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Sample records for intravenous insulin infusion

  1. Determination of 24-hour insulin infusion pattern by an artificial endocrine pancreas for intravenous insulin infusion with a miniature pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KØlendorf, K; Christiansen, J S

    1981-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Intravenous insulin infusion with a glucose controlled insulin infusion system (GCIIS) is known to restore glucose homeostasis. A simpler approach to improve blood glucose regulation is preprogrammed intravenous insulin infusion with portable pumps without sensor-mediated feedback. We report a study designed to evaluate whether the preprogrammed insulin infusion pattern to be used in the miniature insulin infusion pump (MIIP) could be optimized by concomitant employment of the GCIIS for blood glucose control. Six juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetics (mean age 31 yrs) were studied. Mean blood glucose (MBG) was 6.2 mmol/l +/- 0.5 (SD) during glucose controlled infusion and 5.3 +/- 0.6 during the combined MIIP + GCIIS-day. The insulin requirements calculated from the s.c. regimen (56 U +/- 10 SD) were identical to the GCIIS-measured (51 U +/- 14) and to the amounts delivered during the combined MIIP-GCIIS infusion day (54 U +/- 13). A mean surplus of 3 U was given by the GCIIS. Mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE) was 3.0 mmol/l during GCIIS-control, and 3.3 mmol/l during combined infusion. IN CONCLUSION: The GCIIS was found capable of calculating the 24-hour insulin dose in well-known, unstable diabetics; however, it did not improve the preprogrammed insulin infusion profile obtained by the MIIP.

  2. A guideline for the use of variable rate intravenous insulin infusion in medical inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S; Dale, J; Stanisstreet, D

    2015-06-01

    The present paper summarizes the key recommendations in a recent publication produced by the Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care on the use of variable rate i.v. insulin infusion in 'medical' inpatients. The full guideline is available at http://www.diabetologists-abcd.org.uk/JBDS/JBDS_IP_VRIII.pdf and is designed to be a practical guide that can used by any healthcare professional who manages medical inpatients with hyperglycaemia. Its main aim is to allow variable rate i.v. insulin infusion to be used safely, effectively and efficiently for this specific group of inpatients. PMID:25980646

  3. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of different modes of insulin pump delivery. A randomized, controlled study comparing subcutaneous and intravenous administration of insulin aspart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlo, C A; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    To study the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of three different modes of insulin infusion delivered by means of an insulin pump: subcutaneous bolus insulin injection once an hour, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and continuous intravenous insulin infusion.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Torsten; Pramming, S

    1983-01-01

    One of the reasons for the variability of blood glucose regulation in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients is the huge variation in subcutaneous absorption of intermediate-acting insulin. We have investigated the variation in insulin absorption during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in eight such patients. The content of insulin in the subcutaneous tissue was measured using 125I-labelled insulin. The concentration of free serum insulin and blood glucose was followed from 1 h before and from 7 h after breakfast on two consecutive days. The amount of insulin absorbed during 24 h differed in all cases by less than 3% from the daily insulin dose given by the pumps. Mean insulin absorption rates and mean free insulin concentration showed peak values 30-90 min after meal bolus injections; this was sufficient to maintain near-normal blood glucose. Mean free serum insulin correlated strongly with disappearance of insulin from the subcutaneous tissue (r = 0.98). From the insulin absorption rates and free insulin concentrations during basal constant insulin infusion, the half-time of serum insulin was calculated as 6 min. Compared with the known large variability in the absorption of intermediate-acting insulin, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion offers a precise and reproducible way of insulin administration resulting in post-prandial serum insulin peaks sufficient to maintain near-normal blood glucose levels. The half-time of serum insulin during subcutaneous infusion corresponds to values for intravenous infusion given in the literature, indicating that local degradation of insulin in subcutaneous tissue is of minor importance.

  5. Drugs given by intravenous infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Steenhoek, Adrianus

    1983-01-01

    Nowadays for a large number of patients admitted to a hospital intravenous infusion of fluids is an important part of their treatment. These fluids serve as a correction of the fluid and/or electrolyte balance, as a carrier for drugs, as a substitute to oral nutrition or to compensate the loss of blood. Despite the fact, that many infusions are accompanied by a lot of problems, coherent and basical investigations into the origin of these problems have hardly been done. At the same time there ...

  6. 24-hour blood glucose profiles in insulin-dependent diabetics treated with intravenous insulin infusion systems. A comparison between closed- and open-loop systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, T; Bojsen, J; Christiansen, J S; Kølendorf, K; Svendsen, P A; Andersen, A R

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the 24-hour blood glucose profiles of insulin-dependent diabetics during treatment with preprogramed insulin delivery systems with those of patients on treatment with the artificial beta cell (Biostator). Mean blood glucose (MGB) was 4.4 +/- 0.5 mmol/l for 15 controls, 5.8 +/- 1.0 for 53 patients on open-loop and 6.0 +/- 0.6 for 20 patients on closed-loop treatment. MBG was significantly higher in diabetics than in non-diabetic, but the difference between the two diabetic populations was not significant. Mean amplitude of blood glucose excursion was 1.8 +/- 0.6, 4.3 +/- 1.3 and 3.5 +/- 0.8 mmol/l respectively, the difference between the diabetic groups being significant. No hypoglycemia was seen in patients during closed-loop treatment, whereas this was the case in 10 of 53 patients on treatment with open-loop systems. Physical exercise resulted in small but normal decreases in blood glucose without hypoglycemia. Plasma insulin was within the normal range during both regimes. It is concluded that blood glucose control during treatment with closed-loop system is superior to that during treatment with open-loop systems. However, under standard conditions i.v. insulin infusion with preprogramed pump devices resulted in blood glucose fluctuations comparable with those during Biostator treatment. PMID:7008508

  7. Development of individual insulin infusion profiles for open loop infusion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Strack, Thomas; Krause, Ulrich; Schulz, Gerhard; Beyer, Ju?rgen; Beutelspacher, Friedrich; Nagel, Joachim H.

    1984-01-01

    The computer program for the open loop infusion device simulated the feed-back structure of a closed loop insulin secretion control by an algorithm based upon a theoretical postprandial blood sugar profile. Fifteen unstable juvenile onset insulin requiring diabetics could be well controlled after two to three days of an intravenous open loop insulin infusion program. The programs consisted of two constant basal rates and superimposed wavy step profile programs activated at the beginning of ea...

  8. Survival of intravenous chemotherapy infusion sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Hecker, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    Factors associated with the failure of intravenous infusions due to phlebitis and extravasation were studied with 218 infusions delivering cytotoxic drugs. The survival rate of these infusions was not significantly different from that of 56 non-cytotoxic infusions in oncology patients. Although survival analysis indicated that cisplatin was associated with longer survival, this was probably an artifact caused by this drug usually being preceded by 24 h prehydration. Multivariate analysis indi...

  9. Safety of rapid intravenous of infusion acetaminophen

    OpenAIRE

    Needleman, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous acetaminophen, Ofirmev®, is approved for management of mild to moderate pain, management of moderate to severe pain with adjunctive opioids, and reduction of fever. The product is supplied as a 100 mL glass vial. As stated in the prescribing information, it is recommended to be infused over 15 minutes. This recommendation is related to the formulation propacetamol, the prodrug to acetaminophen, approved in Europe, which caused pain on infusion, and data from the clinical developm...

  10. Plasma amiodarone concentrations during intravenous infusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, A. H.; Hutchings, A.; Stephens, M. R.; Routledge, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Amiodarone is a useful antiarrhythmic agent whose pharmacokinetics are incompletely characterised. In order to optimise efficacy of an antiarrhythmic drug, information regarding plasma concentrations achieved during use of the drug is necessary. We report plasma amiodarone and desethylamiodarone concentrations in eight patients following intravenous infusion at a rate of 175 mg h-1 for the first 2 h, followed by infusion at a rate of 50 mg h-1 for a further 46 h a regimen very similar to that...

  11. Pharmacology of aztreonam after intravenous infusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, B. E.; Swabb, E. A.; Neu, H. C.

    1983-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of aztreonam, a monocyclic beta-lactam which inhibits most members of the family Enterobacteriaceae at concentrations of less than 1 microgram/ml and most Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates at concentrations of less than 16 micrograms/ml, were examined in healthy male volunteers after 30-min intravenous infusions of 0.5, 1, and 2 g of the drug. Mean peak levels of the drug in serum at the end of infusion were 65.5, 164, 255 micrograms/ml after 0.5 1, and 2 g, respectively, w...

  12. Insulin Infusion Set: The Achilles Heel of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Lutz; Krinelke, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion from an insulin pump depends on reliable transfer of the pumped insulin to the subcutaneous insulin depot by means of an insulin infusion set (IIS). Despite their widespread use, the published knowledge about IISs and related issues regarding the impact of placement and wear time on insulin absorption/insulin action is relatively small. We also have to acknowledge that our knowledge is limited with regard to how often patients encounter issues with IIS...

  13. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: practical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Saboo, Banshi D.; Talaviya, Praful A.

    2012-01-01

    The growing number of individuals with diabetes mellitus has prompted new way of treating these patients, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or insulin pump therapy is an increasingly form of intensive insulin therapy. An increasing number of individuals with diabetes mellitus individuals of all ages have started using insulin pump therapy. Not everyone is a good candidate for insulin pump therapy, and the clinician needs to be able to determine which patients are able to master ...

  14. Subcutaneous insulin infusion: change in basal infusion rate has no immediate effect on insulin absorption rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were simultaneously given subcutaneous infusions (1.12 IU/h each) of 125I-labeled Actrapid insulin in each side of the abdominal wall. After 24 h of infusion, the size of the infused insulin depots was measured by external counting for 5 h. The basal infusion rate was then doubled in one side and halved in the other for the next 4 h. Finally, 1.12 IU/h of insulin was given in both sides of the abdominal wall for an additional 3 h. The changes in the size of the depots were measured, and the absorption rates for each hour were calculated. During the first 5 h of infusion, the depot size was almost constant (approximately 5 IU) with an absorption rate that equaled the infusion rate. Doubling the infusion rate led to a significant increase in depot size, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h, and only thereafter was a significant increase seen. When the infusion rate was reduced to the initial 1.12 IU/h, the absorption rate remained elevated during the next 3 h. Correspondingly, when the infusion rate was decreased, the depot size also decreased, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h. The results show that a change in the basal insulin infusion rate does not lead to any immediate change in the insulin absorption rate. This should be considered when planning an insulin-infusion program that includes alteration(s) in the basal-rate settingtting

  15. Thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic cerebral stroke: intraarterial urokinase infusion vs. intravenous heparin and urokinase infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the efficacy and limitation of intra-arterial urokinase (IAUK) infusion for treatment of acute cerebral stroke. Twenty-seven acute cerebral stroke patients treated with IAUK infusion within six hours of stroke onset were reviewed. All patients showed normal initial brain findings on CT. In 21 patients, urokinase(5-15 x 105IU) was administered through a microcatheter placed into or proximal to occluded segment. Mechanical disruption of thrombus by guidewire was performed in 17 patients. Angiographic and clinical responses and complications after IAUK infusion, were evaluated and the results were compared with those of intravenous heparin(N=19) and urokinase infusion(N=19). Complete or partial angiographic recanalization of occluded segment was found in 18 patients (67%), and neurologic improvement was followed in 14 patients(52%). The degree of improvement on the stroke scale score after IAUK infusion was statistically more significant(p<0.05) than that shown after intravenous heparin and urokinase infusion. Complications after IAUK infusion were large(15%) and small amount intracerebral hemorrhage(15%), contrast leakage into brain parenchyma(11%), and gastrointestinal bleeding(4%). Between the IAVK and the intravenous urokinase infusion group, differences in extent and types of complications were statistically insignificant, but were significantly higher in those two groups than in the intravenous heparin infusion group. IAUK infusion may be effn infusion group. IAUK infusion may be effective for the treatment of acute cerebral stroke

  16. Insulin infusion in acute illness

    OpenAIRE

    Dandona, Paresh; Mohanty, Priya; Chaudhuri, Ajay; Garg, Rajesh; Aljada, Ahmad

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of the antiinflammatory effect of insulin and the proinflammatory effect of glucose has not only provided novel insight into the mechanisms underlying several disease states but has also provided a rationale for the treatment of hyperglycemia in several acute clinical conditions. Van den Berghe et al. previously showed the benefits of intensive glycemic control with insulin in patients admitted to intensive care units. In this issue of the JCI, the same group of investigators no...

  17. Severe insulin resistance treatment with intravenous chromium in septic shock patient

    OpenAIRE

    Surani, Salim R.; Iqbal Ratnani; Bharath Guntupalli; Swetha Bopparaju

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance has been well documented in critically ill patients. Adequate blood sugar control has been associated with better wound healing, and better outcomes in selected patient populations. Chromium is an essential component of human diet. It is believed to affect changes in glucose uptake. Several studies have shown beneficial effects of oral chromium in diabetic patients with insulin resistance, but role of intravenous chromium infusion has not been completely evaluated. We prese...

  18. Time factor of BSH from intravenous infusion to neutron irradiation for BNCT in patients with glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report evaluates the time factor of BSH from infusion to irradiation in patients with glioblastoma as a cooperative study in Europe and Japan. For BNCT with BSH after intravenous infusion, this work confirms that the planned neutron irradiation after intravenous BSH infusion appears to be optimal around 12-19 hours after the infusion. (author)

  19. The Effects of Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Intravenous Infusion Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Engler, Mary B.; Engler, Marguerite M.

    1985-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of magnetic resonance imaging on the accuracy of three types of intravenous infusion pump devices, IVAC 530, IMED 927 and IMED 960/965. The devices were exposed to a 2,800-gauss static magnetic field at a pulsed radio frequency of 11.9 MHz operating at a maximum power of 1,200 W. Each device was tested at low, medium and fast flow rates in a controlled environment and during magnetic resonance imaging. Intravenous therapy could be carried out normally during magnetic ...

  20. Severe insulin resistance treatment with intravenous chromium in septic shock patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim R Surani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance has been well documented in critically ill patients. Adequate blood sugar control has been associated with better wound healing, and better outcomes in selected patient populations. Chromium is an essential component of human diet. It is believed to affect changes in glucose uptake. Several studies have shown beneficial effects of oral chromium in diabetic patients with insulin resistance, but role of intravenous chromium infusion has not been completely evaluated. We present a case of extreme insulin resistance in a 62-year-old woman with history of diabetes who suffered a cardiac arrest and respiratory failure, leading to aspiration pneumonia and septic shock requiring greater than 7000 units of insulin over a period of 12 h which was successfully treated with intravenous chromium replacement.

  1. Continuous intravenous infusions of bromodeoxyuridine as a clinical radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve patients were treated with continuous intravenous (24-hour) infusions of bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) at 650 or 1000 mg/m2/d for up to two weeks. Myelosuppression, especially thrombocytopenia, was the major systemic toxicity and limited the infusion period to nine to 14 days. However, bone marrow recovery occurred within seven to ten days, allowing for a second infusion in most patients. Local toxicity (within the radiation field) was minimal, with the exception of one of four patients, who underwent abdominal irradiation. Pharmacology studies revealed a steady-state arterial plasma level of 6 x 10(-7) mol/L and 1 x 10(-6) mol/L during infusion of 650 and 1000 mg/m2/d, respectively. In vivo BUdR uptake into normal bone marrow was evaluated in two patients by comparison of preinfusion and postinfusion in vitro radiation survival curves of marrow CFUc with enhancement ratios (D0-pre/D0-post) of 1.8 (with 650 mg/m2/d) and 2.5 (with 1000 mg/m2/d). In vivo BUdR incorporation into normal skin and tumor cells using an anti-BUdR monoclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry was demonstrated in biopsies from three patients revealing substantially less cellular incorporation into normal skin (less than 10%) compared with tumor (up to 50% to 70%). The authors conclude that local and systemic toxicity of continuous infusion of BUdR at 1000 mg/m2/d for approximately two weeks is tolerable. The observed normal tissue toxicity is comparable with previous clinical experience with ie with previous clinical experience with intermittent (12 hours every day for two weeks) infusions of BUdR. Theoretically, a constant infusion should allow for greater incorporation of BUdR into cycling tumor cells and thus, for further enhancement of radiosensitization

  2. Glucose uptake and pulsatile insulin infusion: euglycaemic clamp and [3-3H]glucose studies in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test the hypothesis that insulin has a greater effect on glucose metabolism when given as pulsatile than as continuous infusion, a 354-min euglycaemic clamp study was carried out in 8 healthy subjects. At random order soluble insulin was given intravenously either at a constant rate of 0.45mU/kg · min or in identical amounts in pulses of 11/2 to 21/4 min followed by intervals of 101/2 to 93/4 min. Average serum insulin levels were similar during the two infusion protocols, but pulsatile administration induced oscillations ranging between 15 and 62 ?U/ml. Glucose uptake expressed as metabolic clearance rate (MCR) for glucose was significantly increased during pulsatile insulin delivery as compared with continuous administration (270-294 min: 8.7±0.7 vs 6.8±0.9 ml/kg · min, P 3H]glucose infusion technique was suppressed to insignificant values. Finally, the effect of insulin on endogenous insulin secretion and lipolysis as assessed by changes in serum C-peptide and serum FFA was uninfluenced by the infusion mode. In conclusion, insulin infusion resulting in physiological serum insulin levels enhances glucose uptake in peripheral tissues in healthy subjects to a higher degree when given in a pulsed pattern mimicking that of the normal endocrine pancreas than when given as a continuous infusion. (author)

  3. Venipuncture and intravenous infusion access during zero-gravity flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger; Bechtle, Perry; Creager, Gerald J.; Boyce, Joey B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to establish the difficulty associated with securing an intravenous (IV) catheter in place in microgravity flight and the techniques applicable in training the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) for Space Station Freedom, as well as aiding in the selection of appropriate hardware and supplies for the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF). The objectives are the following: (1) to determine the difficulties associated with venipuncture in a microgravity environment; (2) to evaluate the various methods of securing an IV catheter and attached tubing for infusion with regard to the unique environment; (3) to evaluate the various materials available for securing an intravenous catheter in place; and (4) to evaluate the fluid therapy administration system when functioning in a complete system. The inflight test procedures and other aspects of the KC-135 parabolic flight test to simulate microgravity are presented.

  4. A simple method for quantitation of insulin sensitivity and insulin release from an intravenous glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, P; Ward, G; Walters, J; Pestell, R; Koschmann, M; Vaag, A; Martin, I; Best, J D; Alford, F

    1992-12-01

    Both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity are important in the development of diabetes but current methods used for their measurements are complex and cannot be used for epidemiological surveys. This study describes a simplified approach for the estimation of first phase insulin release and insulin sensitivity from a standard 40-min intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and compares these parameter estimations with the sophisticated minimal model analysis of a frequently sampled 3-h IVGTT and the euglycaemic clamp technique. For the simplified IVGTT, first phase insulin release was measured as the insulin area above basal post glucose load unit-1 incremental change (i.e. peak rise) in plasma glucose over 0-10 min, and insulin sensitivity as a rate of glucose disappearance (Kg) unit-1 insulin increase above basal from 0-40 min post-glucose load in 18 subjects who were studied twice, either basally or in a perturbed pathophysiological state (i.e. pre- and post-ultramarathon race, n = 5; pre- and post-20 h pulsatile hyperinsulinaemia, n = 8; pre- and post-thyrotoxic state, n = 5). A further 12 subjects were compared by IVGTT, and glucose clamp. In addition, seven dogs were studied three times by IVGTT during normal saline infusion and after short-term (1/2 hour) or long-term (72 hour) adrenaline infusions. First phase insulin release and insulin sensitivity estimated from the simplified IVGTT as calculated by the two methods correlated closely (rs = 0.89 and rs = 0.87, respectively), although less precisely in markedly insulin-resistant subjects and the slopes and y intercepts of the linear regression lines were similar in the basal and perturbed states.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1478037

  5. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous ghrelin infusion in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 +/- 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak myocardial systolic velocity S', tissue tracking TT, left ventricular ejection fraction EF, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were measured. Ghrelin infusion increased S' 9% (P = 0.002) and TT 10% (P <0.001), whereas EF, resting blood flow velocity, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation did not change (P = 0.13). This was associated with a peak in serum growth hormone after 60 min of infusion (37.77 +/- 5.27 ng/ml, P <0.001), a doubling of free fatty acid levels (P = 0.001), and a 1.6-fold increase in cortisol levels (P <0.05), whereas glucose and catecholamine levels were constant. In conclusion, supraphysiological levels of ghrelin stimulate left ventricular function in terms of S' and TT in healthy young normal-weight men without changing resting blood flow velocity and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation. The effects did not translate into detectable increments in EF.

  6. Chronic norepinephrine infusion and insulin and glucagon secretion in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raum, W J; Swerdloff, R S; Garner, D; Laks, H; Laks, M M

    1984-03-01

    The effect of epinephrine on glucose homeostasis has been studied extensively in many species, but there is little data on the effects of another catecholamine, norepinephrine. This study was designed to examine the alterations that occur in insulin and glucagon secretion during a chronic low-dose infusion of norepinephrine in free-roaming dogs. A total of four intravenous glucose tolerance tests and insulin-induced hypoglycemia tests were performed on each of five dogs infused with norepinephrine (1.4 g/min) for 3 mo and on each of eight control dogs. The infusion resulted in a threefold increase in plasma norepinephrine without a significant effect on blood pressure. Fasting serum glucose was elevated significantly in the norepinephrine-infused dogs [102.4 +/- 2.1 vs. 92.8 +/- 1.7 (SE) mg/100 ml]. Fasting plasma glucagon was elevated by the norepinephrine infusion (58.4 +/- 7.6 vs. 31.3 +/- 3.1 pg/ml), whereas fasting serum insulin was inhibited (12.3 +/- 1.3 vs 16.8 +/- 1.7 U/ml). Glucagon secretion in response to hypoglycemia was markedly enhanced in the infused dogs compared with controls. It has been reported that the infusion of norepinephrine in humans will inhibit insulin secretion and increase serum glucose concentrations but have no effect on serum glucagon concentrations. The stimulation of glucagon by norepinephrine has been demonstrated in the isolated, perfused canine pancreas but has not been reported previously in the free-roaming dog. PMID:6367484

  7. Glucose uptake and pulsatile insulin infusion: euglycaemic clamp and (3-/sup 3/H)glucose studies in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, O.; Arnfred, J.; Hother Nielsen, O.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Oerskov, H.

    1986-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that insulin has a greater effect on glucose metabolism when given as pulsatile rather than as continuous infusion, a 354-min euglycaemic clamp study was carried out in 8 healthy subjects. At random order soluble insulin was given intravenously either at a constant rate of 0.45mU/kg center dot min or in identical amounts in pulses of 1/sup 1///sub 2/ to 2/sup 1///sub 4/ min followed by intervals of 10/sup 1///sub 2/ to 9/sup 3///sub 4/ min. Average serum insulin levels were similar during the two infusion protocols, but pulsatile administration induced oscillations ranging between 15 and 62 ..mu..U/ml. Glucose uptake expressed as metabolic clearance rate (MCR) for glucose was significantly increased during pulsatile insulin delivery as compared with continuous administration (270-294 min: 8.7+-0.7 vs 6.8+-0.9 ml/kg center dot min, P < 0.01, and 330-354 min: 8.9 +- 0.5 vs 7.4 +- 0.9 ml/kg center dotmin, P<0.05). The superior efficacy of pulsatile insulin delivery on glucose uptake was not consistently found until after 210 min of insulin administration. In both infusion protocols, endogenous glucose production as estimated by the (3-/sup 3/H)glucose infusion technique was suppressed to insignificant values. Finally, the effect of insulin on endogenous insulin secretion and lipolysis as assessed by changes in serum C-peptide and serum FFA was uninfluenced by the infusion mode. In conclusion, insulin infusion resulting in physiological serum insulin levels enhances glucose uptake in peripheral tissues in healthy subjects to a higher degree when given in a pulsed pattern mimicking that of the normal endocrine pancreas than when given as a continuous infusion.

  8. Immediate infusion-related adverse reactions to intravenous immunoglobulin in a prospective cohort of 1765 infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichuetti-Silva, Danielli C; Furlan, Fernanda P; Nobre, Fernanda A; Pereira, Camila T M; Gonçalves, Tessa R T; Gouveia-Pereira, Mariana; Rota, Rafael; Tavares, Lusinete; Mazzucchelli, Juliana T L; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz T

    2014-12-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is increasingly recommended for many diseases apart from primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Although effective and safe, adverse reactions may occur. We conducted a 2-year prospective observational study in 117 patients with PID who received regular IVIG replacement therapy at a median dose of 600 mg/kg every 3 to 4 weeks to examine IVIG's adverse effects; 1765 infusions were performed (mean=15/patient) in 75 males and 42 females (aged 3 months to 77 years) in 3 groups: ? 9 years (34.2%), 10-19 years (26.5%), and ? 20 years (39.3%). Fifty patients had common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), 11 had X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), and 55 had other immune system disorders. The drugs administered were Octagam® (49.1%), Tegeline® (17.3%), Imunoglobulin® (18.6%), Flebogama® (12.9%), Vigam® (1.2%), and Kiovig® (0.4%). Immediate infusion-related adverse reactions occurred in the cases of 38 out 1765 infusions (2.15%, IC95% 1.53%-2.94%), which were classified as mild (81.6%), moderate (10.5%), or severe (7.9%). Time until reaction ranged from 10 to 240 min (mean = 85.7, median = 60). Reaction rates were similar across age groups. The most common reactions were malaise, headache, and abdominal pain. Reported severe events were tightness of the throat and seizure. All symptoms improved with temporary or complete IVIG interruption and symptomatic medications. Sixteen of 38 reactions to infusions occurred in the presence of an acute infection (p=0.09). Tegeline® represented a greater reaction risk factor than Octagam® (p < 0.001). These results indicate that IVIG infusion can be considered a safe procedure. Low reaction incidence and few severe immediate infusion-related adverse reactions were observed. PMID:25257732

  9. [Systems of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Therapeutic education program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Rubio, Mercedes

    2011-06-01

    Insulin replacement therapy in people with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) is to obtain a physiological reproduction as possible, both the pharmacokinetic characteristics of insulin as delivery systems. It has scored two avenues of research: get new insulins and develop new forms of insulin regimen. The advent of insulin analogues has made to the treatment a physiological profile. The most reproducible insulin delivery has been based mainly on the use of a System of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion. These two important objectives but not would optimize the treatment for themselves or good glycemic control of the person if they were not attached to a therapeutic education program in diabetes. The usual therapeutic education program conducted by nurses but obviously integrated into the organization and work of a multidisciplinary team, involves the proper selection of the person and the fulfillment of objectives to be aware and know-how, attitudes and skills. PMID:21830364

  10. Lack of antibacterial activity after intravenous hydrogen peroxide infusion in experimental Escherichia coli sepsis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shenep, J. L.; Stokes, D. C.; Hughes, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    The intravenous administration of hydrogen peroxide has been reported to benefit patients with pneumonia and to reduce Plasmodium parasitemia in experimentally infected mice. We assessed the antibacterial activity of intravenously infused hydrogen peroxide against hydrogen peroxide-susceptible Escherichia coli (MBC of hydrogen peroxide, 0.23 mM) in experimentally infected rabbits. No decrease in the level of bacteremia was detected at the maximum intravenous infusion rate of hydrogen peroxide...

  11. Effect of Insulin Infusion on Liver Protein Synthesis during Hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Mark; Frystyk, Jan

    Background Hemodialysis (HD) is a catabolic procedure that may contribute to the high frequency of protein-energy wasting among patients receiving maintenance HD. The present study investigated the additional effect of glucose and glucose-insulin infusion on liver protein synthesis during HD compared with a meal alone. Methods In a randomized cross-over study with three arms, 11 non-diabetic HD patients were assigned to receive a conventional HD session with either: • no treatment (NT) • IV infusion of glucose (G) • IV infusion of glucose-insulin (GI) During infusions blood glucose levels were maintained at 8.0-10.0 mmol/L by additional glucose infusion. Glucose and glucose-insulin infusions were commenced 2 h prior to HD and continued throughout the HD session. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline before infusion and followed by the only meal allowed during the study. Results Blood glucose and insulin: The change in blood glucose differed significantly from baseline (-120 min) to end of HD (240 min) between the NT group and the G group (p=0.002); there was no significant difference in the change between the NT group and the GI group (p=0.06), or between the G group and the GI group (p=0.15). Fibrinogen and albumin: There was an overall increase in serum albumin (38.8±2.1 to 40.4±2.5 g/L, p<0.0001) and in serum fibrinogen (11.7±1.7 to 12.8±1.8 µmol/L, p<0.0001) from HD start (0 min) to 2 h post HD (360 min), but no significant difference in the change in either albumin (p=0.12) or fibrinogen (p=0.12) between the groups. IGFBP-1: During the first 4 h after baseline (-120 min) we observed an overall decrease in serum IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) (from 267±147 to 140±84 µg/L, p<0.0001), but no difference in the change between groups (p=0.41). However, from 4 h after baseline to the end of the study there was a significant difference in the change in serum IGFBP-1 between the groups (p=0.003) with a significant increase in serum IGFBP-1 in the NT group (p<0.0001), but not in the G group or GI group (p=0.50 and p=0.07, respectively). Conclusions Compared with a meal neither glucose nor glucose-insulin infusion appear to have any extra effects on liver protein synthesis during HD.

  12. Assessment of cefazolin and cefuroxime tissue penetration by using a continuous intravenous infusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Connors, J. E.; Dipiro, J. T.; Hayter, R. G.; Hooker, K. D.; Stanfield, J. A.; Young, T. R.

    1990-01-01

    A continuous intravenous infusion was used to assess the tissue penetration of cefazolin (14 subjects) and cefuroxime (15 subjects) in orthopedic surgery patients. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a continuous intravenous infusion of cefazolin (mean, 178.6 mg/h) or cefuroxime (mean, 330.0 mg/h) at a rate estimated to achieve a target steady-state total concentration of 50 micrograms/ml in serum. The infusion was initiated 12 to 14 h before surgery, and blood and muscle tissue sample...

  13. Outcome Evaluation of Intravenous Infusion of Urokinase for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rae Seop; Ok, Young Chul; Lim, Jun Seob; Lim, Byung Chan; Cho, Kyu Yong; Lee, Min Cheol

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of a continuous infusion of urokinase in cerebral stoke patients who were late admitted over 6 hours after onset. From January to December in 2008, acute cerebral stroke patients (n=143) treated with intravenous urokinase infusion (Group I, n=93) or not (Group II, n=50) after 6 hours and within 72 hours of stroke onset were reviewed. Continuous intravenous infusion of urokinase was done for 5 days. The clinical outcome for each patient...

  14. Psychological aspects in continuous subcutaneous Insulin infusion : A retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Aberle, Ingo; Scholz, Urte; Bach-Kliegel, Birgit; Fischer, Christine; Gorny, Martin; Langer, Karin; Kliegel, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The authors aimed to analyze the relation of psychological predictors with medical and psychological therapy success indicators in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Besides blood glucose control as a medical indicator of therapy success (by means of HbA1C levels), the authors assessed treatment satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and quality of life among 51 adult patients on CSll. The authors examined the following psychological factors that were assumed to be associated wit...

  15. Penetration of trovafloxacin into cerebrospinal fluid in humans following intravenous infusion of alatrofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, N. R.; Vincent, J.; Jhee, S. S.; Teng, R.; Wardle, T.; Lucas, G.; Dogolo, L. C.; Sramek, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    A single-dose study was conducted to determine concentrations of trovafloxacin (CP-99,219) achieved in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) relative to those in the serum of healthy subjects after intravenous infusion of alatrofloxacin (CP-116,517), the alanyl-alanyl prodrug of trovafloxacin. Twelve healthy subjects were administered single doses of alatrofloxacin at a trovafloxacin equivalent of 300 mg as an intravenous infusion over 1.0 h. CSF samples were taken by lumbar puncture at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5...

  16. Effect of intravenous iron-dextran (Imferon) infusion on antigen induced monarticular arthritis in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, C. N.; Blackham, A.; Morris, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of intravenously infused iron-dextran (Imferon) on the progression of antigen induced monarticular arthritis in rabbits was studied. A rapid deposition of iron and apoferritin in the synovia of arthritis joints occurred after infusion of iron-dextran during either the acute or chronic phases of the disease. This coincided with the appearance of catalytic (bleomycin reactive) iron in the synovial fluid. There was no evidence, however, for an exacerbation of the antigen induced arthr...

  17. Effect of Insulin Infusion on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during Hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Mark; Frystyk, Jan

    Background: Hemodialysis (HD) is a catabolic procedure probably contributing to the high frequency of protein-energy wasting among patients on maintenance HD. The aim was to investigate the effect of insulin infusion on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during HD compared with a meal alone. Methods: In a randomized cross-over study 11 non-diabetic HD patients (M/F:8/3, median age 57 years, range 33-79) received either 1) no treatment (NT), 2) glucose infusion (G) (10% glucose, 2.5 mL/kg/h), or 3) glucose-insulin infusion (GI) (10% glucose added 30 units of NovoRapid® per liter, 2.5 mL/kg/h) during a standardized 4 h HD. During infusion, blood glucose levels were maintained at 8.0-10.0 mmol/L by additional glucose infusion. Glucose and glucose-insulin infusions were commenced 2 h prior to HD and continued throughout the HD session. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline before infusion and followed by the only meal allowed during the study. Results: Data are presented as mean±SD. From baseline to end of HD session we observed an overall increase in both serum bioactive IGF-I (from 0.83±0.27 to 1.01±0.34 µg/L, p<0.001) and in total IGF-I (from 124±43 to 132±52 µg/L, p=0.001), but no significant difference in the change in either serum bioactive IGF-I (p=0.99) or total IGF-I (p=0.22) between the groups. Concomitantly, there was an overall decrease in serum IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) (from 267±147 to 143±92 µg/L, p<0.001) from baseline to end of HD, but no significant difference in the change between the groups (p=0.43). Conclusion: A meal at the beginning of a HD session leads to an increase in bioactive IGF-I thereby assumingly counteracting the catabolic effects of HD. However, according to changes in bioactive IGF-I neither glucose nor glucose-insulin infusion during HD appear to add to the anabolic effects of a meal.

  18. Cefazolin and moxalactam pharmacokinetics after simultaneous intravenous infusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Polk, R. E.; Kline, B. J.; Markowitz, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the measurement of moxalactam concentrations in serum was modified to permit the simultaneous measurement of both moxalactam and cefazolin. We then studied whether the simultaneous administration of both moxalactam and cefazolin to normal subjects would produce profiles of serum concentration versus time which were the same as those obtained after the administration of each drug individually. Six healthy adults received a 30-min infusion of...

  19. Intracranial hemodynamics during intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, H.K.; Holm, S.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-induced headache are not fully elucidated. In this study we administered GTN 0.5 microg/kg/min i.v. for 20 min in six healthy volunteers. Before, during and 60 min after the infusion, we investigated regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), both estimated with SPECT, and blood flow velocity (BFV) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), measured with transcranial Doppler. Headache was scored on a numerical verbal rating (0-10) scale. rCBF was unchanged, CBV was slightly increased (13%) during GTN infusion, whereas BFV decreased both during (20%) and 60 min (15%) after GTN. Headache was short-lived and maximal during infusion. This discrepancy of time-effect curves for the effect of GTN on headache and dilatation of MCA indicates that MCA is most likely not the primary source of pain in GTN-induced headache. The time-effect curves for the effect of GTN on headache and on dilation of MCA differed markedly. This indicates that MCA is most likely not the primary source of pain in GTN-induced headache Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6

  20. Penetration of trovafloxacin into cerebrospinal fluid in humans following intravenous infusion of alatrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, N R; Vincent, J; Jhee, S S; Teng, R; Wardle, T; Lucas, G; Dogolo, L C; Sramek, J J

    1997-06-01

    A single-dose study was conducted to determine concentrations of trovafloxacin (CP-99,219) achieved in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) relative to those in the serum of healthy subjects after intravenous infusion of alatrofloxacin (CP-116,517), the alanyl-alanyl prodrug of trovafloxacin. Twelve healthy subjects were administered single doses of alatrofloxacin at a trovafloxacin equivalent of 300 mg as an intravenous infusion over 1.0 h. CSF samples were taken by lumbar puncture at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 24 h after the start of the infusion; each subject was sampled at only one time point. Serum samples were taken from each subject at the time of CSF collection. A mean concentration of 5.8 microg of trovafloxacin per ml was present in serum 1.0 h after the start of the infusion. CSF/serum ratios ranged from 0.14 to 0.33 in the postdistribution phase (5 to 24 h postinfusion), with a mean ratio of 0.25. The most common adverse events were dizziness, nausea, and rash and were mild or moderate in intensity. The potency of trovafloxacin against susceptible organisms, coupled with its rapid penetration of CSF following the intravenous administration of alatrofloxacin, suggests that it may be useful in the treatment of bacterial meningitis in humans. PMID:9174187

  1. Intravenous infusion of adenosine but not inosine stimulates respiration in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, P G; Watt, A H; Routledge, P A; Smith, A P

    1987-03-01

    The effects on respiration of intravenous infusions of the endogenous nucleoside adenosine and its deaminated metabolite, inosine, administered in random order, single-blind, were compared in six healthy volunteers. The infusion rate of each nucleoside was initially 3.1 mg min-1 and was increased stepwise every 2 min, as tolerated, up to a possible maximum of 23.4 mg ml-1. The maximum dose rates received by all subjects were 8.5 mg min-1 for adenosine and 16.8 mg min-1 for inosine. Adenosine infusion at rates of 6.1 mg min-1 and above caused a significant increase in minute ventilation, principally due to an increase in tidal volume, with an associated significant fall in end-tidal Pco2. Mean inspiratory flow rate increased and expiratory duration decreased during adenosine infusion, but there was no change in inspiratory duration. Adenosine infusion also caused a significant increase in heart rate and a slight, but significant increase in systolic blood pressure. Infusion of inosine at dose rates up to 16.8 mg min-1 produced no pharmacological effects. This study shows that adenosine by infusion produces sustained respiratory stimulation in man and demonstrates that it does not depend on prior conversion of adenosine to inosine or related metabolites and that it is not secondary to systemic hypotension. PMID:3567048

  2. Intravenous infusion of adenosine but not inosine stimulates respiration in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, P. G.; Watt, A. H.; Routledge, P. A.; Smith, A. P.

    1987-01-01

    The effects on respiration of intravenous infusions of the endogenous nucleoside adenosine and its deaminated metabolite, inosine, administered in random order, single-blind, were compared in six healthy volunteers. The infusion rate of each nucleoside was initially 3.1 mg min-1 and was increased stepwise every 2 min, as tolerated, up to a possible maximum of 23.4 mg ml-1. The maximum dose rates received by all subjects were 8.5 mg min-1 for adenosine and 16.8 mg min-1 for inosine. Adenosine ...

  3. Comparative study of intravenous urographic bolus (I.U.B.) and intravenous urographic infusion (I.U.I.) in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two urographic methods were compared: the intravenous urographic bolus (i.u.b.) and the intravenous urographic infusion (i.u.i.). In both methods, two groups of seven healthy adult dogs of both sexes, weighing7.0 to 16.5 kg were used and were anaesthesized with 2% thiopentone sodium in doses of 20 mg/kg via cephalica. In the i.u.b., meglumine diatrizoate (Hypaque-M, 60%) was injected via saphena with a concentration of 282 mg of iodine per mi in doses of 564 mg of iodine per kg. In the i.u.i., meglumine diatrizoate was injected via saphena by drip infusion with a concentration of 200 mg of iodine per mi in doses of 500 mg of iodine per kg. Three series of two X-rays each were taken in ventrodorsal projection 1, 4 and 8 min and left lateral recumbency 30 sec after administering the contrast medium. The X-ray plates obtained were analyzed and compared intra and inter group considering the advance speed of the contrast medium, the radiographic density and outline, and kidney size. The advance speed of the contrast medium was higher in the i.u.i., reaching the kidney, ureter and bladder 1 min after administration in both projections; in ventrodorsal projections in the i.u.b. only the kidneys were reached while in the left lateral recumbency, the kidney and ureters were reached

  4. Uptake of iodinated deoxyuridine in a murine melonama following multiple-day intravenous infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques are described for multi-day intravenous (i.v.) infusions of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd) into mice. Percent incorporation into DNA as a thymidine (Thd) analog is reported, as measured by radioactive tag (125IdUrd) and by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Quantitative measurements of IdUrd incorporation in DNA are requisite for meaningful evaluation of the effects of radiation enhancement resulting from radiation sensitization and the stimulation of Auger cascades (photon activation)

  5. Histamine and Nt-methylhistamine in the circulation during intravenous infusion of histamine in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, B D; Devalia, J L; Wylie, G; Davies, R J

    1988-12-01

    Plasma levels of histamine and Nt-methylhistamine were measured simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatography during the intravenous infusion of histamine acid phosphate in six normal volunteers. Progressive, dose-related increases in plasma histamine were noted, reaching a maximum value of 3.1 +/- 0.14 ng ml-1 corresponding to a maximum infusion rate of 180 ng kg-1 min-1 (means +/- SEM). Increases in plasma histamine were accompanied by a significant dose-related fall in mean diastolic blood pressure (baseline 74.0 +/- 4.4 mm Hg falling to 60.0 +/- 3.3 mm Hg at maximum infusion rate, p less than 0.001) and an increase in pulse rate (baseline 76.3 +/- 2.8 beats min-1 rising to 89.24 beats min-1 at maximum infusion rate, p less than 0.05). All subjects exhibited facial flushing, the threshold plasma histamine level for this effect being 1.3 +/- 0.15 ng ml-1 corresponding to an infusion rate of 60 ng kg-1 min-1. Elevation of plasma Nt-methylhistamine was seen in only one subject, who exhibited a level of 0.5 ng ml-1 at the highest infusion rate. These results suggest that measurements of plasma Nt-methylhistamine are unlikely to provide a useful index of histamine release into the circulation. PMID:3218606

  6. Differential effects of oral, peripheral intravenous, and intraportal glucose on hepatic glucose uptake and insulin and glucagon extraction in conscious dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, T.; Chap, Z; Chou, J; LEWIS, R; Hartley, C.; Entman, M; Field, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of equal (1.1 +/- 0.1 g/kg body wt) amounts of glucose administered orally, or by peripheral intravenous or intraportal infusion on hepatic glucose uptake and fractional hepatic extraction of insulin and glucagon was studied in conscious dogs with chronically implanted Doppler flow probes on the portal vein and hepatic artery and catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, carotid artery, and superior mesenteric vein. Portal vein and hepatic vein plasma flow increased only after or...

  7. Influence of fine-bore catheter length on infusion thrombophlebitis in peripheral intravenous nutrition: a randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, N J; McMahon, M J

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that the risk of thrombophlebitis associated with continuous infusion of intravenous nutrition (IVN) via peripheral veins was reduced when fine-bore catheters, inserted to 15 cm, were used in place of standard intravenous cannulas. An explanation has not been identified, but may be owing to the greater length of the catheters. A randomised controlled study was performed in which a standard nutritional solution was infused via 22G polyurethane catheters inserted to a...

  8. Insulin compatibility with polymer materials used in external pump infusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melberg, S G; Havelund, S; Villumsen, J; Brange, J

    1988-04-01

    In a study designed to mimic actual user conditions for external insulin pump infusion, the insulin quality after passage through the infusion set was assessed by various analytical methods, including high performance liquid chromatography. The two infusion sets tested consisted of, firstly, a polyvinylchloride/rubber syringe and a polyvinylchloride catheter sterilized by gamma irradiation and, secondly, a polyethylene/polypropylene syringe connected to a polyethylene catheter and sterilized by ethylene oxide. The insulin solution delivered through the PVC infusion set showed a reduction of preservative to less than 30% of the initial content and increased formation of chemical transformation products of insulin varying from twice the reference level during the first day to more than three times on the third day. By contrast, the polyethylene/polypropylene infusion system showed only a minor decrease in preservative content and no increase in chemical transformation. These effects were observed irrespective of the brand of insulin and were not affected by increase of the zinc content of the insulin solution. Investigation of the influence of the sterilization methods performed on polyvinylchloride and polyethylene catheters revealed that gamma irradiated polyvinylchloride catheters were markedly harmful to the insulin solution, whereas ethylene oxide sterilization did not influence the chemical stability of insulin. PMID:2967145

  9. Computer simulations of propofol infusions for total intravenous anaesthesia in dogs : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Joubert

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The volatile anaesthetic agents halothane, isoflurane and enflurane are all chlorofluorocarbons and according to international treaties, their emission into the atmosphere will be prohibited from the year 2030. The agents desflurane and sevoflurane are fluorinated hydrocarbons and act as greenhouse gases. The future of veterinary anaesthesia could be dependent on the development of total intravenous anaesthesia. Drugs utilised in total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA should have a short duration of action and no tendency to accumulate in the body. Propofol has been the dominant agent used. Computer technology has enabled targeted plasma concentration controlled infusions to replace manual infusion regimens. This study simulated the pharmacokinetics of various infusion regimens similar to those used in clinical practice using previously published pharmocokinetic data. Bolus doses of 0, 4, 6 and 8 mg/kg were simulated in combination with infusion rates of 0, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/kg/min for either 240 or 1440 min. The computer was also programmed to maintain a steady state plasma concentration based on the previous simulated data. Generated data were then compared with published data. Changes in the context-sensitive half-life for propofol were also evaluated. Results showed that the generated data were similar to published data. A decrease in plasma concentration to levels associated with a light plane of anaesthesia was evident even when the highest bolus dose and infusion rate were used. There was a slow rise in plasma concentration when only an infusion was used. A lightening of anaesthetic plane may be evident early in the course of TIVA and careful monitoring of anaesthetic depth is required. As the duration of the infusion increased, plasma concentration steadily rose but achieved 95 % of the steady state by 204 min. The most dramatic changes in plasma concentration occurred in the first hour of an infusion. Similarly, the infusion rates decreased most in the first 70 min. Most changes in anaesthetic depth are likely to occur early in the course of TIVA and careful observation of anaesthetic depth is required.

  10. Computer simulations of propofol infusions for total intravenous anaesthesia in dogs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K E, Joubert.

    Full Text Available The volatile anaesthetic agents halothane, isoflurane and enflurane are all chlorofluoro-carbons and according to international treaties, their emission into the atmosphere will be prohibited from the year 2030. The agents desflurane and sevoflurane are fluorinated hydrocarbons and act as greenhouse [...] gases. The future of veterinary anaesthesia could be dependent on the development of total intravenous anaesthesia. Drugs utilised in total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) should have a short duration of action and no tendency to accumulate in the body. Propofol has been the dominant agent used. Computer technology has enabled targeted plasma concentration controlled infusions to replace manual infusion regimens. This study simulated the pharmacokinetics of various infusion regimens similar to those used in clinical practice using previously published pharmocokinetic data. Bolus doses of 0, 4, 6 and 8 mg/kg were simulated in combination with infusion rates of 0, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/kg/min for either 240 or 1440 min. The computer was also programmed to maintain a steady state plasma concentration based on the previous simulated data. Generated data were then compared with published data. Changes in the context-sensitive half-life for propofol were also evaluated. Results showed that the generated data were similar to published data. A decrease in plasma concentration to levels associated with a light plane of anaesthesia was evident even when the highest bolus dose and infusion rate were used. There was a slow rise in plasma concentration when only an infusion was used. A lightening of anaesthetic plane may be evident early in the course of TIVA and careful monitoring of anaesthetic depth is required. As the duration of the infusion increased, plasma concentration steadily rose but achieved 95% of the steady state by 204 min. The most dramatic changes in plasma concentration occurred in the first hour of an infusion. Similarly, the infusion rates decreased most in the first 70 min. Most changes in anaesthetic depth are likely to occur early in the course of TIVA and careful observation of anaesthetic depth is required.

  11. Unprecedented high insulin secretion in a healthy human subject after intravenous glucagon-like peptide-1 : a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Lund, Asger

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The gut-derived incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, are released in response to ingestion of nutrients. Both hormones are highly insulinotropic in strictly glucose-dependent fashions and glucagon-like peptide-1 is often referred to as one of the most insulinotropic substances known. CASE PRESENTATION: Plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations were measured in a healthy Caucasian male (age: 53 years; body mass index: 28.6 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose: 5.7 mM; 2 h plasma glucose value following 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test: 3.5 mM; glycated haemoglobin A1c: 5.5%) during glucagon (1 mg) and meal (2,370 kJ) tests, and during two 2 h 15 mM-hyperglycaemic clamps with continuous intravenous infusion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (1 pmol/kg/min) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (4 pmol/kg/min), respectively. Normal insulin and C-peptide responses were observed during meal test (peak concentrations: 300 and 3,278 pM) and glucagontest (peak concentrations: 250 and 2,483 pM). During the hyperglycaemic clamp with continuous intravenous infusion of GLP-1 the subject exhibited plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations of 13,770 and 22,380 pM, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge insulin and C-peptide concentrations of these magnitudes have never been reported. Thus, the present data support the view that glucagon-like peptide-1 is one of the most insulinotropic substances known.

  12. Utilities associated with subcutaneous injections and intravenous infusions for treatment of patients with bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matza LS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Louis S Matza,1 Ze Cong,2 Karen Chung,2 Alison Stopeck,3 Katia Tonkin,4 Janet Brown,5 Ada Braun,2 Kate Van Brunt,6 Kelly McDaniel1 1Outcomes Research, United BioSource Corporation, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Amgen, Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 3Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 4Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 5Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, St James University Hospital, Leeds, UK; 6formerly with Outcomes Research, United BioSource Corporation, Bethesda, MD, USA Introduction: Although cost-utility models are often used to estimate the value of treatments for metastatic cancer, limited information is available on the utility of common treatment modalities. Bisphosphonate treatment for bone metastases is frequently administered via intravenous infusion, while a newer treatment is administered as a subcutaneous injection. This study estimated the impact of these treatment modalities on health state preference. Methods: Participants from the UK general population completed time trade-off interviews to assess the utility of health state vignettes. Respondents first rated a health state representing cancer with bone metastases. Subsequent health states added descriptions of treatment modalities (ie, injection or infusion to this basic health state. The two treatment modalities were presented with and without chemotherapy, and infusion characteristics were varied by duration (30 minutes or 2 hours and renal monitoring. Results: A total of 121 participants completed the interviews (52.1% female, 76.9% white. Cancer with bone metastases had a mean utility of 0.40 on a standard utility scale (1 = full health; 0 = dead. The injection, 30-minute infusion, and 2-hour infusion had mean disutilities of ?0.004, ?0.02, and ?0.04, respectively. The mean disutility of the 30-minute infusion was greater with renal monitoring than without. Chemotherapy was associated with substantial disutility (?0.17. When added to health states with chemotherapy, the mean disutilities of injection, 30-minute infusion, and 2-hour infusion were ?0.02, ?0.03, and ?0.04, respectively. The disutility associated with injection was significantly lower than the disutility of the 30-minute and 2-hour infusions (P < 0.05, regardless of chemotherapy status. Conclusion: Respondents perceived an inconvenience with each type of treatment modality, but injections were preferred over infusions. The resulting utilities may be used in cost-utility models examining the value of treatments for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases. Keywords: skeletal-related event, infusion, injection

  13. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy after intravenous infusion of adenosine triphosphate disodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility and safety of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy after the intravenous infusion of adenosine triphosphate disodium (ATP)(Adetphos, Kowa) were studied in eight patients with angina pectoris and/or old myocardial infarction. Coronary arteriography (CAG) was performed by the conventional method in all patients. ATP was infused for 5 min and thallium was injected at 3 min after the start of ATP infusion. ATP was given at 0.12 mg/min/kg in two patients (group A), 0.16 mg/min/kg in three patients (group B), 0.20 mg/min/kg in one patient (group C), and 0.28 mg/min/kg in two patients (group D). SPECT images were obtained at 10 min and 180 min after thallium injection. No significant hemodynamic changes were observed in groups A and B. Severe hypotension was observed in group C and one member of group D. Chest pain was experienced by one patient in group A, two in group B, one in group C, and both of the two in group D. ST depression on the electrocardiogram (ECG) was documented in one patient each of groups B and C. In one patient of group D, the study was discontinued because of complete atrioventricular block persistent for 5 beats. The correlation between thallium imaging and CAG was unclear in group A, reasonable in groups B and C, and obscure in group D because of side effects. None of the patients who developed side effects of ATP were administered sublingual nitroglycerin or intravenous aminophylline. Their symptoms or ECG changes improved spontaneousmptoms or ECG changes improved spontaneously within 2 min and disappeared within 5 min after termination of infusion. In conclusion, the optimal ATP regimen for this purpose was considered to be a 5 min infusion at 0.16 mg/kg/min and this method was found to be feasible and safe. (author)

  14. Nuclearmedical investigations on tissue concentration and hemodynamic effects of retrograde intravenous pressure infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 12 patients with trophic foot-lesions (diabetic feet) retrograde intravenous pressure infusions (150 ml) containing radioactive tracers (99m Tc, 99m Tc labelled human serum albumin) were carried out. With the veins emptied time-activity curves over the legs reflect tissue concentrations after release of the occlusion. Tissue-concentration is about 3 times higher than after intraarterial and 7 times higher than after intravenous injection of the same dose. The high count-rates which can be measured in the wound-secretion demonstrate the 'rinsing effect' of the injected fluid. Hemodynamic investigations have been performed in a double blind study. 8 patients received buflomedil and 9 got placebo 3 times per week by retrograde intravenous pressure infusions. After 3 weeks there was an increase of the peak-flow on the lower leg (venous occlusion plethysmography), an increase of transcutaneous oxygen pressure and a fall of peak flow-time and of plasma-viscosity, both for buflomedil and for placebo (without statistical significance): Preliminary investigations after an arterial occlusion for 1 hour showed an increase of flow-values measured by venous occlusion plethysmography which reached a maximum after 4 to 5 days

  15. Does intravenous saline infusion compromise the stability of [123I] meta-iodobenzylguanidine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Teresa; Chivato, Tomás; Roldán, Marta; Miñana, Elena

    2014-06-01

    To avoid adverse effects during the administration of [(123)I] meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), infusion of the drug that has been previously diluted is proposed. Stability of [(123)I] MIBG in sodium chloride solutions is studied, looking for incompatibilities in the formulation. Stability was tested on the basis of the percentage of free [(123)I] iodide on solid-phase extraction. No increase in percentages of free [(123)I] iodide was found in diluted and undiluted samples over time (P>0.05). Intravenous saline infusion of [(123)I] MIBG could be a useful tool for controlling the administration rate, minimizing the side effects and lowering the exposure of the staff to ionizing radiation. PMID:24637441

  16. Intraperitoneal insulin delivery to patients with type 1 diabetes results in higher serum IGF-I bioactivity than continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Christina A; Frystyk, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with low IGF-I and altered levels of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) in plasma. This may be of importance for insulin sensitivity and the risk of developing diabetic complications. We hypothesized that IGF-I bioactivity is affected by the route of insulin administration and that continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) has a more pronounced effect than continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII).

  17. Short-Term Intravenous Sodium Nitrite Infusion Improves Cardiac and Pulmonary Hemodynamics in Heart Failure Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Julian O.M.; Arif, Sayqa; Mukadam, Majid; Evans, Jonathan D.W.; Beadle, Roger; Fernandez, Bernadette O.; Bonser, Robert S.; Feelisch, Martin; Madhani, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background— Nitrite exhibits hypoxia-dependent vasodilator properties, selectively dilating capacitance vessels in healthy subjects. Unlike organic nitrates, it seems not to be subject to the development of tolerance. Currently, therapeutic options for decompensated heart failure (HF) are limited. We hypothesized that by preferentially dilating systemic capacitance and pulmonary resistance vessels although only marginally dilating resistance vessels, sodium nitrite (NaNO2) infusion would increase cardiac output but reduce systemic arterial blood pressure only modestly. We therefore undertook a first-in-human HF proof of concept/safety study, evaluating the hemodynamic effects of short-term NaNO2 infusion. Methods and Results— Twenty-five patients with severe chronic HF were recruited. Eight received short-term (5 minutes) intravenous NaNO2 at 10 ?g/kg/min and 17 received 50 ?g/kg/min with measurement of cardiac hemodynamics. During infusion of 50 ?g/kg/min, left ventricular stroke volume increased (from 43.22±21.5 to 51.84±23.6 mL; P=0.003), with marked falls in pulmonary vascular resistance (by 29%; P=0.03) and right atrial pressure (by 40%; P=0.007), but with only modest falls in mean arterial blood pressure (by 4 mm Hg; P=0.004). The increase in stroke volume correlated with the increase in estimated trans-septal gradient (=pulmonary capillary wedge pressure–right atrial pressure; r=0.67; P=0.003), suggesting relief of diastolic ventricular interaction as a contributory mechanism. Directionally similar effects were observed for the above hemodynamic parameters with 10 ?g/kg/min; this was significant only for stroke volume, not for other parameters. Conclusions— This first-in-human HF efficacy/safety study demonstrates an attractive profile during short-term systemic NaNO2 infusion that may be beneficial in decompensated HF and warrants further evaluation with longer infusion regimens. PMID:25838311

  18. Increase in the resistance of stenotic coronary segment by intravenous infusion of isoproterenol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito,Daiji

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of intravenous infusion of isoproterenol on stenosis resistance were studied in the anesthetized open-chest dog. The circumflex coronary artery (LCx was isolated near its origin and an electromagnetic flow transducer was placed around the vessel for measuring coronary flow. A polyethylene catheter was inserted into the small branch of LCx for monitoring distal coronary pressure. LCx was constricted with a thick cotton string to a degree of obstruction that eliminated reactive hyperemia following a 20-second coronary occlusion. The coronary resistance across the stenotic segment (RL was calculated as the pressure gradient across the stenosis divided by coronary flow. Isoproterenol was infused intravenously in a dose to keep the heart rate at a level 25-30% above the control with and without coronary constriction. For maintaining the ascending aortic pressure at the pre-isoproterenol level, the descending thoracic aorta was constricted with a tape. In the absence of coronary constriction, the vascular resistance of large coronary arteries was not affected by isoproterenol with a significant increase in coronary flow. In the presence of coronary stenosis, isoproterenol markedly increased RI regardless of additional aortic constriction. The magnitude of the increase in RL during aortic constriction varied directly with the percent increase in the pressure gradient across the coronary stenosis. Pacing-tachycardia essentially did not affect RL. These results suggest that isoproterenol increased the vascular resistance of the stenotic segment with fixed caliber.

