenon is considered to be a critical problem in the coastal areas affected by the hazard of coastal infrast...
Objective: Phenylalanine hydroxylase or its cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), deficiency causes accumulation of phenylalanine in body fluids and central nervous system. Considering the fact that hyperphenylalaninemia is a preventable cause of mental retardation in infants, the objective of this study was to determine the incidence of congenital hyperphenylalaninemia in Fars province, south of Iran.Methods: In a period of one year from November 2007 to November 2008 blood samples were withd...
Hamdollah Karamifar; Mahtab Ordoei; Zohreh Karamizadeh; Gholamhossein Amirhakimi
The objective of the study was to assess the impact of climate change on the spatial distribution of leafminer agromyzid pest over Limpopo province, South Africa. In the study the Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) simulated climate scenarios; (a) the current climatology (1981-2010), (b) projected near future climatology (2041-2070) and (c) the projected distant future climatology (2071-2100) was used. In particular, the linkage between the model simulated temperature and the pest popul...
Tshiala, M. F.; Botai, J. O.; Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza
The present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi province, China. A total of 2071 fecal samples (847 from Qinchuan cattle and 1224 from dairy cattle) were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 70 samples (3.4%) were C. andersoni-positive and those positive samples were identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) genes. C. andersoni w...
Zhao, Guang-hui; Ren, Wan-xin; Gao, Man; Bian, Qing-qing; Hu, Bing; Cong, Mei-mei; Lin, Qing; Wang, Rong-jun; Qi, Meng; Qi, Mao-zhen; Zhu, Xing-quan; Zhang, Long-xian
Full Text Available "nAbstract "nBackground: The aims of this study was to analysis the current situation of malaria and to find the distribution of anopheline mosquitoes, as probable vectors of the disease, in Qom Province, central Iran. "nMethods: This study was carried out in two parts. First stage was data collection about malaria cases using recorded documents of patients in the Province health center, during 2001–2008. The second stage was entomological survey conducted by mosquito larval collection method in 4 villages with different geographical positions in 2008. Data were analyzed using Excel software. "nResults: Of 4456 blood slides, 10.9% out were positive. Most of cases were imported from other countries (90.4%, mainly from Afghanistan (56.5% and Pakistan (16.3%. Slide positive rate showed a maximum of 16.9% and a minimum of 2.9% in 2008 and 2007, respectively. Plasmodium vivax was causative agent of 93.75% of cases, followed by P. falciparum (6.25%. More than 15 years old age group contained the most malaria reported cases (66.7%. Two Anopheles species, An. superpictus and An. claviger were collected and identified. This is the first report of Anopheles claviger in Qom Province. "nConclusion: Malaria is in the control stage in Qom Province. The rate of local transmission is very low (only 1 case, shows Anopheles superpictus, as the main malaria vector of central part of Iran, can play its role in malaria transmission in the area. "n "nKeywords: Malaria, Iran, Epidemiology
Objective: This paper presents the incidence rates of childhood cancers using the data obtained from Golestan population based cancer registry (GPCR) between 2004 and 2006.Methods: GPCR registers only primary cancers based on standard protocols of the international association of cancer registries (IACR). We collect data on newly diagnosed (incident) cancer cases from all public and private diagnostic and therapeutic centers of the whole province. CanReg-4 software was used for data entry and...
Abdolvahab Moradi; Shahryar Semnani; Gholamreza Roshandel; Narges Mirbehbehani; Abbasali Keshtkar; Mohsen Aarabi; Abbas Moghaddami; Fatemeh Cheraghali
Abstract Background The burden of cancer affects all countries; while high-income countries have the capacity and resources to establish comprehensive cancer control programs, low and middle-income countries have limited resources to develop such programs. This paper examines factors associated with the development of cancer registries in four provinces in Turkey. It looks at the progress made by these registries, the challenges they faced, and the lessons learned. Other coun...
Stillman Frances A; Kaufman Michelle R; Kibria Naseeb; Eser Sultan; Spires Mark; Pustu Yusuf
This research carried out to study of factors influencing on trout production in Khorasan Razavi Province using a cross sectional data of 105 trout producers and estimation of trout production function in 2008. Results showed that farms' area, number of fry, feed, fish farming period and water flow have positive effect on trout production and water temperature and fish losses have negative effect on it. Farms area, water temperature degree, number of fry, feed, fish farming period, water flow...
Ghorbani, M.; Zare Mirakabad, H.
This article uses the concepts and calculation models of “Ecological Footprint” and “Tourism Ecological Pressure” to conduct quantitative analysis on the tourism ecological footprints, tourism ecological deficits, and the dynamic changes of tourism ecological pressures in Liaoning Province from year 2000 to year 2005. Results indicate: rapid economic development, especially the tourist size increase, introduces huge pressure on tourism ecological environment. Both tourism ecological d...
Fan, Qiu-mei; Sun, Tie-heng
The success of planted Acer velutinum investigated in western Guilan Province in Iran. This region was reforested in 1985. The study was carried out in the autumn of 2003 with using the full callipering method. The goal of this study is to review the maple plantation, in order to present a new background that is useful for an ecological evaluation of the maple plantations in Iranian forests. Some quantity and quality factors about bole and crown were evaluated. The resistance of maple ...
Kambiz Taheri Abkenar; Elham Safarpour
This study applies the theory planed behavior (TPB - Ajzen, 1991) to investigate the general antecedents of seafood consumption in Bacninh province of Vietnam. The results show that customers in the area consume seafood at a low frequency although they have high motivation and positive attitude toward fish consumption. A further investigation reveals that quality, negative effects, and suitability have significant impact on attitude, while availability, suitability, and value are main determi...
Thom, Nguyen Tien
Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation. Its worldwide incidence is estimated to be one in 2500-5500 births. Assessment of thyroid gland in neonates is critical. The aims of this study were to demonstrate the incidence of CH in neonates born in Yazd province, Iran in 1389 (2010) and compare the results with other reported studies and investigate biochemical characteristics of affected infants. Materials & Methods: This is...
Noori-shadkam, M.; Mosadegh, M. H.; Mirzaei, M.; MR. Movahedi Nia; Jafarizadeh, M.
To examine the prevalence of accidents a cross-sectional study for 6494 retrieved randomly from the Yazd province. Data was gathered via a questionnaire filled by referring personally to their residential premises. Generally, the prevalence of accidents in this study was 3.54% of in which motor vehicle accidents accounted for the majority of accidents (39.1%) followed by falls (29.1%), burns and poisonings (13%). In conclusion, age, sex and literacy levels are the main determining factors of ...
Mazloomi, S. S.; Zareh, M.; Barkhordari, A.; Aminipour, M. R.
Brucellosis has remained a great problem of health in most of countries, which have failed in control of zoonosis infections. This disease is caused by species of Brucella and usually is transferred from animals to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among animal farmers of Yazd province. In this descriptive study, 933 animal farmers were investigated by serological tests and blood culture method. Then the data were analyzed by SPPS statistic...
Abstract Background A measles outbreak was detected at Ndanga Hospital in Zaka district Masvingo Province on the 5th of May 2010 and there were five deaths. Source of infection was not known and an investigation was carried out to determine factors associated with contracting measles in Zaka district. Materials and methods A 1:1 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was a person residing in Zaka district who developed signs and symptoms of measles o...
Pomerai Kufakwanguzvarova W; Mudyiradima Robert F; Gombe Notion T
Macroscopically homogenous muscovite plate from the Cruzeiro pegmatite, located in the Eastern Pegmatite Province in Minas Gerais, may show complex distribution patterns of some trace elements. In geochronological and petrological studies, as for example in the distinction of magmatic and post-magmatic mica, the cause of zoning could be taken into consideration. The complex chemical zoning in the studied mica plate can be best explained by growth in an evolving magma followed by alteration du...
Viana, Ru?bia R.; Evangelista, Hanna J.; Stern, Willem B.
Abstract Background Malaria is endemic in the low-altitude areas of the northern and eastern parts of South Africa with seasonal transmission. The aim of this descriptive study is to give an overview of the malaria incidence and mortality in Limpopo Province for the seasons 1998–1999 to 2006–2007 and to detect trends over time and place. Methods Routinely collected data on diagnosed malaria cases and deaths were available through the provincial malaria infor...
Fecal examinations using the Kato Katz technique were performed on a total of 1,287 villagers (945 students and 342 general inhabitants) of Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia in May 2007 and November 2009. The overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 23.9%, and the most prevalent helminth species was hookworms (21.6%). Other helminth eggs detected included echinostomes (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.8%), small trematode eggs (0.7%), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini and Hap...
Sohn, Woon-mok; Kim, Hyeong-jin; Yong, Tai-soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeong, Hoo-gn; Kim, Jae-kwang; Kang, A-reum; Kim, Mok-ryun; Park, Jung-mi; Ji, Soo-hyeon; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Chai, Jong-yil
Huishang Bank Corporation Limited Company was founded on December 28, 2005, and it has operated since January 1, 2006. Before it was established, it merged with six cities' commercial banks and seven urban credit banks in Anhui Province. It then became the first regional bank which had developed from city commercial bank in China. In the last five years, Huishang bank has already got significant progress, and it entered top 500 global banks in 2010.
The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the microbiological quality of pastry products and gastronomic preparations served in food service establishments in Benevento province, Southern Italy. A total of 125 samples were collected from food service establishments. Parameters investigated were: aerobic plate counts (APCs), total Coliform bacteria counts, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia (E.) coli counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, coagulase-positive Staphylococci cou...
Vittoria Ricci; Letizia Petrella; Marika Mercurio; Francesca Barone
A total of 2,346 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from 13 provinces in China were genotyped by spoligotyping. Two hundred seventy-eight spoligotypes were identified: 2,153 isolates were grouped into 85 clusters, and the remaining 193 isolates were orphans. Comparison with the SpolDB4.0 database revealed that 118 spoligotypes had shared international type numbers in the database and the other 160 were novel. These 160 novel spoligotypes were assigned to families and subfamilies using the Sp...
Dong, Haiyan; Liu, Zhiguang; Lv, Bing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Jinghua; Wan, Kanglin
Abstract Background The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distri...
Syafruddin Din; Bs, Asih Puji; Wahid Isra; Dewi Rita M; Tuti Sekar; Laowo Idaman; Hulu Waozidohu; Zendrato Pardamean; Laihad Ferdinand; Shankar Anuraj H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury is an emerging public health problem with social development and modernization in developing countries. To describe the prevalence and burden of injury and provide elaborate information for policy development, we conducted a community-based household survey in the Shandong Province of China. Methods The survey was conducted in 2004. Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method. Information on injuries occurring in 2003 was collected in four cities and six rural counties in Shandong Province, China. Results The estimated incidence rate of injury in Shandong Province was 67.7 per 1,000. Injury incidence was higher in rural areas (84.3 per 1,000 than in urban areas (42.9 per 1,000, and was higher among males (81.1 per 1,000 than females (54.1 per 1,000. The average years of potential life lost is 37.7 years for each fatal injury. All injuries together caused 6,080,407 RMB yuan of direct and indirect economic loss, with traffic injuries accounting for 44.8% of the total economic loss. Conclusion Injury incidence was higher among males than females, and in rural areas than in urban areas. Youngsters suffered the highest incidence of injury. Injury also caused large losses in terms of both economics and life, with traffic injuries contributing the most to this loss. Strategies for prevention of injury should be developed.
Full Text Available Objective: Phenylalanine hydroxylase or its cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, deficiency causes accumulation of phenylalanine in body fluids and central nervous system. Considering the fact that hyperphenylalaninemia is a preventable cause of mental retardation in infants, the objective of this study was to determine the incidence of congenital hyperphenylalaninemia in Fars province, south of Iran.Methods: In a period of one year from November 2007 to November 2008 blood samples were withdrawn from all newborns born in Fars province for measurement of serum phenylalanine. The samples with a serum level of ³ 2 mg/dl were referred to pediatric endocrine clinic for confirmation and determination of the type of hyperphenylalaninemia by quantitive serum phenylalanine measurements by using High-Pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC method.Findings: Nine out of 76966 newborns had a serum phenylalanine level ³2mg/dl, of which 8 cases were confirmed by HPLC. The incidence of the disease was 1:10000. The incidence of mild hyperphenylalaninemia and phenylketonuria (PKU among the patients was 62.5% and 37.5% respectively and the incidence of BH4 deficiency was 1/76966.Conclusion: These findings indicate a high incidence of hyperphenylalaninemia, in the newborns from Fars province. The high incidence makes a comprehensive screening program for management of the disease necessary.
Full Text Available Objective:Phenylalanine hydroxylase or its cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, deficiency causes accumulation of phenylalanine in body fluids and central nervous system. Considering the fact that hyperphenylalaninemia is a preventable cause of mental retardation in infants, the objective of this study was to determine the incidence of congenital hyperphenylalaninemia in Fars province, south of Iran.Methods:In a period of one year from November 2007 to November 2008 blood samples were withdrawn from all newborns born in Fars province for measurement of serum phenylalanine. The samples with a serum level of ? 2 mg/dl were referred to pediatric endocrine clinic for confirmation and determination of the type of hyperphenylalaninemia by quantitive serum phenylalanine measurements by using High-Pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC method.Findings:Nine out of 76966 newborns had a serum phenylalanine level ?2mg/dl, of which 8 cases were confirmed by HPLC. The incidence of the disease was 1:10000. The incidence of mild hyperphenylalaninemia and phenylketonuria (PKU among the patients was 62.5% and 37.5% respectively and the incidence of BH4 deficiency was 1/76966.Conclusion:These findings indicate a high incidence of hyperphenylalaninemia, in the newborns from Fars province. The high incidence makes a comprehensive screening program for management of the disease necessary.
Full Text Available Nosema is a genus of microsporidia, which have significant negative impacts on honeybees. The aim of thisstudy is the epidemiological evaluation and molecular characterization of Nosema spices in various countiesof East-Azerbaijan province (Northwest of Iran. 387 samples were collected from colonies maintained invarious counties of East-Azerbaijan province. Samples after preparation were examined by a lightmicroscope for presence of Nosema spores. PCR method (SSUrRNA gene was used to differentiatebetween Nosema apis (N. apis and N. ceranae. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Totalinfection prevalence of the microscopic evaluation and PCR tests were 225 (58.1% and 260 (67.1%respectively, total validity of PCR test against the microscopic test was computed equal to 1.1 in this case.Disease distribution in various counties of study area was variable and N. ceranae was the only Nosema species found to infect honeybees. The one species presence and different distribution of Nosema positive samples in various counties of East-Azerbaijan province may be due to multiple reasons. Furthermore,epidemiological information helps us to improve disease management practices in the studied area, apply new hygiene policy and reduce extra costs of production.
Full Text Available Objective: This paper presents the incidence rates of childhood cancers using the data obtained from Golestan population based cancer registry (GPCR between 2004 and 2006.Methods: GPCR registers only primary cancers based on standard protocols of the international association of cancer registries (IACR. We collect data on newly diagnosed (incident cancer cases from all public and private diagnostic and therapeutic centers of the whole province. CanReg-4 software was used for data entry and analysis.Findings: Totally 5076 cancer cases (all ages were diagnosed in GPCR between 2004 and 2006. Of these, 139 (2.74 % were children (aged 0-14 years with mean (±SD age of 8.06 (±4.48 years. The age standardized incidence rates for childhood cancer were 119.8 and 78.3 per 1000000 person-years in male and female children, respectively. Leukemia was the most common childhood cancer in Golestan province of Iran. Lymphomas and central nervous system tumors were the second and third ones, respectively.Conclusion: The incidence rates of childhood cancers were relatively high in Golestan province of Iran. So, controlling of childhood cancers should be mentioned as an important issue in health policy making in this area.
Full Text Available Objective:This paper presents the incidence rates of childhood cancers using the data obtained from Golestan population based cancer registry (GPCR between 2004 and 2006.Methods:GPCR registers only primary cancers based on standard protocols of the international association of cancer registries (IACR. We collect data on newly diagnosed (incident cancer cases from all public and private diagnostic and therapeutic centers of the whole province. CanReg-4 software was used for data entry and analysis.Findings:Totally 5076 cancer cases (all ages were diagnosed in GPCR between 2004 and 2006. Of these, 139 (2.74 % were children (aged 0-14 years with mean (?SD age of 8.06 (?4.48 years. The age standardized incidence rates for childhood cancer were 119.8 and 78.3 per 1000000 person-years in male and female children, respectively. Leukemia was the most common childhood cancer in Golestan province of Iran. Lymphomas and central nervous system tumors were the second and third ones, respectively.Conclusion:The incidence rates of childhood cancers were relatively high in Golestan province of Iran. So, controlling of childhood cancers should be mentioned as an important issue in health policy making in this area.
Full Text Available Sichuan Province is abundant in tourism resources, a big tourism province. Its tourism income occupies a relatively great rate in the total output value of local area. However, an analysis of the tourism income structure of Sichuan Province, it is found that whether in terms of the total output or the proportion it occupies, the international tourism income lags behind domestic tourism income. In the meanwhile, whether compared with such cosmopolis as Beijing and Shanghai or compared with Jiangsu and Shandong, the international tourism income of Sichuan Province occupies a small rate, which is out of line with the status of big tourism province of Sichuan Province. However, as a primary means for foreign exchange earning in Sichuan Province, the international tourism income has a significance that can not be ignored. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the influential factors that affect the international tourism income of Sichuan Province, take relevant measures to improve the international tourism condition in Sichuan Province, improve the international tourism income and make greater contributions to economic development of foreign exchange earning in Sichuan Province.
Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????“????”?“????”??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Oil supply market emerged the power pattern between the four major state-owned oil companies and local refining enterprise in Shandong province, local refining enterprise impacts refined oil market’ influence of the four major state-owned oil companies in Shandong province, refined oil market performance for instability trend. In order to protect finished oil market’ stabilization in Shandong province and establish petroleum market system of the win-win situation. This article elaborates the development situation of refining industry in Shandong province; secondly, using “output game” and “price game” model to research the Competition and Cooperation Games about refining enterprise competition in Shandong Province and its influencing factors, results show that: Shandong refining enterprise will eventually take alliance cooperation, the main factors which influence game process are raw material oil source, fuel consumption tax, sales channels of refined oil, structure of industries; finally, putting forward refining industry development suggestions in Shandong province.
The province of Papua is the easternmost province of the republic of Indonesia. The indigenous population of Papua consists of 300 ethnic groups that are becoming outnumbered by migrants from other islands in Indonesia. The province has the lowest human development index of the country and the health status of its population is characterized by a high infant mortality rate and a generalizing HIV epidemic (estimated 3% of the general population). The major factor that limits access to health s...
Development of the capital market has attracted external sources of finance to the great extent, promoted Jilin Province to change from an old industrial base to an advanced international manufacturing base and greatly enhanced the overall economic strength of Jilin Province. Nonetheless, considering the current situation, mobility of capital in economy of Jilin Province is not yet strong and insufficient capital is still an impediment to constrain economic and social development of Jilin Pro...
The Lusitania Province encompasses the warm temperate marine waters between the southern end of the English Channel, in the North, and Cape Juby or Cape Blanco, in the South, including the Mediterranean and the archipelagoes of the Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands. Briggs and Bowen (2012) proposed that the warm temperate provinces, although retaining their provincial status, should be grouped with the adjacent tropical ones. Thus, they included the Lusitania Province in a warm eastern A...
Almada, Vi?tor C.; Jesus Falcón Toledo; Alberto Brito; André Levy; Floeter, Sergio R.; Robalo, Joana I.; Joana Martins; Frederico Oliveira Almada
Gangwon province has suffered from low rate of regional economic growth, resulting in exodus of locally well educated young workforce and thus, losing vitality and sense of hope. The situation will aggravate unless one turns the tide upside down. Now it appears that the time has come for the province to do it since the Korean government announced the green growth strategies last year. This paper strongly suggests that Gangwon province may have to shift its regional development strategy in ord...
Tourism of Liaoning Province is developing with a fast speed. High quality services provided by tour guides are necessary for the development of the industry. However, in recent years, the quality and ability of the tour guides in Liaoning Province are both downgrading, and many problems in the process of service are popping up one after another. Therefore, the research into the problems of the tour-guide services in Liaoning Province has great realistic significance.
Key words: To...
Liu, Dan; Ye, Anna
Migration is an important component of population change in North West province of South Africa. Unfortunately, reliable data on migration is difficult to collect. The aim of this study is to provide estimates of net internal migration for North West province using indirect estimation procedure based on survival ratios. This method has been under-utilised in demographic research in the country. The results indicate that during the intercensal period 1996-2001 North West provinc...
Palamuleni, Martin Enock
Full Text Available We analyze the present situation and main problems of management of college and university sports ground andstadiums of Shandong province, by means of literature review, investigation and logic analysis. Furthermore,combining with social sports development status of Shandong Province, we propose the ideas and mode ofmarketization of college and university sports ground and stadiums, and establish the marketization mode ofcollege and university sports ground and stadiums in Shandong Province.
Sichuan Province is abundant in tourism resources, a big tourism province. Its tourism income occupies a relatively great rate in the total output value of local area. However, an analysis of the tourism income structure of Sichuan Province, it is found that whether in terms of the total output or the proportion it occupies, the international tourism income lags behind domestic tourism income. In the meanwhile, whether compared with such cosmopolis as Beijing and Shanghai or compared with Jia...
Qizhi Yang; Feng Ye; Fuhui Yan
Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis E is a common infection in China, but few studies have been carried out to compare regional and ethnic factors in its prevalence.Objectives: To characterize the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgM and IgG in the general population of 11 Chinese provinces and in the people from different ethnic minorities.Materials and Methods: Sera from 14208 people including 723 people from four ethnic minorities were screened for anti-HEV IgM and IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. For the anti-HEV IgM positive samples, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was carried out for the detection of HEV RNA.Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 19.7%. The highest rate was 35.7% in Guizhou, while the lowest rate was 5.5% in Shanxi. Significantly higher rates were found among males compared to females in Hebei and Hunan province, and among females compared to males in Chongqing and Shannxi. In Guizhou, the prevalence rates among the Buyi, Miao, Shui and Han ethnic groups were 41.8%, 32.0%, 37.5% and 34.7%, respectively, which were not significantly different. The results also showed that the anti-HEV IgG detection rates increased with age for each ethnic group. Additionally, four samples were tested positive for anti-HEV IgM but HEV RNA was not detectable.Conclusions: HEV prevalence varies considerably among Chinese provinces. Thus, prevention and control programs including vaccination could be specifically targeted to people living in regions with relatively higher prevalences..
Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use (IDU is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Drug use is illegal in China, all identified drug users are registered by Public Security Bureau, and most were sent to detention; most detainees engaged in high risk behaviours. In order to well understand the HIV/AIDS knowledge among detainees, a survey was conducted in different detention settings in Hunan province in 2008 to assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV among detainees and to provide useful information for HIV prevention and intervention strategies in detention centers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 detentions in Hunan province, China, and demographic information along with knowledge and attitude of HIV/AIDS was collected through standardized interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe HIV knowledge, attitudes, and education services among detainees. Results There were 956 detainees interviewed from 10 detention centers. The male to female ratio was 2.24:1. The majority detainees received nine years of compulsory education, accounting for 51.5%. There were nine questions to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge of detainees, and 35.7% of those surveyed answered all nine questions correctly. There were 92.3% (882/956 who consented to be informed about the HIV antibody test results when tested, and 81% (774/956 elected that their family members were also informed. All detention centers had an organized HIV/AIDS education program. Conclusion This study gives us an overview about HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, and all detention sites in the study provided HIV/AIDS intervention services among detainees that focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and health behaviors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB hampers TB control. Ten provinces in China performed drug resistance surveys among tuberculosis (TB patients in 1996–2004 to assess levels of drug resistance. Methods Provincial drug resistance surveys included all isolates from newly diagnosed, smear-positive TB patients. Drug susceptibility testing (DST against isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol was carried out in the provincial laboratories. For purposes of quality assurance, a random sample (11.6% was re-tested by the national reference laboratory (NRL. Results Of 14,059 patients tested 11,052 (79% were new TB cases. The weighted mean prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB among all cases was 9.3% (range 2.2%–10.4%; 5.4% (range 2.1% – 10.4% among new cases and 25.6% (range 11.7%–36.9% among previously treated cases. Adjusting the drug resistance proportions using the re-testing results did not change the estimated national mean prevalence significantly. However, in some individual provinces the estimated resistance proportions were greatly influenced, especially among re-treatment patients. Conclusion MDR-TB levels varied greatly between provinces in China, but on average were high compared to the global estimated average of 4.8%. This study shows the importance of quality-assured laboratory performance. Programmatic management of drug-resistant TB, including high quality DST for patients at high risk of resistance and treatment with second-line drugs, should become the standard, especially in high MDR-TB settings.
The Rengali Province in northern Orissa, India is a distinct lithological, structural and metamorphic belt bound by major shear zones between the Singhbhum Province and the northern Eastern Ghats Belt and the NE part of the Bhandara Province. The Rengali Province comprises an amphibolite facies sequence of intercalated basement gneiss and meta-volcanosedimentary lithologies. Deformation is characterised by a variation in strain from relatively low for much of the central and NE part of the belt to a strongly deformed zone south of the intra-province Riamal Shear Zone. Geochronological constraints suggest dextral displacement along the bounding Kerajang and Barakot Shear Zones occurred prior to ca. 980 Ma and D 2 within the Eastern Ghats Belt, and post the Meso-Neoproterozoic metamorphism within the Sausar and Gangpur Groups, which may have once represented a single contiguous belt. Deformation associated with the dextral displacement of the Singhbhum Province relative to the Bhandara Province resolved the Rengali Province as a distinct and comparatively high-strain belt which accommodated large-scale dextral shearing at amphibolite facies conditions. Progressive shearing and later reactivation associated with late retrogression was confined to the southern margin of the Rengali Province along the Kerajang Fault Zone. The latest brittle reactivation along the Kerajang Fault Zone deforms the Ib River and Talchir Permo-Triassic coal sequences.
Crowe, Warwick A.; Nash, Colin R.; Harris, Lyal B.; Leeming, Prue M.; Rankin, Leigh R.
Zircon and monazite U-Pb geochronology of rocks in the western Mojave province of the southwest US reveals that the Proterozoic arc exposed there shares an intrusive and deformational history with rocks exposed further east in the Yavapai and Mazatzal belts after approximately 1780 Ma. Consequently, it seems likely that the Mojave province was contiguous with these other Laurentian provinces by that time. Isotopic and geochronologic data also suggest that Mojave province plutonic rocks inherit their distinctive isotopic compositions, at least in part, from an enriched lithospheric mantle source and interaction with sedimentary rocks containing Archean detritus.
Coleman, D. S.; Barth, A. P.; Wooden, J. L.
Let me firstly state categorically that the Eastern Province is the cradle of aviationin South Africa. Although Admiral John Weston built the first aircraft in SouthAfrica at Brandfort in the Orange Free State in 1907, his machine was takenoverseas for its first flight on 10th December 1910. It was not flown here untilJune, 1911.2 When one asks the question, "who made the first ever heavier-thanairflight?", the answer is invariably "the Wright brothers at Kittyhawk, USA in1903". Who made the ...
Cockbain, T. G. E.