  19. Urinary iron excretion induced by intravenous infusion of deferoxamine in ß-thalassemia homozygous patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Boturão-Neto; L.F., Marcopito; M.A., Zago.

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify noninvasive methods to evaluate the severity of iron overload in transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia and the efficiency of intensive intravenous therapy as an additional tool for the treatment of iron-overloaded patients. Iron overload was evaluated f [...] or 26 ß-thalassemia homozygous patients, and 14 of them were submitted to intensive chelation therapy with high doses of intravenous deferoxamine (DF). Patients were classified into six groups of increasing clinical severity and were divided into compliant and non-compliant patients depending on their adherence to chronic chelation treatment. Several methods were used as indicators of iron overload. Total gain of transfusion iron, plasma ferritin, and urinary iron excretion in response to 20 to 60 mg/day subcutaneous DF for 8 to 12 h daily are useful to identify iron overload; however, urinary iron excretion in response to 9 g intravenous DF over 24 h and the increase of urinary iron excretion induced by high doses of the chelator are more reliable to identify different degrees of iron overload because of their correlation with the clinical grades of secondary hemochromatosis and the significant differences observed between the groups of compliant and non-compliant patients. Finally, the use of 3-9 g intravenous DF for 6-12 days led to a urinary iron excretion corresponding to 4.1 to 22.4% of the annual transfusion iron gain. Therefore, continuous intravenous DF at high doses may be an additional treatment for these patients, as a complement to the regular subcutaneous infusion at home, but requires individual planning and close monitoring of adverse reactions.

  20. Urinary iron excretion induced by intravenous infusion of deferoxamine in ß-thalassemia homozygous patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boturão-Neto E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify noninvasive methods to evaluate the severity of iron overload in transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia and the efficiency of intensive intravenous therapy as an additional tool for the treatment of iron-overloaded patients. Iron overload was evaluated for 26 ß-thalassemia homozygous patients, and 14 of them were submitted to intensive chelation therapy with high doses of intravenous deferoxamine (DF. Patients were classified into six groups of increasing clinical severity and were divided into compliant and non-compliant patients depending on their adherence to chronic chelation treatment. Several methods were used as indicators of iron overload. Total gain of transfusion iron, plasma ferritin, and urinary iron excretion in response to 20 to 60 mg/day subcutaneous DF for 8 to 12 h daily are useful to identify iron overload; however, urinary iron excretion in response to 9 g intravenous DF over 24 h and the increase of urinary iron excretion induced by high doses of the chelator are more reliable to identify different degrees of iron overload because of their correlation with the clinical grades of secondary hemochromatosis and the significant differences observed between the groups of compliant and non-compliant patients. Finally, the use of 3-9 g intravenous DF for 6-12 days led to a urinary iron excretion corresponding to 4.1 to 22.4% of the annual transfusion iron gain. Therefore, continuous intravenous DF at high doses may be an additional treatment for these patients, as a complement to the regular subcutaneous infusion at home, but requires individual planning and close monitoring of adverse reactions.

  1. Portable detectors for 125I-insulin absorption measurement during subcutaneous infusion with portable pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programmed subcutaneous insulin infusion is a promising method for normalisation of the blood glucose concentration in insulin-dependent diabetics. The absorption rate from the depot is usually measured intermittently by radioactively-labelled insulin and stationary scintillation detectors. Small portable detectors are an alternative, however, and continuous absorption measurements could be made during normal life conditions. Contrary to conventional single injection therapy, the insulin depot initially expands during infusion treatment, changing the geometry during measurements. In the present study the methodological aspects and geometrical dependences were investigated. Simulated studies were made with various plane disc 125I sources in Perspex phantoms as well as 125I-insulin absorption studies in short-term subcutaneous infusion experiments with anaesthetised rabbits. Results from portable, end-window Geiger-Mueller (GM) detectors fixed above the depots and close to the surfaces of phantom or skin were compared with results obtained by a conventional stationary NaI(Tl) detector 15 cm from the phantom or skin surface. With a 125I-insulin infusion site at 5 mm depth in the subcutaneous tissue of rabbits, an overall linear proportionality was found between the results obtained with a NaI(Tl) detector and a GM detector raised 15 mm above the skin surface inside the detector housing. (author)

  2. Effects of sitagliptin and metformin treatment on incretin hormone and insulin secretory responses to oral and "isoglycemic" intravenous glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardarli, Irfan; Arndt, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors prevent degradation of incretin hormones (glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1] and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide [GIP]), whereas metformin may increase GLP-1 levels. We examined, in a four-period crossover trial, the influence of metformin (2,000 mg/day), sitagliptin (100 mg/day), or their combination, on GLP-1 responses and on the incretin effect in 20 patients with type 2 diabetes, comparing an oral glucose challenge (75 g, day 5) and an "isoglycemic" intravenous glucose infusion (day 6). Fasting total GLP-1 was significantly increased by metformin and not changed by sitagliptin. After oral glucose, metformin increased and sitagliptin significantly decreased (by 53%) total GLP-1. Fasting and postload intact GLP-1 increased with sitagliptin but not with metformin. After oral glucose, only sitagliptin, but not metformin, significantly augmented insulin secretion, in monotherapy and as an add-on to metformin. The incretin effect was not changed numerically with any of the treatments. In conclusion, sitagliptin increased intact GLP-1 and GIP through DPP-4 inhibition but reduced total GLP-1 and GIP (feedback inhibition) without affecting the numerical contribution of the incretin effect. Insulin secretion with sitagliptin treatment was similarly stimulated with oral and "isoglycemic" intravenous glucose. This points to an important contribution of small changes in incretin concentrations within the basal range or to additional insulinotropic agents besides GLP mediating the antidiabetic effects of DPP-4 inhibition.

  3. Responses of Blood Glucose, Insulin, Glucagon, and Fatty Acids to Intraruminal Infusion of Propionate in Hanwoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Y. K.; Eun, J. S.; Lee, S. C.; Chu, G. M.; Lee, Sung S.; Moon, Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on ruminal fermentation characteristics and blood hormones and metabolites in Hanwoo (Korean cattle) steers. Four Hanwoo steers (average body wt. 270 kg, 13 month of age) equipped with rumen cannula were infused into rumens with 0.0 M (Water, C), 0.5 M (37 g/L, T1), 1.0 M (74 g/L, T2) and 1.5 M (111 g/L, T3) of propionate for 1 hour per day and allotted by 4×4 Latin square design. On the 5th day of infusion, samples of rumen and blood were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 300 min after intraruminal infusion of propionate. The concentrations of serum glucose and plasma glucagon were not affected (p>0.05) by intraruminal infusion of propionate. The serum insulin concentration at 60 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 than in C, while the concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) at 60 and 180 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the propionate treatments than in C. Hence, intraruminal infusion of propionate stimulates the secretion of insulin, and decreases serum NEFA concentration rather than the change of serum glucose concentration. PMID:25557815

  4. Novel therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: infusion of in vitro-generated insulin-secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, S D; Vanikar, A V; Trivedi, H L; Thakkar, U G; Gopal, S C; Chandra, T

    2015-02-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a metabolic disease usually resulting from autoimmune-mediated ?-cell destruction requiring lifetime exogenous insulin replacement. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) hold promising therapy. We present our experience of treating IDDM with co-infusion of in vitro autologous adipose tissue-derived MSC-differentiated insulin-secreting cells (ISC) with hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). This was an Institutional Review Board approved prospective non-randomized open-labeled clinical trial after informed consent from ten patients. ISC were differentiated from autologous adipose tissue-derived MSC and were infused with bone marrow-derived HSC in portal, thymic circulation by mini-laparotomy and in subcutaneous circulation. Patients were monitored for blood sugar levels, serum C-peptide levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies. Insulin administration was made on sliding scale with an objective of maintaining FBS < 150 mg/dL and PPBS around 200 mg/dL. Mean 3.34 mL cell inoculums with 5.25 × 10(4) cells/?L were infused. No untoward effects were observed. Over a mean follow-up of 31.71 months, mean serum C-peptide of 0.22 ng/mL before infusion had sustained rise of 0.92 ng/mL with decreased exogenous insulin requirement from 63.9 international units (IU)/day to 38.6 IU/day. Improvement in mean Hb1Ac was observed from 10.99 to 6.72%. Mean GAD antibodies were positive in all patients with mean of 331.10 IU/mL, which decreased to mean of 123 IU/mL. Co-infusion of autologous ISC with HSC represents a viable novel therapeutic option for IDDM. PMID:24317657

  5. [Fundamental and clinical studies on intravenous drip infusion of dibekacin in the pediatric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohiro, T; Tanaka, K; Koga, T; Shimada, Y; Nishiyama, T; Ishimoto, K; Tominaga, K; Yamashita, F; Sakaguchi, Y; Kimura, K

    1985-08-01

    Dibekacin (DKB), an antibiotic of aminoglycoside group, was administered at 4 different dosages of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg as intravenous drip infusion taking 30 minutes or 1 hour. For each dose level, 3 cases each were used out of 24 boys from 1 year and 1 month to 14 years and 7 months of age, and serum concentrations as well as urinary concentrations and recovery rate were determined. After removed of 4 cases unassessable of therapeutic efficacy, 7 cases consisting of 1 case of chronic bronchitis, 1 case of lung abscess and 5 cases of urinary tract infections were treated with DKB at a mean daily dosage of 3.3 mg/kg in 2 or 3 divided doses as intravenous drip infusion taking 30 minutes or 1 hour. The mean treatment period was 7 days. The clinical and bacteriological results were analyzed in these cases and for analysis of side effects drop out cases were also included. The following results were obtained. Following 30 minutes intravenous drip infusion of DKB at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg, the serum concentration peaked at the end of infusion for all dose levels. The highest peak concentration of 9.17 mcg/ml was obtained for the dose level of 2.0 mg/kg. The highest dosage with which serum concentration does not exceed concentrations of 10 to 12 mcg/ml was found to be 2.0 mg/kg. The mean highest serum concentrations obtained were 1.65, 3.49, 5.40 and 8.67 mcg/ml for the dosages of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg, respectively, and the mean AUCs determined by the two-compartment model were 2.99, 6.04, 10.5 and 14.2 mcg X hr/ml, respectively, showing dose response relation in terms of peak concentration and AUC among groups. The mean T1/2 values for each dosage were 1.55, 1.54, 1.77 and 2.03 hours, respectively, with a longer tendency in T1/2 for the dose level of 2.0 mg/kg with unknown cause. When 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg of DKB were infused taking 1 hour, the peak of serum concentration appeared also at the end of the infusion. The highest concentration was obtained with 2.0 mg/kg and it was 7.02 mcg/ml. Considering from the concentrations obtained for 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg groups the highest dosage at which the serum concentration does not exceed 10 to 12 mcg/ml was estimated to be 2.5 mg/kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:4079001

  6. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of protein C concentrate using an insulin pump in a newborn with congenital protein C deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Barbara; Capirchio, Laura; Lenzi, Lorenzo; Guasti, Monica; Braccesi, Giulia; Bresci, Cecilia; Casalini, Emilio; Fiorini, Patrizio; Agostini, Elisabetta; Toni, Sonia

    2014-07-01

    We describe the case of a newborn presenting with multicystic encephalomalacy, hydrocephalus and bilateral hemovitreous. An underlying coagulation disorder was suspected and laboratory tests revealed severe protein C deficiency. At 25 days of life, after the appearance of purpura fulminans, replacement therapy with intravenous protein C concentrate (Ceprotin; Baxter, Vienna, Austria) was started.Due to difficulties in getting peripheral venous access and to repeated loss of the venous access, continuous subcutaneous infusion of protein C was started with an insulin pump (VEO 754; Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA), normally adopted in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Protein C values increased into the normal range and the resolution of the purpuric skin lesion was achieved. Chronic prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin failed and, due to cutaneous and cerebral recrudescence, replacement therapy with the pump was started again. The insulin pump allowed us to reduce the number of injections per day and to deal with the difficulties in getting peripheral venous access, permitting medical and paramedical staff an easier management of the therapy. The dosing schedule could be easily adapted with the insulin pump and the continuous subcutaneous administration of small amounts of protein C concentrate prevented fluctuation in trough levels of protein C. This is the first reported case of a novel, successful use of an insulin pump in an extremely rare disease, to administer a drug different from insulin, which needs to be further analyzed, underlining the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide effective and efficient care in high-complexity diseases. PMID:24509341

  7. The Experiences of School Nurses Caring for Students Receiving Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder in childhood. Today, children with diabetes are receiving new technologically advanced treatment options, such as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy. School nurses are the primary health caregivers of children with diabetes during school hours. Therefore, it is important…

  8. Decline in mammary translational capacity during intravenous glucose infusion into lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, R V; Kim, J J M; Bajramaj, D L; Doelman, J; Osborne, V R; Cant, J P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine effects of glucose on milk protein yield and mammary mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity in dairy cattle in early lactation. Eight multiparous cows at 73 ± 8 d in milk were randomly assigned to 2 treatments in a crossover design for two 6-d periods. Treatments were jugular infusion of either saline (Sal) or 896 g/d glucose (Glc). All cows were fed a total mixed ration with 42% neutral detergent fiber, had free access to water, and were milked twice a day. Within each period, blood samples were taken (d 5) and mammary tissue was collected by biopsy (d 6) from each hindquarter for Western blot analysis. In addition to Sal and Glc treatments, on d 6, rapamycin dissolved in 50% dimethyl sulfoxide was administered via the teat canals into the left quarters, with a control solution administered into the right quarters. Rapamycin had no effect on milk protein yields or phosphorylation state of mTOR signaling proteins. Infusions of Glc significantly increased milk yield but only tended to increase milk protein yields. Milk fat tended to be decreased in cows infused with Glc, whereas lactose yields were significantly increased. Glucose infusion did not increase plasma glucose levels, but insulin and nonessential AA concentrations increased by 21 and 16%, respectively, branched-chain AA concentrations decreased 24%, and essential AA concentrations tended to decrease by 14%. Infusion of Glc significantly decreased abundances of both phosphorylated and total ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in mammary tissue by 27 and 11%, respectively. Abundance of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) decreased significantly by 25%, whereas total 4EBP1 exhibited a tendency to decrease by 16%. We conclude that the mTOR signaling pathway is not the only regulator of milk protein synthesis. Decreases in essential AA concentrations in plasma suggest that protein synthesis was stimulated in nonmammary tissues of the body, presumably skeletal muscle. PMID:24268408

  9. Analysis of the environmental impact of insulin infusion sets based on loss of resources with waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Musholt, Petra B; Malmgren-Hansen, Bjoern; Nilsson, Nils H; Forst, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Insulin pump therapy [continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII)] requires regular change of infusion sets every 2-3 days in order to minimize the risk of skin irritations or other adverse events. This has been discussed to be a potential burden to the environment. The purpose of this analysis was to perform an environmental assessment of insulin pump infusion sets based on loss of resources occurring during incineration of the discarded products and by means of a lifecycle concept used to weight a material in relation to its rareness on earth and its consumption. In addition to five infusion sets (Inset30, InsetII, Comfort, Quick-set, and Cleo), a patch pump (Omnipod) was also included in this analysis. The annual loss in waste of the so called "person reserve" of 3 days of catheter use was compared with daily consumption of a cup of coffee in a disposable paper cup and to a soft drink in an aluminum can. The weight-based loss in resources through waste for the infusion sets (except for Cleo) corresponded to 70-200% of the loss of resources for a coffee cup (Cleo, 320%; Omnipod, 1,821,600%) and to 1-3% of the loss from an aluminum soft drink can (Cleo, 5%; Omnipod, 31,200%). The loss or resources by use of infusion sets used in insulin pump therapy appears to be low and is similar to the burden induced by the uptake of one cup of coffee per day. The loss or resources with regular CSII is considerably lower than the loss or resources induced by patch pumps. PMID:21880223

  10. Continuous infusion of insulin-like growth factor-I into the epiphysis of the tibia

    OpenAIRE

    Abbaspour, Aziz; Takata, Shinjiro; MATSUI, YOSHITO; Katoh, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Yasui, Natsuo

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a method to promote longitudinal bone growth at the level of a specific growth-plate (GP) in young rabbits. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was continuously infused by means of an osmotic pump into the bone marrow cavity of the proximal epiphysis of the tibia. Radiological measurement showed a 2-mm overgrowth of the tibia after 4 weeks of treatment, while histological analysis demonstrated a 15% increase in the thickness of the selected GP. The local infusion of IGF-I i...

  11. Organ distribution of histones after intravenous infusion of FITC histones or after sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Fatemeh; Grailer, Jamison J; Jajou, Lawrence; Zetoune, Firas S; Andjelkovic, Anuska V; Ward, Peter A

    2015-03-01

    Histones appear in plasma during infectious or non-infectious sepsis and are associated with multiorgan injury. In the current studies, intravenous infusion of histones resulted in their localization in major organs. In vitro exposure of mouse macrophages to histones caused a buildup of histones on cell membranes followed by localization into cytosol and into the nucleus. After polymicrobial sepsis (cecal ligation and puncture), histones appeared in plasma as well as in a multiorgan pattern, peaking at 8 h followed by decline. In lungs, histones and neutrophils appeared together, with evidence for formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which represent an innate immune response to trap and kill bacteria and other infectious agents. In liver, there was intense NET formation, featuring linear patterns containing histones and strands of DNA. When neutrophils were activated in vitro with C5a or phorbol myristate acetate, NET formation ensued. While formation of NETs represents entrapment and killing of infectious agents, the simultaneous release from neutrophils of histones often results in tissue/organ damage. PMID:25680340

  12. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of cognitive and psychomotor effects of intravenous buprenorphine infusion in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mette L; Sjøgren, Per; Upton, Richard N; Foster, David J R; Bonde, Peter; Graae, Christian; Skram, Ulrik; Stevner, Lene; Christrup, Lona L

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship of the effects of buprenorphine on cognitive functioning in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three male volunteers received 0.6 mg buprenorphine as an intravenous infusion over 150 min. The cognitive and psychomotor performance was evaluated before and at various times after drug administration by a test battery consisting of trail-making test for visual information processing, finger-tapping test for psychomotor speed, and continuous reaction time for attention. Non-linear mixed effect modelling was used in the analysis of the PK/PD relationships. Buprenorphine caused significant deficits in cognitive and psychomotor functioning. The time course of cognitive and psychomotor impairment was found to have a slow distribution to the biophase from plasma with PK/PD models involving an effect compartment providing the best descriptions of the time course of the data. The values for half-life of biophase equilibration were consistent between the neuropsychological tests in the range of 66.6-84.9 min. The time to onset and duration of the cognitive and psychomotor impairment of buprenorphine was determined by a slow distribution to the biophase. PMID:18598301

  13. Lidocaine infusion adjunct to total intravenous anesthesia reduces the total dose of propofol during intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Tod B; Mongan, Paul; Lyda, Clark; Koht, Antoun

    2014-04-01

    Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and opioids is frequently utilized for spinal surgery where somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and motor evoked potentials (tcMEP) are monitored. Lidocaine infusions can contribute to antinociception and unconsciousness, thus allowing for a reduction in the total dose of propofol. We examined our recent experience with lidocaine infusions to quantify this effect. After institutional review board approval, we conducted a retrospective review of propofol usage in propofol-opioid TIVA (with and without lidocaine) for spine cases monitored with SSEP and tcMEP over a 7 months period. The propofol infusion rate, cortical amplitudes of the SSEP (median nerve, posterior tibial nerve), amplitudes and stimulation voltage of the tcMEP (adductor pollicis brevis, tibialis anterior) were evaluated. The savings of propofol and sufentanil were estimated based on utilization in 50 milliliter (ml) bottles and 5 ml ampules, respectively. 129 cases were evaluated. Propofol infusion rates were reduced with lidocaine infusion from an average of 115-99 ?g/kg/min (p = 0.00038) and sufentanil infusions from an average of 0.36-0.29 ?g/kg/h (p = 0.0059). This reduction in propofol infusion was also seen when the cases were divided into anterior cervical, posterior cervical, or posterior thoraco-lumbar procedures. No significant differences in the cortical SSEP or tcMEP amplitudes or the tcMEP stimulation voltages used were observed. No complications were associated with the use of the lidocaine infusion. The total estimated drug savings included 104 50 ml bottles of propofol and 5 5 ml ampules of sufentanil. These cases indicate that a lidocaine infusion can be effectively utilized in spine surgery with SSEP and tcMEP monitoring as a means to reduce propofol and sufentanil usage without a negative effect on the monitoring. PMID:23996498

  14. Incretin hormone and insulin responses to oral versus intravenous lipid administration in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Ola; Carr, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    Context: The incretin effect is responsible for the higher insulin response to oral glucose than to iv glucose at matching glucose levels. It is notknownwhetherthis effect is restricted to glucose only. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine whether insulin and incretin hormone responses are higher after oral vs. iv challenge of a lipid emulsion with matching triglyceride levels in humans. Design, Settings, and Participants: A lipid emulsion (Intralipid) was administered orally (3 ml/kg) or iv (variable infusion rates to match triglyceride levels after oral ingestion) in healthy lean males (n 12) at a University Clinical Research Unit. Samples were collected during 300 min. Main Outcome Measures:Wemeasured the suprabasal area under the curve for insulin, glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and the insulin secretory rate based on C-peptide levels by deconvolution. Results: Triglyceride levels increased similarly after oral and iv lipid; also, glucose and free fatty acid levels were similar in the two tests. Oral lipid elicited a clear insulin and C-peptide response, whereas no insulin or C-peptide responses were observed during iv lipid. Total and intact GIP and GLP-1 levels both increased after oral lipid administration but were not significantly altered after iv lipid. Conclusions: At matching triglyceride levels and with no difference in glucose and free fatty acid levels, oral lipid ingestion but not iv lipid infusion elicits a clear insulin response in association with increased GIP and GLP-1 concentrations. This may suggest that the incretin hormones also contribute to the islet response to noncarbohydrate nutrients.

  15. Rapid intravenous infusion of 20 mL/kg saline alters the distribution of perfusion in healthy supine humans

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, AC; Sá, RC; Barash, IA; Holverda, S; Buxton, RB; Hopkins, SR; Prisk, GK

    2011-01-01

    Rapid intravenous saline infusion, a model meant to replicate the initial changes leading to pulmonary interstitial edema, increases pulmonary arterial pressure in humans. We hypothesized that this would alter lung perfusion distribution. Six healthy subjects (29±6 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify perfusion using arterial spin labeling. Regional proton density was measured using a fast-gradient echo sequence, allowing blood delivered to the slice to be normalized for de...

  16. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, Deepanjali; Narani, Krishan Kumar; Sood, Jayashree

    2010-01-01

    Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation,...

  17. Effect of intravenous drip infusion of cyclophosphamide with high-dose Astragalus injection in treating lupus nephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Li

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of high-dose Astragalus injection and cyclophosphamide (CTX) on infection, urine protein and immune function of the patients with lupus nephritis.Methods: Forty-three patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) complicated by kidney damage and qi-deficiency syndrome were randomly divided into trial group (n=23) and control group (n=20). Patients in both groups were treated for 3 months. Intravenous drip infusion of 0.8 g CTX was administered to al...

  18. Intraoperative glycemic control without insulin infusion during pediatric cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Scohy, Thierry V.; Golab, Hanna D; Egal, Mohamud; Takkenberg, Johanna J. M.; Bogers, Ad J.J.C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Many studies are reporting that the occurrence of hyperglycemia in the postoperative period is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates in children after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. The study sought to determine blood glucose levels in standard pediatric cardiac anesthesiological management without insulin infusions. Methods: The study population consisted of 204 consecutive pediatric patients aged from 3 days to 15.4 years u...

  19. Effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glyceryl trinitrate is a donor of nitric oxide that relaxes smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about the effect of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric emptying and no data exist on the possible effect of glyceryl trinitrate on small intestinal transit. AIM: To examine the effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function after a meal in healthy humans. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Each volunteer was examined during intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate 1 microg/kg x min or saline. A gamma camera technique was used to measure gastric emptying and small intestinal transit after a 1600-kJ mixed liquid and solid meal. Furthermore, duodenal motility was assessed by manometry. RESULTS: Glyceryl trinitrate did not change gastric mean emptying time, gastric half emptying time, gastric retention at 15 min or small intestinal mean transit time. Glyceryltrinitrate did not influence the frequency of duodenal contractions, the amplitude of duodenal contractions or the duodenal motility index. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate 1 microg/kg x min does not induce major changes in gastric or small intestinal motor function after a 1600-kJ meal in healthy volunteers.

  20. Thallium-201 scintigraphy after intravenous infusion of adenosine compared with exercise thallium testing in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenosine is an endogenously produced compound that has significant effects as a coronary and systemic vasodilator. Previous studies suggest that intravenous infusion of adenosine, coupled with thallium-201 scintigraphy, may have specific value as a noninvasive means of evaluating coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of adenosine thallium testing with that of standard exercise thallium testing. One hundred subjects were studied with exercise thallium imaging and thallium imaging after adenosine infusion, including 47 with angiographically proved coronary artery disease and 53 control subjects. The overall sensitivity of the thallium procedures was 81% for the exercise study and 83% for the adenosine study (p = NS); the specificity was 74% for the exercise study and 75% for the adenosine study (p = NS). The diagnostic accuracy of the exercise study was 77% and that of the adenosine study was 79%. Ninety-four percent of subjects had an adverse effect due to the adenosine infusion; however, most of these effects were mild and well tolerated. All adverse effects abated within 30 to 45 s of the termination of the study, consistent with the very brief half-life of the agent. Thus, thallium-201 scintigraphy after intravenous infusion of adenosine has a diagnostic value similar to that of exercise thallium testing for evaluation of coronary artery disease. Adenosine thallium testing may be particularly useful in evaluating paty be particularly useful in evaluating patients unable to perform treadmill exercise testing

  1. Supplemental morphine infusion into the posterior ventral tegmentum extends the satiating effects of self-administered intravenous heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidl, S; Myal, S; Wise, R A

    2015-07-01

    Rats learn to self-administer intravenous heroin; well-trained animals lever-press at a slow and regular pace over a wide range of intravenous doses. The pauses between successive earned infusions are proportional to the dose of the previous injection and are thought to reflect periods of drug satiety. Rats will also self-administer opiates by microinjection directly into sites in the posterior regions of the ventral tegmentum. To determine if the pauses between self-administered intravenous injections are due to opiate actions in posterior ventral tegmentum, we delivered supplemental morphine directly into this region during intravenous self-administration sessions in well-trained rats. Reverse dialysis of morphine into the posterior ventral tegmentum increased the intervals between earned injections. The inter-response intervals were greatest for infusion into the most posterior ventral tegmental sites, sites in a region variously known as the tail of the ventral tegmental area or as the rostromedial tegmental nucleus. These sites at which morphine prolongs inter-response intervals, correspond to the sites at which opiates have been found most effective in reinforcing instrumental behavior. PMID:25913296

  2. Optimal timing of neutron irradiation for boron neutron capture therapy after intravenous infusion of sodium borocaptate in patients with glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A cooperative study in Europe and Japan was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetics and boron uptake of sodium borocaptate (BSH: Na2B12H11SH), which has been introduced clinically as a boron carrier for boron neutron capture therapy in patients with glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: Data from 56 patients with glioblastoma who received BSH intravenous infusion were retrospectively reviewed. The pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 50 patients, and boron uptake was investigated in 47 patients. Patients received BSH doses between 12 and 100 mg/kg of body weight. For the evaluation, the infused boron dose was scaled linearly to 100 mg/kg BSH. Results: In BSH pharmacokinetics, the average value for total body clearance, distribution volume of steady state, and mean residence time was 3.6±1.5 L/h, 223.3±160.7 L, and 68.0±52.5 h, respectively. The average values of the boron concentration in tumor adjusted to 100 mg/kg BSH, the boron concentration in blood adjusted to 100 mg/kg BSH, and the tumor/blood boron concentration ratio were 37.1±35.8 ppm, 35.2±41.8 ppm, and 1.53±1.43, respectively. A good correlation was found between the logarithmic value of Tadj and the interval from BSH infusion to tumor tissue sampling. About 12-19 h after infusion, the actual values for Tadj and tumor/blood boron concentration ratio were 46.2±36.0 ppm and 1.70±1.06, respectively. The dose ratio between tumor and healthose ratio between tumor and healthy tissue peaked in the same interval. Conclusion: For boron neutron capture therapy using BSH administered by intravenous infusion, this work confirms that neutron irradiation is optimal around 12-19 h after the infusion is started

  3. Effect of glucose and insulin infusion on the myocardial extraction of a radioiodinated methyl-substituted fatty acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the one-way. An extraction of 14-iodophenyl-tetradecanoic acid (BMTDA) in the canine heart under fasting conditions and during infusion of glucose plus insulin in eight an esthetized greyhound dogs. Myocardial extraction measurements were made with dual tracer approach, using Tc-99m albumin as reference tracer. Prior to, and during, infusion of 10% glucose and 25 units of regular insulin, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma glucose, insulin and free fatty acid levels were measured. Myocardial blood flow was determined using Sn-113 and Ru-103 radioactive microspheres. The mean extraction fraction of BMTDA was 0.38+-SEM 0.06 at baseline and increased to 0.44+-0.06 during hyperglycemia plus insulin (P<0.025). Plasma glucose and insulin were higher during the infusion (P<0.01) while plasma free fatty acids significantly declined (P<0.01). There were no changes in hemodynamics or myocardial blood flow during the infusion. We conclude that glucose and insulin infusion result in increased first-pass extraction fraction of radioiodinated BMTDA unaccompanied by changes in coronary flow or hemodynamics, implying an insulin-mediated augmented transport of BMTDA. (orig.)

  4. Design of a safer approach to intravenous drug infusions: failure mode effects analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Apkon, M; Leonard, J.; Probst, L; DeLizio, L; Vitale, R.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: A set of standard processes was developed for delivering continuous drug infusions in order to improve (1) patient safety; (2) efficiency in staff workflow; (3) hemodynamic stability during infusion changes, and (4) efficient use of resources. Failure modes effects analysis (FMEA) was used to examine the impact of process changes on the reliability of delivering drug infusions.

  5. Tumor vascularity under hypertension induced by intravenous infusion of angiotensin II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied whether or not the blood flow of tumors was increased by AT-II-induced hypertension in patients. Angiograms of 51 patients before and after intravenous infusion of AT-II were compared carefully from 5 points of view which suggested increased tumor blood flow. These were, 1) Contraction of small arteries feeding normal tissue, 2) Enhanced visualization of tumor vessels, 3) Enhanced visualization of tumor stain, 4) Increase of venous return from tumor-bearing region, and 5) Enhanced visualization of metastatic lymph nodes. The results were as follows. Contractions of small arteries feeding normal tissue [Finding 1)] were observed in 34 cases (66.6 %) and enhanced visualization of tumor vessels, tumor stain and so on [Finding 2)-5] were observed in 18 cases (35.3 %). Concequently, an increase of tumor blood flow was suggested in 40 cases (78.4 %). Blood flow of human tumors and normal tissue during the full course of induced hypertension with AT-II were measures by means of radionuclide angiography (99mTc-RBC) and laser Doppler velocimetry. Activities of the tumor-bearing region and the mid-portion of the thigh (selected as normal tissue) were measured continuously by collimated scintillation detectors. In 26 measurements out of 31 (83.8 %), the activity in the thigh decreased promptly and returned to the baseline synchronously with the rise and fall of blood pressure. In contrast, in 11 measurements (34.4 %) the activity of the tumor-bearing region increased and returned to the baseline accompanying the change of blood pressure. Preliminary observations using laser Doppler velocimetry revealed an increase of blood flow in 5 tumors. In conclusion, the blood flow of human tumors was increased by AT-II, in agreement with the findings in animal tumors. (J.P.N.)

  6. Renal haemodynamics, sodium and water reabsorption during continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; von der Maase, H

    1998-01-01

    1. Renal haemodynamics, lithium and sodium clearance were measured in 14 patients treated with recombinant interleukin-2 for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. 2. Patients were studied before and after 72 h of continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2 (18x10(6) i.u..24 h-1.m-2) and 48 h post therapy. Cardiac output was measured by impedance cardiography. Effective renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate were determined by the renal clearances of 131I-hippuran and 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) respectively. Renal clearance of lithium (CLi) was used as an index of proximal tubular outflow. 3. Treatment caused a transient decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance, but cardiac output remained unchanged. Renal blood flow decreased and renal vascular resistance increased during and after treatment. Sodium clearance decreased from 1.10 (0.63/1.19) ml/min to 0.17 (0.18/0.32) ml/min (P=0.003). Glomerular filtration rate remained unchanged, whereas the median CLi decreased from 26 (17/32) ml/min to 17 (10/21) ml/min (P=0.008). Calculated absolute proximal reabsorption rate of water increased from 63 (40/69) ml/min to 71 (47/82) ml/min (P=0.04). The urinary excretion rate of thromboxane B2 and the ratio between excretion rates of thromboxane B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1alpha increased by 98% (P=0.022) and 175% (P=0.022) respectively. 4. The study suggests a specific recombinant interleukin-2-induced renal vasoconstrictor effect. Changes in renal prostaglandin synthesis may contribute to the decrease in renal blood flow. The lithium clearance data suggest that an increased proximal tubular reabsorption rate may contribute to the decreased sodium clearance during recombinant interleukin-2 treatment.

  7. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha infusion produced insulin resistance but no change in the incretin effect in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, impaired incretin effect, and increased plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). Although TNF-? infusion at a dose that induces systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated to induce peripheral insulin resistance, the influence of this cytokine on the incretin effect is unknown.

  8. Seguridad en la administración intravenosa de medicamentos mediante bombas de infusión inteligentes / Intravenous drug infusion safety through smart pumps

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Gómez-Baraza; M.ª J., Agustín-Fernández; P. I., Palomo-Jiménez; J. M., Real-Campaña; R., Abad-Sazatornil.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar el papel de las bombas de infusión inteligentes en la reducción de errores relacionados con la administración de medicación intravenosa. Método: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo que analiza la implementación de un sistema de bombas inteligentes de infusión intravenosa (Hospira [...] MedNetTM) y el papel de este sistema de seguridad en la detección de errores en la fase de administración de fármacos, sueros y sangre. Se incluyeron infusiones administradas en los hospitales de día de hematología, oncología, reumatología y oncopediatría. Se analizó la adherencia al sistema de seguridad, el número de errores de programación detectados, los fármacos comúnmente implicados en estos errores y las acciones de mejora. Resultados: Durante el periodo de estudio se implementaron 120 bombas inteligentes y se recogieron los datos de 70.028 infusiones. La adherencia al programa de seguridad fue del 62,30% en hematología (6.887 infusiones), del 60,30% en oncología (28.127 infusiones), del 46,50% en reumatología (1.950 infusiones) y del 1,8% en oncopediatría (139 infusiones). Se notificaron 3481 alertas por programación de las bombas fuera de los límites establecidos: 2716 de límite relativo y 765 de límite absoluto. En 807 infusiones (2,17%), se evitaron errores que podrían haber tenido consecuencias para los pacientes. Gracias a estos hallazgos, se implementaron una serie de estrategias con objeto de minimizar dichos errores en el futuro. Conclusiones: El sistema Hospira MedNetTM intercepta desviaciones con respecto a los protocolos establecidos en la infusión intravenosa, evitando potenciales efectos adversos a pacientes. También permite establecer medidas correctoras e implementar estrategias de mejora. Abstract in english Objective: To analyze the role of smart infusion pumps in reducing errors related with the administration of intravenous medications. Method: Retrospective, observational study analyzing the implementation of a system with smart intravenous infusion pumps (Hospira MedNetTM) and the role of the safet [...] y system for the detection of errors during the administration of drugs, sera, and blood. We included infusions administered at the day-care hospitals of hematology, oncology, rheumatology, and oncopediatrics. We analyzed adherence to the safety system, the number of programming errors detected, the commonly implicated drugs in these errors, and improvement actions Results: During the study period, 120 smart pumps were implemented and data on 70,028 infusions were gathered. The rate of adherence to the safety program was 62.30% in hematology (6,887 infusions), 60,30% in oncology (28,127 infusions), 46,50% in rheumatology (1,950 infusions) and 1.8% in oncopediatrics (139 infusions). 3,481 out of the established limits programming alerts were generated by the pumps: 2,716 of relative limit and 765 of absolute limit. En 807 infusions (2.17%), errors that could have had consequences for the patients could be prevented. These findings allowed implementing a series of strategies aimed at minimizing these errors in the future. Conclusions: The Hospira MedNetTM system detects deviations from the established protocols of intravenous infusion, preventing in this way potential adverse events for the patients. It also allows establishing correction measures and implementing the improvement strategies.

  9. Modelling the Effect of Exercise on Insulin Pharmacokinetics in "Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion" Treated Type 1 Diabetes Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Juhl, Rune

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The artificial pancreas is believed to ease the burden of constant management of type 1 diabetes for the patients substantially. An important aspect of the artificial pancreas development is the mathematical models used for control, prediction or simulation. A major challenge to the realization of the artificial pancreas is the effect of exercise on the insulin and plasma glucose dynamics. In this report, we take the first step towards a population model of exercise effects in type 1 diabetes. We focus on the effect on the insulin pharmacokinetics in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) treated patients by modelling the absorption rate as a function of exercise. Methods: Three models are estimated from 17 data sequences. All of them are based on a linear three-compartment base model. The models are based on stochastic differential equations to allow noise to enter the dynamics. In the first model, the insulin absorption rate parameter is replaced by a random walk. In the second model, the relationship between the absorption rate and exercise is modelled as a linear dependency, while in the third model this linear relationship depends on the intensity. A Lamperti transformation is used to ensure non-negative state values. A special focus is put on the structural identiflability of the base model, while the posterior identiflability is checked for all models from the conditional likelihood profiles. Results: The first model is disregarded due to the small number of observations during the exercise bout. From likelihood-ratio tests and information criteria, the third model is appointed as the best model to model the relationship between exercise and the insulin absorption. The posterior identiflability check showed that it was not possible to identify the variance of the measurement variance. Conclusion: A model to predict the insulin appearance in plasma during exercise in CSII treated patients is identified. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm the increase in insulin plasma concentration during exercise in type 1 diabetes patients. These studies should include dense sampling to allow for a fully data driven identification of an appropriate model.

  10. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin: effects of combined and separate intravenous infusions on bile secretion in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of intravenously administered vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and secretin on bile secretion were studied in 12 patients with complete biliary fistulas. The two peptides were administered both simultaneously and separately. During VIP infusion, bile volume increased by 60%, and during the combined VIP and secretin infursion bile volume increased by another 70%. VIP increased bile bicarbonate concentration by some 30%. Although secretin did not increase the concentration, bicarbonate output increased threefold during secretin infusion but only twofold during VIP infusion. The outputs of bile acids were not significantly affected by the two peptides, whereas the concentration decreased by 40% and 70% after VIP and secretin, respectively. The canalicular bile flow, measured by [14C]erythritol, was unaffected by VIP infusion, whereas secretin alone and the combination of the two peptides increased the canalicular clearance by 80%. The choleretic effect of VIP thus seems to occur only at the ductular level. Secretin exerts its effect at the ductular level and possibly also at the canalicular level. It is concluded that the two peptides have additive effects on the ductular bile flow.. 32 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Intravenous Infusion of Nitroglycerine Leads to Increased Permeability on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging in Pig Brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, J; Arp, Dennis Tideman

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It has been suggested that off-label use of transdermal nitroglycerine patches to prevent frostbite may lead to severe acute mountain sickness and ataxia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nitroglycerine on brain vascular permeability by using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in a swine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight Danish Landrace-Yorkshire-Danish Landrace pigs of approximately 20-25 kg were scanned with a dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion protocol with and without nitroglycerine intravenous infusion. Compartmental analysis was performed on the basis of the Tofts model, and voxel-based quantitative values of the volume transfer constants from the vascular to the extracellular space were determined. RESULTS: The scan with nitroglycerine infusion resulted in significantly higher volume transfer constant values than values derived from the first scan without nitroglycerine infusion. Increased volume transfer constant values were observed in 6 of 8 animals. CONCLUSIONS: Infusion of nitroglycerine increases the vascular permeability of the swine brain on the basis of the transfer constant estimated from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging.

  12. Renal response to intravenous somatostatin in insulin-dependent diabetic patients and normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute effects of iv somatostatin (SRIH; 100 micrograms/h) on the urinary flow (Uvol), effective renal plasma flow (RPF), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were compared with those of a control infusion of 0.15 M NaCl in nine insulin-dependent diabetic (IDD) patients of less than 10 yr disease duration and six normal subjects (NS). RPF and GFR were measured using a standard primed constant isotope infusion of [125I]iodohippurate and [51Cr]chromium EDTA. Uvol, RPF, and GFR were measured during 20-min clearance periods. During the NaCl infusion mean Uvol, RPF, and GFR were 14.1 +/- 0.2 (+/- SEM), 708 +/- 4, and 150 +/- 1 mL/min in the IDD group and 12.7 +/- 0.4, 568 +/- 5, and 110 +/- 2 mL/min in the NS group, respectively. In the IDD patients Uvol, RPF, and GFR decreased from 16.6 +/- 1.8, 670 +/- 30, 146 +/- 4 mL/min pre-SRIH to 9.2 +/- 1, 553 +/- 25 (P less than 0.001), and 130 +/- 5 mL/min, respectively, at 120 min during the SRIH infusion. Similarly, in the NS group mean Uvol, RPF, and GFR were 14.2 +/- 0.6, 552 +/- 15, and 112 +/- 5 mL/min pre-SRIH and decreased to 7.4 +/- 0.6, 422 +/- 7, and 93 +/- 3 mL/min, respectively, after 120 min of the SRIH infusion. SRIH, therefore, had a profound effect on renal function in both IDD patients and NS, resulting in a reduction in RPF, GFR, and, as a consequence, Uvol

  13. Consumption of Ocimum sanctum L. and Citrus paradisi infusions modulates lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia; Salgado, Luis M; González-Gallardo, Adriana; Ramos-Gómez, Minerva; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2014-05-01

    A high saturated fat and fructose diet leads to metabolic disorders through dysregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Consumption of plant infusions reduces these obesity alterations, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect and the possible mechanism of Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) and Citrus paradisi (CP) infusions in diet-induced obese rats. CP and OS infusions suppressed hepatic tissue fat accumulation, and significantly down-regulated the mRNA levels of two hepatic lipogenesis genes: sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) compared with the obese control. Treatment with these infusions up-regulated the hepatic expression of mRNA related to mitochondrial fatty acid uptake: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) and the expression of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1a (CPT1a). Both infusions improved insulin resistance, with OS showing the major effect. Consumption of these infusions reduces the damage caused by free radicals, protecting hepatic lipids and proteins. Additionally, plant infusions increase activity of hepatic enzymes: glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT). Our results suggest that the effects of CP and OS infusions on lipid metabolism are related to the down-regulation of genes involved in lipogenesis, particularly for OS, and to the increase in lipid ?-oxidation, especially for CP infusion. In conclusion, the consumption of these plant infusions is a feasible adjuvant therapy for metabolic changes induced by obesity. PMID:24584283

  14. Response of fibroblast growth factor 21 to meal intake and insulin infusion in patients on maintenance haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Mark; Frystyk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the response of serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) to a meal and to insulin infusion in haemodialysis (HD) patients. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Meal study: in a cross-over design, 12 non-diabetic HD patients were randomly assigned to: 1) a non-HD day with one meal served, 2) a HD day with one meal served during HD, and 3) a HD day with two meals served during and after HD, respectively. Twelve healthy controls participated in an experiment identical to the non-HD day. Insulin infusion study: in a cross-over design, 11 non-diabetic HD patients were randomly assigned to receive a 4-h HD session with either: 1) no infusion, 2) glucose infusion, or 3) glucose-insulin infusion. A meal was served 2 h before HD start. RESULTS: Meal study: serum FGF21 was 23-fold higher in HD patients than controls (P < 0?001). Postprandial FGF21 decreased on all four study days (P ? 0?006), but the relative reductions from baseline were significantly greater in controls (P < 0?008). Postprandial changes in FGF21 were inversely related with triglycerides (P = 0?042) and positively related with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) (P < 0?001). Serum FGF21 was only associated with changes in adiponectin (P = 0?001) and free fatty acids (P = 0?04) in the healthy controls. Insulin infusion study: as compared with no infusion, glucose and glucose-insulin infusion prevented the postprandial decrease in FGF21 and resulted in higher FGF21 concentrations by up to 25% (P = 0?003). CONCLUSIONS: Serum FGF21 was highly elevated in HD patients but the response of serum FGF21 to meal intake and insulin infusion seemed to be intact. Our results indicate that FGF21 may play an important role in short-term metabolic homeostasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Short-lasting systemic and regional benefits of early crystalloid infusion after intravenous inoculation of dogs with live Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of early crystalloid infusion in an experimental model of septic shock induced by intravenous inoculation with live Escherichia coli. Anesthetized dogs received an intravenous infusion of 1.2 x 10(10 cfu/kg live E. coli in 30 min. After 30 min of observation, they were randomized to controls (no fluids; N = 7, or fluid resuscitation with lactated Ringer's solution, 16 ml/kg (N = 7 or 32 ml/kg (N = 7 over 30 min and followed for 120 min. Cardiac index, portal blood flow, mean arterial pressure, systemic and regional oxygen-derived variables, blood lactate, and gastric PCO2 were assessed. Rapid and progressive cardiovascular deterioration with reduction in cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and portal blood flow (~50, ~25 and ~70%, respectively was induced by the live bacteria challenge. Systemic and regional territories showed significant increases in oxygen extraction and in lactate levels. Significant increases in venous-arterial (~9.6 mmHg, portal-arterial (~12.1 mmHg and gastric mucosal-arterial (~18.4 mmHg PCO2 gradients were also observed. Early fluid replacement, especially with 32 ml/kg volumes of crystalloids, promoted only partial and transient benefits such as increases of ~76% in cardiac index, of ~50% in portal vein blood flow and decreases in venous-arterial, portal-arterial, gastric mucosal-arterial PCO2 gradients (7.2 ± 1.0, 7.2 ± 1.3 and 9.7 ± 2.5 mmHg, respectively. The fluid infusion promoted only modest and transient benefits, unable to restore the systemic and regional perfusional and metabolic changes in this hypodynamic septic shock model.

  16. Maintenance time of sedative effects after an intravenous infusion of diazepam: A guide for endoscopy using diazepam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsushige Sugimoto, Takahisa Furuta, Akiko Nakamura, Naohito Shirai, Mutsuhiro Ikuma, Shingen Misaka, Shinya Uchida, Hiroshi Watanabe, Kyoichi Ohashi, Takashi Ishizaki, Akira Hishida

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine whether the sedative effects assessed by psychomotor tests would depend on the cytochrome P450 (CYP 2C19 genotypes after an infusion regimen of diazepam commonly used for gastrointestinal endoscopy in Japan.METHODS: Fifteen healthy Japanese volunteers consisting of three different CYP2C19 genotype groups underwent a critical flicker fusion test, an eye movement analysis and a postural sway test as a test for physical sedative effects, and a visual analog scale (VAS symptom assessment method as a test for mental sedative effects during the 336 h period after the intravenous infusion of diazepam (5 mg.RESULTS: The physical sedative effects assessed by the critical flicker test continued for 1 h (t values of 5 min, 30 min and 60 min later: 4.35, 5.00 and 3.19, respectively and those by the moving radial area of a postural sway test continued for 3 h (t values of 5 h, 30 h, 60 min and 3 h later: -4.05, -3.42, -2.17 and -2.58, respectively, which changed significantly compared with the baseline level before infusion (P < 0.05. On the other hand, the mental sedative effects by the VAS method improved within 1 h. The CYP2C19 genotype-dependent differences in the postinfusion sedative effects were not observed in any of the four psychomotor function tests.CONCLUSION: With the psychomotor tests, the objective sedative effects of diazepam continued for 1 h to 3 h irrespective of CYP2C19 genotype status and the subjective sedative symptoms improved within 1 h. Up to 3 h of clinical care appears to be required after the infusion of diazepam, although patients feel subjectively improved.

  17. A study of the effect of aging on insulin and glucagon release during intravenous glucose tolerance tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose intolerance in aged persons had been reported by many investigators. In this study intravenous glucose tolerance tests have been performed of 63 subjects classified into three groups (20 - 40 years, 40 - 60 years and above 60 years). With increasing age, significant increases of plasma glucose and insulin and decreases in glucose assimilation, insulin stimulating activity and insulin index were observed. No significant differences have been found in plasma glucagon levels of glucagon suppression areas so that it may be concluded that glucagon is of no importance to the reduction of glucose tolerance with aging. (author)

  18. Continuous intravenous flumazenil infusion in a patient with chlordiazepoxide toxicity and hepatic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halawani, Moh’d; Sen, Parijat; Abdeen, Yazan; Shaaban, Hamid; Klukowicz, Allan J.; Miller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, is the drug of choice for the diagnosis and treatment of benzodiazepine overdose. We are presenting a patient with chronic alcoholism and alcoholic liver disease, who came with alcohol withdrawal symptoms and treated chlordiazepoxide. Subsequently he developed a prolonged change in mental status that required treatment for benzodiazepine overdose and hepatic encephalopathy with flumazenil infusion for 28 days. PMID:25709257

  19. The importance of active learning and practice on the students' mastery of pharmacokinetic calculations for the intermittent intravenous infusion dosing of antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Mehvar Reza

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters after intermittent intravenous infusion (III) of antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides or vancomycin, has traditionally been a difficult subject for students in clinical pharmacology or pharmacokinetic courses. Additionally, samples taken at different intervals during repeated dose therapy require manipulation of sampling times before accurate calculation of the patient-specific pharmacokinetic parameters. The main goal of this study...

  20. Plasma nitrate plus nitrite changes during continuous intravenous infusion interleukin 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Citterio, G; Pellegatta, F.; Lucca, G. D.; Fragasso, G.; Scaglietti, U.; Pini, D.; Fortis, C.; Tresoldi, M.; Rugarli, C.

    1996-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a biologically active mediator generated in many cell types by the enzyme NO synthase, may play an important role in cardiovascular toxicity that is frequently observed in cancer patients during intravenous (i.v.) interleukin 2 (IL-2) therapy. The induction of NO synthase and the production of NO seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of the vascular leakage syndrome, as well as in the regulation of myocardial contractility. In the present study, we evaluated the pattern o...

  1. Treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is associated with lower arterial stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Rosenlund, Signe; Theilade, Simone

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between arterial stiffness and insulin treatment mode [continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus multiple daily injections (MDI)] in type 1 diabetes patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, from 2009 to 2011, including 601 Caucasian type 1 diabetes patients, 58 and 543 treated with CSII and MDI, respectively. Arterial stiffness was measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV) (SphygmoCor, AtCor Medical). Adjustment included gender, age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, P-creatinine, urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), smoking, total daily insulin dose, antihypertensive treatment, previous cardiovascular disease (CVD), total cholesterol and statin treatment. Albuminuria was UAER ?30 mg/24-h, and CVD included myocardial infarction, revascularization, peripheral arterial disease and stroke. RESULTS: CSII- versus MDI-treated patients were 48 versus 57 % men, 51 ± 11 versus 54 ± 13 years old (mean ± SD), had 33 ± 12 versus 32 ± 16 yearsdiabetes duration and HbA1c 7.8 ± 0.9 % (62 ± 10 mmol/mol) versus 8.0 ± 1.2 % (64 ± 13 mmol/mol) (P ? 0.08 for all). PWV was lower in CSII- versus MDI-treated patients (9.3 ± 2.8 vs. 10.4 ± 3.4 m/s; P = 0.016). In fully adjusted analysis, CSII treatment was significantly (P = 0.038) associated with lower PWV, whereas HbA1c-level was not (P = 0.93). CONCLUSIONS: In type 1 diabetes patients, CSII treatment was associated with lower arterial stiffness independent of other risk factors, while HbA1c was not. Although glucose variability was not assessed, our results suggest that glucose variability and not HbA1c-level affect arterial stiffness. This needs confirmation in randomised prospective studies.

  2. Regional myocardial lidocaine concentration following continuous intravenous infusion early and later after myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regional concentration of lidocaine using a double constant infusion technique (250 micrograms/kg/min x 15 minutes followed by 35 micrograms/kg/mg/min x 120 minutes) was studied immediately (2 hours) in seven dogs and 24 hours (six dogs) after myocardial infarction. Tissue levels were determined by gas chromatography and related to regional myocardial blood flow as determined by the radioactive microsphere technique in multiple samples. At 2 hours after infarction a significantly higher lidocaine concentration (4.1 +/- 0.42 micrograms/g) was found in zones with greatly reduced blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow less than 0.2 ml/min per g) when compared with that (2.6 +/- 0.19 micrograms/g) in zones with normal blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow greater than 0.8 ml/min per g) (p less than 0.01). In contrast, in the 24 hour model the opposite situation was observed. Although the concentration of lidocaine in the infarct zone was substantial, a significant decline in lidocaine tissue concentration was found in the zones of lowest blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow less than 0.2 ml/min per g) when compared with that in normal zones (1.76 +/- 0.21 versus 3.38 +/- 0.21 micrograms/g, p less than 0.001). In addition, no significant differences in lidocaine concentrations were found between endocardium and epicardium in any of the groups other than those related to regional myocardial blood flow. Thus, with the double constant infusion technique, lithe double constant infusion technique, lidocaine reached normal and ischemic myocardium in concentrations equivalent to therapeutic plasma concentrations, even in lower infarct blood flow zones, with no significant differences between endocardium and epicardium. Of perhaps greater significance, the age of the ischemic insult is an important determinant of lidocaine tissue distribution in infarcted myocardium

  3. Hypercalcaemic crisis: immediate parathyroidectomy and intraoperative intravenous calcium infusion improves outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjit, Kaur; Zanariah, Hussein; Hisham, Abdullah N

    2007-07-01

    The hypercalcaemic crisis of hyperparathyroidism is an endocrine emergency that is invariably fatal if untreated. Despite emergency parathyroidectomies to treat hypercalcaemic crisis, mortality rates remain high. The rapid decline of serum calcium levels after removal of an adenoma and its adverse effect on the heart contributes to the development of postoperative complications and death. The cornerstone of surgical treatment for hypercalcaemic crisis is to begin infusion of high doses of calcium immediately after successful removal of parathyroid adenomas to allow gradual and well-controlled decline of serum calcium to avoid fatal myocardial complications. PMID:17638635

  4. In silico evaluation of a control system and algorithm for automated insulin infusion in the ICU setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmos Pablo R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that tight control of glucose in the Intensive Care Unit reduces morbidity and mortality not only in diabetic patients but also in those non-diabetics who become transiently hyperglycemic. Taking advantage of a recently marketed subcutaneous glucose sensor we designed an Automatic Insulin Infusion System (AIIS for inpatient treatment, and tested its stability under simulated clinical conditions. Methods The system included: reference glucose, glucose sensor, insulin and glucose infusion controllers and emergency infusion logic. We carried out computer simulations using Matlab/Simulink®, in both common and worst-case conditions. Results The system was capable of controlling glucose levels without entering in a phase of catastrophic instability, even under severe simulated challenges. Care was taken to include in all simulations the 5-10 minute delay of the subcutaneous glucose signal when compared to the real-time serum glucose signal, a well-known characteristic of all subcutaneous glucose sensors. Conclusions When tested in-Silico, a commercially available subcutaneous glucose sensor allowed the stable functioning of a proportional-derivative Automatic Insulin Infusion System, which was able to maintain glucose within acceptable limits when using a well-established glucose response model simulating a patient. Testing of the system in vivo using animal models is now warranted.

  5. Comparative effectiveness of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion using insulin analogs and multiple daily injections in pregnant women with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Padmini D; Maruthur, Nisa M; Nicholson, Wanda K; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Brown, Todd; Suh, Yong; Wilson, Lisa M; Nannes, Elisabeth B; Berger, Zack; Bass, Eric B; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-03-01

    We systematically reviewed the effectiveness and safety of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with insulin analogs compared with multiple daily injections (MDI) in pregnant women with diabetes mellitus. We searched Medline®, Embase®, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through May 2013. Studies comparing CSII with MDI in pregnant women with diabetes mellitus were included. Studies using regular insulin CSII were excluded. We conducted meta-analyses where there were two or more comparable studies based on the type of insulin used in the MDI arm. Seven cohort studies of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes reported improvement in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in both groups. Meta-analysis showed no difference in maternal and fetal outcomes for CSII versus MDI. Results were similar when CSII was compared with MDI with insulin analogs or regular insulin. Studies had moderate to high risk bias with incomplete descriptions of study methodology, populations, treatments, follow up, and outcomes. We conclude that observational studies reported similar improvements in HbA1c with CSII and MDI during pregnancy, but evidence was insufficient to rule out possible important differences between CSII and MDI for maternal and fetal outcomes. This highlights the need for future studies to examine the effectiveness and safety of CSII with insulin analogs and MDI in pregnant women with diabetes mellitus. PMID:25713996

  6. The Various Forms of Insulin Secretion Response to the Intravenous and Oral Administration of Glucose in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of 68 observations on advanced diabetes mellitus (20 cases), latent diabetes with obesity (12 cases), chemical diabetes with subjective symptoms (26 cases) and 10 observations of obesity without diabetes, the authors have analysed the various forms of insulin secretion response to the intravenous and oral administration of glucose. The response appeared to be totally withdrawn in advanced diabetes mellitus although the patients were still capable of responding to stimulation with glucagon. In the two other forms of diabetes described, the response to stimulation by intravenous administration was less marked than in normal subjects. With oral administration, on the other hand, the response was greater, although the insulin secreted in this case appeared ineffective in cases of obesity but effective in conditions without obesity due to the hypoglycaemic effect. (author)

  7. Intravenous drip transfusion of recombinant human endostatin combined with arterial infusion chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced carcinomas: a clinical observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the clinical effects and the safety of intravenous drip transfusion of recombinant human edentate's combined with arterial infusion chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced carcinomas. Methods: Forty-one patients with advanced carcinomas were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into study group and control group. All patients underwent relevant infusion chemotherapy via the tumor-feeding artery. At the same day when the arterial infusion chemotherapy was completed, patients in study group stated to receive intravenous drip transfusion of recombinant human endostatin, which lasted for 14 days and, then, broke for 7 days (regarded as one therapeutic cycle). No additional treatment was given to the patients in control group. After two therapeutic cycles, the clinical effect was evaluated with RE-CIST criteria and the living quality was assessed with Karnofsky scoring. The adverse effect was compared between two groups. Results: The control rate of disease and the Karnofsky score were significantly higher in study group than thase in control group (P 0.05). Conclusion: For the treatment of advanced carcinomas, intravenous drip transfusion of recombinant human endostatin combined with arterial infusion chemotherapy can markedly improve patient's living quality and disease control rate, besides, this y and disease control rate, besides, this therapy carries few adverse effects. Therefore, it is well worth making the effort to popularize this technique in clinical practice.(authors)

  8. Diffuse and persistent blood-spinal cord barrier disruption after contusive spinal cord injury rapidly recovers following intravenous infusion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Takashi; Lankford, Karen L; Arroyo, Edgardo J; Sasaki, Masanori; Neyazi, Milad; Radtke, Christine; Kocsis, Jeffery D

    2015-05-01

    Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to reduce the severity of experimental spinal cord injury (SCI), but mechanisms are not fully understood. One important consequence of SCI is damage to the microvasculature and disruption of the blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB). In the present study we induced a contusive SCI at T9 in the rat and studied the effects of intravenous MSC infusion on BSCB permeability, microvascular architecture and locomotor recovery over a 10week period. Intravenously delivered MSCs could not be identified in the spinal cord, but distributed primarily to the lungs where they survived for a couple of days. Spatial and temporal changes in BSCB integrity were assessed by intravenous infusions of Evans blue (EvB) with in vivo and ex vivo optical imaging and spectrophotometric quantitation of EvB leakage into the parenchyma. SCI resulted in prolonged BSCB leakage that was most severe at the impact site but disseminated extensively rostral and caudal to the lesion over 6weeks. Contused spinal cords also showed an increase in vessel size, reduced vessel number, dissociation of pericytes from microvessels and decreases in von Willebrand factor (vWF) and endothelial barrier antigen (EBA) expression. In MSC-treated rats, BSCB leakage was reduced, vWF expression was increased and locomotor function improved beginning 1 week post-MSC infusion, i.e., 2weeks post-SCI. These results suggest that intravenously delivered MSCs have important effects on reducing BSCB leakage which could contribute to their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25771801

  9. Two-year experience with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in relation to retinopathy and neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Torsten; Frost-Larsen, K

    1985-01-01

    Thirty patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) who had advanced background retinopathy were randomized to unchanged conventional treatment (UCT) or to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). They were followed prospectively for 2 yr. The mean blood glucose and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) were significantly lower in the CSII group than in the UCT group. The mean blood glucose and HbA1C did not change from the first to the second year in either of the treatment groups in spite of less frequent home-monitoring of blood glucose and less frequent outpatient visits during the second year. Four patients in the CSII group and five in the UCT group developed proliferative retinopathy. However, a marginally significant trend was found toward more frequent improvement of retinal morphology in the CSII group (47%) than in the UCT group (13%). Beat-to-beat variation was found to deteriorate significantly with UCT compared with a nonsignificant improvement with CSII therapy. Vibration sense was unchanged in both treatment groups. It is concluded that near-normal blood glucose levels can be maintained with CSII therapy in spite of less frequent home-monitoring of blood glucose and outpatient visits. Furthermore, established background retinopathy may progress to proliferative retinopathy in spite of 2 yr of near-normal blood glucose levels. However, a marginally significant trend toward more frequent improvement of retinal morphology was found among CSII-treated patients compared with conventionally treated patients. Large-scale, prospective, randomized studies are needed to confirm these results.

  10. Rapid Initiation of Intravenous Epoprostenol Infusion Is the Favored Option in Patients with Advanced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mai; Tamura, Yuichi; Takei, Makoto; Yamamoto, Tsunehisa; Ono, Tomohiko; Kuwana, Masataka; Fukuda, Keiichi; Satoh, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Background Intravenous infusion (IVI) of epoprostenol is an effective treatment for patients with advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, there is no widely accepted standard method for initiating the IVI therapy. This study evaluated the hemodynamic improvements achieved with IVI epoprostenol to determine the optimal protocol for treatment initiation. Methods and Results We retrospectively analyzed 42 consecutive PAH patients who underwent IVI epoprostenol in Keio University Hospital from 2001 to 2013. The study group comprised 30 women with a mean age of 34.3 ± 1.9 years. The etiology of PAH was idiopathic or heritable PAH (I/HPAH) in 38 cases, PAH associated with connective tissue disease in 3, and Eissenmenger’s syndrome in the remaining case. We divided the patients into rapid- and slow-initiation therapy groups according to the cumulative epoprostenol dose administered during the first 180 days, and compared the hemodynamic changes between the groups. The median cumulative doses were 6142 ± 165 ?g/kg and 3998 ± 132 ?g/kg epoprostenol, respectively. While there were no significant differences in mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), or cardiac index (CI) between the groups before the IVI epoprostenol therapy, the rapid-initiation therapy group achieved significant improvements in these hemodynamic data compared with the slow-initiation therapy group (P < 0.005) at the follow-up right-heart catheterization (RHC). Conclusion Rapid initiation of IVI epoprostenol therapy achieved the optimal hemodynamic improvements in patients with severe PAH. PMID:25844932

  11. Effects of nortriptyline and its 10-hydroxy metabolite on plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentrations, heart rate and blood pressure during intravenous NA infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, C; Collste, P; Otani, K; Scheinin, M

    1987-10-01

    Eight healthy subjects were randomly given placebo and equimolar doses of nortriptyline (NT) and E-10-hydroxy-NT (E-10-OH-NT). Two hours after oral intake of drug, noradrenaline (NA) was infused intravenously at three consecutive rates. Before infusion of NA, E-10-OH-NT significantly increased heart rate compared to NT (p less than 0.05) and placebo (p less than 0.01). During NA infusion, the active drugs caused non-significant tendencies to augmented increase of blood pressure and decrease of heart rate. Plasma NA concentrations increased significantly due to the infused NA but were not influenced by NT or E-10-OH-NT. This absence of drug effect may have been due to several simultaneously operating factors affecting plasma NA concentrations, e.g., modification of the rates of NA release and clearance by exogenous NA or drugs and competing elimination pathways for infused NA. After stopping the NA infusion, a non-significant tendency to a slower elimination of NA was found after both active drugs. PMID:2964548

  12. Safety and feasibility of thallium-201 myocardial SPECT with intravenous infusion of disodium adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a potent coronary vasodilator with a rapid onset of action and a very short half-life. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with intravenous ATP has not yet bee sufficiently proven in the diagnosis, follow-up, and risk stratification of coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of pharmacologic stress thallium-102 myocardial SPECT using an intravenous ATP infusion in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Thallium-201 myocardial SPECT in 319 patients with suspected coronary artery disease were performed after the infusion of ATP (0.08 mg/min for 6 min). The adverse effects were carefully monitored. Coronary angiography was also performed within 3 weeks. Although 76.5% of he patients had some adverse effects, they were transient, mild, and well tolerated. In all patients, the ATP infusion protocol was completed and only 2 patients required aminophylline. The adverse effects were dyspnea in 63%, headache in 31%, flushing in 21%, chest pain in 14% and abdominal discomfort in 5% of the patients. The sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 90% respectively. Thallium-201 myocardial SPECT after 6 min-infusion of ATP at a rate of 0.08 mg/kg/min is safe and has a diagnostic value in detecting coronary artery disease

  13. Treatment Efficacy of Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Therapy In Type 1 Diabetic Patients - Orijinal Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current goals of treatment of diabetes are to achieve near-normal glycemia, minimize the risk of severe hypoglycemia, limit excessive weight gain, and to improve quality of life. Insulin pump or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII therapy provides a treatment option to aid in achieving all of these goals. CSII is a viable alternative to multiple daily injections (MDI therapy for patients with diabetes who are capable and motivated. In this study, we aimed to compare the diabetic control and treatment satisfaction in our patients using CSII and MDI. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with type 1 diabetes, who had been followed between 2005-2008, were enrolled in the study. Changes in biomedical outcomes (glycated haemoglobin; HbA1c, hypoglycaemia, and weigth gain pre-CSII, during the last year and at the end of the study were analyzed retrospectively. For treatment satisfaction and compliance, we used a questionnaire containing 12 questions. The patients were divided into two groups according to MDI or CSII therapy use for least one year: Group 1 using CSII (n:27 and Group 2 using MDI (n:23. Results: There was no significant difference between the last HbA1c levels in both groups. In CSII group, decrease in HbA1c was 0.79% for average follow-up of 1.66 years ( 9.19%±2.23; 8.40%±1.17. When the two groups were compared in terms of hypoglycemia rates and weight gain over the last year, no statistically significant difference was found, but in CSII group, hypoglycemia rates were lower. Finally, CSII group demonstrated a higher treatment satisfaction rate and higher compliance, while a negative correlation was detected between frequency of home blood glucose monitoring and HbA1c levels in all patients. Conclusion: CSII therapy is effective in improving glycemic control with higher treatment satisfaction when compared with MDI therapy in selected type 1 diabetic patients. Turk Jem 2010; 14: 80-4

  14. Effects of Everyday Life Events on Glucose, Insulin, and Glucagon Dynamics in Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion–Treated Type 1 Diabetes: Collection of Clinical Data for Glucose Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Finan, Daniel Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the development of glucose control algorithms, mathematical models of glucose metabolism are useful for conducting simulation studies and making real-time predictions upon which control calculations can be based. To obtain type 1 diabetes (T1D) data for the modeling of glucose metabolism, we designed and conducted a clinical study.Methods: Patients with insulin pump–treated T1D were recruited to perform everyday life events on two separate days. During the study, patients wore their insulin pumps and, in addition, a continuous glucose monitor and an activity monitor to estimate energy expenditure. The sequence of everyday life events was predetermined and included carbohydrate intake, insulin boluses, and bouts of exercise; the events were introduced, temporally separated, in different orders and in different quantities. Throughout the study day, 10-min plasma glucose measurements were taken, and samples for plasma insulin and glucagon analyses were obtained every 10 min for the first 30 min after an event and subsequently every 30 min.Results: We included 12 patients with T1D (75% female, 34.3±9.1 years old [mean±SD], hemoglobin A1c 6.7±0.4%). During the 24 study days we collected information-rich, high-quality data during fast and slow changes in plasma glucose following carbohydrate intake, exercise, and insulin boluses.Conclusions: This study has generated T1D data suitable for glucose modeling, which will be used in the development of glucose control strategies. Furthermore, the study has given new physiologic insight into the metabolic effects of carbohydrate intake, insulin boluses, and exercise in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion–treated patients with T1D.

  15. [Comparative study on intravenous drip infusion of dibekacin once daily and twice daily in treatment of complicated urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, H; Kaneco, H; Tominaga, T; Niijima, T; Nishimura, Y; Saito, I; Ishii, Y; Nito, H; Yuge, J; Asano, M

    1984-01-01

    Dibekacin (DKB) was administered to patients with complicated urinary tract infections without any indwelling catheter to evaluate objectively and comparatively the efficacy, safety and usefulness of intravenous drip infusion once daily and twice daily in a well-controlled study. A 50 mg dose of DKB was administered twice a day to group A, and a 100 mg dose was given once a day to group B. In both groups the drug was given by 1-hr i.v. infusion for 5 consecutive days. Drug efficacy was evaluated in 72 (group A: 36, group B: 36) of the 83 patients treated, and the safety was evaluated on 81 patients (group A: 41, group B: 40). There were no significant differences in the background characteristics between the two groups. The overall clinical efficacy judged by the Committee for Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy was "excellent" in 14% and "moderate" in 50% of group A, and "excellent" in 17% and "moderate" in 64% of group B, the efficacy being higher for group B than group A, but the difference was not statistically significant. The overall drug efficacy rate for each type of infection excluding group 2, was slightly higher in group B, but this difference was not significant either. The overall clinical efficacy for each site of infection, was higher for group B but the differences were not significant. The overall clinical efficacy as judged by the attending physicians was "excellent" in 17% and "moderate" in 58% of group A, and "excellent" in 25% and "moderate" in 61% of group B. The intergroup difference was thus smaller than that judged by the Committee. The elimination rates against bacteriuria were 58% for both groups A and B, and the decrease rates including "cleared" were 42% against pyuria for both groups A and B. Bacteriological evaluation, showed that there was no significant difference in the eradication rates, between group A (65%) and group B (70%). But the eradication rate for gram-positive bacteria was 40% in group A and 81% in group B, there being a significant difference (P less than 0.05) between them. The evaluation of usefulness gave 44% and 53% "satisfactory" rates, respectively, for groups A and B. The results for the "average score" were also the same in both groups. There were no side effects in any of the 81 patients examined. Abnormal laboratory test values attributed to the drug were seen only in 3 and 2 patients in groups A and B, respectively, there being no difference between the groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6375317

  16. A nationwide study of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in Denmark.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NØrgaard, K

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To record the number of patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), the attitude to CSII treatment among diabetes care providers and the characteristics of pump users in Denmark. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to all departments of endocrinology, internal medicine and paediatrics in Denmark (n = 73) to determine the number of diabetic patients treated with CSII and the attitudes of chief consultants to it. All patients using CSII were identified and data from their records collected. RESULTS: Primarily Type 1 diabetic patients (n = 142) were treated with CSII, approx. 0.5% of patients in Denmark. The explanations given for this low frequency varied for non-CSII and CSII-using diabetologists. Both found lack of funding important. In addition, the non-CSII-using group had a perception that CSII was dangerous. The CSII-using diabetologists found that no more patients were interested and that it did not significantly improve metabolic control. The mean age of pump users was 48.1 +/- 10.5 years and the mean time wearing a pump 14.1 +/- 6.3 years. Mean HbA1c was 7.9 +/- 1.2% during CSII, with a significant difference among the 15 centres (P < 0.05) and a tendency to be lower in females (P = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: CSII is infrequently used in Denmark despite pump users showing reasonably good metabolic control. The most common explanations for these low figures are lack of expertise and funding for CSII. If more patients in Denmark were to be offered pumps, education of healthcare providers would be needed and the funding would have to be clarified.

  17. Continuous intravenous infusion of ATP in humans yields large expansions of erythrocyte ATP pools but extracellular ATP pools are elevated only at the start followed by rapid declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, Eliezer; Salikhova, Anna; Abraham, Edward H

    2015-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) was investigated in a clinical trial that included 15 patients with advanced malignancies (solid tumors). ATP was administered by continuous intravenous infusions of 8 h once weekly for 8 weeks. Three values of blood ATP levels were determined. These were total blood (erythrocyte) and blood plasma (extracellular) ATP pools along with the initial rate of release of ATP into the blood plasma. We found that values related to erythrocyte ATP pools showed great variability (diversity) among individuals (standard deviation of about 30-40 % of mean at baseline). It was discovered that erythrocyte baseline ATP pool sizes are unique to each individual and that they fall within a narrow range in each individual. At the end of an 8 h continuous intravenous infusion of ATP, intracellular erythrocyte ATP pools were increased in the range of 40-60 % and extracellular ATP declined from elevated levels achieved at the beginning and middle of the infusion, to baseline levels. The ability of erythrocytes to sequester exogenously administered ATP to this degree, after its initial conversion to adenosine in the blood plasma is unexpected, considering that some of the adenosine is likely to have been degraded by in vivo catabolic activities or taken up by organs. The data suggest that administration of ATP by short-term intravenous infusions, of up to 4 h, may be a favorable way for elevating extracellular ATP pools. A large fraction of the total exogenously administered ATP is sequestered into the intracellular compartments of the erythrocytes after an 8 h intravenous infusion. Erythrocytes loaded with ATP are known to release their ATP pools by the application of previously established agents or conditions applied locally or globally to circulating erythrocytes. Rapid degradation of intravenously administered ATP to adenosine and subsequent accumulation of ATP inside erythrocytes indicate the existence of very effective mechanisms for uptake of adenosine from blood plasma. These in vivo studies offer an understanding as to how both adenosine and ATP can act as purinergic transmission signals. ATP levels in blood are always accompanied by adenosine formed by catabolism of ATP. The continuous uptake of adenosine enables both to act in transmission of sometimes opposite functions. PMID:25917594

  18. Effect of intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine on perioperative haemodynamic changes and postoperative recovery: A study with entropy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag Ramanlal; Engineer, Smita R; Shah, Bharat J; Madhu, S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dexmedetomidine, an ?2 agonist, when used as an adjuvant in general anaesthesia attenuates stress response to various noxious stimuli, maintains perioperative haemodynamic stability and provides sedation without significant respiratory depression postoperatively. Methods: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. In group A, fentanyl 2 ?g/kg and in group B dexmedetomidine were given intravenously as loading dose of 1 ?g/kg over 10 min prior to induction. After induction with thiopentone, in group B, dexmedetomidine was given as infusion at a dose of 0.2–0.8 ?g/kg. Sevoflurane was used as inhalation agent in both groups. Haemodynamic variables and entropy (response entropy and state entropy) were recorded continuously. Postoperative sedation and recovery were assessed by sedation score and modified Aldrete's score, respectively. Results: Dexmedetomidine significantly attenuates stress response at intubation with lesser increase in heart rate (10% vs. 17%), systolic blood pressure (6% vs. 23%) and diastolic blood pressure (7% vs. 20%) as compared to the control group (P<0.05). Intraoperatively, an average of 8% fall in systolic blood pressure and 8.16% fall in diastolic pressure in the test group as compared to 3.6% rise in systolic and 3.3% in diastolic pressure of the control group was observed. Postoperatively, the test group showed significant sedation at 2 h as compared to the control group (P=0.00) and recovery was better in the control group for the first 2 h post extubation. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine attenuates various stress responses during surgery and maintains the haemodynamic stability when used as an adjuvant in general anaesthesia. Also, the sedative action of dexmedetomidine delays recovery for the first few hours post extubation. PMID:23325938

  19. Evaluation of myocardial viability following acute myocardial infarction using 201Tl SPECT after thallium-glucose-insulin infusion. Comparison with 18F-FDG positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate myocardial viability in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We compared 201Tl SPECT after 201Tl with GIK (10% glucose 250 ml, insulin 5 U and KCI 10 mEq) infusion (GIK-201Tl) with resting 201Tl and 99mTc-pyrophosphate (PYP) dual SPECT, positron emission computed tomography (PET) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in 21 patients with their first AMI, who all underwent successful reperfusion. GIK-201Tl SPECT, 201Tl and 99mTc-PYP dual SPECT were done within 10 days after admission and 18F-FDG-PET was performed at 3 weeks. GIK-201Tl SPECT was obtained after 30 min of GIK-201Tl infusion. 18F-FDG (370 MBq) was injected intravenously after oral glucose (1 g/kg) loading, and then PET was obtained. PET and SPECT images were divided into 20 segments. Regional tracer uptake was scored using a 4-point scoring system (3=normal to 0=defect), and summed to a regional uptake score (RUS). Regional area means the infarcted area in which 99mTc-PYP accumulated. The number of decreased uptake segments (ES) was then determined. The infarcted area was defined as the area of 99mTc-PYP uptake. The ESs for the GIK-201Tl and 18F-FDG-PET images were significantly lower than the number of 99mTc-PYP uptake segments. The RUS for GIK-PYP uptake segments. The RUS for GIK-201Tl was higher than that for resting-201Tl imaging and similar to those for 18F-FDG-PET. In the detection of myocardial viability following AMI, GIK-201Tl imaging is useful with findings similar to those of 18F-FDG-PET. (author)

  20. Effect of leptin infusion on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in diet-induced lipodystrophy model mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirouchi Bungo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipodystrophies are rare acquired and genetic disorders characterized by the complete or partial absence of body fat with a line of metabolic disorders. Previous studies demonstrated that dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA induces hepatic steatosis and hyperinsulinemia through the drastic reduction of adipocytokine levels due to a paucity of adipose tissue in mice and the pathogenesis of these metabolic abnormalities in CLA-fed mice is similar to that in human lipodystrophy. The present study explores the effect of leptin infusion on the pathogenesis of diet-induced lipodystrophy in mice. C57BL/6N mice were assigned to three groups: (1 mice were fed a semisynthetic diet supplemented with 6% corn oil and infused PBS intraperitoneally (normal group, (2 mice were fed a semisynthetic diet supplemented with 4% corn oil plus 2% CLA and infused PBS intraperitoneally (lipodystrophy-control group, and (3 mice were fed a semisynthetic diet supplemented with 4% corn oil plus 2% CLA and infused recombinant murine leptin intraperitoneally (lipodystrophy-leptin group. All mice were fed normal or lipodystrophy model diets for 4 weeks and were infused intrapeneally 0 or 5 ?g of leptin per day from third week of the feeding period for 1 week. Results The results indicate that leptin infusion can attenuate hepatic steatosis and hyperinsulinemia through the reduction of hepatic triglyceride synthesis and the improvement of insulin sensitivity in diet-induced lipodystrophy model mice. Conclusion We expect the use of this model for clarifying the pathophysiology of lipodystrophy-induced metabolic abnormalities and evaluating the efficacy and safety of drug and dietary treatment.

  1. Is continuous insulin treatment safe in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Schlenk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Florian Schlenk, Asita S SarrafzadehClinic of Neurosurgery, Charité Campus Virchow Medical Center, Berlin, GermanyObjectives: To investigate the long-term effect of continuous insulin infusion for glucose control on cerebral metabolism in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients. Methods: Prospective, nonrandomized study of 31 SAH patients in the ICU (52 ± 10 years, WFNS Grade 2.9 ± 1.6. A microdialysis catheter was inserted into the vascular territory of the aneurysm. Metabolic changes during 4 days after onset of insulin infusion were analyzed. Blood glucose levels >140 mg/dL after clinical stabilization were treated with intravenous insulin.Results: 24 patients were treated with intravenous insulin. Though no insulin-induced hypoglycemia occurred, cerebral glucose decreased on days 1–4 after insulin onset without reaching critical levels. Glycerol, a marker of membrane degradation, showed a reversible increase on day 1 while the lactate/pyruvate ratio remained stable and glutamate even decreased indicating absence of severe cerebral crisis following insulin infusion and excluding ischemia as a cause for cerebral glucose depletion.Conclusions: Concerning cerebral metabolism, long-term continuous insulin infusion appears to be safe as long as cerebral glucose levels do not fall below the physiological range. In view of the high incidence of hyperglycemia and need for insulin treatment, future studies on the effect of insulin on cerebral metabolism in SAH patients are desirable.Keywords: glucose, hyperglycemia, insulin, subarachnoid hemorrhage, microdialysis

  2. Intravenous labetalol in severe hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Dal Palu, C.; Pessina, A. C.; Semplicini, A.; Hlede, M.; Morandin, F.; Palatini, P.; Sperti, G.; Rossi, G. P.

    1982-01-01

    1 Labetalol was administered by intravenous infusion or by the combination of intravenous bolus injection plus infusion to 15 patients with severe essential hypertension and to one with phaeochromocytoma.

  3. Effect of glucose-insulin infusion on thallium-201 chloride tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium-201 chloride (201Tl) kinetics, may be affected by serum insulin levels like potassium kinetics. The purpose of the present study was to use glucose and insulin to improve 201Tl accumulation in the tumor. The results showed that the tumor-to-normal tissue ratio after simultaneous injection of 201Tl, glucose and insulin was significantly higher than that after the injection of only 201Tl, and that a ring appearance seemed to occur after glucose and insulin injection. This preliminary study suggests that 201Tl accumulation in the tumor is enhanced by glucose and insulin administration. (author)

  4. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus): Its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jan G., Myburgh; Robert M., Kirberger; Johan C.A., Steyl; John T., Soley; Dirk G., Booyse; Fritz W., Huchzermeyer; Russell H., Lowers; Louis J., Guillette Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, includi [...] ng the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2) by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions.

  5. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus: Its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan G. Myburgh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2 by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions.

  6. Comparative study of toxic reactions and pharmacological dynamics of DDP administrated by trans-arterial injection and intravenous infusion in patients with NSCLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Through a comparative analysis serum concentration of DDP administrated by intra-arterial injection and intravenous infusion in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the whole body toxic reactions and the pharmacological mechanism of chemotherapy agents administrated by bronchial artery infusion (BAI) was studied. Methods: In total 60 patients with advanced NSCLC confirmed by pathology were randomly enrolled into two groups in this study. The 30 patients in group A were treated by BAI chemotherapy with DDP at the dose of 80 mg/m2 within 30 min, while MMC at the dose of 10 mg/m2 and VDS at the dose of 3 mg/m2 were given intravenously. Patients in group B was given intravenous chemotherapy of the same components as that given in group A. Blood samples was collected at 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1h, 2h, 4h, 8h, 24h and 48h from the beginning of DDP infusion. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure DDP concentration in blood samples and a time-concentrate curve was drawn. During chemotherapy, the side-effects were investigated. Results: (1) Both group A and B reached a peak concentration at 30 min. Peak concentration value of group B is higher than that of group A. There was a statistical difference of peak concentration between group A and B (P<0.001). (2) AUC value of group B is higher than that of group A, with a statistical difference (P<0.05). (3) The incidence of gastrointestinal complicathe incidence of gastrointestinal complication and kidney function damage has a statistical difference between group A and B (P=0.002 and 0.028 respectively). Conclusion: The side-effects is slighter in BAI chemotherapy than in IV chemotherapy in the treatment of NSCLC

  7. Acute ST elevation myocardial infarction after intravenous immunoglobulin infusion in a young patient: a rare but probable adverse effect of immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Ruhela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is used in the treatment of a variety of disorders, including autoimmune conditions. IVIG has been considered a safe medication, with minor and transient adverse effects. With the wider use of IVIG, the reported rate of adverse effects has been increased, some of them are potentially fatal cardiovascular reactions due to induction of hypercoagulable state. We report a 40-year-old female treated with IVIG for Guillain-Barre syndrome, who developed chest pain 1 hr following IVIG infusion. The symptoms were associated with ST elevation in anterior leads on electrocardiogram. This anterior wall myocardial infarction (MI is compatible with IVIG-induced hypercoagulability and considered as a probable adverse effect of this medication. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably the first case report where a young patient developed acute MI without any cardiac risk factors after IVIG infusion. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 569-571

  8. Continuous intravenous infusion of prostaglandin E1 improves myocardial perfusion reserve in patients with ischemic heart disease assessed by positron emission tomography. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent investigation has demonstrated that prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) therapy increased capillary density in explanted hearts. Dynamic 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) is reliable for non-invasive measurement of myocardial blood flow and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PGE1 therapy during 4 weeks on reduction of myocardial perfusion abnormalities and increase of MPR in the patients with ischemic heart disease. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 11 patients who had symptomatic heart failure and documented myocardial ischemia to 4 weeks intravenous infusion of PGE1 (2.5 ng/kg/min; 8 patients, age 60±13 years) or saline (3 patients, age 57±13 years). Dynamic 13N-ammonia PET scans at rest and during adenosine stress were obtained at baseline and 12 weeks after treatment completion. Quantitative size/severity of perfusion defects and MPR change from baseline to follow-up PET were determined using a 17-segment model. Compared with the control group, baseline MPR in the PGE1 group was significantly lower (1.96±0.78 vs. 2.71±0.73; P1 infusion (1.96±0.78 to 2.16±0.77; P1 infusion sueks of PGE1 infusion sustained MPR improvement in patients with ischemic heart disease. This may be an attractive therapeutic approach for no-option patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy. (author)

  9. Intravenous infusion of tridocosahexaenoyl-glycerol emulsion into rabbits. Effects on leukotriene B4/5 production and fatty acid composition of plasma and leukocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, N.; Hamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, K.; Taki, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Yazawa, K.; Ibuki, F.

    1993-01-01

    Leukotriene (LT) B4 is a major chemical activator of PMN. Inhibitory effects of oral administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on LTB4 synthesis by PMN are known. We intravenously infused tridocosahexaenoyl-glycerol (DHA-TG) emulsion into rabbits in three different doses, namely 0.8, 0.4, or 0.2 g DHA/kg, and investigated the changes in LTB4/5 production by ionophore-activated PMN. The averaged LTB4 production by PMN was significantly reduced to 57 and 59% of baseline at 6 h after the infu...

  10. Prevention of methionine and ammonia-induced coma by intravenous infusion of a branched chain amino acid solution to rats with liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiota,Tetsuya

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of hepatic encephalopathy by the intravenous infusion of a branched chain amino acid (BCAA-enriched solution was investigated in methionine and ammonium acetate-treated rats whose liver was already injured with carbon tetrachloride. A BCAA-enriched solution protected the rats from entering a coma. The brain BCAA contents became higher, and the brain methionine and tyrosine levels and the ratio of glutamine to glutamic acid in the brain diminished after administering the BCAA-enriched solution.

  11. Labetalol infusion for refractory hypertension causing severe hypotension and bradycardia: an issue of patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadimos Thomas J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Incremental doses of intravenous labetalol are safe and effective and, at times, such therapy may need to be augmented by a continuous infusion of labetalol to control severe hypertension. Continuous infusions of labetalol may exceed the recommended maximum daily dose of 300 mg on occasion. We report a case in which hypertension occurring after an abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, initially responsive to intermittent intravenous beta-blockade, became resistant to this therapy leading to the choice of an intravenous labetalol infusion as the therapeutic option. The labetalol infusion resulted in a profound cardiovascular compromise in this postoperative critically ill patient. While infusions of labetalol have successfully been used, prolonged administration in the intensive care unit requires vigilance and the establishment of a therapeutic rationale/policy for interventions, such as the ready availability of glucagon, ?-agonists, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, insulin, and vasopressin when severe cardiovascular depression occurs.

  12. Maintenance time of sedative effects after an intravenous infusion of diazepam: A guide for endoscopy using diazepam

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Furuta, Takahisa; Nakamura, Akiko; Shirai, Naohito; Ikuma, Mutsuhiro; Misaka, Shingen; Uchida, Shinya; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Ishizaki, Takashi; Hishida, Akira

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether the sedative effects assessed by psychomotor tests would depend on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 genotypes after an infusion regimen of diazepam commonly used for gastrointestinal endoscopy in Japan.

  13. Comparison of a nurse initiated insulin infusion protocol for intensive insulin therapy between adult surgical trauma, medical and coronary care intensive care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuper Philip J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustained hyperglycemia is a known risk factor for adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. The specific aim was to determine if a nurse initiated insulin infusion protocol (IIP was effective in maintaining blood glucose values (BG within a target goal of 100–150 mg/dL across different intensive care units (ICUs and to describe glycemic control during the 48 hours after protocol discontinuation. Methods A descriptive, retrospective review of 366 patients having 28,192 blood glucose values in three intensive care units, Surgical Trauma Intensive Care Unit (STICU, Medical (MICU and Coronary Care Unit (CCU in a quaternary care hospital was conducted. Patients were > 15 years of age, admitted to STICU (n = 162, MICU (n = 110 or CCU (n = 94 over 8 months; October 2003-June 2004 and who had an initial blood glucose level > 150 mg/dL. We summarized the effectiveness and safety of a nurse initiated IIP, and compared these endpoints among STICU, MICU and CCU patients. Results The median blood glucose values (mg/dL at initiation of insulin infusion protocol were lower in STICU (188; IQR, 162–217 than in MICU, (201; IQR, 170–268 and CCU (227; IQR, 178–313; p p = 0.27. Hypoglycemia (BG p = 0.85. Protocol violations were uncommon in all three ICUs. Mean blood glucose 48 hours following IIP discontinuation was significantly different for each population: 142 mg/dL in STICU, 167 mg/dL in MICU, and 160 mg/dL in CCU (p Conclusion The safety and effectiveness of nurse initiated IIP was similar across different ICUs in our hospital. Marked variability in glucose control after the protocol discontinuation suggests the need for further research regarding glucose control in patients transitioning out of the ICU.

  14. Radiosensitization of hematopoietic precursor cells (CFU/sub c/) in glioblastoma patients receiving intermittent intravenous infusions of bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential use of bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) as a radiosensitizer given by an intermittent intravenous route is being studied in a Phase I/II trial at the Naitonal Cancer Institute. In order to assess the extent of radiosensitization, we have studied the radiation response of human bone marrow cells CFUc taken form 6 patients prior to and after a 14-day infusion of BUdR. Varying concentrations (1000-1500 mg) of BUdR were infused for 12 hours 12 hours every 24 hours for up to 14 consecutive days. Cells survival was determined by colony formation of CFUc in soft agar suspensions. X ray survival curves were generated over a dose range of 0-300 rad and the slopes of the survival curves (D0) before and after BUdR infusion were compared. Radiation enhancement ratios (ER)(D0 per-BUdR/D0 post-BUdR) ranged form 1.0-2.2 and appeared to be BUdR dose dependent. Above 650 mg/m2/12 hours is well tolerated and may result in radiosensitizaiton of CFUc in man

  15. Metabolic and hematologic changes occurring after rapid intravenous infusion of gammaglobulin in patients with antibody deficiency syndromes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beatriz Tavares, Costa-Carvalho; Marisa, Lin; Dirceu, Solé; Magda Maria Sales, Carneiro-Sampaio; Ricardo Uhr, Sorensen; Charles Kirov, Naspitz.

    1815-18-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Nós pretendemos investigar se o aumento de velocidade de infusão de gamaglobulina intravenosa (IVIG), está associada com alterações metabólicas e hematológicas em pacientes com deficiência de anticorpo. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Nós estudamos sete pacientes (2-16 anos) com deficiência primária [...] de anticorpo que já estavam em tratamento com reposição regular de IgG, na dose de 350-600 mg/kg a cada três semanas em preparados a 3%, por períodos de seis meses a quatro anos. Inicialmente a concentração dos preparados de IVIG foi aumentando para 6, 9 e 12% em infusões consecutivas numa velocidade constante 4 mg/kg/min. Subseqüentemente, na segunda fase do estudo, mantivemos a concentração a 12% e a velocidade de infusão foi aumentando para 8, 12, e 16 mg/kg/min. RESULTADOS: Clinicamente, todos os pacientes toleraram o aumento da concentração de IVIG na velocidade constante de 4 mg/kg/min. Entretanto, 3 pacientes apresentaram efeitos colaterais quando a velocidade de infusão aumentou para 8 e 16 mg/kg/min. CONCLUSÃO: Nós concluímos que alterações metabólicas e hematológicas podem ocorrer quando se administra preparados de IVIG em altas concentração e velocidade mesmo que os pacientes tolerem bem clinicamente. As vantagens de utilizar velocidades elevadas na infusão de IVIG devem ser reavaliadas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: We wished to investigate whether increased IgG infusion rates are associated with metabolic and hematologic changes in pediatric patients with antibody deficiency syndromes. METHODS: We studied 7 patients (2-16 years old) with primary antibody deficiencies who had been on regular IgG rep [...] lacement treatment, 350-600 mg/kg/dose every 3 weeks with a 3% IVIG preparation, for periods ranging from 6 months to 4 years. Initially, the IgG concentration of IVIG preparations was increased to 6, 9 and 12% in consecutive infusions at a constant IgG infusion rate of 4 mg/kg/min. Subsequently, the infusion rates were increased to 8, 12, and 16 mg/kg/min using the IVIG 12% preparation. RESULTS: Clinically, all patients tolerated increases in IVIG concentrations while the infusion rate was 4 mg/kg/min. However, 3 patients presented side effects when the infusion rate was increased to 8 and 16 mg/kg/min. CONCLUSION: We conclude that metabolic and hematologic sides effects occur with rapid infusion of IVIG even in patients who tolerate the increased infusion rate clinically. The advantages of using high infusion rates have to be re-evaluated.

  16. Use of long-term intravenous phosphate infusion in the palliative treatment of tumor-induced osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, S J; McCutcheon, I E; Schultz, P; Gagel, R F

    2000-02-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia is characterized by paraneoplastic defects in vitamin D metabolism, proximal renal tubular functions, and phosphate transport. The resulting hypophosphatemia can cause generalized pain and muscle weakness, which significantly affect the quality of life of the patients. Palliative treatment with calcium, vitamin D, and phosphate replacement is indicated for patients in whom the causative tumor cannot be completely resected. In this report we describe a case of tumor-induced osteomalacia in whom adequate oral doses of phosphate could not be used because of gastrointestinal side-effects. Long term (3-6 months) iv phosphate infusion delivered by ambulatory infusion pumps in combination with oral calcium and vitamin D was used successfully to decrease pain and increase muscle strength. Careful monitoring of serum calcium, phosphate, and creatinine levels and reliable microinfusion technology have allowed the long term use of iv phosphate infusion without serious morbidity. This patient received repeated (three times) phosphate infusions over 8 yr, resulting in laboratory and symptomatic improvement after each course. However, this patient did suffer two episodes of central venous catheter-related infection. Because of potentially serious complications, such as severe hypocalcemia, calcified right ventricular thrombi, and nephrocalcinosis, long term iv phosphate infusion should be reserved for patients who cannot tolerate adequate doses of oral phosphate and for whom the benefits outweigh the risks. PMID:10690854

  17. The Effect of Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate Infusion on Sensory Spinal Block and Postoperative Pain Score in Abdominal Hysterectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Kahraman; Ahmet Eroglu

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of i.v. infusion of magnesium sulphate during spinal anesthesia on duration of spinal block and postoperative pain. Methods. Forty ASA physical status I and status II, aged between 18 and 65, female patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy under spinal anesthesia were enrolled in this study. Patients in the magnesium group (Group M, n = 20) received magnesium sulphate 65?mg?kg?1 infusion in 250?mL 5% dextrose at 3.5?mL/min rate, and c...

  18. Intravenous Infusion of Monocytes Isolated from 2-Week-Old Mice Enhances Clearance of Beta-Amyloid Plaques in an Alzheimer Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohsfield, Lindsay A.; Humpel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of ?-amyloid (A?) senile plaques and tau-associated neurofibrillary tangles. Other disease features include neuroinflammation and cholinergic neurodegeneration, indicating their possible importance in disease propagation. Recent studies have shown that monocytic cells can migrate into the AD brain toward A? plaques and reduce plaque burden. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the administration of intravenous infusions of ‘young’ CD11b-positive (+) monocytes into an AD mouse model can enhance A? plaque clearance and attenuate cognitive deficits. Peripheral monocytes were isolated from two-week-old wildtype mice using the Pluriselect CD11b+ isolation method and characterized by FACS analysis for surface marker expression and effective phagocytosis of 1 ?m fluorescent microspheres, FITC-Dextran or FITC-A?1–42. The isolated monocytes were infused via the tail vein into a transgenic AD mouse model, which expresses the Swedish, Dutch/Iowa APP mutations (APPSwDI). The infusions began when animals reached 5 months of age, when little plaque deposition is apparent and were repeated again at 6 and 7 months of age. At 8 months of age, brains were analyzed for A?+ plaques, inflammatory processes and microglial (Iba1) activation. Our data show that infusions of two-week-old CD11b+ monocytes into adult APPSwDI mice results in a transient improvement of memory function, a reduction (30%) in A? plaque load and significantly in small (40 ?m) plaques. In addition, we observe a reduction in Iba1+ cells, as well as no marked elevations in cytokine levels or other indicators of inflammation. Taken together, our findings indicate that young CD11b+ monocytes may serve as therapeutic candidates for improved A? clearance in AD. PMID:25830951

  19. Effects and safety of allogenic mesenchymal stem cell intravenous infusion in active ankylosing spondylitis patients who failed NSAIDs: a 20-week clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Yuxi; Huang, Lin; Yang, Jiewen; Yang, Rui; Deng, Wen; Liang, Biling; Dai, Lie; Meng, Qingqi; Gao, Liangbin; Chen, Xiaodong; Shen, Jun; Tang, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Hou, Jingyi; Ye, Jichao; Chen, Keng; Cai, Zhaopeng; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of intravenous (IV) infusion of allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients who are refractory to or cannot tolerate the side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). AS patients enrolled in this study received four IV infusions of MSCs on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. The percentage of ASAS20 responders (the primary endpoint) at the fourth week and the mean ASAS20 response duration (the secondary endpoint) were used to assess treatment response to MSC infusion and duration of the therapeutic effects. Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score Containing C-reactive Protein (ASDAS-CRP) and other preestablished evaluation indices were also adopted to evaluate the clinical effects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to detect changes of bone marrow edema in the spine. The safety of this treatment was also evaluated. Thirty-one patients were included, and the percentage of ASAS20 responders reached 77.4% at the fourth week, and the mean ASAS20 response duration was 7.1 weeks. The mean ASDAS-CRP score decreased from 3.6 ± 0.6 to 2.4 ± 0.5 at the fourth week and then increased to 3.2 ± 0.8 at the 20th week. The average total inflammation extent (TIE) detected by MRI decreased from 533,482.5 at baseline to 480,692.3 at the fourth week (p > 0.05) and 400,547.2 at the 20th week (p < 0.05). No adverse effects were noted. IV infusion of MSCs is a feasible, safe, and promising treatment for patients with AS. PMID:23711393

  20. Designing the modern pump: engineering aspects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, John B; Vargas, Steven; Williams, Gary; Moberg, Sheldon

    2010-06-01

    Insulin delivery systems attracted the efforts of biological, mechanical, electrical, and software engineers well before they were commercially viable. The introduction of the first commercial insulin pump in 1983 represents an enduring milestone in the history of diabetes management. Since then, pumps have become much more than motorized syringes and have assumed a central role in diabetes management by housing data on insulin delivery and glucose readings, assisting in bolus estimation, and interfacing smoothly with humans and compatible devices. Ensuring the integrity of the embedded software that controls these devices is critical to patient safety and regulatory compliance. As pumps and related devices evolve, software engineers will face challenges and opportunities in designing pumps that are safe, reliable, and feature-rich. The pumps and related systems must also satisfy end users, healthcare providers, and regulatory authorities. In particular, pumps that are combined with glucose sensors and appropriate algorithms will provide the basis for increasingly safe and precise automated insulin delivery-essential steps to developing a fully closed-loop system. PMID:20515305

  1. Ghrelin Infusion in Humans Induces Acute Insulin Resistance and Lipolysis Independent of Growth Hormone Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Gormsen, Lars Christian; Jessen, Niels; Lund, Sten; Hansen, Troels Krarup; Moller, Niels; Jorgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Ghrelin is a gut-derived peptide and an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor. Exogenous ghrelin stimulates the release of GH (potently) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (moderately). Ghrelin is also orexigenic, but its impact on substrate metabolism is controversial. We aimed to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity in human subjects.

  2. Effect of dietary nitrogen content and intravenous urea infusion on ruminal and portal-drained visceral extraction of arterial urea in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Storm, Adam Christian

    2010-01-01

    Urea extraction across ruminal and portal-drained visceral (PDV) tissues were investigated using 9 rumen-cannulated and multi-catheterized lactating dairy cows adapted to low-N (12.9% crude protein) and high-N (17.1% crude protein) diets in a crossover design. The interaction between adaptation to dietary treatments and blood plasma concentrations of urea was studied by dividing samplings into a 2.5-h period without urea infusion followed by a 2.5-h period with primed continuous intravenous infusion of urea (0.493 ± 0.012 mmol/kg of BW per h). Cows were sampled at 66 ± 14 and 68 ± 12 d in milk and produced 42 ± 1 and 36 ± 1 kg of milk/d with the high-N and low-N diets, respectively. The arterial blood urea concentration before urea infusion was 1.37 and 4.09 ± 0.18 mmol/L with low-N and high-N, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect the urea infusion-induced increase in arterial urea concentration (1.91 ± 0.13 mmol/L). Arterial urea extraction across the PDV and rumen increased from 2.7 to 5.4 ± 0.5% and from 7.1 to 23.8 ± 2.1% when cows were changed from high-N to low-N, respectively. Urea infusion did not decrease urea extractions, implying that urea transport rates were proportional to arterial urea concentrations. Urea extraction increased more across the rumen wall than across the total PDV for low-N compared with high-N, which implies that a larger proportion of total PDV uptake of arterial urea is directed toward the rumen with decreasing N intake. The ruminal vein - arterial (RA) concentration difference for ammonia increased instantly (first sampling 15 min after initiation of infusion) to the primed intravenous infusion when cows were adapted to the low-N diet. The RA difference for ammonia correlated poorly to the ventral ruminal concentration of ammonia (r = 0.55). Relating the RA difference for ammonia to a function of both ruminal ammonia concentration and the RA difference for urea markedly improved the fit (r = 0.85), indicating that a large fraction of ammonia released to the ruminal veinis absorbed from an epithelial ammonia pool not in equilibrium with the ventral ruminal ammonia pool. Changing cows from high-N to low-N affected the relative blood urea clearance by kidneys and PDV. The clearance by the kidneys decreased from 41 to 27 ± 2 L/h and the clearance by the PDV increased from 52 to 105 ± 12 L/h when the diet was changed from high-N to low-N. In conclusion, urea transport across gut epithelia in cattle is adapting to N status and driven by mass action. Data are commensurable with a model for urea transport across gut epithelia based on regulated expression or activity of facilitative urea transporters.

  3. Normal neurologic and developmental outcome after an accidental intravenous infusion of expressed breast milk in a neonate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, C Anthony

    2012-02-03

    Here we describe a premature male infant who was accidentally given 10 mL of expressed breast milk intravenously over a 3.5-hour period. Having survived this event with supportive care, this boy was attending regular school with no obvious neurologic or learning difficulties at 6 years of age. In 1998, after a query on an e-mail discussion group for health care providers in neonatology (NICU-net), we were informed of 8 similar events that proved fatal in 3 infants. A root-cause analysis revealed that accidental intravenous administration of breast milk or formula can be avoided by the use of color-coded enteral-administration sets with Luer connections that are not compatible with intravenous cannulas. The addition of methylene blue to feeds, or bolus enteral feeds (instead of continuous gastric feedings), may also help prevent such errors. These cases show the value of gathering information about rare but important events through a neonatal network. In addition, they confirm that prevention of medical error should focus on faulty systems rather than faulty people.

  4. Normal neurologic and developmental outcome after an accidental intravenous infusion of expressed breast milk in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C Anthony; Mohammad, Izlan; Murphy, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    Here we describe a premature male infant who was accidentally given 10 mL of expressed breast milk intravenously over a 3.5-hour period. Having survived this event with supportive care, this boy was attending regular school with no obvious neurologic or learning difficulties at 6 years of age. In 1998, after a query on an e-mail discussion group for health care providers in neonatology (NICU-net), we were informed of 8 similar events that proved fatal in 3 infants. A root-cause analysis revealed that accidental intravenous administration of breast milk or formula can be avoided by the use of color-coded enteral-administration sets with Luer connections that are not compatible with intravenous cannulas. The addition of methylene blue to feeds, or bolus enteral feeds (instead of continuous gastric feedings), may also help prevent such errors. These cases show the value of gathering information about rare but important events through a neonatal network. In addition, they confirm that prevention of medical error should focus on faulty systems rather than faulty people. PMID:16396887

  5. Comparison of the intravenous insulin and oral clonidine tolerance tests for growth hormone secretion. The Health Services Human Growth Hormone Committee.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    The plasma growth hormone response to intravenous insulin was compared with that of oral clonidine in a multicentre trial in 64 patients being investigated for short stature. Either test was judged to give a positive result if the maximum plasma growth hormone concentration was at least 20 mU/1. In 42 pairs of tests concordant results were obtained, 19 being positive and 23 negative. In 12 tests only the response to insulin was positive and 10 tests were positive only for clonidine. Clonidine...

  6. Efeitos da infusão contínua de propofol ou etomidato sobre variáveis intracranianas em cães Effects of propofol or etomidate intravenous infusion on intracranial variables in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Paula

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da infusão contínua de propofol ou de etomidato sobre as variáveis intracranianas em cães nomocapneicos. Foram utilizados 20 cães adultos distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo propofol (GP e grupo etomidato (GE. Para o GP, os animais foram induzidos à anestesia com propofol (10mg/kg e, ato contínuo, iniciaram-se a infusão do fármaco (0,6mg/kg/min e a ventilação controlada. No GE, o etomidato foi usado para indução (5mg/kg e manutenção empregando-se a dose de 0,5mg/kg/min nos 10 minutos iniciais e, em seguida, de 0,2mg/kg/min. Após 30 minutos da implantação do cateter de fibra óptica do monitor de pressão intracraniana (PIC na superfície do córtex cerebral direito, realizaram-se as primeiras mensurações (M1 da PIC, da pressão de perfusão cerebral (PPC, da temperatura intracraniana (TIC, de temperatura corpórea (TC, da pressão arterial média (PAM e da frequência cardíaca (FC. As demais mensurações ocorreram em intervalos de 20 minutos (M2, M3 e M4. O propofol e o etomidato não ocasionaram alterações significativas nas variáveis estudadas com exceção da TC e TIC. Concluiu-se que a infusão contínua desses fármacos em cães mantém a perfusão cerebral e a autorregulação cerebral. Cães anestesiados com etomidato apresentam efeitos adversos intensos e redução gradativa da temperatura corpórea e intracraniana.The effects of total intravenous infusion of propofol or etomidate on intracranial variables in normocapneic dogs were evaluated. Twenty adult mongrel dogs were randomly allotted to: propofol group (GP or etomidate group (GE. In GP animals, the propofol was used for induction (10mg/kg, followed by immediate continuous infusion of the drug (0.6mg/kg/min and controlled ventilation. In GE dogs, the etomidate was used for induction (5mg/kg, followed by a continuous rate infusion (CRI at 0.5mg/kg/min during the first ten minutes and, right after, it was changed to 0.2mg/kg/min. The initial measurement (M1 was recorded 30 minutes after the implant of the fiber optic catheter and, after that, every 20 minutes (M2, M3, and M4. The studied parameters were intracranial pressure (ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP, intracranial temperature (ICT, body temperature (BT, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and heart rate (HR. The propofol and etomidate did not change the studied variables, except the ICT and BT. It was concluded that the continuous infusion of these drugs maintains the cerebral perfusion and autoregulation. Dogs anesthetized with etomidate have adverse effects and body and intracranial temperature decrease.

  7. 99mTc-MIBI myocardial tomography with intravenous infusion of adenosine triphosphate in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate its feasibility, safety and diagnostic accuracy, 99mTc-MIBI myocardial tomography with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) infusion (0.16 mg/kg/min for 5 min) was performed in 100 consecutive patients using the stress/rest one day protocol. None of the patients required treatment with aminophylline during the study. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting patients with coronary artery disease were 97% and 71%, respectively. Those for detecting individual coronary lesion (?75% stenosis) were 92% and 89%, respectively. The high hepatic uptake of 99mTc-MIBI causes artifactual perfusion defects in the inferior myocardial wall, particularly on ATP stress images. In order to reduce this artifactual phenomenon, the interval time between injection and stress imaging must be increased. (author)

  8. Insulin responses to acute glucose infusions in Buša and Holstein-Friesian cattle breed during the peripartum period: Comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanovi? R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare insulin responsevness to acute glucose infusion in cows of Holstein Friesian (HF and Buša breeds during the peripartal period. Eight cows per each group (HF and Buša, were chosen. At day 7 prior to calving (ante partum and day 14 after calving (post partum animals were subjected to a glucose tolerance test (GTT. Blood samples were taken immediately before infusion and 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min thereafter. Glucose and insulin concentrations were measured in each blood sample, while BHBA and NEFA were measured only in samples taken before the infusion. QUICKY an indicator of insulin resistance in cows was calculated. Basal glycemia did not significantly differ between the breeds. Basal insulinemia was significantly higher in Buša than in HF cows in both examined periods (p<0.001, respectively. Basal NEFA levels tended (p=0.06 to be higher in Buša cows compared with those of HF ante partum, and was significantly higher (p<0.001 post partum. Basal BHBA was significantly lower in Buša than HF cows in both examined periods (p<0.01; p<0.001. QUICKI was significantly lower in Buša compared to HF cows both ante partum and post partum periods (p<0.001, respectively. Glycemia determined during GTT were higher in Buša than HF cows, both ante partum and post partum, but significantly starting from minute 15 ante partum i.e. minute 30 post partum. Insulinemia determined during GTT was significantly lower at min 15, and significantly higher starting from min 90 in Buša than HF cows, both ante partum and post partum. Results obtained in this study indicate on difference in insulin responsevness to acute glucose infusion between the examined breeds, which is probably a consequence of the difference in the degree of negative energy balance rather than of selection on high milk production. Namely, decreased insulin tissues sensitivity and decreased insulin responsiveness in Buša compared to HF cows is probably the consequence of inadequate energy intake from alimentary sources which leads to enhanced usage of energy from body reserves. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46002

  9. Insulin concentrations and time-action profiles of three different intermediate-acting insulin preparations in nondiabetic volunteers under glucose-controlled glucose infusion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottermann, P; Gyaram, H; Wahl, K; Ermler, R; Lebender, A

    1982-01-01

    This study describes the pharmacokinetics of three intermediate-acting insulin preparations, NPH porcine insulin, NPH human insulin (recombinant DNA), and "Depot-A" insulin, a mixture of 20% regular and 80% NPH human insulin from Eli Lilly and Company. Metabolic healthy normal weight volunteers were selected for the study. After overnight fasting, each test person received 0.4 U of each insulin per kg body weight injected subcutaneously in the triceps area of the arm. To prevent severe hypoglycemia, the test persons were connected to a "GCIIS Biostator" with blood glucose clamp at the 60 mg/dl level. Peripheral blood was sampled at regular intervals for glucose, insulin, and C-peptide determination. More elevated insulin levels were measured after application of both NPH human insulin and "Depot-A" insulin than after NPH porcine insulin. A more rapid decrease in the blood glucose concentration was observed after injection of both human insulin preparations than after porcine insulin. The dextrose output of the "GCIIS Biostator" was more pronounced in both human insulins than after the porcine preparation. After the injection of NPH human and NPH porcine insulin, significant differences were calculated between the concentrations of these two insulins in the blood, from the 2nd to the 10th hour (P less than 0.05-P less than 0.005) and between the dextrose output of the "GCIIS Biostator" from the 3rd to the 8.5th hour (P less than 0.05). The fall of the C-peptide concentration to the lower detection limit of the assay reflects suppression of the endogenous B-cell secretion and confirms the measure of peripheral insulin concentrations as a result of the exogenously applied insulin. Although all investigations were performed under identical experimental conditions and equal dosages of each insulin were injected, higher insulin concentrations and a stronger biologic effect, shown by larger amount of dextrose delivered, were observed in both human insulins than in porcine insulin. Why this phenomenon occurs is as yet unclear. The clamp technique used with the "GCIIS Biostator" enables establishment of the biologic profile of any insulin, and thus represents a valuable tool in comparative studies. PMID:6765540

  10. Prolonged continuous intravenous infusion of the dipeptide L-alanine- L-glutamine significantly increases plasma glutamine and alanine without elevating brain glutamate in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Na?geli, Mirjam Chantal

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Low plasma glutamine levels are associated with worse clinical outcome. Intravenous glutamine infusion dose- dependently increases plasma glutamine levels, thereby correcting hypoglutaminemia. Glutamine may be transformed to glutamate which might limit its application at a higher dose in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, the optimal glutamine dose required to normalize plasma glutamine levels without increasing plasma and cerebral glutamate has not yet ...

  11. Efeitos da infusão contínua de propofol ou etomidato sobre variáveis intracranianas em cães / Effects of propofol or etomidate intravenous infusion on intracranial variables in dogs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.P., Paula; N., Nunes; C.T.D., Nishimori; P.C.F., Lopes; R., Carareto; P.S.P., Santos.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da infusão contínua de propofol ou de etomidato sobre as variáveis intracranianas em cães nomocapneicos. Foram utilizados 20 cães adultos distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo propofol (GP) e grupo etomidato (GE). Para o GP, os animais foram induzidos à anestesia [...] com propofol (10mg/kg) e, ato contínuo, iniciaram-se a infusão do fármaco (0,6mg/kg/min) e a ventilação controlada. No GE, o etomidato foi usado para indução (5mg/kg) e manutenção empregando-se a dose de 0,5mg/kg/min nos 10 minutos iniciais e, em seguida, de 0,2mg/kg/min. Após 30 minutos da implantação do cateter de fibra óptica do monitor de pressão intracraniana (PIC) na superfície do córtex cerebral direito, realizaram-se as primeiras mensurações (M1) da PIC, da pressão de perfusão cerebral (PPC), da temperatura intracraniana (TIC), de temperatura corpórea (TC), da pressão arterial média (PAM) e da frequência cardíaca (FC). As demais mensurações ocorreram em intervalos de 20 minutos (M2, M3 e M4). O propofol e o etomidato não ocasionaram alterações significativas nas variáveis estudadas com exceção da TC e TIC. Concluiu-se que a infusão contínua desses fármacos em cães mantém a perfusão cerebral e a autorregulação cerebral. Cães anestesiados com etomidato apresentam efeitos adversos intensos e redução gradativa da temperatura corpórea e intracraniana. Abstract in english The effects of total intravenous infusion of propofol or etomidate on intracranial variables in normocapneic dogs were evaluated. Twenty adult mongrel dogs were randomly allotted to: propofol group (GP) or etomidate group (GE). In GP animals, the propofol was used for induction (10mg/kg), followed b [...] y immediate continuous infusion of the drug (0.6mg/kg/min) and controlled ventilation. In GE dogs, the etomidate was used for induction (5mg/kg), followed by a continuous rate infusion (CRI) at 0.5mg/kg/min during the first ten minutes and, right after, it was changed to 0.2mg/kg/min. The initial measurement (M1) was recorded 30 minutes after the implant of the fiber optic catheter and, after that, every 20 minutes (M2, M3, and M4). The studied parameters were intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), intracranial temperature (ICT), body temperature (BT), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR). The propofol and etomidate did not change the studied variables, except the ICT and BT. It was concluded that the continuous infusion of these drugs maintains the cerebral perfusion and autoregulation. Dogs anesthetized with etomidate have adverse effects and body and intracranial temperature decrease.