The aim of this study was to examine the parasite remains present in rodent coprolites collected from the archaeological site Alero Destacamento Guardaparque (ADG) located in the Perito Moreno National Park (Santa Cruz Province, 47º57'S 72º05'W). Forty-eight coprolites were obtained from the layers 7, 6 and 5 of ADG, dated at 6,700 ± 70, 4,900 ± 70 and 3,440 ± 70 years BP, respectively. The faecal samples were processed and examined using paleoparasitological procedures. A total of 582 e...
Norma Haydée Sardella; Martín Horacio Fugassa; Diego Damián Rindel; Rafael Agustín Goñi
Full Text Available Background: Chronic illnesses are a significant burden to the health services in South Africa. There is a specific national health plan whereby chronically ill patients who are acceptably controlled should be managed at clinic level. The perception has emerged that the management of primary care has not been optimal in the Southern District of the North West Province. This provided the motivation to initiate this research, namely consideration of chronic patient care at clinics in the North West Province of South Africa.
Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at four randomly selected clinics covering four sub-districts in the Southern District (North West Province. This was done using charts and registers at the clinics. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 18, and presenting with the following chronic illnesses: asthma/chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD, hypertension, diabetes and epilepsy. The major focus areas were the regular assessment of the patients, the level of control of the illness and the use of the Essential Drugs List and Standard Treatment Guidelines (EDL/STG.
Results: In the cases of all the chronic illnesses it was found that regular assessments were poorly done, with asthma (peak flow measurements being the most poorly done. Control was generally less than 50% for all the illnesses, although the EDL was followed fairly well by the personnel at the clinics.
Conclusion: In the light of the burden of chronic illness the results give cause for great concern about the quality of care for chronically ill patients, and reasons were sought for some of the poor results. A subsequent decision was taken to carry out comprehensive quality improvement projects on each of the illnesses over the following five years.
How to cite this article: Van Deventer C, Couper I, Sondzaba N. Chronic Patient Care at North West Province Clinics. Afr J Prm Health Care & Fam Med. 2009;1(1, Art. #8, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v1i1.8
"nBackground: Dog is known to act as definitive host for some parasites that cause important diseases in man and animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Neospora caninum and other intestinal parasites in dogs in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was done concerning frequency of N. canium and other intestinal parasites in dogs in Mashhad area. Totally, 174 fecal samples from 89 farm dogs and 85 household dogs were collected fr...
Full Text Available This study contributes to empirical literature concerning the spatial evolution of industrial structure. We use the GIS technology and the deviation range method to analyze the spatial evolution of industrial structure in 11 cities in Hebei province in the year 2002 and 2010. Our empirical analysis indicates four major problems: the industrial layout is too concentrated, the optimization of industrial structure is relatively low, the industrial structure is similar and diseconomies of scale and the industrial structure are similar and diseconomies of scale. Then we give specific recommendations to the above problems. Finally we discuss the implications of our findings for theory and practice and indicate avenues for future research.
The characterization of gas hydrates provinces off Norway-Svalbard were discussed in this presentation. Relevant research and development projects and activities were listed. Bottom simulating reflectors as a key seismic proxy were discussed. Seismic techniques such as p-waves and s-waves were identified. The quantification and saturation from velocity anomalies were illustrated along with the gas hydrate reservoir potential off Norway-Svalbard. Some interesting cases were presented, including the Nankai; Lake Baikal in Siberia; and the Black Sea. The presentation concluded with a discussion of lessons learned. The presentation noted that mapping and quantification requires integration of methods and techniques. figs.
Vanneste, M.; Kvalstad, T.J.; Forsberg, C.F.; Pfaffhuber, A. [NGI, Oslo (Norway); ICG, Oslo (Norway); Bunz, S.; Mienert, J. [Tromso Univ., Tromso (Norway)
Data from three different data sources were compiled to estimate the presence of Coxiella burnetii in the Belgian Limburg province for both humans and livestock. First, serological data of all samples sent to the Belgian reference centre (2003-2010) for human Q fever were analysed, showing evidence for an acute Q fever infection in 1-5% of the cases. Second, a multi-centre prospective survey was conducted in Limburg in 2010 to detect undiagnosed human cases; evidence for a recent infection wi...
Naesens, R.; Magerman, K.; Gyssens, I.; Leenders, A.; Meekelenkamp, J.; Esbroeck, M.; Coppens, G.; Oris, E.; Craeghs, J.; Thoelen, I.; Gabrie?ls, P.; Vandevelde, M.; Forier, A. M.; Waumans, L.; Cartuyvels, R.
14,849 affected cases of beta thalassemia have been registered in 1995 in all provinces of Iran. It is estimated that there are about three million carriers in Iran. The provincial distributions of the affected cases show that the highest incidence in 100 thousand individuals was in Mazandaran (71.29) and Gilan (57.61), respectively, both near the Caspian sea (north), followed by Hormozgan (50.22), Khouzestan (48.79) , Kohkiluyeh & Boyr-Ahmad (48.42), Fars (47 20) (south) and the lowest in th...
Farhud, D. D.; Sadighi, H.
Background: Hepatitis E is a common infection in China, but few studies have been carried out to compare regional and ethnic factors in its prevalence.Objectives: To characterize the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgM and IgG in the general population of 11 Chinese provinces and in the people from different ethnic minorities.Materials and Methods: Sera from 14208 people including 723 people from four ethnic minorities were screened for anti-HEV IgM and IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EL...
Chen Dong; Xing Dai; Jiuhong Liang; Min Dong; Jihong Meng
Full Text Available The Bilsa Biological Station is located on the Mache-Chindul mountains and protects some of the last rainforestremnants in the province of Esmeraldas, northwestern Ecuador. Since 2004, we have been inventorying the amphibiansand reptiles of Bilsa. We found 109 species of herpetofauna (37 amphibians and 72 reptiles, representing 8 % and 18% of the known species from Ecuador, respectively. We report distribution extensions for Sachatamia albomaculata,Hyalinobatrachium valerioi, Pristimantis muricatus, and P. rosadoi, and report the presence of several putatively undescribedspecies. We propose the Mache–Chindul mountains as a Key Biodiversity Area within the West Ecuadorian Endemic Area.
Ortega-Andrade, H. M.
"nObjective: The aim of this study was to determine men’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning in a province of north-eastern Turkey. "nMaterials and Methods: This descriptive research was carried on 801 volunteers amongst men of reproductive age living in a city with a total population of 80,000 men. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire that addressed men’s roles, attitudes and behaviors towards family planning. "nResults:...
Full Text Available To examine the prevalence of accidents a cross-sectional study for 6494 retrieved randomly from the Yazd province. Data was gathered via a questionnaire filled by referring personally to their residential premises. Generally, the prevalence of accidents in this study was 3.54% of in which motor vehicle accidents accounted for the majority of accidents (39.1% followed by falls (29.1%, burns and poisonings (13%. In conclusion, age, sex and literacy levels are the main determining factors of accidents. This study, therefore, provides sufficient evidence to support the need for an aggressive campaign to reduce accidents in this area.
In this study, livers, gall bladders, rumens and reticulums from 746 males and 255 females, making a total of 1001 slaughtered cattle, were examined in order to determine the prevalence of paramphistomiasis and distomatosis during the period of June 2003-November 2003 in the Afyon province. The infection rate of parasites was 13.6% (136 cattle) for Paramphistomidae spp., 4.6% (46 cattle) for Fasciola spp., 15.3% (153 cattle) for Dicrocoelium dendriticum and 1.4% (14 cattle) for either Fasciola spp. or D. dendriticum. The infection of males with paramphistomiasis and distomatosis was 3.05 times more than that in the females. PMID:17167743
Sev?ml?, Feride Kircali; Köse, Mustafa; Kozan, Esma; Do?an, Nurhan
The Hydrogeology Section required to Geophysics Department of the DINAMIGE to carry out this report for Education and Culture Ministery, to study the feasibility of the exploration and exploitation of underground waters located in three properties zones in Santa Rosa's town, Canelones province. By means of the geoeletric methods it was possible to estimate the alluviums thickness ,sedimentary deposits or alteration mantels. The purpose of the present work has been to establish geologic and structural features through vertical electric well by means of which is been able to study the vertical variations of the resistivity .
Full Text Available In this study, efficiency of apple producers in Khorasan Province was determined by a cross sectional data of 212 apple producers. Mean technical, allocative, and economic efficiencies were estimated to be around 31, 28, and 9 percent, respectively. A high potential was also detected for increasing these efficiencies. Apple producers’ age and education had positive effects and risk aversion had a negative effect on technical efficiency. Waste reduction, optimal use of inputs, introduction of technical-extension services, and apple insurance are suggested to increase efficiencies.
Three owl pellets samples collected in the localities of Pedro Gómez Cello (= Estación Km. 197;30°02’14” S, 60°18’56” W), Colonia Silva (= Estación Abipones; 30°26’59” S, 60°25’58” W) and Jacinto L. Arauz(30°44’01” S, 60°58’31” W), Province of Santa Fe, Argentina, were studied. We registered 11 genera of smallmammals, including Didelphidae marsupials (1 species), and Caviidae (1), Cricetidae (10), and Muridae (1)rodents. We documented the southernmost record f...
Full Text Available Three owl pellets samples collected in the localities of Pedro Gómez Cello (= Estación Km. 197;30°02’14” S, 60°18’56” W, Colonia Silva (= Estación Abipones; 30°26’59” S, 60°25’58” W and Jacinto L. Arauz(30°44’01” S, 60°58’31” W, Province of Santa Fe, Argentina, were studied. We registered 11 genera of smallmammals, including Didelphidae marsupials (1 species, and Caviidae (1, Cricetidae (10, and Muridae (1rodents. We documented the southernmost record for Pseudoryzomys simplex and the first and second recordinglocalities for Santa Fe of Oligoryzomys nigripes and Graomys chacoensis, respectively.
Full Text Available In the last century large afforestation programs were carried out in the Apennines to recover degraded lands, mainly by Pinus nigra plantations. Currently, many Authors have proposed management guidelines to foster the naturalization of such woodlands. However, such an option requires the availability of detailed surveys. The aim of this note is to propose a survey protocol for qualifying the landscape pattern of pine reafforestations and for mapping their growing stock on the basis of the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN techniques. A case study application by Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery is here reported concerning the Pinus nigra plantations in the province of Rieti (Central Italy.
Full Text Available Kerman province is the largest producer of greenhouse cucumber and tomato in Iran. This paper calculates the interest rate of return (IRR and return period of investment (RPI in vegetable, cut flowers and strawberry in greenhouse and compares them with vegetable grown outdoors. To do the study, a random sample of 309 farmers was selected in the province of Kerman in 2005. Results showed that IRR for vegetable, cut flowers and strawberry in greenhouse was about 20, 14 and 23 respectively, and it was 45/8 percentage per year for vegetable outdoors. RPI for vegetable, cut flowers and strawberry in greenhouse was about 8, 29, and 7 years, respectively. Vegetables Production under greenhouse produces more employment opportunities, has better yields, higher price and efficient use of factors, but it has lower IRR, higher production cost, higher pesticide residue and is more capital intensive in comparison with outdoor production. Improvement of greenhouse credits, enlargement of metal greenhouses, research on yield and development of greenhouses at region 5 are the important policy-making implications of this paper.
H. Mehrabi Basharabadi
This study was carried out on school children in primary schools in the Van province in order to investigate the distribution of intestinal parasitoses. The study was conducted in 7-15 year-old primary schoolchildren during the years from 2003-2005. Stool specimens were taken from 2975 school children; of these, 1289 were female and 1686, male. The specimens were examined by native-Lugol, flotation and trichrome staining methods in the parasitology laboratory of the Health Research and Training Hospital, Yüzüncü Yil University. One or more parasite species were detected in 1916 (64.4%) stool specimens of 2975 children. Parasitosis was detected in 65.7% of females and in 63.4% of males. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Enteromonas hominis, Retortamonas intestinalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Trichomonas hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Fasciola hepatica were detected in 27.4%, 16.4%, 14.9%, 3.9%, 2.9%, 1.8%, 1.1%, 0.6%, 0.5%, 0.5%, 0.4%, 0.2%, 7.5%, 5.3%, 0.7%, 0.6% and 0.03% of the specimens, respectively. In conclusion, there are still high rates of intestinal parasitoses in school children in this region because care is not taken in hygiene and the socioeconomic status is low in the Van province. PMID:20101580
Ta? Cengiz, Zeynep; Akbayram, Sinan; Ciçek, Mutalip; Yilmaz, Hasan
Tocantins Structural Province (TSP) is the main tectonic feature in Central Brazil. It separates two main cratonic areas ( former continental plates): the Amazonian Craton to the West and the Sao Francisco Craton to the East. Recent geochronological data (U-Pb and Sm-Nd) and structural studies show that the actual structural framework of the province was developed during the Neoproterozoic. It is herein proposed that Brasiliano Orogenic Cycle in the TSP was developed in four broad tectonic stages: 1) an ocean opening stage began possibly 1270 Ma; 2) an island-arc system development stage started 1000 Ma and its amal- gamation lasted until ca. 800 Ma; 3) a continental collision stage began ca. 800 Ma with the accretion of the island-arcs to the upper Amazonian plate, the closure of the Goias Ocean and the development of a foreland basin upon the lower Sao Francisco plate; and 4) a post-collisional stage (650-500 Ma) with the development of transcurrent faults (Transbrasiliano lineaments), back-thrust reverse faults, and intrusion of alkalic granitic plutons.
Strieder, Adelir Jose; Suita, Marcos Tadeu de Freitas
Full Text Available There is a direct relation between the prevalence of some parasitic diseases and the presence of those etiologic agents in water. The purpose of this research was to determine the contamination rate of wells drinking water to parasites in Mazandaran province in the north of Iran. 989 water samples were randomly taken based on the population of towns and number of health centers from 12 cities of Mazandaran province and transferred to the laboratory in sterile containers. Water samples were then filtered and analyzed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Direct method and Gram staining procedure were used to identify the parasites. If cryptosporidium was seen, floatation (sheather’s sugar and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method were performed. Parasites count was undertaken using McMaster counting slide (0.3 mL. 197 out of 989 water samples were contaminated with different parasites. From 197 contaminated samples, 20 different types of parasites were separated of which 53 (26.9% were pathogenic, 100 (50.8% non pathogenic, and 44 non-infective stages of parasites. Distance between wells and sources of contamination, type of water distribution systems, city and chlorination status had significantly statistical relationship with contamination prevalence (p<0.001. According to the results and considering the direct correlation between safe water and human health, proper implementation of providing hygienic drinking water should be enforced.
Z. Yousefi ? H. Ziaei hezarjaribi ? A. A. Enayati ? R. A. Mohammadpoor
Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran.Methods: During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites.Results: Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8% were found infected with different helminthic species. The rate of infectivity with each species was as follows: Trichuris rhombomidis 31.2%, Trichuris muris 32.5%, Trichuris spp. 10.4%, Syphacia muris 2.6%, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae 37.7%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata 15.6%, Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis nana fraterna 5.2%, and Taenia endothoracicus larva 1.3%.Conclusion: R. opimus is host for several species of cestodes and nematodes in the study area. The high rate of infectivity with D. viteae indicates the susceptibility of these gerbils to this filarial nematode. Synchronous infections occurred up to four species of helminthes in one host.
In cooperation with the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine and Yunnan Province Provincial Office for AIDS Control and Prevention, we studied the current status of HIV infection intravenous drug users (IVDUs) and other high risk groups in Yunnan province of China. As of the end of 1995, 1,807 HIV cases were officially reported (Positive rate was 0.6%), of which 1,278 (77.9%) were IVDUs, and 24 were their spouses. The majority of cases were found among the Dai minority male farmers near Ruili which borders on Myammar, but HIV also appears to be spreading among the Han people. HIV antibody positive rates among commercial sex workers, pregnant women and blood donors were 0.2%, 0.07% and 0.04%, respectively. A system for surveillance of HIV has been developed, but preventive strategies to cope with HIV epidemic are not sufficient. As HIV/AIDS is now a global issue, (1) the integration and coordination of such preventive strategies in cooperation with community health workers, (2) general health education for condom use promotion and (3) care of psychological vulnerable person such as IVDUs, should be developed. PMID:9261209
Hirabayashi, K; Tajima, K; Soda, K; Yi, Z; Dong, Z X; He, C H; Lin, Y G
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) among newborns in Markazi Province, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2006 to 2012. Blood samples were taken between 3 to 5 days after birth from the heel. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was tested using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and was employed as the screening test. Newborns with abnormal screening results (TSH >5 mIU/L) were re-examined. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: A total of 127 112 infants were screened. Of these, 51.2% were male and 48.8% were female. The coverage rate of the screening program was 100%. Of 6102 recalled subjects (re-call rate 4.8%), 414 cases with CH were detected, yielding a CH prevalence of 1:307 (female:male ratio 1:0.95). The prevalence of permanent and transient CH was 1:581 and 1:628, respectively. Conclusion: This study reveals that the prevalence of CH is higher compared to worldwide levels. Comprehensive and complementary studies for recognizing related risk factors should be a priority for health system research in this province. PMID:24932604
Dorreh, Fatemeh; Chaijan, Parsa Y; Javaheri, Javad; Zeinalzadeh, Ali Hossein
The Rungwe Volcanic Province in SW Tanzania is a densely populated area that is considered volcanically active. As part of the East African Rift System, a significant control of tectonic activity seems to exist on the location and also potential destabilization of volcanic edifices. Three large volcanoes, Ngozi, Rungwe, and Kyejo, dominate the landscape and all show contrasting eruptive behaviour in the recent geological past. Kyejo volcano is a flow-dominated volcano that had a historic lava flow eruption. Lake sediment cores, drilled in Lakes Malawi, Masoko, Rukwa, and Tanganyika, provide a record of frequent explosive eruptions in the last few tens of thousands of years. In combination with on-land stratigraphic observations, they constrain the minimum eruptive frequency of especially Rungwe and Ngozi volcanoes. Both volcanoes had Plinian-style eruptions in the Holocene. The most striking documented Rungwe eruption, the ca. 4 ka Rungwe Pumice, is a rare case of a Plinian eruption in near-wind-free conditions. Furthermore, the Rungwe Pumice, just like any other Rungwe tephra deposit, does not show any evidence of pyroclastic density current deposits. Apart from explosive eruptions at a range of scales happening every few hundred years at Rungwe, the volcano also experienced at least two sector collapse events generating debris avalanches. All existing evidence shows that the Rungwe Volcanic Province is prone to future significant explosive eruptions. To further assess, quantify and mitigate volcanic hazard risks, extensive and systematic multidisciplinary geological research, and both volcanic and tectonic monitoring are needed.
Fontijn, Karen; Williamson, David; Mbede, Evelyne; Ernst, Gerald G. J.
In the last ten years, China progressively formed its own idea on a sustainable development strategy. The basic ideas are: environmental problems must be integrated into economic and social problems, and be solved with the development of economy and society. Shanxi province is the largest base of coal production in China. In 1989, the output of coal in Shanxi was 270 MT, which is 27% of the national total coal production. The industrial structure is a heavy industry form: the important industrial efficiency indices are lower than the national average value. In Taiyuan, coal is their primary energy, all liquid fuel is transported from other parts of the country. In the final energy consumption structure, raw coal takes 42.4% and 53.2% is coal transformed secondary energy. The annual energy consumption per capital in Taiyuan is 3.25 tons, which is 3.56 times above national average level. Consequently, in order to ensure that comprehensive economic development in China it is required that Shanxi`s coal production base should continue with the important task of coal production. By the year 2000 the goal for raw coal produced annually is 450 MT. There is a heavy environmental pressure in the province, including Taiyuan city. 1 fig., 3 tabs.
Xia, S.; Luo, X.; Zhang, R.; Ruan, H. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)
It is important to quantitatively assess the climate suitability of tea and its response to climate change. Based on meteorological indices of tea growth and daily meteorological data from 1971 to 2010 in Zhejiang Province, three climate suitability models for single climate factors, including temperature, precipitation and sunshine, were established at a 10-day scale by using the fuzzy mathematics method, and a comprehensive climate suitability model was established with the geometric average method. The results indicated that the climate suitability was high in the tea growth season in Zhejiang Province, and the three kinds of climate suitability were all higher than 0.6. As for the single factor climate suitability, temperature suitability was the highest and sunshine suitability was the lowest. There were obvious inter-annual variations of tea climate suitability, with a decline trend in the 1970s, less variation in the 1980s, and an obvious incline trend after the 1990s. The change tendency of climate suitability for spring tea was similar with that of annual climate suitability, lower in the 1980s, higher in the 1970s and after the 1990s. However, the variation amplitude of the climate suitability for spring tea was larger. The climate suitability for summer tea and autumn tea showed a decline trend from 1971 to 2010. PMID:25011287
Jin, Zhi-Feng; Ye, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zai-Qiang; Sun, Rui; Hu, Bo; Li, Ren-Zhong
Full Text Available Background & objectives: This study aims at studying mosquito-borne diseases as the major publichealth threat in Iran. Sanandaj outskirts are considered suitable habitats for mosquito larvae. Inview of scanty reports on mosquito-borne disease implementation in this area, a study was undertakento determine the mosquito fauna and frequency of mosquito larvae at Sanandaj City.Methods: In order to study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae fauna, the samples were collectedfrom May to July 2009 using dipping and night catch methods in Sanandaj district, Kurdistanprovince, western Iran.Results: Three genera and 11 species of the Culicinae subfamily were identified—Aedes vexansMeigen, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l. Pallas (indicating new occurrence records for the province,Culex hortensis Ficalbi, Cx. pipiens Linnaeus, Cx. mimeticus Noe, Cx. theileri Theobald, Culisetalongiareolata Macquart, and Cs. subochrea Edwards.Interpretation & conclusion: Present study revealed that Ae. vexans and Ochlerotatus caspius s.lcaught had not been previously recorded in Kurdistan province, highlighting the deficient knowledgeof the fauna and distribution of Culicinae mosquitoes of this part of Iran
S.H. Moosa Kazemi
Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world and is more prevalent in tropical and temperate regions. Guilan Province in north of Iran, is an endemic region of human leptospirosis. Since diagnosis of leptospirosis according to clinical symptoms is very difficult due to lack of characteristic pathogonomic sign(s, laboratory support is necessary. Methods: In 2003, we obtained blood samples from patients hospitalized in main general hospitals of Guilan Province and were suspected as having leptospirosis according to their clinical presentations. We examined 995 sera by a commercial IgM and IgG ELISA kit to find positive cases. Results: 62.7% of positive cases were male and about 86% of them were farmer. High distribution rate of leptospirosis was seen in middle-aged people (65% in 20-50 years old. Conclusion: It seems that leptospirosis has a high occurrence in major cities and is mostly distributed in warm months of the year. Demographic analysis of the results indicates that leptospirosis is typically a rural and an occupational disease in the area.
Full Text Available Extended abstract1- IntroductionTiming coincidence of plant growth and development to suitable climatic conditions is on of the main factor for spring safflower increasing yield. Thus determining and zoning of safflower planting dates is very important. The highest planted area of spring safflower is belonged to Esfahan province. Delay in planting of spring safflower cause faster development, earlier flowering and lower photosynthetic area and these consequently lower yield and yield components. 2- MethodologySpring safflower is an irrigated crop in Esfahan province. For safflower planting dates zoning, thermal data from 1961-2009 were used. These data obtained from 51 synoptic and climatic stations that located in and near of Esfahan province. Because of low density of station especially in east and north east of province, by using the daily mean temperature of these stations interpolation was done by kriging method with surfer software. Cluster analysis on temperature map cells was done by Ward’s method. Thus Esfahan divided to three temperature zones, 1(cold, 2(moderate and 3(warm. Interpolation was done with Radial Basis Function with Completely Regularized Spline method. Start planting in warm, temperate and cold, respectively, with the average temperature day and night to 7, 9 and 12 degrees Celsius and minimum temperature of zero degrees Celsius higher were considered. For determining of suitable planting dates of spring safflower in different parts of Esfahan province 15-day average daily temperature and minimum temperature from January to October were calculated and maps were drawn by GIS.3- DiscussionBased on results in the first thermal zone, includes east and north parts of province, suitable planting dates are from January to March 6. In the second thermal zone, includes south eastern and central parts of province, suitable planting dates are from March 7 to April 4. In the third thermal zone, includes other parts of province, suitable planting dates are from April 5 to May 21.4- Conclusion By considering of thermal requirements of safflower if the crop cultivated in suitable planting date, it shall not face to limited temperature.Key words: safflower, planting date, temperature, zoning ReferencesAckerman, S. A. and Knox, J. A. (2007, Meteorology, Understanding the Atmosphere. 2th-ed., Thomson Brooks. Chao, M. H. and Tae, R. H. (2000, Purification and characterization of precarthamin decarboxylase from the yellow of Carthamus tinctorius L. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 382:238-244.Dadashi, N. and Khajehpour, M. R. (2004, Effects of temperature and day length on developmental stages of safflower genotypes under field conditions, J. Sci. & Technol. Agric. & Natur. Resour, 7:83-102.Elias, S., Basil, S. and Kafka, R. (2002, Response of safflower (Carthamus tinctoruios L. to saline soils and irrigation: I. Consumptive water use, Agricultural Water Management, 54, 67-80.Emami, T., Naseri,, R., Falahi, H. and Kazemi, E. (2011, Response of yield, yield component and oil content of safflower (cv Sina to planting date and plant spacing on row in rainfed conditions of western Iran, American Eurasian J. Agric & Environ. Sci., 10(10:947-953.Froozan, k. (2005, Safflower production in Iran (past, now, future, (2005, pp 255-257.paper presented at the Sixth International Safflower Conference, June 6-10. 2005. Istanbul, Turkey.Jajarmi, V., Azizi, M., Shadlu, A. and Omidi Tabrizi, A.H. (2009,The effect of density, variety and planting date on yield and yield components of safflower. 2009. pp.235-241. paper presented at the 7th International Safflowr Conference. June10-14. 2009. Wagga Australia.khajehpour, M. R. (2004, Industrial crops, Isfahan, Iran, Jehad of Isfahan Uni.TechMohamadzadeh, M., Siadat, S.A.., Norof, M.S. and Naseri, R. (2011, The effects of planting date and row spacing on rain fed conditions. American-Erasian J. Agric and Enviro. Sci.,10(2:200-206.Montazeri, M.(2005, An analysis of tempo-spatial variation of temperature in Iran during the last half century, Isfahan, Iran, Isfah.
Full Text Available Intensifi ed cultivation of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. could raise the importance of plant diseases. h e objectives of this research were to diagnose diseases occurring on physic nut in Lampung Province and to determine their intensity. Field observation was conducted in four districts: South Lampung, Tanggamus, Bandarlampung, and Tulang Bawang. Disease intensity, whether expressed as disease incidence or severity, was recorded from plant samples determined by making diagonal lines across the fi eld on which fi ve observation spots were made. On each spot, fi ve plant samples were observed. Specimens were also collected and placed individually in plastic bags for laboratory observation. h e diseases found on physic nut in Lampung Province were cercospora leaf spot, alternaria leaf spot, fusarium wilt, and bacterial wilt. In addition, leaf malformation fi rst thought to be viral disease was commonly found in many locations. Further mechanical transmission failed to produce similar symptom on tested plants and higher population of mites were found on malformed leaves than that in normal leaves. Based on the disease distribution and intensity, the most likely threatening disease in physic nut cultivation is bacterial wilt. Fusarium also caused wilt, but it was only found in one subdistrict with low incidence.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic in the low-altitude areas of the northern and eastern parts of South Africa with seasonal transmission. The aim of this descriptive study is to give an overview of the malaria incidence and mortality in Limpopo Province for the seasons 1998–1999 to 2006–2007 and to detect trends over time and place. Methods Routinely collected data on diagnosed malaria cases and deaths were available through the provincial malaria information system. In order to calculate incidence rates, population estimates (by sex, age and district were obtained from Statistics South Africa. The Chi squared test for trend was used to detect temporal trends in malaria incidence over the seasons, and a trend in case fatality rate (CFR by age group. The Chi squared test was used to calculate differences in incidence rate and CFR between both sexes and in incidence by age group. Results In total, 58,768 cases of malaria were reported, including 628 deaths. The mean incidence rate was 124.5 per 100,000 person-years and the mean CFR 1.1% per season. There was a decreasing trend in the incidence rate over time (p Conclusion Information from this study may serve as baseline data to determine the course and distribution of malaria in Limpopo province over time. In the study period there was a decreasing trend in the incidence rate. Furthermore, the study addresses the need for better data over a range of epidemic-prone settings.
Grobusch Martin P
The northern Barents Sea was strongly affected by the Cretaceous High Arctic Large Igneous Province through abundant mafic intrusions, eruption of flood basalts, and regional uplift. Recently acquired geophysical data in this region provide a unique opportunity to study in detail crustal architecture of large igneous provinces. A giant dike swarm is identified based on magnetic anomalies coherent over a distance of hundreds of kilometers. Coincident ocean bottom seismometer, multichannel streamer, and gravity data indicate that the surface basalts and shallow sills were associated with feeder systems cross-cutting the entire crust. At the same time, the distribution of dikes exhibits more complex pattern than radially symmetric with respect to the presumable magmatic center in the Alpha Ridge region. Thus, the preferred orientation of dikes could be controlled by both paleostress and pre-existing weaknesses (Early-Late Paleozoic faults). The data do not indicate a thick igneous mafic lower crust while the existence of heavy ultramafic cumulates below the Moho has not been resolved yet. In view of these observations different models of magma transport and related paleo-surface topography are discussed.
Minakov, Alexander; Faleide, Jan Inge; Krupnova, Natalia; Sakoulina, Tamara
Full Text Available Sporadic outbreaks of aflatoxicosis occur in dogs when they consume contaminated dog food. During 2011, low-cost brands of pelleted dog food were contaminated with very high concentrations of aflatoxins. Approximately 100 dogs were presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital. Clinically, the dogs were depressed to collapsed and icteric, with haematemesis, melaena and haematochezia. The most common pathological findings were icterus, gastro-enterorrhagia and hepatosis. On histopathological examination, fatty hepatosis and bile duct proliferation were observed. A consistent, very characteristic finding was the presence of a blue-grey granular material within the bile ducts. A total of 124 samples of the dog food fed to the affected dogs was analysed to determine aflatoxin concentrations. Concentrations ranged from below the limit of quantification (< 5 ?g/kg to 4946 ?g/kg and six samples were submitted to determine the ratio of aflatoxins in the feed. It is estimated that well over 220 dogs died in the Gauteng Province of South Africa as a result of this aflatoxin outbreak.
How to cite this article: Arnot LF, Duncan NM, Coetzer H, Botha CJ. An outbreak of canine aflatoxicosis in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Jl S Afr vet Ass. 2012;83(1, Art. #2, 4 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v83i1.2
Luke F. Arnot
Between July 2005 and November 2006 the gastro-intestinal helminths of 15 Helmeted guineafowls and a single Crested guineafowl from Musina, Limpopo Province were examined, and in July and August 2005 helminths were collected from five Helmeted guineafowls from Mokopane in the same province. The acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus gallinarum, the cestodes Abuladzugnia gutterae, Davainea nana, Hymenolepis cantaniana, Numidella numida, Octopetalum numida, Ortleppolepis multiuncinata, Porogynia paronai, Raillietina angusta, Raillietina pintneri, Raillietina steinhardti and Raillietina sp. and the nematodes Ascaridia numidae, Cyrnea parroti, Gongylonema congolense, Hadjelia truncata, Sicarius caudatus, Subulura dentigera, Subulura suctoria, Subulura sp., Tetrameres numida and an unidentified subulurid were recovered. A single trematode species, Dicrocoelium macrostomum, was present in the liver. Mediorhynchus gallinarum, A. gutterae, O. multiuncinata, H. truncata and S. caudatus are recorded for the first time from Helmeted guineafowls, as well as from South Africa. South Africa is a new geographic record for D. macrostomum, G. congolense and D. nana. Subulura suctoria, G. congolense and H. truncata from the Crested guineafowl constitute new host-parasite associations. PMID:18453236
Junker, K; Boomker, J
Full Text Available Between July 2005 and November 2006 the gastro-intestinal helminths of 15 Helmeted guineafowls and a single Crested guineafowl from Musina, Limpopo Province were examined, and in July and August 2005 helminths were collected from five Helmeted guineafowls from Mokopane in the same province. The acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus gallinarum, the cestodes Abuladzugnia gutterae, Davainea nana, Hymenolepis cantaniana, Numidella numida, Octopetalum numida, Ortleppolepis multiuncinata, Porogynia paronai, Raillietina angusta, Raillietina pintneri, Raillietina steinhardti and Raillietina sp. and the nematodes Ascaridia numidae, Cyrnea parroti, Gongylonema congolense, Hadjelia truncata, Sicarius caudatus, Subulura dentigera, Subulura suctoria, Subulura sp., Tetrameres numida and an unidentified subulurid were recovered. A single trematode species, Dicrocoelium macrostomum, was present in the liver. Mediorhynchus gallinarum, A. gutterae, O. multiuncinata, H. truncata and S. caudatus are recorded for the first time from Helmeted guineafowls, as well as from South Africa. South Africa is a new geographic record for D. macrostomum, G. congolense and D. nana. Subulura suctoria, G. congolense and H. truncata from the Crested guineafowl constitute new host-parasite associations.
The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…
Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian
The regional geology and geochronological and chemical characteristics of Maracau-CE, in Brazil, subvolcanic province are described. The Brazilian ages of implantation and regional geology are discussed together with the chemical constitution of various lithologic types: the origin and correlation with other subvolcanic provinces in Ceara State are considered. (Author)
A uraninite-bearing pegmatite of large dimensions in the Gascoyne Province is described. The pegmatite is compared with the Rossing uranium ore body of South West Africa and the two are shown to have common characteristics. Exploration recommendations for Rossing-type uranium mineralization in the Gascoyne Province are made
We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province. PMID:24274664
Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Albuali, Waleed H; Bertram, Stephanie; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M; Yousef, Abdullah A; Al-Nafaie, Awatif N; Al-Ali, Amein K; Obeid, Obeid E; Alkharsah, Khaled R; Pöhlmann, Stefan
Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…
Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.
The paper reports the investigation results of natural radioactivity level in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, wells and tap water in Sichuan Province. There totally 602 samples collected from 391 measuring points. The results show that the radioactivity level of varied water bodies of the province is within normal natural background
This research product responds to a specific request for data on conditions in the Philippine provinces of Quezon (Luzon) and Agusan del Sur (Mindanao) on the eve of the NPA insurgency and on the growth of the insurgent movement itself in the two province...
P. Blood R. Ross
The Province of North Holland, the Netherlands, commissioned an outlook on the opportunities for geothermal energy in North Holland. The outlook addresses both the opportunities offered underground and possible locations for heat sales that follow from the regional plans of the province.
BACKGROUND Celiac disease presents with a wide spectrum of symptoms. This study clarifies different aspects of celiac disease along with the most common patterns of celiac presentation in Khuzestan Province, Iran. METHODS Patients' information was obtained by evaluation of their files from the archives of the Khuzestan Celiac Society and records at gastroenterologists' offices in this province. RESULTS Overall, there were 103 (40 males, 63 females) patients included in this study. Patients' mean ages were 33 ± 11 years (males) and 31.6 ± 11.7 years (females). In terms of geographic distribution, 54.1% resided in the center of the province followed by 26.5% who were residents of the northern area. The rate of employment among men was 70.6% whereas it was 8.3% for women. In terms of education, 21.9% of men and 33.3% of women had academic educations. The rate of matrimony was 80.6% (n=29) for men, 65.4% (n=38) for women and 3.4% (n=2) who were divorced. Mean height was 164 ± 14 cm in men and 157.5 ± 10 cm in women. Mean BMI at the time of presentation was 22.7 in men and 22.6 in women. The most common gastrointestinal (GI) complaints in male patients were diarrhea (35%), reflux (20%), bloating (17.5%), abdominal pain (15%), vomiting (15%) and constipation (7.5%). Female patients experienced diarrhea (49.2%), abdominal pain (31.7%), bloating (31.7%), vomiting (19%), constipation(9.5%) and reflux (7.9%). The most common concomitant non-GI disorders among male patients were anemia (17.1%), thyroid disease (14.3%), and weight loss (14.3%); women experienced anemia (33.9%), thyroid disease (12.5%), and weight loss (7.1%). Approximately half of the patients exhibited symptoms for more than five years prior to diagnosis and 90% were diagnosed by gastroenterologists. Of these, 43% had normal endoscopy results. The most common serologic markers were anti-TTG (69.9%), anti-EMA (27.7%). CONCLUSION Physicians, prior to attributing patients' symptoms to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), should be aware that patients who present with long-term nonspecific symptoms might possibly have celiac disease. During endoscopy, the threshold for obtaining biopsies should be low. PMID:24872869
Alavinejad, Pezhman; Hajiani, Eskandar; Masjedizadeh, Rahim; Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Faramarzi, Mohammad; Sebghatollahi, Vahid; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Kadkhodae, Ahmad; Jasemi Zergani, Farzad; Asghari, Shahnaz; Farsi, Farnaz
BACKGROUND Celiac disease presents with a wide spectrum of symptoms. This study clarifies different aspects of celiac disease along with the most common patterns of celiac presentation in Khuzestan Province, Iran. METHODS Patients’ information was obtained by evaluation of their files from the archives of the Khuzestan Celiac Society and records at gastroenterologists’ offices in this province. RESULTS Overall, there were 103 (40 males, 63 females) patients included in this study. Patients’ mean ages were 33 ± 11 years (males) and 31.6 ± 11.7 years (females). In terms of geographic distribution, 54.1% resided in the center of the province followed by 26.5% who were residents of the northern area. The rate of employment among men was 70.6% whereas it was 8.3% for women. In terms of education, 21.9% of men and 33.3% of women had academic educations. The rate of matrimony was 80.6% (n=29) for men, 65.4% (n=38) for women and 3.4% (n=2) who were divorced. Mean height was 164 ± 14 cm in men and 157.5 ± 10 cm in women. Mean BMI at the time of presentation was 22.7 in men and 22.6 in women. The most common gastrointestinal (GI) complaints in male patients were diarrhea (35%), reflux (20%), bloating (17.5%), abdominal pain (15%), vomiting (15%) and constipation (7.5%). Female patients experienced diarrhea (49.2%), abdominal pain (31.7%), bloating (31.7%), vomiting (19%), constipation(9.5%) and reflux (7.9%). The most common concomitant non-GI disorders among male patients were anemia (17.1%), thyroid disease (14.3%), and weight loss (14.3%); women experienced anemia (33.9%), thyroid disease (12.5%), and weight loss (7.1%). Approximately half of the patients exhibited symptoms for more than five years prior to diagnosis and 90% were diagnosed by gastroenterologists. Of these, 43% had normal endoscopy results. The most common serologic markers were anti-TTG (69.9%), anti-EMA (27.7%). CONCLUSION Physicians, prior to attributing patients’ symptoms to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), should be aware that patients who present with long-term nonspecific symptoms might possibly have celiac disease. During endoscopy, the threshold for obtaining biopsies should be low.
Alavinejad, Pezhman; Hajiani, Eskandar; Masjedizadeh, Rahim; Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Faramarzi, Mohammad; Sebghatollahi, Vahid; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Kadkhodae, Ahmad; Jasemi Zergani, Farzad; Asghari, Shahnaz; Farsi, Farnaz
In 2003, after three pilot projects successfully implemented WHO's Health-Promoting Schools (HPS) concept, officials in Zhejiang Province, China, expanded to additional 51 schools (93,000 students and their families and 6800 school personnel). Each school identified a health issue to begin HPS development, followed by conceptual orientation, resource mobilization, teacher training, surveys, interventions, outreach and evaluation. This study focused on the extent to which participating schools implemented the HPS concept and improved their psycho-social environments (PSEs). Forty-nine of the 51 schools met China's HPS criteria. Schools with fewer resources and with substantial resources, i.e. schools in both rural and urban areas, met the criteria. Schools' PSEs, as measured by the PSE Profile, improved as they became HPS. Findings from interviews and observations identified strong encouragement and support from officials, school personnel, students, parents and community leaders, and consistency of HPS with the national policy on quality education, as success factors. PMID:18728109
Xin-Wei, Zhang; Li-Qun, Liu; Xue-Hai, Zhang; Jun-Xiang, Guo; Xue-Dong, Pan; Aldinger, Carmen; Sen-Hai, Yu; Jones, Jack
Full Text Available Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.
Continental flood basalts are usually regarded as a single tectonomagmatic entity but frequently quoted examples exhibit a variety of tectonic settings. In one well-studied, classic, flood basalt province, the Mesozoic Karoo province of southern Africa, magmatism occurred in the following tectonic settings: (a) continental rifting leading to ocean-floor spreading in the South Atlantic Ocean (Etendeka suite of Namibia); (b) stretched continental lithosphere and rifting not leading directly to ocean-floor formation (Lebombo suite of southeastern Africa); and (c) an a-tectonic, within-plate, continental setting characterized by an absence of faulting or warping (Lesotho highlands and Karoo dolerites of South Africa). By means of spidergrams of the elements Rb, Ba, Th, Nb, K, La, Ce, Sr, Nd, P, Hf, Zr, Sm, Ti, Tb, Y, V, Ni and Cr, uncontaminated tholeiites from (c) above [i.e. the Lesotho-type continental flood basalts (LTCFB)] are compared with mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), ocean-island tholeiites (OIT), and tholeiites and calc-alkali basalts from subduction environments. The comparison reveals the LTCFBs are geochemically distinct. The differences are reflected in relative enrichments or depletions of the more incompatible elements (Rb-Ce) to less incompatible elements (Ce-Y), i.e. the overall slope of the spidergrams, and in anomalous enrichments or depletions of one or more of the elements Th, K, Nb, Sr, Ti, Hf, and Zr. The distinctive geochemical character of the Lesotho LTCFBs is interpreted in terms of a lithospheric mantle source for the basalts. This is supported by isotopic data. There are no major geochemical differences between Lesotho CFBs and basalts of the rift-related Etendeka and Lebombo suites, although the latter are somewhat enriched in Rb, Ba and K. However, unlike the Lesotho basalts, the Lebombo and Etendeka basalts are associated with voluminous silicic volcanics or intrusive centres and late-stage dolerites having MORB/OIT (i.e. asthenospheric) geochemical characteristics. The flood basalt/silicic magmatism/late-stage dyke swarm association is characteristic of several rift or thinned lithosphere environments (e.g., Ethiopia, Skye, eastern Greenland) but in many of these the flood basalts have ocean-island basalt (OIT) geochemical characteristics. The Lesotho-type CFB geochemistry is exhibited by the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia River Group (a possible subduction-related flood basalt province) and the basic rocks associated with Mesozoic rifting in the North and South Atlantic. Basalt geochemistry alone is unhelpful in determining the tectonic setting of CFBs although the rift-related environments may be identified by the petrology and geochemistry of the whole igneous suite. A two-source model is proposed for the mantle-derived basic rocks in rift-related CFB provinces. Early enriched basalts are derived from the lithosphere and, following pronounced lithospheric attenuation or rifting, later MORB-like melts are emplaced from the rising asthenosphere. The presence of both Lesotho- and OIT-type geochemical patterns in rift-related CFBs suggests that the lithosphere exhibits different styles of enrichment.
Marsh, Julian S.
The authors reported the methods and results of investigation of natural radionuclides in soil in Sichuan Province. The collecting points of soil are same as the measuring points of ? radiation dose rate of environmental ground. 370 soil samples were collected and analysed by ?-spectrometry, of which 352 points were sited in uniformly distributed networks. The results show that the area-weighted mean of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was 34.8, 36.2, 52.1 and 578.2 Bq · kg-1, respectively. The sample-weighted mean of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and 34.7, 35.4, 51.0 and 571.2 Bq · kg-1, respectively
In order to understand the increasing incidence rate of Brucellosis, the relationship between the epidemic trend and physical conditions of humans, data regarding Brucellosis in Liaoning province, in 1990-1996 was analysed. Results showed that the major cause which led to the Brucellosis recurrence was the importation of sheep named short-tail cold-resistant. The distribution of disease was widely spread. However, most endemic foci were being expanded. The spots in Tieling and Fushun area were merged and became one endemic area. Brucellosis maily involved in the farmer's family that raise sheep while pregnancy make women at reprodactive age susceptible to the disease. The incidence rate in city and rural areas were significantly different despite that they had the same environment that bacteria-carrier sheep were raised. PMID:10322712
Sun, G; Zhao, H; Wang, Z
Full Text Available The success of planted Acer velutinum investigated in western Guilan Province in Iran. This region was reforested in 1985. The study was carried out in the autumn of 2003 with using the full callipering method. The goal of this study is to review the maple plantation, in order to present a new background that is useful for an ecological evaluation of the maple plantations in Iranian forests. Some quantity and quality factors about bole and crown were evaluated. The resistance of maple to difficult conditions such as irregular cutting and its resistance to light (full sun light in clear place, some trees can tolerant to full sun light and fire make this species very important for plantation (wood farming. This study showed that, after a period of 21 years, maple is suitable for plantations on the Caspian Sea flat area and the slopes of the Alborz Mountains and can financially compete with other endemic and exotic species.
Kambiz Taheri Abkenar
Full Text Available Sport is an important tool to draw the national attention. Sport is a big assembly to make identity. Also, sport is a cause for identity and unity. The purpose of this study is to identify the cultural opportunity of sport in the province of Mazandaran in Iran. The research method was mixed. Sequential exploratory mixed method of the first method is qualitative and quantitative methods. The study included all the Mazandaran managers, coaches, experts, judges and athletes at the national level. The results show that directors, judges and experts believe that people's happiness and euphoria in winning the sports events is the most sport important cultural opportunity in Mazandaran (All kinds of sport were included. A lot of money is spent on TV programs and movies to fill the people's free time.
Full Text Available Herein is presented a list of the reptiles and anurans from the Parc National des Volcans (PNV(01°43’ S, 29°52’ W, an area in the west and north provinces of the Republic of Rwanda in the Albertine Riftregion of Africa. Fieldwork was conducted between two and six days per week from June through August2007 and 2008. We also conducted literature searches of all historical expeditions within the park for speciesrecords. Seventeen species of reptiles and anurans are recorded from the PNV. Nine of the species were anurans,distributed in five families: Arthroleptidae (3, Bufonidae (1, Hyperoliidae (3, Phrynobatrachidae (1, andPipidae (1. Eight species of reptiles were recorded from five families: Chamaeleonidae (1, Lacertidae (2,Scincidae (2, Colubridae (2, and Viperidae (1. Eight of the seventeen species found in the PNV are endemicto the Albertine Rift.
Roelke, C. E.
Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate methane emissions from the mangrove area of Ranong Province andto explore the factors affecting the emissions, as part of an attempt to evaluate methane contribution to the global methane budget. Methane was measured by using a closed chamber technique and analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID. The results showed that the annual estimated methane emission was released at approximately 157.32 mg/m2. The amount of methane emission from this mangrove area was lower than in other previously studied areas. Emission rates varied seasonally with the highest rate in the rainy season followed by summer and cold seasons, during which the values were 0.52, 0.27, and 0.19 mg/m2/day, respectively. Seasonal variations of methane emission was related to several factors depending upon field conditions such as water conductivity, soil temperature, and water level.
Despite China's one-child family planning policy, the nation experienced a slight rise in the birth rate in the mid-1980s. Many observers attributed this rise to the heightened fertility of those rural-to-urban migrants who moved without a change in registration (temporary migrants), presumably to avoid the surveillance of family planning programs at origin and destination. Using a sequential logit analysis with life-history data from a 1988 survey of Hubei Province, we test this possibility by comparing nonmigrants, permanent migrants, and temporary migrants. While changing family planning policies have a strong impact on timing of first birth and on the likelihood of higher-order births, migrants generally do not have more children than nonmigrants. In fact, migration tends to lower the propensity to have a child. More specifically, the fertility of temporary migrants does not differ significantly from that of other women. PMID:9545626
Goldstein, A; White, M; Goldstein, S
Full Text Available Variation in ecosystem services value across land-use scenarios in Fuxin City of Liaoning Province were explored in the study. Two-period land use survey data (1996 and 2010 were used to estimate changes in the size of seven land use categories and the most recently published value equivalent was used to estimate changes in the values of ecosystem services. The total value of ecosystem services in Fuxin City was 17674.75 million Yuan in 1996 and 19077.59 million Yuan in 2010, with an increase of 1402.84 million Yuan mainly due to the inclining areas of forestland and grass land, which indicated the eco-environment in Fuxin City has been becoming better and better. However, agricultural land including farmland and orchard showed the tendency of decrease, which indicated food security has been facing with challenge in Fuxin City.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the mechanism of Co participation between different levels of government in Argentina and seeks, as its central objective, to give an explanation of the failure to find a way to reform the current system since 1988, despite the many project laws presented in the context of the House of Representatives of Misiones. First, one traces the origin of co participation in Misiones and any alterations up to the current scheme was established in 1998. Secondly, a brief analysis of population trends of Misiones to try to show that it is necessary to reform the mechanism for allocating resources for municipalities to later look into the various proposals for reform that took place in the House of Representatives of Misiones, so that finally and as a conclusion and outline brief hypotheses to explain the difficulties to find consensus even with province consensus to achieve change.
José, Garzón Maceda
Full Text Available On the basis of some theories, this paper empirically analyzes on factors that influence the agricultural innovative ability in Sichuan Province by selecting six indices. They are the number of technological person, the financial input of agricultural science and technology, the level of local economic development, the agricultural policy, the number of technologic leaders, and the number of agricultural research institutions. Then I propose some relevant comments. The results indicate that the agricultural policy and the number of technologic leaders strongly influence promoting the innovative capability of agriculture. However, the financial input of agricultural science and technology, the level of local economic development, and the number of agricultural research institutions weakly impact on enhancing the agricultural innovative ability.
Jian Qiang Li
Anopheles minimus Theobald is one of the major vectors of malaria throughout the Oriental Region, and it's complex consists of at least 2 sibling species (A and C) in Thailand. This study aimed to determine the morphological variations of wings of An. minimus A and to clarify the specific status of An. minimus in Ban Khun Huay, Ban Pa Dae, and Ban Tham Seau, Mae Sot district, Tak Province, Thailand. Anopheline larvae were collected from the fields between October 2002 and September 2003, allowed to emerge into adults in the laboratory and identified by morphological and molecular characterization. About 1,715 of female An. minimus A were separated into 8 groups based on their wing scale patterns. Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay (ribosomal DNA ITS2) confirmed the identification of An. minimus A in all 8 groups. PMID:16124426
Jaichapor, Boonsong; Kengluecha, Ampornpan; Rongnoparut, Pornpimol; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Jones, James W; Sithiprasasna, Ratana
This article discussed the role that the federal government should play in introducing a carbon price policy in Canada whereby a carbon tax would be instituted to send a price signal to those considering future investment in carbon-intensive energy projects. It focused on bridging the gap between federal and provincial jurisdictions and assessed how various carbon pricing models can play a role in environmental federalism while allowing provinces to remain involved in policy making. Policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems were discussed along with carbon import tariffs and domestic carbon taxes. In a market-based policy on climate change, proceeds of carbon taxes will serve to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article also reviewed tax incentives as well as price signal systems designed to ensure successful climate change adjustments for Canadian enterprises. 1 fig
This article discussed the role that the federal government should play in introducing a carbon price policy in Canada whereby a carbon tax would be instituted to send a price signal to those considering future investment in carbon-intensive energy projects. It focused on bridging the gap between federal and provincial jurisdictions and assessed how various carbon pricing models can play a role in environmental federalism while allowing provinces to remain involved in policy making. Policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems were discussed along with carbon import tariffs and domestic carbon taxes. In a market-based policy on climate change, proceeds of carbon taxes will serve to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article also reviewed tax incentives as well as price signal systems designed to ensure successful climate change adjustments for Canadian enterprises. 1 fig.
Courchene, T.J.; Allan, J.R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Inst. of Intergovernmental Relations
Childhood burn injuries are a major environmental agent responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the epidemiology and current causative factors of hospitalized burn injuries among the approximately 1.6 million children between the ages of birth through 15 years residing in the Fars province of Iran. These data will be used as a basis for developing a targeted preventive program to protect children from burns. Epidemiologic data for 760 children, aged 0 to 15 years, admitted to the two burn centers of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, over a 4-year period, 1994 to 1998, were collected and analyzed. The overall hospitalization rate was 11.8 per 100,000 person-years (PY). The sex ratio (boys/girls) was 1.38. About 60% were children aged 7 years or younger. Children aged 2 years had the highest burn incidence rate (36.9/100,000 PY). A total of 77.4% of the children had body surface area burns less than 40%. Scalds accounted for 46.2% of the burns, whereas 42.9% were caused by flame. Most of the burn injuries occurred at home (93%). There were 31 burns from suicide attempts among children aged 11 to 15 years (1.4/100,000 PY), showing a major public health problem for these children in our society. During the period of the study, 131 children died of the consequences of burns (2/100,000 PY). The epidemiology of childhood burn injuries in the Fars province is similar to that reported in other economically developing countries. It is suggested that a public health education campaign on this issue would help to reduce the incidence of childhood burn injuries in this region. PMID:11803311
Lari, Abdolaziz Rastegar; Panjeshahin, Mohammad-Reza; Talei, Ali-Reza; Rossignol, Annette MacKay; Alaghehbandan, Reza
Two major regions of India, the Peninsular Indian Shield and the Himalayan Orogen, host a variety of uranium deposits and occurrences. The uranium provinces identified in the Indian Shield include four contiguous regions. The most predominant uranium mineralizations are of the hydrothermal disseminated and vein types, the quartz-pebble conglomerate type and the sandstone type. Uranium also occurs in association with phosphorites and black shales in the Himalayan region and parts of the Indian Shield. Some of the hydrothermal deposits have peneconcordant gradational stratabound characteristics suggestive of an initial syngenetic character and subsequent remobilization into zones of major tectonic and later magmatic activity. Many of the provinces are intimately associated with polymetallic mineralization, especially copper, nickel and molybdenum, as exemplified by the Singhbhum uranium-copper belt of eastern India. A broad time-bound character can be assigned to the mineralizations. Early quartz-pebble conglomerate mineralization during the period 2600 to 2900 million years (Ma) is followed by subsequent hydrothermal shear controlled mineralization in the time ranges 1600 to 1400 and 1200 to 700 Ma. In the Phanerozoic, uranium has been recycled into sedimentary basins from the earlier belts of Precambrian mineralization. This has resulted in sediments highly enriched in uranium in the Permo-Carboniferous, Cretaceous and Mio-Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary sequences. The geological knowledge gained by exploration efforts in the Indian subcontinent, with regard to the uranium potential in specific tectonic and lithostratigraphic horizons, has relevance in identifying favourable target areas in the adjoining countries of South-East Asia. 57 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs
Full Text Available The Thracian coal province in Bulgaria is comprised of three main coal basins, Maritza East, Maritza West and Elhovo, with extremely immature coals (Rr = 0.18-0.21%. These Miocene-Pliocene aged low rank coals (lignites are characterized by high ash and sulphur contents, and low calorific values. Temperature programmed reduction/oxidation at atmospheric pressure (AP-TPR/TPO, coupled with on-line mass spectrometer (AP-TPR/TPO-MS and with an off-line gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS, were applied to the qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of sulphur functionalities in representative samples from each basin of the coal province. Carbonates and mineral sulphur were removed by preliminary treatment with diluted acids at mild conditions to prevent effects on the TPR kinetograms. This treatment mainly removed the mineral sulphur, and its effects on organic sulphur were insignificant. Most of the organic sulphur in the Thracian lignites occurs in thiophenic structures (~ 60%. The TPR-MS profiles showed the presence of alkyl and aryl thiols, dialkyl and aryl-alkyl sulphides and thiophenes. The main organic sulphur compounds registered by the off-line AP-TPR-GC-MS were highly volatile compounds (thiols, sulphides, disulphides, alkylated thiophenes, and a lesser proportion of benzothiophenes. The disulphides (-SS- are relatively abundant in the Maritza East and Elhovo lignites. They are probably the main aliphatic sulphur species in the coal's organic matter. Aliphatic chains with sulphur bridges are also principal structural functionalities in the Maritza West organic matter. Aromatic compounds with two aromatic rings and high degrees of substitution could be key organic structures in the studied lignites.