  12. Enhancing the [(13) C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate MRS studies by infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Mette Hauge; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    A change in myocardial metabolism is a known effect of several diseases. MRS with hyperpolarized (13) C-labelled pyruvate is a technique capable of detecting changes in myocardial pyruvate metabolism, and has proven to be useful for the evaluation of myocardial ischaemia in vivo. However, during fasting, the myocardial glucose oxidation is low and the fatty acid oxidation (?-oxidation) is high, which complicates the interpretation of pyruvate metabolism with the technique. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium (GIK) could increase the myocardial glucose oxidation in the citric acid cycle, reflected as an increase in the [(13) C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate MRS measurements in fasted rats. Two groups of rats were infused with two different doses of GIK and investigated by MRS after injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate. No [(13) C]bicarbonate signal could be detected in the fasted state. However, a significantincrease in the [(13) C]bicarbonate signal was observed by the infusion of a high dose of GIK. This study demonstrates that a high [(13) C]bicarbonate signal can be achieved by GIK infusion in fasted rats. The increased [(13) C]bicarbonate signal indicates an increased flux of pyruvate through the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex and an increase in myocardial glucose oxidation through the citric acid cycle. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Enhancing the [13C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1?13C]pyruvate MRS studies by infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Mette Hauge; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    A change in myocardial metabolism is a known effect of several diseases. MRS with hyperpolarized 13C?labelled pyruvate is a technique capable of detecting changes in myocardial pyruvate metabolism, and has proven to be useful for the evaluation of myocardial ischaemia in vivo. However, during fasting, the myocardial glucose oxidation is low and the fatty acid oxidation (??oxidation) is high, which complicates the interpretation of pyruvate metabolism with the technique. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium (GIK) could increase the myocardial glucose oxidation in the citric acid cycle, reflected as an increase in the [13C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1?13C]pyruvate MRS measurements in fasted rats. Two groups of rats were infused with two different doses of GIK and investigated by MRS after injection of hyperpolarized [1?13C]pyruvate. No [13C]bicarbonate signal could be detected in the fasted state. However, a significant increase in the [13C]bicarbonate signal was observed by the infusion of a high dose of GIK. This study demonstrates that a high [13C]bicarbonate signal can be achieved by GIK infusion in fasted rats. The increased [13C]bicarbonate signal indicates an increased flux of pyruvate through the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex and an increase in myocardial glucose oxidation through the citric acid cycle. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Enhancing the [13C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate MRS studies by infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Mette Hauge; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    A change in myocardial metabolism is a known effect of several diseases. MRS with hyperpolarized 13C-labelled pyruvate is a technique capable of detecting changes in myocardial pyruvate metabolism, and has proven to be useful for the evaluation of myocardial ischaemia in vivo. However, during fasting, the myocardial glucose oxidation is low and the fatty acid oxidation (?-oxidation) is high, which complicates the interpretation of pyruvate metabolism with the technique. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium (GIK) could increase the myocardial glucose oxidation in the citric acid cycle, reflected as an increase in the [13C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate MRS measurements in fasted rats. Two groups of rats were infused with two different doses of GIK and investigated by MRS after injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. No [13C]bicarbonate signal could be detected in the fasted state. However, a significant increase in the [13C]bicarbonate signal was observed by the infusion of a high dose of GIK. This study demonstrates that a high [13C]bicarbonate signal can be achieved by GIK infusion in fasted rats. The increased [13C]bicarbonate signal indicates an increased flux of pyruvate through the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex and an increase in myocardial glucose oxidation through the citric acid cycle. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Pulsatile versus continuous intravenous administration of growth hormone (GH) in GH-deficient patients: effects on circulating insulin-like growth factor-I and metabolic indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, J O; MØller, N

    1990-01-01

    The episodic and pulsatile nature of GH secretion in normal man is well established. Studies in hypophysectomized rats have indicated that pulsatile administration of GH is superior to continuous infusion in promoting growth, but similar studies have not yet been conducted in human subjects. We compared three different iv GH administration schedules in six GH-deficient patients. They were hospitalized three times for 44 h on three occasions, separated by at least 4 weeks without GH treatment. On each occasion they received 2 IU GH, administered iv as either 1) two boluses (at 2000 and 0200 h), 2) eight boluses (at 3-h intervals starting at 2000 h), or 3) a continuous (2000-0200 h) infusion. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) after eight boluses and that after continuous infusion were almost identical, with a steep increase reaching a peak at 2000-2400 h, followed by a steady decline. The total areas under the curve, expressed as mean levels (micrograms per L), were 147.6 +/- 11.8 (eight boluses) and 151.2 +/- 8.9 (infusion; P = NS). The change with time in IGF-I after the two-bolus regimen differed significantly from that in the other studies (P less than 0.001), displaying only a modest increase, as also reflected in a smaller area under the curve of serum IGF-I (125.3 +/- 8.7 micrograms/L; P less than 0.05). No differences in blood glucose, serum insulin, or plasma glucagon were observed when comparing the three studies. Both blood glucose and serum insulin tended to be elevated during the second night of each study. Almost identical fluctuations were recorded in lipid intermediates in the three studies, with nightly elevations being more pronounced on the first night. Alanine and lactate exhibited nearly identical patterns in the three studies and were characterized by low nocturnal levels. These data indicate that small but frequent iv boluses and continuous infusion of GH are equally effective in generating an increase in IGF-I in GH-deficient patients, whereas the same amount of GH given as two large boluses results in a significantly smaller increase in IGF-I. This could mean that a prolongation of the period during which serum GH is above zero in GH-treated subjects is just as essential as pulsatility for the growth-promoting effects of the hormone.

  16. Metabolism, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of [14C]tigecycline, a first-in-class glycylcycline antibiotic, after intravenous infusion to healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Matthew; DeMaio, William; Jordan, Ronald A; Talaat, Rasmy; Harper, Dawn; Speth, John; Scatina, JoAnn

    2007-09-01

    Tigecycline, a novel, first-in-class glycylcycline antibiotic, has been approved for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated skin and skin structure infections. The pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of [(14)C]tigecycline were examined in healthy male volunteers. Tigecycline has been shown to bind to bone; thus, to minimize the amount of radioactivity binding to bone and to maximize the recovery of radioactivity, tigecycline was administered intravenously (30-min infusion) as a single 100-mg dose, followed by six 50-mg doses, every 12 h, with the last dose being [(14)C]tigecycline (50 microCi). After the final dose, the pharmacokinetics of tigecycline in serum showed a long half-life (55.8 h) and a large volume of distribution (21.0 l/kg), whereas radioactivity in serum had a shorter half-life (6.9 h) and a smaller volume of distribution (3.3 l/kg). The major route of elimination was feces, containing 59% of the radioactive dose, whereas urine contained 32%. Unchanged tigecycline was the predominant drug-related compound in serum, urine, and feces. The major metabolic pathways identified were glucuronidation of tigecycline and amide hydrolysis followed by N-acetylation to form N-acetyl-9-aminominocycline. The glucuronide metabolites accounted for 5 to 20% of serum radioactivity, and approximately 9% of the dose was excreted as glucuronide conjugates within 48 h. Concentrations of N-acetyl-9-aminominocycline were approximately 6.5% and 11% of the tigecycline concentrations in serum and urine, respectively. Excretion of unchanged tigecycline into feces was the primary route of elimination, and the secondary elimination pathways were renal excretion of unchanged drug and metabolism to glucuronide conjugates and N-acetyl-9-aminominocycline. PMID:17537869

  17. High heritability and genetic correlation of intravenous glucose- and tolbutamide-induced insulin secretion among non-diabetic family members of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Anette P.; Hornbak, Malene

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of quantitative measures of glucose regulation obtained from a tolbutamide-modified frequently sampled IVGTT (t-FSIGT) and to correlate the heritability of the glucose-stimulated beta cell response to the tolbutamide-induced beta cell response. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) having an exclusive effect on either glucose- or tolbutamide-stimulated insulin release were identified. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic family members of patients with type 2 diabetes underwent a t-FSIGT with intravenous injection of glucose at t?=?0 min and tolbutamide at t?=?20 min. Measurements of plasma glucose, serum insulin and serum C-peptide were taken at 33 time points from fasting to 180 min. Insulin secretion rate, acute insulin response (AIR), disposition index (DI) after glucose and disposition index after tolbutamide (DIT), insulin sensitivity (SI), glucose effectiveness (SG) and beta cell responsiveness to glucosewere calculated. A polygenic variance component model was used to estimate heritability, genetic correlations and associations. Results: We found high heritabilities for acute insulin secretion subsequent to glucose stimulation (AIRglucose h 2?±?SE: 0.88?±?0.14), but these were slightly lower after tolbutamide (AIRtolbutamide h 2?±?SE: 0.69?±?0.14). We also estimated the heritabilities for S I (h 2?±?SE: 0.26?±?0. 12), SG (h 2?±?SE: 0. 47?±?0.13), DI (h 2?±? SE: 0.56?±?0.14), DIT (h 2?±?SE: 0.49?±?0.14) and beta cell responsiveness to glucose (h 2?±?SE: 0.66?±?0.12). Additionally, strong genetic correlations were found between measures of beta cell response after glucose and tolbutamide stimulation, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.77 to 0.88. Furthermore, we identified five SNPs with an exclusive effect on either glucose-stimulated (rs5215, rs1111875, rs11920090) or tolbutamide-stimulated (rs10946398, rs864745) insulin secretion. Conclusions/interpretation: Our data demonstrate that both glucose- and tolbutamide-induced insulin secretions are highly heritable traits, which are largely under the control of the same genes. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. Microvascular Recruitment in Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SjØberg, Kim Anker

    2014-01-01

    In this PhD work a new method for measuring microvascular recruitment was developed and evaluated, using continues real-time imaging of contrast enhanced ultrasound. Gas-filled microbubbles were infused intravenously and by taking advantage of the echogenic properties of the microbubbles the resonating sound from the microbubbles in the systemic circulation were recorded for determination of microvascular recruitment in designated muscle segments. Results showed that microvascular recruitment increased with insulin stimulation by ~30% in rats and ~40% in humans (study I). Furthermore, it was observed that muscle contractions increased muscle perfusion rapidly by 3-4 fold and by 1-2 fold compared to basal and insulin, respectively, in both rat and human skeletal muscle (study I). The real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound method was applied to investigate the vaso-active effect of the incretin hormone glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the microcirculation. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 analogs are drugs used for treatments of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but the vascular effects of GLP-1 in vivo are elusive. Here it was shown that GLP-1 rapidly increased the microvascular recruitment in human and rat skeletal muscle by ~60% and ~30%, respectively, and independently of insulin (study II and III). However, when rats consumed a 60 E% high fat diet acute administration of GLP-1 ameliorated both the early (5 days) and the more prolonged (8 weeks) high fat diet induced impairment of insulin action in the microvasculature and restored normal microvascular function by increasing the microvascular recruitment similar to in control animals. This effect of GLP-1 on microvascular recruitment was associated with a restoration of both whole body insulin sensitivity and muscle glucose uptake when co-infused with insulin in the 5 days but not in the 8 week high fat diet intervention. Thus, like insulin, GLP-1 increased microvascular recruitment but unlike insulin no direct effect on muscle glucose uptake of GLP-1 was observed.

  19. The impact of glucose-insulin-potassium infusion in acute myocardial infarction on infarct size and left ventricular ejection fraction [ISRCTN56720616

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselink AT Marcel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Favorable clinical outcomes have been observed with glucose-insulin-potassium infusion (GIK in acute myocardial infarction (MI. The mechanisms of this beneficial effect have not been delineated clearly. GIK has metabolic, anti-inflammatory and profibrinolytic effects and it may preserve the ischemic myocardium. We sought to assess the effect of GIK infusion on infarct size and left ventricular function, as part of a randomized controlled trial. Methods Patients (n = 940 treated for acute MI by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI were randomized to GIK infusion or no infusion. Endpoints were the creatinine kinase MB-fraction (CK-MB and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. CK-MB levels were determined 0, 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after admission and the LVEF was measured before discharge. Results There were no differences between the two groups in the time course or magnitude of CK-MB release: the peak CK-MB level was 249 ± 228 U/L in the GIK group and 240 ± 200 U/L in the control group (NS. The mean LVEF was 43.7 ± 11.0 % in the GIK group and 42.4 ± 11.7% in the control group (P = 0.12. A LVEF ? 30% was observed in 18% in the controls and in 12% of the GIK group (P = 0.01. Conclusion Treatment with GIK has no effect on myocardial function as determined by LVEF and by the pattern or magnitude of enzyme release. However, left ventricular function was preserved in GIK treated patients.

  20. The conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine in man. Direct measurement by continuous intravenous tracer infusions of L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and L-[1-13C] tyrosine in the postabsorptive state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steady state phenylalanine and tyrosine turnover and the rate of conversion of phenylalanine of tyrosine in vivo were determined in 6 healthy postabsorptive adult volunteers. Continuous infusions of tracer amounts of L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine were determined intravenously for 13-14 hr. After 9-10 hr, a priming dose followed by a continuous infusion of L-[1-13C]tyrosine was added and maintained, along with the [2H5]phenylalanine infusion, for 4 hr. Venous plasma samples were obtained before the initiation of each infusion and every 30 min during the course of the combined [2H5]phenylalanine and [13C]tyrosine infusion for determination of isotopic enrichments of [2H5]phenylalanine, [13C]tyrosine, and [2H4]tyrosine by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometric analysis of the N-trifluoroacetyl-, methyl ester derivatives of the amino acids. Calculated from the observed enrichments, free phenylalanine and tyrosine turnover rates were 36.1 +/- 5.1 mumole . kg-1 . h-1 and 39.8 +/- 3.5 mumole . kg-1 . h-1, respectively. Phenylalanine was converted to tyrosine at the rate of 5.83 +/- 0.59 mumole . kg-1 . h-1, accounting for approximately 16% of either the phenylalanine or the tyrosine flux. The results indicate that the normal basal steady state phenylalanine hydroxylase activity in vivo in man is lower than that obtained from phenylalanine loading studies. This supports the existence of some typs. This supports the existence of some type of substance activation of the enzyme as reflected in the previously reported exponential relationship between phenylalanine concentration and phenylalanine hydroxylase activity in vitro. The use of continuous simultaneous infusions of tracer amounts of stable isotope-labeled phenylalanine and tyrosine provides a direct means for studying physiological regulation of phenylalanine hydroxylase activity in vivo

  1. Response of plasma glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous glucose tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Moate, P J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated the metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. The experiment used 12 multiparous Holstein cows that calved in late winter in a seasonally calving pasture-based system and were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. In each of four 5-wk experimental periods commencing at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 (±9.1) days in milk (DIM), cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1kg of DM grain (control; CON) or 6kg of DM grain (GRN) as a ration. Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for the CON and GRN treatments, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated minimum daily total intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. The standard intravenous glucose tolerance test using 0.3g of glucose per kilogram of body weight was performed on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) responses were measured. Milk yield, milk solids yield, body weight, and basal plasma glucose were greater in the GRN compared with the CON treatment. The area under the plasma response curve relative to baseline (AUC) for glucose, insulin, and NEFA and their apparent fractional clearance rates indicated varied whole body responsiveness to insulin in terms of glucose metabolism throughout the 670-d lactation. The glucose AUC 0 to 20 min postinfusion was increased at 560 DIM, indicating reduced utilization of glucose by the mammary gland at this stage of lactation. The NEFA clearance rate, 6 to 30 min postinfusion, was greater at 460 and 560 DIM. These data indicated an increase in lipogenic activity or a decrease in lipolysis as lactation progressed, suggestive of an overall increase in responsiveness to insulin in terms of whole body lipid metabolism as lactation progressed. These observations are consistent with decreased priority of lactation beyond 300 DIM. Cows in the GRN treatment had decreased whole body responsiveness to hyperglycemia compared with CON cows in terms of glucose clearance and AUC for the glucose response. Variation in the response curves of plasma glucose, NEFA, and insulin was predominantly a result of stage of lactation and not diet. This may be due to changes in mammary gland uptake of glucose that is independent of insulin and the responsiveness of peripheral tissues to the actions of insulin at different stages of the lactation that are independent of diet. PMID:25468690

  2. Evaluation of diabetic patients after three month use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, dispensed by a protocolled form at outpatient reference clinic of Taguatinga Regional Hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Garcia, Miranda; Hermelinda Cordeiro, Pedrosa; Roberta Kelly Menezes Maciel, Falleiros; Renata de Moraes, Oliveira; Monica, Tolentino; Luiz Augusto, Casulari.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the data of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion protocol (CSII) for diabetics waived by the Health State Secretariat of Distrito Federal (HSSDF) and therapeutic responses three months after the transfer of multiple daily injections regimen for CSII. Subjects and methods E [...] ighty patients (49 female) took part in this experimental study, mean age and disease duration were 27.9 years and 13 years, respectively; 96% patients had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Results The entire sample (ECO) and 3 subgroups (group 1 – A1c decrease, group 2 – A1c stable, and group 3 – A1c increase), stratified according to a ? 0.5% change in A1c, were analyzed. Group 1 involved 64% of the patients. The ECO showed a significant A1c decrease: MDI 8.1 ± 1.4% vs. CSII 7.3 ± 0.9%, p

  3. Long-term effects of continuous subcutaneous infusion versus daily subcutaneous injections of growth hormone (GH) on the insulin-like growth factor system, insulin sensitivity, body composition, and bone and lipoprotein metabolism in GH-deficient adults.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Gravholt, Claus HØjbjerg

    2001-01-01

    Abstract It remains uncertain whether close imitation of the physiological pulsatile GH pattern determines the effects of GH treatment in humans. However, human studies have reported comparable metabolic responses to short-term constant and intermittent GH exposure. The aim of the study was to compare the metabolic effects of GH after continuous and intermittent sc delivery. In a parallel design, 14 GH-treated GH-deficient patients (mean age, 37 yr; mean body mass index, 27.4 kg/m(2)) were studied during steady state at the start of the study and after 6 months. Seven patients received daily injections (inj) in the evening as usual, and 7 received a continuous infusion (inf) of GH by means of a portable pump. The GH dose was kept unchanged before and during the study. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) tended to increase in the patients switched to constant infusion (from 175 +/- 36 to 209 +/- 50 microg/L), but the differences obtained during the two regimens [+34.3 (inf) vs. -11.9 (inj)] were not significant (P = 0.34). Serum levels of IGF-II (P = 0.71) and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 (P = 0.75) were identical during the two modes of treatment. Serum levels of IGFBP-1 (P = 0.72), IGFBP-2 (P = 0.34), and GH-binding protein (P = 0.75) were unaffected by treatment regimen. Serum levels of free fatty acids, reflecting lipolysis, decreased significantly (16%) in the group switched to GH infusion (difference, -99.8 vs. +5 micromol/L; P < 0.03). The GH pattern did not influence insulin sensitivity (P = 0.71) or glucose effectiveness (P = 0.15) derived from Bergman's minimal model. Similarly, the two treatment regimens had no differential impact on lipoprotein levels, bone metabolism, or body composition. In conclusion, continuous and intermittent administrations of GH for 6 months are comparable with respect to the IGF-IGFBP axis, whereas intermittent exposure may be of importance for the lipolytic effect of GH. The data on insulin sensitivity and lipoproteins suggest that constant GH exposure is assafe as intermittent GH administration.

  4. Intramammary infusion of Panax ginseng extract in the bovine mammary gland at cessation of milking modifies components of the insulin-like growth factor system during involution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallard, Bibiana E; Pujato, Silvina A; Baravalle, Celina; Pereyra, Elizabet A L; Rey, Florencia; Renna, María S; Calvinho, Luis F

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single intramammary infusion of Panax ginseng extract (GS) on insulin-like growth factors (IGF) in bovine mammary gland during early involution. Eight mammary quarters from six nonpregnant cows in late lactation were infused with 10 mL of ginseng extract solution (3 mg/mL), six quarters were treated with 10 mL of placebo (vehicle alone) and six quarters were maintained as uninoculated controls. Milking was interrupted after infusion. Concentrations of IGF1 in mammary secretions were higher in GS-treated quarters than in placebo and uninoculated control quarters at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.05). Treatment with GS did not affect mammary secretion of IGF2 (p=0.942). At 7 d of post-lactational involution, a decrease of immunostained area and mRNA expression for IGF1 was observed in mammary tissue of GS-treated quarters compared with placebo-treated quarters and uninoculated controls (p<0.05). The IGF2 immunostained area and mRNA expression for this growth factor were not affected by GS treatment (p=0.216 and p=0.785, respectively). An increase in protein levels and mRNA expression in mammary tissue of IGFBP3, IGFBP4 and IGFBP5 was observed in GS-treated quarters compared with placebo-treated quarters and uninoculated controls (p<0.05). These results provide evidence that intramammary inoculation of GS extract at cessation of milking may promote early mammary involution through the inhibition of IGF1 local production and bioavailability. PMID:23566927

  5. The use of a volumetric infusion pump for the intra-arterial infusion of drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, A. M.; Lilliman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Volumetric infusion pumps are widely used for intravenous infusions. We have extended their use to the intra-arterial infusion of drugs. An in vitro evaluation of the performance of such devices, under experimental conditions comparable to an intra-arterial infusion, was carried out. The results obtained confirmed the accuracy of volumetric infusion pumps for intra-arterial infusions. The system was found to be safe, reliable and simple in clinical practice.

  6. Effect of intravenous omega-3 fatty acid infusion and hemodialysis on fatty acid composition of free fatty acids and phospholipids in patients with end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup

    2011-01-01

    Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have been reported to have decreased levels of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ?-3 PUFAs administered intravenously during HD, as well as the effect of HD treatment, on the fatty acid composition of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), plasma phospholipids, and platelet phospholipids.

  7. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells: Viable therapy for type III.C. a diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang G Thakkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition from acute pancreatitis to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is a rare manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma because of impaired glucose tolerance and suppresses insulin secretion. We report the case of a 26-year-old male with pancreatic diabetes caused by parathyroid adenoma induced chronic pancreatitis. He had serum C-peptide 0.12 ng/ml, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody 5.0 IU/ml, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C 8.9%, and required 72 IU/day of biphasic-isophane insulin injection for uncontrolled hyperglycemia. We treated him with his own adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem-cells (IS-ADMSC along with his bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSC. Autologous IS-ADMSC + BM-HSC were infused into subcutaneous tissue, portal and thymic circulation without any conditioning. Over a follow-up of 27 months, the patient is maintaining fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels of 132 and 165 mg/dl, respectively, with HbA1C 6.8% and requiring 36 IU/day of biphasic-isophane insulin. Co-infusion of IS-ADMSC + BM-HSC offers a safe and viable therapy for type III.C.a Diabetes Mellitus.

  8. [Studies on the question of a possible autoregulation of insulin secretion (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilker, T; Paterek, K; Ermler, R; Bottermann, P

    1977-05-15

    In eight normal weight healthy volunteers it was proved by C-peptide assay whether high concentrations of insulin in serum would suppress the secretion of insulin in an autoregulative manner. Insulin combined with glucose, therefore was given intravenously as a single bolus injection as well as an infusion over a period of two hours. Moreover it was proved whether high levels of insulin would suppress the reactivity of the B-cell to sulphonylurea administration. It was demonstrated that the secretion of the B-cell is regulated only by the concentration of the blood sugar, but not by the level of serum insulin. Likewise the stimulation of the B-cell by sulphonyl-urea administration is not suppressed by high concentrations of insulin. PMID:327147

  9. A review of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and their treatment with insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Afshin; Nathan, Muriel

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is growing to epidemic proportions in certain populations. Type 1 diabetes is primarily the result of autoimmune destruction of beta cells. Type 2 diabetes is found in those with resistance to the action of insulin, usually as a result of obesity, and deficient insulin secretion. Insulin use not only prevents hyperglycemic emergencies, but also is the best safeguard to prevent the long-term complications of diabetes by correcting fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia. Intensive glycemic control can lead to a substantial decrease in the development of microvascular changes found in patients with diabetes. Human insulin analogs, insulins manufactured by recombinant technology which contain substituted or rearranged amino acids, allow more physiological patterns of insulin replacement, termed the basal-bolus approach. Serious hypoglycemia is the biggest obstacle for patients with diabetes treated with intensive insulin programs. Insulin is now available in prefilled pens or can be delivered by a programmable pump to allow greater flexibility in use and to improve glycemic control. Whereas hyperglycemic emergencies are usually treated with intravenous fluids and an intravenous continuous insulin infusion, patients who are less critically ill can be treated with fluid and subcutaneous insulin analogs. PMID:16858171

  10. Cross-sectional survey and retrospective analysis of a large cohort of adults with type 1 diabetes with long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Michael; Morera, Julia; Vicente, Angel; Rod, Anne; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Reznik, Yves

    2014-09-01

    Background. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is an established modality for intensive insulin treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D), but long-term data concerning satisfaction, CSII function use, safety, and efficacy in real-life conditions are scarce. Methods. We analyzed a cohort of adult patients with T1D treated with CSII for more than 1 year in a single diabetes center. We performed a cross-sectional survey in 2010 (tolerance/satisfaction and behavior forms) and a retrospective analysis of medical records (including HbA1c level, hospitalization, and catheter infections). The primary objective was to assess long-term tolerance/satisfaction, and secondary objectives were safety and efficacy. Results. There were 295 patients analyzed. After a median duration of CSII use of 5 years, overall satisfaction was high for about 90% of patients. Mean CSII-related discomfort scores were low for work, recreation, and sleep and moderate for sport and sexual activity (2.5 ± 1.9, 2.6 ± 1.8, 2.6 ± 2.1, 3.4 ± 2.3, and 4.0 ± 2.9 of 10, respectively). Despite a high level of diabetes education, only one third of patients were using advanced CSII functions. During long-term follow-up, the safety of CSII treatment was good; the hospitalization rate was 0.18 patients/year, and catheter infections were scarce. The HbA1c level dropped about -0.5% independently from CSII duration (P basic functions of CSII were currently used by patients. A 0.5% decrease in the HbA1c level was maintained during the study period. PMID:24876454

  11. Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ? Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ? Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ? Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [3H]glucose and 2-deoxy[14C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats

  12. Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Yuji; Kaneki, Masao [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra, E-mail: jmartyn@partners.org [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ? Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ? Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ? Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ? Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [{sup 3}H]glucose and 2-deoxy[{sup 14}C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats.

  13. Direct Effects of TNF-? on Local Fuel Metabolism and Cytokine Levels in the Placebo-Controlled, Bilaterally Infused Human Leg: Increased Insulin Sensitivity, Increased Net Protein Breakdown, and Increased IL-6 Release

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Ermina; Nielsen, Roni R; Vendelbo, Mikkel H.; Møller, Andreas B.; Jessen, Niels; Buhl, Mads; K- Hafstrøm, Thomas; Holm, Lars; Pedersen, Steen B.; Pilegaard, Henriette; Biensø, Rasmus S.; Jørgensen, Jens O.L.; Møller, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) has widespread metabolic actions. Systemic TNF-? administration, however, generates a complex hormonal and metabolic response. Our study was designed to test whether regional, placebo-controlled TNF-? infusion directly affects insulin resistance and protein breakdown. We studied eight healthy volunteers once with bilateral femoral vein and artery catheters during a 3-h basal period and a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. One artery was perfused with sa...

  14. Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yokel, Robert A.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer 26Al. 26Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous 27Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the 26Al, compared to 27Al, serum concentration × time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F =...

  15. Efecto de la infusión endovenosa de KCl en el electrocardiograma y potasio sérico en perros con función renal normal / Effect of intravenous infusion of KCl on the electrocardiogram and serum potassium in dogs with normal renal function

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jessica, Bravo-Zúñiga; Julio, Huapaya; Cesar, Valencia; Sandra, Bezada; Cristian, Leon; Renato, Ferrandiz-Espadin; Javier, Cieza.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las variaciones del potasio sérico (K+) y las alteraciones electrocardiográficas al infundir diferentes velocidades de K+ endovenoso en perros. Se infundió soluciones de 20, 40, 60 y 80 mEq de K+ en una hora a perros con función renal y K+ sérico normal. Se estudiaron 9 perros: tres si [...] n hidratación previa y seis con hidratación previa. Al infundir 20 mEq/hora de K+ los animales presentaron incremento de la frecuencia cardiaca sin alteraciones del electrocardiograma. Con 40 mEq/hora hubo alteraciones en las ondas "t" y "p", y con 60 y 80 mEq/hora, alteraciones compatibles con isquemia cardiaca y taquicardia ventricular. Los perros sin hidratación tuvieron alteraciones electrocardiográficas más notorias y fatales. Dosis de 20 mEq/hora de K+, no causaron morbilidad ni mortalidad en los animales estudiados. Dosis mayores mostraron complicaciones variables que dependieron del estado de hidratación del animal, su flujo urinario y su nivel de potasio Abstract in english Variations in serum potassium (K+) and electrocardiographic changes at different infusion speeds of intravenous K+ were studied in dogs. Solutions of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mEq of K+ were infused in one hour to dogs with normal renal function and normal serum K+. Nine dogs were studied: three without pri [...] or hydration and six with previous hydration. Infusing 20 mEq / hour of K+ produced an increase in heart rate without changes in the electrocardiogram. With 40 mEq / hour there were changes in the "t" and "p" waves, and with 60 and 80 mEq / hour, alterations consistent with cardiac ischemia and ventricular tachycardia. Dogs without hydration had more obvious and fatal electrocardiographic changes. Doses of 20 mEq / hour of K + caused no morbidity or mortality in the animals studied. Higher doses showed various complications which depended on the hydration status of the animal, its urinary flow and potassium level

  16. Calcineurin inhibitors acutely improve insulin sensitivity without affecting insulin secretion in healthy human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzbay, Aygen; MØller, Niels

    2012-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: New Onset Diabetes After Transplantation is related to treatment with immunosuppressive medica-tions. Clinical studies have shown that risk of new onset diabetes is greater with tacrolimus compared with cyclosporine. The diabetogenicity of cyclosporine and tacrolimus has been attributed to both beta cell dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: This is the first trial to investigate beta cell function and insulin sensitivity using gold standard methodology in healthy human volunteers treated with clinically relevant doses of cyclosporine and tacrolimus. We document that both drugs acutely increase insulin sensitivity, while first phase and pulsatile insulin secretion remain unaffected. This study demonstrates that cyclosporine and tacrolimus have similar acute effects on glucose metabolism in healthy humans. ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE. Introducing the calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) has improved the outcome of organ transplants, but complications such as New Onset Diabetes mellitus After Transplantation (NODAT) cause impairment of survival rates. The relative contribution of each CNI to the pathogenesis and development of NODAT remains unclear. We sought to compare the impact of CsA and Tac on glucose metabolism in human subjects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH. Ten healthy men underwent 5-hour infusions of CsA, Tac and saline in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. During infusion glucose metabolism was investigated using following methods: A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), glucose-stimulated insulin concentration time-series and indirect calorimetry. RESULTS. Clamp derived insulin sensitivity was increased by 25 % during CsA (P <0.0001) and 13 % during Tac administration (P= 0.047), whereas first phase and pulsatile insulin secretion were unaffected. Coinciding with the CNI induced improved insulin sensitivity, glucose oxidation rates increased, whileinsulin clearance rates decreased, only non-significantly. Tac singularly lowered hsCRP levels, otherwise no changes were observed in circulating glucagon, FFA or adiponectin levels. Mean blood levels of CNIs were 486.9 ± 23.5 ?g/l for CsA and 12.8 ± 0.5 ?g/l for Tac. CONCLUSIONS. In conclusion acute effects of intravenous CsA and to a lesser degree Tac infusions in healthy volunteers include increased insulin sensitivity, without any effect on first phase or pulsatile insulin secretion.

  17. Estudos hemodinâmicos e da função endotelial em porcas saudáveis após injeção em bolus endovenoso de azul de metileno / Hemodynamic and vascular endothelium function studies in healthy pigs after intravenous bolus infusion of methylene blue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Carlos, Menardi; Fernanda, Viaro; Walter Vilella de Andrade, Vicente; Alfredo José, Rodrigues; Paulo Roberto Barbosa, Évora.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Benefícios clínicos obtidos pelo azul de metileno (AM) no tratamento da vasoplegia induzida pela ação do óxido nítrico (NO) têm sido relatados na sepse, na síndrome da resposta inflamatória sistêmica (SIRS) em cirurgia cardíaca e no choque anafilático, mas a sua segurança é muitas vezes qu [...] estionada, principalmente relacionada aos seus efeitos hemodinâmicos e à possibilidade de causar disfunção endotelial. O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar os efeitos hemodinâmicos e a função endotelial da infusão endovenosa in vivo do AM em porcos. MÉTODOS: O protocolo de estudo incluiu dois grupos experimentais de porcas fêmeas: Grupo I (Controle) - os animais (n = 6) não receberam AM; Grupo II (AM) - os animais receberam 3 mg/kg de AM em forma de bolus endovenoso. Após quinze minutos de registro dos parâmetros hemodinâmicos os animais foram sacrificados por exsangüinação, e os estudos in vitro foram conduzidos usando segmentos de artérias coronária, hepática, mesentérica superior, renal, para determinar o efeito do AM na função endotelial relacionada com a liberação de NO. Mediu-se também o NO plasmático nos dois grupos experimentais. RESULTADOS: Os resultados obtidos no presente estudo foram: 1) a infusão endovenosa de AM (3,0 mg/kg) não causou nenhuma alteração hemodinâmica significativa; 2) os valores absolutos e porcentuais e nitrito/nitrato plasmático (NOx) não apresentaram diferenças nos dois grupos experimentais; 3) o estudo in vitro dos segmentos arteriais (coronária, hepática, renal e mesentérica superior) não apresentou disfunção endotelial nos dois grupos. Os resultados sugerem que a injeção endovenosa de AM é segura. Esse dado concorda com dados clínicos no qual o AM foi utilizado para tratar a síndrome vasoplégica após circulação extracorpórea, síndrome da resposta infamatória sistêmica (SIRS) e anafilaxia. Os resultados não foram inesperados porque os animais não apresentavam vasoplegia, não se esperando que a inibição da guanilatociclase tenha algum efeito. CONCLUSÃO: A infusão em bolus endovenoso in vivo na dose investigada (3 mg/kg) não causou alterações hemodinâmicas e comprometimento da liberação in vitro de NO. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Clinical benefit of methylene blue (MB) treating NO-induced vasoplegia has been reported in sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in cardiac surgery and anaphylactic shock, but its safety is sometimes questioned, mainly regarding its hemodynamic effects and the possibilit [...] y of causing endothelium dysfunction. To examine the nitric oxide plasma levels and cardiovascular effects of the infusion of MB in vivo and its effects on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent in vitro vascular relaxation. METHODS: The study protocol included two experimental groups of female pigs: Group I (Control) - the animals (n=6) did not receive MB; Group II (MB) - the animals received 3 mg/kg of MB intravenous bolus infusion. After fifteen minutes of hemodynamic parameter recording the animals were sacrificed by exsanguination, and in vitro studies were conducted using segments of coronary, hepatic, superior mesenteric and renal arteries, to determine the effect of MB on the arterial endothelium function with regard to NO release. Nitric oxide plasma levels (NOx) were measured in each of the experimental groups. RESULTS: The results obtained in the present investigation were: 1) intravenous infusion of MB (3.0 mg/kg) caused no hemodynamic changes; 2) absolute and percent plasma NOx values did not differ between the experimental groups; and 3) in vitro study of vascular relaxation showed no significant difference between groups. These results show that MB intravenous infusion seems to be safe. This finding agrees with data from clinical experiments where MB was used to treat vasoplegic syndrome after cardiopulmonary bypass, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and anaphylaxis. These results were not unexpected because, as in healthy subjects,

  18. Pain management in emergency department: intravenous morphine vs. intravenous acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Talebi Doluee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the most common complaint in emergency department and there are several methods for its control. Among them, pharmaceutical methods are the most effective. Although intravenous morphine has been the most common choice for several years, it has some adverse effects. There are many researches about intravenous acetaminophen as an analgesic agent and it appears that it has good analgesic effects for various types of pain. We searched some electronic resources for clinical trials comparing analgesic effects of intravenous acetaminophen vs. intravenous morphine for acute pain treatment in emergency setting.In two clinical trials, the analgesic effect of intravenous acetaminophen has been compared with intravenous morphine for renal colic. The results revealed no significant difference between analgesic effects of two medications. Another clinical trial revealed that intravenous acetaminophen has acceptable analgesic effects on the post-cesarean section pain when combined with other analgesic medications. One study revealed that administration of intravenous acetaminophen compared to placebo before hysterectomy decreased consumption of morphine via patient-controlled analgesia pump and decreased the side effects. Similarly, another study revealed that the infusion of intravenous acetaminophen vs. placebo after orthopedic surgery decreased the consumption of morphine after the surgery. A clinical trial revealed intravenous acetaminophen provided a level of analgesia comparable to intravenous morphine in isolated limb trauma, while causing less side effects than morphine.It appears that intravenous acetaminophen has good analgesic effects for visceral, traumatic and postoperative pains compare with intravenous morphine.

  19. HIV protease inhibitors acutely impair glucose-stimulated insulin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Joseph C; Remedi, Maria S; Qiu, Haijun; Nichols, Colin G; Hruz, Paul W

    2003-07-01

    HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) acutely and reversibly inhibit the insulin-responsive glucose transporter Glut 4, leading to peripheral insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. Minimal modeling analysis of glucose tolerance tests on PI-treated patients has revealed an impaired insulin secretory response, suggesting additional pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. To determine whether beta-cell function is acutely affected by PIs, we assayed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in rodent islets and the insulinoma cell line MIN6. Insulin release from MIN6 cells and rodent islets was significantly inhibited by the PI indinavir with IC(50) values of 1.1 and 2.1 micro mol/l, respectively. The uptake of 2-deoxyglucose in MIN6 cells was similarly inhibited (IC(50) of 2.0 micro mol/l), whereas glucokinase activity was unaffected at drug levels as high as 1 mmol/l. Glucose utilization was also impaired at comparable drug levels. Insulin secretogogues acting downstream of glucose transport mostly reversed the indinavir-mediated inhibition of insulin release in MIN6 cells. Intravenous infusion of indinavir during hyperglycemic clamps on rats significantly suppressed the first-phase insulin response. These data suggest that therapeutic levels of PIs are sufficient to impair glucose sensing by beta-cells. Thus, together with peripheral insulin resistance, beta-cell dysfunction likely contributes to altered glucose homeostasis associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:12829635

  20. O eletrencefalograma nas hemorragias uterinas disfuncionais: ação dos estrogênios por via intravenosa / The electroencephalogram in functional uterine bleeding: action of the estrogens by intravenous infusion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., De Guarnieri Netto; Luís Marques de, Assis; Laplace Pinto, Vallada.

    Full Text Available Em 10 pacientes do sexo feminino, portadoras de hemorragia uterina disfuncional, foi investigada a existência de manifestações epilépticas (clínicas e eletrencefalográficas) : dos 10 casos, 7 apresentavam antecedentes e/ou sintomas de natureza provável ou certamente epilépticos: o eletrencefalograma [...] foi anormal em 5 casos. Foi estudada a ação do Premarin por via intravenosa, na dose de 20 mg, durante registro eletrencefalográfico. Não houve piora do traçado durante ou após a injeção. Abstract in english In 10 patients with functional uterine bleeding, the existence of epileptic manifestations (clinical and electroencephalographic) was investigated: 7 among the 10 cases had a previous history and/or symptoms of a nature that was probably Or certainly epileptic; the electroencephalogram showed abnorm [...] alities in 5 cases. The action of intravenous Premarin (20 mg) was studied during electroencephalogram recording. There was no change in the normal electroencephalogram and in the patological ones there was not an increase of the abnormalities.

  1. Use of real time continuous glucose monitoring and intravenous insulin in type 1 diabetic mothers to prevent respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passaro Patrizia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in Type 1 diabetic patients is a precarious condition, both for mother and fetus with increased the risk of prematurity and, immediately after delivery with risk of respiratory distress syndrome and hypoglycaemia in newborns. A strict control and monitoring of diabetes throughout pregnancy is important in reducing the impact of the disease on the fetus and newborn. In recent years many new technologies have been introduced to ameliorate diabetes monitoring, where the last is the Real-time Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (RT-CGMS. Methods In the last three years, 72 h continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS (Medtronic, CA was performed in 18 pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes in two moments of pregnancy: during treatment with betamethasone to prevent respiratory distress and during delivery. In both cases insulin was administered intravenous and the dose was changed on the basis of glycaemia. Results The results present the use of this new technique during two topics moments of pregnancy of type 1 diabetes patients when is very important intensively to monitor diabetes and to obtain the well being of the fetus. No infant experimented hypoglycaemia or respiratory distress syndrome at the moment and in the first hours after the birth. Conclusion We wish to stress the importance reducing glycaemia during administration of betamethasone and during labor. It is conceivable that the scarce attention paid to monitoring glucose levels in diabetic mothers during labor in gynaecological world may be due to the difficulty in glucose monitoring with the devices until now available. Hopefully, our anecdotal account may prompt improvements with RT-CGMS, and may lead to a better approach to the problem, thereby changing the prognosis of infants born to diabetic mothers.

  2. IT infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Infusing IT technology is a perennial challenge. The Technology Infusion and Maturity Assessment approach of Cornford & Hicks is shown applied to an example of IT infusion: moedl-based V&V of spacecraft software.

  3. First-in-human, phase I study of elisidepsin (PM02734) administered as a 30-min or as a 3-hour intravenous infusion every three weeks in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratain, Mark J; Geary, David; Undevia, Samir D; Coronado, Cinthya; Alfaro, Vicente; Iglesias, Jorge L; Schilsky, Richard L; Miguel-Lillo, Bernardo

    2015-08-01

    This first-in-human, phase I clinical trial was designed to determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and the dose for phase II trials (P2D) of elisidepsin (PM02734) administered as a 30-min or as a 3-h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks (q3wk). Between March 2006 and April 2011, 53 patients with advanced malignant solid tumors were enrolled and treated with elisidepsin on the two different q3wk infusion schedules: 22 (30-min) and 31 (3-h), respectively. Doses evaluated ranged from 0.1 to 1.6 mg/m(2) (30-min q3wk) and from 2.0 to 11.0 mg flat dose (FD) (3-h q3wk). In the 30-min q3wk schedule, transient grade 3/4 increases in hepatic transaminases were the DLT, which appeared at the highest doses tested (from 1.1 to 1.6 mg/m(2)). No DLTs were observed on the 3-h schedule at doses up to 11.0 mg q3wk. Common adverse events were grade 1/2 pruritus, nausea, fatigue and hypersensitivity. Of note, myelotoxicity was not observed. Plasma maximum concentration and total drug exposure increased linearly with dose. Prolonged (?3 months) disease stabilization was observed in pretreated patients with pleural mesothelioma (n?=?1) in the 30-min q3wk arm, and with colorectal adenocarcinoma (n?=?3), esophagus adenocarcinoma, endometrium adenocarcinoma, pleural mesothelioma, and head and neck carcinoma (n?=?1 each) in the 3-h q3wk arm. In conclusion, elisidepsin doses of 1.1 mg/m(2) (equivalent to a FD of 2.0 mg) and 11.0 mg FD are the dose levels achieved for further phase II trials testing the 30-min q3wk and 3-h q3wk schedules, respectively. PMID:25947566

  4. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the research and development of medical and welfare apparatus/technology. Implantable insulin infusion system utilizing optical blood glucose monitor; 2000 nendo iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kogakuteki kettochi sokutei system wo oyoshita tainai umekomigata insulin chunyu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    In the study of an optical blood glucose monitoring system, basic data were collected and studied by measuring, for example, the absorption spectra of a glucose solution and rabbit blood in the near infrared domain. A simulation program was prepared based on the Monte Carlo method for the reproduction of light propagation in living organisms. As for the implanted insulin infusion system, requirements to be satisfied, technical problems to solve for their satisfaction, and system specifications were studied. As for the insulin infusion pump, methods for pump driving, manufacturing, and evaluating were studied, and a diaphragm type pump was fabricated. As for percutaneous signal transmission, studies were made about information to be transmitted and received between the intracorporeal and extracorporeal units, method of communication, charging of power to the intracorporeal unit, and so forth. (NEDO)

  5. Glucagon responses to increasing oral loads of glucose and corresponding isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusions in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes is associated with hypersecretion of glucagon during an OGTT, whereas i.v. glucose suppresses glucagon levels. This suggests that type 2 diabetic hyperglucagonaemia may result from glucose stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract. We evaluated glucagon responses to increasing amounts of glucose given orally and corresponding isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusions (IIGIs) in patients with type 2 diabetes and in healthy controls. METHODS: Plasma glucagon responses were measured during three 4 h OGTTs with increasing loads of glucose (25 g, 75 g and 125 g) and three corresponding IIGIs in eight patients with type 2 diabetes (age [mean?±?SEM] 57?±?4 years; BMI 29.5?±?1.0 kg/m(2); HbA1c 7.0?±?0.3% [53?±?2 mmol/mol]) and eight healthy individuals (age 57?±?4 years; BMI 28.9?±?0.7 kg/m(2); HbA1c 5.4?±?0.1% [36?±?1 mmol/mol]). RESULTS: In healthy controls no difference in glucagon suppression during the first 45 min of the 25 g OGTT and the corresponding IIGI (-153?±?35 vs -133?±?24 min?×?pmol/l; p?=?NS) was observed, whereas patients with type 2 diabetes only exhibited significant glucagon suppression following IIGI (29?±?27 vs -144?±?20 min?×?pmol/l; p?=?0.005). At higher oral glucose loads this difference increased and also became evident in healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In patients with type 2 diabetes increasing amounts of oral glucose elicit hypersecretion of glucagon, whereas corresponding IIGIs result in significant glucagon suppression; a phenomenon that is also observed in healthy individuals when larger glucose loads are ingested orally. This suggests that the hyperglucagonaemic response to oral glucose in type 2 diabetes may represent a pathological version of a gut-derived physiological phenomenon. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00529048.

  6. Insulin pump therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Gilmour

    2008-01-01

    The ideal insulin replacement therapy should replicate normal pancreatic function as closely as possible. Insulin pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII]) is now an established treatment, allowing patients to manage their diabetes intensively and optimize glycemic control. This issue’s treatment review focuses on recent publications on the use of insulin pump therapy in diabetes. A review by White offers comprehensive guidance on the use of CSII in diabetes patients, e...

  7. Direct Effects of TNF-? on Local Fuel Metabolism and Cytokine Levels in the Placebo-Controlled, Bilaterally Infused Human Leg : Increased Insulin Sensitivity, Increased Net Protein Breakdown, and Increased IL-6 Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Ermina; Nielsen, Roni R

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) has widespread metabolic actions. Systemic TNF-? administration, however, generates a complex hormonal and metabolic response. Our study was designed to test whether regional, placebo-controlled TNF-? infusion directly affects insulin resistance and protein breakdown. We studied eight healthy volunteers once with bilateral femoral vein and artery catheters during a 3-h basal period and a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. One artery was perfused with saline and one with TNF-?. During the clamp, TNF-? perfusion increased glucose arteriovenous differences (0.91 ± 0.17 vs. 0.74 ± 0.15 mmol/L, P = 0.012) and leg glucose uptake rates. Net phenylalanine release was increased by TNF-? perfusion with concomitant increases in appearance and disappearance rates. Free fatty acid kinetics was not affected by TNF-?, whereas interleukin-6 (IL-6) release increased. Insulin and protein signaling in muscle biopsies was not affected by TNF-?. TNF-? directly increased net muscle protein loss,which may contribute to cachexia and general protein loss during severe illness. The finding of increased insulin sensitivity, which could relate to IL-6, is of major clinical interest and may concurrently act to provide adequate tissue fuel supply and contribute to the occurrence of systemic hypoglycemia. This distinct metabolic feature places TNF-? among the rare insulin mimetics of human origin.

  8. Direct effects of TNF-? on local fuel metabolism and cytokine levels in the placebo controlled bilaterally infused human leg; increased insulin sensitivity, increased net protein breakdown and increased IL-6 release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Ermina; Nielsen, Bent Roni RanghØj

    2013-01-01

    TNF-? has widespread metabolic actions. Systemic TNF-? administration, however, generates a complex hormonal and metabolic response. Our study was designed to test whether regional, placebo controlled TNF-? infusion directly affects insulin resistance and protein breakdown. We studied eight healthy volunteers once with bilateral femoral vein and artery catheters during a 3 h basal period and a 3 h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. One artery was perfused with saline and one with TNF-?. During the clamp TNF-? perfusion increased glucose arterio-venous differences (0.91±0.17 mmol/l vs. 0.74±0.15 mmol/l, p=0.012) and leg glucose uptake rates. Net phenylalanine release was increased by TNF-? perfusion with concomitant increases in appearance and disappearance rates. Free fatty acid kinetics were not affected by TNF-?, whereas IL-6 release increased. Insulin and protein signaling in muscle biopsies was not affected by TNF-?. TNF-? directly increased net muscle protein loss, which may contribute to cachexia and general protein loss during severe illness. The finding of increased insulin sensitivity, which could relate to IL-6, is of major clinical interest and may concurrently act to provide adequate tissue fuel supply and contribute to the occurrence of systemic hypoglycemia. This distinct metabolic feature places TNF-? among the rare insulin mimetics of human origin.

  9. Comparación entre dexmedetomidina en infusión intravenosa vs. lidocaína en infusión intravenosa para el control de dolor refractario a tratamiento opioide en pacientes de cuidados paliativos / Comparison between dexmedetomidine infusion vs. lidocaine intravenous infusion for treatment of severe pain in palliative care patients under opioid treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O., Carrillo Torres; M.M., Gallegos Allier; M., Jiménez Olvera.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: se define dolor refractario como aquel que se mantiene persistente (EVA 6 o más) a pesar de tratamiento con opioides (con 1 o más rotaciones previas) + antiinflamatorios (AINE o corticoides). Para tratamiento se han utilizado agonistas alfa-2 y/o anestésicos locales. La respuesta analg [...] ésica a la administración de dexmedetomidina parece producirse a nivel de la neurona de la raíz dorsal, donde los agonistas alfa-2 bloquean la liberación de la sustancia P en la vía nociceptiva. El efecto analgésico central está mediado por la activación de las vías inhibitorias descendentes gracias al bloqueo de los receptores del aspartato y glutamato. La utilización de lidocaína intravenosa puede suprimir descargas neurales ectópicas procedentes de fibras aferentes primarias lesionadas debido a sus propiedades de bloqueo dependiente de canales de voltaje de sodio. Además se ha evidenciado la activación endógena del sistema de opioides por infusión de lidocaína por vía sistémica. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto analgésico de la infusión de dexmedetomidina intravenosa comparada con infusión de lidocaína intravenosa para dolor refractario a opioides en pacientes bajo cuidados paliativos. Material y métodos: se trata de un ensayo clínico aleatorizado, triple ciego, con muestreo consecutivo. El análisis de resultados con medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión. Para comparar variables cuantitativas se usó t de Student para muestras independientes. Se construyeron tablas de contingencia y gráficos a través del programa estadístico SPSS versión 17. Población de estudio: pacientes con dolor refractario, hospitalizados dentro del Programa de Cuidados Paliativos asignados aleatoriamente a uno de los 2 grupos cuyo número de muestra (n = 14) se obtuvo por fórmula de diferencia de proporciones. Resultados: en cuanto a la analgesia con ambas infusiones no hubo diferencias significativas. De los 16 pacientes, 18 % (n: 3) requirieron terapia de rescate durante la infusión y 18 % (n: 3) requirieron rescate durante las 48 horas postinfusión. Durante la infusión el 42 % del grupo de lidocaína necesitó rescate (n: 3) y en el tiempo postinfusión antes de 48 horas se administraron 3 rescates: 42 % de los pacientes del grupo de lidocaína (n: 2) y 14 % de los pacientes del grupo dexmedetomidina (n: 1). En cuanto a sedación durante la infusión se reportaron diferencias significativas (p: -0,01) reportándose mayor sedación en el grupo de dexmedetomidina. No se presentaron complicaciones cardiovasculares y/o respiratorias en ninguno de los dos grupos. Conclusiones: el grupo de dexmedetomidina requirió menos rescates con opioides durante la infusión y posterior a ella. Se presentó mayor sedación en el grupo de dexmedetomidina sin presencia de complicaciones cardiovasculares y/o respiratorias durante o posterior a la infusión. Abstract in english Introduction: Refractory pain is defined as that which remains persistent (EVA 6 or more) despite treatment with opioids (with 1 or more previous rotations) + anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs or corticosteroids). Alpha-2 agonists and/or local anesthetics have been used for treating. Analgesic respons [...] e to the administration of dexmedetomidine appears to occur at the level of dorsal root neuron, where the alpha-2 agonists block the release of substance P in the nociceptive pathway. The central analgesic effect is mediated by the activation of descending inhibitory pathways, by blocking the receptors of aspartate and glutamate. The use of intravenous lidocaine can suppress ectopic neural discharges primary afferents from injured due to its blocking voltage-dependent sodium channels. Furthermore it has been demonstrated activation of endogenous opioid system lidocaine infusion systemically. Objective: To evaluate the analgesic effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine infusion compared with intravenous lidocaine infusion for pain refractory to opioids in palliative care patients. Material and methods: This is a randomized, triple-

  10. Simplifying infusion chemotherapy: preliminary communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Ebbs, S. R.; Saunders, J. A.; Roberts, J. V.; Baum, M.; Bates, T.; Morris, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    A low-intervention policy for Hickman catheter maintenance has been evaluated and found to be safe and cost effective. A simple, lightweight, disposable device has been used for 24-hour ambulatory home infusion. Implementation of this policy as part of a prospective randomized trial of single-agent chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer has demonstrated that slow intravenous infusion reduces the acute toxicity of epirubicin when compared with bolus injection.

  11. Studies on insulin secretion and insulin resistance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes in young Indians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. In the discrete genetic syndrome of NIDDY (non-insulin-dependent diabetes in the young), the situation is less clear and these aspects is the subject of this thesis. This study included Indian pasients with three generation transmission of NIDDM via one parent. The insulin and C-peptide responses to oral and intravenous glucose in patients with NIDDY were studied. The insulin and glucose responses to non-glucose secretogogues glucagon, tolbutamide and arginine, in NIDDY were also investigated. The following aspects with regard to insulin resistance in NIDDY were examined: glucose and free fatty acid response to intravenous insulin administration, insulin binding to circulating erythrocytes and monocytes, 125I-insulin binding to the solubilized erythrocyte membrane receptor and 125I-insulin binding to fibroblasts in culture

  12. Accelerating and Improving the Consistency of Rapid-Acting Analog Insulin Absorption and Action for Both Subcutaneous Injection and Continuous Subcutaneous Infusion Using Recombinant Human Hyaluronidase

    OpenAIRE

    Muchmore, Douglas B.; Vaughn, Daniel E.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid-acting insulin analogs were introduced to the market in the 1990s, and these products have improved treatment of diabetes by shortening the optimum delay time between injections and meals. Compared with regular human insulin, rapid-acting insulin formulations also reduce postprandial glycemic excursions while decreasing risk of hypoglycemia. However, the current prandial products are not fast enough for optimum convenience or control.

  13. Infusion thrombophlebitis: the histological and clinical features.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Thrombophlebitis was induced in 8 greyhounds by intravenous infusion of naftidrofuryl (Praxilene), dextrose saline being used as a control. The histological features were the same in the treated and the control veins: circulating polymorphonuclear leucocytes became attached to and later infiltrated the vein endothelium. In more severe cases the deeper layers of the vein wall were affected. The clinical features in 97 patients receiving intravenous infusions of physiological saline, dextrose s...

  14. Anestesia venosa total em regime de infusão alvo-controlada: uma análise evolutiva / Total intravenous anesthesia as a target-controlled infusion: an evolutive analysis / Anestesia venosa total en régimen de infusión objeto controlada: un análisis evolutivo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Squeff, Nora.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia venosa total (AVT) sofreu diversos avanços desde o início da utilização da técnica. Desde a síntese dos primeiros anestésicos venosos, com a introdução dos barbitúricos (1921) e do tiopental (1934), a AVT evoluiu até o desenvolvimento da AVT com auxílio de bomb [...] as com infusão alvo-controlada (IAC). O primeiro modelo farmacocinético para uso em IAC foi descrito por Schwilden em 1981. Foi demonstrado, a partir daí, que era possível manter a concentração plasmática desejada de um fármaco utilizando-se bomba de infusão gerenciada por computador. CONTEÚDO: Este artigo visou a descrever as bases teóricas da IAC, a apresentar uma proposta de desenvolvimento de um vocabulário comum em IAC ainda não publicado no Brasil e a fazer uma análise crítica dos aspectos atuais da IAC no mundo e no Brasil. CONCLUSÕES: A chegada de novas bombas de infusão dotadas dos modelos farmacocinéticos do remifentanil, sufentanil e propofol inaugura outro capítulo da AVT e alinha o Brasil com a tendência mundial em IAC. Esses sistemas possibilitarão a IAC de hipnóticos e opióides concomitantemente. A conclusão mais importante, no entanto, refere-se à economia à medida que os fármacos utilizados nessas bombas não ficarão restritos apenas a uma empresa farmacêutica, a exemplo do que ocorreu com o propofol. Hoje já se dispõe de equipamentos para utilização de propofol e opióides, em IAC, que aceitam qualquer apresentação farmacêutica com a vantagem da possibilidade de alteração da concentração do fármaco na seringa, de acordo com a diluição desejada. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La anestesia venosa total (AVT) tuvo diversos avances desde el inicio de la utilización de la técnica. Desde la síntesis de los primeros anestésicos venosos, con la introducción de los barbitúricos (1921) y del tiopental (1934), la AVT evolucionó hasta el desarrollo de la [...] AVT con el auxilio de bombas con infusión objeto controlada (IOC). El primer modelo farmacocinético descrito para uso en IOC, fue descrito por Schwilden en 1981. Quedó demostrado a partir de entonces, que era posible mantener la concentración plasmática deseada de un fármaco utilizando bomba de infusión por computador. CONTENIDO: Este artigo quiso dejar sentadas las bases teóricas de la IOC, presentar una propuesta de desarrollo de un vocabulario común en IOC todavía no publicado en Brasil y hacer un análisis crítico de los aspectos actuales de la IOC en el mundo y en Brasil. CONCLUSIONES: La llegada de nuevas bombas de infusión dotadas de los modelos farmacocinéticos del remifentanil, sufentanil y propofol inaugura otro capítulo de la AVT y coloca a Brasil a tono con la tendencia mundial en IOC. Esos sistemas facilitarán la IOC de hipnóticos y opioides concomitantemente. La conclusión más importante, sin embargo, se refiere a la economía en la medida en que los fármacos utilizados en esas bombas no quedarán restrictos a solamente una empresa farmacéutica, como por ejemplo lo que ocurrió con el propofol. Hoy ya disponemos de equipos para la utilización de propofol y opioides en IOC, que aceptan cualquier presentación farmacéutica con la ventaja de poder alterar la concentración del fármaco en la jeringuilla de acuerdo con la dilución que se desee. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND DOBJECTIVES: Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) has seen several developments since it was first used. Since the synthesis of the first intravenous anesthetics, with the introduction of barbiturates (1921) and thiopental (1934), TIVA has evolved until the development of TIVA with tar [...] get-controlled infusion pumps (TCI). The first pharmacokinetic model for the use of TCI was described by Schwilden in 1981. From that moment on, it was demonstrated that it is possible to maintain the desired plasma concentration of a drug using an infusion pump managed by a computer. CONTENTS: The objective of this report was to describe the theoretical bases of TCI,

  15. Anestesia venosa total em regime de infusão alvo-controlada: uma análise evolutiva Anestesia venosa total en régimen de infusión objeto controlada: un análisis evolutivo Total intravenous anesthesia as a target-controlled infusion: an evolutive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Squeff Nora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia venosa total (AVT sofreu diversos avanços desde o início da utilização da técnica. Desde a síntese dos primeiros anestésicos venosos, com a introdução dos barbitúricos (1921 e do tiopental (1934, a AVT evoluiu até o desenvolvimento da AVT com auxílio de bombas com infusão alvo-controlada (IAC. O primeiro modelo farmacocinético para uso em IAC foi descrito por Schwilden em 1981. Foi demonstrado, a partir daí, que era possível manter a concentração plasmática desejada de um fármaco utilizando-se bomba de infusão gerenciada por computador. CONTEÚDO: Este artigo visou a descrever as bases teóricas da IAC, a apresentar uma proposta de desenvolvimento de um vocabulário comum em IAC ainda não publicado no Brasil e a fazer uma análise crítica dos aspectos atuais da IAC no mundo e no Brasil. CONCLUSÕES: A chegada de novas bombas de infusão dotadas dos modelos farmacocinéticos do remifentanil, sufentanil e propofol inaugura outro capítulo da AVT e alinha o Brasil com a tendência mundial em IAC. Esses sistemas possibilitarão a IAC de hipnóticos e opióides concomitantemente. A conclusão mais importante, no entanto, refere-se à economia à medida que os fármacos utilizados nessas bombas não ficarão restritos apenas a uma empresa farmacêutica, a exemplo do que ocorreu com o propofol. Hoje já se dispõe de equipamentos para utilização de propofol e opióides, em IAC, que aceitam qualquer apresentação farmacêutica com a vantagem da possibilidade de alteração da concentração do fármaco na seringa, de acordo com a diluição desejada.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La anestesia venosa total (AVT tuvo diversos avances desde el inicio de la utilización de la técnica. Desde la síntesis de los primeros anestésicos venosos, con la introducción de los barbitúricos (1921 y del tiopental (1934, la AVT evolucionó hasta el desarrollo de la AVT con el auxilio de bombas con infusión objeto controlada (IOC. El primer modelo farmacocinético descrito para uso en IOC, fue descrito por Schwilden en 1981. Quedó demostrado a partir de entonces, que era posible mantener la concentración plasmática deseada de un fármaco utilizando bomba de infusión por computador. CONTENIDO: Este artigo quiso dejar sentadas las bases teóricas de la IOC, presentar una propuesta de desarrollo de un vocabulario común en IOC todavía no publicado en Brasil y hacer un análisis crítico de los aspectos actuales de la IOC en el mundo y en Brasil. CONCLUSIONES: La llegada de nuevas bombas de infusión dotadas de los modelos farmacocinéticos del remifentanil, sufentanil y propofol inaugura otro capítulo de la AVT y coloca a Brasil a tono con la tendencia mundial en IOC. Esos sistemas facilitarán la IOC de hipnóticos y opioides concomitantemente. La conclusión más importante, sin embargo, se refiere a la economía en la medida en que los fármacos utilizados en esas bombas no quedarán restrictos a solamente una empresa farmacéutica, como por ejemplo lo que ocurrió con el propofol. Hoy ya disponemos de equipos para la utilización de propofol y opioides en IOC, que aceptan cualquier presentación farmacéutica con la ventaja de poder alterar la concentración del fármaco en la jeringuilla de acuerdo con la dilución que se desee.BACKGROUND AND DOBJECTIVES: Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA has seen several developments since it was first used. Since the synthesis of the first intravenous anesthetics, with the introduction of barbiturates (1921 and thiopental (1934, TIVA has evolved until the development of TIVA with target-controlled infusion pumps (TCI. The first pharmacokinetic model for the use of TCI was described by Schwilden in 1981. From that moment on, it was demonstrated that it is possible to maintain the desired plasma concentration of a drug using an infusion pump managed by a computer. CONTENTS: The objective of this report was to describe the theoretical bases of TCI, propose the development of a common TCI vocabulary, which has not been don

  16. Beta Agonist Lung Injury TrIal-2 (BALTI-2 trial protocol: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled of intravenous infusion of salbutamol in the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCabe Chris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS is a common cause of respiratory failure in critically ill patients. Experimental studies suggest that treatment with beta agonists may be helpful in ARDS. The Beta Agonist Lung Injury TrIal (BALTI-2 is a multicentre, pragmatic, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial which aims to determine if sustained treatment with intravenous (IV salbutamol will improve survival in ARDS. Methods/Design Patients fulfilling the American-European Consensus Conference Definition of ARDS will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive an IV infusion either of salbutamol (15 ?g kg ideal body weight-1 hr-1 or placebo (0.9% sodium chloride solution, for a maximum of seven days. Allocation to randomised groups will use minimisation to ensure balance with respect to hospital of recruitment, age group (85 years and PaO2/FiO2 ratio (?6.7, 6.8- 13.2, ?13.3 kPa. Data will be recorded by participating ICUs until hospital discharge, and all surviving patients will be followed up by post at six and twelve months post randomisation. The primary outcome is mortality at 28 days after randomisation; secondary outcomes are mortality in ICU, mortality in hospital, number of ventilator-free days, number of organ failure-free days, mortality at twelve months post-randomisation, quality of life at six and twelve months, length of stay in ICU, length of stay in hospital, adverse effects (tachycardia, arrhythmia or other side effects sufficient to stop treatment drug. 1,334 patients will be recruited from about fifty ICUs in the UK. An economic evaluation will be conducted alongside the trial. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN38366450.

  17. The impact of calcineurin inhibitors on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion : a randomized crossover trial in uraemic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozbay, L A; MØller, N

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: The calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus are implicated in post-transplant complications such as new-onset diabetes after transplantation. The relative contribution of each calcineurin inhibitor to new-onset diabetes after transplantation remains unclear. We sought to compare the impact of cyclosporine and tacrolimus on glucose metabolism in humans. METHODS: Eight haemodialysis patients received 8-10 days of oral treatment followed by 5-h infusions with cyclosporine, tacrolimus and saline in a randomized, investigator-blind, crossover study. Glucose metabolism and ?-cell function was investigated through: a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, an intravenous glucose tolerance test and insulin concentration time series. RESULTS: Cyclosporine and tacrolimus decreased insulin sensitivity by 22% (P = 0.02) and 13% (P = 0.048), respectively. The acute insulin response and pulsatile insulin secretion were not significantly affected by the drugs. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, 8-10 days of treatment with cyclosporine and tacrolimus impairs insulin sensitivity to a similar degree in haemodialysis patients, while acute insulin responses and pulsatile insulin secretion remain unaffected.

  18. Comparative study of amino acid, ammonia and pancreatic hormone levels in the blood of cirrhotic patients following intragastric and intravenous administration of a branched-chain amino acid-enriched solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available The blood levels of amino acids, ammonia and pancreatic hormones following the intragastric and intravenous administration of a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-enriched solution were comparatively investigated in control subjects and patients with liver cirrhosis. There was no essential difference in the time course of serum amino acid and blood ammonia levels between the intragastric and intravenous infusions. Elevation of serum insulin concentrations in cirrhotic patients was significant only immediately after the administration through the enteral route. However, plasma glucagon levels increased similarly when the BCAA-enriched solution was administered through either route. The results indicate that both enteral and intravenous infusions will have similar therapeutic effects on the impaired protein metabolism in cirrhotic patients with protein-calorie malnutrition.

  19. Efeito alcalinizante de soluções eletrolíticas intravenosas com concentrações elevadas de lactato de sódio infundidas em bezerros sadios / Alkalinizing effect of intravenous electrolyte solutions with high sodium lactate concentrations infused in healthy calves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.R.C., Junqueira; M.R.S., Balarin; K.K.M.C., Flaiban; D.S., Barbosa; J.A.N., Lisboa.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar o potencial alcalinizante de soluções eletrolíticas com concentrações elevadas de lactato de sódio em bezerros sadios, foram idealizadas seis soluções contendo 28, 56 e 84mEq/L de lactato (L28, L56 e L84) ou de bicarbonato (B28, B56 e B84), com concentrações de sódio, de [...] potássio e de cálcio semelhantes às da solução de Ringer com lactato (SRL). As soluções contendo bicarbonato de sódio foram utilizadas como padrão para comparação. Seis bezerros receberam, por via intravenosa, todas as seis soluções, uma a cada vez, com intervalo de quatro a cinco dias entre as infusões, em volume correspondente a 10% do peso corporal, durante cinco horas (20mL/kg/h). Amostras de sangue venoso e de urina foram coletadas antes de iniciar a infusão, na metade do volume, ao término e duas horas e meia após o término da infusão. Determinaram-se concentração de proteína plasmática total, pH sanguíneo e urinário, pCO2, HCO3 -, BE, concentração plasmática e urinária de lactato L e concentrações séricas e urinárias de Na+, K+, Cl- e creatinina. A solução L28, idêntica à SRL, provocou discreto incremento da reserva alcalina e, consequentemente, produziu efeito alcalinizante insuficiente para a correção de estados de acidose metabólica. A solução L84, além de provar-se segura, provocou o maior aumento da reserva alcalina, equivalente à B84, e, assim, produziu efeito capaz de corrigir o grau moderado de acidose metabólica. Abstract in english The alkalinizing effects of electrolyte solutions with high concentration of sodium lactate were evaluated in healthy calves. Six solutions were formulated containing 28, 56 and 84mEq/L of lactate (L28, L56 and L84) or bicarbonate (B28, B56 and B84), and sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations [...] similar to the lactated Ringer's solution (LRS). The solutions containing sodium bicarbonate were used as a standard for comparison. Six calves received all six solutions intravenously, one at a time, with an interval of four to five days between the infusions, in a volume corresponding to 10% of body weight, during five hours (20mL/kg/h). Venous blood and urine samples were taken prior to the beginning of the infusion, at a half volume, at the end and two and a half hours after the end of the infusion. Total plasma protein concentration, urinary and blood pH, blood pCO2, HCO3 - and BE, plasma and urine L lactate concentration and serum and urine Na+, K+, Cl- and creatinine concentrations were measured. The L28 solution, equal to LRS, caused a slight increase in the alkaline reserve, producing an alkalinizing effect insufficient for correction of metabolic acidosis states. The L84 solution was safe and produced the greater increase in the alkaline reserve, equivalent to B84 solution, and suitable for correcting a moderate degree of metabolic acidosis.

  20. Disassociation between the effects of amino acids and insulin on signaling, ubiquitin ligases, and protein turnover in human muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhaff, P. L.; Karagounis, L. G.; Peirce, N.; Simpson, E. J.; Hazell, M; Layfield, R.; Wackerhage, H.; Smith, K.; Atherton, P.; Selby, A.; Rennie, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    We determined the effects of intravenous infusion of amino acids (AA) at serum insulin of 5, 30, 72, and 167 mU/l on anabolic signaling, expression of ubiquitin-proteasome components, and protein turnover in muscles of healthy young men. Tripling AA availability at 5 mU/l insulin doubled incorporation of [1-13C]leucine [i.e., muscle protein synthesis (MPS), P < 0.01] without affecting the rate of leg protein breakdown (LPB; appearance of d5-phenylalanine). While keeping AA availability consta...

  1. Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with an impaired skeletal muscle protein synthetic response to amino Acid ingestion in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Francis B; Chee, Carolyn; Wall, Benjamin T; Murton, Andrew J; Shannon, Chris E; van Loon, Luc J C; Tsintzas, Kostas

    2015-05-01

    The ability to maintain skeletal muscle mass appears to be impaired in insulin-resistant conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, that are characterized by muscle lipid accumulation. The current study investigated the effect of acutely increasing lipid availability on muscle protein synthesis. Seven healthy young male volunteers underwent a 7-h intravenous infusion of l-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine on two randomized occasions combined with 0.9% saline or 10% Intralipid at 100 mL/h. After a 4-h "basal" period, a 21-g bolus of amino acids was administered and a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was commenced ("fed" period). Muscle biopsy specimens were obtained from the vastus lateralis at 1.5, 4, and 7 h. Lipid infusion reduced fed whole-body glucose disposal by 20%. Furthermore, whereas the mixed muscle fractional synthetic rate increased from the basal to the fed period during saline infusion by 2.2-fold, no change occurred during lipid infusion, despite similar circulating insulin and leucine concentrations. This "anabolic resistance" to insulin and amino acids with lipid infusion was associated with a complete suppression of muscle 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. We propose that increased muscle lipid availability may contribute to anabolic resistance in insulin-resistant conditions by impairing translation initiation. PMID:25524913

  2. Indinavir induces acute and reversible peripheral insulin resistance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruz, Paul W; Murata, Haruhiko; Qiu, Haijun; Mueckler, Mike

    2002-04-01

    The use of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) has been associated with several metabolic changes, including lipodystrophy, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. The etiology of these adverse effects remains unknown. PIs have recently been found to cause acute and reversible inhibition of GLUT4 activity in vitro. To determine the acute in vivo effects of indinavir on whole-body glucose homeostasis, glucose tolerance tests were performed on PI-naïve Wistar rats immediately after a single intravenous dose of indinavir. Glucose and insulin levels were significantly elevated in indinavir-treated versus control rats (P indinavir treatment acutely reduced the glucose infusion rate required to maintain euglycemia by 18 and 49% at indinavir concentrations of 14 and 27 micromol/l, respectively. Muscle 2-deoxyglucose uptake was similarly reduced under these conditions. Restoration of insulin sensitivity was observed within 4 h after stopping the indinavir infusion. Indinavir did not alter the suppression of hepatic glucose output under hyperinsulinemic conditions. These data demonstrate that indinavir causes acute and reversible changes in whole-body glucose homeostasis in rats and support the contribution of GLUT4 inhibition to the development of insulin resistance in patients treated with PIs. PMID:11916910

  3. Moderate-intensity endurance exercise prevents short-term starvation-induced intramyocellular lipid accumulation but not insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jackson G; Johnson, Nathan A; Sachinwalla, Toos; Cunningham, Christopher W; Thompson, Martin W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2011-08-01

    Exercise has the potential to alleviate the resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake precipitated by elevated circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) in conditions such as obesity, lipid infusion, and starvation. In this study, 6 lean healthy men underwent two 3-day periods of starvation with either no exercise or daily endurance exercise (80 min d(-1) at 50% maximal rate of oxygen consumption) and a 3-day mixed diet without exercise. Insulin sensitivity was determined by intravenous glucose tolerance test, and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) concentration was measured by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In both starvation conditions, fasting plasma FFAs were significantly elevated, whereas plasma glucose and whole-body insulin sensitivity were significantly reduced. Vastus lateralis IMCL to water ratio was significantly elevated after starvation without exercise compared with that after starvation with exercise or that after mixed diet. Intramyocellular lipid to water ratio was not different between starvation with exercise and mixed diet. In healthy lean men, exercise during starvation prevents the accumulation of IMCL yet does not affect the starvation-induced changes in FFAs and insulin sensitivity. Unlike during lipid infusion or obesity-induced insulin resistance, exercise cannot overcome the reduction in insulin action caused by starvation. We propose that carbohydrate availability is a key modulator of the combined effects of exercise and circulating FFAs on insulin sensitivity. PMID:21353260

  4. Infusion extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction. A piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber. The method is applicable to operation in low or micro-gravity environments.

  5. Co-infusion of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cell-differentiated insulin-making cells and haematopoietic cells with renal transplantation: a novel therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus with end-stage renal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Shruti D; Vanikar, Aruna V; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Various factors contribute to wide fluctuations in blood glucose levels and exogenous insulin requirement in such patients even after renal transplantation (RT). Simultaneous pancreas–kidney transplantation is one of the therapies for these patients. Stem cell (SC) therapy for T1DM and for minimisation of immunosuppression after RT has shown encouraging results. We report a 30-year-old-man with T1DM since 15?years and ESRD since 2?years, who underwent living donor RT  and co-infusion of in vitro generated insulin-making cells differentiated from donor adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells  and bone marrow -derived haematopoietic SC  into subcutaneous tissue, portal and thymic circulation under non-myeloablative conditioning. Over follow-up of 13?months he has stable graft function with serum creatinine, 1.2?mg/dl, zero rejection and glycosylated haemoglobin level of 6.1% on calcineurin-inhibitor based therapy. PMID:23709153

  6. An audit of hospital based outpatient infusions and a pilot program of community-based monoclonal antibody infusions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doran, J-P

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha, is administered as an intravenous infusion requiring a costly hospital day case or inpatient admission. METHODS: An audit of all current therapies given by intravenous infusions in an outpatient setting in St Vincent\\'s University Hospital (SVUH) was undertaken. Furthermore, in conjunction with TCP homecare, we established in a general practise health clinic, the first Irish community infusion centre for the administration of infliximab in August 2006. RESULTS: All outpatient departments indicated that they would favour a centralized hospital infusion unit. There were no adverse events and the mean global satisfaction improved in the community infliximab infusion pilot programme of seven patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggests efficiencies in providing centralized infusion facilities, while the community based infusion of infliximab is feasible and safe in this small cohort and identifies the community infusion unit as a viable and cost efficient alternative for administration of infliximab.

  7. Intravenous lidocaine has no impact on rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block. Randomised study

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnetzki, C; Lysakowski, Christopher; Elia, Nadia; Tramer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous lidocaine is increasingly used in surgical patients. As it has neuromuscular blocking effects, we tested the impact of an intravenous lidocaine infusion on the time course of a rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block.

  8. Subcutaneous infusion and capillary "finger stick" sampling of stable isotope tracer in metabolic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic studies utilizing stable isotope tracer in humans have typically used intravenous tracer infusions and venous blood sampling. These studies explore subcutaneous infusion of isotope and "finger stick" capillary blood sampling to measure glucose turnover. Five subjects received simultaneous ...

  9. Insulin signaling and glucose transport in insulin resistant human skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Ha?kan Kr

    2005-01-01

    Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a hallmark feature of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate downstream intermediates in the insulin signaling pathway in an attempt to characterize the molecular mechanism of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from healthy and Type 2 diabetic subjects before and after an in vivo hyperinsulinemic infusion. Insulin infusion increased the...

  10. Diagnosis of coronary artery disease by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy with intravenous infusion of SUNY4001 (adenosine) in effort angina pectoris. The clinical trial report at multi-center. Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-four patients with effort angina pectoris were evaluated with SUNY4001 (adenosine) thallium-201 (201Tl) myocardial scintigraphy to detect coronary artery disease. These patients had single-vessel disease (?American Heart Association (AHA) 90% stenosis) in either right coronary artery (RCA) or left anterior descending (LAD). Adenosine was infused at the rate of 120 or 140 ?g/kg/min for six minutes. One hundred eleven MBq of 201Tl was injected after three minutes of the start of the infusion. The early and delayed images were obtained by SPECT imaging. The sensitivity was 94.7% at 120 ?g/kg/min and 84.2% at 140 ?g/kg/min. Adenosine 201Tl myocardial scintigraphy showed high accuracy for detecting significant coronary artery disease. Adverse reactions occurred in 77.3% of the patients. Regarding the rates of the adverse reactions, there was no significant difference between 120 and 140 ?g/kg/min. Major adverse reactions were Chest pain/discomfort (52.3%) and Flushing/Feeling of warmth (27.3%). No serious complication was observed at any infusion rate. Most of adverse reactions disappeared shortly. Only two patients required treatment for moderate chest pain, which, however, disappeared in several minutes. One of the treatments was merely the termination of adenosine infusion, and the other was sublingual spray of nitroglycerin. Adenosine infusion caused slight decrease in blood pressure and increase in heart rate. The hemodynamncrease in heart rate. The hemodynamic changes resolved within several minutes after the adenosine infusion. Decrease in systolic blood pressure of more than 20 mmHg from the base level occurred in 26.1% and 52.4% at 120 and 140 ?g/kg/min infusion rate respectively. Therefore, the adenosine infusion at 120 ?g/kg/min should be considered safe and useful for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease by pharmacologic stress imaging. (author)

  11. Warmed intravenous infusion for controlling intraoperative hypothermia / Infusión venosa calentada en el control de la hipotermia durante el período intraoperatorio / Infusão venosa aquecida no controle da hipotermia no período intraoperatório

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Lúcia De, Mattia; Maria Helena, Barbosa; João Paulo Aché de, Freitas Filho; Adelaide De Mattia, Rocha; Nathália Haib Costa, Pereira.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a eficácia da intervenção de infusão venosa aquecida, na prevenção da hipotermia em pacientes no período intraoperatório. MÉTODO: estudo experimental, comparativo, de campo, prospectivo e quantitativo, realizado em um hospital público federal. A [...] amostra foi constituída por 60 adultos, que tiveram, como um dos critérios de inclusão, a temperatura axilar entre 36 e 37,1ºC e acesso cirúrgico abdominal, divididos em grupos controle e experimental, compostos utilizando-se a técnica de amostragem probabilística sistemática. RESULTADOS: nos 2 grupos, 22 pacientes (73,4%) saíram da sala de operação com hipotermia, ou seja, temperatura inferior a 36ºC (p=1,0000). A temperatura da sala de operação na entrada do paciente e a temperatura do paciente na entrada da sala de operação foram estatisticamente significativas para influenciar a ocorrência de hipotermia. CONCLUSÃO: o planejamento e implementação das intervenções de enfermagem, realizadas pelo enfermeiro, são essenciais para prevenção da hipotermia e manutenção da normotermia perioperatória. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: verificar la eficacia de la intervención de infusión venosa calentada en la prevención de la hipotermia en pacientes en el período intraoperatorio. MÉTODO: estudio experimental, comparativo, de campo, prospectivo y cuantitativo, en un hospital público fed [...] eral. La muestra abarcó a 60 adultos, que tuvieron como uno de los criterios de inclusión la temperatura axilar entre 36ºC y 37,1ºC y acceso quirúrgico abdominal, divididos en grupos control y experimental, compuestos utilizándose la técnica de muestreo probabilístico sistemático. RESULTADOS: en los 2 grupos, 22 pacientes (73,4%) salieron del quirófano con hipotermia, o sea, temperatura inferior a 36ºC (p=1,0000). La temperatura del quirófano cuando de la entrada del paciente y la temperatura del paciente cuando de la entrada en el quirófano fueron estadísticamente significativas para influir en la ocurrencia de hipotermia. CONCLUSÍON: la planificación e implementación de las intervenciones de enfermería practicadas por el enfermero son esenciales para prevenir la hipotermia y mantener la normotermia perioperatoria. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to verify the effectiveness of warmed intravenous infusion for hypothermia prevention in patients during the intraoperative period. METHOD: experimental, comparative, field, prospective and quantitative study undertaken at a federal public hospital. The [...] sample was composed of 60 adults, included based on the criteria of axillary temperature between 36ºC and 37.1ºC and surgical abdominal access, divided into control and experimental groups, using the systematic probability sampling technique. RESULTS: 22 patients (73.4%) from both groups left the operating room with hypothermia, that is, with temperatures below 36ºC (p=1.0000). The operating room temperature when patients arrived and patients' temperature when they arrived at the operating room were statistically significant to affect the occurrence of hypothermia. CONCLUSION: the planning and implementation of nursing interventions carried out by baccalaureate nurses are essential for preventing hypothermia and maintaining perioperative normothermia.

  12. Effect of IL-6 on the insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder-Lauridsen, N M; Krogh-Madsen, R

    2014-01-01

    Elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are associated with type 2 diabetes, but its role in glucose metabolism is controversial. We investigated the effect of IL-6 on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes patients and hypothesized that an acute, moderate IL-6 elevation would increase the insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Men with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin [n = 9, age 54.9 ± 9.7 (mean ± SD) yr, body mass index 34.8 ± 6.1 kg/m(2), HbA1c 7.0 ± 1.0%] received continuous intravenous infusion with either recombinant human IL-6 (rhIL-6) or placebo. After 1 h with placebo or rhIL-6, a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-isoglycemic clamp was initiated. Whole body glucose metabolism was measured using stable isotope-labeled tracers. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression were measured in muscle biopsies. Whole body energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. In response to the infusion of rhIL-6, circulating levels of IL-6 (P < 0.001), neutrophils (P < 0.001), and cortisol (P < 0.001) increased while lymphocytes decreased (P < 0.01). However, IL-6 infusion did not change glucose infusion rate, rate of appearance, or rate of disappearance during the clamp. While IL-6 enhanced phosphorylation of STAT3 in skeletal muscle (P = 0.041), the expression of SOCS3 remained unchanged. Whole body oxygen uptake (P < 0.01) and expired carbon dioxide (P < 0.01) increased during rhIL-6 infusion. In summary, although IL-6 induced local and systemic responses, the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was not affected. While different contributing factors may be involved, our results are in contrast to our hypothesis and previous findings in young, healthy men.

  13. Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis with insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Nazif; Yakan, Savas; Yildirim, Mehmet; Carti, Erdem; Ucar, Deniz; Oymaci, Erkan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypertriglyceridaemia (HT)-induced pancreatitis rarely occurs unless triglyceride levels exceed 1000 mg/dl. Hypertriglyceridaemia over 1,000 mg/dl can provoke acute pancreatitis (AP) and its persistence can worsen the clinical outcome. In contrast, a rapid decrease in triglyceride level is beneficial. Insulin-stimulated lipoprotein lipase is known to decrease serum triglyceride levels. However, their efficacy in HT-induced AP is not well documented. Aim To present 12 cases of AP successfully treated by insulin administration. Material and methods Three hundred and forty-three cases of AP were diagnosed at our clinic between 2005 and 2012. Twelve (3.5%) of these cases were HT-induced AP. Twelve patients who suffered HT-induced AP are reported. Initial blood triglyceride levels were above 1000 mg/dl. Besides the usual treatment of AP, insulin was administered intravenously in continuous infusion. The patients’ medical records were retrospectively evaluated in this study. Results Serum triglyceride levels decreased to < 500 mg/dl within 2–3 days. No complications of treatment were seen and good clinical outcome was observed. Conclusions Our results are compatible with the literature. Insulin may be used safely and effectively in HT-induced AP therapy. Administration of insulin is efficient when used to reduce triglyceride levels in patients with HT-induced AP.

  14. Comparison of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), stress-redistribution-reinjection thallium-201 SPECT and low dose dobutamine echocardiography for prediction of reversible dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 (GI-Tl) infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in predicting reversible dysfunction has not been evaluated, so the present study recruited 20 patients with regional ischemic dysfunction for investigation. All patients underwent GI-Tl SPECT, post-stress Tl reinjection imaging and low dose dobutamine echocardiography. The diagnostic accuracy of these 3 techniques in predicting functional recovery was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In segments with functional recovery, regional Tl activities of GI-Tl SPECT were significantly higher than those of reinjection imaging (p<0.05), although there were no significant differences in segments without recovery. The area under the ROC curve for GI-Tl SPECT (0.75±0.06) was greater than that for reinjection imaging (0.68±0.07). The optimal cutoff values to identify viable myocardium were considered to be 55% of peak activity for GI-Tl SPECT and 50% for reinjection imaging. At this cutoff point, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of functional recovery were, respectively, 85% and 61% for GI-Tl SPECT, and 73% and 61% for reinjection imaging. Dobutamine echocardiography had the same sensitivity (85%), but lower specificity (48%) than GI-Tl SPECT. Continuous infusion of GI-Tl solution enhances regional Tl uptake compared with conventional post-stress reinjection imaging. This study suggests that GI-Tl SPECT is superior to reinjts that GI-Tl SPECT is superior to reinjection imaging and dobutamine echocardiography in predicting functional recovery after ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. (author)

  15. The diagnostic value for ischemic heart disease of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy by intravenous infusion of SUNY4001 (adenosine). The report of clinical trial at multi-center. Phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With two hundreds and seven patients unable to exercise adequately, the diagnostic accuracy and adverse reaction of 201Tl myocardial scintigraphy with the pharmacologic stress by SUNY4001 (adenosine) infusion were studied. Adenosine was infused for six minutes at the rate of 120 ?g/kg/min, and then 201Tl was injected after three minutes from the start of infusion. The early and delayed images were obtained by SPECT imaging. According to angiography, ?American Heart Association (AHA) 90% stenosis was defined as significant. The sensitivity of detecting coronary artery disease was 87.1% and the specificity was 46.0%. Adverse reactions occurred in 66.7% of the patients, most of which disappeared shortly with no need for treatment. Major adverse reactions were chest pain/discomfort (30.4%), flushing/feeling of warmth (22.4%) and blood pressure decrease (17.4%). Adenosine infusion caused slight decrease in blood pressure and increase in heart rate. These hemodynamic changes were resolved within several minutes from the termination of adenosine infusion. We concluded that adenosine-201Tl imaging is safe and useful to detect coronary artery disease in patients unable to exercise adequately. (author)

  16. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of glucagon-like peptide 1 lowers plasma glucose and reduces appetite in type 2 diabetic patients.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, M B; Madsbad, Sten

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulinotropic and anorectic effects during intravenous infusion and has been proposed as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The effect of a single subcutaneous injection is brief because of rapid degradation. We therefore sought to evaluate the effect of infusion of GLP-1 for 48 h in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We infused GLP-1 (2.4 pmol.kg-1.min-1) or saline subcutaneously for 48 h in randomized order in six patients with type 2 diabetes to evaluate the effect on appetite during fixed energy intake and on plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, postprandial lipidemia, blood pressure, heart rate, and basal metabolic rate. RESULTS: The infusion resulted in elevations of the plasma concentrations of intact GLP-1 similar to those observed after intravenous infusion of 1.2 pmol.kg-1.min-1, previously shown to lower blood glucose effectively in type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting plasma glucose (day 2) decreased from 14.1 +/- 0.9 (saline) to 12.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l (GLP-1), P = 0.009, and 24-h mean plasma glucose decreased from 15.4 +/- 1.0 to 13.0 +/- 1.0 mmol/l, P = 0.0009. Fasting and total area under the curve for insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly higher during the GLP-1 administration, whereas glucagon levels were unchanged. Neither triglycerides nor free fatty acids were affected. GLP-1 administration decreased hunger and prospective food intake and increased satiety, whereas fullness was unaffected. No side effects during GLP-1 infusion were recorded except for a brief cutaneous reaction. Basal metabolic rate and heart rate did not change significantly during GLP-1 administration. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure tended to be lower during the GLP-1 infusion. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 48-h continuous subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients 1) lowers fasting as well as meal-related plasma glucose, 2) reduces appetite, 3) has no gastrointestinal side effects, and 4) has no negative effect on blood pressure.

  17. Clinical pharmacology of infusion fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Fluids are used for intravenous infusion during practically all surgeries, but several different compositions are available on the market. Crystalloid fluids comprise lactated or acetated Ringer solutions, normal saline, Plasma-Lyte, hypertonic saline, and glucose. They lack allergic properties but are prone to cause peripheral tissue oedema. Their turn­ over is governed by physiological factors such as dehydration and drug effects. Colloid fluids include hydroxyethyl starch, albumin, dextra...

  18. Safety, toleration, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous azithromycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, D. R.; Foulds, G; Cohen, S F; Levy, B

    1996-01-01

    To date, the clinical pharmacology of large intravenous doses of azithromycin has not been described. In the present study, single 2-h intravenous infusions of 1, 2, and 4 g of azithromycin were administered to three parallel groups (in each group, six received active drug and two received placebo) of healthy male subjects. Toleration (assessed by scores of subject-administered visual analog scale tests spanning 0 [good] to 10 [poor]), safety, pharmacokinetics, and serum motilin levels were m...

  19. Inhaled insulin: overview of a novel route of insulin administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy D Mastrandrea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lucy D MastrandreaDepartment of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by inadequate insulin secretion with resulting hyperglycemia. Diabetes complications include both microvascular and macrovascular disease, both of which are affected by optimal diabetes control. Many individuals with diabetes rely on subcutaneous insulin administration by injection or continuous infusion to control glucose levels. Novel routes of insulin administration are an area of interest in the diabetes field, given that insulin injection therapy is burdensome for many patients. This review will discuss pulmonary delivery of insulin via inhalation. The safety of inhaled insulin as well as the efficacy in comparison to subcutaneous insulin in the various populations with diabetes are covered. In addition, the experience and pitfalls that face the development and marketing of inhaled insulin are discussed.Keywords: glycemic control, hemoglobin A1c, inhalation, insulin, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes

  20. Image of Interest: Complications of intraosseous infusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Pande, Ketan; Mamman, Kylath George

    2011-01-01

    A 5-month-old child was admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with status epilepticus and cardio-respiratory arrest. Due to difficulty with obtaining intravenous access, an intraosseous infusion was started in the left proximal tibia. This was discontinued after two days. On examination there was swelling of the left leg with minimal redness. The site of infusion did not show any abnormality. A radiograph of the left leg performed on the ninth day did not reveal any abnormalities. A ...

  1. Immunoglobulin replacement treatment by rapid subcutaneous infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, J.; Gerritsen, B.; Jones, A.

    1998-01-01

    Long term intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion is an effective treatment for children with immunodeficiencies, but can be complicated by poor venous access, systemic adverse reactions, and the need for frequent hospital admission. Rapid subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) infusion has been found to be effective in adults with primary immunodeficiency. Twenty six children were treated with SCIG for a median period of two years (range six months to 3.5 years). Fifteen ...

  2. Nutritional education and carbohydrate counting in children with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: the effects on dietary habits, body composition and glycometabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigliano, Marco; Morandi, Anita; Maschio, Maddalena; Sabbion, Alberto; Contreas, Giovanna; Tomasselli, Francesca; Tommasi, Mara; Maffeis, Claudio

    2013-12-01

    Carbohydrate counting (CHC) in combination with nutritional education has been used to optimize the insulin dose in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to test the impact of CHC and nutritional education on changes in dietary habits, body composition and body fat distribution in children with T1D treated with insulin pumps (CSII). Twenty-five children with T1D and CSII were recruited and valuated at baseline and after 18 months of follow-up. They were trained in CHC and following standard nutrition education program (based on American Diabetes Association and International Society of Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes guidelines); clinical, biochemical and nutritional variables were measured. In the total population, body composition, body fat distribution and biochemical variables did not change, at follow-up; HbA1c was significantly reduced (8.50 ± 0.77 vs 7.92 ± 0.74 %; p < 0.001) without changing insulin/kg/day requirement. In the sub-group of patients with a significant HbA1c reduction (?HbA1c ? 0.5 %, n = 12), the carbohydrate (CHO) intake was significantly higher at follow-up (53.0 ± 4.0 vs 57.6 ± 2.5 %; p < 0.01); on the contrary, fat (31.3 ± 3.6 vs 28.5 ± 1.6 %; p < 0.05) and protein intake (15.4 ± 1.8 vs 13.3 ± 1.6 %; p < 0.01) significantly decreased. Patients without a significant HbA1c reduction did not show any difference. CHC, in combination with nutritional education, does not affect dietary habits, body composition and body fat distribution in children with T1D treated with CSII. Moreover, the sub-group of subjects showing a significant improvement in glycometabolic control reported an increase in CHO intake and a reduction in fat and protein intake. PMID:23778883

  3. Quality of life in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple daily injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebæk, Niels; Kristensen, Lene Juel

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of the study were to compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a National Danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with either continuous subcutaneous insulin injection (CSII) or multiple daily insulin injections (MDI), and to investigate whether HRQoL assessments were influenced by treatment duration. METHODS: Participants were recruited through the Danish Registry for Diabetes in Childhood and Adolescence. A total of 700 children and adolescents (360 girls), 8-17 years, were included. Of these, 295 were treated with CSII (160 for more than one year) and 405 with MDI (238 for more than one year). Participants and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Diabetes and Generic Module. HbA1c was analyzed centrally. RESULTS: Parents reported children and adolescents on CSII for more than one year to have less diabetes-related symptoms and worry, less problems in communicating diabetes, and better generic functioning compared with those on MDI. Children and adolescents on CSII for more than one year reported less diabetes-related symptoms, but more treatment problems, and better generic functioning in all subscales except social functioning compared with those on MDI for more than one year. Comparing those on CSII and MDI for less than one year, no differences in HRQoL ratings were found, apart from better rating of treatment barriers in the MDI group. CONCLUSIONS: This Danish national study on HRQoL in children and adolescents on CSII or MDI showed better HRQoL in children and adolescents on long time CSII, particularly concerning generic HRQoL.

  4. Studies on the distribution of radioactivity in the organism during constant intravenous infusion of tracer amino acids and on the calculation of the rate of tissue protein synthesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male wistar rats (100 p body weight) were infused into the tail vein with 14C-leucine and 14C-lysine simultaneously for 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.5; 6.0 and 7.0 hours. At the end of the infusion the specific radioactivity was determined of the free leucine and lysine in the blood plasma, liver, M. gastrocnemius, small intestine, and colon as well as of the protein-bound leucine and lysine. In all the tissues tested the specific radioactivity of the free amino acids attained a plateau during the 6-hour and 7-hour infusions. The rate constants for the increase were calculated for each organ tested. The two amino acids used are suitable for calculating the fractional rate of protein synthesis in tissues. The values of the fractional rate of protein synthesis calculated on the basis of the 6-hour and 7-hour infusions were: 54+-7.7%/day for the liver, 9.4+-1.2%/day for the muscles, 89+-12.2%/day for the small intestine, and 42+-5.9%/day for the colon. The simultaneous application of two tracer amino acids is recommendable for estimating the precursor pool of the protein synthesis and the more accurate calculation of the rate of protein synthesis. (author)

  5. Pharmacokinetics of morphine infusion in premature neonates.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, R.; Green, M.; Quinn, M.; Levene, M. I.

    1993-01-01

    Morphine pharmacokinetics were studied in 17 premature neonates (26-34 weeks' gestation) after intravenous infusion during the first 24 hours of life. Infants received either standard dose morphine that comprised of a 100 micrograms/kg/hour loading infusion for 2 hours followed by a maintenance infusion of 12.5 micrograms/kg/hour, or a high dose of 200 micrograms/kg/hour for 2 hours followed by 50 micrograms/kg/hour. Mean plasma concentrations of morphine (SD) after 2 and 24 hours were 99 (12...

  6. Krypton 81m infusion studies. Chapter 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is described to give a continuous, constant-rate, intravascular infusion of 81Krsup(m). Modifications of earlier generators included production of sodium-free 81Rb, the use of a solution of commercial sterile isotonic non-ionic 5% dextrose-in-water as an eluant, the incorporation of a constant-rate infusion pump, and the miniaturization of the generator column and catheter system. Results are presented of studies of 81Krsup(m) distribution in dogs, using both intravenous and intra-arterial infusion. (author)

  7. In vivo characterization of insulin uptake by dog renal cortical epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo 125I-labeled insulin uptake by dog renal tubular epithelium was studied using the single-pass multiple indicator dilution (MID) method and analyzed by a computer-assisted model of transcapillary exchange and substrate-cell interaction. Anesthetized dogs received an intrarenal arterial bolus of multiple tracers: [3H]dextran greater than 70 kDa (plasma reference), [14C]inulin (extracellular reference), and 125I-insulin. Rapid serial sampling of the renal venous and urine outflows was performed. The renal venous outflow curves of 125I-insulin fell below [14C]inulin implying postglomerular extraction and antiluminal membrane (ALM) uptake. The fractional urine recovery of 125I-insulin was less than 0.03, indicating luminal tubular uptake of filtered hormone. After intravenous infusion of unlabeled insulin, repeat MID runs with tracer revealed saturable ALM uptake as evidenced by the 125I-insulin renal venous outflow curves approaching [14C]inulin. Luminal tubular uptake was unchanged and therefore unsaturable. The 125I-insulin renal venous data were studied using three mathematical models, incorporating postglomerular reversible binding, irreversible binding or transport. The best fit was obtained using the transport model. The modeling analysis is consistent with either uptake into a virtual epithelial membrane space (i.e., insulin never enters the cell but binds to or is distributed along the ALM) or insulin actually enters the intracellular compartment. In vivo rs the intracellular compartment. In vivo uptake of 125I-insulin ALM is characterized by a Km of 15.44 nM

  8. Reações infusionais imediatas a agentes imunobiológicos endovenosos no tratamento de doenças autoimunes: experiência de 2.126 procedimentos em um centro de infusão não oncológico / Immediate infusional reactions to intravenous immunobiological agents for the treatment of autoimmune diseases: experience of 2126 procedures in a non-oncologic infusion centre

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ingrid Bandeira, Moss; Monique Bandeira, Moss; Debora Silva dos, Reis; Reno Martins, Coelho.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Com o crescimento do uso de drogas imunobiológicas (IBD) ampliamos o conhecimento sobre sua eficácia e segurança. Objetivo: Analisar as reações infusionais imediatas (RII) às IBD endovenosas - infliximabe (IFX), rituximabe (RTX), abatacepte (ABT) e tocilizumabe (TCZ) - no tratamento [...] de doenças autoimunes. Método: Avaliamos 2.126 infusões feitas no CID (Centro de Infusão) em 268 pacientes. A droga usada, a indicação clínica, o tempo de infusão e o uso de pré-medicação foram determinados pelo médico prescritor. Foram consideradas RII todas as intercorrências apresentadas durante a infusão e/ou período observacional de 30 minutos. A conduta adotada nas RII seguiu os protocolos do CID. Resultados: Em relação ao tipo de IBD, as infusões foram distribuídas em: IFX (1.584; 74,5%), TCZ (226; 10,63%), RTX (185; 8,7%) e ABT (131; 6,16%). As RII foram descritas em 87 procedimentos (4,09%): 77 no grupo IFX e 10 no grupo RTX. Não foram descritas RII nos grupos de ABT e TCZ. A maioria foi considerada leve (n = 5; 41,17%) ou moderada (n = 50; 58,81%) e não houve reações graves. Das infusões interrompidas, 79 (92,9%) foram reiniciadas e concluídas com êxito. Apenas seis (0,28%) não foram concluídas por causa das RII. Conclusão: Apesar da diferença entre o número de procedimentos por droga, trata-se de uma análise de "vida real", na qual a incidência de RII foi semelhante à descrita na literatura. A baixa incidência de RII corrobora os dados de segurança tanto de forma quantitativa como qualitativa e ressalta a importância do acompanhamento médico especializado durante a infusão. Abstract in english Introduction: With the increasing use of immunobiological drugs (IBD), the knowledge about their effectiveness and safety has increased. Objective: To analyze the immediate infusional reactions (IIR) to intravenous IBD: infliximab (IFX), rituximab (RTX), abatacept (ABT) and tocilizumab (TCZ) on [...] the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Method: 2126 infusions performed in the Infusion Centre - CID in 268 patients were analyzed. The used drug, its clinical indication, infusion time, and use of premedication were determined by the prescribing physician. All intercurrences presented during infusion and/or during a thirty minutes observation period were considered as IIR. The approach adopted in IIR followed the protocols of the Infusion Centre - CID. Results: Regarding the type of IBD, the infused drugs given were: IFX (1584, 74.5%), TCZ (226, 10.63%), RTX (185, 8.7%) and ABT (131, 6,16%). IIR were described in 87 procedures (9.4%): 77 - IFX group and 10 - RTX group. IIR were not described in ABT and TCZ groups. Most were considered as mild (n = 5; 41.17%) or moderate (n = 50, 58.81%) reactions; there were no serious reactions. Regarding to discontinue infusions, 79 (92.9%) were resumed and completed successfully. Only six (0.28% of infusions) were not completed because of IIR. Conclusion: Despite the differences between the number of procedures per drug, ours is a "real life" analysis, where the incidence of IIR was similar to that described in the literature. The low incidence of IIR corroborates the safety data, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and underscores the importance of specialized medical support during infusion.

  9. The effect of glucagon on infusion cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment has been made of the effects of glucagon on biliary tract opacification during intravenous cholangiography. Two series of infusion cholangiograms were obtained at two investigating centres designated A and B. In series A, 41 patients had ioglycamide infusions at a rate of 0.2833 g min-1 over 1 h. In series B, 31 patients had ioglycamide infusions at a rate of 0.3886 g min-1 over 30 min. Radiographs were taken in both series immediately at the end of the infusion, 10 min later and 30 min after the infusion. Two mg of intravenous glucagon was injected into alternate cases in both series A and B immediately after the first radiograph was taken at the completion of the ioglycamide infusion. Two observers in each series then assessed the radiographic opacification of the biliary system without prior knowledge of which patients had received the glucagon. Delineation of the biliary system was considered better in both series in those patients who received glucagon when compared with the controls. Gallbladder opacification was definitely increased in series A in those receiving glucagon, and a similar tendency was shown in series B. The amount of contrast in the upper intestine was increased in series A in the glucagon group, but not in series B. It is concluded that glucagon improves visualisation of the biliary tract, especially the gallbladder at infusion cholangiography. (author)

  10. Insulin dose response studies in severely insulin resistant type 2 diabetes - evidence for effectiveness of very high insulin doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Ulla Kampmann; Hoeyem, P

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To combat diabetic complications strict glycaemic control is desirable in type 2 diabetes, but some patients are severely insulin resistant and it is not known whether high doses of insulin are effective. This study was designed to determine the acute dose response effects of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe insulin resistance. Materials and Methods: We included 8 insulin resistant (mean insulin dose: 186 IU/d. BMI: 35) subjects with type 2 diabetes in a single-blinded, randomised crossover study. Each subject was studied on two occasions. On each occasion subjects underwent two 3-h hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamps. The subjects were randomised to two low-dose insulin infusions (0.5 and 1.5 mU/kg/min in random order) on one occasion and to two high-dose insulin infusions (3.0 and 5.0 mU/kg/min in random order) on another occasion. Results: On all occasions steady state glucose infusion rates (GIR) were accomplished and we observed a clear dose response relation with GIR values of 0.4 ±0.2 (SE), 2.6 ±0.6, 3.7 ±0.8, and 4.9 ±0.9 mg/kg/min during the 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mU/kg/min insulin infusions, respectively(P 800 IU/d, suggesting effectiveness of very high insulin doses in severely insulin resistant subjects.

  11. Rapid Self-infusion of Tap Water

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Chaudhary; Kianoush Kashani; Williams, Amy W.; El-zoghby, Ziad M.; Albright, Robert C.; Qi Qian

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous self-infusion of tap water has never been reported in the literature.  We present a 24-year-old healthy man who self-administered 2.5 L of tap water over 2 hours and developed acute illness including fever, change of mental status, acute hemolysis, low-grade disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute kidney injury.  

  12. Biological activity of C-peptide on the skin microcirculation in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Forst, T.; T. Kunt; Pohlmann, T.; Goitom, K; Engelbach, M; Beyer, J.; Pfützner, A.

    1998-01-01

    19 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients participated in a randomized double-blind crossover investigation to investigate the impact of human C-peptide on skin microvascular blood flow. The investigation was also carried out with 10 healthy volunteers. Blood pressure, heart rate, blood sugar, and C-peptide levels were monitored during a 60-min intravenous infusion period of C-peptide (8 pmol kg-1 min-1) or saline solution (154 mmol liter-1 NaCl), and 30 min after stopping the in...

  13. Intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 normalizes blood glucose after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Weyhe, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for a poor outcome after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes. Intensive insulin treatment aiming at normoglycemia can markedly improve the survival of critically ill patients, but the broad clinical application is limited by its practicability and the risk of hypoglycemia. Therefore, the glucose-lowering effect of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes after major surgery. DESIGN: Randomised clinical study. SETTING: A surgical unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Eight patients with type 2 diabetes (five men, three women; age, 49+/-15 yrs; body mass index, 28+/-3 kg/m; glycosylated hemoglobin, 8.0%+/-1.9%), who had undergone major surgical procedures, were studied between the second and the eighth postoperative day with the intravenous administration of GLP-1 (1.2 pmol x kg x min) and placebo over 8 hrs, each administered in randomized order in the fasting state. C-reactive protein concentrations of 4.9+/-4.2 mg/dL indicated a systemic inflammation. Blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and GLP-1 (specific immunoassays). Statistics were done with repeated-measures analysis of variance and Duncan's post hoc tests. MAIN RESULTS: During the intravenous infusion of GLP-1, plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lowered, reaching the normoglycemic fasting glucose range within 150 mins, but they remained elevated during placebo infusion (p <.001). The GLP-1 infusion led to a significant increase of insulin secretion (p <.001 for insulin and C-peptide) and a suppression of glucagon secretion (p =.041). No hypoglycemic events were recorded during the experiments. CONCLUSIONS: As far as can be concluded on the basis of our data with the infusion of GLP-1 over 8 hrs in eight patients, GLP-1 can be used to reduce glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes after major surgery.

  14. Avaliação da efetividade e segurança do protocolo de infusão de insulina de Yale para o controle glicêmico intensivo Assessment of effectiveness and safety of Yale insulin infusion protocol in a brazilian medical and surgical Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Carvalho Diener

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O controle glicêmico intensivo ocupa lugar de destaque no manuseio dos pacientes críticos. O objetivo desde estudo foi avaliar a efetividade e a segurança do protocolo de insulinoterapia por via venosa de Yale nos pacientes críticos internados em unidade de terapia intensiva geral em hospital comunitário. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo e comparativo entre 2 coortes de pacientes críticos, antes e após a implantação do controle glicêmico intensivo. Os desfechos de interesse do estudo foram glicemia média durante o tratamento, tempo para atingir a faixa alvo de 80 a 140 mg/dL, percentual de glicemia dentro desta faixa e incidência de hipoglicemia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 112 pacientes, divididos em dois grupos. Sessenta pacientes constituíram o grupo controle (GC e 52 o grupo protocolo (GP. A glicemia média no GP foi de 131,2 ± 14,7 mg/dL versus 181,7 ± 36,1 mg/dL no GC. Os pacientes no GP alcançaram a faixa alvo mais rápido [mediana 7h (4 - 10h versus mediana 96h (46 - 278h] no GC. O percentual de glicemia dentro da faixa-alvo foi de 65% no GP e de 32% no GC. Não houve diferença estatística significativa na incidência de hipoglicemia grave; 4 pacientes no GP versus 2 pacientes no GC. CONCLUSÕES: O protocolo de insulinoterapia por via venosa contínua de Yale, mostrou-se efetivo e seguro para o manuseio do controle glicêmico em unidade de terapia intensiva que atende pacientes clínicos e cirúrgicos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Actually tight glycemic control is a major concern in critical care. The objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and safety of Yale insulin infusion protocol in a Brazilian medical and surgical intensive care unit. METHODS: Retrospective, before-after cohort study. Selected end-points were mean blood glucose levels, time-to-reach target range of 80 - 140 mg/dL, and percent of blood glucose in target range and hypoglycemia incidence. RESULTS: Were studied 112 patients: 60 in control group (CG and 52 in protocol group (PG. Bedside blood glucose was measured 5392 times for a mean value of 131.2 ± 14.7 mg/dL in the PG versus 2485 times for a mean value of 181.7 ± 36.1 mg/dL in the CG. Blood glucose values were in the target range 65% and 32% of the times, respectively for PG and CG groups (p < 0.001. The median time to reach glucose target range was 7 h (range 4 -10 h for PG and 96 hr (range 46 - 278 h for CG (p < 0.001. Incidence of severe hypoglycemia did not reach difference statistically significant: 4 patients in PG versus 2 patients in CG. CONCLUSIONS: Yale insulin infusion protocol was effective and safe to improve blood glucose control in a Brazilian medical and surgical intensive care unit.

  15. Incretins, insulin secretion and Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VilsbØll, Tina; Holst, Jens MØller

    2004-01-01

    When glucose is taken orally, insulin secretion is stimulated much more than it is when glucose is infused intravenously so as to result in similar glucose concentrations. This effect, which is called the incretin effect and is estimated to be responsible for 50 to 70% of the insulin response to glucose, is caused mainly by the two intestinal insulin-stimulating hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Their contributions have been confirmed in mimicry experiments, in experiments with antagonists of their actions, and in experiments where the genes encoding their receptors have been deleted. In patients with Type 2 diabetes, the incretin effect is either greatly impaired or absent, and it is assumed that this could contribute to the inability of these patients to adjust their insulin secretion to their needs. In studies of the mechanism of the impaired incretin effect in Type 2 diabetic patients, it has been found that the secretion of GIP is generally normal, whereas the secretion of GLP-1 is reduced, presumably as a consequence of the diabetic state. It might be of even greater importance that the effect of GLP-1 is preserved whereas the effect of GIP is severely impaired. The impaired GIP effect seems to have a genetic background, but could be aggravated by the diabetic state. The preserved effect of GLP-1 has inspired attempts to treat Type 2 diabetes with GLP-1 or analogues thereof, and intravenous GLP-1 administration has been shown to be able to near-normalize both fasting and postprandial glycaemic concentrations in the patients, perhaps because the treatment compensates for both the impaired secretion of GLP-1 and the impaired action of GIP. Several GLP-1 analogues are currently in clinical development and the reported results are, so far, encouraging.

  16. Rat insulin turnover in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas Perea, Xavier; Fernández López, José Antonio; Ardévol Grau, Anna; Adán Liébana, Cristina; Esteve Ràfols, Montserrat; Rafecas Jorba, Immaculada; Remesar Betlloch, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    1995-01-01

    Zucker lean and obese rats were injected under pentobarbital anesthesia with 125I-labeled insulin; at timed intervals from 30 to 120 sec, blood samples were extracted and used for the estimation of insulin levels by RIA. A group of rats from each series was maintained under a constant infusion of noradrenaline. For each insulin determination, a duplicate blood sample containing the same amount of insulin as that used in the RIA, but without the radioactive label, was used as a blank for insul...

  17. Monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats develop glucose intolerance and insulin resistance to peripheral glucose uptake

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.E., Hirata; I.S., Andrade; P., Vaskevicius; M.S., Dolnikoff.

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Different levels of insulin sensitivity have been described in several animal models of obesity as well as in humans. Monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese mice were considered not to be insulin resistant from data obtained in oral glucose tolerance tests. To reevaluate insulin resistance by the intraven [...] ous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and by the clamp technique, newborn male Wistar rats (N = 20) were injected 5 times, every other day, with 4 g/kg MSG (N = 10) or saline (control; N = 10) during the first 10 days of age. At 3 months, the IVGTT was performed by injecting glucose (0.75 g/kg) through the jugular vein into freely moving rats. During euglycemic clamping plasma insulin levels were increased by infusing 3 mU . kg-1 . min-1 of regular insulin until a steady-state plateau was achieved. The basal blood glucose concentration did not differ between the two experimental groups. After the glucose load, increased values of glycemia (P

  18. Review of pharmacokinetic models for target controlled infusions in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Kennedy Sivasubramaniam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous injection of anesthetic drugs dates back to the 17th Century when opium and chloral hydrate have been injected intravenously. It was not until the 1930s intravenous anesthesia became popular with the invention of barbiturates.Early intravenous anesthetic agents such as barbiturates were ideal for induction of anesthesia, but not suitable for maintenance of anesthesia. Most of these drugs accumulated significantly with increasing durations of infusion and also resulted in cardiorespiratory depression. The invention of propofol and shorter acting opioid analgesics such as remifentanil and alfentanil have revolutionized intravenous anesthesia. The rapid onset and offset of these drugs lends itself to being suitable agents for maintenance of anesthesia over prolonged periods of time. Detailed understanding of the pharmacokinetics of propofol and remifentanil, combined with technological advances in intravenous pumps capable of accurate delivery of drugs have resulted in great development of the field of total intravenous anesthesia and target controlled infusions. I would like to discuss, in this article, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic models behind these intravenous infusion pumps. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 417-423

  19. Pharmacokinetics of biosynthetic human insulin and characteristics of its effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottermann, P; Gyaram, H; Wahl, K; Ermler, R; Lebender, A

    1981-01-01

    In the last 2 years we have developed a new method for determining insulin biologic activity with the help of the glucose-controlled insulin infusion system (GCIIS). Primarily this closed-loop system infuses insulin. But to prevent hypoglycemia, it can in addition, infuse glucose below a certain blood glucose minimum. This effect is used to reproduce insulin biologic activity. After subcutaneous injection of the insulin to be tested in healthy persons (not in insulin-dependent diabetic subjects), the blood glucose level falls, and this is checked by the counterregulatory glucose delivery from the apparatus. The time and intensity of glucose delivery from the GCIIS reflect the insulin effect, so that each insulin manifests its own particular biologic activity. PMID:7011719

  20. Efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e analgésicos da cetamina por via epidural, por infusão intravenosa contínua ou pela associação de ambas, em cães submetidos à osteossíntese de fêmur Cardiorespiratory and analgesic effects of ketamine via epidural route, intravenous continuous infusion or association of both, in dogs submitted to femoral osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bonfim Carregaro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A cetamina tem demonstrado efeito analgésico em doses subanestésicas, além da manutenção da estabilidade dos parâmetros fisiológicos. O estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e a analgesia pós-operatória da cetamina administrada por via epidural, por infusão intravenosa contínua ou pela associação de ambas, em cães submetidos à osteossíntese de fêmur. Foram utilizadas 25 cadelas, hígidas, distribuídas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: CEP (2mg kg-1 de cetamina associada à lidocaína 2% via epidural, CIV (lidocaína 2% via epidural e 1mg kg-1 de cetamina IV seguido de infusão contínua IV com 100µg kg min-1 da mesma, CIVEP (2mg kg-1 de cetamina associada à lidocaína 2% via epidural e 1mg kg-1 de cetamina IV, seguido de infusão contínua IV com 100µg kg min-1 e CON (anestesia epidural com lidocaína 2%. Avaliaram-se FC, f, PAS, PAM, PAD, T°C, tempo de bloqueio motor e analgesia pós-operatória por meio de escala analógica visual. Houve elevação da FC no CIV e diminuição desse parâmetro no CEP. As pressões arteriais mantiveram-se dentro dos valores fisiológicos e não foram observadas diferenças na f e T°C. O tempo de duração do bloqueio anestésico foi potencializado nos grupos que receberam cetamina epidural, diferindo significativamente em relação ao controle. O tempo para a analgesia resgate não diferiu entre os grupos. Conclui-se que a administração de cetamina pela via epidural, por infusão contínua intravenosa ou pela associação de ambas promoveu estabilidade cardiorrespiratória no período transcirúrgico, porém não foi capaz de prolongar a duração da analgesia pós-operatória em cães submetidos à osteossíntese de fêmur.Ketamine has demonstrated analgesic effects in subanesthetic doses, besides the maintenance of stability of physiological parameters. The study aimed to evaluate the cardiorespiratory effects and the post operative analgesia of ketamine via epidural route, intravenous continuous infusion or association of both, in dogs submitted to femoral osteosynthesis. Twenty-five healthy bitches were randomly assigned to four groups: CEP (2mg kg-1 of ketamine associated with lidocaine 2% via epidural route, CIV (lidocaine 2% via epidural route and 1mg kg-1 of ketamine IV, followed by IV continuous infusion of 100µg kg min-1 of ketamine, CIVEP (epidural anesthesia identical to CEP and ketamine infusion as in CIV and CON (epidural anesthesia with lidocaine 2%. HR, RR, SAP, MAP, DAP and T°C, sensitive blockade time and post operative analgesia measured with visual analog scale were evaluated. There was an increase in HR in CIV and decrease of this parameter in CEP. Arterial pressures kept within physiological values and differences in RR and T°C were not observed. The anesthetic blockade time was augmented in the groups which received epidural ketamine, differing significantly in relation to the control. The time for rescue analgesia did not differ between the groups. It can be concluded the administration of ketamine via epidural route, intravenous continuous infusion or the association of both promoted cardiorespiratory stability during the operative period; however, it was not able to extend the duration of post operative analgesia in dogs submitted to femoral osteosynthesis.