Marinov S P
Past global marine mass extinction events are often linked to terrestrial Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism, but exact mechanisms driving extinction are often not well constrained. We studied two of Earthâ??s largest mass extinction events, at the Triassic-Jurassic (~201.4 Ma) and Permian-Triassic (~252 Ma) boundaries, which coincide with Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) and Siberian Trap volcanism, respectively. The Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction is often contributed to carbon release driven ocean acidification while the Permian-Triassic mass extinction is suggested to be related to widespread ocean anoxia. We compare Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic ocean redox change along continental margins in different geographic regions (Permian-Triassic: Greenland, Svalbard, Iran; Triassic-Jurassic: UK, Austria) and discuss its role in marine mass extinction. Speciation of iron [(FeHR/ FeT) and (FePY/ FeHR)] and redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo, V etc.) show that the Triassic-Jurassic marine mass extinction directly coincides with a rapid shift to anoxic and euxinic conditions at the onset of CAMP volcanism and increased atmospheric pCO2. Biotic recovery after the extinction event only commences when redox-conditions return from a euxinic to a ferruginous state and stabilization of marine ecosystems only commences after decreasing atmospheric pCO2 and a return to more oxic marine conditions. Iron-speciation at both the Triassic-Jurassic and Permian-Triassic mass extinctions however shows 2 phases of euxinia along continental margins, with an initial short peak at the onset of volcanism followed by a shift to ferruginous conditions, possibly due to a strongly diminished ocean sulphate reservoir because of massive initial pyrite burial. D34Spyrite suggests that following prolonged (several 100kyr) euxinic conditions only commence when the ocean sulphate reservoir is replenished by the release of sulphur from volcanism.
Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.
In Vietnam, soil contamination with lead and cadmium at very high level was investigated anddiscovered in the surrounding areas of zinc-lead mining and processing factory in Tan Long (Dong Hy district, Thai Nguyen province) and around the lead-recycling smelter in Chi Dao (Van Lam district, Hung Yen province). The survey on soil contaminated by arsenic due to the tin mining and sifting activities in Ha Thuong (Dai Tu district, Thai Nguyen province) was also carried out. In Tan Long, the conc...
Chu, Thi Thu Ha
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine comparative ranking of agricultural development in different provinces of Iran using taxonomy technique. The independent variables are amount of annual rainfall amount, the number of permanent rivers, the width of pastures and forest, cultivated level of agricultural harvests and garden harvests, number of beehives, the number of fish farming ranches, the number of tractors and combines, the number of cooperative production societies, the number of industrial cattle breeding and aviculture. The results indicate that the maximum development coefficient value is associated with Razavi Khorasan province followed by Mazandaran, East Azarbayjan while the minimum ranking value belongs to Bushehr province.
Full Text Available Ten species of scorpions belonging to three families are reported from the montane Chahar Mahal & Bakhtiyari Province of Iran. Of these, only Razianus zarudnyi (Birula, 1903 was formerly reported for this province, while nine species are reported for the first time: Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807, Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905, Hottentotta saulcyi (Simon, 1880, Hottentotta zagrosensis Kova?ík, 1997, Mesobuthus eupeus phillipsii (Pocock, 1889, Odontobuthus doriae (Thorell, 1876, Orthochirus zagrosensis Kova?ík, 2004, Hemi- scorpius lepturus Peters, 1861, and Scorpio maurus townsendi (Pocock, 1900. Also presented is a key to all species of scorpions found in the Chahar Mahal & Bakhtiyari Province.
The May 2003 plinian eruption of Anatahan was a surprise for the residents of the Northern Mariana Mariana Comonwealth (USA). From a petrologic perspective, this eruption of siliceous andesite was also atypical for the Mariana arc, which elsewhere mostly erupts fractionated basalts and basaltic andesites. However, felsic eruptions are not unusual for Anatahan which has previously erupted a wide range of lavas, from basalts through dacites. The reasons and significance of the intermittently felsic nature of Anatahan lavas may reflect either development of a mature magma chamber localized beneath Anatahan or perhaps the presence of an areally-extensive pool of felsic magma in the middle crust, similar to that inferred for the Izu arc to the north. Anatahan lies at the southern end of the Mariana Central Island Province and just north of the Southern Seamount Province, but it has never been clear whether these morphological subdivisions reflect different magma fluxes along the arc or are due to the island volcanoes being older than the seamounts. Synthesis of existing data for Anatahan and data for surrounding seamounts collected during the 2001 Cook 7 expedition and earlier cruises indicates that Anatahan is situated near the middle of an arc segment with an unusually high proportion of felsic lavas compared to typical Mariana Arc magmatic products. The 115 km-long arc segment from E. Diamante seamount East Diamante seamount (15° 55'N) to a seamount NW of Zealandia Bank (17° N) define the Anatahan Felsic Province (AFP). Seven edifices within this region, including Anatahan, have erupted felsic lavas, often interspersed with more mafic lavas. Volcano size does not seem important in controlling the abundance of felsic lavas within the AFP; the volcanic island of Sarigan does not contain felsic lavas, whereas small parasitic cones NE of Anatahan and SW of E. Diamante erupt lavas with 65% and 72% SiO2, respectively. This region also contains two suspected hydrothermal vents, as identified by a 2003 NOAA cruise (see Embley et al. T05 IBM arc session). AFP lavas define a consistently medium-K, calc-alkaline suite. There are no large, well-defined calderas as have been mapped in the Izu arc segment to the north. The clearest calderas in the AFP are those of Anatahan and E. Diamante volcanoes, both of which have similar, E-W elongated, craters. The abundance of felsic lavas associated with complex bathymetry west of Sarigan and Zealandia Bank may manifest a large caldera complex that has been overprinted by post-collapse volcanism; more field work will be needed to test this hypothesis. The abundance of felsic lavas in the AFP is difficult to explain by the development of magmatic reservoirs that allow fractionation beneath individual volcanoes. The regional nature of felsic magmas in the AFP supports explanations that call for these to be developed in a broad zone within the middle crust of the region, similar to that envisioned for the Izu arc segment. It would be useful to know if the unusually high abundance of felsic lavas in this region is associated with a mid-crustal layer with seismic velocities characteristic of tonalitic plutonic rocks, as has been found for the Izu arc to the north.
Stern, R. J.; Hargrove, U. S.
Deformation rates determined for the Basin and Range province using geodetic data agree within uncertainties with scalar moment rate estimates from a 146-year earthquake catalog. This agreement suggests that the rate of historic earthquakes within the province provides a reasonable estimate for the long-term rate of seismicity. Geological estimates of deformation rates are lower than that of geodesy or seismicity due to limited data. We focus on a particular, small region for more detailed analysis of ground motion prediction and amplification. The Reno-Sparks urban region (population ˜400,000) is located in a fault-controlled basin that is about 13 km wide and 21 km long. Despite the small basin size and depth, local basin effects are significant. Both data and synthetic modeling show that the 3D basin structure strongly influences ground motion within the basin. Site characteristics are assessed at twenty-one seismic stations in the region. Shallow shear wave velocities are measured using the refraction microtremor (ReMi) technique (Louie, 2001). Average velocities to depths of 30 m and 100 m are compared with local geological and soil classifications. Generalized geological classifications show some variations in unit averages of the measured velocities, variations between units are much smaller than the standard deviations of velocities within units having multiple measurements. Predictions of site velocities based on soil weight percent of gravel, sand, silt, and clay fall within +/-20% of measured values for all but two of the 21 sites. Ground motions from local earthquakes are used to ascertain empirical site amplification effects within the basin relative to a nearby rock site using the soil to rock spectral ratio technique. Most site response functions within the basin are mainly flat, but do show relative amplification. Some sites do show resonant peaks. These empirical site effects are compared with site conditions evaluated using average shallow shear wave velocities and local geological classifications. While the geology rock group has a lower mean amplification, the separation with those of the sedimentary groups not large. The Vs30 groups have distinct means that are well separated, indicating that velocity is a useful predictor of amplification.
Background The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Methods Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO), pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO), revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in the area, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles kochi and Anopheles sundaicus. Conclusion The cross sectional surveys in three different sub-districts of Nias District clearly demonstrated the presence of relatively stable endemic foci of malaria in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia. Molecular analysis of the malaria parasite isolates collected from this area strongly indicates resistance to chloroquine and a growing threat of resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. This situation highlights the need to develop sustainable malaria control measures through regular surveillance and proper antimalarial drug deployment.
Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji BS; Wahid, Isra; Dewi, Rita M; Tuti, Sekar; Laowo, Idaman; Hulu, Waozidohu; Zendrato, Pardamean; Laihad, Ferdinand; Shankar, Anuraj H
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Methods Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO, pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO, revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in the area, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles kochi and Anopheles sundaicus. Conclusion The cross sectional surveys in three different sub-districts of Nias District clearly demonstrated the presence of relatively stable endemic foci of malaria in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia. Molecular analysis of the malaria parasite isolates collected from this area strongly indicates resistance to chloroquine and a growing threat of resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. This situation highlights the need to develop sustainable malaria control measures through regular surveillance and proper antimalarial drug deployment.
This paper describes Defence Research and Development Canada Centre for Security Science's (DRDC CSS) operations research (OR) support for critical infrastructure (CI) resilience in the Province of British Columbia (BC). DRDC has been providing scientific...
The regional geology and geochronological and chemical characteristics of Maracau-CE, in Brazil, subvolcanic province are described. The Brazilian ages of implantation and regional geology are discussed together with the chemical constitution of various l...
J. R. F. Torquato L. H. Pedreira V. M. M. Cavalcanti
The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.
U.S. Geological Survey
...that country as being free of Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly...for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Argentina. We solicited...the pest-free status for Ceratitis capitata, the Mendoza province of...
This abstract reports on the ongoing efforts to catalog small volcanic vents in the Tharsis province of Mars, and the scientific implications of these observations for South Tharsis, Olympus Mons, and Syria Planum.
Bleacher, J. E.; Richardson, J. A.; Richardson, P. W.; Glaze, L. S.; Baloga, S. M.; Greeley, R.; Hauber, E.; Lillis, R. J.
The studied area—Kermejegan—is located in the south of Qom Province, Iran. In this paper, geology map, ASTER and ETM7+ satellite images were used and after processing these images with Geomatica and ENVI softwares, iron potential zo...
Faranak Feizi; Edris Mansouri
Full Text Available The article, basing on historiographic and archival materials considers the history of establishment, activities and liquidation of peasant militia of Black Sea Province Liberation Committee – ‘third force’ army in Civil War.
Alexander A. Cherkasov
Benthic invertebrate indices have commonly been utilized to assess benthic invertebrate communities. These indices have been constructed using different techniques, but have shown different levels of application success. For example, the EMAP Virginian Province Index did not pe...
This volume contains, besides the present review, seven papers on the biostratigraphy of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Blue Mountains province. Geologic implications of the faunal data are discussed in the context of terrane analyses. Most of the authors agree that the pre-Tertiary rocks of this province were formed in a complex island arc within a low-latitude faunal realm and subsequently moved northward and accreted to the North American continent. The use of different terrane names for parts of the Blue Mountains province by different authors may lead to some confusion. We suggest that future authors use the term "Blue Mountains island arc" for the pre-Tertiary province and, if there is a need for subdivision, that they use the terrane names proposed by Silberling and others (1984).
edited by Vallier, Tracy L.; Brooks, Howard C.
The technical University UTU of Uruguay requested and Hidrogeologic study with the aim to analyze the factibility to discover underground stream waters which supply groundwaters into agro school Ing Agr. Alcides E Pintos Melo, Cerro Largo province.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal program. Geologically, the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular-shaped cratonic block bounded by the northeast-southwest trending Ural Mountains and the northwest-southeast trending Timan Ridge. The northern boundary is shared with the South Barents Sea Province (fig.1). The Timan-Pechora Basin Province has a long history of oil and gas exploration and production. The first field was discovered in 1930 and, after 75 years of exploration, more than 230 fields have been discovered and more than 5,400 wells have been drilled. This has resulted in the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas.
Schenk, C. J.; Bird, K. J.; Charpentier, R. R.; Gautier, D. L.; Houseknecht, D. W.; Klett, T. R.; Moore, T.; Pawlewicz, M. J.; Pittman, J.; Tennyson, M. E.
Groundwater flow in the Piedmont Province occurs within local fractured crystalline bedrock aquifers mantled by a porous regolith, comprised predominantly of saprolite. Annual tritium concentration variation was studied within baseflow of the Upper Ocmulgee basin (Georgia) during the 1991 water year in order to better constrain the residence time of groundwater within the regolith--the principal storage reservoir for groundwater within the Piedmont region. Baseflow tritium concentration typically varied between 20--30 tritium units (T.U.); approximately twice that of weighted-annual precipitation during the period of study and for the past two decades. Similar annual trends were observed within three water-sheds which varied between 6.5 and 350 sq. km. Tritium concentrations were highest at the beginning of the water year (24--31 T.U.) and were diluted by 17--22% during the fall, coincident with only a minor amount of rainfall. Above-normal rainfall during the late spring and summer did not result in an appreciable input of new water. A statistical treatment of the data indicates that the mean residence time of baseflow (and assumably deeper groundwater) is approximately 15--35 years. Furthermore, these waters are likely comprised of a large standard distribution of ages. This mixing is likely the result of considerable attenuation within the clay-rich saprolite during a recharge. The significant difference between tritium concentrations within baseflow and present rainfall suggests that this isotope can be used to address many hydrological problems
This article focuses on the processes of flood management and the experiences of flood victims in Chainat Province, central Thailand, so as to develop knowledge about the future handling of such disasters. A phenomenological qualitative approach was used to describe the processes of providing assistance to flood victims. In-depth interviews and observation were used to collect the data. Criterion sampling was used to select 23 participants. Content analysis of the data revealed that some flood victims could predict flooding based on prior experiences, so they prepared themselves. The data revealed six themes that demonstrated that those who could not predict how floods would impact on them were unprepared and suffered losses and disruption to their daily life. Damaged routes meant people could not go to work, resulting in the loss of income. There was a lack of sanitary appliances and clean drinking water, people were sick, and experienced stress. At the community level, people helped one another, making sandbags and building walls as a defense against water. They formed support groups to enable the processing of stressful experiences. However, later, the water became stagnant and contaminated, creating an offensive smell. The government provided assistance to cut off electricity services, food and water, toilets and health services, and water drainage. In the recovery phase, the victims needed money for investment, employment opportunities, books for children, extra time to pay off loans, reconnection of electricity, surveys of damage, and pensions to deal with damage and recovery. PMID:20487318
Wisitwong, Anchaleeporn; McMillan, Margaret
Full text: Fasciolosis, parasitic disease caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, affects many mammals, particularly ruminants, and is now considered an important zoonotic disease. In Mendoza province, the data from the local slaughterhouses and observations made by veterinarians indicated that fasciolosis could be an important disease in cattle with 5,7% (1) liver condemnation registered which is well over the national average that oscillates yearly around 1%. Thus, even though fasciolosis seemed to be an important disease for livestock, the epidemiological information was lacking. Since the recent identification of the most efficient vector of fasciolosis in Mendoza, the introduced lymnaeid snail Galba truncatula (2), the epidemiological situation of fasciolosis needs to be addressed. Our objective was to gain insight in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Mendoza province. Mendoza province is in the west of Argentina. To the east is a plains region and at the west are the Andes Mountains. The rivers run from the mountains in the west towards the east traversed by valleys were livestock is managed extensively and trashumance is a common practice To investigate the distribution of the lymnaeid snails, samples where recovered following an altitudinal gradient, from the plains region at 600 m.a.s.l. up to above 3000 m.a.s.l. In each sampling point, by means of a GPS, altitude, longitude and latitude was registered, water pH, conductivity and hardness evaluated, and the environmental characteristics of the site recorded. To investigate the possible reservoirs fasciolosis coprological studies were performed (Lumbreras rapid sedimentation and Formo-ether sedimentation) and liver inspection at the slaughterhouse was recorded. Lymnaeid snails where found in 27 sites, belonging to all of the river basins of Mendoza. The range of altitude was from 649 masl to 2971 masl, (?1674). They were found in small streams with slow current in 18 sites (66,7%) small irrigation channels in 6 sites (22,2%) and ponds with still water in 3 sites (11,1%). In 24 sites (88,8%) the snails where constantly exposed to direct sunlight since there was no high vegetation or banks surrounding the water body, 23(85,2%)of the sites were in a rural setting and 4 (14,8%) of them where urban areas. In all the rural sites, livestock was to be found near the snail populations. The conductivity of the waters where the lymaneid snails were presented ranged from 121-2830 m? (? 675), ph ranged from 5,95-7,4 (? 6,91) and hardness 48- 1210 ppm (?288,7) Cattle, sheep, goats, horses mules, donkeys and llamas where positive for fasciolosis. Out of 705 coprological studies performed, 186 (26.38%) where positive. The highest prevalence where in goats, out of 434 animals tested, 139 (32%) where positive. In equines, out of 114 tested, 29 (25%) where positive. All the positive animals where from altitudes of over 900 m.a.s.l. and no positive animals where found in the plains region. At the provincial abattoir, out of 754 cattle raised in Mendoza, 258 (34%) where positive for fasciolosis. All the positive animals came from the Andean valleys. At the local abattoir, which only butchered cattle from Tupungato region, principally Andean valleys, out of 653 animals inspected, 441 (67,5%) had fasciolosis. In Mendoza province, the prevalence in livestock is amongst the highest in Argentina, superior to what could have been initially concluded from the national abattoir statistics. Even though livestock is found from the plains regions up to the mountain valleys, fascioliosis affects almost exclusively animals from the mountainous regions where the highest prevalence are to be found, being a very rare and almost unknown disease in the lowlands. This correlates almost perfectly with the lymnaied distribution that we found. The altitudinal range of the snail populations, which can be found at very high altitudes, speak of the great adaptability that it has to extreme environmental conditions. It also colonized many man made irrigation channels, and even though it is usually fo
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the parasite remains present in rodent coprolites collected from the archaeological site Alero Destacamento Guardaparque (ADG located in the Perito Moreno National Park (Santa Cruz Province, 47º57'S 72º05'W. Forty-eight coprolites were obtained from the layers 7, 6 and 5 of ADG, dated at 6,700 ± 70, 4,900 ± 70 and 3,440 ± 70 years BP, respectively. The faecal samples were processed and examined using paleoparasitological procedures. A total of 582 eggs of parasites were found in 47 coprolites. Samples were positive for eggs of Trichuris sp. (Nematoda: Trichuridae, Calodium sp., Eucoleus sp., Echinocoleus sp. and an unidentified capillariid (Nematoda: Capillariidae and for eggs of Monoecocestus (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae. Quantitative differences among layer for both coprolites and parasites were recorded. In this study, the specific filiations of parasites, their zoonotic importance, the rodent identity, on the basis of previous zooarchaeological knowledge, and the environmental conditions during the Holocene in the area are discussed.
Norma Haydée Sardella
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to examine the parasite remains present in rodent coprolites collected from the archaeological site Alero Destacamento Guardaparque (ADG) located in the Perito Moreno National Park (Santa Cruz Province, 47º57'S 72º05'W). Forty-eight coprolites were obtained from the layers [...] 7, 6 and 5 of ADG, dated at 6,700 ± 70, 4,900 ± 70 and 3,440 ± 70 years BP, respectively. The faecal samples were processed and examined using paleoparasitological procedures. A total of 582 eggs of parasites were found in 47 coprolites. Samples were positive for eggs of Trichuris sp. (Nematoda: Trichuridae), Calodium sp., Eucoleus sp., Echinocoleus sp. and an unidentified capillariid (Nematoda: Capillariidae) and for eggs of Monoecocestus (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae). Quantitative differences among layer for both coprolites and parasites were recorded. In this study, the specific filiations of parasites, their zoonotic importance, the rodent identity, on the basis of previous zooarchaeological knowledge, and the environmental conditions during the Holocene in the area are discussed.
Sardella, Norma Haydée; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Rindel, Diego Damián; Goñi, Rafael Agustín.
Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food. The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic ailments (39 species, followed by respiratory disorders (34, problems of the urinary tract (28, Fever/Malaria (25, Rheumatism (23 and nervous system problems (20.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50 were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and child health care practices. Results Women's access to education was low at 15% for any formal schooling; adult female literacy was Conclusions While China is on track to achieve national Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal and child health, women and children in Surmang suffer from substantial health inequities in access to antenatal, skilled birth and postpartum care. Institutional delivery, skilled attendance and cesarean delivery are virtually inaccessible, and consequently maternal and infant morbidity and mortality are likely high. Urgent action is needed to improve access to maternal, neonatal and child health care in these marginalized populations. The reconstruction after the recent earthquake provides a unique opportunity to link this population with the health system.
Fecal examinations using the Kato Katz technique were performed on a total of 1,287 villagers (945 students and 342 general inhabitants) of Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia in May 2007 and November 2009. The overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 23.9%, and the most prevalent helminth species was hookworms (21.6%). Other helminth eggs detected included echinostomes (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.8%), small trematode eggs (0.7%), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis spp., and Hymenolepis nana (0.4%). In order to recover adult echinostomes, we treated 2 patients with 10-15 mg/kg praziquantel and purged. Total 14 adult echinostomes, 1 and 13 worms from each patient, were collected. The echinostomes characteristically had 49-51 collar spines and 2 round or slightly lobated testes. They were identified as Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911. So far as literature are concerned, this is the first record on the discovery of human E. ilocanum infection in Cambodia. PMID:21738278
Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kang, A-Reum; Kim, Mok-Ryun; Park, Jung-Mi; Ji, Soo-Hyeon; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Chai, Jong-Yil
Groundwater in the central part of Argentina contains arsenic concentrations that, in most cases, exceed the value suggested by international regulations. In this region, Quaternary loessical sediments with a very high volcanic glass fraction lixiviate arsenic and fluoride after weathering. The objectives of this study are to analyze the spatial distribution of arsenic in different hydrogeological regions, to define the naturally expected concentration in an aquifer by means of hydrogeochemistry studies, and to identify emergent health evidences related to cancer mortality in the study area. The correlation between arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater is analyzed at each county in the Cordoba Province. Two dimensionless geoindicators are proposed to identify risk zones and to rapidly visualize the groundwater quality related to the presence of arsenic and fluoride. A surface-mapping system is used to identify the spatial variability of concentrations and for suggesting geoindicators. The results show that the Chaco-Pampean plain hydrogeologic region is the most affected area, with arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater being generally higher than the values suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Mortality related to kidney, lung, liver, and skin cancer in this area could be associated to the ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water. Generated maps provide a base for the assessment of the risk associated to the natural occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in the region. PMID:19165608
Francisca, Franco M; Carro Perez, Magalí E
This paper discussed the development of wind power in China where in 2004 there were 1291 wind turbines in operation with a total installed capacity of 764.37 MW. The national plan is for 9,544 MW to be installed by the end of 2015, and 2,0000 MW by 2020. A regional wind resource assessment system has been developed in order to facilitate the rapid deployment of wind power and to support decision-making processes. The system involves mesoscale numerical simulations that integrate various data sources including meteorological observations, remote sensing data, and high resolution terrain data. Based on wind resource assessment, the wind power development decision-making support system integrates information service and decision-making support which is made in response to the change of land use, transport condition and grid connection. An onshore and offshore wind resource assessment of Guangdong province in South China was also conducted based on this system. A comparison with observation data revealed that the system is capable of reproducing a regional wind field with acceptable accuracy. By using a web-based GIS platform, the system provides interactive information sharing via the Internet, which will benefit wind energy developers, investors, planners and other users seeking technical support for wind farm design analysis. 5 refs., 6 figs.
Yuanchang, D.; Xuelan, Z.; Zhi, Y.; Niandong, J. [Sun Yat-sen Univ., Guangzhou (China). School of Engineering, Wind Resource Research Center
The pre-Sinian metamorphic basement of South China consists of 4 blocks, namely the Jiangnan, the Wuyi, the Yunkai-South Sea and the Mintai which belong to the same lithospheric plate from late Proterozoic on. The plate is enriched in U and Th revealed by Pb-isotopic study, which plays an role of essential prerequisite for the formation of U province. The amalgamation of the 4 blocks and their final attachment to Yangtze craton were resulted from Proterozoic, Caledonian, Indonesia and Yangshanian orogenic events, driven by Moho-rheologic stratification so that uraniferous black rock sequences and U-hosting granites and volcanics in age from late Sinian to Jurassic were produced in the fore lands of corresponding major orogenic uplifts. The change of tectonic regime from compression-relaxed to lateral tension happened after significant crust's thickening and large-scale emplacement of granitic batholiths during late Triassic and early Jurassic though local compression occurred from middle Eocene to Oligocene. Most of U deposits were just formed in association with this para-cratonization process from late Jurassic to Eogene. South China GGT shows that there exist the thinning and the break-up of undercrustal lithosphere at the Datian and the Quanzhou and funnel-shaped seg at middle Hunan. The former two are considered to be the product of up-migration of hot mantle plume and the latter to be the place of down-migration of cold mantle plume
The Holocene explosive eruptive record of Rungwe and Ngozi volcanoes of the Rungwe Volcanic Province in Tanzania was reconstructed based on detailed stratigraphic field evidence combined with whole-rock major and trace element analyses of tephra samples. This reconstruction is supported by 25 new radiocarbon dates on palaeosols that provide additional constraints on the Holocene tephro-chronostratigraphy. We show evidence of two catastrophic Ngozi eruptions and five Rungwe pumice fallout deposits, and also identify several more intercalated poorly preserved pumice and ash deposits. The Ngozi eruptions probably played a role in shaping the present-day caldera. The Rungwe record includes a ca. 2.2 km 3 deposit of a Plinian-style eruption dated at ca. 4 ka, a sub-Plinian one at ca. 2 ka and at least three additional smaller-scale fallout deposits. The Rungwe explosive eruptive record shows that the volcano has been frequently active in its late Holocene past. This study highlights the need for volcanic monitoring in the region and presents herewith the first basis of future volcanic hazard assessment.
Fontijn, Karen; Ernst, Gerald G. J.; Elburg, Marlina A.; Williamson, David; Abdallah, Edista; Kwelwa, Shimba; Mbede, Evelyne; Jacobs, Patric
Full Text Available Introduction: Cryptosporidium is an Apicomplexa parasite that infects humans and a wide range of domestic and wild animals. However, the sub-genotypes of the species infecting animals in Iran are unclear. The aim of the present study isto identify DNA fingerprinting of bovine Cryptosporidium in Qazvin province using sequences of GP60 gene. Materials and Methods : In this study we investigated 25 C. parvum isolated form bovine in Qazvin animal husbandries. Subgenotypes were determined by DNA sequencing of 60-kDa glycoprotein gene. Results: Using DNA sequencing of GP60 gene, two subtype families within the C. parvum included IId (15/22 and IIa (7/22 were recognized. Also three subtypes in these two subtype families included IIa A15G2R1 (22/25, IIa A16G3R (1/25, IId A15G1 (2/25 were determined. Conclusion: Today, new zoonose strains are identified which based on severity of infection compared with human strains are more sever and the source and transmission of their infection are unclear. Therefore, determination of C .parvum strains, genotypes and sub-genotypes for epidemiological studies are quite necessary specially to identify the animal sources and to improve the control and prevention programs due to the lake of effective drugs for this infection.
Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad
The most important coal area of Turkey is situated in Zonguldak and province. The coal series occurred during Westfalien (Carboniferous) are lower-bounded by Visean aged karstic limestones and upper-bounded by Aptian-Barremian aged karstic limestones. The isotope hydrology, which consists one of the studies dealed with karst hydrogeology, was held to determine the groundwater relations between the karstic limestones adjacent to the coal layers located in the Zonguldak coal mine areas. Environmental isotope samples were collected in the basin during 1994 - 1995 period, from the surface and groundwater. Deuterium ("2H), Oxygen 18 ("1"8O) and Tritium ("3H) analysis were carried out on the samples. Recharge elevation, water origin and transit time of the groundwater system were determined with the evaluation of the analysis results. Waters encountered in the area are of marine origined rainfall, recharging at an elevation of 400-500 meters and consisting of shallow and deep circulation systems. Groundwater that intruding the coal mine galleries, have a short flow period and are recharged from recent precipitations
The distribution of uranium scattered in sedimentary terrains of the continental jurassic such as those found in the Tlaxiaco-Guerrero Basin encourage the outlook for uncovering extensive new deposits of strato-bound uranium belonging to the Mexican mesozoic in other structurally similar intercratonic basins. Stratographic and paleographic structural references define the simultaneous evolution of five sedimentary basins during the Mexican geotechtonic cycle: 1. the Tlaxiaco-Guerrero basin, 2. the Huayacocotla basin, 3. the Gulf of Sabinas basin, 4. the Chihuahua basin and 5. the Sonora basin. From the various lithostratographic formations in them we favourably infer the presence of intermountainous mesozoic concentrations of uranium sediments leached from crystalline precambric packets and from nevadian plutonites and volcanic rocks. During the metallogeny process described under the techtonic evolution of the Mexican structural belt, the presence is established of extensive terciary hydrothermal uranium deposits in the districts of Aldama, Chihuahua; Coneto-El Rodeo, Durango; Vizarron de Montes, Queretaro; Tlaucingo, Puebla; Los Amoles, Sonora; El Picacho, Sonora; Amalia Margarita, Coahuila; etc., scattered in sandstones and sinters of the continental mesozoic and shifted during the postorogenic phase of the Mexican geotectonic cycle. The extensive mesozoic province defined within the Mexican territory favourable to large deposits of uranium, scattered and strato-bound in triassic, jurassic and cretaceous sandstone and sinters, could resolve future demands for energetics within a modified philosophy and resourceful policy of regional mining.
Bazan B, S. (Uranio Mexicano, Mexico City)
The distribution of uranium scattered in sedimentary terrains of the continental jurassic such as those found in the Tlaxiaco-Guerrero Basin encourage the outlook for uncovering extensive new deposits of strato-bound uranium belonging to the Mexican mesozoic in other structurally similar intercratonic basins. Stratographic and paleographic structural references define the simultaneous evolution of five sedimentary basins during the Mexican geotechtonic cycle: 1. the Tlaxiaco-Guerrero basin, 2. the Huayacocotla basin, 3. the Gulf of Sabinas basin, 4. the Chihuahua basin and 5. the Sonora basin. From the various lithostratographic formations in them we favourably infer the presence of intermountainous mesozoic concentrations of uranium sediments leached from crystalline precambric packets and from nevadian plutonites and volcanic rocks. During the metallogeny process described under the techtonic evolution of the Mexican structural belt, the presence is established of extensive terciary hydrothermal uranium deposits in the districts of Aldama, Chihuahua; Coneto-El Rodeo, Durango; Vizarron de Montes, Queretaro; Tlaucingo, Puebla; Los Amoles, Sonora; El Picacho, Sonora; Amalia Margarita, Coahuila; etc., scattered in sandstones and sinters of the continental mesozoic and shifted during the postorogenic phase of the Mexican geotectonic cycle. The extensive mesozoic province defined within the Mexican territory favourable to large deposits of uranium, scattered and strato-bound in triassic, jurassic and cretaceous sandstone and sinters, could resolve future demands for energetics within a modified philosophy and resourceful policy of regional mining. (author)
Full Text Available Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China. Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.
Sediment and panned heavy mineral survey were conducted in the province of Pangasinan in Luzon island for a cumulative period of 1 1/2 months in 1983. A total of 40 stream sediments and 125 panned heavy mineral concentrates were obtained along active rivers and streams draining into the Lingayen Gulf and Luzon sea. The minus 80 mesh sediment fractions and non-magnetic portions of the heavy minerals were analyzed for total uranium using delayed neutron activation analysis techniques. Results indicated that uranium values ranged from 0.1 ppm to 1.4 ppm and 0.1 ppm to 23.2 ppm, for the stream sediments and heavy minerals, respectively. The uranium values obtained in the stream sediments were considered to be within the range of the average uranium concentrations in the northwestern Luzon. However, uranium values in the heavy minerals, in general, were higher than the values obtained in northwestern Luzon. One uranium anomaly area was found in San Carlos. (author)
The Conservation Council of New Brunswick has proposed an action plan for climate change that would enable the province to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 10 per cent below 1990 levels by 2020. The objective of the plan also involved eliminating the use of oil, coal and Orimulsion for power generation in New Brunswick. This report presented the proposed action plan. It discussed the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in New Brunswick and main sources of carbon pollution. Strategies to stop global warming and the projected impacts of climate change were also presented. Provincial targets for pollution reduction were also identified. The paper also made several recommendations on opportunities for emissions reduction in New Brunswick. These included phasing out electricity exports by the Coleson Cove, Belledune and Dalhousie power plants; retrofitting housing and commercial/institutional building stock, combined with a comprehensive phase out strategy for electric heating; and, mixing renewable power, distributed natural gas cogeneration and green heat combined with the refurbishment of building stock. It was concluded that the long-term benefits of implementing regulatory and financial measures now will be felt as increased efficiency across the economy, employment and business opportunities in every community. 2 tabs., 1 fig
New geologic mapping of the Elysium volcanic province at 1:2,000,000 scale and crater counts provide a basis for describing its overall eruptive history. Four stages are listed and described in order of their relative age. They are also distinguished by eruption style and location. Stage 1: Central volcanism at Hecates and Albor Tholi. Stage 2: Shield and complex volcanism at Elysium Mons and Elysium Fossae. Stage 3: Rille volcanism at Elysium Fossae and Utopia Planitia. Stage 4: Flood lava and pyroclastic eruptions at Hecates Tholus and Elysium Mons. Tectonic and channeling activity in the Elysium region is intimately associated with volcanism. Recent work indicates that isostatic uplift of Tharsis, loading by Elysium Mons, and flexural uplift of the Elysium rise produced the stresses responsible for the fracturing and wrinkle-ridge formation in the region. Coeval faulting and channel formation almost certainly occurred in the pertinent areas in Stages 2 to 4. Older faults east of the lava flows and channels on Hecates Tholus may be coeval with Stage 1
Full Text Available The main aims of present study are evaluation desalinization and desodification mathematical modeling in two zones of Northeast of Khuzestan province in Southwest of Iran with and without emendator material (Sulfuric acid. To reach the aims, the experiment was done in two zones with four treatments; 25, 50, 75 and 100 cm of water irrigation and four iterations in each plot (1*1 m from surface to 150 cm of soil depth. Data that have used in this paper were Electrical Conductivity (EC and Exchange Sodium Percentage (ESP. Data obtained from experimental results and with SPSS12.0 software eleven mathematic models have extracted. Results show that in zone one with and without acid Cubic equation for Electrical Conductivity and Exchange Sodium Percentage have the most and S, Logic equations have the least coefficient of determination. In addition, in zone two with and without acid for Electrical Conductivity Component, Growth and Power equations have the most and S, Logic equations have the least coefficient of determination. In zone two, the results of Exchange Sodium Percentage are similar to zone one.
Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study was to determine men’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning in a province of north-eastern Turkey. "nMaterials and Methods: This descriptive research was carried on 801 volunteers amongst men of reproductive age living in a city with a total population of 80,000 men. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire that addressed men’s roles, attitudes and behaviors towards family planning. "nResults: The most commonly used contraceptives were condom (36.8% and withdrawal (27.3% methods in single men. Married men reported relying more on female methods and they were more satisfied with the method they used. The idea of shared responsibility in family planning was more appreciated by single men. The role of family as a source of knowledge about family planning was low in both groups. Married men were more against vasectomy and condom while single men had more negative attitudes towards using hormone pills for men if produced in the future."nConclusion: Comprehensive projects are needed to improve male participation in family planning, especially in male dominant cultures. This must be seen as a golden key in the reproductive health programs.
The No. 7 coal seam in Hunyuan Coalfield of Shanxi Province consists of boghead coal, cannel coal and humic coal. Reinschia alginite is first found in this boghead in China. Based on features of coal petrology, coal chemistry, trace element, and organic geo-chemistry, the section of coal seam can be divided into four facies: (1) fresh-water limpid marsh pond facies; (2) fresh-water muddy marsh pond facies; (3) semi-brackish grass marsh facies; (4) semi-brackish submerged forest swamp facies. It is thought that boghead was formed in marsh ponds which are water-filled depressed areas in peat swamp. This type of marsh pond is different from those lakes which deposited oil shale. It is small, of short duration and is not supplied with much clay and silt. Nevertheless it deposited good quality boghead. The humic coal of No. 7 coal seam was deposited in a wide forest peat swamp formed in tidal flat. Boghead coal deposited in marsh pond while cannel coal deposited in shallow region of the marsh pond. With the expansion and contraction of the lake area, and due to overlapping of nearby coal facies, a coal seam consisting of boghead, cannel coal, humic coal was formed. Finally due to subsidence of earth crust, sea advance took place and disrupted the coal formation environment. 6 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.
Li, T.; Zhang, J.; Liu, X. (Shanxi Mining Institute (China))
The anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air is considered to contribute by 50-75 % of the total, and is thus responsible for elevated mercury concentration in the global atmosphere. These elevated atmospheric levels may be a serious threat to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems due to wet or dry deposition. Hence, measures must be taken in controlling the anthropogenic emissions of mercury. A fundamental step of a global mercury control is realistic mapping of anthropogenic and natural emissions. Today, reasonably well documented mercury emission inventories of anthropogenic point sources exist in Europe and North America. The amount of anthropogenic emissions in other parts of the world is quite uncertain, as well as world-wide diffuse emissions (anthropogenic and natural). Guizhou is situated on a plateau with a mean altitude of about 1000 m. Its climate is a typical subtropical humid monsoon with an average annual temperature of 15 dec C and a precipitation of 1100-1400 mm. The province accounts for about 2.8% of the total population in China. (orig.)
Wei Shiqiang; Lindqvist, O.; Xiao Zifan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mou Shusen; Qing Changle [Southwest Agricultural Univ., Chongqing (China)
The anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air is considered to contribute by 50-75 % of the total, and is thus responsible for elevated mercury concentration in the global atmosphere. These elevated atmospheric levels may be a serious threat to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems due to wet or dry deposition. Hence, measures must be taken in controlling the anthropogenic emissions of mercury. A fundamental step of a global mercury control is realistic mapping of anthropogenic and natural emissions. Today, reasonably well documented mercury emission inventories of anthropogenic point sources exist in Europe and North America. The amount of anthropogenic emissions in other parts of the world is quite uncertain, as well as world-wide diffuse emissions (anthropogenic and natural). Guizhou is situated on a plateau with a mean altitude of about 1000 m. Its climate is a typical subtropical humid monsoon with an average annual temperature of 15 dec C and a precipitation of 1100-1400 mm. The province accounts for about 2.8% of the total population in China. (orig.)
Full Text Available Marine products are currently important in Iran due to the following reasons: 1 aquatics are recognized as safe and healthy food by food scientists; 2 because of low dependence of fishing technology on foreign resources, they are more reliable sources for protein and food security. Therefore, it is important to increase labor productivity using advanced fishing technology under a sustainable fishery management policy. In general, the prevailing methods of fishing in the southern coasts of Iran can be classified into three groups based on the level of technology and the length of journey made: traditional, semi-industrial, and industrial. In this study, labor productivity in the traditional and semi-industrial groups were compared using data obtained from a sample of 35 fishermen in Bushehr Province. To determine the marginal and average labor productivities, transcendental production functions were estimated for fish and shrimp, separately. The findings indicated that the marginal and average productivities of labor in semi-industrial fishing were significantly higher than in traditional fishing.
Full Text Available The control of machinery costs is a key factor in improving the profitability of a farm. On many farms 30-40% of the fixed costs can be allocated to farm machinery. For this reason, the purchase of a tractor is one of the most important decisions to be made on any farm. A correct decision will benefit the business considerably but the wrong decision will be an expensive mistake to be regretted for many years. There are two different way to purchase the tractors in any farm. One of them is purchasing the tractor as new one, the other one is purchasing the he tractors as used or second hand. are purchased as new in some farms instead of purchasing he tractor as second hand or used.The used tractor prices and market conditions should be evaluated for the correct agricultural machinery management decisions. Price analysis of the used tractors has to be used in hiring or purchasing decision. In addition to that, Optimum equipment size calculations require the price data of used tractors.In the scope of this research, second hand tractor price data gathered from the showrooms in the Çanakkale province were evaluated. Before all else, general structure of second hand tractor market were defined by applying a comprehensive questionnaire to showroom owners. In addition, second hand tractor prices were arranged according to brand-model, age and power category.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to build up a logic ranked pattern between the most important industrial activities with respect the type of water pollution and the discharge ways or managing the wastewaters in these units. For this purpose all of the statistical data have been gathered by referring to the responsible organizations. After that, by using the desk study, field work and selecting some of the industrial units as studied cases and by referring to their production processes and obtaining the curtained analytical results, the industries have been separated to several groups including Food ,Textile , Pulp & Paper/, Chemical, Non-metallic mineral, Metal and Electricity & electronics Comparing the number of active industrial plants within the boundaries of Khuzestan province at 5 catchments area, indicates that Karun, Dez and Jarrahi basins with 1044. 324 and 290 active plants, respectively, are crowded with a lot of industries. Nature of the examined parameters has been selected in view of the production process type and includes pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, chloride, sulfate, BOD, COD, TSS, iron. Results indicates that Dez river basin, being compared with the other two basins, impose the most degradable organic, nutrient substances and suspended particle loads to Dez River , and the metal pollution load at Karun basin is more than the other two basins , caused by the steel industries concentrated in Ahvaz city.
N Jafarzadeh, S Rostami, K Sepehrfar, A Lahijanzadeh
The research characterized and described uranium enriched granitoids in Brazil. They occur in a variety of tectonic environments and are represented by a variety granite types of distinct ages. It may be deduced that in general they have been generated by partial melting process of continental crust. However, some of them, those with tonality composition, indicate a contribution from mantle derived materials, thus suggesting primary uranium enrichment from the upper mantle. Through this study, the identification and characterization of uranium enriched granite or uranium provinces in Brazil can be made. This may also help identify areas with potential for uranium mineralization although it has been note that uranium mineralization in Brazil are not related to the uranium enrichment process. In general the U-anomalous granitoids are composed of granites with alkaline composition and granite ''sensu strictu'' which comprise mainly of syenites, quartz-syenites and biotite-hornblende granites, with ages between 1,800 - 1,300 M.a. The U-anomalous belongings to this period present high Sr initial ratios values, above 0.706, and high Rb contents. Most of the U-enriched granitoids occur within ancient cratonic areas, or within Early to Mid-Proterozoic mobile belts, but after their cratonization. Generally, these granitoids are related to the border zones of the mobile belts or deep crustal discontinuity. Refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs
Full Text Available This study describes the structure of coral and fish assemblages of a group of small islands and pinnacles in the vicinity of Maptaput deep sea port, Rayong Province, Thailand during 2002. The coral and fish assemblages at Saket Island and nearby pinnacle, Hin-Yai, which are located less than 1 km from the deep sea port, had changed. Living coral cover in 2002 was 8% at Hin-Yai and 4% at Saket Island which decreased from 33% and 64%, respectively in the previous report in 1992. Numbers of coral species at Saket Island decreased from 41 species to 13 species. Acropora spp. that previously dominated the area had nearly disappeared. For fishes, a total of 40 species were found in 2002 the numbers decreased to only 6 species at Saket Island and 36 species at Hin-Yai. Fishes that dominated the area are small pomacentrids. After 1997, the conditions of coral and fish assemblages at Saket Island and Hin-Yai had markedly changed, whereas, the conditions found in the nearby area are much better. Sediment load from port construction was the primary cause of the degradation. This should indicate the adverse effect of sedimentation on coral and reef fish assemblages at Maptaput. Coral communities developed on rock pinnacles west of Maptaput deep-sea port are reported and described herein for the first time.
During the period 1994-95, solar photovoltaic systems were installed at a number of schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina, by the Provincial electric utility, Ente Provincial de Energia del Neuquen. This was undertaken with funds provided by the Inter-American Development Bank. In all, there are 12 schools that have had photovoltaic generating systems installed. These generating systems are designed to provide electricity for the basic needs at the schools: primarily for lighting, and to operate small electrical appliances such as communication radios, televisions, VCR`s, AM/FM and short-wave radios. They do not provide enough energy to operate large consumption appliances such as washing machines, microwaves, refrigerators, power tools, etc. The program of provision of PV systems was supplemented with training on simple systems for cooking food or drying fruit, etc. These techniques are primarily intended for demonstration at the schools thus serving an educational role with the hope that they will be transmitted in time to the families of the students where the need is manifested the most.
Lawand, T.A.; Campbell, J. [Brace Research Institute, Quebec (Canada)
Full Text Available The main sources of cadmium in soil-plant continuum in amounts that might present a hazard are liquid and solid wastes of sewage sludge, farm manures and fertilizers. In the southwest of Iran (Khuzestan Province over 50,000 ha of land is under sugarcane (Saccarum officinarum cultivation and more than 80,000 ha will be under sugarcane by the end of the year 2000. In these sugarcane fields, about 400 kg ha-1 diamonium phosphate (DAP and 400 kg ha-1 urea are applied annually. There is no data available to show the fertilizers impact on soil, water and plant contaminations in Iran with respect to cadmium. The objective of this research was to compare the extractable cadmium of virgin soils with that of soils under sugarcane. Four sugarcane growing stations viz. Haft-tapeh, Karoon, Shoeibieh and Ghazali with cultivation histories of 36, 20, 2 and 1 year, respectively, were selected. In each site, along a transect soil samples from 0-30 cm of both furrows and ridges of cultivated soils and of virgin soils were collected. Electrical conductivity (EC, pH, clay and organic carbon contents, CI and Cd of 101 soil samples were measured according to standard methods. Results showed that increasing either EC or CI increased Cd concentration with its maximum in virgin soils and its minimum in furrows. Results also indicated a slight decrease in the Cd content of cultivated soils.
924 subjects, 542 males and 382 females working in grainstoring, or herb-storing, from different parts of Anhui Province were examined for the possible existence of pulmonary acariasis. 49 cases(5.3%), 31 males and 18 females, were found positive for mites in their sputum. 83.7% of the sufferers aged 16-45. 22 out of the 22 out of the 49 sufferers developed a marked eosinophilia ranging from 4% to 48% and a count of 320-5,050/mm3, whereas X-ray films revealed varied degrees of widening lung hilum shadow with increased and disordered lung markings. In some cases, the chest-film showed a lot of scattered nodular shadows 1-5 mm in diameter in the lung lobes. The symptoms presented were cough, expectoration, depression in the chest, restlessness, low fever, asthma, hemoptysis, etc. 10 species of mites were found in the sputum of the 49 sufferers, i.e. Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putreseltiae, Aleuroglyphus ovatus, Caloglyphus berlesei, C. myoophagus, Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, Euroglyphus maynei, Tarsonemus granarius, Cheyletus eruditus. PMID:2364504
Li, C; Li, L
This report compares the fiscal regimes in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. During 1985-1988, federal and provincial governments have made numerous fiscal changes, many in response to the drop in world oil prices. The new fiscal policies generally have reflected governments' willingness to forego revenues in an effort to aid the oil and gas industry, with certain exemptions. Since 1988, changes have reflected trends of consolidation and less government willingness to forego revenues. A federal large corporations capital tax has been introduced, the natural gas exploration holiday in Alberta expired, new oil royalties were introduced, and changes were made in fiscal regimes to accomodate horizontal drilling in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. In this document, the existing corporate tax regime is described. A comparison of fiscal regimes must recognize the differing scale and nature of oil and gas operations among the 4 provinces, with Alberta accounting for 80-90% of Canada's oil and gas productions, while British Columbia, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are much smaller producers. The document describes Crown royalties and incentives and freehold taxes for each type of fuel (crude oil, natural gas, natural gas byproducts, nonconventional oil). 8 figs
Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the microbiological qualities of totally 120 cream cakes including chocolate and fruit type, purchased from 30 randomly selected pastry shops in Tekirda? province. Based on the Turkish Food Codex Microbiological Criterias Communique; 59, 50, 16 and 53 out of 60 chocolate cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (98.3% of the total >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (83.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (26.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (88.3% of the total >103 cfu/g. On the other hand, 60, 56, 19 and 55 out of 60 fruit cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (100 % >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (93.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (31.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (91.6% of the total >103 cfu/g. Salmonella were not detected in any of the chocolate and fruit cake samples. Obtained results showed that the microbiological qualities of cakes were poor due to poor hygiene and poor food handling practices in pastry shops.
A. M. Konyal?
Full Text Available Impairment and disability and handicap are most important problems all the world. This survey was conducted in centre of Kayseri province to obtain the prevalence of impairment, disability and handicap. The survey also aimed to identify the causes of impairments and to analyse the nature and extent of the handicaps resulting from these impairments. WHO’s impairment, disability and handicap classification was used and it was applied to those living in dwellings located in districts selected according to the population 3443 person residing selected using a multistage cluster sampling method were screened. It was found that 10.5% of the population had impairment and 5.0% of the population had a disability and 4.2% of them had a handicapped. The prevalence of impairment, disability and handicap was higher in women (12.7–6.3–5.6% than men (8.3–3.6–3.4%. Result of this study estimated, the educational and social levels were low among all the disables Educational problems and rehabilitation requirements were the major problems. A high proportion of person with impairment and handicap were not given any rehabilitation services. So that, the results of our study shows us that we have to give more importance to disables educational and occupational problems in our country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 71-80
Full Text Available Background: Legionella is a causative agent of bacterial pneumonia, a risk factor for pneumonia for patients, but also for workers.Objectives: The authors describe the cases arising from the activities of prevention and control operating within the province of Rome by the Lazio Regional Environmental Protection Agency (ARPALazio.Methods: 4354 samples were analyzed, as follows: 27.65% in 2007, 35% in 2008 and 37.35% in 2009. The activity sampling was evenly distributed between 25% and 30% in each quarter of year.Results: In 2007 the non-compliant samples are 10.60%, to become 24.57% in 2008 and finally 26.63% in 2009.The level of contamination is low in 13%, 11% medium and high in 3% of the total.Conclusions: The Legionella contamination does not present a specific distribution in the four quarters of time considered for each year or a specific distribution for the type of health facility, and the level of contamination settles on medium-low values.
Estimate of population exposure to air pollution is necessary to health impact assessment. Based on the concept of intake fraction, a rapid population exposure assessment method was developed in this paper. The CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model was applied to estimate intake fractions of primary and secondary fine particles emitted from a set of 17 power plants in Hunan Province. Results showed that within 500 km from the emission source, average values of intake fraction were 9.73 x 10(-6) for PM2.5, 2.39 x 10(-6) for sulfate and 2.47 x 10(-6) for nitrate. From regression analysis, good correlations were found for the relations among intake fraction of PM2.5, stack height, and population (R2 = 0.83), and intake fraction of SO(4)2- and population (R2 = 0.64), and intake fraction of NO3-, stack height and population (R2 = 0.74). Iso-intake fraction maps were produced based on the regression equations and population distribution, which reflected the differentiation of population density and enabled simple impact assessment for emission sources in this region. PMID:12916195
Li, Ji; Hao, Jiming; Ye, Xuemei; Zhu, Tianle
The Oxfordian La Manga Limestone (10-65 m) and overlying Auquilco Gypsum (315 m maximum thickness) crop out along the west flank of the Neuquen basin, Neuquen Province, Argentina (36/sup 0/40/sup 0/S lat.). The contact with the underlying Lotena Sandstone is gradational, and both formations are cut by the Late Jurassic Araucanian angular unconformity. Seven lithofacies have been identified within sections measured through the entire interval along the northeast to southwest trending, 30-km long Sierra de la Vaca Muerta ridge (38/sup 0/30'-39/sup 0/S). The La Manga Limestone is interpreted as a temperate ramp carbonate that developed over the Lotena Formation siliciclastic shelf. Interpretations of lithofacies from southwest to northeast are: behind-barrier subtidal lagoon with washovers; coral and red algae biostromes; ooid and peloid sand shoals; downslope wackestone and packstone mud mounds; and deep-water carbonate turbidites. A minor regression separates La Manga and Auquilco Formations. Lithofacies of the Auquilco Formation indicate a shallowing-up sequence comprised of initially deep (hundreds of meters) subaqueous evaporite deposition followed by shallow, subtidal carbonate peloidal and shell fragment grainstones and evaporites. Thickness of the subaqueous evaporite gives an order of magnitude estimate of Auquilco basin depths of a few hundred meters at most. The Neuquen basin has an intermediate proportion of carbonate in comparison to relatively carbonate-poor basins to the south and carbonate-rich basins to the north.
Nickelsen, B.H.; Merrill, D.A.