  1. Efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e analgésicos da cetamina por via epidural, por infusão intravenosa contínua ou pela associação de ambas, em cães submetidos à osteossíntese de fêmur / Cardiorespiratory and analgesic effects of ketamine via epidural route, intravenous continuous infusion or association of both, in dogs submitted to femoral osteosynthesis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Bonfim, Carregaro; Gabrielle Coelho, Freitas; Jenifer de Santana, Marques; Thomas Alexander, Trein; Virgínia Heinze, Pohl; Fabiano Zanini, Salbego; Alceu Gaspar, Raiser.

    1583-15-01

    Full Text Available A cetamina tem demonstrado efeito analgésico em doses subanestésicas, além da manutenção da estabilidade dos parâmetros fisiológicos. O estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e a analgesia pós-operatória da cetamina administrada por via epidural, por infusão intravenosa contínua ou [...] pela associação de ambas, em cães submetidos à osteossíntese de fêmur. Foram utilizadas 25 cadelas, hígidas, distribuídas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: CEP (2mg kg-1 de cetamina associada à lidocaína 2% via epidural), CIV (lidocaína 2% via epidural e 1mg kg-1 de cetamina IV seguido de infusão contínua IV com 100µg kg min-1 da mesma), CIVEP (2mg kg-1 de cetamina associada à lidocaína 2% via epidural e 1mg kg-1 de cetamina IV, seguido de infusão contínua IV com 100µg kg min-1) e CON (anestesia epidural com lidocaína 2%). Avaliaram-se FC, f, PAS, PAM, PAD, T°C, tempo de bloqueio motor e analgesia pós-operatória por meio de escala analógica visual. Houve elevação da FC no CIV e diminuição desse parâmetro no CEP. As pressões arteriais mantiveram-se dentro dos valores fisiológicos e não foram observadas diferenças na f e T°C. O tempo de duração do bloqueio anestésico foi potencializado nos grupos que receberam cetamina epidural, diferindo significativamente em relação ao controle. O tempo para a analgesia resgate não diferiu entre os grupos. Conclui-se que a administração de cetamina pela via epidural, por infusão contínua intravenosa ou pela associação de ambas promoveu estabilidade cardiorrespiratória no período transcirúrgico, porém não foi capaz de prolongar a duração da analgesia pós-operatória em cães submetidos à osteossíntese de fêmur. Abstract in english Ketamine has demonstrated analgesic effects in subanesthetic doses, besides the maintenance of stability of physiological parameters. The study aimed to evaluate the cardiorespiratory effects and the post operative analgesia of ketamine via epidural route, intravenous continuous infusion or associat [...] ion of both, in dogs submitted to femoral osteosynthesis. Twenty-five healthy bitches were randomly assigned to four groups: CEP (2mg kg-1 of ketamine associated with lidocaine 2% via epidural route), CIV (lidocaine 2% via epidural route and 1mg kg-1 of ketamine IV, followed by IV continuous infusion of 100µg kg min-1 of ketamine), CIVEP (epidural anesthesia identical to CEP and ketamine infusion as in CIV) and CON (epidural anesthesia with lidocaine 2%). HR, RR, SAP, MAP, DAP and T°C, sensitive blockade time and post operative analgesia measured with visual analog scale were evaluated. There was an increase in HR in CIV and decrease of this parameter in CEP. Arterial pressures kept within physiological values and differences in RR and T°C were not observed. The anesthetic blockade time was augmented in the groups which received epidural ketamine, differing significantly in relation to the control. The time for rescue analgesia did not differ between the groups. It can be concluded the administration of ketamine via epidural route, intravenous continuous infusion or the association of both promoted cardiorespiratory stability during the operative period; however, it was not able to extend the duration of post operative analgesia in dogs submitted to femoral osteosynthesis.

  2. Similarity of insulin detemir pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability profiles in healthy caucasian and Japanese american subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhee, Stan S; Lyness, William H; Rojas, Patrick B; Leibowitz, Mark T; Zarotsky, Victoria; Jacobsen, Lisbeth V

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of insulin detemir in three ascending doses in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects. This was an open-label, single-center, parallel-group design evaluating 30 subjects (15 Japanese and 15 Caucasians). Subjects received a total of three subcutaneous injections (one injection per visit) of insulin detemir (0.19, 0.38, 0.75 U/kg [1 U = 24 nmol]) in ascending order. Following drug administration, subjects received intravenous glucose in 0.5-mg/kg/min increments every 30 minutes, followed by a constant rate of 2.0 mg/kg/min for up to 12 hours. For pharmacokinetic evaluations, serial blood sampling was performed over a period of 30 hours after dosing. Of the subjects, 36 were enrolled, and 30 completed the study. There was a linear dose-response relationship between the three ascending insulin detemir doses and serum insulin detemir AUC values for both the Japanese and Caucasian subjects. The two dose-response regression lines had equivalent slopes but slightly different intercepts (although not statistically significant). This difference may be due to variation in AUC, body weight differences, or chance. Six subjects discontinued the study, 2 as a result of adverse events (blood draw-related ecchymosis and hypoglycemia). The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE) were headache, dizziness, and reactions related to blood draws/infusion sites. All TEAEs were mild to moderate in severity. The results show that an increase in insulin detemir dose will result in a similar increase in insulin detemir concentration in the two ethnic groups. Therefore, therapeutic dosing of insulin detemir is expected to be similar in both ethnic groups, with no special dose adjustment or algorithm based on race. Insulin detemir at 0.19, 0.38, and 0.75 U/kg was generally well tolerated in both Japanese and Caucasian subjects. PMID:14973299

  3. Insulin Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insulin Pumps Advantages of Using an Insulin Pump Disadvantages of Using an Insulin Pump How Do Insulin ... Email: Sign Up Thank you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form').show(); }, success: function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('. ...

  4. Inhaled insulin: overview of a novel route of insulin administration

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy D. Mastrandrea

    2010-01-01

    Lucy D MastrandreaDepartment of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by inadequate insulin secretion with resulting hyperglycemia. Diabetes complications include both microvascular and macrovascular disease, both of which are affected by optimal diabetes control. Many individuals with diabetes rely on subcutaneous insulin administration by injection or continuous infusion to contro...

  5. Sodium-retaining effect of insulin in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Brands, Michael W.; Manhiani, M. Marlina

    2012-01-01

    Insulin has long been hypothesized to cause sodium retention, potentially of enough magnitude to contribute to hypertension in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and Type II diabetes. There is an abundance of supportive evidence from correlational analyses in humans, acute insulin infusion studies in humans and animals, and chronic insulin infusion studies in rats. However, the absence of hypertension in human insulinoma patients, and negative results for sodium-retaining or blood pressure effects ...

  6. Cost-Minimization Analysis Favours Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose over Ferric Sucrose for the Ambulatory Treatment of Severe Iron Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Calvet Calvo, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Intravenous iron is widely used to treat iron deficiency in day-care units. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) allows administration of larger iron doses than iron sucrose (IS) in each infusion (1000 mg vs. 200 mg). As FCM reduces the number of infusions required but is more expensive, we performed a cost-minimization analysis to compare the cost impact of the two drugs. Materials and Methods: The number of infusions and the iron dose of 111 consecutive patients who received intravenous i...

  7. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-escalation study to assess the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of single and multiple intravenous infusions of AZD9773 in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), an early mediator in the systemic inflammatory response to infection, is a potential therapeutic target in sepsis. The primary objective of this study was to determine the safety and tolerability of AZD9773, an ovine, polyclonal, anti-human TNF-? Fab preparation, in patients with severe sepsis. Secondary outcomes related to pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter Phase IIa study, patients were sequentially enrolled into five escalating-dose cohorts (single doses of 50 or 250 units/kg; multiple doses of 250 units/kg loading and 50 units/kg maintenance, 500 units/kg loading and 100 units/kg maintenance, or 750 units/kg loading and 250 units/kg maintenance). In each cohort, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive AZD9773 or placebo. Results Seventy patients received AZD9773 (n = 47) or placebo (n = 23). Baseline characteristics were similar across cohorts. Mean baseline APACHE score was 25.9. PK data demonstrated an approximately proportional increase in concentration with increasing dose and a terminal half-life of 20 hours. For the multiple-dose cohorts, serum TNF-? concentrations decreased to near-undetectable levels within two hours of commencing AZD9773 infusion. This suppression was maintained in most patients for the duration of treatment. AZD9773 was well tolerated. Most adverse events were of mild-to-moderate intensity and considered by the reporting investigator as unrelated to study treatment. Conclusions The safety, PK and PD data support the continued evaluation of AZD9773 in larger Phase IIb/III studies. PMID:22340283

  8. Estabilidad de parecoxib en dilución con otros fármacos y administración en perfusión continua IV para el control del dolor postoperatorio / Stability of parecoxib in dilution with other drugs and administered in continuous intravenous infusion for the management of postoperative pain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Acín; C., Bono; R., Martínez; A., Faci; E., Facorro; I., Manzanares; MªJ., Velamazán; Mª, Sanz; E., Pastor.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la estabilidad de parecoxib en un sistema de infusión continua elastomérica portátil IV para 24 horas, en dilución con opiáceos (cloruro mórfico, meperidina ó tramadol), antieméticos y suero fisiológico, durante las 24 horas del postoperatorio; así como, comprobar el resultado anal [...] gésico, la aparición de efectos secundarios y el grado de satisfacción de pacientes intervenidos de cirugía mayor susceptibles de tratamiento con dichos fármacos. Material y Métodos: El infusor es un dispositivo desechable y ligero con un depósito elastomérico para administrar medicación. Se realizaron varias pruebas mezclando parecoxib, opiáceos, antieméticos y suero fisiológico y se observó su estabilidad durante 24 horas. Procedimos a observar la mezcla en repetidas ocasiones y la dilución siempre permaneció estable, clara, sin partículas y transparente; por lo que se decidió utilizar dicha mezcla en el infusor IV para el tratamiento del dolor postoperatorio, siempre bajo la supervisión de un anestesiólogo. Se estudiaron un total de 118 pacientes, 46 mujeres (39%) y 72 hombres (61%), ASA I-IV, edad media 59,75 +/- 14,25 (18-89), 92 (78%) fueron intervenidos de cirugía general y 26 (22%) de urología. El llenado del infusor según ASA, edad y tipo de intervención del paciente, se realizó con: parecoxib 80 mg + metoclopramida Cl H 20 ó 30 mg + suero fisiológico en los 118 pacientes, se añadió cloruro mórfico en 65 pacientes, meperidina en 30 y tramadol en 23, a administrar en 24 horas tras la intervención quirúrgica. Se valoró la intensidad del dolor según EAV a la llegada a la Sala de Despertar y a las 24 horas, resultado analgésico, efectos secundarios y grado de satisfacción. Resultados: El resultado analgésico fue muy bueno en 60 pacientes (50,85%); bueno en 40 (33,90%); regular en 12 (10,17%) y suspendido el tratamiento en 6 (5%) por efectos secundarios. Los efectos secundarios aparecieron en 30 casos (25%): 4 con sudoración (3%), 1 con desorientación (0,8%) y 7 con somnolencia y mareo (6%) 3 de ellos con interrupción del tratamiento. En cuanto a las náuseas y/o vómitos: 18 pacientes necesitaron rescate antiemético, y en 3, hubo que suspender el tratamiento. El grado de satisfacción del paciente fue: muy satisfactorio en 56 pacientes (47,5%); satisfactorio en 46 (39%), deficiente en 10 (8,5%) y suspendido el tratamiento en 6 (5%) por efectos secundarios. Conclusiones: La posibilidad de utilizar parecoxib sólo o unido a otros fármacos en perfusión continua IV para el tratamiento del dolor agudo postoperatorio, es una opción a considerar. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the stability of parecoxib in a portable elasto-meric pump system for IV infusión in dilution with opioids (morphine chloride, pethidine or tramadol), antiemetics and saline solution during 24 hours in the postoperative period; as well as to verify the analgesic result, the in [...] cidence of side effects and the degree of satisfaction in patients undergoing major surgery that were eligible for treatment with these drugs. Material and Methods: The infuser pump is a light disposable device with an elas-tomeric deposit to administer the medication. Several tests combining parecoxib, opioids, antiemetics and saline solution were carried out and its stability was demonstrated during 24 hours. The mixture was then observed in several occasions and was shown that the dilution always remained stable, clear, with no particles and transparent; therefore it was decided to use that combination in the IV infuser for the treatment of postoperative pain, always under the anaesthesiologist supervisión. A total of 118 patients were studied, 46 women (39%) and 72 men studied (61%), ASA ITV, mean age 59.75 +/- 14.25 (18-89); 92 (78%) underwent general surgery procedures and 26 (22%) urologic ones. The filling of infuser according to ASA, age and type of surgery of the patient, was made with: parecoxib 80 mg + metoclopramide CL H 20 or 30 mg + saline solution for the 118 patients,

  9. Estabilidad de parecoxib en dilución con otros fármacos y administración en perfusión continua IV para el control del dolor postoperatorio Stability of parecoxib in dilution with other drugs and administered in continuous intravenous infusion for the management of postoperative pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Acín

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la estabilidad de parecoxib en un sistema de infusión continua elastomérica portátil IV para 24 horas, en dilución con opiáceos (cloruro mórfico, meperidina ó tramadol, antieméticos y suero fisiológico, durante las 24 horas del postoperatorio; así como, comprobar el resultado analgésico, la aparición de efectos secundarios y el grado de satisfacción de pacientes intervenidos de cirugía mayor susceptibles de tratamiento con dichos fármacos. Material y Métodos: El infusor es un dispositivo desechable y ligero con un depósito elastomérico para administrar medicación. Se realizaron varias pruebas mezclando parecoxib, opiáceos, antieméticos y suero fisiológico y se observó su estabilidad durante 24 horas. Procedimos a observar la mezcla en repetidas ocasiones y la dilución siempre permaneció estable, clara, sin partículas y transparente; por lo que se decidió utilizar dicha mezcla en el infusor IV para el tratamiento del dolor postoperatorio, siempre bajo la supervisión de un anestesiólogo. Se estudiaron un total de 118 pacientes, 46 mujeres (39% y 72 hombres (61%, ASA I-IV, edad media 59,75 +/- 14,25 (18-89, 92 (78% fueron intervenidos de cirugía general y 26 (22% de urología. El llenado del infusor según ASA, edad y tipo de intervención del paciente, se realizó con: parecoxib 80 mg + metoclopramida Cl H 20 ó 30 mg + suero fisiológico en los 118 pacientes, se añadió cloruro mórfico en 65 pacientes, meperidina en 30 y tramadol en 23, a administrar en 24 horas tras la intervención quirúrgica. Se valoró la intensidad del dolor según EAV a la llegada a la Sala de Despertar y a las 24 horas, resultado analgésico, efectos secundarios y grado de satisfacción. Resultados: El resultado analgésico fue muy bueno en 60 pacientes (50,85%; bueno en 40 (33,90%; regular en 12 (10,17% y suspendido el tratamiento en 6 (5% por efectos secundarios. Los efectos secundarios aparecieron en 30 casos (25%: 4 con sudoración (3%, 1 con desorientación (0,8% y 7 con somnolencia y mareo (6% 3 de ellos con interrupción del tratamiento. En cuanto a las náuseas y/o vómitos: 18 pacientes necesitaron rescate antiemético, y en 3, hubo que suspender el tratamiento. El grado de satisfacción del paciente fue: muy satisfactorio en 56 pacientes (47,5%; satisfactorio en 46 (39%, deficiente en 10 (8,5% y suspendido el tratamiento en 6 (5% por efectos secundarios. Conclusiones: La posibilidad de utilizar parecoxib sólo o unido a otros fármacos en perfusión continua IV para el tratamiento del dolor agudo postoperatorio, es una opción a considerar.Objective: To evaluate the stability of parecoxib in a portable elasto-meric pump system for IV infusión in dilution with opioids (morphine chloride, pethidine or tramadol, antiemetics and saline solution during 24 hours in the postoperative period; as well as to verify the analgesic result, the incidence of side effects and the degree of satisfaction in patients undergoing major surgery that were eligible for treatment with these drugs. Material and Methods: The infuser pump is a light disposable device with an elas-tomeric deposit to administer the medication. Several tests combining parecoxib, opioids, antiemetics and saline solution were carried out and its stability was demonstrated during 24 hours. The mixture was then observed in several occasions and was shown that the dilution always remained stable, clear, with no particles and transparent; therefore it was decided to use that combination in the IV infuser for the treatment of postoperative pain, always under the anaesthesiologist supervisión. A total of 118 patients were studied, 46 women (39% and 72 men studied (61%, ASA ITV, mean age 59.75 +/- 14.25 (18-89; 92 (78% underwent general surgery procedures and 26 (22% urologic ones. The filling of infuser according to ASA, age and type of surgery of the patient, was made with: parecoxib 80 mg + metoclopramide CL H 20 or 30 mg + saline solution for the 118 patients, morphine chloride was added in 65 patients, petidine in 30

  10. Domperidone treatment in man inhibits the fall in plasma renin activity induced by intravenous gamma-L-glutamyl-L-dopa.

    OpenAIRE

    Worth, D. P.; Harvey, J. N.; Brown, J.; Worral, A.; Lee, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    The dopamine pro-drug gamma-L-glutamyl-L-dopa (gludopa) was administered intravenously to six normal subjects at a dose of 12.5 micrograms min-1 kg-1, either with or without the dopamine antagonist domperidone. A control was provided by the intravenous infusion of domperidone and saline on a separate occasion. Intravenous gludopa produced a significant natriuresis, whether administered alone or in combination with domperidone. After gludopa infusion, there was a significant fall in plasma ren...

  11. Regulation of rat insulin receptor tyrosine kinase by hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbraccia, P; D'Adamo, M; Giaccari, A; Morviducci, L; Zorretta, D; Leonetti, F; Caiola, S; Buongiorno, A; Tamburrano, G

    1994-12-01

    To investigate the effect of hypoglycemia on the regulation of muscle-derived insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity, four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: two groups in which either insulin (4 mU/kg.min) or phloridzin (3 mg/kg.min) was infused to acutely reach hypoglycemia (mean, 3.2-3.5 mM); and two control groups in which either saline or phloridzin (3 mg/kg.min) was infused, while maintaining euglycemia. Plasma glucose was maintained constant for 40 min in the hypoglycemic group and for 60 min in the phloridzin-infused euglycemic groups by a variable glucose infusion. Insulin receptors were isolated under conditions designed to preserve their in vivo phosphorylation state, and their tyrosine kinase activity toward poly(Glu-Tyr) was measured in the absence and presence of in vitro exposure to insulin. Insulin infusion resulted in an enhanced in vivo tyrosine kinase activity. Surprising was the finding of a slight increase of the in vivo tyrosine kinase activity in the phloridzin-infused hypoglycemic rats. The in vitro insulin dose-response curves of tyrosine kinase activity showed no significant differences between insulin-infused and control rats. In contrast, there was a marked increase of the insulin-stimulated kinase activity in phloridzin-infused hypoglycemic rats; at 100 nM insulin, tyrosine kinase activity was 1.8-fold more responsive when compared with either insulin-infused rats or control groups. Moreover, in phloridzin-infused hypoglycemic rats, the half-maximal stimulation of tyrosine kinase activity was greater than 10-fold (0.36 +/- 0.01 nM) more sensitive to insulin than both insulin-infused (3.8 +/- 0.03 nM, mean +/- SE) and control groups (4.2 +/- 0.05 and 4.1 +/- 0.04 nM in saline- and phloridzin-infused euglycemic rats, respectively, mean +/- SE). In conclusion, hypoglycemia associated with low plasma insulin concentrations determines a hypersensitization of the intrinsic tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor. PMID:7988461

  12. Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckett SK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Susan K Duckett, Gabriela Volpi-Lagreca, Mariano Alende, Nathan M LongAnimal and Veterinary Sciences Department, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USAAbstract: Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9 acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (P<0.01 weight gain by 77%. Serum palmitoleic levels increased (P<0.05 in a linear manner with increasing levels of C16:1 infusion. Cis-11 vaccenic (C18:1 cis-11 acid, a known elongation product of palmitoleic acid, was also elevated (P<0.05 in serum after 14 days and 21 days of infusion. Plasma insulin levels were lower (P<0.05 (10 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 than controls (0 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 at 14 days and 28 days of infusion. Infusion of C16:1 resulted in linear increases in tissue concentrations of palmitoleic, cis-11 vaccenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids in a dose-dependent manner. Total lipid content of the semitendinosus (ST muscle and mesenteric adipose tissue was reduced (P<0.01 in both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose levels. Total lipid content and mean adipocyte size in the longissimus muscle was reduced (P<0.05 in the 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose level only, whereas total lipid content and adipocyte size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was not altered. Total lipid content of the liver was also unchanged with C16:1 infusion. Palmitoleic acid infusion upregulated (P<0.05 acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid elongase-6 (ELOVL6, and Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit, transcript variant 1 (AMPK mRNA expressions in liver, subcutaneous adipose, and ST muscle compared to the controls. However, mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (P<0.05 GLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were downregulated (P<0.05 in ST muscle with C16:1 infusion. These results show that C16:1 infusion for 28 days reduced weight gain, intramuscular adipocyte size and total lipid content, and circulating insulin levels. These changes appear to be mediated through alterations in expression of genes regulating glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation specifically in the muscles.Keywords: adipocytes, longissimus muscle, lipogenesis, insulin level, serum, fatty acid

  13. Effect of insulin on renal calcium transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author has investigated both the indirect effect of insulin parathyroid hormone (PTH) activity, and the direct effect of insulin on renal calcium transport. The indirect study was performed by comparing calcium excretion in sham-operated and parathyroidectomized rats infused with the insulin secretagogue, arginine. Arginine infusion increased urinary calcium excretion in both groups. Therefore, it is concluded that neither PTH activity nor secretion is involved in this response. The direct effects of insulin were investigated by exposing rat kidney slices in vitro to varying concentrations of insulin and performing a kinetic analysis to interpret insulin's effect on calcium transport through cellular compartments. Steady state calcium transport through the plasma membrane, cytosol and mitochondria were compared in the presence and absence of insulin. Insulin had no effect on any calcium pool size or exchange rate. The direct effect of insulin was also studied in an acute experiment, which simulates conditions where insulin levels are raised rapidly as in the case with protein or glucose consumption. Under these conditions insulin treatment caused a rapid, but transient increase in 45Ca efflux from rat kidney slices. This pattern is usually indicative of a stimulation of calcium efflux across the plasma membrane. Finally, insulin caused a slight decrease in slice chemical calcium concentration

  14. Neonatal diabetes and insulin pump therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsall, Kathryn; Pesterfield, Claire L; Acerini, Carlo L

    2011-05-01

    The need for delivery of small doses of insulin, together with unpredictable feeding patterns and frequent changes in nutrient intake, makes the management of neonatal diabetes challenging. The availability of continuous glucose monitoring systems in combination with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps provides an opportunity to monitor glucose levels more closely and deliver insulin more safely. We report on a preterm infant with neonatal diabetes who had profound hypoglycaemia in response to bolus subcutaneous insulin therapy, but in whom we used the combination of continuous glucose monitoring and insulin pump therapy to manage glucose control in the neonatal period, and who was discharged home on pump therapy. PMID:21115555

  15. Protein Ingestion Induces Muscle Insulin Resistance Independent of Leucine-Mediated mTOR Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon I; Yoshino, Jun; Stromsdorfer, Kelly L; Klein, Seth J; Magkos, Faidon; Reeds, Dominic N; Klein, Samuel; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2015-05-01

    Increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, and intravenous amino acid infusion blunts insulin-mediated glucose disposal. We tested the hypothesis that protein ingestion impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal by leucine-mediated mTOR signaling, which can inhibit AKT. We measured glucose disposal and muscle p-mTOR(Ser2448), p-AKT(Ser473), and p-AKT(Thr308) in 22 women during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure with and without concomitant ingestion of whey protein (0.6 g/kg fat-free mass; n = 11) or leucine that matched the amount given with whey protein (n = 11). Both whey protein and leucine ingestion raised plasma leucine concentration by approximately twofold and muscle p-mTOR(Ser2448) by ?30% above the values observed in the control (no amino acid ingestion) studies; p-AKT(Ser473) and p-AKT(Thr308) were not affected by whey protein or leucine ingestion. Whey protein ingestion decreased insulin-mediated glucose disposal (median 38.8 [quartiles 30.8, 61.8] vs. 51.9 [41.0, 77.3] µmol glucose/µU insulin · mL(-1) · min(-1); P leucine did not (52.3 [43.3, 65.4] vs. 52.3 [43.9, 73.2]). These results indicate that 1) protein ingestion causes insulin resistance and could be an important regulator of postprandial glucose homeostasis and 2) the insulin-desensitizing effect of protein ingestion is not due to inhibition of AKT by leucine-mediated mTOR signaling. PMID:25475435

  16. Epinephrine-induced Insulin Resistance in Man

    OpenAIRE

    Deibert, David C.; Defronzo, Ralph A.

    1980-01-01

    Endogenous release of epinephrine after stress as well as exogenous epinephrine infusion are known to result in impaired glucose tolerance. Previous studies of man and animals have demonstrated that this effect of epinephrine results from inhibition of insulin secretion and augmentation of hepatic glucose production. However, the effect of epinephrine on tissue sensitivity to insulin, and the relative contributions of peripheral vs. hepatic resistance to impaired insulin action, have not been...

  17. Heparina e insulina en el tratamiento de la pancreatitis aguda por hipertrigliceridemia: Experiencia en 5 casos Heparin and/or insulin treatment of acute pancreatitis caused by hypertriglyceridemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Berger F

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertriglyceridemia over 1,000 mg/dl can provoke acute pancreatitis and its persistence can worsen the clinical outcome. On the contrary, a rapid decrease in triglyceride level is beneficial. Plasmapheresis has been performed in some patients to remove chylomicrons from the circulation, while heparin and/or insulin have been administered in some other cases to rapidly reduce blood triglycerides. Heparin and insulin stimulate lipoprotein-lipase activity and accelerate chylomicron degradation. Aim: To report five patients with acute pancreatitis treated with heparin and insulin. Patients and methods: Five patients (4 females and 1 male seen in the last two years, who suffered acute pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia are reported. Initial blood triglyceride levels were above 1,000 mg/dl (range 1,590-8,690 mg/dl. Besides the usual treatment of acute pancreatitis, heparin and/or insulin were administered intravenously in continuous infusion. Heparin dose was guided by usual parameters of blood coagulation, and insulin dose, by serial determinations of blood glucose. Pancreatic necrosis was demonstrated in 4 patients. Results: Serum triglyceride levels decreased to <500 mg/dl within 3 days in all cases. No complication of treatment was observed and all patients survived. Early and late complications of pancreatitis occurred in one patient. Conclusion: Administration of heparin and/or insulin is an efficient alternative to reduce triglyceride levels in patients with acute pancreatitis and hypertriglyceridemia (Rev Méd Chile 2001; 129: 1373-8

  18. [Clinical evaluation of insulin measuring kit not cross-react with insulin analogue preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Minoru; Shimajiri, Yoshinori; Morita, Shuhei; Yamana, Akiko; Furuta, Machi; Sanke, Tokio

    2011-07-01

    Clinical evaluation of insulin assay system reacting with only human insulin molecule (kit B) was performed by comparing it with conventional insulin assay system (kit A) cross-reacting with insulin analogue as well as human insulin preparation. In vitro, the kit B was confirmed to cross-react with only human insulin, not with insulin analogue preparations such as insulin aspart, lyspro and glargine. In non-insulin treated diabetic patients, postprandial and post-insulin injected serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI) concentrations measured by kit B were almost the same as those measured by the kit A. On the other hand, in diabetic patients treated with insulin analogue preparations, postprandial and post-insulin injected serum IRI levels measured by kit B were obviously low compared with those by kit A. After intravenous injection of insulin analogue preparations (0.1 unit/kg), insulin lyspro or insulin aspart, serum IRI levels measured by the kit B were not increased but gradually decreased in contrast to the obviously increased serum IRI level measured by the kit A. From these results, the kit B was confirmed not to measure the insulin analogue preparations in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21874792

  19. Current use of intraosseous infusion in Danish emergency departments: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Rune; Hallas, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Intraosseous infusion (IOI) is recommended when intravenous access cannot be readily established in both pediatric and adult resuscitation. We evaluated the current use of IOI in Danish emergency departments (EDs).

  20. Local Antagonism of Intertrigeminal Region Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Exacerbates Apneic Responses to Intravenous Serotonin

    OpenAIRE

    Stoiljkovic, Milan; Radulovacki, Miodrag; Carley, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Injections of a broad spectrum glutamate receptor antagonist into the pontine intertrigeminal region (ITR) exacerbate vagal reflex apnea produced by intravenous serotonin infusion. This effect is not reproduced by ITR injections with either NMDA or AMPA receptor antagonists. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ITR injection with a metabotropic glutamate antagonist would alter respiratory responses to serotonin (5-HT) intravenous infusions. In anesthetized adult male rats (N = 20; Sprague-Dawl...

  1. Intravenous Lidocaine for Refractory Chronic Orofacial Pain: Two case reports and a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Almahrezi, Abdulaziz; Lamb, Louise; Ware, Mark A.; Shir, Yoram; Al-zakwani, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of treatment of two adults, at the Pain Center of Montreal General Hospital, Canada, with intravenous lidocaine for intractable orofacial pain. Repeated lidocaine infusions (1mg/kg in a bolus, followed by 4mg/kg infused over 1 hour) resulted in satisfactory pain relief in both patients, and the drug was well tolerated. Intravenous lidocaine therapy may be considered for intractable orofacial pain; further research is warranted.

  2. Selecting infusion devices for use in ambulatory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleis, T G; Tice, A D

    1996-04-15

    Intravenous infusion devices commonly used in home care and ambulatory care settings are reviewed and factors to consider in selecting a device are suggested. The type of therapy to be administered, the patient or caregiver's ability to understand and carry out instructions, staff time required for patient teaching and drug and device preparation, drug stability, frequency of doses, reservoir volume, control of flow rate, type of venous access, cost and availability of devices and supplies, and reimbursement should be considered. Cost-effectiveness of a device can be evaluated only by analyzing all of the costs associated with administering a medication. Decisions must be based on an individual agency's needs, but usually one type of single-dose infuser and one brand of electronic ambulatory-care infusion pump can meet the needs of most of an agency's patients. For patients self-administering up to four doses per day, appropriate methods may include slow intravenous injection (i.v. push), infusion from minibags and tubing, and the use of elastomeric infusers, electronic or mechanical syringe pumps, or a new device based on infusion across a bioelectric membrane. Some of these types of infusers can also be used for continuous infusion. Syringe pumps are reliable and affordable and control infusion rates well, but infusion volume is limited and these devices must be recovered, cleaned, and tested between patients. Although elastomeric pumps may have higher price tags than other devices, they are simple for patients to use and dispose of. While elastomeric devices have tubing permanently attached, the disposable tubing of some other devices is detachable and can be reused if institutional policy permits. Electronic ambulatory-care infusion pumps can meet a wide range of infusion requirements. They vary in size, weight, ability to detect occlusions, features, and reliability. All use proprietary infusion sets, but the costs of sets and disposable supplies vary. Some pumps can be used for a single infusion mode, such as patient-controlled analgesia (PCA); others offer two or more modes (for example, continuous, intermittent, and PCA). "Multichannel" pumps can be used for simultaneous infusion of up to four medications; the rate of each infusion is programmed separately, and some multichannel devices offer multiple infusion modes. Some can be programmed remotely by telephone. Before an agency decides on a pump, it can investigate current users' and rental firms' experiences with the device. Also, all relevant personnel should try programming the device. Determining which devices to use requires a comparison of features that are pertinent to the particular agency or institution and a cost analysis that considers acquisition, reimbursement, patient training time, and the cost of disposable supplies. PMID:8728384

  3. Pulsatile Portal Vein Insulin Delivery Enhances Hepatic Insulin Action and Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveyenko, Aleksey V.; Liuwantara, David; Gurlo, Tatyana; Kirakossian, David; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; White, Morris F.; Copps, Kyle D.; Volpi, Elena; Fujita, Satoshi; Butler, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin is secreted as discrete insulin secretory bursts at ?5-min intervals into the hepatic portal vein, these pulses being attenuated early in the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Intraportal insulin infusions (pulsatile, constant, or reproducing that in T2DM) indicated that the pattern of pulsatile insulin secretion delivered via the portal vein is important for hepatic insulin action and, therefore, presumably for hepatic insulin signaling. To test this, we examined hepatic insulin signaling in rat livers exposed to the same three patterns of portal vein insulin delivery by use of sequential liver biopsies in anesthetized rats. Intraportal delivery of insulin in a constant versus pulsatile pattern led to delayed and impaired activation of hepatic insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 signaling, impaired activation of downstream insulin signaling effector molecules AKT and Foxo1, and decreased expression of glucokinase (Gck). We further established that hepatic Gck expression is decreased in the HIP rat model of T2DM, a defect that correlated with a progressive defect of pulsatile insulin secretion. We conclude that the physiological pulsatile pattern of insulin delivery is important in hepatic insulin signaling and glycemic control. Hepatic insulin resistance in diabetes is likely in part due to impaired pulsatile insulin secretion. PMID:22688333

  4. Intravenous Vaiproate Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nilesh; Shenoy, Sujit; Gawde, Pradnya

    2003-01-01

    Four cases of acute manic episode (bipolar-l disorder), not responding to oral valproate or other mood stabilizer and neuroleptics were given injection valproate intravenously. Three out of 4 patients showed good response and tolerance to intravenous valporate.

  5. Monosodium glutamate (MSG-obese rats develop glucose intolerance and insulin resistance to peripheral glucose uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirata A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Different levels of insulin sensitivity have been described in several animal models of obesity as well as in humans. Monosodium glutamate (MSG-obese mice were considered not to be insulin resistant from data obtained in oral glucose tolerance tests. To reevaluate insulin resistance by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT and by the clamp technique, newborn male Wistar rats (N = 20 were injected 5 times, every other day, with 4 g/kg MSG (N = 10 or saline (control; N = 10 during the first 10 days of age. At 3 months, the IVGTT was performed by injecting glucose (0.75 g/kg through the jugular vein into freely moving rats. During euglycemic clamping plasma insulin levels were increased by infusing 3 mU . kg-1 . min-1 of regular insulin until a steady-state plateau was achieved. The basal blood glucose concentration did not differ between the two experimental groups. After the glucose load, increased values of glycemia (P<0.001 in MSG-obese rats occurred at minute 4 and from minute 16 to minute 32. These results indicate impaired glucose tolerance. Basal plasma insulin levels were 39.9 ± 4 µU/ml in control and 66.4 ± 5.3 µU/ml in MSG-obese rats. The mean post-glucose area increase of insulin was 111% higher in MSG-obese than in control rats. When insulinemia was clamped at 102 or 133 µU/ml in control and MSG rats, respectively, the corresponding glucose infusion rate necessary to maintain euglycemia was 17.3 ± 0.8 mg . kg-1 . min-1 for control rats while 2.1 ± 0.3 mg . kg-1 . min-1 was sufficient for MSG-obese rats. The 2-h integrated area for total glucose metabolized, in mg . min . dl-1, was 13.7 ± 2.3 vs 3.3 ± 0.5 for control and MSG rats, respectively. These data demonstrate that MSG-obese rats develop insulin resistance to peripheral glucose uptake

  6. Safety recommendations for administering intravenous prostacyclins in the hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingman, Martha S; Chin, Kelly

    2013-10-01

    Prostacyclins are a high-risk category of continuous intravenous infusions increasingly used in hospitals to treat advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension, a rare condition characterized by vasoconstriction and vascular proliferation of the pulmonary arteries. Prostacyclins are given in doses of nanograms per kilogram per minute and have a narrow therapeutic dosing range for each patient. Sudden increases or decreases in dose can be life threatening. Previous studies revealed errors in the administration of these high-risk infusions, which in some instances led to serious adverse events, including death. The literature was reviewed for safety measures in administration of high-risk intravenous medications and input was obtained from leading experts in pulmonary arterial hypertension to create a set of safety recommendations for infusion of prostacyclins. PMID:24085826

  7. Bolus calculator: a review of four "smart" insulin pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisser, Howard; Robinson, Lauren; Bevier, Wendy; Dassau, Eyal; Ellingsen, Christian; Doyle, Francis J; Jovanovic, Lois

    2008-12-01

    Abstract The use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pumps has been gaining popularity since 1979, when the first research report on insulin pumps was published. Insulin pumps-small medical devices that are programmed to infuse insulin through a catheter placed under the skin-are a replacement for multiple daily injections of insulin. They are currently being used by 375,000 people with type 1 diabetes, many of whom prefer CSII to multiple daily injections because of the increased flexibility of diet and exercise, increased convenience and precision when dosing, and better predictability of blood glucose levels that insulin pumps can provide when used correctly. Recent pump manufacturers have engineered a new feature called a bolus calculator, which calculates bolus insulin doses based on input from the pump wearer, which functions to help patients obtain optimum control over blood glucose levels. The bolus calculator takes into account the patient's current blood glucose, target blood glucose, amount of carbohydrate consumed, and other factors such as insulin sensitivity and insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio as well as duration of insulin action ("insulin on board"). Each pump company calculates insulin doses in a slightly different way. This article will review differences in bolus calculator recommendations between four insulin pumps, as well as errors that may occur when using bolus calculators. It will also include an in silico simulation of a meal followed by a snack using multiple insulin decay curves. PMID:19049372

  8. Glucose tolerance, insulin release, and insulin binding to monocytes in kidney transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate glucose tolerance following renal transplantation, intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), with evaluation of hormonal responses to the intravenous glucose load and percent specific 125I-insulin binding to peripheral blood monocytes, were studied in eight clinically stable kidney transplant recipients. For comparison purposes, identical studies were done in eight control subjects and seven clinically stable hemodialysis patients. One transplant recipient was glucose intolerant, with fasting hyperglycemia, elevated HbA1C, and abnormal glucose decay constant. Impaired pancreatic insulin release appeared to be the major factor accounting for his glucose intolerance. The seven glucose-tolerant transplant recipients had significantly increased insulin release during IVGTT compared to control subjects, and significant correlations were found among insulin release, glucose decay constant, and fasting blood sugar in those patients. Insulin binding to monocytes was significantly greater in transplant recipients than control subjects due to an increase in insulin binding capacity per cell. A significant correlation was found between percent specific 125I-insulin binding and steroid dose, expressed as mg/kg body weight/day, in those patients. Thus, chronic steroid administration does not cause glucose intolerance in transplant recipients who manifest steroid-associated increases in pancreatic insulin release and cellular insulin biic insulin release and cellular insulin binding capacity

  9. Hepatic Artery Infusion Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Tuchmann, A.; Schu?ller, J.; Kroiss, A.; Dinstl, K.

    1990-01-01

    Hepatic artery chemotherapy was given to 36 patients, using totally implantable devices consisting of a port and external pump. Twenty-seven patients had inoperable liver metastases of colorectal origin. The infusion system was inserted by laparotomy into the hepatic artery via the gastroduodenal artery. There was no operative mortality. Thirteen infusion systems could not be used for chemotherapy due to dislodgement, early death and lack of follow-up. FUdR was infused every two w...

  10. Insulin administration: present strategies and future directions for a noninvasive (possibly more physiological) delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Matteucci, Elena; Giampietro, Ottavio; Covolan, Vera; Giustarini, Daniela; Fanti, Paolo; Rossi, Ranieri

    2015-01-01

    Insulin is a life-saving medication for people with type 1 diabetes, but traditional insulin replacement therapy is based on multiple daily subcutaneous injections or continuous subcutaneous pump-regulated infusion. Nonphysiologic delivery of subcutaneous insulin implies a rapid and sustained increase in systemic insulin levels due to the loss of concentration gradient between portal and systemic circulations. In fact, the liver degrades about half of the endogenous insulin secreted by the pa...

  11. Lipid induced insulin resistance affects women less than men and is not accompanied by inflammation or impaired proximal insulin signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØeg, Louise D; SjØberg, Kim Anker

    2011-01-01

    AbstractObjective: We have previously shown that overnight fasted women have higher insulin stimulated whole body and leg glucose uptake despite a higher intramyocellular triacylglycerol concentration than men. Women also express higher muscle mRNA levels of proteins related to lipid metabolism than men. We therefore hypothesized that women would be less prone to lipid induced insulin resistance. Research and design methods: Insulin sensitivity of whole body and leg glucose disposal was studied in 16 young well matched healthy men and women infused with intralipid or saline for 7h. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (1.42 mU·kg(-1)·min(-1)) clamp. Results: Intralipid infusion reduced whole body glucose infusion rate 26% in women and 38% in men (p<0.05) and insulin stimulated leg glucose uptake was reduced significantly less in women (45%) than men (60%) after intralipid infusion. Hepatic glucose production was decreased during the clamp similarly in women and men irrespective of intralipid infusion. Intralipid did not impair insulin or AMPK signaling in muscle and subcutaneous fat, did not cause accumulation of muscle lipid intermediates, and did not impair insulin stimulated glycogen synthase activity in muscle or increase plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro glucose transport in giant sarcolemmal vesicles was not decreased by acute exposure to fatty acids. Leg lactate release was increased and respiratory exchange ratio was decreased by intralipid. Conclusion: Intralipid infusion causes less insulin resistance of muscle glucose uptake in women than in men. This insulin resistance is not due to decreased canonical insulin signaling, accumulation of lipid intermediates, inflammation or direct inhibition of glucose transporter activity. A higher leg lactate release and lower glucose oxidation with intralipid infusion may rather suggest a metabolic feed back regulation of glucose metabolism.

  12. Newer Insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasleen Kaur, Dinesh K. Badyal

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available These analogues have shown equal or superiorefficacy and have lower incidence of hypoglycaemia.But insulin analogues are more expensive than humaninsulin. Therefore, these are used as alternative agentsin patients who cannot achieve tight blood glucose control,patients with hypoglycaemia or intolerable events withhuman insulin and in patients who have to start humaninsulin therapy. The proper use of insulin analogues willallow the diabetics greater flexibility in the timing of meals,snacks and exercise which will improve their quality oflife. Other routes of insulin administration are also showingpromise. Inhaled insulin has been approved by FDA.Continued progress in the field of newer insulins ison as well

  13. Insulin analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Chu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The fear of hypoglycemia that people with diabetes experience is a factor in non-adherence to insulin therapy, which can adversely affect glycemic control and increase the risk of diabetes-associated complications. Insulin analogs are modified forms of human insulin designed to mimic endogenous insulin secretion, and may therefore help to reduce the risk and severity of hypoglycemia. While much evidence exists to demonstrate the efficacy of insulin analogs in blood glucose control, the effects on the incidence of severe hypoglycemia are less clear. This treatment review presents recent studies investigating the effects of insulin analogs on the frequency of hypoglycemia.

  14. Effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha infusion on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, impaired incretin effect, and increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). Whereas TNF-? infusion at a dose that induces systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated to induce peripheral insulin resistance, the influence of this cytokine on the incretin effect is unknown.

  15. Insulin pharmacokinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, C; Lauritzen, Torsten

    1984-01-01

    Where adjustments of diet, physical activity, and dosage of insulin are well known to diabetologists and diabetic patients, present-day knowledge of factors of importance to the pharmacokinetics of insulin is frequently ignored. The pharmacokinetics of insulin comprise the absorption process, the distribution including binding to circulating insulin antibodies, if present, and to insulin receptors, and its ultimate degradation and excretion. The distribution and metabolism of absorbed insulin follow that of endogenous insulin. The distribution and metabolism cannot be actively changed, except in the case of circulating insulin antibodies, which in rare cases also may cause insulin resistance. The use of insulin preparation of low immunogeneity will avoid or reduce this course of variation in action. The absorption process, the detailed mechanisms of which are still unknown, is influenced by many variables where some can be controlled, thereby reducing the intrapatient variability in insulin absorption, which may reach 35%, causing a corresponding metabolic lability. Besides the known differences in timing among different preparations, the size of dose, the injected volume, and the insulin concentration are determinants of absorption role. Fortuitous injection technique contributes to variance, as do changes in blood flow of the injected tissue. This may be induced by changes in ambient temperature, exercise of injected limb, or local massage. Regional differences are also due to differences in blood flow. Serum insulin peaks may peak up to 1 h after injection of soluble insulin into the thigh versus into the abdominal wall. Local degradation of insulin seems of less importance but may, in rare cases, be the cause of high insulin "requirements." Available evidence is reviewed and the importance of implementing the consequences in the daily care of the insulin-treated patient is emphasized.

  16. Diamorphine infusion in the preterm neonate.

    OpenAIRE

    Elias-jones, A. C.; Barrett, D. A.; Rutter, N.; Shaw, P. N.; Davis, S. S.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of diamorphine were studied in 34 premature neonates who were given a loading dose of 50 micrograms/kg of diamorphine followed by a constant rate intravenous infusion of 15 micrograms/kg/hour. Small but significant falls were noted in blood pressure (at 30 minutes) and heart rate (at 30 minutes, six hours, and 12 hours) after administration of diamorphine, but these did not appear to cause any clinical deterioration and were thought to be related to the sedative effect of the drug...

  17. Insulin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, C.R. (Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA (US)); Harrison, L.C. (Dept. of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria (AU))

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the procedure in insulin receptors. Part B: Clinical assessment, biological responses, and comparison to the IGF-1 receptor. Topics covered include: Insulin and IGF-1 receptors, Clinical assessment of receptor functions, and Biological responses.

  18. Insulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result mean? Insulin levels must be evaluated in context. Results seen: Disorder fasting insulin level fasting glucose ... Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pg 345. ...

  19. Insulin Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Insulin Pumps Insulin pumps are small computerized devices that ...

  20. Insulin Lispro Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insulin lispro solution with another type of insulin (NPH insulin) in the same syringe. Your doctor will ... not be mixed with insulin preparations other than NPH insulin. Insulin lispro suspension should not be mixed ...

  1. Effects of autologous adipose-derived stem cell infusion on type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianxia; Fu, Zhengju; Chen, Ying; Tang, Nina; Wang, Luan; Wang, Fang; Sun, Ruixia; Yan, Shengli

    2015-04-30

    The effects and possible mechanisms of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) infusion on type 2 diabetic rats were investigated in this study. Twenty normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were included in normal control group, and 40 male diabetic rats were randomly divided into diabetic control group and ASC group (which received ASC infusion). After therapy, levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, serum insulin and C-peptide, recovery of islet cells, inflammatory cytokines, and insulin sensitivity were analyzed. After ASC infusion, compared with diabetic control group, hyperglycemia in ASC group was ameliorated in 2 weeks and maintained for about 6 weeks, and plasma concentrations of insulin and C-peptide were significantly improved (P<0.01). Number of islet ? cells and concentration of vWF in islets in ASC group increased, while activity of caspase-3 in islets was reduced. Moreover, concentrations of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? in ASC group obviously decreased (P<0.05). The expression of GLUT4, INSR, and phosphorylation of insulin signaling molecules in insulin target tissues were effectively improved. ASC infusion could aid in T2DM through recovery of islet ? cells and improvement of insulin sensitivity. Autologous ASC infusion might be an effective method for T2DM. PMID:25739585

  2. Detecting viable hibernating myocardium in chronic coronary artery disease. A comparison of resting 201Tl single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile SPECT after nitrate administration, and 201Tl SPECT after 201Tl-glucose-insulin infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify and quantify the amount of viable hibernating myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease, resting 201Tl single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was compared with 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) SPECT after nitrate infusion (nitrate-99mTc-MIBI) and 201Tl SPECT after 201Tl with glucose-insulin-potassium infusion (201Tl-GIK) in 25 patients. Twenty-one patients also underwent completely left ventriculography beforehand and 5±4 months afterwards. SPECT images were divided into 9 segments and scored visually from 0 (normal uptake) to 3 (absent). The defect score was calculated as the summation of the total scores (TDS) in each patient. The TDS of nitrate-99mTc-MIBI images (6.3±4.3) and 201Tl-GIK images (5.8±4.2) were significantly lower than the 7.4±4.3 of resting 201Tl images (p201Tl-GIK imaging (85%) was significantly higher (p99mTc-MIBI imaging (79%) also tended to be higher (p=0.08), than that of 201Tl imaging (62%) in detecting viable myocardium. The specificity of the 3 methods was almost the same. The nitrate-99mTc-MIBI and 201Tl-GIK methods were more useful than the resting 201Tl method for evaluating viable hibernating myocaor evaluating viable hibernating myocardium. Furthermore, the 201Tl-GIK method may provide a more accurate estimate of the amount of viable myocardium than the nitrate-99mTc-MIBI method. (author)

  3. Dissociation between fat-induced in vivo insulin resistance and proximal insulin signaling in skeletal muscle in men at risk for type 2 diabetes.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Jensen, Christine B

    2004-01-01

    The effect of short- (2 h) and long-term (24 h) low-grade Intralipid infusion on whole-body insulin action, cellular glucose metabolism, and proximal components of the insulin signal transduction cascade was studied in seven obese male glucose intolerant first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients [impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) relatives] and eight matched control subjects. Indirect calorimetry and excision of vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies were performed before and during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps combined with 3[(3)H]glucose. Clamps were performed after 0, 2, or 24 h Intralipid infusion (0.4 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal decreased approximately 25% after short- and long-term fat infusion in both IGT relatives and controls. Glucose oxidation decreased and lipid oxidation increased after both short- and long-term fat infusion in both groups. Insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation was higher after long-term as compared with short-term fat infusion in control subjects. Short- or long-term infusion did not affect the absolute values of basal or insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, tyrosine-associated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity, insulin receptor substrate-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity, or Akt serine phosphorylation in IGT relatives or matched controls. In fact, a paradoxical increase in both basal and insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity was noted in the total study population after both short- and long-term fat infusion. Short- and long-term low-grade Intralipid infusion-induced (or enhanced) whole-body insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism in IGT relatives and matched control subjects. The fat-induced metabolic changes were not explained by impairment of the proximal insulin signaling transduction in skeletal muscle.

  4. Central insulin and macronutrient intake in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, M; Riedy, C A; Van Dijk, G; Woods, S C

    1996-09-01

    When rats are maintained on a standard laboratory diet, the infusion of low doses of insulin into the cerebroventricular system causes a reduction of food intake and body weight. It was recently reported that, if rats are maintained on a high-fat diet (56% calories as fat), they are insensitive to this action of insulin. To investigate further the effect of dietary composition on responsiveness to central insulin, we carried out two experiments. In experiment 1, rats were maintained on one of four equicaloric diets (providing 7, 22, 39, or 54% of calories as fat) before and during a 6-day third-ventricular infusion (i3vt) of insulin (10 mU/day) or saline. Rats consuming 7 or 22% of calories as fat had a significant reduction of both food intake (-17.2 +/- 2.9 and -14.6 +/- 3.3 g, respectively) and body weight (-50 +/- 5 and -41 +/- 5 g, respectively) from baseline over the insulin-infusion infusion period. Rats consuming 39 or 54% calories as fat did not reliably alter food intake (-4.0 +/- 3.9 and -1.9 +/- 3.7 g, respectively) or body weight (-10 +/- 6 and -6 +/- 4 g, respectively) in response to i3vt of insulin. In experiment 2, rats were offered a choice of three macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) in separate jars in their home cages. After they had adapted to the diets, they were infused i3vt with insulin or saline. Insulin caused a significant reduction of body weight relative to saline-infused controls (body wt: -23.1 +/- 4 g) and a reduction in food intake that was selective for dietary fat. These data suggest that the effects of central insulin administration are highly dependent on the macronutrient content of the diet as well as the ability of rats to select their own diets. PMID:8853397

  5. Enhanced glycemic responsiveness to epinephrine in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is the result of the inability to secrete insulin. Augmented insulin secretion normally limits the glycemic, but not the ipolytic or ketogenic, response to epinephrine in humans

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    To determine if the enhanced glycemic response to epinephrine in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is the result of increased adrenergic sensitivity per se, increased glucagon secretion, decreased insulin secretion, or a combination of these, plasma epinephrine concentration-response curves were determined in insulin-infused (initially euglycemic) patients with IDDM and nondiabetic subjects on two occasions: once when insulin and glucagon were free to change (control st...

  6. Continuous-infusion adriamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the diminished cardiotoxicity as well as diminished nausea and vomiting with continuous infusions of adriamycin to patients undergoing radiation therapy, particularly with infusions of 48 hours or longer, and best with 96-hour infusions, the longest duration that has been studied systematically. In breast cancer, data show that more adriamycin is better, but only for a selected subgroup of patients: those with complete remission. The diminished cardiotoxicity makes the use of adriamycin more attractive in the adjuvant situation, where increased safety will decrease the chances of long-term complications and make retreatment easy for cured patients who develop second malignancies

  7. Insulin aspart pharmacokinetics : An assessment of its variability and underlying mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Roge, Rikke Meldgaard

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insulin aspart (IAsp) is used by many diabetics as a meal-time insulin to control postprandial glucose levels. As is the case with many other insulin types, the pharmacokinetics (PK), and consequently the pharmacodynamics (PD), is associated with clinical variability, both between and within individuals. The present article identifies the main physiological mechanisms that govern the PK of IAsp following subcutaneous administration and quantifies them in terms of their contribution to the overall variability. Material and methods: CT scanning data from Thomsen et al. (2012) are used to investigate and quantify the properties of the subcutaneous depot. Data from Brange et al. (1990) are used to determine the effects of insulin chemistry in subcutis on the absorption rate. Intravenous (i.v.) bolus and infusion PK data for human insulin are used to understand and quantify the systemic distribution and elimination (Porksen et al., 1997; Sjostrand et al., 2002). PK and PD profiles for type 1 diabetics from Chen et al. (2005) are analyzed to demonstrate the effects of IAsp antibodies in terms of bound and unbound insulin. PK profiles from Thorisdottir et al. (2009) and Ma et al. (2012b) are analyzed in the nonlinear mixed effects software Monolix (R) to determine the presence and effects of the mechanisms described in this article. Results: The distribution of IAsp in the subcutaneous depot show an initial dilution of approximately a factor of two in a single experiment. Injected insulin hexamers exist in a chemical equilibrium with monomers and dimers, which depends strongly on the degree of dilution in subcutis, the presence of auxiliary substances, and a variety of other factors. Sensitivity to the initial dilution in subcutis can thus be a cause of some of the variability. Temporal variations in the PK are explained by variations in the subcutaneous blood flow. IAsp antibodies are found to be a large contributor to the variability of total insulin PK in a study by Chen et al. (2005), since only the freefraction is eliminated via the receptors. The contribution of these and other sources of variability to the total variability is quantified via a population PK analysis and two recent clinical studies (Thorisdottir et al., 2009; Ma et al., 2012b), which support the presence and significance of the identified mechanisms. Conclusions: IAsp antibody binding, oligomeric transitions in subcutis, and blood flow dependent variations in absorption rate seem to dominate the PK variability of IAsp. It may be possible via e.g. formulation design to reduce some of these variability factors. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical experiences in rapid infusion of jotroxamide in cholegraphie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jotroxamid has been infused intravenously in 60 patients within 10 minutes for cholegraphy. At the evaluation, contrast medium side effects, heterotopie excretion, quality of contrast and length of examination time have been considered. Reactions to the contrast medium were low compared with the results of other authers, an increase of cases with roentgenographie demonstrable heterotopie excretion could not be observed. Opacification of the biliary duct system was except in 2 cases very good. The total examination time was compared with the conventional infusion rate 30 minutes less. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MKO

  9. Glucose tolerance, insulin release, and insulin binding to monocytes in kidney transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, W.A.; Wielechowski, K.S.; Mahajan, S.K.; Migdal, S.D.; McDonald, F.D.

    1982-03-01

    In order to evaluate glucose tolerance following renal transplantation, intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), with evaluation of hormonal responses to the intravenous glucose load and percent specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding to peripheral blood monocytes, were studied in eight clinically stable kidney transplant recipients. For comparison purposes, identical studies were done in eight control subjects and seven clinically stable hemodialysis patients. One transplant recipient was glucose intolerant, with fasting hyperglycemia, elevated HbA1C, and abnormal glucose decay constant. Impaired pancreatic insulin release appeared to be the major factor accounting for his glucose intolerance. The seven glucose-tolerant transplant recipients had significantly increased insulin release during IVGTT compared to control subjects, and significant correlations were found among insulin release, glucose decay constant, and fasting blood sugar in those patients. Insulin binding to monocytes was significantly greater in transplant recipients than control subjects due to an increase in insulin binding capacity per cell. A significant correlation was found between percent specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding and steroid dose, expressed as mg/kg body weight/day, in those patients. Thus, chronic steroid administration does not cause glucose intolerance in transplant recipients who manifest steroid-associated increases in pancreatic insulin release and cellular insulin binding capacity.