The concept of ocean biogeochemical provinces is based on the observation that large ocean regions are characterized by coherent physical forcing and environmental conditions, which are eventually representative of macroscale ocean ecosystems. Biogeochemical models of the global ocean focus on simulating the coupling between prevalent physical conditions and the biogeochemical processes with the assumption that biological properties respond coherently to physics and therefore should produce such provinces as an emergent property. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the emergence of a reference set of predefined biogeochemical provinces in the available global data sets and propose a province-based approach to the evaluation of one of the most comprehensive models of ocean biogeochemistry. Multivariate statistical tools were applied to model and observation data, verifying the existence, distinctiveness and reliability of the predefined provinces and quantifying the correlation of model results with observations at the global scale. The analysis of similarity between provinces shows that they are statistically separable in data and model output and therefore can be used as reliable metrics. The analyses indicate that provinces can be more easily distinguished in terms of their environmental features rather than using chlorophyll concentration. The characterization of provinces by means of chlorophyll values shows a significant overlap in both the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data and the model. It is likely this is related to the choice of province boundaries based on coarse-resolution mapped data, which are not necessarily the same as those derivable from high-resolution satellite data. We also demonstrated through cluster analysis that the long-term time series data collected at Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) stations are representative of environmental conditions of the respective province and can thus be used to evaluate model results extracted from that province. The method shows promise for helping to overcome problems with model verification due to under sampling of most ocean biogeochemical variables but also gives indications that unsupervised clustering may be required when more spatially resolved data and models are available.
Vichi, Marcello; Allen, J. Icarus; Masina, Simona; Hardman-Mountford, Nicholas J.
Full Text Available Problem statement: It was evident that a riot problem in Three Southern Frontier Provinces of Thailand resulted from many factors such as an economic factor, a social factor, a political factor, an educational factor, a religious factor, a cultural factor, a traditional factor, including a geographical location. These factors linked one another to affect systematically a riot problem in Three Southern Frontier Provinces and the centre of the problem was a religious factor. The purposes of this research were these: (1 to investigate the background of a riot problem in Three Southern Frontier Provinces, (2 to investigate cultural dimensions used for solving a riot problem in Three Southern Frontier Provinces and (3 to investigate a cultural management model by means of peace for solving a riot problem in Three Southern Frontier Provinces. Approach: Research areas consisted of 7 villages in Narathiwas Province, 6 villages in Pattani Province and 5 villages in Yala Province. These are crisis areas and there are some youth who had ever participated in ?San Jai Thai Su Jai Tai? Project (a project for supporting people who affected by the riot have lived in. A population was people in 18 villages of Three Southern Frontier Province. A sample was selected by means of a purposive sampling consisted of 54 key informants, 108 casual informants and 108 general informants. Research instruments used for collecting data were a survey, an observation, an interview, a focus group interview and a workshop. A triangulation technique was used for examining data and research results were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: A riot problem in Three Southern Frontier Provinces results from the differences of culture and ways of life between the Buddhist-Thai people and the Islamic-Thai people. The majority of local population are Muslims, they have their own cultural identity so these differences cause many problems such as a problem of cultural misunderstanding, problem of beliefs misunderstanding, a problem of way of life misunderstanding and a problem of traditional misunderstanding. A Peaceful Cultural Model (P.C. Model was developed within real cultural context or real life of people according to determined successful condition. Conclusion/Recommendation: The result of this research revealed that solving a riot problem in Three Southern Frontier Province must need an understanding of basic needs, collective consciousness and collective cause of most local people; including respecting liberty and cultural identity of one another.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam, malaria is still an important health problem and most cases are found in the mountainous, forested border areas where ethnic minority groups live. The objectives of this study were to obtain a better joint understanding of the malaria situation along the border and, on the basis of that, improve malaria control methods through better cooperation between the two countries. Methods Fourteen villages in Savannakhet and 22 villages in Quang Tri were randomly selected within 5?km from the border where a blood survey for microscopic diagnosis (n?=?1256 and n?=?1803, respectively, household interviews (n?=?400, both sides and vector surveys were conducted between August and October 2010. Satellite images were used to examine the forest density around the study villages. Results Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in Laos (5.2% than in Vietnam (1.8% and many other differences were found over the short distance across the border. Bed net coverage was high (> 90% in both Laos and Vietnam but, while in Laos more than 60% of the nets were long-lasting insecticide-treated, Vietnam used indoor residual spraying in this area and the nets were untreated. Anopheles mosquitoes were more abundant in Laos than in Vietnam, especially many Anopheles dirus were captured in indoor light traps while none were collected in Vietnam. The forest cover was higher around the Lao than the Vietnamese villages. After this study routine exchange of malaria surveillance data was institutionalized and for the first time indoor residual spraying was applied in some Lao villages. Conclusions The abundance of indoor-collected An. dirus on the Laos side raises doubts about the effectiveness of a sole reliance on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in this area. Next to strengthening the early detection, correct diagnosis and prompt, adequate treatment of malaria infections, it is recommended to test focal indoor residual spraying and the promotion of insect repellent use in the early evening as additional vector interventions. Conducting joint malaria surveys by staff of two countries proved to be effective in stimulating better collaboration and improve cross-border malaria control.
Le magmatisme gondwanien (Carbonifère supérieur à Jurassique) de l'Amérique du Sud australe contient des alternances répétées entre les batholithes calco-alcalins internes à la Cordillère et des provinces de volcanisme bimodal. Ceci peut refléter des changements dans le régime tectonique, avec des épisodes plutoniques correspondant aux périodes de forte obliquité de la subduction, les larges provinces de volcanisme correspondant aux périodes d'arrêt ou de ralentissement de la ...
Rapela, C. W.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Llambias, E. J.; Labudia, C.; Artabe, A.
Background: Geothermal waters could be suitable niches for thermophilic free living amoebae including Naegleria and Hartmannella. Ardebil Province, northwest Iran is popular for having many hot springs for recreational and health purposes activity. The present research is the first molecular based investigation regarding the presence of Naegleria and Hartmannella in the hot springs of Ardebil Province in Iran.Methods: Overall, 30 water samples were taken from waters of thermal hot springs in ...
Solgi, R.; Niyyati, M.; Haghighi, A.; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, E.
Abstract. Economic growth in China has declined between 2008 and 2009. The global financial crisis of 2008/9 has shown a number of structural weaknesses in the Chinese economy, such as the functioning of its capital and labor markets and the substantial income differences between the developed eastern and less developed western provinces. Migration is the linchpin of China’s development model; workers move from the western to the eastern provinces and back, in particular because of the cris...
Meine Pieter van Dijk
American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis is endemic in the province of Tucumán since 1916 where the first Argentinian case of leishmaniasis was reported. An epidemic outbreak took place in the province during 1986-1988, after that the number of cases increased gradually again between 1991-1996. Since October of 1999 sand flies captures were performed at different places associated with current and past transmission or sites identified as risky ones. The collections were carried out with CDC mini l...
Objective: This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was s...
In Burundi, family agriculture occupies more than 90% of the active population. That sector accounts more than 50% of GDP. Before the civil war of 1993, Kirundo province was deemed "breadbasket of the country" because the family farming was market-oriented. Today, this region is the first province in Burundi who accuses a high rate of householders who live in food insecurity. In order to conduct this study, 355 randomly selected farmers were surveyed in all municipalities of th...
Minani, Bonaventure; Rurema, De?o-guide; Lebailly, Philippe
This report sets out the background, analyses, conclusions and recommendations from a review of a project on Micro and Small–scale Industry Development in Cabo Delgado Province in Mozambique (UNIDO Project number TF/MOZ/01/001). The objective of the Project is to “improve institutional capacities for small-scale industry development in Cabo Delgado Province at the Provincial and District Authorities, and in the private sector” Under an agreement signed in early 2002 the Project will be ...
The primary objective of this study was to determine the species composition of ticks that infest domestic animals in Maputo Province and their geographic distributions. To this end a total of 145 cattle, 129 goats, 132 dogs and 63 dragsamples of the vegetation were examined at 30 localities distributed throughout the province, at each of which the geographic coordinates were recorded and later plotted. A total of 15187 ixodid ticks belonging to 15 species were recovered. These were Amblyom...
The primary objective of this study was to determine the species composition of ticks that infest domestic animals in Maputo Province and their geographic distributions. To this end a total of 145 cattle, 129 goats, 132 dogs and 63 dragsamples of the vegetation were examined at 30 localities distributed throughout the province, at each of which the geographic coordinates were recorded and later plotted.
Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae) by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae) larvae cause severe economic damage on cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae), in the horticultural fields in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Overuse of broad spectrum insecticides affects the action of natural enemies of this insect on cabbage. The objectives of this work were to identify...
Isabel Bertolaccini; Sa?nchez, Daniel E.; Arregui, Mari?a C.; Favaro, Juan C.; Natalia Theiler
The present study is based on the macrofungi specimens, collected from different biotope of Ardahan and I?d?r provinces of Turkey, between 2000-2001. As a result of field and laboratory studies, 78 taxa were identified and the previous reports on 61 taxa in the study area were added. Total 139 taxa belonging to 35 families in Myxomycetes, Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes were presented as a list. Seventy eight of them are new for the province. Cortinarius uraceus...
High-resolution seismic profiles, swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar data and video imageries are analysed in this detailed study of five carbonate mounds from the Belgica mound province with special emphasis on the well-surveyed Therese Mound. The selected mounds are located in the deepest part of the Belgica mound province at water depths of 950 m. Seismic data illustrate that the underlying geology is characterised by drift sedimentation in a general northerly flowing current regime. Sigmoi...
This study has been carried out in center of Isparta province in order to evaluation the appropriateness of housing health standards of houses and to determine the basic characteristics of inappropriate houses. In December 2005, randomize selected four hundred houses in province center were evaluated in point of building land characteristics, building materials, safe condition, bulk, sunlight and lighting, heating, washroom facilities by using housing evaluation checklist. Distribution of the...
Ersin Uskun; Hakan Turkoglu; Tufan Nayir; Ahmet Nesimi Kisioglu; Mustafa Ozturk
Objective: To measure the prices and availability of selected medicines in Shaanxi Province after the implementation of new healthcare reform in 2009. Methods: Data on the prices and availability of 47 medicines were collected from 50 public and 36 private sector medicine outlets in six regions of Shaanxi Province, Western China using a standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International from September to October 2010. Medicine prices were compa...
Jiang, Minghuan; Yang, Shimin; Yan, Kangkang; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Jun; Fang, Yu
Background & Aim: Scorpion bites are one of the major health problems in some parts of Iran. This study has been conducted to evaluate the scorpion biting in north-western of Khuzestan province from May 2002 to December 2003. Methods & Materials: This study was a prospective case series conducted from May 2002 to December 2003. Location of the study was the Northwest region of Khuzestan Province. Results: From all 139 cases of scorpion bites by Androctonus crassicauda came to the clinic most ...
Ghaderi H; Shariati Z; Ghodoosi A; Ziyaee M
Burnout manifests itself in individuals working in professions involving face-to-face contact with the public in depersonalization towards others, feelings of emotional exhaustion, and reduced feelings of personal achievement and adequacy. The objective in this study was to determine burnout and job satisfaction levels and related factors in primary health center personnel in the central part of the Turkish province of Trabzon. A total of 227 people working in central Trabzon province primary...
"n "nBackground: Ticks are the main vectors for transmission of different pathogens to human and animals. This survey was performed to find out distribution of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Yazd Province, central Iran during year 2008-2009. "n "nMethods: A total number of 30 villages from both mountainous (20%) and plateau (80%) regions of the province were selected randomly. Ticks were colleted from the body of infested animals and transported to the lab...
Salim Abadi, Y.; Telmadarraiy, Z.; Vatandoost, H.; Chinikar, S.; Ma, Oshaghi; Moradi, M.; Mirabzadeh Ardakan, E.; Hekmat, S.; Nasiri, A.
Abstract Background Since obesity in urban women is prevalent in Kenya the study aimed to determine predictors of overweight and obesity in urban Kenyan women. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Nairobi Province. The province was purposively selected because it has the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity in Kenya. A total of 365 women aged 25–54?years old were randomly selected to participate in the study. Results
Mbochi Regina W; Kuria Elizabeth; Kimiywe Judith; Ochola Sophie; Steyn Nelia P
BACKGROUND: This thesis is based on the result of a study of the impact of World Vision Mongolia’s five year Nutrition Project which was implemented in the poor nomadic areas of the Selenge province of Mongolia. OBJECTIVE: The general objective of this thesis is to analyse the child nutritional status in Selenge province since the project implementation and assess whether the changes in child nutritional outcomes were associated with the nutrition project interventions. FINDINGS: The implem...
Aeshna shennnong sp. nov. (holotype male: Dajiuhu national wetland park in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, Shennongjia City, Hubei Province, China, 28. VIII. 2013) is described, illustrated and compared with its most similar congener, A. petalura Martin, 1908. The holotype will be deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. New distribution records of A. petalura from mainland China are also provided. PMID:24870492
Zhang, Hao-Miao; Cai, Qing-Hua
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered natural gas resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources are 534 billion cubic feet of natural gas and 323 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids in the Sacramento Basin Province. Additional undiscovered oil accumulations larger than 0.5 million barrels are considered unlikely.
Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.
[EN] During the last six years an ethnobotanical research has been carried out in the province of Madrid, in central Spain. This province has got a high diversity of environmental conditions, from granitic mountain areas to limestone plains, which is reflected in the variety of vegetation and its traditional uses. However, the migration from the villages to the city of Madrid, and the agriculture and livestock farming crisis, threatens the conservation of the tradit...
Morales Valverde, Ramo?n; Aceituno, Laura; Tardi?o, Javier
ABSTRACT Private vehicle using is leading to increased traffic congestion, air pollution and mounting social disparities, especially at big city. Particularly in Lampung Province, Bandar Lampung as a capital of Lampung province is trying to initiate creating sustainable integrated public transportation and it has been started while several public transport companies together established Trans Bandar Lampung. At early, it was going really well and Bandar Lampung citizen started to use this ...
Suwandaru, Alif Aditya
The major purpose of this study was to explore the level of job satisfaction of university teachers in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. The objectives of the study were: to assess the general satisfaction level of university teachers, to determine university teachers’ satisfaction level for each of the twenty dimensions of the job, and to give suggestions to improve university teachers’ job satisfaction level. All the university teachers working in North West Frontier Provinc...
Safdar Rehman Ghazi; Riasat Ali; Gulap Shahzada; Muhammad Israr
Tantalate samples, supposedly of the columbite group, were collected in the Borborema Pegmatitic Province, aiming to test the Mn/(Mn+Fe) and Ta/(Ta+Nb) ratios as geochemical indicators of pegmatite fractionation. Surprisingly, preliminary microprobe data allowed recognizing some species, so far unknown in the Province, namely titanian ixiolite, fersmite, brannerite, strüverite, natrobistantite, plumbo- and stibiomicrolite, plumboand uranpyrochlore. The identification of these exotic tantalat...
Beurlen Hartmut; Soares Dwight R.; Thomas Rainer; Prado-Borges Lucila E.; Castro Cláudio de
In sub-Saharan Africa, traditionally managed livestock is important because of the provision of draught power and manure, the provision of security and investment possibilities, for the provision of meat and milk, and for social purposes (eg. brideprice, gifts). In the Western Province of Zambia, cattle are the only livestock of significance. The soils of the province virtually entirely consist of Kalahari sands, that are not very suitable for crop production, but with a good suitability ...
Klink, E. G. M.
Background: Intestinal parasites of humans are important health problems of most communities, especially those situated in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out in rural population of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, during 2004-2005, with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of intestinal protozoan parasites in this province.Methods: A total of 855 stool specimens were collected randomly from rural inhabitants (384 males and 471 females)...
Eb, Kia; Hosseini, M.; MR Nilforoushan; Ar, Meamar; Rezaeian, M.
Kimberlites from the Prieska Province comprise both micaceous and non-micaceous petrographic types. The samples analysed are not significantly altered on petrographic and geochemical grounds and this transitional feature is believed to be a primary component of such kimberlites. Whole-rock geochemical analyses of kimberlites from the Prieska Province show similar major, minor and trace element patterns to their cratonic counterparts. 2 refs., 3 figs
Purposes of the insight study of consumer life-styles and purchasing behaviors in Songkla province, Thailand” were: 1)
to understand consumer life-styles and purchasing behaviors; 2) to determine the factors affecting consumer life-styles
and purchasing behaviors; and 3) to examine consumer attitudes among traditional and modern trade channels. The data were collected through self-administered questionnaires among a sample of 300 consumers in Songkla province.
This research provides the first analysis of the relationship between farm financial exposure and technical efficiency in the Pangasius farming in An Giang province, in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. A nonparametric DEA approach has been applied to estimate technical and scale efficiency scores of 61 Pangasius farms in An Giang province in the year 2008. The mean technical efficiencies under assumption of constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale and scale efficiency were measured...
The report deals with exploratory studies of migmatite areas of the province of Vaesternorrland and a large gabbro massive of the province of Norrbotten. Extensive geological and hydrological studies including deep boreholes are being planned. The exploring studies in Vaesternorrland covered map and photo interpretation, field studies of fissures and exposures. The studies in Norrbotten have been directed towards field investigations of four gabbro massives.(G.B.)
Full Text Available Water resource is one of the main factors limiting the development of water-deficient areas. Virtual water theory and virtual water trade model were used to analyze the characteristics of water resources utilization in Hebei Province. Based on an input-output model, water resource consumptions in different sectors of the economy and virtual water in domestic and international trade in Hebei Province were analyzed. Results indicated that natural resource exploitation and processing sectors topped the list of water consumption intensity which including agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries, nonmetal minerals and other minerals mining and dressing industries and electric power, steam and hot water producing industry. Hebei Province was the net input area in the domestic trade while the net output area in the foreign trade in 2007. The later was far more than the former which finally made Hebei Province the net output area of virtual water. The net output of virtual water was 10.521 billion m3 in 2007, almost 52.13% of total water consumption in Hebei Province. Massive exportation of high-water-consumption products which were mainly produced by agriculture, food manufacturing industry, tobacco processing industry and metals smelting and pressing industry, intensified the pressure of water resource in Hebei Province. Thus, the exportation of high-water-consumption products should be controlled to relieve the regional contradiction between the supply and requirement of water resources.
The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal programme. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound and Nares Strait west of and including part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geological basis for defining five assessment units (AU) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Petroleum System. Potential petroleum source rocks include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Palaeogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study - the Eurekan Structures AU, NW Greenland Rifted Margin AU, NE Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU - encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable resources. The mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West Greenland-East Canada Province are 10.7 ?? 109 barrels of oil, 75 ?? 1012 cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 ?? 109 barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 ?? 109 barrels of oil, 52 ?? 1012 cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 ?? 109 barrels of natural gas liquids. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.
Schenk, C. J.
Sandfly fever virus (SFV), which is classified in Phlebovirus genus, Bunyaviridae family, is widely seen in the Middle East and Mediterranean basin. SFV has four serotypes known as Sicilian (SFSV), Cyprus (SFCV), Naples (SFNV) and Toscana virus (TOSV). Sandfly fever, which is transmitted to human by different species of sandflies, especially Phlebotomus spp., starts with acute onset of high fever and lasts for three days. Headache, anorexia and myalgia are the most common symptoms. The aim of this study was to present the clinical and laboratory findings of the patients who were diagnosed during sandfly fever outbreak in Kirikkale province (located in central Anatolia in Turkey) during July 2009. A total of 20 patients from different districts of Kirikkale province with the history of fly bite and with the clinical findings of fever, myalgia-arthralgia, headache, conjunctival hyperemia and gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and nausea-vomiting were admitted to the Infectious Disease Unit of State Hospital. All the patients were followed up after hospitalization. A sandfly fever outbreak has been considered in the area since the cases shared a common history of insect bite, similar clinical and laboratory features in a particular time interval. The first patients from each different districts were accepted as the "index case" and 11 patients' serum samples have been sent to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory, Ankara. Serum samples were analyzed by using a commercial mosaic immunofluorescence test (IFT) (Euroimmun, Germany) to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against SFSV, SFCV, SFNV and TOSV. SFV-IgM positivity was demonstrated in 8 out of 11 patients (Naples virus in 5, Sicilian virus in 3 cases), while all of the cases were IgG negative. Of seropositive patients, two were female and six were male with a mean age of 30.7 (age range: 16-53) years. Sandfly fever was diagnosed in five cases by the positive IgM results and in three cases by the detection of IgM seroconversion in the second samples collected 6 days later. Clinically, fever and myalgia-arthralgia were detected in all of the cases, diarrhea and nausea-vomiting in 7, headache in 5 and conjunctival hyperemia in 1 of 8 seropositive patients. The evaluation of laboratory findings revealed leukopenia (1800-3800 cell/µl) in all cases, thrombocytopenia (69000-140.000 cell/µl) in 7, elevated AST (42-271 IU/L) in 7, elevated ALT (46-173 IU/L) in 5, elevated CK (185-1560 U/L) in 6 and elevated CRP (5.18-83.6 mg/L in 5 of 8 patients. All the patients were treated symptomatically without any sequella and discharged with complete cure. Turkey is a country in the Mediterranean basin and it is known that there is a favorable sandfly fauna in Anatolia. Therefore sandfly fever should be considered in patients presenting with fever and arthralgia-myalgia and with a history of insect bite especially during summer months. PMID:21063993
Torun Edis, Ci?dem; Ya?ç? Ça?lay?k, Dilek; Uyar, Yavuz; Korukluo?lu, Gülay; Ertek, Mustafa
A primary concern in ancient transpressional shear zones is to demonstrate that the shortening and strike-slip components of deformation operated simultaneously. In the eastern Indian shield, ultrahigh grade granulite terrane of the Eastern Ghats Belt collided with the Archaean Indian craton around ~ 1 Ga. Subsequently, the northern boundary of the granulite belt was affected by a dextral strike-slip system that juxtaposed it against the Singhbhum Province. The strike-slip system is characterized by two WNW-ESE trending strands that enclose a multiply deformed (D1 to D3) intervening domain that is referred to as the Rengali Province. D1 and D2 represent a deformation continuum that operated under granulite / amphibolite facies conditions. Available zircon ages from amphibolite facies gneisses within the province indicate a late Archaean age for the D1-D2 deformation. In a granulite lens in the central part of the province, an early fabric-forming deformation (Dgr) is represented by cylindrical D1-D2 folding. D3 shortening was superimposed on D1-D2 folds in the surrounding lithologies of the province, generating complex non-cylindrical geometries. However, there is no evidence of D3 shortening strain within the granulites. Microstructures in the province-bounding D3 strike-slip shear zones indicate that mylonitization and dynamic recrystallization was associated with greenschist facies metamorphism. In quartzite bands within these shear zones, syn-D3 folds can be correlated with rotation of D1-D2 structures through the shortening zone of bounding dextral shears. Strain analyses and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility studies in these quartzites indicate that post-D2 strain ellipsoids are characterized by sub-vertical axial planes and extrusion directions consistent with crustal shortening. Samples from high D3 strain zones are associated with sub-horizontal extrusion parallel to the inferred direction of strike-slip shearing, and have kinematic vorticity numbers > 0.90 indicating dominantly simple shear deformation. Thus, D3 strike-slip shearing was associated with a limited pure shear component, indicating that it is unrelated to the widespread shortening structures documented from the region. Chlorite bearing syn-D3 assemblages within the mica schists yield ages of 490-470 Ma, indicating that greenschist facies metamorphism in the Rengali Province operated 2000 Ma after the amphibolite facies event. Since the province-bounding shears form a step-over zone, the structural complexity within the Rengali Province arises from superposition of syn-D3 shortening structures on earlier cylindrical D1-D2 folds. The predominant shortening observed within the province, therefore, is genetically unrelated to the Cambro-Ordovician strike-slip deformation.
Gupta, Saibal; Misra, Surajit
Objectives: When used correctly, child safety seats reduce the risk of injury to a child passenger compared to seat belts. The objectives of this study are to (1) describe restraint use among Canadian children ages 4-8 years in 2010; (2) compare child safety seat use between provinces with new legislation (post-2006), old legislation (pre-2006), and without legislation; and (3) compare child safety seat use rates from 2006 to 2010. Methods: Roadside observational surveys of child restraint use were performed in 2006 and 2010 using a nationally representative stratified sample. Proportions of restraint use, correct use (i.e., child safety seats and booster seats) in 4- to 8-year-old children was examined between 3 groups: provinces with new legislation (i.e., child safety seat legislation that included implementation of specific legislation for booster seat use for child passengers ages 4-8 years), old legislation, and no legislation. Results: There were 4048 children observed as passengers in motor vehicles. In provinces with new legislation, 84 percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.2-90.8) of children were restrained compared to 94.9 percent (95% CI, 93.0-96.7) in provinces with old legislation, and 81.8 percent (95% CI, 77.3-86.3) in provinces without legislation. Correct use of child restraint was 54.1 percent (95% CI, 48.0-60.3) in provinces with new legislation, 29.5 percent (95% CI, 25.9-33.2) in provinces with old legislation, and 52.0 percent (43.0-61.0) in provinces without legislation in 2010. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that child safety seat legislation has an impact on restraint use in Canada. Despite the increase in rates of child safety seat use in provinces with new legislation and stable rates in provinces with old legislation, use rates remain low. Injury prevention strategies including further surveillance, interventions, and enforcement of restraint use in children are important to decrease motor vehicle related injury and death. PMID:24279898
Simniceanu, Alice; Richmond, Sarah A; Snowdon, Anne; Hussein, Abdulkadir; Boase, Paul; Howard, Andrew
Full Text Available Purpose: We studied the thyroid volumes and urinary iodine levels of 42 term newborns born in Kayseri.Material and Methods: Urinary iodine levels were measured on postnatal 5th day. The levels of triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4, thyrotropin (TSH and thyroglobulin (Tg were measured in the cord blood of newborns and in mothers' sera by RIA. The TSH levels of cord blood above 20 mU/L and levels of Tg above 54 ng/ml, and thyroid volumes of baby greater than 1.5 ml were accepted as pathological. Urinary iodine levels of newborns below 5 mg/dl were accepted as a criteria for iodine deficiency.Results: In 9.52 % of newborns, urinary iodine concentration was less than 5 mg/dl and in 16.7 % thyroid volume was greater than 1.5 mL. Cord TSH level greater than 20 mU/L was present in 11.9 % and cord Tg level greater than 54 ng/ml was present in 52.3 % of the newborns. In 2 of the 4 babies with iodine deficiency, thyroid volumes were high and 3 of them had high Tg levels. In 2 of the 7 babies who had high thyroid volumes, TSH levels were high, in 5 babies Tg levels were high, and in 2 urinary iodine levels were low. In 22 babies with high cord blood Tg levels, the thyroid volumes were high although this was not statistically significant. However, in these cases urine iodine levels were significantly low (p<0.05.Conclusion: This prospective study showed that in a significant number of newborns born in the Kayseri province, urinary iodine excretion was low and Tg levels and thyroid volumes were high. These data point to the need of an increased iodine supply in these pregnant women to reduce the potential consequences of low iodine intake.
Full Text Available "nBackground: Dog is known to act as definitive host for some parasites that cause important diseases in man and animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Neospora caninum and other intestinal parasites in dogs in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was done concerning frequency of N. canium and other intestinal parasites in dogs in Mashhad area. Totally, 174 fecal samples from 89 farm dogs and 85 household dogs were collected from 2006 to 2007. Fecal samples were examined for detecting intestinal parasites by Mini Parasep®SF faecal parasite concentrator in Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran "nResults: The overall prevalence of other intestinal parasites in farm dogs and household dogs were 29.21% and 14.11%, respectively. Seven parasites were found in farm dogs as follows: Toxocara canis 17.9%, Taenia sp. 10.1% , Strongyloides stercoralis 5.6%, Hammondia Neospora-like oocysts (HNLO 4.4% , Isospora sp. 7.8 %, Sarcocystis sp. 7.8 % and Giardia sp. 1.1% and four parasite in housed dogs: Toxocara. 4.4%, Taenia sp. 3.3 % , Isospora sp. 2.3 % and Sarcocystis sp. 4.7 %. The fecal samples with HNLO were examined by N. caninum -specific PCR, and two of samples were positive for N. caninum. "nConclusion: The farm and household dogs are the source of some important zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases in Iran .
The methods and results of investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Sichuan Province are reported. 418 25 km x 25 km-grid measuring points were set up uniformly in the east of Sichuan and 98 50 km x 50 km-grid in the mount area of West Sichuan totally 516 grid points, with 355 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The area-weighted, population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural ? radiation dose rate for field is 62.8, 62.5 and 64.6 nGy·h-1, respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural ? radiation dose rate for road is 63.0 nGy·h-1; (3) The population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural ? radiation dose rate inside buildings is 91.6 and 92.1 nGy·h-1, respectively; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 33.5 and 31.2 nGy·h-1, and outside buildings is 39.6 and 33.5 nGy·h-1, respectively; (5)The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 122.5 and 117.9 nGy·h-1, outside buildings is 102.1 and 96.7 nGy·h-1, respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from cosmic ray, natural ? radiation and natural penetrating radiation is 0.26, 0.51 and 0.77 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 2.59 x 104, 5.09 x 104 and 7.68 x 104 man·Sv, respectively
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in [...] adults and adolescents in the Western Cape. One strategy was an audit tool to assist with assessing and improving the quality of care. METHODS: The audit of asthma care targeted all primary care facilities that managed adult patients with chronic asthma within all six districts of the Western Cape province. The usual steps in the quality improvement cycle were followed. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 957 patients from 46 primary care facilities. Only 80% of patients had a consistent diagnosis of asthma, 11.5% of visits assessed control and 23.2% recorded a peak expiratory flow (PEF), 14% of patients had their inhaler technique assessed and 11.2% were given a self-management plan; 81% of medication was in stock, and the controller/reliever dispensing ratio was 0.6. Only 31.5% of patients were well controlled, 16.3% of all visits were for exacerbations, and 17.6% of all patients had been hospitalised in the previous year. CONCLUSION: The availability of medication and prescription of inhaled steroids is reasonable, yet control is poor. Health workers do not adequately distinguish asthma from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, do not assess control by questions or PEF, do not adequately demonstrate or assess the inhaler technique, and have no systematic approach to or resources for patient education. Ten recommendations are made to improve asthma care.
Bob, Mash; Hilary, Rhode; Michael, Pather; Gillian, Ainslie; Elvis, Irusen; Angeni, Bheekie; Pat, Mayers.
Full Text Available Jahan Nama Protected Area is located in the eastern parts of Alborz Mountains, between 36º35? and 36º42? northern latitudes and 54º08? and 54º36? eastern longitudes, with an altitude ranging from 800 to 3100 m. The complicated topography and habitat heterogeneity, in addition to influencing the area by humid Caspian climate at the north and Mediterranean-like climate at the south have caused formation of diverse vegetation types including deciduous montane forests, cold-resistant Juniper woodlands, montane steppes, grasslands and meadows, cliff and riverine vegetation. Based on collection of about 1350 specimens during 1999, 2000 and 2004 to 2007, a total number of 607 vascular plant species were identified from this area belonging to 329 genera and 85 families. The Dicots with 469 species are the richest group of flora of the area followed by Monocots with 119 species, Gymnosperms with 6 species and Pteridophytes with 13 species. The largest families in the area are Poaceae (53 species, Labiatae (50 species and Brassicaceae (52 species, and the most diverse genera include Astragalus (16 species, Carex (11 species and Veronica (11 species. The floristic composition of the area is strongly influenced by large number of Euro-Siberian (boreal elements in the mesic parts and Irano-Turanian elements in the Juniper woodland and montane steppe parts of the area. The area inhabited by several endemic plants of the Hyrcanian and Kopetdagh-Khorassan floristic provinces in addition to local endemics of the eastern and Central Alborz like Ferula glaucopruinosa (Rech.f. Akhani comb. nov. and trees like Taxus baccata which is considered as a protected and threatened species in Iran.
Full Text Available Egg production is one of the most important agricultural economic activities in Iran. According to the latest information in Iran, there were about 1432 poultry eggs farms producing about 576478 tons of edible eggs in 2005. The poultry farmers, however, complained that the cost of production was very high and that failed to gain considerable profit from their farming operations. The consumers, on the other hand, protested that the poultry price was very high. The purpose of this study is to determine the productivity level of the industry so that a more sustainable and high productivity production system can be developed. Production function was used to measure productivity. A transcendental production function was estimated using cross-sectional data collected from 47 farmers in the Khorasan Razavi province. Secondary data from the Iranian Statistical Year Book (published by the Statistical Center of Iran were also used. The results of the study found that the cost-benefit ratio was 0.96. The Average Product (AP, Marginal Product (MP, Value Marginal Product (VMP, Optimal Allocation Ratio and the Elasticity of Production (EP of the feed input were 0.41, 0.16, 577 Rials, 0.48 and 41% respectively. The findings for similar measures above for pullet input were 18.38, 4.24, 14826 Rials, 1.23 and 0.23 respectively. From the study, the average productivity of the poultry farm was 1.04. This shows that the income approximately equals the variable cost. When the fixed costs were taken into consideration, the profit of the average farm was negative. The results indicated that farmers were using feed more than “the optimal level ” and that they were using pullet less than “the optimal level. ” Therefore, to improve profitability, they should use less feed and keep more pullets. In this manner, the cost of production can be reduced.
Full Text Available The work being done by the University of Stellenbosch investigating otters as biological indicators of freshwater ecosystem in South Africa is progressing well. The first aim of the project is to assess the role of both species of otter (spotted-necked otters Lutra maculicollis and Cape clawless otters Aonyx capensis in freshwater ecosystems, and the factors and mechanisms responisble for limiting their populations (their role as biological indicators will be inferred from these results and secondly, to contribute to our understanding of carnivore behavioural ecology.The first stage in determining the distribution and status of spotted-necked otters and Cape clawless otters, in South Africa, and possible effects of environmental variants have, is almost complete. A detailed autecological study of Cape clawless otters in two rivers is now the main focus of the project. Six otters have had radio transmitters implanted: MP/300/L, implantable transmitter, 40g 80 x 20 mm diameter cylinder (Telonics Inc., Arizona, USA. Since implanting, one male has died of unknown causes. A post mortem revealed total healing from the operation. Much new behavioural and ecological information has been gained by the use of the radio tracking. One adult male has a home range of at least 45 km, much more than first expected for the species. Work has also been done in the Eastern Cape Province determining the diet of three coexisting carnivores, spotted-necked otters, Cape clawless otters and water mongoose (Atilax paludinosus. This work is about to be submitted for publication. We thank the Southern African Nature Foundation (WWF, for providing funds, and Mazda Wildlife Fund for providing a vehicle for the project.
Michael J. Somers
Full Text Available Nursing education institutions are facing a challenge of realigning its functioning according to the changes that are taking place within the country. The intention of the government post apartheid was to correct the imbalances which were brought about by the apartheid government and the following regulations and policies influenced the change in nursing education, that is, Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP, White Paper on Higher Education (WPHE, and the National Qualification Framework (NQF (South Africa, 1995:6. In 1996 the government introduced the first democratic constitution of the Republic of South Africa (RS A according to Act 108 of 1996. In the light of those increasing changes in nursing education, led by political change, the experiences of nurse educators is a critical issue facing nursing campuses. The purpose of this study was two-fold; namely: to explore and describe the experiences of nurse educators with regard to the rationalisation of nursing education and to use information obtained to describe guidelines for the effective rationalisation of a nursing college in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Qualitative interviews were conducted with nurse educators who worked in nursing colleges before and after 1994. Measures to ensure trustworthiness were applied and ethical issues were adhered to throughout the research process. Data was analysed following Tesch’s method (Creswell 1994:154-155. The research established that nurse educators experienced dissatisfaction in several areas relating to the rationalization of nursing education. Support was also expected from bureaucracy at higher level. This study developed guidelines to policy makers and nurse educators to ensure effective rationalisation process.
Full Text Available This research work aims to study the specific activity of natural radioactivity in soil, rock, construction sand and shallow well water samples in the area of Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. Totally 161 samples were collected and analysed using gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The specific activities of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in soil samples ranged from 8 to 203 (mean 96±18 Bq/kg, 12 to 236 (mean 88±23 Bq/kg and 21 to 1191 (mean 524±127 Bq/kg, in rock samples ranged from 11 to 113 (mean 46±14 Bq/kg, 3 to 113 (mean 47±16 Bq/kg and 18 to 1305 (mean 472±187 Bq/kg, in sand samples ranged from 3 to 91 (mean 42±5 Bq/kg, 14 to 91 (mean 50±5 Bq/kg and 102 to 966 (mean 509±57 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity of soil samples in 2 districts was found to be higher than 370 Bq/kg. The radiation hazard indices calculated for assessment of the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these rock and sand samples in the construction of dwellings were within the safety limits recommended by UNSCEAR. The mean estimated outdoor dose rates in soil and rock samples were 119±23 and 70±21 nGy/h, respectively. The mean estimated indoor dose rate in sand samples was 134±9 nGy/h. The specific activities of Ra-226 in well water samples ranged from 2 to 179 (Mean 17±7 mBq/l. Only one water sample from Muang District had the Ra-226 specific activity of 179 mBq/l, which was higher than the maximum contaminant level (111 mBq/l.
China’s growth and development have opened the door to a new world. Shandong province’s 90 million inhabitants are entering into a consumption society and the waste stream from households, restaurants and commercials has become a challenge. So far, the waste has mostly been burned in backyards, thrown into rivers, put on open dumps or taken to landfills. The environmental consequence is strong. This study was carried out in Shandong province and presents the current situation of the munic...
Ambell, Christine; Xu, Yixuan
Full Text Available On 1st June 1975 a new two-tier administrative division of the country was introduced creating 49 new provinces. One of the newly created provinces was sieradzkie. On the territory of the sieradzkie province the development of tourism was coordinated and supervised by the department for physical education and tourism (the name of the department during the period changed repeatedly. The main factors for the development of tourism in the sieradzkie province included: the amount of funding spent on tasks related to tourism, tourism infrastructure (accommodation and catering, qualified tourist staff, as well as activities in the field of information and promotion of tourism.
This report gives a general summary of the availability and use of ground water and describes the occurrence of ground water in five major geohydrologic provinces lying in the eight administrative regions of Ghana. The identification and delineation of the geohydrologic provinces are based on their distinctive characteristics with respect to the occurrence and availability of ground water. The Precambrian province occupies the southern, western, and northern parts of Ghana and is underlain largely by intrusive crystalline and metasedimentary rocks. The Voltaian province includes that part of the Voltaian sedimentary basin in central Ghana and is underlain chiefly by consolidated sandstone, mudstone, and shale. Narrow discontinuous bands of consolidated Devonian and Jurassic sedimentary rocks near the coast constitute the Coastal Block Fault province. The Coastal Plain province includes semiconsolidated to unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous to Holocene age that underlie coastal plain areas in southwestern and southeastern Ghana. The Alluvial province includes the Quaternary alluvial deposits in the principal river valleys and on the delta of the Volta River. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks of low permeability in the Precambrian, Voltaian, and Coastal Block Fault provinces, it is difficult to develop large or event adequate groundwater supplies in much of Ghana. On the other hand, small (1 to 50 gallons per minute) supplies of water of usable quality are available from carefully sited boreholes in most parts of the country. Also, moderate (50 to 200 gpm) supplies of water are currently (1964) obtained from small-diameter screened boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province in southwestern and southeastern Ghana, but larger supplies could be obtained through properly constructed boreholes. In the Alluvial province, unconsolidated deposits in the larger stream valleys that are now largely undeveloped offer desirable locations for shallow vertical or horizontal wells, which can induce infiltration from streams and yield moderate to large water supplies. The principal factors that limit development of ground-water supplies in Ghana are (1) prevailing low permeability and water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks that underlie most of the country, (2) highly mineralized ground water which appears to be widely distributed in the northern part of the Voltaian province, and (3) potential problems of salt-water encroachment in the Coastal Plain province in the Western Region and in the Keta area. On the other hand, weathering has increased porosity and has thus substantially increased the water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks in much of central and northern Ghana. Also, with proper construction and development, much larger yields than those now (1964) prevalent could be obtained from boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province.
Gill, H. E.
Full Text Available Macroscopically homogenous muscovite plate from the Cruzeiro pegmatite, located in the Eastern Pegmatite Province in Minas Gerais, may show complex distribution patterns of some trace elements. In geochronological and petrological studies, as for example in the distinction of magmatic and post-magmatic mica, the cause of zoning could be taken into consideration. The complex chemical zoning in the studied mica plate can be best explained by growth in an evolving magma followed by alteration due to percolation of hydrothermal fluids. Enrichment of Rb towards the border is interpreted as resulting from the chemical evolution of the residual magma during crystal growth. The depletion in (IV Al+VI Al as well as the increase in (Fe+Mg and Si along a fracture could be due to the hydrothermal celadonitic substitution of muscovite. This alteration also caused depletion in the contents of Rb, Ga, Y, Nb, Sn, and Zn and residual concentration of Ti. Elements such as Ga, Y, Nb, Sn, and Zn, rarely considered in the discussion of differentiation or alteration processes in micas, have been shown to be as significant as the alkali-elements.Um grande cristal de muscovita, macroscopicamente homogêneo, procedente do Pegmatito Cruzeiro, localizado na Província Pegmatítica Oriental, em Minas Gerais, exibe padrão de distribuição complexa para alguns elementos traços. Em estudos geocronológicos e petrológicos, como, por exemplo, na separação entre micas magmáticas e pós-magmáticas, a causa de zoneamento deve ser levada em consideração. O complexo zoneamento químico no cristal de mica estudado é melhor explicado pelo crescimento em um magma evoluído, seguido pela alteração, proveniente da percolação de fluidos hidrotermais. O enriquecimento de Rb nas bordas é interpretado como resultado da evolução química do magma residual durante o crescimento do cristal. A diminuição em (IV Al+VI Al, bem como o aumento de (Fe+Mg e Si ao longo da fratura é explicado pela substituição hidrotermal celadonítica da muscovita. A alteração hidrotermal causou, também, a diminuição nos conteúdos de Rb, Ga, Y, Nb, Sn e Zn ao longo desta fratura, além da concentração residual de Ti. Elementos tais como, Ga, Y, Nb, Sn, e Zn, pouco considerados em discussão de diferenciação ou processos de alteração, mostraram significância tanto quanto os elementos alcalinos.
Rúbia R. Viana
Located north of the Swartberg Mountains in South Africa's Northern Cape Province, this topographic image shows a portion of the Great Karoo region. Karoo is an indigenous word for 'dry thirst land.' The semi-arid area is known for its unique variety of flora and fauna. The topography of the area, with a total relief of 200 meters (650 feet), reveals much about the geologic history of the area. The linear features seen in the image are near-vertical walls of once-molten rock, or dikes, that have intruded the bedrock. The dikes are more resistant to weathering and, therefore, form the linear wall-like features seen in the image. In relatively flat arid areas such as this, small changes in the topography can have large impacts on the water resources and the local ecosystem. These data can be used by biologists to study the distribution and range of the different plants and animals. Geologists can also use the data to study the geologic history of this area in more detail.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.
The Wyoming uranium province study is a part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation for the US Department of Energy. The ultimate objective of the entire project is the integration of NURE and other data sources to develop a model for a uranium province centered in Wyoming. This paper presents results of the first phase of the Wyoming uranium province study, which comprises characterization of the crystalline rocks of the study area using NURE hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment data, aerial radiometric and magnetic data, and new data generated for zircons from intrusive rocks in the study area. The results of this study indicate that the stream-sediment, aerial radiometric, aerial magnetic, and zircon data are useful in characterization of the crystalline rocks of the uranium province. The methods used in this project can be applied in two ways toward the recognition of a uranium province: (1) to locate major uranium deposits and occurrences, and (2) to generally identify different crystalline rock types, particularly those that could represent significant uranium source rocks. 14 figures, 8 tables
Objective: To evaluate the methods of carrying out radiotherapy quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) in the whole province. Methods: From 1995, radiotherapy quality control center of Zhejiang province (the guiding team consists of specialists in radiation oncology of the province) has carried out a QC and QA program including evaluation of administration, departmental infrastructure, equipment, staff and treatment for 28 centers in the whole province. The regulation and scoring system were designed and first informed to every center, with the 28 centers checked and examined by the guiding team from 1999 to 2000. Results: Great variations in equipment and staff were observed among participating centers. Equipment condition was not very satisfactory. Most of the treatment protocols were reasonable except that the indication for radiotherapy was not strict enough in some centers. Conclusions: It is feasible for the radiotherapy quality control center to check and examine the department of radiation oncology in the whole province. Good QC and QA is invaluable to standardize the treatment protocol and ensure the radiotherapy quality and also helpful to carry out multi-center study in the future
Full Text Available In order to study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae fauna of East Azerbaijan Province, some samplings were carried out by dipping method for the larvae and hand catch, night biting catch, total catch, and shelter pit collection as well as using window trap for the adults during June, July, and August 2004 plus July and August 2005. In total, 1305 adult mosquitoes and 603 larvae were collected. Seven genera and 15 species were identified in the prov¬ince including; Anopheles claviger, An. hyrcanus, An. maculipennis s.l., An. pseudopictus, An. sacharovi, An. superpictus, Aedes vexans, Coquillettidia richiardii, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. subo¬chrea, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., and Uranotaenia unguiculata. An. maculipennis complex, Cx. pipiens, and Cx. theileri were the most prevalent and widely dis¬tributed species. An. pseudopictus, Ae. vexans, and Cq. richiardii are reported for the first time in East Azerbaijan Province and a checklist for the mosquitoes of the province is also presented. Among the mosquitoes of the province, there are many potential vectors of human and domesticated animal pathogens that their ecology needs to be studied extensively.
Full Text Available Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, dead-end introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population.
Claude T. Sabeta
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from si [...] tes where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, deadend introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population.
Sabeta, Claude T; Weyer, Jacqueline; Geertsma, Peter; Mohale, Debra; Miyen, Jacobeth; Blumberg, Lucille H; Leman, Patricia A; Phahladira, Baby; Shumba, Wonderful; Walters, Johan; Paweska, Janusz T.
Fars province is a large populated large province located in the southwest of Iran. This work presents a study of natural and radioactivity levels in soil samples of this province. For this purpose, 126 samples were gathered from different regions of the province and analysed by gamma spectroscopy to quantify radioactivity concentrations of radionuclides using a high-purity germanium detector and spectroscopy system. The results of this investigation show the average concentrations of 271 ± 28 Bq kg(-1), 6.37 ± 0.5 Bq kg(-1), 14.9 ± 0.9 Bq kg(-1) and 26.3 ± 1.9 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, (137)Cs, (232)Th and (238)U in soil, respectively. Finally, baseline maps were established for the concentrations of each of the radionuclides in different regions. The absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose (AED) were also calculated for the radionuclides according to the guidelines of UNSCEAR 2000. The average AED from the radioactivity content of soil in this province was found to be 39.9 ± 1.8 ?Sv. PMID:21081518
Faghihi, R; Mehdizadeh, S; Sina, S
Full Text Available Zimbabwe is basically endowed in agricultural resources. As a result agricultural activities have a large bearing on developmental issues in the country. Employment is one such economic issue that hinges much on agricultural development. Over the past decade employment levels have reduced as a result of low investment in the country. Masvingo Province has not been spared. This scenario has seen many youths being out of employment as the sector employed less labour. The study found out that economic woes that Zimbabwe experienced over the past half decade have contributed significantly to youth unemployment in agriculture in Masvingo Province as a result of low investment in the sector. The study recommends that heavy investment be put in agriculture and agriculture related projects to enhance employment levels of the Zimbabwean youths in Masvingo province.
Guangdong Province is the area most seriously affected by dengue fever in China. In this study, we describe the spatial distribution of dengue fever in Guangdong Province from 2001 to 2006 with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation. Annualized incidence at a county level was calculated and mapped to show crude incidence, excess hazard, and spatial smoothed incidence. Geographic information system-based spatial scan statistics was conducted to detect the spatial distribution pattern of dengue fever incidence at the county level. Spatial scan cluster analyses suggested that counties around Guangzhou City and Chaoshan Region were at increased risk for dengue fever (P < .01). Some spatial clusters of dengue fever were found in Guangdong Province, which allowed intervention measures to be targeted for maximum effect. PMID:23343642
Liu, Chunxiao; Liu, Qiyong; Lin, Hualiang; Xin, Benqiang; Nie, Jun
The factors affecting the security of coal resources in Hebei Province were analyzed from four aspects - ensuring coal resources, development conditions, the ecological environment and the coal marketplace. An early warning index system for the security of coal resources was set up. The warning degrees were defined and the boundary of the warning index for each warning degree was studied. The synthesized warning model was set up using catastrophe theory. Based on the prediction of the quantity of coal consumed and production ability in Hebei Province, the security of coal resources in Hebei Province was analyzed. The warning is grave and investment in coal resources exploration and mine construction should be increased, while new energy sources should be developed and the energy consumption structure should be changed. 8 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.
Hou, Yun-bing; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Xin-hua; Liu, Chun-de; Cao, Dai-yong; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Lu-suo [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Resources and Safety Engineering
The Baykit High province consists of two principal structural units?the Baykit regional high in the west, which occupies most of the province, and the Katanga structural saddle in the east. The province is on the western margin of the Siberian craton east of theYenisey Ridge foldbelt. The province is an exploration frontier and only a few prospects have been drilled. The oldest sedimentary rocks of the province, Riphean carbonate and clastic strata of Late Proterozoic age (1,650?650 million years old) that were deposited on the passive margin, cover the Archean?Lower Proterozoic basement. Basal Vendian (uppermost Proterozoic, 650?570 million years old) clastic rocks unconformably overlie various units of the Riphean and locally lie directly on the basement. Younger Vendian and lowermost Cambrian rocks are primarily dolomites. The Vendian/Cambrian boundary is con-formable, and its exact stratigraphic position has not been identified with certainty. The Lower Cambrian section is thick, and it consists of alternating beds of dolomite and evaporites (mostly salt). Middle and Upper Cambrian strata are composed of shale and dolomite. Ordovician-Silurian and upper Paleozoic rocks are thin, and they are present only in the northern areas of the province. Structural pattern of Riphean rocks differs substantially from that of Vendian-Cambrian rocks. A single total petroleum system (TPS) was identified in the Baykit High province. Discovered oil of the system is chiefly concentrated in Riphean carbonate reservoirs of the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone that is currently being explored and that has the Abstract 1 potential to become a giant field (or group of fields). The TPS also contains about 5 trillion cubic feet of discovered recover-able gas in clastic reservoir rocks at the base of the Vendian section. Petroleum source rocks are absent in the stratigraphic succession over most of the TPS area. Riphean organic-rich shales and carbonates that crop out in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt west of the Baykit high are probable source rocks. Their areal distribution extends from the foldbelt into the foredeep along the province?s western margin. Potential source rocks also are present in platform depressions in eastern areas of the province. Hydrocarbon generation and migration west of the province started as early as Riphean time, before the beginning of the deformation in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt that occurred about 820?850 million years ago. However, the presently known oil and gas accumulations were formed after deposition of the Lower Cambrian salt seal. Available data allow identification of only one assessment unit, and it covers the entire TPS area. Undiscovered oil and gas resources are moderate, primarily due to the poor quality of reservoir rocks. However, the reserve growth in the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone may be large and may exceed the volume of undiscovered resources in the rest of the province. Most oil and gas resourcesareexpectedtobeinstructuralandstratigraphictrapsin Riphean carbonate reservoirs. Vendian clastic reservoirs are probably gas-prone.
Ulmishek, Gregory F.
Three Grenville-age provinces can be distinguished in East Antarctica with U-Pb zircon data. The Maud, Rayner, and Wilkes provinces each have a distinctive age signature for late Mesoproterozoic early Neoproterozoic magmatism and high-grade metamorphism and are correlated with similar rocks in the Namaqua-Natal (Africa), Eastern Ghats (India), and Albany-Fraser (Australia) provinces, respectively. These crustal segments represent three separate collisional orogens. They are separated by regions of intense late Neoproterozoic Early Cambrian tectonism, consistent with their juxtaposition during the final assembly of Gondwana and indicating that previous models for a single, continuous, Grenville-age mobile belt around the East Antarctic coastline should be discarded.
Fitzsimons, I. C. W.
Cuba's Guantanamo province is a leader in the application of renewable energy technologies. This paper discussed the socio-economic impact of renewable energy projects that are underway in the Guantanamo province to improve the standard of living in rural areas. More than 400 rural schools and 70 rural medical offices get their electricity from photovoltaic systems. Hydropower provides the energy needs to 3000 rural houses with 11,000 inhabitants. Other applications include remote community solar systems, improved woodstoves for community kitchens, solar cookers and solar dryers. This paper demonstrated how the high penetration of these renewable energy technologies has contributed to the sustainable development of the province. The lessons learned in energy management by the local governments and research institutions were also outlined. 1 tab.
Perez, S.; Angel, J. [CUBASOLAR, Guantanamo (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba); Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba)
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper provides a basis for conservation work by detailing the micromammalian taxa occurring in the Northern Cape Province. It presents new evidence from 30 barn owl pellet collections, augmented by previously published material from trapping or observation (here called 'conventional' reports) a [...] nd owl roosts, divided into pre-1930, 1930-1979 and 1980 and newer as an indication of continuity of occurrence. A historical perspective is added by the inclusion of material from two archaeological sites dating to the Pleistocene (before about 10 000 years ago) and || from the Holocene (after about 10 000 years ago). Northern Cape Province synonymies are provided as an aid to equating older records with modern taxonomy. In all, 77 currently recognized micromammalian species have been recorded from the province. These comprise five Afrosoricida (golden moles), six Macroscelidea (elephant shrews), eight Soricomorpha (forest shrews), 16 Chiroptera (bats), and 42 Rodentia (rodents).