  10. Intravenous adenosine SPECT thallium imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper determines the safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) adenosine in females for the evaluation of coronary artery disease, since only limited data are available. Eighty consecutive studies of 78 female subjects (aged 43-83 years) using IV adenosine (0.14 mg/kg per minute) with T1-201 SPECT imaging were reviewed. Fifty-eight (73%) had mild symptoms; mild dyspnea (24%), flushing (23%), chest pain (23%), headache (11%), dizziness (11%), weakness (9%), nausea (8%), abdominal pain (8%), arm pain (6%), chest tightness (4%), neck tightness (4%), dry mouth (4%), and dropped P waves (4%). Four had moderate symptoms: dyspnea requiring Proventil or aminophylline (2%), significant hypotension (1%), and third-degree atrioventicular heart block (1%). Two had severe symptoms (ventricular tachycardia requiring cardioversion (1%) and severe dyspnea requiring epinephrine (1%). Twenty-two (28%) underwent cardiac catheterization that demonstrated coronary artery disease or postangioplasty results. The thallium SPECT images were 94% sensitive and 100% specific in detecting significant disease. The one false-negative result was in a subject who experienced no symptoms for ECG changes during adenosine infusion. Ischemic ECG changes were 35% sensitive and 100% specific. Chest pain was 53% sensitive and 60% specific

  11. Diurnal pattern of insulin requirements in insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Rubin, P

    1982-01-01

    A total of 35 experiments in which insulin-dependent diabetics were connected to an artificial beta cell (Biostator) for feedback control of blood glucose during at least 24 h, were evaluated. Only 14 experiments, however, were available for analysis, since interruptions of more than 45 min/24 h in feedback control due to clots in analyser tubing occurred in those remaining. In these 14 experiments the 24-h insulin-infusion pattern was analysed. Basal insulin requirements (BIR), (between 01.00 and 04.00 hours) was found to be 0.178 +/- 0.044 (SD) mU/kg X min. Insulin requirements increased in the early morning (04.00-07.00 hours) to 0.231 +/- 0.084 mU/kg X min (P less than 0.01). A significant correlation between BIR and 24-h insulin requirement was found (r = 0.53, P less than 0.05). Insulin requirements per kJ following breakfast were higher than after lunch, 0.57 +/- 0.20 muU/kg X min X kJ versus 0.41 +/- 0.29 muU/kg X min X kJ (P less than 0.05).

  12. Intraosseous infusion for resuscitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, I. G.; Munro, H. M.; Doull, I. J.

    1991-01-01

    An 11 week old infant who had a cardiac arrest secondary to gastrointestinal haemorrhage and was successfully treated using intraosseous infusion is reported. The child was discharged with no apparent neurological deficit.

  13. Biosimilar insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lutz

    2012-08-01

    Until now most insulin used in developed countries is manufactured and distributed by a small number of multinational companies. Other pharmaceutical companies - many of these are located in countries such as India or China - are also able to manufacture insulin with modern biotechnological methods. Additionally, the patents for many insulin formulations have expired or are going to expire soon. This enables such companies to produce insulins and to apply for market approval of these as biosimilar insulins (BIs) in highly regulated markets such as the EU or the US. To understand the complexity of BIs' approval and usage, scientific and regulatory aspects have to be discussed. Differences in the manufacturing process (none of the insulin-manufacturing procedures are identical) result in the fact that all insulin that might become BIs differ from the originator insulin to some extent. The question is, have such differences in the structure of the insulin molecule and or the purity and so on clinically relevant consequences for the biological effects induced or not. The guidelines already in place in the EU for market approval require that the manufacturer demonstrates that his insulin has a safety and efficacy profile that is similar to that of the 'original' insulin formulation. Recently guidelines for biosimilars were issued in the US; however, these do not cover insulin. Although a challenging approval process for insulins to become BI might be regarded as a hurdle to keep companies out of certain markets, it is fair to say that the potential safety and efficacy issues surrounding BI are substantial and relevant, and do warrant a careful and evidence-driven approval process. Nevertheless, it is very likely that in the next years, BIs will come to the market also in highly regulated markets. PMID:22583127

  14. Dissociation of the effects of epinephrine and insulin on glucose and protein metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separate and combined effects of insulin and epinephrine on leucine metabolism were examined in healthy young volunteers. Subjects participated in four experimental protocols: (1) euglycemic insulin clamp (+80 microU/ml), (2) epinephrine infusion (50 ng.kg-1.min-1) plus somatostatin with basal replacement of insulin and glucagon, (3) combined epinephrine (50 ng.kg-1.min-1) plus insulin (+80 microU/ml) infusion, and (4) epinephrine and somatostatin as in study 2 plus basal amino acid replacement. Studies were performed with a prime-continuous infusion of [1-14C]leucine and indirect calorimetry. Our results indicate that (1) hyperinsulinemia causes a generalized decrease in plasma amino acid concentrations, including leucine; (2) the reduction in plasma leucine concentration is primarily due to an inhibition of endogenous leucine flux; nonoxidative leucine disposal decreases after insulin infusion; (3) epinephrine, without change in plasma insulin concentration, reduces plasma amino acid levels; (4) combined epinephrine-insulin infusion causes a greater decrease in plasma amino levels than observed with either hormone alone; this is because of a greater inhibition of endogenous leucine flux; and (5) when basal amino acid concentrations are maintained constant with a balanced amino acid infusion, epinephrine inhibits the endogenous leucine flux. In conclusion, the present results do not provide support for the concept that epinephrine is a catabolic hormone with respinephrine is a catabolic hormone with respect to amino acid-protein metabolism. In contrast, epinephrine markedly inhibits insulin-mediated glucose metabolism

  15. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment is shown to be effective in a selected group of patients with a chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The proportion of patients that improve after IVIg treatment varies between studies. Because 40% of a group of IVIg treated CIDP patients needed intermittent IVIg infusions to maintain their improved clinical condition, it is expected that IVIg is effective, at least in this subgroup of patients. However, the proportion of patien...

  16. Pressão arterial, respostas metabólicas e autonômicas à insulina e infusão de intralipid® em pacientes chagásicos Presión arterial, respuestas metabólicas y autonómicas a la insulina e infusión de intralipid® en pacientes chagásicos Blood pressure, metabolic and autonomic responses to insulin and intralipid® infusion in chagasic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cristina Soares Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Infusão de intralipid e heparina resulta em aumento da pressão arterial e também em anormalidades autonômicas em indivíduos normais e hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade a insulina e o impacto da infusão de intralipid e de heparina (ILH sobre a resposta hemodinâmica, metabólica e autonômica em pacientes com a forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Doze pacientes com a forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas e 12 voluntários saudáveis foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial basal e a frequência cardíaca foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. Os níveis plasmáticos de noradrenalina encontravam-se ligeiramente aumentados no grupo de pacientes chagásicos. Após o Teste de Tolerância a Insulina (TTI, houve um declínio significativo na glicose dos dois grupos. A Infusão de ILH resultou em aumento da pressão arterial em ambos os grupos, mas não houve nenhuma mudança significativa na noradrenalina plasmática. O componente de Baixa Frequência (BF mostrou-se semelhante e aumentou de forma semelhante em ambos os grupos. O componente de Alta Frequência (AF apresentou-se menor no grupo chagásico. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas apresentaram aumento da atividade simpática no momento basal e uma resposta inadequada à insulina. Eles também tiveram um menor componente de alta frequência e sensibilidade barorreflexa prejudicada no momento basal e durante a infusão de intralipid e heparina.FUNDAMENTO: La Infusión de intralipid® y de heparina trae como resultado un aumento de la presión arterial y también de las anormalidades autonómicas en los individuos normales e hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la sensibilidad a la insulina y el impacto de la infusión de intralipid® y de heparina (ILH sobre la respuesta hemodinámica, metabólica y autonómica en pacientes con la forma indefinida de la Enfermedad de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Fueron evaluados doce pacientes con la forma indefinida de la Enfermedad de Chagas y 12 voluntarios sanos. RESULTADOS: La presión arterial basal y la frecuencia cardíaca fueron similares en los dos grupos. Los niveles plasmáticos de noradrenalina estaban ligeramente más elevados en el grupo de pacientes chagásicos. Después del Test de Tolerancia a la Insulina (TTI, se produjo una ostensible disminución en la glucosa de los dos grupos. La Infusión de ILH trajo como consecuencia el aumento de la presión arterial en ambos grupos, pero no hubo ningún cambio significativo en la noradrenalina plasmática. El componente de Baja Frecuencia (BF, fue similar y aumentó de forma parecida en ambos grupos. El componente de Alta Frecuencia (AF se presentó con un menor nivel en el grupo chagásico. CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes con una forma indeterminada de la Enfermedad de Chagas, presentaron un aumento en la actividad simpática al momento basal y una respuesta inadecuada a la insulina. También tuvieron un menor componente de alta frecuencia y de sensibilidad barorrefleja, que fue perjudicado en el momento basal y durante la infusión de intralipid® y heparina.BACKGROUND: Intralipid and heparin infusion results in increased blood pressure and autonomic abnormalities in normal and hypertensive individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate insulin sensitivity and the impact of Intralipid and heparin (ILH infusion on hemodynamic, metabolic, and autonomic response in patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease. METHODS: Twelve patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease and 12 healthy volunteers were evaluated. RESULTS: Baseline blood pressure and heart rate were similar in both groups. Plasma noradrenaline levels were slightly increased in the Chagas' group. After insulin tolerance testing (ITT, a significant decline was noted in glucose in both groups. ILH infusion resulted in increased blood pressure in both groups, but there was no significant change in plasma noradrenaline. The low-frequency component (LF was similar and similarly increased in both groups. The high-frequency compo

  17. Pressão arterial, respostas metabólicas e autonômicas à insulina e infusão de intralipid® em pacientes chagásicos / Blood pressure, metabolic and autonomic responses to insulin and intralipid® infusion in chagasic patients / Presión arterial, respuestas metabólicas y autonómicas a la insulina e infusión de intralipid® en pacientes chagásicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia Cristina Soares, Silva; Carlos Alberto Martins, Santos; Cristiano, Mostarda; Eduardo Moacyr, Krieger; Heno Ferreira, Lopes.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Infusão de intralipid e heparina resulta em aumento da pressão arterial e também em anormalidades autonômicas em indivíduos normais e hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade a insulina e o impacto da infusão de intralipid e de heparina (ILH) sobre a resposta hemodinâmica, metabóli [...] ca e autonômica em pacientes com a forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Doze pacientes com a forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas e 12 voluntários saudáveis foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial basal e a frequência cardíaca foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. Os níveis plasmáticos de noradrenalina encontravam-se ligeiramente aumentados no grupo de pacientes chagásicos. Após o Teste de Tolerância a Insulina (TTI), houve um declínio significativo na glicose dos dois grupos. A Infusão de ILH resultou em aumento da pressão arterial em ambos os grupos, mas não houve nenhuma mudança significativa na noradrenalina plasmática. O componente de Baixa Frequência (BF) mostrou-se semelhante e aumentou de forma semelhante em ambos os grupos. O componente de Alta Frequência (AF) apresentou-se menor no grupo chagásico. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas apresentaram aumento da atividade simpática no momento basal e uma resposta inadequada à insulina. Eles também tiveram um menor componente de alta frequência e sensibilidade barorreflexa prejudicada no momento basal e durante a infusão de intralipid e heparina. Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: La Infusión de intralipid® y de heparina trae como resultado un aumento de la presión arterial y también de las anormalidades autonómicas en los individuos normales e hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la sensibilidad a la insulina y el impacto de la infusión de intralipid® y de heparina (IL [...] H) sobre la respuesta hemodinámica, metabólica y autonómica en pacientes con la forma indefinida de la Enfermedad de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Fueron evaluados doce pacientes con la forma indefinida de la Enfermedad de Chagas y 12 voluntarios sanos. RESULTADOS: La presión arterial basal y la frecuencia cardíaca fueron similares en los dos grupos. Los niveles plasmáticos de noradrenalina estaban ligeramente más elevados en el grupo de pacientes chagásicos. Después del Test de Tolerancia a la Insulina (TTI), se produjo una ostensible disminución en la glucosa de los dos grupos. La Infusión de ILH trajo como consecuencia el aumento de la presión arterial en ambos grupos, pero no hubo ningún cambio significativo en la noradrenalina plasmática. El componente de Baja Frecuencia (BF), fue similar y aumentó de forma parecida en ambos grupos. El componente de Alta Frecuencia (AF) se presentó con un menor nivel en el grupo chagásico. CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes con una forma indeterminada de la Enfermedad de Chagas, presentaron un aumento en la actividad simpática al momento basal y una respuesta inadecuada a la insulina. También tuvieron un menor componente de alta frecuencia y de sensibilidad barorrefleja, que fue perjudicado en el momento basal y durante la infusión de intralipid® y heparina. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Intralipid and heparin infusion results in increased blood pressure and autonomic abnormalities in normal and hypertensive individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate insulin sensitivity and the impact of Intralipid and heparin (ILH) infusion on hemodynamic, metabolic, and autonomic response in [...] patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease. METHODS: Twelve patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease and 12 healthy volunteers were evaluated. RESULTS: Baseline blood pressure and heart rate were similar in both groups. Plasma noradrenaline levels were slightly increased in the Chagas' group. After insulin tolerance testing (ITT), a significant decline was noted in glucose in both groups. ILH infusion resulted in increased blood pressure in both groups, but there was no significant change in plasma noradrenaline. The low-frequency component (LF) was

  18. Combined galanin with insulin improves insulin sensitivity of diabetic rat muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Le; Yao, Qian; Liu, Zhimin; Tang, Wei; Zou, Junjie; Qu, Shen

    2014-04-01

    Although administration of galanin or insulin alone may enhance insulin sensitivity and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) trafficking, their cooperative effect on insulin sensitivity is still unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the cooperative effect of both reagents compared with solitary treatment with galanin or insulin in type 2 diabetic rats. Galanin and/or insulin were injected singly or together into type 2 diabetic rats once a day for 15 days. The results indicated that coadministration of both reagents compared with treatment with galanin or insulin alone significantly increased glucose infusion rates in euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp tests, 2-deoxy-[(3)H]d-glucose contents, GLUT4 densities, and pAS160 and protein kinase C activity levels, but reduced blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as retinol-binding protein 4 contents, and did not affect Glut4 (Slc2a4) mRNA expression levels in myocytes. The changes in the ratios of GLUT4 immunoreaction in plasma membranes to total cell membranes of myocytes were higher in the coadministrative group compared with either the insulin or the galanin group. These results indicate that cooperation of the two hormones plays a synergic role to improve GLUT4 translocation and insulin sensitivity. This finding indicates the possibility of combining galanin with insulin with the aim of obtaining better antidiabetic efficacy than that of the canonical treatment with insulin alone. PMID:24501381

  19. Adipose tissue gene expression analysis reveals changes in inflammatory, mitochondrial respiratory and lipid metabolic pathways in obese insulin-resistant subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Soronen Jarkko; Laurila Pirkka-Pekka; Naukkarinen Jussi; Surakka Ida; Ripatti Samuli; Jauhiainen Matti; Olkkonen Vesa M; Yki-Järvinen Hannele

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To get insight into molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance, we compared acute in vivo effects of insulin on adipose tissue transcriptional profiles between obese insulin-resistant and lean insulin-sensitive women. Methods Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and after 3 and 6 hours of intravenously maintained euglycemic hyperinsulinemia from 9 insulin-resistant and 11 insulin-sensitive females. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix ...

  20. Nurse-led implementation of an insulin-infusion protocol in a general intensive care unit: improved glycaemic control with increased costs and risk of hypoglycaemia signals need for algorithm revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull Eva M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strict glycaemic control (SGC has become a contentious issue in modern intensive care. Physicians and nurses are concerned about the increased workload due to SGC as well as causing harm through hypoglycaemia. The objective of our study was to evaluate our existing degree of glycaemic control, and to implement SGC safely in our ICU through a nurse-led implementation of an algorithm for intensive insulin-therapy. Methods The study took place in the adult general intensive care unit (11 beds of a 44-bed department of intensive care at a tertiary care university hospital. All patients admitted during the 32 months of the study were enrolled. We retrospectively analysed all arterial blood glucose (BG results from samples that were obtained over a period of 20 months prior to the implementation of SGC. We then introduced an algorithm for intensive insulin therapy; aiming for arterial blood-glucose at 4.4 – 6.1 mmol/L. Doctors and nurses were trained in the principles and potential benefits and risks of SGC. Consecutive statistical analyses of blood samples over a period of 12 months were used to assess performance, provide feedback and uncover incidences of hypoglycaemia. Results Median BG level was 6.6 mmol/L (interquartile range 5.6 to 7.7 mmol/L during the period prior to implementation of SGC (494 patients, and fell to 5.9 (IQR 5.1 to 7.0 mmol/L following introduction of the new algorithm (448 patients. The percentage of BG samples > 8 mmol/L was reduced from 19.2 % to 13.1 %. Before implementation of SGC, 33 % of samples were between 4.4 to 6.1 mmol/L and 12 patients (2.4 % had one or more episodes of severe hypoglycaemia ( Conclusion The retrospective part of the study indicated ample room for improvement. Through the implementation of SGC the fraction of samples within the new target range increased from 33% to 45.8%. There was also a significant increase in severe hypoglycaemic episodes. There continues to be potential for improved glycaemic control within our ICU. This might be achieved through an improved algorithm and continued efforts to increase nurses' confidence and skills in achieving SGC.

  1. Lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue during exercise in lean and obese humans. Roles of insulin and natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppo, Katrien; Larrouy, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of various hormones involved in the regulation of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise and to assess the impact of obesity on this regulation. Eight lean and eight obese men performed a 60-min cycle exercise bout at 50% of their peak oxygen uptake on two occasions: during intravenous infusion of octreotide (a somatostatin analog) or physiological saline (control condition). Lipolysis in SCAT was evaluated using in situ microdialysis. One microdialysis probe was perfused with the adrenergic blockers phentolamine and propranolol while another probe was perfused with the phosphodiesterase and adenosine receptor inhibitor aminophylline. Compared with the control condition, infusion of octreotide reduced plasma insulin levels in lean (from approximately 3.5 to 0.5 microU/ml) and in obese (from approximately 9 to 2 microU/ml), blunted the exercise-induced rise in plasma GH and epinephrine levels in both groups, and enhanced the exercise-induced natriuretic peptide (NP) levels in lean but not in obese subjects. In both groups, octreotide infusion resulted in higher exercise-induced increases in dialysate glycerol concentrations in the phentolamine-containing probe while no difference in lipolytic response was found in the aminophylline-containing probe. The results suggest that insulin antilipolytic action plays a role in the regulation of lipolysis during exercise in lean as well as in obese subjects. The octreotide-induced enhancement of exercise lipolysis in lean subjects was associated with an increased exercise-induced plasma NP response. Adenosine may contribute to the inhibition of basal lipolysis in both subject groups.

  2. Insulin receptor antibody-iduronate 2-sulfatase fusion protein: pharmacokinetics, anti-drug antibody, and safety pharmacology in Rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boado, Ruben J; Ka-Wai Hui, Eric; Zhiqiang Lu, Jeff; Pardridge, William M

    2014-11-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) Type II is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme, iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS). The majority of MPSII cases affect the brain. However, enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant IDS does not treat the brain, because IDS is a large molecule drug that does not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To enable BBB penetration, IDS has been re-engineered as an IgG-IDS fusion protein, where the IgG domain is a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the human insulin receptor (HIR). The HIRMAb crosses the BBB via receptor-mediated transport on the endogenous BBB insulin receptor, and the HIRMAb domain of the fusion protein acts as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry the fused IDS into brain from blood. The present study reports on the first safety pharmacology and pharmacokinetics study of the HIRMAb-IDS fusion protein. Juvenile male Rhesus monkeys were infused intravenously (IV) weekly for 26 weeks with 0, 3, 10, or 30?mg/kg of the HIRMAb-IDS fusion protein. The plasma clearance of the fusion protein followed a linear pharmacokinetics profile, which was equivalent either with measurements of the plasma concentration of immunoreactive HIRMAb-IDS fusion protein, or with assays of plasma IDS enzyme activity. Anti-drug antibody (ADA) titers were monitored monthly, and the ADA response was primarily directed against the variable region of the HIRMAb domain of the fusion protein. No infusion related reactions or clinical signs of immune response were observed during the course of the study. A battery of safety pharmacology, clinical chemistry, and tissue histopathology showed no signs of adverse events, and demonstrate the safety profile of chronic treatment of primates with 3-30?mg/kg weekly IV infusion doses of the HIRMAb-IDS fusion protein. PMID:24889100

  3. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Megan L.; Jan Axtner; Antje Happe; Matthias Kröz; Harald Matthes; Friedemann Schad

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is des...

  4. Intravenous amino acids in third trimester isolated oligohydramnios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the efficacy of maternal administration of intravenous amino acid solution in improving amniotic fluid volume in cases of isolated oligohydramnios and to observe its impact on mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. Study Design: A prospective case series. Methodology: Forty two women with singleton pregnancy, well established gestational age and clinically and sonographically proven isolated oligohydramnios in the third trimester before 36 weeks were administered amino acid solution intravenously after excluding cases of premature rupture of membranes, congenital anomaly of fetus, maternal pulmonary, cardiovascular and hypertensive disorders, and severe placental insufficiency (raised S/D ratio). Pre-infusion and postinfusion Amniotic fluid Index (AFI) was measured and repeated weekly. Women were followed till delivery. Results: According to repeated measurement analysis of variance, mean pre-infusion AFI was 4.7 cm, mean one week postinfusion AFI was 5.8 cm, mean two week post-infusion AFI was 6.2 cm and mean three week AFI was 6.3 cm (p-value 0.029, significant). Cesarean section became a predominant mode of delivery in this group without a firm evidence of associated fetal compromise. Conclusion: Amino acid infusion is an effective therapy for raising AFI in isolated oligohydramnios in this case series. Liberal use of cesarean section in this selected group should be carefully re-evaluated. (author)

  5. Cardiovascular collapse during amiodarone infusion in a hemodynamically compromised child with refractory supraventricular tachycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Sunil; Balaji, Seshadri

    2015-01-01

    We describe a 7-week-old female infant who presented with refractory supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). During amiodarone infusion, she developed hypotension and cardiac arrest requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. After successful control of SVT using procainamide infusion, she was weaned from ECMO and discharged home on oral flecainide. We conclude that infants with acidosis, ventricular dysfunction, and prolonged refractory SVT may poorly tolerate intravenous amiodarone. PMID:25684888

  6. Plasma Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium During Hypocalcaemia Induced by a Standardized EDTA Infusion in Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Enemark JMD; Jørgensen RJ; Mellau LSB

    2001-01-01

    The intravenous Na2EDTA infusion technique allows effective specific chelation of circulating Ca2+ leading to a progressive hypocalcaemia. Methods previously used were not described in detail and results obtained by monitoring total and free ionic calcium were not comparable due to differences in sampling and analysis. This paper describes a standardized EDTA infusion technique that allowed comparison of the response of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between 2 groups of experimental cows....

  7. Continuous radioisotope infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous infusion of a radioactive marker was used instead of a conventional bolus injection to improve haemodynamic studies. Tc-99m was infused into the blood circulation at a constant rate for 100-300 seconds and the activity in the target structure was measured by a gamma camera with a computer system or by a single detector. The concentration of the marker increased linearly at the same rate throughout the circulating system. Due to variations in transport time from infusion site to different parts of the system the rise of activity occurred at different times. A theory for the calculations was presented and consequently confirmed in a model study. Blood flow patterns in artificial kidneys and alterations in renal blood flow induced by angiotensin were studied. The results are presented as time-function curves or as computer images. This technique can be used to evaluate distributions and alterations of flow in separate parts of a complex circulating system. (author)

  8. Superselective arterial infusion and concomitant radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Akihiro; Suzuki, Fumiyuki; Inuyama, Yukio; Fukuda, Satoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-05-01

    Superselective arterial infusion for patients with advanced head and neck cancer has been increasingly applied in Japan. We analyzed our experiences and evaluated the efficacy and safety of this treatment. Through October 1999 to March 2002, 29 patients, ranging in age between 33 and 71 years (median 52 years), received superselective intra-arterial infusion therapy of cisplatin (100-120 mg/m{sup 2}/week) with simultaneous intravenous infusion of thiosulfate for neutralizing cisplatin toxicity, and conventional concomitant extrabeam radiotherapy (65 Gy/26 f/6.5 weeks). Four patients were diagnosed with stage III and 25 with stage IV. Thirteen patients were considered contraindicated for surgery, and the other 16 patients rejected radical surgery. Primary tumor sites included paranasal sinus (11 patients), hypopharynx (7), oropharynx (6), oral cavity (4), and parotid gland (1). During the median follow-up period of 20 months, there was no apparent recurrence in 14 (48.3%) of 29 patients. Eleven (37.9%) patients died of disease, and three (10.3%) were alive with disease. In twenty-one patients (72.4%) the primary lesions were well-controlled. Acute toxic effects were moderate, and severe toxic events occurred in four cases, namely, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia, sepsis, tetraplasia, and osteoradionecrosis. We confirmed the effectiveness and safety of superselective arterial infusion and concomitant radiotherapy. Furthermore, we must establish the optimal procedures and schedule, as well as the indications for this treatment. This treatment protocol may improve the prognosis of patients with unresectable disease and patients rejecting surgical treatment. Further study in this particular area is needed. (author)

  9. Superselective arterial infusion and concomitant radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superselective arterial infusion for patients with advanced head and neck cancer has been increasingly applied in Japan. We analyzed our experiences and evaluated the efficacy and safety of this treatment. Through October 1999 to March 2002, 29 patients, ranging in age between 33 and 71 years (median 52 years), received superselective intra-arterial infusion therapy of cisplatin (100-120 mg/m2/week) with simultaneous intravenous infusion of thiosulfate for neutralizing cisplatin toxicity, and conventional concomitant extrabeam radiotherapy (65 Gy/26 f/6.5 weeks). Four patients were diagnosed with stage III and 25 with stage IV. Thirteen patients were considered contraindicated for surgery, and the other 16 patients rejected radical surgery. Primary tumor sites included paranasal sinus (11 patients), hypopharynx (7), oropharynx (6), oral cavity (4), and parotid gland (1). During the median follow-up period of 20 months, there was no apparent recurrence in 14 (48.3%) of 29 patients. Eleven (37.9%) patients died of disease, and three (10.3%) were alive with disease. In twenty-one patients (72.4%) the primary lesions were well-controlled. Acute toxic effects were moderate, and severe toxic events occurred in four cases, namely, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia, sepsis, tetraplasia, and osteoradionecrosis. We confirmed the effectiveness and safety of superselective arterial infusion and concomitant radiotherapy. Furthermore, we must eitant radiotherapy. Furthermore, we must establish the optimal procedures and schedule, as well as the indications for this treatment. This treatment protocol may improve the prognosis of patients with unresectable disease and patients rejecting surgical treatment. Further study in this particular area is needed. (author)

  10. What´s cheapest, intravenous iron sucrose- or intravenous iron carboxymaltose treatment in IBD patients? : It dependent on the economic evaluation perspective!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Palle; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik

      What´s cheapest, intravenous iron sucrose- or intravenous iron carboxymaltose treatment in IBD patients? It dependent on the economic evaluation perspective!   Aim: To evaluate the health care cost for intravenous iron sucrose (Venofer®, Vifor) and intravenous iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject®, Vifor) treatment to IBD patients in an outpatient setting.   Background: Intravenous iron sucrose can be given as a maximum of 200 mg Fe++ per infusion vs. intravenous iron carboxymaltose that can be given as a maximum of 1000 mg Fe++ in a single infusion leading to fewer infusions and visits. The drug-cost per mg iron is for iron carboxymaltose approximately double the cost of iron sucrose.   Patients and Methods: Data related to 111 IBD-patients treated with intravenous iron at Aarhus University Hospital from August 2005 until October 2009 was used for the economic evaluation. Analysis included a Budget Impact Analysis (BIA) from a hospital perspective, a Cost Effective Analysis (CEA) from a patient perspective and a Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) consecutively including 20 IBD patients' willingness-to-pay' (WTP) assessment. BIA and CEA analysis were based on total infusion-doses from 500 mg Fe++ till 1600 mg Fe++. The WTP analysis was based on a total infusion-dose at 1400 mg Fe++. The evaluations are analysed assuming that the effect parameter (quantity of iron delivered) is comparable regardless of the iron formulation given intravenously.   Results: The BIA including price for drug, utensils and ½ hour spend by a nurse per visit; showed approximately 150€ extra cost per 1000 mg Fe++ administrated, if iron carboxymaltose was chosen. In contrast the CEA including both BIA-values and patient-related costs (transportation and lost income) showed iron carboxymaltose to be more cost-effective than iron sucrose, due to fewer outpatient setting visits. As IBD-patients could have less income as the average of the background population due to disease activity, sensitivity analysis using a 50% income level weredone, showing the same tendency but less significant. The average patients WTP for a total of iron-dose was to 233€ to reduce the numbers of infusion from 7 till 2.    Conclusion: The cost of choosing iron carboxymaltose rather than iron sucrose in treatment of iron deficiency in IBD differs depending of the economic perspective chosen. Only the Budget Impact Analysis showed iron sucrose to be the cheapest. If the patients' perspective is included in the economic evaluation iron carboxymaltose is the most cost-effective.

  11. Lipolytic response to glucose infusion in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have determined the effect of various rates of glucose infusion on the rates of release of glycerol (R/sub a/ glycerol), free fatty acids (R/sub a/ FFA), and on energy metabolism in normal human volunteers. Plasma kinetics were determined with use of the stable isotopic tracers D-5-glycerol and [1-13C]palmitate, and energy metabolism was determined by indirect calorimetry. The effect of glucose infusion on R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA was dose-dependent. At 4 mg x kg-1 x min-1, both R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA were suppressed; at 8 mg x kg-1 x min-1, R/sub a/ FFA was even more depressed, but R/sub a/ glycerol was similar to the value during the 4 mg x kg-1 x min-1 infusion. At all infusion rates tested, the amount of potential energy available from the sum of the glucose infusion and endogenously mobilized fat was always greater than when no glucose was infused. Glucose decreased fat mobilization by both inhibiting lipolysis and stimulating reesterification, thus causing a significant increase in triglyceride-fatty acid substrate cycling within the adipose tissue. Plasma insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay

  12. Insulin receptor has tyrosine kinase activity toward Shc in rat liver

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.V., Páez-Espinosa; C.R.O., Carvalho; L.A., Velloso; M.J.A., Saad.

    1415-14-01

    Full Text Available Insulin induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc in cell cultures and in insulin-sensitive tissues of the intact rat. However, the ability of insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase to phosphorylate Shc has not been previously demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated insulin-induced IR tyros [...] ine kinase activity towards Shc. Insulin receptor was immunoprecipitated from liver extracts, before and after a very low dose of insulin into the portal vein, and incubated with immunopurified Shc from liver of untreated rats. The kinase assay was performed in vitro in the presence of exogenous ATP and the phosphorylation level was quantified by immunoblotting with antiphosphotyrosine antibody. The results demonstrate that Shc interacted with insulin receptor after infusion of insulin, and, more important, there was insulin receptor kinase activity towards immunopurified Shc. The description of this pathway in animal tissue may have an important role in insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity toward mitogenic transduction pathways.

  13. Short-term glucosamine infusion increases islet blood flow in anesthetized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiang; Jansson, Leif; Persson, A. Erik G.; Sandberg, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in rodents are associated with increased islet blood flow. If this is important for modulation of the endocrine function is at present unknown. We evaluated if glucosamine infusion, which induces peripheral insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, could be used to acutely increase islet blood flow. We infused anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 h with glucosamine (6 mg/kg body weight), in some cases followed by glucose administration. The ...

  14. Racl Signaling Is Required for Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake and Is Dysregulated in Insulin-Resistant Murine and Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, L.; Jensen, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton-regulating GTPase Racl is required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in cultured muscle cells. However, involvement of Racl and its downstream signaling in glucose transport in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant mature skeletal muscle has not previously been investigated. We hypothesized that Racl and its downstream target, p21-activated kinase (PAK), are regulators of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse and human skeletal muscle and are dysregulated in insulin-resistant states. Muscle-specific inducible Racl knockout (KO) mice and pharmacological inhibition of Racl were used to determine whether Racl regulates insulin-stimulated glucose transport in mature skeletal muscle. Furthermore, Racl and PAK1 expression and signaling were investigated in muscle of insulin-resistant mice and humans. Inhibition and KO of Racl decreased insulin-stimulated glucose transport in mouse soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles ex vivo. Had KO mice showed decreased insulin and glucose tolerance and trended toward higher plasma insulin concentrations after intraperitoneal glucose injection. Racl protein expression and insulin-stimulated PAK(Thr423) phosphorylation were decreased in muscles of high fat-fed mice. In humans, insulin-stimulated FAX activation was decreased in both acute insulin-resistant (intralipid infusion) and chronic insulin-resistant states (obesity and diabetes). These findings show that Racl is a regulator of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and a novel candidate involved in skeletal muscle insulin resistance.

  15. Rac1 signaling is required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and is dysregulated in insulin-resistant murine and human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, Lykke; Jensen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton-regulating GTPase Rac1 is required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in cultured muscle cells. However, involvement of Rac1 and its downstream signaling in glucose transport in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant mature skeletal muscle has not previously been investigated. We hypothesized that Rac1 and its downstream target, p21-activated kinase (PAK), are regulators of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse and human skeletal muscle and are dysregulated in insulin-resistant states. Muscle-specific inducible Rac1 knockout (KO) mice and pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 were used to determine whether Rac1 regulates insulin-stimulated glucose transport in mature skeletal muscle. Furthermore, Rac1 and PAK1 expression and signaling were investigated in muscle of insulin-resistant mice and humans. Inhibition and KO of Rac1 decreased insulin-stimulated glucose transport in mouse soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles ex vivo. Rac1 KO mice showed decreased insulin and glucose tolerance and trended toward higher plasma insulin concentrations after intraperitoneal glucose injection. Rac1 protein expression and insulin-stimulated PAK(Thr423) phosphorylation were decreased in muscles of high fat-fed mice. In humans, insulin-stimulated PAK activation was decreased in both acute insulin-resistant (intralipid infusion) and chronic insulin-resistant states (obesity and diabetes). These findings show that Rac1 is a regulator of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and a novel candidate involved in skeletal muscle insulin resistance.

  16. Continuous Drug Infusion for Diabetes Therapy: A Closed-Loop Control System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available While a typical way for diabetes therapy is discrete insulin infusion based on long-time interval measurement, in this paper, we design a closed-loop control system for continuous drug infusion to improve the traditional discrete methods and make diabetes therapy automatic in practice. By exploring the accumulative function of drug to insulin, a continuous injection model is proposed. Based on this model, proportional-integral-derivative (PID and fuzzy logic controllers are designed to tackle a control problem of the resulting highly nonlinear plant. Even with serious disturbance of glucose, such as nutrition absorption at meal time, the proposed scheme can perform well in simulation experiments.

  17. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH ANTIBODY DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akefeh Ahmadi Afshar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG infusion is an effective treatment for children with humoral immunodeficiencies, already be complicated by systemic ad¬verse effects. In order to determine the adverse effects of intravenous immunoglobulin inpatients with antibody deficiency, 45 immunodeficientpatients receiving intravenous immunoglobulin were studied during a 36-month period at Children's Medical Center. The investigated group included 25 patients with common variable immunodeficiency, 14 patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and 6 patients with IgG subclass defi¬ciency. A total of fifty adverse effects occurred through 955 infusions (5.2%. The most frequent immediate adverse effects were mild (40 infusions out of 955 in 22 cases, including: chills, flushing, fever, nausea and headache. Three patients experienced mod¬erate effects (10 infusions out of 955 such as rash, severe headache, joint pain and chest tightness. None of the effects was anaphylactic type. It can be concluded that intravenous immunoglobulin is generally a well-tolerated medical agent for patients with antibody deficiency, but all patients should be monitored by a physician who is familiar with its indications, risks, adverse effects and their appropriate management.

  18. Leucine metabolism in lactating and dry goats: effect of insulin and substrate availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesseraud, S; Grizard, J; Debras, E; Papet, I; Bonnet, Y; Bayle, G; Champredon, C

    1993-09-01

    Early lactating goats show insulin resistance with respect to extramammary glucose utilization. However, much less is known about the two major factors, insulin and plasma amino acid concentration, that regulate protein metabolism in lactating goats. To examine this question, the in vivo effect of acute insulin was studied in goats during early lactation (12-31 days postpartum), midlactation (98-143 days postpartum), and the dry period (approximately 1 yr postpartum). Insulin was infused (at 0.36 or 1.79 nmol/min) under euglycemic and eukaliemic clamps. In addition, appropriate amino acid infusion was used to blunt insulin-induced hypoaminoacidemia or to create hyperaminoacidemia and maintain this condition under insulin treatment. Leucine kinetics were assessed using a primed continuous infusion of L-[1-14C]-leucine, which started 2.5 h before insulin. In all animals the insulin treatments failed to stimulate the nonoxidative leucine disposal (an estimate of whole body protein synthesis) under both euaminoacidemic and hyperaminoacidemic conditions. Thus, in goat as well as humans, infusion of insulin fails to stimulate protein synthesis even when combined with a substantially increased provision of amino acids. In contrast, insulin treatments caused a dose-dependent inhibition of the endogenous leucine appearance (an estimate of whole body protein degradation). Under euaminoacidemia the initial slope from the plot of the endogenous leucine appearance as a function of plasma insulin (an insulin sensitivity index) was steeper during early lactation than when compared with the dry period. A similar trend occurred during midlactation but not to any significant degree. These differences were abolished under hyperaminoacidemia. It was concluded that the ability of physiological insulin to inhibit protein degradation was improved during lactation, demonstrating a clear-cut dissociation between the effects of insulin on protein and glucose metabolism. This adaptation no doubt may provide a mechanism to save body protein. PMID:8214049

  19. Computed tomography intravenous cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indications for direct visualization of the bile ducts include bile duct dilatation demonstrated by ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scanning, where the cause of the bile duct dilatation is uncertain or where the anatomy of bile duct obstruction needs further clarification. Another indication is right upper quadrant pain, particularly in a post-cholecystectomy patient, where choledocholithiasis is suspected. A possible new indication is pre-operative evaluation prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The bile ducts are usually studied by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), or, less commonly, trans-hepatic cholangiography. The old technique of intravenous cholangiography has fallen into disrepute because of inconsistent bile-duct opacification. The advent of spiral CT scanning has renewed interest in intravenous cholangiography. The CT technique is very sensitive to the contrast agent in the bile ducts, and angiographic and three-dimensional reconstructions of the biliary tree can readily be obtained using the CT intravenous cholangiogram technique (CT IVC). Seven patients have been studied using this CT IVC technique, between February 1995 and June 1996, and are the subject of the present report. Eight further studies have since been performed. The results suggest that CT IVC could replace ERCP as the primary means of direct cholangiography, where pancreatic duct visualization is not required. (authors)

  20. Plasma Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium During Hypocalcaemia Induced by a Standardized EDTA Infusion in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enemark JMD

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The intravenous Na2EDTA infusion technique allows effective specific chelation of circulating Ca2+ leading to a progressive hypocalcaemia. Methods previously used were not described in detail and results obtained by monitoring total and free ionic calcium were not comparable due to differences in sampling and analysis. This paper describes a standardized EDTA infusion technique that allowed comparison of the response of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between 2 groups of experimental cows. The concentration of the Na2EDTA solution was 0.134 mol/l and the flow rate was standardized at 1.2 ml/kg per hour. Involuntary recumbency occurred when ionised calcium dropped to 0.39 – 0.52 mmol/l due to chelation. An initial fast drop of ionized calcium was observed during the first 20 min of infusion followed by a fluctuation leading to a further drop until recumbency. Pre-infusion [Ca2+] between tests does not correlate with the amount of EDTA required to induce involuntary recumbence. Total calcium concentration measured by atomic absorption remained almost constant during the first 100 min of infusion but declined gradually when the infusion was prolonged. The concentration of inorganic phosphate declined gradually in a fluctuating manner until recumbency. Magnesium concentration remained constant during infusion. Such electrolyte responses during infusion were comparable to those in spontaneous milk fever. The standardized infusion technique might be useful in future experimental studies.

  1. Short and long term treatment of asthma with intravenous nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrader Welman A

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is an increasing problem in this country and others. Although medications for the treatment of asthma abound and are improving, there are inherent risks and side effects with all of them. Intravenous magnesium has been employed in the treatment of acute asthma, but its use has not become universal, nor has it been studied for the treatment of chronic asthma. It is known to be a safe drug with minimal side effects. In this study, the author investigates the use of magnesium and other nutrients in the treatment of both acute and chronic asthma. Methods In this non-blinded outcome study, following informed consent, forty-three (43 randomly selected volunteer patients with both acute and chronic asthma were treated with IV infusions described herein. All patients were observed with spirometry 10 minutes post-infusion; two sub-groups of patients were also observed after multiple infusions over a short period of time (less than one month and a longer period of time (average 5.8 months. Pulmonary function was analyzed by spirometric testing with pre- and post-infusion spirometric measurements with the pre/post group. For longer term (Trend patients, baseline spirometry measurements were compared to spirometry measurements after patients had received multiple infusions over a period of time. Eight (8 patients were measured for both pre/post and Trend data. Results The 38 pre-infusion/post-infusion patients with acute and chronic asthma demonstrated an overall average improvement (percentage improvement in percent predicted of 45%. The 13 patients measured for improvement over time (Trend data, average duration 5.82 months, demonstrated an overall average improvement (percentage improvement in percent predicted of 57%. Of the 13 patients in the multiple infusion group, 9 patients who received longer-term therapy (average duration of 12.58 months for chronic asthma demonstrated an overall average improvement of 95% (percentage improvement in percent predicted. Conclusion The use of intravenous treatment with multiple nutrients, including magnesium, for acute and chronic asthma may be of considerable benefit. Pulmonary function improved progressively the longer patients received treatment.

  2. Actions of prolonged ghrelin infusion on gastrointestinal transit and glucose homeostasis in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkén, Y; Hellström, P M

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin is produced by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa and stimulates gastric emptying in healthy volunteers and patients with gastroparesis in short-term studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of intravenous ghrelin on gastrointestinal motility and glucose homeostasis during a 6-h infusion in humans.

  3. Isolated limb infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kroon, Hidde Maarten

    2009-01-01

    ‘Isolated limb infusion’ (ILI) has been developed in the 1990s as a minimally invasive alternative to ‘isolated limb perfusion’ (ILP). Both techniques are designed to treat locally advanced melanoma and sarcoma confined to the limb with locally high dose cytotoxic drugs. After treatment amputation can be avoided in most patients. The most important difference between both techniques is that in ILI the catheters (to create an isolated circuit) are placed percutaneously while this i...

  4. Acetaminophen by infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoski, Beatrice B

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a nonsteroidal, nonsalicylate analgesic and antipyretic that is, today, the most common medication ingredient found in oral and rectal over-the-counter and prescription drugs. However, it was not until 2010 that Ofirmev (acetaminophen), an injection form of acetaminophen, was approved for treating mild to moderate pain, as an adjunct to opioids for severe pain, and reduction of fever in those younger than 2 years. Thus, intravenous acetaminophen may be appropriately used in a wide variety of settings and nurses who are knowledgeable and informed about the correct use of intravenous acetaminophen will be able to reduce the potential for medication misadventures. In this article, the uses and cautions for Ofirmev are discussed. PMID:25989127

  5. Glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity measurements derived from the non-insulin-assisted minimal model and the clamp techniques are concordant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jan Erik; Alford, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the concordance between glucose effectiveness (SG) and insulin sensitivity (SI), derived from the unmodified dynamic non-insulin-assisted intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) implemented by SG(MM) and SI(MM); simulation analysis and modelling/conversational interaction (SAAM/CONSAM) versus the eu/hyperglycaemic basal insulinaemic and the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (SG(CLAMP) and SI(CLAMP)).

  6. Influence of circulating epinephrine on absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of epinephrine (Epi) infusion on the absorption of subcutaneously injected 125I-labeled soluble human insulin (10 U) from the thigh or the abdomen were studied in 16 healthy subjects and from the thigh in 10 insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients. Epi was infused at 0.3 (high dose) or 0.1 (low dose; healthy subjects) nmol.kg-1.min-1 i.v., resulting in arterial plasma Epi levels of approximately 6 and 2 nM, respectively. Saline was infused on a control day. Insulin absorption was measured as disappearance of radioactivity from the injection site and as appearance of plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI). Adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe clearance technique. First-order disappearance rate constants of 125I from the thigh depot decreased approximately 40-50% during the high dose of Epi compared with control (P less than .001). The corresponding decrease from the abdominal depot was approximately 40% (P less than .001), whereas no significant change was found during the low Epi dose. IRI fell compared with control in all groups at the high Epi dose. The Epi-induced depression of insulin absorption occurred despite unaltered or even slightly increased subcutaneous blood flow. The results indicate that circulating Epi at levels seen during moderate physical stress depresses the absorption of soluble insulin from subcutaneous injection sites to an extent that might be important for glycemic control in IDDM patients. Furthermore, dissociation isDDM patients. Furthermore, dissociation is found between changes in insulin absorption and subcutaneous blood flow during Epi infusion, suggesting that factors other than blood flow may also influence the absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin

  7. Central insulin enhances sensitivity to cholecystokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedy, C A; Chavez, M; Figlewicz, D P; Woods, S C

    1995-10-01

    Insulin acts in the brain to reduce food intake and body weight. Cholecystokinin (CCK) reduces meal size when administered peripherally. The purpose of these experiments was to examine their interaction. In Experiment 1, Long-Evans rats were infused with vehicle or insulin at doses from 0.5 to 2.0 mU/day into the third cerebral ventricles. Doses of 1.0 mU/day and higher caused reduced body weight. A dose of 0.5 mU/day was therefore taken to be subthreshold. In Experiment 2, rats receiving 0.5 mU/day of insulin intracerebroventricularly had greater suppression of 30-min meal size in response to intraperitoneal CCK-8 at doses from 0.25 to 8 mg/kg than did rats receiving intracerebroventricular saline. By itself, the insulin had no effect on body weight or meal size. However, a change of sensitivity to CCK by control rats over the course of the experiment clouded the interpretation. A third experiment was therefore conducted in which rats received an acute intracerebroventricular injection of insulin (0.1 mU) or saline 1 h prior to a 30-min meal, and IP CCK-8 (4 mg/kg) or saline immediately prior to the meal. As in Experiment 2, insulin, itself, had no effect on meal size but enhanced the anorexic effect of CCK. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that central insulin acts by altering sensitivity to satiety agents. PMID:8559787

  8. Stable-label intravenous glucose tolerance test minimal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The minimal model approach to estimating insulin sensitivity (Sl) and glucose effectiveness in promoting its own disposition at basal insulin (SG) is a powerful tool that has been underutilized given its potential applications. In part, this has been due to its inability to separate insulin and glucose effects on peripheral uptake from their effects on hepatic glucose inflow. Prior enhancements, with radiotracer labeling of the dosage, permit this separation but are unsuitable for use in pregnancy and childhood. In this study, we labeled the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) dosage with [6,6-2H2]glucose, [2-2H]glucose, or both stable isotopically labeled glucose tracers and modeled glucose kinetics in six postabsorptive, nonobese adults. As previously found with the radiotracer model, the tracer-estimated S*l derived from the stable-label IVGTT was greater than Sl in each case except one, and the tracer-estimated SG* was less than SG in each instance. More importantly, however, the stable-label IVGTT estimated each parameter with an average precision of +/- 5% (range 3-9%) compared to average precisions of +/- 74% (range 7-309%) for SG and +/- 22% (range 3-72%) for Sl. In addition, because of the different metabolic fates of the two deuterated tracers, there were minor differences in basal insulin-derived measures of glucose effectiveness, but these differences were negligible for parameters describing insulin-stimulated procemeters describing insulin-stimulated processes. In conclusion, the stable-label IVGTT is a simple, highly precise means of assessing insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness at basal insulin that can be used to measure these parameters in individuals of all ages, including children and pregnant women

  9. Insulin stimulates muscle protein synthesis in neonates during endotoxemia despite repression of translation initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeletal muscle protein synthesis is reduced in neonatal pigs in response to endotoxemia. To examine the role of insulin in this response, neonatal pigs were infused with endotoxin (LPS, 0 and 10 µg•kg(-1)•h(-1)), whereas glucose and amino acids were maintained at fasting levels and insulin was clam...

  10. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this "off-label" application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100

  11. Phase I study of intravenous iododeoxyuridine as a clinical radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four patients with locally advanced (19 patients) or metastatic (5 patients) tumors were treated in a Phase I study combining constant intravenous infusions of iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) and hyperfractionated radiation therapy. IUdR was given as a constant infusion for 12 hours/day for two separate 14-day infusion periods in most patients. The dose of IUdR was escalated from 250 to 1200 mg/m2/12-hour infusion in this study. The initial tumor volume was treated to 45 Gy/1.5 Gy BID/3 weeks followed by a cone-down boost to 20-25 Gy/1.25 Gy BID/2 weeks after a planned 2-week break. THe IUdR infusion preceded the initial and cone-down irradiation by 1 week. Local acute toxicity (within the radiation volume) was uncommon and few patients required an alteration of the planned treatment schedule. Two patients developed late local toxicity with one patient showing clinical signs of radiation hepatitis and another patient developing a large bowel obstruction that required surgical bypass. Dose-limiting systemic toxicity was confined to the bone marrow with moderate to severe thrombocytopenia developing on Day 10-14 of infusions at 1200 mg/m2/12 hours. Mild stomatitis and partial alopecia occurred in some patients at this dose level. No systemic skin toxicity was seen. Pharmacology studies revealed steady-state arterial plasma levels of IUdR of 1 to 8 X 10(-6) M over the dose range used. In vivo IUdR incorporation into tumors was studied in three patients with high-grade sardied in three patients with high-grade sarcomas using an anti-IUdR monoclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry and demonstrated incorporation in up to 50-70% of tumor cells. The preliminary treatment results, particularly in patients with unresectable sarcomas, are encouraging

  12. Low ethanol consumption increases insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuya D.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several human studies suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, but these studies are not free of conflicting results. To determine if ethanol-enhanced insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated in an animal model, male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet and received drinking water without (control or with different ethanol concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 7%, v/v for 4 weeks ad libitum. Then, an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT was performed to determine insulin sensitivity. Among the ethanol groups, only the 3% ethanol group showed an increase in insulin sensitivity based on the increase of the plasma glucose disappearance rate in the IVITT (30%, P<0.05. In addition, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT was performed in control and 3% ethanol animals. Insulin sensitivity was confirmed in 3% ethanol rats based on the reduction of insulin secretion in the IVGTT (35%, P<0.05, despite the same glucose profile. Additionally, the 3% ethanol treatment did not impair body weight gain or plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. Thus, the present study established that 3% ethanol in the drinking water for 4 weeks in normal rats is a model of increased insulin sensitivity, which can be used for further investigations of the mechanisms involved.

  13. Innovations in subcutaneous infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Annette O

    2015-01-01

    Parenteral drug delivery is an essential part of patient care. The subcutaneous (SC) route is easily accessed, is more cost-effective, and provides increased convenience for the patient than the other parenteral methods. The pharmacokinetic profile of medications delivered SC reflect bioavailabilities similar to intravenous (IV) delivery. The coadministration of human recombinant hyaluronidase with SC medications enhances the maximum concentration and time to maximum concentration to more closely mimic drugs delivered by the IV route. Pharmaceutical companies are studying and successfully developing new formulations of current medications for delivery via the SC route. PMID:25871865

  14. Central venous line complications with chronic ambulatory infusion of prostacyclin analogues in pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Marr, Courtney R.; McSweeney, Julia E.; Mullen, Mary P.; Kulik, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic infusion of prostacyclin (PGI2) via a Broviac central venous line (CVL) is attended by risk of CVL-related complications, but we know of only one report regarding CVL-associated bloodstream infection (BSI) with PGI2 in children and none regarding other complications. We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension treated with chronic intravenous infusion of PGI2 at Boston Children’s Hospital and determined the rate (per 1,000 line-da...

  15. Safety and feasibility of countering neurological impairment by intravenous administration of autologous cord blood in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Young-Ho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds We conducted a pilot study of the infusion of intravenous autologous cord blood (CB in children with cerebral palsy (CP to assess the safety and feasibility of the procedure as well as its potential efficacy in countering neurological impairment. Methods Patients diagnosed with CP were enrolled in this study if their parents had elected to bank their CB at birth. Cryopreserved CB units were thawed and infused intravenously over 10~20 minutes. We assessed potential efficacy over 6 months by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, and various evaluation tools for motor and cognitive functions. Results Twenty patients received autologous CB infusion and were evaluated. The types of CP were as follows: 11 quadriplegics, 6 hemiplegics, and 3 diplegics. Infusion was generally well-tolerated, although 5 patients experienced temporary nausea, hemoglobinuria, or urticaria during intravenous infusion. Diverse neurological domains improved in 5 patients (25% as assessed with developmental evaluation tools as well as by fractional anisotropy values in brain MRI-DTI. The neurologic improvement occurred significantly in patients with diplegia or hemiplegia rather than quadriplegia. Conclusions Autologous CB infusion is safe and feasible, and has yielded potential benefits in children with CP.

  16. Contribution of insulin to the translational control of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by leucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Joshua C; Lang, Charles H; Crozier, Stephen J; Anthony, Tracy G; MacLean, David A; Kimball, Scot R; Jefferson, Leonard S

    2002-05-01

    Enhanced protein synthesis in skeletal muscle after ingestion of a balanced meal in postabsorptive rats is mimicked by oral leucine administration. To assess the contribution of insulin to the protein synthetic response to leucine, food-deprived (18 h) male rats (approximately 200 g) were intravenously administered a primed-constant infusion of somatostatin (60 microg + 3 microg.kg(-1).h(-1)) or vehicle beginning 1 h before administration of leucine (1.35 g L-leucine/kg) or saline (control). Rats were killed 15, 30, 45, 60, or 120 min after leucine administration. Compared with controls, serum insulin concentrations were elevated between 15 and 45 min after leucine administration but returned to basal values by 60 min. Somatostatin maintained insulin concentrations at basal levels throughout the time course. Protein synthesis was increased between 30 and 60 min, and this effect was blocked by somatostatin. Enhanced assembly of the mRNA cap-binding complex (composed of eukaryotic initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G) and hyperphosphorylation of the eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), the 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), and the ribosomal protein S6 (rp S6) were observed as early as 15 min and persisted for at least 60 min. Somatostatin attenuated the leucine-induced changes in 4E-BP1 and S6K1 phosphorylation and completely blocked the change in rp S6 phosphorylation but had no effect on eIF4G small middle dot eIF4E assembly. Overall, the results suggest that the leucine-induced enhancement of protein synthesis and the phosphorylation states of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 are facilitated by the transient increase in serum insulin. In contrast, assembly of the mRNA cap-binding complex occurs independently of increases in insulin and, by itself, is insufficient to stimulate rates of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle after leucine administration. PMID:11934675

  17. Correction of hypovolemia with crystalloid fluids: Individualizing infusion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamis, George; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Elisaf, Moses S

    2015-05-01

    Many situations in clinical practice involving patients with hypovolemia or acutely ill patients usually require the administration of intravenous fluids. Current evidence shows that the use of crystalloids should be considered, since most colloids and human albumin are usually associated with increased adverse effects and high cost, respectively. Among crystalloids, the use of normal saline is implicated with the development of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal vasoconstriction. These observations have led many authors to propose balanced solutions, mainly Lactated Ringer's, as the infusate of choice. However, although the restoration of volume status is the primary target in hypovolemic state, the correction of any associated acid-base or electrolyte disorders that frequently coexist is also of vital importance. This review presents specific situations that are common in daily clinical practice and require targeted infusate therapy in patients with reduced volume status. Furthermore, the review presents an algorithm aiming to help clinicians to make the best choice between normal or hypotonic saline and lactated Ringer's infusates. Lactated Ringer's infusate should not be given in patients with severe metabolic alkalosis, lactic acidosis with decreased lactate clearance, or severe hyperkalemia, and in patients with traumatic brain injury or at risk of increased intracranial pressure. The optimal choice of infusate should be guided by the cause of hypovolemia, the cardiovascular state of the patient, the renal function, as well as the serum osmolality and the coexisting acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Clinicians should be aware of any coexisting disorders in patients with hypovolemia and guide their choice of infusate treatment based on the overall picture of their patients. PMID:25812486

  18. Interaction between exogenous insulin, endogenous insulin, and glucose in type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janukonyté, Jurgita; Parkner, Tina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the influence of exogenous insulin and actual glucose levels on the release of endogenous insulin in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. This study investigated the interaction among serum endogenous insulin (s-EI), serum exogenous insulin aspart (s-IAsp), and blood glucose levels in an experimental short-term crossover design. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight T2DM patients (63.52 years old; range, 49-69 years; mean body mass index, 28.8±3.8?kg/m(2)) were randomized to treatment with individual fixed doses of insulin aspart (0.5-1.5?IU/h) as a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) during a 10-h period on two occasions with different duration of hyperglycemia: (1) transient hyperglycemia for 2?h (visit TH) and (2) continuous hyperglycemia for 12?h (visit CH). RESULTS: During steady state the variances of plasma glucose (p-glucose), s-IAsp, and s-EI were equal within visit TH and within visit CH, but variances were significantly higher during visit CH compared with visit TH. The s-IAsp reached lower levels at visit CH compared with visit TH (test for slope=1, P=0.005). The s-EI depended on p-glucose in a nonlinear fashion during the first 100?min of both visits when s-IAsp was undetectable (adjusted R(2)=0.9). A complex but statistically significant interaction among s-IAsp, s-EI, p-glucose, and patients was observed during measurable s-IAsp levels (adjusted R(2)=0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Endogenous and exogenous insulin showed higher variation during continuous hyperglycemia. Significantly lower levels of exogenous insulin were observed following CSII during continuous hyperglycemia compared with transient hyperglycemia. Endogenous insulin levels could in a complex way be explained by an individual interaction among p-glucose and serum exogenous insulin, if present.

  19. Interaction Between Exogenous Insulin, Endogenous Insulin, and Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janukonyté, Jurgita; Parkner, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Little is known about the influence of exogenous insulin and actual glucose levels on the release of endogenous insulin in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. This study investigated the interaction among serum endogenous insulin (s-EI), serum exogenous insulin aspart (s-IAsp), and blood glucose levels in an experimental short-term crossover design. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight T2DM patients (63.52 years old; range, 49-69 years; mean body mass index, 28.8±3.8?kg/m2) were randomized to treatment with individual fixed doses of insulin aspart (0.5-1.5?IU/h) as a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) during a 10-h period on two occasions with different duration of hyperglycemia: (1) transient hyperglycemia for 2?h (visit TH) and (2) continuous hyperglycemia for 12?h (visit CH). RESULTS: During steady state the variances of plasma glucose (p-glucose), s-IAsp, and s-EI were equal within visit TH and within visit CH, but variances were significantly higher during visit CH compared with visit TH. The s-IAsp reached lower levels at visit CH compared with visit TH (test for slope=1, P=0.005). The s-EI depended on p-glucose in a nonlinear fashion during the first 100?min of both visits when s-IAsp was undetectable (adjusted R2=0.9). A complex but statistically significant interaction among s-IAsp, s-EI, p-glucose, and patients was observed during measurable s-IAsp levels (adjusted R2=0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Endogenous and exogenous insulin showed higher variation during continuous hyperglycemia. Significantly lower levels of exogenous insulin were observed following CSII during continuous hyperglycemia compared with transient hyperglycemia. Endogenous insulin levels could in a complex way be explained by an individual interaction among p-glucose and serum exogenous insulin, if present.