D. Margaret, Avery; Graham, Avery.
The potential for hydrogen production from wind resources in the province of Cordoba, second consumer of fossil fuels for transportation in Argentina, is analyzed. Three aspects of the problem are considered: the evaluation of the hydrogen resource from wind power, the analysis of the production costs via electrolysis and the annual requirements of wind energy to generate hydrogen to fuel the vehicular transport of the province. Different scenarios were considered, including pure hydrogen as well as the so-called CNG plus, where hydrogen is mixed with compressed natural gas in a 20% V/V dilution of the former. The potential for hydrogen production from wind resources is analyzed for each department of the province, excluding those regions not suited for wind farms. The analysis takes into account the efficiency of the electrolyzer and the capacity factor of the wind power system. It is concluded that the automotive transportation could be supplied by hydrogen stemming from wind resources via electrolysis. (author)
Rodriguez, C.R.; Santa Cruz, R.; Aisa, S. [Universidad Empresarial Siglo 21, Monsenor Pablo Cabrera s/n calle, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Riso, M.; Jimenez Yob, G.; Ottogalli, R. [Subsecretaria de Infraestructuras y Programas, Ministerio de Obras y Servicios Publicos del Gobierno de la Provincia de Cordoba, Av. Poeta Lugones 12, 2do. Piso, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Jeandrevin, G. [Instituto Universitario Aeronautico, Avenida Fuerza Aerea km 6 1/2, 5022 Cordoba (Argentina); Leiva, E.P.M. [INFIQC, Unidad de Matematica y Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre s/n, 5010 Cordoba (Argentina)
Full Text Available Today, issue of accidents has turned into a great complication in Iran and it can be interpreted as silent killer which causes death of tens of human. Of the major and effective factors in occurrence of accidents are vehicle and road each playing role according to the available statistics. One of the major causes which cause serious injuries and cause death of the passengers of vehicles by 50% according to the available statistics is overturn of vehicle and all of the three factors mentioned above can play essential role in its emergence which is mostly caused by human. This paper studies causes of overturn based on the available statistics in 2010 relating to Zanjan Province, one of the provinces of northwest of Iran and suggested ways for reducing it in this province.
Seyed Mahdi Sajjadi
The distribution of deformation within the Basin and Range province was determined from 1992, 1996, and 1998 surveys of a dense, 800-kilometer-aperture, Global Positioning System network. Internal deformation generally follows the pattern of Holocene fault distribution and is concentrated near the western extremity of the province, with lesser amounts focused near the eastern boundary. Little net deformation occurs across the central 500 kilometers of the network in western Utah and eastern Nevada. Concentration of deformation adjacent to the rigid Sierra Nevada block indicates that external plate-driving forces play an important role in driving deformation, modulating the extensional stress field generated by internal buoyancy forces that are due to lateral density gradients and topography near the province boundaries. PMID:10073932
Thatcher; Foulger; Julian; Svarc; Quilty; Bawden
This presentation discussed a study that evaluated wind energy export potential from the Maritime provinces to the northeastern United States. The study assessed key market issues likely to affect the exports. The study showed that the Maritime provinces are capable of generating 5500 to 7500 MW of wind. The current electricity system is capable of integrating 2100 MW. Wind power integration between the 2 regions would require transmission upgrades, increased transmission capacity, and better coordination between system operators. Barriers to exports from the Maritimes include limited capacity on existing interties and high transmission tariffs. Uniform transmission tariffs are needed throughout the Maritime provinces. Coordination and integration of operators and utilities is needed to reduce the costs of wind power integration. Increased wind power production reduces price risks related to high energy prices. It was concluded that wind power is a cost-effective method of providing renewable and low carbon dioxide (CO2) generation electricity in the northeastern United States. tabs., figs
Background Dengue fever has been a major public health concern in China since it re-emerged in Guangdong province in 1978. This study aimed to explore spatiotemporal characteristics of dengue fever cases for both indigenous and imported cases during recent years in Guangdong province, so as to identify high-risk areas of the province and thereby help plan resource allocation for dengue interventions. Methods Notifiable cases of dengue fever were collected from all 123 counties of Guangdong province from 2005 to 2010. Descriptive temporal and spatial analysis were conducted, including plotting of seasonal distribution of cases, and creating choropleth maps of cumulative incidence by county. The space-time scan statistic was used to determine space-time clusters of dengue fever cases at the county level, and a geographical information system was used to visualize the location of the clusters. Analysis were stratified by imported and indigenous origin. Results 1658 dengue fever cases were recorded in Guangdong province during the study period, including 94 imported cases and 1564 indigenous cases. Both imported and indigenous cases occurred more frequently in autumn. The areas affected by the indigenous and imported cases presented a geographically expanding trend over the study period. The results showed that the most likely cluster of imported cases (relative risk?=?7.52, p?0.001) and indigenous cases (relative risk?=?153.56, p?0.001) occurred in the Pearl River Delta Area; while a secondary cluster of indigenous cases occurred in one district of the Chao Shan Area (relative risk?=?471.25, p?0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrated that the geographic range of imported and indigenous dengue fever cases has expanded over recent years, and cases were significantly clustered in two heavily urbanised areas of Guangdong province. This provides the foundation for further investigation of risk factors and interventions in these high-risk areas.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever has been a major public health concern in China since it re-emerged in Guangdong province in 1978. This study aimed to explore spatiotemporal characteristics of dengue fever cases for both indigenous and imported cases during recent years in Guangdong province, so as to identify high-risk areas of the province and thereby help plan resource allocation for dengue interventions. Methods Notifiable cases of dengue fever were collected from all 123 counties of Guangdong province from 2005 to 2010. Descriptive temporal and spatial analysis were conducted, including plotting of seasonal distribution of cases, and creating choropleth maps of cumulative incidence by county. The space-time scan statistic was used to determine space-time clusters of dengue fever cases at the county level, and a geographical information system was used to visualize the location of the clusters. Analysis were stratified by imported and indigenous origin. Results 1658 dengue fever cases were recorded in Guangdong province during the study period, including 94 imported cases and 1564 indigenous cases. Both imported and indigenous cases occurred more frequently in autumn. The areas affected by the indigenous and imported cases presented a geographically expanding trend over the study period. The results showed that the most likely cluster of imported cases (relative risk?=?7.52, p? Conclusions This study demonstrated that the geographic range of imported and indigenous dengue fever cases has expanded over recent years, and cases were significantly clustered in two heavily urbanised areas of Guangdong province. This provides the foundation for further investigation of risk factors and interventions in these high-risk areas.
By using the double pour plate method, Yeasts Extract Agar (YE) which contained a high concentration of chloramphenicol-streptomycin sulfate and cycloheximide,, and by inoculating mice intraperitoneally, we succeed in the isolation of different strains of Coccidicides immitis from 12 samples of the soils collected in the province of San Luis and from 1 of the province of Mendoza (Argentina), a 70% of the samples turned out positive. Identification of the strains was based on macro- and micro-morphology of the colonies, pathogenicity for mice and the capacity to transform in shaked cultures. PMID:857328
Borghi, A L; Rossi de Benetti, M S; Corallini de Bracalenti, B J
The paper demonstrates an application of advanced decision support tools within the framework of the environmental information system of the Province of Milan. These tools include environmental simulation models, multi criteria analysis, risk analysis and environmental accounting for marketable emission permits. After describing the general structure of the system, three demonstrational case studies are introduced concerning: groundwater pollution management; atmospheric pollution management; urban environmental quality perception and management. In the conclusion, potential use of tools like the ones implemented by the province of Milan within the framework of Local Agenda 21 processes is recalled
Full Text Available Cet article est consacré à l'évolution d'un ensemble d'infrastructures dans les communes de la province de Saragosse (Espagne entre 1985 et 2010. On y présente aussi un appareillage cartographique qui mobilise les indicateurs territoriaux issus de l'Enquête sur les infrastructures et équipements locaux (EIEL, et qui constitue une aide à la décision technique et politique visant à une distribution équitable des fonds publics et à une hiérarchisation des besoins des municipalités de la province.
Fernando Tricas Lamana
A high-resolution and high-precision detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed for San Juan province in Argentina, ranging from 27 degrees S to 34 degrees S in latitude and 72 degrees W to 65 degrees W in longitude. The gravimetric geoid was calculated using the RTM method, a multiband spherical Stokes Fast Fourier Transformation, and the removerestore technique for the spherical harmonic reference field and the terrain. As an external evaluation, the gravimetric quasigeoid/geoid was compared to the geoid heights obtained from 90 GPS/levelling points available for the province. Finally, a GPS-tailored local geoid, which fits the GPS observations, was computed.
Tocho, Claudia; Miranda, Silvia
AIM: The aim of This study is to eveluata the process On Healt Indicator In Between 2000 and 2007 years. Of 11 provinces practicing model of Family Medicine firstly. METHOD: This observational-descriptive study was made in May-June 2008 On Healt Indicator Of 11 provincespracticed the model of Family Medicine at least for a year. It vas taken through the Ministry of Health 20 Health Indicators belonging to the years 2000 and 2007 Of these provinces and also we benefited from data in annual stu...
Nasir Nesanir; Naile Erkman
Full Text Available The present study is based on the macrofungi specimens, collected from different biotope of Ardahan and I?d?r provinces of Turkey, between 2000-2001. As a result of field and laboratory studies, 78 taxa were identified and the previous reports on 61 taxa in the study area were added. Total 139 taxa belonging to 35 families in Myxomycetes, Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes were presented as a list. Seventy eight of them are new for the province. Cortinarius uraceus Fr. (Cortinariaceae is determined as a new record for Turkish macromycota.
The gas-bearing Barents Sea Petroleum Province in Russia is of near- shore and marine origin. Its total thickness is 300 to 400 m and consists of claystone, siltstone and sandstone. The reservoirs are represented by deltaic or bar sandstone and siltstone. The productive strata lie on Triassic terrigenous sequence of basaltic sills and dykes. The seal for gas reservoirs is Middle Jurassic-Neocomian marine clay formation that formed in stable tectonic conditions. The diagenetic history of the basin was reviewed. The study is based on geochemical information and basin modelling due to the limited number of geological studies of the vast Barents Sea Petroleum Province.
Evdokimova, N.K.; Bro, E.G.; Suprunenko, O.I.; Ustinov, N.V. [Scientific Research Institute for Geology and Mineral Resources of the World Ocean, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
In the Upper Permian of northeastern Thailand (Loei Province), continental plants have been found and to the north in Laos near Luang Prabang, continental vertebrates (Dicynodon species) have been discovered. The Middle Permian is in sharp contrast to this as it is represented only by marine sediments. West of these areas in the province of Nan in Thailand, the Upper Permian is represented by marine sediments which extend to a high level in the Upper Permian and continental beds appear to be entirely absent, at least at Pha Dang Khwai, a locality where limestone extends from the end of the Lower Permian to the Triassic.
Fontaine, Henri; Hoang, Thi Than; Kavinate, Sathaporn; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Vachard, Daniel
Background: Gastric cancer (G.Ca) is significantly more prevalent in north western than central Iran. Growing evidence has related Helicobacter pylori (H.P) to G.Ca worldwide. We assessed the prevalence of H.P infection in high (Ardebil) and low (Yazd) prevalence of G.Ca provinces of Iran. Methods: Cluster sampling of healthy population aged less than 20 years was performed in Ardebil and Yazd provinces over 2 months. Ten cc blood was drawn from each person and H.P IgG was tested using ELISA ...
Mikaily J; Malekzadeh R; Ziadalizadeh B; Valizadeh Toosi M; Khoncheh A; Masserat S
Full Text Available This article studied the relationship between export commodity structure and carbon emission based on VAR model and it shows that the carbon emission in Henan Province is not only subject to itself, but also to each export commodity structure factor, especially, the fluctuation of export of low value-added product has an obvious impact on carbon emission. Hence, as far as export policy is concerned, to actualize economic low-carbonization, Henan Province should accelerate the upgrading of industrial structure, intensify the research of low-carbon technology, improve environmental standard, perfect finance and taxation system and develop international cooperation.
For comparison of the quality of Lycium barbarum L., the authors determined 11 trace elements in the fruits of Lycium barbarum L. from 12 different regions of Qinghai province by ICP-MS and ICP-AES. Meanwhile, 7 trace elements essential for human body were selected to the object of principal component analysis by SPSS statistic software. Three principal component equations were obtained, and the regression equation related to principal component was also set up. The research is very important to quality analysis and to obtaining high quality Lycium barbarum L. , and provided science basis for the development and utilization of Lycium barbarum L. in Qinghai province. PMID:22512203
Yang, Ren-ming; Suo, You-rui; Wang, Hong-lun
The study establishes DEMs and the computer models of daily extraterrestrial radiation in Zhangpu sample plot and Fujian province and annually extraterrestrial radiation in Fujian province using GIS base on SOTER. The results indicate that the daily extraterrestrial ...
Zhi-qiang Chen; Jian-fei Chen
"nBackground: Pediculus capitis or head louse infestation affects millions of children worldwide, especially those in the 5-11 years age group. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of head pediculosis among school children in urban and rural areas of Fars Province, southern Iran."nMethods: All school children of age 6-11 yr from both genders in all urban and rural areas of the province were screened for head louse infestation by examination of their hair and scalps. Parents ...
The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province is the world's best modern example of a time-transgressive hotspot track beneath continental crust. Tomographic images document a thermal anomaly which pierces the Farallon plate at depth and appears to extend to depths of over 1000 km. Many investigators attribute this anomaly to a deep mantle plume, while others recognize the sheet-like aspect of the velocity anomaly and attribute it to lower mantle flow around a fragmented remnant of the Farallon plate. Tholeiitic basalts of the SRP have major element compositions similar to ocean island basalts (OIB), with higher FeO, TiO2, P2O5 and K2O than mid-ocean ridge basalts over a similar range in MgO. Their trace element concentrations also mimic OIB tholeiites, with moderately enriched LREE/HREE ratios, OIB-like HFSE ratios and Nb-Y-Zr systematics. Most SRP basalts show little evidence of crustal assimilation: oxygen isotope compositions are mantle-like, K2O is low and does not increase relative to other incompatible elements during fractionation (e.g., P2O5), and silica contents are consistently low. In contrast, evidence suggests that these basalts evolve primarily through fractional crystallization in relatively shallow magma chambers with episodic magma recharge. Trace element concentration patterns are nearly identical to OIB tholeiites, with somewhat lower slopes on multi-element variations diagrams, consistent with 7-12% partial melting of spinel-facies peridotite (9-18 kb, 40-65 km) with a composition similar to the source of OIB or EMORB. Models show that depleted MORB asthenosphere or primitive mantle peridotite composition sources cannot yield SRP tholeiites, even with residual garnet in the source region to raise LREE/HREE ratios in the melt. There is no indication of residual garnet in the source - which requires that either the lithosphere was relatively thin during formation of the SRP, or that the melts originated within the lithosphere itself. The limited range of major and trace element composition, mantle ?18O signatures, and lack of any correlation between isotope ratios and major and trace element abundances indicate minimal crustal interaction. Major element, trace element, and He isotope systematics of the basaltic rocks are consistent with a deep, sublithospheric mantle source, similar to the source of ocean island basalts. This conclusions are supported by results from deep (~2 km) core holes recently drilled by Project Hotspot. In contrast, the radiogenic Pb isotopes in these basalts are indistinguishable from melts derived from the ancient Wyoming cratonic lithosphere that underlies the SRP, while Sr and Nd isotope ratios are intermediate between depleted mantle and continental crust or lithospheric mantle values. This conundrum has been a major problem for plume models presented in the past. Isotopic studies of surface and subsurface basalt flows show systematic variations in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes with distance from Yellowstone that are interpreted to reflect changes in the proportion of plume source and the underlying heterogeneous cratonic lithosphere, which varies in age, composition, and thickness from west to east. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes suggest <5% lithospheric input into a system dominated by plume-derived basalts similar in composition to Hawaiian basalts.
Shervais, J. W.; Hanan, B. B.; Vetter, S.
The fundamental base of volcanic hazard assessment on any volcano is the study of its most recent eruptive history. Although the presence of extensive surficial pumice deposits was long known in the Rungwe Volcanic Province (RVP, SW Tanzania, East African Rift), the recent eruptive history was never studied in detail and is presented here for the first time. The RVP had several Plinian-style explosive eruptions in its Holocene history, originating from the two main volcanoes, Rungwe and Ngozi. Field observations are combined with whole-rock major (ICP-OES) and trace (ICP-MS) element analyses as well as major element analyses (EMPA) on glass. 14C ages of paleosols constrain all recognized deposits to 60 tephra layers deposited during the last 50 ky. Its Holocene record shows 7 tephra layers of which 2 (10.2 and 4.35 ka calBP) contain abundant pumice lapilli. Based on chemical constraints, the oldest of these pumice layers is believed to correspond to the Kitulo Pumice, the oldest on-land deposit found, originating from Ngozi. This eruption likely formed the 3 x 3 km Ngozi caldera. The 4.35 ka calBP pumice layer in the Masoko core was correlated with a Plinian pumice fallout deposit from Rungwe, the Rungwe Pumice, based on its appearance and paleosol 14C dating. It was traced over an area of ~1,500 km2 and probably extends even further. The Rungwe Pumice postdates a debris avalanche that was generated by a flank collapse of the volcano. This collapse left an amphitheatre-shaped depression on the summit that is now filled with domes, cones and explosion craters produced by effusive and explosive eruptions. A second large explosive eruption from Rungwe, the Isongole Pumice, is underlain by a 2.0 ± 0.1 ka calBP old paleosol. This deposit can easily be traced in the field due to its characteristic lithic content, being very lithic-rich at the base and lithic-poor at the top. It is believed to result from a blast through a Rungwe summit lava dome. The deposit morphology is cone-like rather than sheet-like and thus likely results from a moderate-size event. Two smaller explosive eruptions are <1 ka old. The oldest one is called Aphyric Pumice because of its characteristic aphyric nature, and is underlain by a 600 ± 35 a calBP old paleosol. Its Zr/Y ratios suggest it belongs to Ngozi rather than to Rungwe. The younger deposit is the Kizungu Tephra, originating from Rungwe. At the time of writing, no dating for this deposit exists yet. The youngest recognized deposit is made up of pyroclastic flow deposits from Ngozi, extending at least 10 km S of the volcano. A paleosol underneath the deposits was dated at 505 ± 44 a calBP. The stratigraphic record shows that both Ngozi and Rungwe experienced several large explosive eruptions, including eruptions forming pyroclastic flows, in their recent past. The late Holocene record is characterized by ca. 1 Rungwe eruption every 1 ky and calls for a thorough volcanic hazard assessment in this densely populated area.
Fontijn, K.; Ernst, G. G.; Elburg, M. A.; Williamson, D.; Jacobs, P.
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Background: Spina bifida and anencephaly are among serious and fatal anomalies in infants that may lead to a 50-70% of reduction in incidence when folic acid is consumed before conception.
Methods: In a cross sectional study, 2997 pregnant women were evaluated to determine the level of their knowledge and practice about using folic acid in Fars Province, southern Iran.
Results: Eighty percent of pregnant women were familiar with the name of folic acid, 44.7% had the knowledge of its importance during pregnancy, 31.2% and 8% had the knowledge about its effect in reduction of fatal and neurotic anomalies in fetuses, respectively. 86.6% consumed folic acid and 11% used it before awareness of their pregnancy.
Conclusion: Regarding the importance of the starting time of folic acid consumption in prevention of neural tube defects, the women should be trained in relation to starting of its consumption before conception.
After successful pilot projects, Zhejiang Province, China, decided to systematically scale-up health promoting schools (HPS) over the entire province of 47 million. This study describes the interventions and self-reported changes in attitudes, knowledge and behavior during the first phase of scaling-up. Group interviews were conducted with a…
Aldinger, Carmen; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xue-Dong; Yu, Sen-Hai; Jones, Jack; Kass, Jared
Full Text Available Based on the theory of financial development and economic growth, an investigation has been conducted to reveal the contradictions and correlations between the finance and economic growth in the counties of China's Shandong Province. This paper has proposed some countermeasures through the investigation of counties of Shandong Province.
The Early Proterozoic basement of the southwestern US can be divided into at least 3 major crustal provinces on the basis of Pb isotopic and geochemical signatures. These are: (1) the Mojave of SE CA, southern NV, and western AZ; (2) the Yavapai of central and northern AZ, northern NM and southern CO; and (3) the Mazatzal of southern AZ., and central and southern NM. The boundary between the Yavapai and Mazatzal provinces is close to the age province boundary proposed by Silver. Crustal provinces defined by chronologic, structural, lithologic, or metamorphic criteria usually don't distinguish regions unique in crustal formation character because these criteria often represent events that affected the crust (well) after the time of its original formation or represent non-unique information (e.g., magmatism can occur at the same time in entirely different crustal provinces). In comparison, isotopic and certain geochemical data often provide unique criteria because they are related to distinct mantle sources, specific processes, or the specific time of crustal formation. New U-Pb zircon ages determined by the SHRIMP ion microprobe indicate that the Mojave province probably has a latest Archean/earliest Proterozoic basement on which sedimentary rocks containing 2.7--2.5 Ga and 2.0--1.8 Ga detrital zircon populations were deposited. The timing of plutonic events in the Mojave and Yavapai provinces is indistinguishable from 1.76--1.70 Ga. Plutonic rocks with Yavapai isotopic and geochemical signatures intruded the eastern edge ( ) of the Mojave province as early as 1.74 Ga. This suggests that the two provinces were in close proximity from 1.76 Ga and that the older Mojave province was a buttress against which juvenile Yavapai crust formed.
Wooden, J.L.; Miller, D.M.; Howard, K. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Dewitt, E. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Karlstrom, K.E. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geology); Nutman, A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia))
Based on their review of Chinese government legislation and policy documents, and using interviews with recently detained injection drug users and officials in Guangxi Province, Elizabeth Cohen and Joseph Amon find evidence of antinarcotics policies and practices that may compromise the health and human rights of drug users.
Cohen, J. Elizabeth; Amon, Joseph J.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of demographic factors on the employment of people in Pattani and Songkla Provinces of Thailand. The outcome variable is binary employment status (employed or unemployed. The determinant variables are education completion level (none, elementary, secondary, high and the demographic factors gender, religion (Islam or Other, seven 5-year age groups (25-29 to 54-59, and district. We used data from the 2000 Census of the National Statistical Office. The analysis method involved first stratifying by religion, gender and district and then fitting logistic regression models in each stratum to determine odds ratios for the association between the outcome and the education completion level factor after adjusting for age group, and then combining these odds ratios using meta-analysis to obtain the overall independent association between education completion and unemployment in each province. The results showed that in Songkla province persons who had completed secondary education had no advantage in gaining employment over those who had completed only elementary education. And in Pattani province, those who had completed secondary education had a substantially higher unemployment rate than those with only an elementary education.
Full Text Available This paper analyses the regional variations in contraceptive use between Central, Nyanza and Coast Provincesin Kenya among currently married, fecund women drawn from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic andHealth Survey (KDHS data. Specifically the study examined the role of socio-economic, cultural and demographicfactors in explaining these variations using both bivariate and logistic regression. The analysis confirmedthe higher use of contraception in Central compared to Nyanza and Coast. Current use of moderncontraceptive methods in Central is 70 percent compared with 39 percent and 37 percent for Nyanza andCoast respectively. The higher contraceptive use in Central is attributed to the better socio-economic andcultural environment compared with the other two provinces. Central Province has very few cases of womenwith no education, a much lower percentage in the poorest wealth (9.6 category and the highest proportionin monogamous unions (97.1. The higher socio-economic status and better cultural environment has in turncreated a favourable environment for the use of contraception through the intervening variables of knowledgeon family planning and fertility preferences. The logistic regression results suggest that differences in contraceptiveuse between the three provinces could be narrowed by increasing the level of education in Coast andovercoming traditional practices such as polygyny in both Nyanza and Coast. Although mortality is stillimportant, its effect has declined. However, the unexpected finding that contraceptive use is higher in ruralareas of Central and Nyanza Provinces suggests further research to understand what could be responsible forthe reversal.
The present study dealt with the taxonomy and distribution of soil algal flora of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Soil was sampled from depths of 0-1 in, 1-2 in, 2-3 in, 3-4 in, 4-5 in and 5-6 in from various localities and habitats of the provi...
With the development and implementation of new curriculum standards, the field tests of education reform in senior high schools began in 2004 in four pilot provinces in mainland China. After five years of the reform, it is necessary to know how and to what extent the curriculum standard guides test classroom instruction. The present study was…
Lu, Qun; Liu, Enshan
In this study, we establish the presence of 24 aquatic beetle (Coleoptera: Polyphaga) species belonging to 13 genera and five families in Markazi Province of Central Iran. Specimens were collected between 2001 and 2005. Eleven species and four genera are recorded from Iran for the first time. The ecological significance of the new records is briefly discussed. .
Vafaei R.; Ostovan H.; U?, Incekara; Peši? V.
Purpose: This study aims to examine whether, in the opinion of patients selected in 13 hospitals of Hubei province, China, hospitals are smoke free. Patients were also asked whether their physicians had inquired about their smoking status. Design/methodology/approach: Patients were recruited through an intercept method (i.e. stopped by the…
Zhou, Dunjin; Yan, Yaqiong; Yu, Huihong; Xia, Qinghua; Yang, Niannian; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Li, Fang; Gong, Jie
During China's economic transformation, much of the rural population migrated to urban areas in search of employment opportunities. "Left-behind children" are the product of this phenomenon and need significant attention. Our study adopted elementary school students in Sichuan province as the subjects. After carefully studying their academic…
Liang, Wenyan; Hou, Longlong; Chen, Wentao
Full Text Available Guzmania panamensis (Bromeliaceae, a new species so far endemic to Veraguas province, Western Panama, is described and illustrated. The new species is recognized due to its peduncle much longer than the leaves and its red floral bracts, shorter than the yellow flowers. The new species is compared to morphologically similar species, namely Guzmania monostachia, G. berteroniana, G. elvallensis, and G. skotakii.
Daniel Caceres Gonzalez
Guzmania panamensis (Bromeliaceae), a new species so far endemic to Veraguas province, Western Panama, is described and illustrated. The new species is recognized due to its peduncle much longer than the leaves and its red floral bracts, shorter than the yellow flowers. The new species is compared to morphologically similar species, namely Guzmania monostachia, G. berteroniana, G. elvallensis, and G. skotakii.
Daniel Caceres Gonzalez
Full Text Available Objective: To learn how physicians' prescribing habits contribute to the rational use of medicine (RUM. We investigated the content of prescriptions written out in different provinces.Material and Method: A total of 3201 prescriptions written in Bartin, Bayburt, Cankiri, Denizli, Eskisehir, Gumushane, Karabuk, Kirsehir, Nevsehir and Nigde were collected from pharmacies. Prescriptions were analyzed using some indicators such as average number of medicines per-prescription (NMPP, average cost per-prescription (CPP etc. Prescriptions indicating anxiety, hypertension, osteoarthritis, acute (A otitis media, A.sinusitis, A.tonsillopharyngitis, A.cystitis, diabetes mellitus, dyspepsia and A.diarrhea were evaluated by provinces.Results: Except in three provinces, respiratory drugs were the most commonly written agents. NMPP was highest in Denizli (3.21±0.95, lowest in Cankiri (2.65±1.09. CPP was highest in Denizli (133.35±650.92TRL, lowest in Bartin (42.54±49.91TRL. As for gold standard-compatibility, the prescribed medicines in 4/10 indications seemed better in Cankiri and Gumushane. Injections, antibiotics, analgesics and gastroprotectives were most commonly prescribed in Denizli (14.1%, Kirsehir (43.3%, Gumushane (48.1% and Bayburt (19.8% respectively.Conclusion: In the provinces, there were substantial differences in the content of prescriptions. Generally, rational drug prescribing performance was found quite low. These findings should be considered in the activities to the extension of RUM. (Marmara Medical Journal 2011;24:160-71
This paper addresses the issue of students' employment expectations, considered a key factor in alleviating graduate unemployment in China. This empirical investigation surveyed students at two higher education institutions in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, to analyze how expectations were changing. The results contrasted with earlier studies that…
Moorman, Adam B. R.