  20. Smart Infusion Pump: A boon to the Health Care Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Padmaja#1 , Apoorva M. Kalgal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Main motive of any hospital or clinic is to provide the best patient care. Patient care can be drastically improved using electronic medical record. An electronic medical record (EMR is a computerized medical record created in an organization that delivers care, such as a hospital or physician's office. The costs of storage media, such as paper and film, per unit of information differ dramatically from that of electronic storage media. When paper records are stored in different locations, collating them to a single location for review by a health care provider is time consuming and complicated, whereas the process can be simplified with electronic records. When treating a patient another major thing is to monitor the drug or fluid administered to the patient. Better and safer drug delivery systems will be the one with automatic or an intelligent infusion pump system. Thus automatic intravenous infusion will efficiently reduce medication and administration error.

  1. Putting brakes on insulin pump infusion to prevent hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Eda

    2011-09-01

    The author provides an analysis of the study published by Agrawal and colleagues, in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, which describes usage and effectiveness of the low glucose suspend feature that is integrated into the Medtronic Paradigm® Veo™ sensor-augmented pump system. PMID:22027307

  2. Putting Brakes on Insulin Pump Infusion to Prevent Hypoglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Eda

    2011-01-01

    The author provides an analysis of the study published by Agrawal and colleagues, in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, which describes usage and effectiveness of the low glucose suspend feature that is integrated into the Medtronic Paradigm® Veo™ sensor-augmented pump system.

  3. Insulin infusion reduces hepatocyte growth factor in lean humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) is significantly elevated in obesity and may contribute to vascular disease, metabolic syndrome or cancer in obese individuals. The current studies were done to determine if hyperinsulinemia increases plasma HGF. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twenty-two participants (10 women/12 men, BMI 20.6-34.5 kg/m(2), age 18-49 years) underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with measurement of HGF at baseline and steady state. Relationships between baseline HGF, anthropometrics, triglycerides, liver enzymes, c-reactive protein and adiponectin were also evaluated. RESULTS: Fasting HGF was positively correlated (P

  4. Insulin resistance in septic rats - a study by the euglycemic clamp technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male Wistar rats weighing 250±30g were made septic by cecum ligation and perforation. Peripheral and hepatic sensitivity to insulin was assessed by the euglycemic glucose clamp technique with simultaneous [3H]glucose infusion. Hepatic glucose output was not suppressed by the insulin infusion in the septic rats in contrast with the controls. Glucose utilization by the peripheral tissues was not significantly different between the septic and control rats. Counterregulatory hormone levels were higher in the septic group. Our data suggest that the liver is the site of insulin resistance in the septic state

  5. Intravenous tranquillization with ECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, J; Dally, P

    1975-12-01

    Forty depressed in-patients for whom electro-convulsive therapy had been prescribed were rated before treatment on depression and anxiety scales. Side effects, post-operative agitation and retrograde memory impairment were assessed in each patient after each of several treatments. Results were compared when no tranquillizer was given and when either diazepam or haloperidol was administered intravenously immediately before the anaesthetic. It was found than when ECT was given without tranquillization, the incidence and severity of post-operative agitation and of side effects were significantly greater in those patients with a high level of anxiety before treatment. Both diazepam and haloperidol were found to be effective in subduing agitation and side effects in anxious, depressed patients, but with diazepam recovery time was longer. PMID:1201456

  6. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in the water before entering the salt bag and mixing with the salt to create a normal saline solution.

  7. Pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy of bleomycin administered by continuous infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was done at Memorial Hospital in which Bleomycin was given by continuous intravenous infusion to radiation therapy patients with a variety of far advanced unresectable malignant neoplastic diseases. Smaller doses than usual were administered initially, approximately 1/10 the dose that had been previously studied. The dose was gradually escalated when it was shown that there was no acute toxicity from the smaller dose. Bleomycin blood levels were measured by bioassay and pulmonary function was studied by measurement of total lung capacity and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. In this study, therapeutic activity in cervix cancer appeared to be significantly better than in earlier studies by the same group of investigators. However, in vitro and animal studies in the author's own clinical pharmacologic studies support the logic of continuous intravenous administration in the effort to decrease pulmonary toxicity and to improve therapeutic effect

  8. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral thiamine has a very high safety profile. The most common adverse effect is local irritation; however, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions may occur, mostly related to intravenous administration. We describe a 44-year-old man, a chronic alcoholic, who was admitted with alcohol intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations. He was discharged in good health after 14 days. This case report emphasises both the importance of recognising the symptoms of anaphylaxis and the fact that facilities for treating anaphylaxis and cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be available when thiamine or for that matter, any drug is given in-hospital.

  9. Intravenous lipid emulsion given to volunteers does not affect symptoms of lidocaine brain toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Juho A; Litonius, Erik; Salmi, Tapani; Haasio, Juhani; Tarkkila, Pekka; Backman, Janne T; Rosenberg, Per H

    2015-04-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion has been suggested as treatment for local anaesthetic toxicity, but the exact mechanism of action is still uncertain. Controlled studies on the effect of lipid emulsion on toxic doses of local anaesthetics have not been performed in man. In randomized, subject-blinded and two-phase cross-over fashion, eight healthy volunteers were given a 1.5 ml/kg bolus of 20% Intralipid(®) (200 mg/ml) or Ringer's acetate solution intravenously, followed by a rapid injection of lidocaine 1.0 mg/kg. Then, the same solution as in the bolus was infused at a rate of 0.25 ml/kg/min. for 30 min. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded, and 5 min. after lidocaine injection, the volunteers were asked to report subjective symptoms. Total and un-entrapped lidocaine plasma concentrations were measured from venous blood samples. EEG band power changes (delta, alpha and beta) after the lidocaine bolus were similar during lipid and during Ringer infusion. There were no differences between infusions in the subjective symptoms of central nervous system toxicity. Lidocaine was only minimally entrapped in the plasma by lipid emulsion, but the mean un-entrapped lidocaine area under concentration-time curve from 0 to 30 min. was clearly smaller during lipid than Ringer infusion (16.4 versus 21.3 mg × min/l, p = 0.044). Intravenous lipid emulsion did not influence subjective toxicity symptoms nor affect the EEG changes caused by lidocaine. PMID:25207682

  10. Hemodynamic effects of rapid and slow infusions of manganese chloride and gadolinium-DTPA in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute hemodynamic effects of two paramagnetic contrast materials, manganese chloride and gadolinium-DTPA, were examined in dogs using ultrasonic dimension gauge crystals. Slow infusions (more than 15 minutes) of MnCl2 or Gd-DTPA via an infusion pump had no significant hemodynamic effects. When given in just over 1 minute, Gd-DTPA produced elevated left ventricular (LV) end diastolic pressure and minor dilation of the ventricle and slowed diastolic filling. MnCl2, given rapidly, reduced systemic vascular resistance, resulting in hypotension. With both agents, these side effects waned after 5-10 minutes. It is concluded that both Gd-DTPA and MnCl2 can be given safely in 0.1-mm/kg doses when administered as a slow, continuous infusion. Slow, intravenous infusion of Gd-DTPA or MnCl2 is likely to be tolerated well by even severely ill individuals

  11. ANSWER: Complications of intraosseous infusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Pande, Ketan; Mamman, Kylath George

    2011-01-01

    (Refer to page 209)Answer: Osteomyelitis of the tibia following intraosseous infusionIn critically ill or injured paediatric patients, intraosseous infusion (IO) provides rapid access to the systemic venous circulation. This has replaced venous cut-down and central line insertion in emergency situations, being included in standard protocols and trainingprocedures recommended by most specialty associations and societies.

  12. Severe and prolonged hypophosphatemia after intravenous iron administration in a malnourished patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierz, Y C; Kenmeni, R; Gonthier, A; Lier, F; Pralong, F; Coti Bertrand, P

    2014-04-01

    Malnutrition may result in a phosphate-deficient state owing to a chronically insufficient phosphate intake. Concomitant iron deficiency is common and often supplemented by the intravenous route. It is not widely recognized that some parenteral iron formulations can induce hypophosphatemia. Herein we report a case of a severe and symptomatic hypophosphatemia (0.18 mM, normal range 0.8-1.4 mM) associated with an inappropriately reduced tubular reabsorption of phosphate (33%, norm >95%) in a malnourished patient with anorexia/bulimia who received 2 × 500 mg iron carboxymaltose (FCM) intravenously. Despite intravenous and oral phosphate supplements, it required 2 months to achieve a normal serum phosphate level. Our case demonstrates that in a chronically malnourished and phosphate-deficient state intravenous FCM could potentially be dangerous. If this form of iron application cannot be avoided, phosphate supplementation before and after iron infusion as well as close monitoring of phosphate levels are needed. PMID:24569537

  13. In vivo effects of glucosamine on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in the rat: possible relevance to the maladaptive responses to chronic hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccari, A; Morviducci, L; Zorretta, D; Sbraccia, P; Leonetti, F; Caiola, S; Buongiorno, A; Bonadonna, R C; Tamburrano, G

    1995-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that glucosamine, a putative activator of glucose toxicity in vitro through acceleration of the hexosamine pathway, may determine in vivo the two key features of glucose toxicity in diabetes, namely, peripheral insulin resistance and decreased insulin secretion. Two groups of awake rats were studied either with intraarterial administration of glucosamine (5 mumol.kg-1.min-1) or saline. Insulin secretion was determined after arginine, glucose (hyperglycaemic clamp), and arginine/glucose infusions, while insulin-mediated glucose metabolism was assessed by the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in combination with [3-3H]-glucose infusion. Glucosamine had no effects on arginine-induced insulin secretion both at euglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, but significantly (40-50%) impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion (both first and second phases). During euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp studies, glucosamine decreased glucose uptake by approximately 30%, affecting glycolysis (estimated from 3H2O rate of appearance) and muscle glycogen synthesis (calculated from accumulation of [3H]-glucosyl units in muscle glycogen) to a similar extent. Muscle glucose 6-phosphate concentration was markedly reduced in the glucosamine-infused rats, suggesting an impairment in glucose transport/phosphorylation. Therefore, an increase in hexosamine metabolism in vivo: 1) inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion, and 2) reduces insulin stimulation of both glycolysis and glycogen synthesis, thereby mimicking in normal rats the major alterations due to glucose toxicity in diabetes. PMID:7489833

  14. Diagnostic Value of Provocative Test by Insulin Combined with Clonidine for Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Li Chen; Cheng Guo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of provocative test by insulin combined with clonidine for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during childhoodMethods: Eighty children underwent a provocative test with insulin(0.075U/Kg, intravenous) combined with clonidine (4?g/kg, orally). Among them, 40 children underwent clonidine provocative test, 40 children underwent insulin tolerance test (ITT) in another day.Findings: The specificity of ITT+clonidine test (74%, 88%) was remarkably higher tha...

  15. Selection of the appropriate method for the assessment of insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Borai Anwar; Livingstone Callum; Kaddam Ibrahim; Ferns Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Insulin resistance is one of the major aggravating factors for metabolic syndrome. There are many methods available for estimation of insulin resistance which range from complex techniques down to simple indices. For all methods of assessing insulin resistance it is essential that their validity and reliability is established before using them as investigations. The reference techniques of hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp and its alternative the frequently sampled intravenous gluc...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6990 - Infusion stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion stand. 880.6990 Section 880.6990...Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6990 Infusion stand. (a) Identification. The infusion stand is a stationary or movable stand...

  17. Insulin-independent regulation of hepatic triglyceride synthesis by fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatner, Daniel F.; Majumdar, Sachin K.; Kumashiro, Naoki; Petersen, Max C.; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Gattu, Arijeet K.; Bears, Mitchell; Camporez, João-Paulo G.; Cline, Gary W.; Jurczak, Michael J.; Samuel, Varman T.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2015-01-01

    A central paradox in type 2 diabetes is the apparent selective nature of hepatic insulin resistance—wherein insulin fails to suppress hepatic glucose production yet continues to stimulate lipogenesis, resulting in hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Although efforts to explain this have focused on finding a branch point in insulin signaling where hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism diverge, we hypothesized that hepatic triglyceride synthesis could be driven by substrate, independent of changes in hepatic insulin signaling. We tested this hypothesis in rats by infusing [U-13C] palmitate to measure rates of fatty acid esterification into hepatic triglyceride while varying plasma fatty acid and insulin concentrations independently. These experiments were performed in normal rats, high fat-fed insulin-resistant rats, and insulin receptor 2?-O-methoxyethyl chimeric antisense oligonucleotide-treated rats. Rates of fatty acid esterification into hepatic triglyceride were found to be dependent on plasma fatty acid infusion rates, independent of changes in plasma insulin concentrations and independent of hepatocellular insulin signaling. Taken together, these results obviate a paradox of selective insulin resistance, because the major source of hepatic lipid synthesis, esterification of preformed fatty acids, is primarily dependent on substrate delivery and largely independent of hepatic insulin action. PMID:25564660

  18. Continuous Regional Arterial Infusion Therapy for Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in a Child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of acute necrotizing pancreatitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was treated in an 8-year-old girl. She experienced acute pancreatitis during treatment for M. pneumoniae. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan revealed necrotizing pancreatitis. The computed tomographic severity index was 8 points (grade E). A protease inhibitor, ulinastatin, was provided via intravenous infusion but was ineffective. Continuous regional arterial infusion therapy was provided with gabexate mesilate (FOY-007, a protease inhibitor) and meropenem trihydrate, and the pancreatitis improved. This case suggests that infusion therapy is safe and useful in treating necrotizing pancreatitis in children.

  19. Therapeutics of Diabetes Mellitus: Focus on Insulin Analogues and Insulin Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Valla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Inadequately controlled diabetes accounts for chronic complications and increases mortality. Its therapeutic management aims in normal HbA1C, prandial and postprandial glucose levels. This review discusses diabetes management focusing on the latest insulin analogues, alternative insulin delivery systems and the artificial pancreas. Results. Intensive insulin therapy with multiple daily injections (MDI allows better imitation of the physiological rhythm of insulin secretion. Longer-acting, basal insulin analogues provide concomitant improvements in safety, efficacy and variability of glycaemic control, followed by low risks of hypoglycaemia. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII provides long-term glycaemic control especially in type 1 diabetic patients, while reducing hypoglycaemic episodes and glycaemic variability. Continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring (CGM systems provide information on postprandial glucose excursions and nocturnal hypo- and/or hyperglycemias. This information enhances treatment options, provides a useful tool for self-monitoring and allows safer achievement of treatment targets. In the absence of a cure-like pancreas or islets transplants, artificial “closed-loop” systems mimicking the pancreatic activity have been also developed. Conclusions. Individualized treatment plans for insulin initiation and administration mode are critical in achieving target glycaemic levels. Progress in these fields is expected to facilitate and improve the quality of life of diabetic patients.

  20. A model of chronic nutrient infusion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, Grace; Ethier, Mélanie; Zarrouki, Bader; Fontés, Ghislaine; Poitout, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to excessive levels of nutrients is postulated to affect the function of several organs and tissues and to contribute to the development of the many complications associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes. To study the mechanisms by which excessive levels of glucose and fatty acids affect the pancreatic beta-cell and the secretion of insulin, we have established a chronic nutrient infusion model in the rat. The procedure consists of catheterizing the right jugular vein and left carotid artery under general anesthesia; allowing a 7-day recuperation period; connecting the catheters to the pumps using a swivel and counterweight system that enables the animal to move freely in the cage; and infusing glucose and/or Intralipid (a soybean oil emulsion which generates a mixture of approximately 80% unsaturated/20% saturated fatty acids when infused with heparin) for 72 hr. This model offers several advantages, including the possibility to finely modulate the target levels of circulating glucose and fatty acids; the option to co-infuse pharmacological compounds; and the relatively short time frame as opposed to dietary models. It can be used to examine the mechanisms of nutrient-induced dysfunction in a variety of organs and to test the effectiveness of drugs in this context. PMID:23979115

  1. Newer insulin analogues and inhaled insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disease with high prevalence worldwide. Exogenous insulin is used in the management of this condition. The development of human insulin has provided tighter control of glycaemia in diabetic patients. Insulin analogues like insulin lispro and aspart were developed to closely match its profile with physiological secretion. The newer additions to this armamentarium are insulin glulisine, insulin detemir and albulin.Insulin glulisine is a short acting analogue with a rapid onset of action. The antiapoptotic property, mediated through insulin substrate receptor-2 has a favourable protective action on beta cells. Insulin detemir is a long acting analogue, soluble at neutral pH, which reversibly binds to albumin in plasma, prolonging its action. Its lower affinity for insulin receptors necessitates higher doses compared to human insulin. The reduction in body weight is an additional advantage of detemir. A major concern about all newer insulin analogues is their altered mitogenic properties and resultant risk of carcinogenicity on long term use. Albulin is a latest addition of insulin analogue which is under various in vitro and in vivo studies. Inhaled insulin in powder form (Exubera is recently approved by FDA and appears promising.

  2. Assessing insulin effectiveness at the end of the day: Once-daily versus twice-daily insulin glargine injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Mitchell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evidence supporting the twice-daily administration of insulin glargine as an approach to address its waning effectiveness at the end of a 24 hour period is sparse. We hypothesized that insulin concentrations determined during the last four hours of a 24 hour period would be greater when identical doses of insulin glargine were administered twice-daily as compared to once-daily among type 1 diabetes patients. Research Methods: Ten subjects with insulin deficient type 1 diabetes were admitted for two 38-hour studies at least one week apart. Patients received full-dose insulin glargine once daily at 0800 and half-dose insulin glargine twice-daily at 0800 and 2000 for at least one week in random order prior to overnight studies. Overnight glucose was stabilized with intravenous insulin on the evening prior to study, and subjects fasted and did not receive short acting insulin during the study period. Insulin concentrations were assessed every 30 minutes with an ultrasensitive assay between study hours 20 and 24. Results: Insulin concentrations for the final four hours of study period did not differ between once-daily and twice-daily insulin glargine administration (p = 0.38. Home glucose testing results and overnight plasma glucose concentrations did not differ between study conditions. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that insulin concentrations are equivalent during the last four hours of a 24-hour period when insulin glargine is administered once- or twice-daily. These findings do not support a role for twice-daily insulin glargine in the management of patients with type 1 diabetes.

  3. Insulin Human Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin inhalation is used in combination with a long-acting insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar ...

  4. Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Clearance are Heritable and Have Strong Genetic Correlation in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mark O.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Xiang, Anny H.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hanley, Anthony J. G.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Kandeel, Fouad; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Norris, Jill M.; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Lorenzo, Carlos; Rewers, Marian J.; Haffner, Steven M.; Bowden, Donald W.; Rich, Stephen S.; Bergman, Richard N.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We describe the GUARDIAN (Genetics UndeRlying DIAbetes in HispaNics) consortium, along with heritability estimates and genetic and environmental correlations of insulin sensitivity and metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI). Design and Methods GUARDIAN is comprised of seven cohorts, consisting of 4336 Mexican-American individuals in 1346 pedigrees. Insulin sensitivity (SI), MCRI, and acute insulin response (AIRg) were measured by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test in four cohorts. Insulin sensitivity (M, M/I) and MCRI were measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in three cohorts. Heritability and genetic and environmental correlations were estimated within the family cohorts (totaling 3925 individuals) using variance components. Results Across studies, age and gender-adjusted heritability of insulin sensitivity (SI, M, M/I) ranged from 0.23–0.48 and of MCRI from 0.35–0.73. The ranges for the genetic correlations were 0.91 to 0.93 between SI and MCRI; and ?0.57 to ?0.59 for AIRg and MCRI (all P<0.0001). The ranges for the environmental correlations were 0.54 to 0.74 for SI and MCRI (all P<0.0001); and ?0.16 to ?0.36 for AIRg and MCRI (P <0.0001?0.06). Conclusions These data support a strong familial basis for insulin sensitivity and MCRI in Mexican Americans. The strong genetic correlations between MCRI and SI suggest common genetic determinants. PMID:24124113

  5. Ultrasonography versus intravenous urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to compare the clinical value of urography and ultrasonography in a non-selected group of patients referred for urography to a university hospital. The conslusions and clinical implications of the study are as follows: Intravenous urography remains the cornerstone imaging examination in the evaluation of ureteral calculi. Ultrasonography is a valuable adjunct in cases of non- visualization of the kidneys, in distal obstruction and known contrast media allergy. When women with recurrent urinary tract infection are referred for imaging of the urinary tract, ultrasonography should be used. Ultrasonography should replace urography for screening of non-acute hydronephrosis like in female genital cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia. There is good correlation between urography and ultrasonography in assessing the degree of hydronephrosis. However, more researh on the relationship between hydronephrosis and obstruction is necessary. Ultrasonography should be used as the only imaging method of the upper urinary tract in patients with microscopic hematuria. In patients less than 50 years with macroscopic hematuria, ultrasonography should be used as the only imaging of the upper urinary tract, and an examination of the urinary bladder should be included. In patients over 50 years, urography supplied with ultrasonography should be used, but more research is necessary on the subject of imaging method and age. 158 refs

  6. Intravenous Niacin Acutely Improves the Efficiency of Dietary Fat Storage in Lean and Obese Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Robert H.; Vlazny, Danielle; Smailovic, Almira; Miles, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Spillover of fatty acids released by lipoprotein lipase hydrolysis of meal triglycerides may be a major contributor to the free fatty acid (FFA) pool. We studied lean (n = 6) and overweight and obese (n = 5) subjects during continuous feeding on two occasions: during intravenous infusion of niacin (2.8 mg/min) and saline. After establishment of steady-state chylomicronemia and suppression of adipose tissue lipolysis with a liquid meal, spillover was measured with infusions of [U-13C]oleate an...

  7. First pass effect by infusing 99mTc-human serum albumin into the hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental principles of intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy are thought to be increased local drug concentration and the ''first-pass'' effect. The concentration in the rest of the body can only be decreased if there is local elimination of the infused drug before reaching the systemic circulation. This is referred to as the ''first-pass'' effect. In the evaluation of ''first-pass'' effect, the uptake of liver after infusing 99mTc-human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) in the hepatic artery by injecting the subcutaneously implanted silicon reservoir was compared with that obtained after intravenous administration of 99mTc-HSA. In order to remove the factor of portal infusion, each count of liver up take had been continued for only 24 seconds after starting the liver uptake. The results are as follows : for 24 cases excepting 6 cases with catheter obstruction, the mean i.a./i.v. ratio was 7.92 ± 3.34 (range 3.25 to 17.25). Although the elimination rate of drugs in the liver varies with each drug, the infusion of intraarterial chemotherapy should be about 8 times more concentrative than intravenous administration on the ''first-pass'' effect. (author)

  8. Origin of urinary nonconjugated 19-nor-deoxycorticosterone and metabolism of infused radiolabeled 19-nor-deoxycorticosterone in men and women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that 19-nor-deoxycorticosterone (19-nor-DOC) is a potent mineralocorticosteroid that is present in urine of rats and humans in a free, i.e., nonconjugated, form. In the present investigation, the authors evaluated the metabolism of intravenously infused [3H]19-nor-DOC and the possibility that 19-nor-DOC was formed from plasma DOC. They found that the metabolism of [3H]19-nor-DOC infused intravenously in men and women was similar to that of DOC with important exceptions. The majority of the radiolabeled urinary metabolites of intravenously infused [3H]19-nor-DOC were excreted in urine as glucuronosides. Little radioactivity, infused as [3H]19-nor-DOC, was recovered in urine as nonconjugated or sulfoconjugated steroids. There was no free radiolabeled 19-nor-DOC in urine after the simultaneous infusion of [3H]19-nor-DOC and [14C]DOC. A major metabolite of [3H]19-nor-DOC in urine was 19-nor-DOC-21-glucuronoside, whereas little or no intravenously infused radiolabeled DOC was excreted as radiolabeled DOC-glucuronoside. They also found that intravenously infused [14C]DOC was not converted to urinary [14C]19-nor-DOC (glucuronoside) and that other tritium-labeled metabolites of infused [3H]19-nor-DOC contained no carbon-14. These findings are supportive of the proposition that free urinary 19-nor-DOC is not formed from plasma DOC; it may be formed in kidnefrom plasma DOC; it may be formed in kidney from a precursor other than DOC or it may be formed nonenzymatically in kidney or urine from a precursor such as 19-oic-DOC

  9. Low ethanol consumption increases insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.T., Furuya; R., Binsack; U.F., Machado.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several human studies suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, but these studies are not free of conflicting results. To determine if ethanol-enhanced insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated in an animal model, male Wistar rats were fed a [...] standard chow diet and received drinking water without (control) or with different ethanol concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 7%, v/v) for 4 weeks ad libitum. Then, an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT) was performed to determine insulin sensitivity. Among the ethanol groups, only the 3% ethanol group showed an increase in insulin sensitivity based on the increase of the plasma glucose disappearance rate in the IVITT (30%, P

  10. Population Pharmacokinetics of Extended-Infusion Piperacillin-Tazobactam in Hospitalized Patients with Nosocomial Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Felton, T. W.; Hope, W. W.; Lomaestro, B. M.; Butterfield, J. M.; Kwa, A. L.; Drusano, G. L.; Lodise, T. P.

    2012-01-01

    While extended infusions of piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) are increasingly used in practice, the effect of infusion on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of TZP has not been widely assessed. To assess its effect on the pharmacokinetic profile of TZP, seven serum samples were collected from 11 hospitalized patients who received 3.375 g TZP intravenously for 4 h every 8 h. Population pharmacokinetic models were fit to the PK data utilizing first-order, Michaelis-Menten (MM), and parallel first-or...

  11. Theoretical, clinical and pharmacokinetic aspects of cancer chemotherapy administered by continuous infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews some of the theoretical and empirical aspects of the administration of anti-cancer drugs by continuous intravenous infusion in conjunction with radiation therapy. The variables contributing to schedule dependence of anti-cancer drugs are discussed. A table shows the improved therapeutic index of Bleomycin by continuous infusion in mice. The use of Cytarabine, a pyrimidine anti-metabolite which kills cells during S-phase or DNA synthesis, is examined. Fluorouracil and Doxorubicin are examined and several other drugs including vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, and cisplatin are discussed

  12. Cost comparison of intravenous antibiotic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, R J

    1990-11-01

    The cost of preparing and administering intravenous antibiotics in an Australian teaching hospital was determined. The costs associated with acquisition, delivery (administration system, ancillary equipment, labour), and laboratory monitoring for potential toxicity were calculated. Standard regimens based on antibiotic guidelines were used to compile the daily total cost. The results indicate that these components affect the daily total cost of individual antibiotics in different ways. Acquisition cost is often a poor predictor of total cost, which ranges from 1.2 times to almost eight times the acquisition cost. Less frequent administration reduces total costs substantially, as does slow injection compared with infusion. Laboratory costs constitute between 3.6% and 23% of the daily total cost and are most pronounced with antibiotics that have low acquisition costs. Antibiotic cost containment should not focus on acquisition cost alone. Daily total cost to administer antibiotics is a more appropriate and accurate costing method. Hospitals must acknowledge the need for innovative resource allocation methods which recognise this fact. PMID:2233472

  13. Degludec insulin: A novel basal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Baruah, Manash; Kalra, Bharti

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews a novel insulin analogue, degludec, which has the potential to emerge as an ideal basal insulin. It reviews the limitations of existing basal insulin and analogues, and highlights the need for a newer molecule. The paper discusses the potential advantages of degludec, while reviewing its pharmacologic and clinical studies done so far. The paper assesses the potential role of insulin degludec and degludec plus in clinical diabetes practice.

  14. Volume Kinetics for Infusion Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Volume kinetics is a method for analyzing and simulating the distribution and elimination of infusion fluids. Approximately 50 studies describe the disposition of 0.9% saline, acetated and lactated Ringer´s solution, based on repeated measurements of the hemoglobin concentration and (sometimes) the urinary excretion. The slow distribution to the peripheral compartment results in a 50-75% larger plasma dilution during an infusion of crystalloid fluid than would be expected if distribution had...

  15. Glucagon infusion increases rate of purine synthesis de novo in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the parallel increases of glucagon, the second peak of hepatic cAMP, and the rate of purine synthesis de novo in the prereplicative period in regenerating rate liver after a 70% hepatectomy, it was hypothesized that glucagon is responsible for the increased rate of purine synthesis de novo. To test this hypothesis, the effect of glucagon or dibutyryl cAMP infusion on the rate of purine synthesis de novo in rat liver was studied. Glucagon infusion but not insulin or glucose infusion increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo, which was assayed by [14C]glycine or [14C]formate incorporation, by 2.7- to 4.3-fold. Glucagon infusion increased cAMP concentrations by 4.9-fold and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate concentrations by 1.5-fold in liver but did not change the specific activity of amidophosphoribosyltransferase or purine ribonucleotide concentrations. Dibutyryl cAMP infusion also increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo by 2.2- to 4.0-fold. Because glucagon infusion increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo in the presence of unchanged purine ribonucleotide concentrations, it is concluded that glucagon after infusion or in animals after a 70% hepatectomy is playing an anabolic role to increase the rate of purine synthesis de novo by increasing cAMP and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate concentrations

  16. Comparison of a 2-step insulin-response test to conventional insulin-sensitivity testing in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, F R; Sojka-Kritchevsky, J E

    2013-01-01

    Equine insulin resistance is important because of its association with laminitis. The insulin-response test is described to diagnose insulin resistance in clinical settings. Practitioners may be reluctant to perform this test because of the time needed for the test and the fear of inducing hypoglycemia. The objective of the study was to compare a 2-step insulin-response test with a complete insulin-response test. A complete insulin-response test was performed on 6 insulin-resistant horses and 6 controls. A 2-step insulin-response test consisting of an intravenous injection of 0.1 IU/kg human insulin and blood glucose determination at 0 and 30 min after injection was performed on the same horses. Times to reach a 50% reduction of glucose baseline were compared between tests and horses. All the horses tolerated both tests well. No significant difference was observed between baseline glucose concentrations of insulin-resistant horses and controls (P = 0.09). Time to reach 50% reduction of glucose baseline for controls was not significantly different with the use of the complete insulin-response test or the 2-step test (P = 0.98). For insulin-resistant horses, the time to reach 50% reduction of glucose baseline with the use of the 2-step test was significantly longer than for controls (P = 0.004). With a cut-off time of 30 min, the 2-step test had the same characteristics as the complete test. The 2-step test provided a safe, rapid, and low-cost method to diagnose insulin resistance in horses in a clinical setting. PMID:22920264

  17. Stimulation of whole body protein synthesis by insulin in neonates is dependent on the pattern of amino acids available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin stimulates muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. To determine insulin's effects on whole body protein turnover, (13)C-leucine was infused for 4 hr during hyperinsulinemic (0, 30, 100, 1000 ng/(kg(0.66)/min))-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps in fasted 7-d-old pigs (n=5/dose). Trophami...

  18. Insulin secretion in lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients is associated with high levels of nonglucose secretagogues and insulin resistance of beta-cells.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether plasma concentrations of nonglucose insulin secretagogues are associated with prehepatic insulin secretion rates (ISR) in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, lipodystrophic patients (LIPO). Additionally, the negative feedback of insulin on ISR was evaluated. ISR were estimated by deconvolution of plasma C-peptide concentrations during fasting (basal) and during the last 30 min of a 120-min euglycemic insulin clamp (40 mU.m(-2).min(-1)). Eighteen normoglycemic LIPO were compared with 25 normoglycemic HIV-infected patients without lipodystrophy (controls). Thirty minutes before start of the clamp, a bolus of glucose was injected intravenously to stimulate endogenous insulin secretion. Insulin sensitivity index (SiRd) was estimated from glucose tracer analysis. LIPO displayed increased basal ISR (69%), clamp ISR (114%), basal insulin (130%), and clamp insulin (32%), all P 0.65, P 0.41, P 0.51, P < 0.05). In control subjects, ISRclamp correlated with clamp triglyceride (r = 0.45, P < 0.05). Paradoxically, in LIPO, ISRclamp correlated positively with clamp insulin (r = 0.68, P < 0.01), which suggests an absent negative feedback of insulin on ISR. Our data support evidence that lipodystrophic, nondiabetic, HIV-infected patients exhibit increased ISR, which can be partially explained by an impaired negative feedback of insulin on beta-cells and an increased stimulation of ISR by FFA, alanine, triglyceride, and glucagon.

  19. Insulin secretion in lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients is associated with high levels of nonglucose secretagogues and insulin resistance of beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether plasma concentrations of nonglucose insulin secretagogues are associated with prehepatic insulin secretion rates (ISR) in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, lipodystrophic patients (LIPO). Additionally, the negative feedback of insulin on ISR was evaluated. ISR were estimated by deconvolution of plasma C-peptide concentrations during fasting (basal) and during the last 30 min of a 120-min euglycemic insulin clamp (40 mU.m(-2).min(-1)). Eighteen normoglycemic LIPO were compared with 25 normoglycemic HIV-infected patients without lipodystrophy (controls). Thirty minutes before start of the clamp, a bolus of glucose was injected intravenously to stimulate endogenous insulin secretion. Insulin sensitivity index (SiRd) was estimated from glucose tracer analysis. LIPO displayed increased basal ISR (69%), clamp ISR (114%), basal insulin (130%), and clamp insulin (32%), all P 0.65, P 0.41, P 0.51, P < 0.05). In control subjects, ISRclamp correlated with clamp triglyceride (r = 0.45, P < 0.05). Paradoxically, in LIPO, ISRclamp correlated positively with clamp insulin (r = 0.68, P < 0.01), which suggests an absent negative feedback of insulin on ISR. Our data support evidence that lipodystrophic, nondiabetic, HIV-infected patients exhibit increased ISR, which can be partially explained by an impaired negative feedback of insulin on beta-cells and an increased stimulation of ISR by FFA, alanine, triglyceride, and glucagon.

  20. Amino acid infusion during anesthesia attenuates the surgery induced decline in IGF-1 and diminishes the "diabetes of injury"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eksborg Staffan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery, commonly performed after an overnight fast, causes a postoperative decline in the anabolic and glucose lowering insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. Clinical fasting studies have exhibited a positive correlation between IGF-1 and nitrogen balance during different conditions. A perioperative amino acid infusion changes nitrogen balance and might thereby influence serum IGF-1. We hypothesized that amino acid infusion would enhance IGF-1 and thereby might influence glucose homeostasis after surgery. In this study we examined two different regimes of perioperative amino acids infusion. Methods 24 females scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were randomized into three groups; Ringer's solution infusion throughout anesthesia (Group B, amino acid infusion throughout anesthesia (Group C and amino acid infusion 1 hour before anesthesia and during 1.5 hrs of surgery (Group D. Six female volunteers, who were not operated, but received the same amino acids infusion after fasting, served as controls (Group A. Fasting levels of IGF-1, Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1, insulin and P-glucose were studied prior to, and four days following, operation. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA was used as an index of insulin resistance. Non-parametric statistical methods were used. Results During the study the Ringer-group exhibited a decrease in IGF-1 and an increase in insulin and plasma glucose after surgery. Within the other groups there were no significant alterations over time after surgery, with the exception of a postoperative decrease in IGF-1 in group D. Group C had higher IGF-1 levels compared to group B on all days. Also, group D had higher IGF-1 levels than group B on day 2 – 4. From baseline to the first postoperative day there was a significant increase in HOMA and IGFBP-1 in groups B and C. These changes were not found in group D, in which insulin, glucose, HOMA and IGFBP-1 did not change. Amino acid infusion to the volunteers did not affect any of the variables studied. Conclusion Amino acid infusion during surgery attenuates the decrease in IGF-1 and diminishes the "diabetes of injury".

  1. Efficacy of bolus intravenous iron treatment in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovi? Nataša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Normocytic, normochromic anemia is one of the first signs of chronic renal failure and it is common in patients on chronic dialysis treatment. It causes decrease in oxygen supply to tissues, increases cardiac minute volume, causes left ventricular hyperthrophy, cardiac insufficiency, disorders related to cognitive functions and immune response, and increases morbidity and mortality rates. The leading cause of anemia in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD is iron depletion and most patients on PD need oral or parenteral iron supplementation. The aim of this study was to evaluate our first experience with bolus intravenous ferrogluconate therapy in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis at the Nephrology Clinic of the Clinical Center of Serbia (CCS. Material and Methods. We examined 11 patients, 7 males and 4 females, mean-age 49 years (range 31 to 68 years on chronic PD. All patients received blood transfusions, oral or intramuscular iron supplementation before 465 to 665 mg ferrogluconate therapy was given in 500 ml. saline intravenous infusion; 5 of them were on erythropoietin therapy and 2 of them started with EPO therapy after the ferrogluconate therapy. Results. The blood count improved during the first 3 months after application of bolus intravenous iron therapy (ferrogluconate; erythropoietin dose was not increased during the follow-up. Some patients suffered from side effects during infusion and 6 patients received the complete treatment. Discussion. Blood count improves in a number of patients affected by end-stage renal disease during the first months on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD treatment. But a large number of patients on chronic CAPD treatment are iron-depleted and they require oral or parenteral substitution. Side effects and complications of intravenous iron therapy were not severe and only one patient suffered from allergic manifestations. Ferremia and blood count improved in patients who did not receive erythropoietin during the follow-up, and patients on erythropoietin therapy required lower doses after receiving the intraveonous iron therapy. Conclusion. Blood count improvement and the lack of severe side effects speak in favor of further iron supplementation with bolus intravenous iron replacement. .

  2. Acute severe back pain radiating to the whole body during intravenous administration of amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yiwen; Shen, Hua

    2015-07-01

    Amiodarone represents an effective antiarrhythmic drug for cardioversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) and maintenance of sinus rhythm. Acute low back and/or epigastric pain has been reported in the medical literature as a rare side effect of amiodarone, but most cases were Europeans, one was Chinese. We present the case of a Japanese patient who experienced acute severe back pain radiating to the whole body a few minutes after intravenous (IV) infusion of amiodarone. PMID:25907175

  3. Intravenous S-Ketamine Does Not Inhibit Alveolar Fluid Clearance in a Septic Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fastner, Christian; Mairbäurl, Heimo; Weber, Nina C; van der Sluijs, Koen; Hackl, Florian; Hotz, Lorenz; Dahan, Albert; Hollmann, Markus W.; Berger, Marc M.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that intratracheally administered S-ketamine inhibits alveolar fluid clearance (AFC), whereas an intravenous (IV) bolus injection had no effect. The aim of the present study was to characterize whether continuous IV infusion of S-ketamine, yielding clinically relevant plasma concentrations, inhibits AFC and whether its effect is enhanced in acute lung injury (ALI) which might favor the appearance of IV S-ketamine at the alveolar surface. AFC was measured in fluid-in...

  4. A Comparison Between Sublingual Misoprostol and Intravenous Oxytocin for Inducing labor in Women with Term Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Habibi; Shirin Niroomanesh; Laleh Ghadirian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study efficacy of sub lingual Misoprostol was examined in comparison to Oxytocin (I.V.) for inducing of labor in term pregnancy.Materials and methods: Seventy patients were allocated by blocked randomization to Groups A (n=35, sub lingual Misoprostol 25 ?g four hourly to maximum of 5 doses) and B (n=35, continuous Oxytocin infusion).Results: Delivery active phase and total labor phase were shorter with sublingual Misoprostol in comparison to intravenous Oxytocin (p< 0.001) ...

  5. Randomized Clinical Trial of Intravenous Valproate (Orifil) and Dexamethasone in Patients with Migraine Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Foroughipour; Kavian Ghandehari; Mojtaba Khazaei; Fahimeh Ahmadi; Keyvan Shariatinezhad; Kosar Ghandehari

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intravenous Valproate (IVVP) has been used in the treatment of migraine in some studies; however, it is far better known in the management of status epilepticus. Methods: Consecutive patients with migraine in our Headache Clinic were enrolled in this prospective, randomized clinical trial in 2011. The patients were randomized into two therapeutic groups, one receiving 900 mg IVVP (Orifil) and the other 16 mg IV Dexamethasone (IVDEX) diluted in 150 CC normal saline and infused ...

  6. Investigation of intravascular haemolysis during treatment of acute stroke with intravenous glycerol.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumana, C. R.; Chan, G. T.; Yu, Y. L.; Lauder, I. J.; Chan, T. K.; Kou, M.

    1990-01-01

    1. In patients with acute strokes entering a large ongoing randomised double-blind controlled trial of intravenous glycerol therapy, the extent and pathogenesis of any ensuing haemolysis were evaluated using standard clinical investigations and in vitro techniques. 2. Twenty patients received 10% glycerol in saline (500 ml over 4 h on 6 consecutive days) and 15 received corresponding control treatment with saline. 3. Intravascular haemolysis was evident after the first infusion; compared with...

  7. Fasting insulin reflects heterogeneous physiological processes: role of insulin clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Goodarzi, Mark O.; Cui, Jinrui; Chen, Yii-der I.; Hsueh, Willa A.; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotter, Jerome I.

    2011-01-01

    Several processes contribute to variation in fasting insulin concentration, including fasting glucose, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and insulin clearance. Our goal was to determine the relative contribution of each of these insulin-related traits, plus anthropometric parameters, to fasting insulin among 470 Mexican Americans. The euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp yielded insulin sensitivity (M value) and metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI). Acute insulin secretion was estimat...

  8. Correlations between insulin sensitivity and bone mineral density in non-diabetic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Rohold, A

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate relationships between bone mineral density (BMD), insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, controlling for body composition, in view of data suggesting that hyperglycaemia [corrected] leads to decreased osteoblast proliferation and a negative calcium balance and that insulin stimulates osteoblast differentiation and collagen synthesis, with no clear evidence if this response in impaired in insulin resistance. METHODS: Femur and whole body (WB) BMD was measured in 55 male patients with ischaemic heart disease and 40 healthy men, using a Hologic QDR-2000 densitometer. Insulin sensitivity (Si) was estimated as the rate of glucose disappearance divided by the area under the insulin curve during an intravenous glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Insulin and C-peptide levels were not correlated with BMD, but Si was a significant predictor of femur (log, r = 0.35) and WB BMD (log r = 0.29, both P

  9. Eficiência da solução de insulina: comparação entre diferentes tempos de manutenção da solução / Effectiveness of insulin solution: a comparison between different times for maintaining the solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen Maria, Lazzari; Taína, Volkart.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A hiperglicemia ocorre com frequência nos doentes críticos, sendo um fator de risco para evolução clínica desfavorável e aumento da mortalidade. Nos últimos anos, o controle glicêmico intensivo, obtido pela infusão venosa contínua de insulina, passou a ocupar lugar de destaque no manejo d [...] os pacientes críticos. Há dúvidas frequentes e importantes sobre o tempo de eficiência da solução de insulina, por não existir referência na literatura. Sabe-se que a falta de evidências frequentemente favorece práticas impróprias. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar glicemias entre dois protocolos diferentes, utilizados na unidade de terapia intensiva de uma instituição de Porto Alegre, quanto ao tempo de troca da solução, nas primeiras 24 horas de uso, sendo a concentração da solução a mesma; e verificar a taxa de hipoglicemia relacionada aos protocolos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 80 prontuários de pacientes que utilizaram insulinoterapia por mais de 24 horas no ano de 2008, sendo que 40 deles fizeram uso do protocolo com troca da solução de insulina a cada 6 horas e 40 com troca a cada 24 horas. RESULTADOS: Observou-se entre os motivos de internação elevada incidência de pacientes hipertensos (68,8%) e diabéticos (45%). Não houve diferenças significativas entre as trocas a cada 6 e 24 horas durante todo o período da coleta com relação a glicemia capilar. Houve apenas 3 casos de hipoglicemia leve, todos no grupo de troca a cada 6 horas. CONCLUSÃO: Com o presente estudo, concluiu-se que é possível manter infusões de insulina promovendo a troca da solução a cada 24 horas. Sugerem-se, porém, estudos avaliando maior tempo de infusão em busca de possíveis eventos hipoglicêmicos com o avanço da insulinoterapia. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is frequent in the critically ill patient, and is a risk factor for unfavorable clinical outcomes, including mortality. During the recent years, intensive blood glucose control using intravenous insulin infusion has gained a prominent role in the critically ill patient mana [...] gement. There is important concern on insulin solution continued efficacy over the time, as little the literature available on this subject is poor. Lack of evidence is known to lead to inappropriate practices. This study aimed to compare the blood glucose levels between two different protocols in an intensive care unit in Porto Alegre, using the same solution concentration and two different replacement times during the first 24 hours, and additionally to assess the protocol-related hypoglycemia rate. METHODS: The medical charts of 80 patients under insulin therapy for over 24 hours during 2008 were revised; 40 patients had their insulin solution replaced every 6 hours and for 40 patients the insulin solution was replaced after 24 hours. RESULTS: The causes for admission to the intensive care unit included more frequently hypertensive (68.8%) and diabetic (45%) patients. No significant capillary blood glucose differences were seen for the every 6 or 24 hours solution replacement groups. Only 3 mild hypoglycemia cases were observed in the every 6 hours replacement group, and no hypoglycemia was seen in the 24 hours replacement group. CONCLUSION: We concluded that keeping insulin infusion, replacing the solution every 24 hours is feasible. However, longer infusion time studies are required to check for possible hypoglycemic events as insulin therapy advances.

  10. Infusions failures in the use of peripheral venous catheters in children: integrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Tathiana Silva de Souza Martins; Zenith Rosa Silvino

    2009-01-01

    During the time of maintenance of the therapy in peripheral vein, many problems, called as imperfections of the infusion, hinder that the therapy has continuity in a venous vase. Looking for to contribute and to add efforts for the improvement of the assistance of given nursing the child in use of intravenous therapy, considered it present inquiry with the objective to identify the available evidences in literature on the main infusionais imperfections related to the use of peripheral the ven...

  11. Generation of fibrinolytic activity by infusion of activated protein C into dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Comp, P C; Esmon, C T

    1981-01-01

    Bovine-activated protein C, administered intravenously to dogs, increases the rate of lysis of whole blood clots. Protein C, bovine prothrombin, and diisopropylfluorophosphate-inactivated protein Ca do not increase the rate of lysis. Repeated infusions of protein Ca sustain rapid blood clot lysis, but neither elevate circulating fibrin-split products nor decrease circulating plasminogen levels. The administration of protein Ca results in the elevation of the levels of lysine-adsorbable plasmi...

  12. Insulin Glulisine (rDNA origin) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your insulin glulisine with another type of insulin (NPH insulin [Novolin N, Humulin N]) in the same ... of insulin. If you mix insulin glulisine with NPH insulin, draw insulin glulisine into the syringe first, ...

  13. Intravenous pyogenic granuloma or intravenous lobular capillary hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobular capillary hemangioma is a vascular neoplasm that commonly occurs as a cutaneous tumor. When it involves the skin and mucosal surfaces, ulceration and suppuration may occur, hence the classic term of pyogenic granuloma. Intravenous pyogenic granuloma is a rare solitary form of lobular capillary hemangioma that usually occurs in the veins of the neck and upper extremities. We report the ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a pyogenic intravenous granuloma localized in the right cephalic vein. The imaging and pathological findings and the differential diagnoses are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Insulin-derived amyloidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Yashdeep; Singla, Gaurav; Singla, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is the term for diseases caused by the extracellular deposition of insoluble polymeric protein fibrils in tissues and organs. Insulin-derived amyloidosis is a rare, yet significant complication of insulin therapy. Insulin-derived amyloidosis at injection site can cause poor glycemic control and increased insulin dose requirements because of the impairment in insulin absorption, which reverse on change of injection site and/or excision of the mass. This entity should be considered ...

  15. Rapid insulin-mediated increase in microvascular glycocalyx accessibility in skeletal muscle may contribute to insulin-mediated glucose disposal in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskens, Bart J M; Mooij, Hans L; Cleutjens, Jack P M; Roos, Jozef M A; Cobelens, Johanna E; Vink, Hans; Vanteeffelen, Jurgen W G E

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that insulin-mediated recruitment of microvascular blood volume is associated with insulin sensitivity. We hypothesize that insulin rapidly stimulates penetration of red blood cells (RBC) and plasma into the glycocalyx and thereby promotes insulin-mediated glucose uptake by increasing intracapillary blood volume. Experiments were performed in rats; the role of the glycocalyx was assessed by enzymatic degradation using a bolus of hyaluronidase. First, the effect of insulin on glycocalyx accessibility was assessed by measuring the depth of penetration of RBCs into the glycocalyx in microvessels of the gastrocnemius muscle with Sidestream Dark-field imaging. Secondly, peripheral insulin sensitivity was determined using intravenous insulin tolerance tests (IVITT). In addition, in a smaller set of experiments, intravital microscopy of capillary hemodynamics in cremaster muscle and histological analysis of the distribution of fluorescently labeled 40 kDa dextrans (D40) in hindlimb muscle was used to evaluate insulin-mediated increases in capillary blood volume. Insulin increased glycocalyx penetration of RBCs by 0.34±0.44 µm (P<0.05) within 10 minutes, and this effect of insulin was greatly impaired in hyaluronidase treated rats. Further, hyaluronidase treated rats showed a 35±25% reduction in whole-body insulin-mediated glucose disposal compared to control rats. Insulin-mediated increases in capillary blood volume were reflected by a rapid increase in capillary tube hematocrit from 21.1±10.1% to 29.0±9.8% (P<0.05), and an increase in D40 intensity in individual capillaries of 134±138% compared to baseline at the end of the IVITT. These effects of insulin were virtually abolished in hyaluronidase treated animals. In conclusion, insulin rapidly increases glycocalyx accessibility for circulating blood in muscle, and this is associated with an increased blood volume in individual capillaries. Hyaluronidase treatment of the glycocalyx abolishes the effects of insulin on capillary blood volume and impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal. PMID:23383178

  16. Indices of insulin resistance in paediatric obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chandrasekhar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paediatric obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR, which increases risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp and minimal-model analysis frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT are used to assess IR, which are invasive, complex and expensive. Objective: To assess IR using the derived indices namely, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR, fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio (FGIR, quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI, in obese children. Methods: Fifty obese children (cases and 50 apparently healthy age-and gender- matched non- obese children (controls were studied. Obese children with body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 greater than 95th percentile and nonobese children with BMI between 5th to 95th percentile were included in the study. Results: Obese children had higher fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR (p<0.001, FGIR (p<0.001 and QUICKI (p<0.001 when compared to controls; fasting blood glucose levels were comparable (p=0.170. A statistically significant correlation was observed between serum insulin and BMI, between insulin and all the derived indices and between the derived indices and BMI (p<0.001. HOMA-IR had more area under the curve (0.760 followed by FGIR (0.721 when compared to QUICKI (0.240. Conclusions: Obese children were normoglycaemic with IR. HOMA-IR was found to be a stronger predictor of IR when compared to FGIR and QUICKI in obese children.

  17. Intravenous and intraocular ganciclovir for CMV retinitis in patients with AIDS or chemotherapeutic immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikos, G L; Pulido, J; Kathpalia, S B; Jackson, G G

    1988-07-01

    The efficacy and toxicity of ganciclovir given by intravenous or intravenous plus intravitreal injection were studied in nine patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis; seven with AIDS and two with drug induced immunodeficiency. Five patients had retinitis with macular involvement in six sighted eyes; six patients had only peripheral retinitis in seven eyes. In two patients (two eyes) with macular involvement intravenous plus intravitreal injection of ganciclovir preserved sight; intravenous infusion alone did not in four eyes of three other patients. In seven eyes (six patients) with peripheral retinitis vision was retained regardless of the route of ganciclovir treatment. Following intravenous ganciclovir drug levels in the vitreous fluid were 1.4-2.2 mmol/l, that is, 44 and 65% of the concomitant serum concentration. Clinically and at necropsy three eyes showed no evidence of toxicity from intravitreal injection of ganciclovir. All of five patients with AIDS who received intravenous ganciclovir for more than one week developed leucopenia. CMV retinitis of the macula may be benefited with minimal drug toxicity by intravitreal injection of ganciclovir. Treatment of peripheral CMV retinitis in patients with AIDS may be optional. PMID:2843218

  18. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Torbica Aleksandra; Tarricone Rosanna; Franzetti Fabio; Rosenthal Victor D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass) infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases) and patients without CLABSI (controls) were matched for admi...

  19. Insulin-like growth factor I and glucagon-like peptide-2 responses to fasting followed by controlled or ad libitum refeeding in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, David W; Murali, Sangita G

    2008-01-01

    Luminal nutrients stimulate structural and functional regeneration in the intestine through mechanisms thought to involve insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). We investigated the relationship between IGF-I and GLP-2 responses and mucosal growth in rats fasted for 48 h and then refed for 2 or 4 days by continuous intravenous or intragastric infusion or ad libitum feeding. Fasting induced significant decreases in body weight, plasma concentrations of IGF-I and bioactive GLP-2, jejunal mucosal cellularity (mass, protein, DNA, and villus height), IGF-I mRNA, and ileal proglucagon mRNA. Plasma IGF-I concentration was restored to fed levels with 2 days of ad libitum refeeding but not with 4 days of intravenous or intragastric refeeding. Administration of an inhibitor of endogenous GLP-2 (rat GLP-2 3-33) during ad libitum refeeding partially attenuated mucosal growth and prevented the increase in plasma IGF-I to fed levels; however, plasma GLP-2 and jejunal IGF-I mRNA were restored to fed levels. Intragastric refeeding restored intestinal cellularity and functional capacity (sucrase activity and sodium-glucose transporter-1 expression) to fed levels, whereas intravenous refeeding had no effect. Intestinal regeneration after 4 days of intragastric or 2 days of ad libitum refeeding was positively associated with increases in plasma concentrations of GLP-2 and jejunal IGF-I mRNA. These data suggest that luminal nutrients stimulate intestinal growth, in part, by increased expression of both GLP-2 and IGF-I.

  20. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of long-acting insulin analogue NN304 in comparison to NPH insulin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, G A; Sendhofer, G; Wutte, A; Ellmerer, M; Søgaard, B; Siebenhofer, A; Hirschberger, S; Krejs, G J; Pieber, T R

    2000-01-01

    NN304 is a long-acting insulin analogue that is acylated with a 14-C-fatty acid chain. Protraction of action of this novel insulin analogue is due not to slow absorption after subcutaneous administration but to reversible binding to albumin. We investigated the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of insulin analogue NN304 (0.3 and 0.6 U/kg) in comparison to NPH insulin (0.3 and 0.6 IU/kg) in 10 healthy volunteers performing a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled glucose clamp study. During the observation period of 24 hours the areas under the insulin curve for NPH[0.3 IU/kg] vs. NPH[0.6 IU/kg] were 60 vs. 102 nmol min l(-1) (p<0.01) and for insulin analogue NN304[0.3 U/kg] vs. NN304[0.6 U/kg] 490 vs. 932 nmol min l(-1) (p <0.001), suggesting a clear dose-response relationship for both NPH insulin and NN304. The amount of disposed glucose (area under the curve of glucose infusion) differed with statistical significance between the five treatments and was highest with NPH[0.6 IU/kg] (2671 mg/kg) and lowest with placebo (265 mg/kg). However, area under the curve of glucose infusion after treatment with NN304 was only 36% (dose of 0.3 U/kg) and 24% (dose of 0.6 U/kg) of that observed with corresponding doses of NPH insulin. Moreover, increasing dosages of NN304 failed to demonstrate a significant dose-response with regard to the area under the curve of glucose infusion. This study demonstrates that the principle of protracted insulin action of NN304 by reversible binding to albumin is effective in humans albeit at a much lower rate of glucose utilisation when compared to NPH insulin. Thus, in contrast to animal studies NN304 and NPH insulin can not be considered equipotent in humans. PMID:10826516

  1. Acute IGF-I infusion stimulates whole body protein synthesis but does not reduce proteolysis in neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeletal muscle protein synthesis increases in response to a physiological rise in total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in neonatal pigs. To determine the response of whole body protein synthesis and degradation to IGF-I, fasted 7-day-old pigs (n=4/dose) were infused with IGF-I (0, 20, or 50 ...

  2. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein infusion modulates fatty acid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drew, BG; Carey, AL

    2011-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) modulates glucose metabolism in humans via both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle and by increasing plasma insulin. Given the key roles of both AMPK and insulin in fatty acid metabolism, the current study investigated the effect of rHDL infusion on fatty acid oxidation and lipolysis. Thirteen patients with type 2 diabetes received separate infusions of rHDL and placebo in a randomized, cross-over study. Fatty acid metabolism was assessed using steady-state tracer methodology, and plasma lipids were measured by mass spectrometry (lipidomics). In vitro studies were undertaken in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. rHDL infusion inhibited fasting-induced lipolysis (P = 0.03), fatty acid oxidation (P < 0.01), and circulating glycerol (P = 0.04). In vitro, HDL inhibited adipocyte lipolysis in part via activation of AMPK, providing a possible mechanistic link for the apparent reductions in lipolysis observed in vivo. In contrast, circulating NEFA increased after rHDL infusion (P < 0.01). Lipidomic analyses implicated phospholipase hydrolysis of rHDL-associated phosphatidylcholine as the cause, rather than lipolysis of endogenous fat stores. rHDL infusion inhibits fasting-induced lipolysis and oxidation in patients with type 2 diabetes, potentially through both AMPK activation in adipose tissue and elevation of plasma insulin. The phospholipid component of rHDL also has the potentially undesirable effect of increasing circulating NEFA

  3. Impending compartment syndrome of the forearm and hand after a pressurized infusion in a patient under general anesthesia -A case report-

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Chi Yun; Chung, Rack Kyung; Ra, Yoon Suk; Lee, Hee Seung; Lee, Guie Yong

    2011-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman underwent posterior lumbar decompressive fusion at L4-5 for treating spondylolisthesis, with the patient under general anesthesia and she was in the prone position. Following attempts to transfuse blood using a pressurized bag, the intravenous infusion site of the left hand along with the noninvasive blood pressure cuff was changed. Swelling and several bullae on the left forearm and hand were visible. Removal of intravenous catheter, hyaluronidase injection, wet dressing ...

  4. In vivo tracking of 111In-oxine labeled mesenchymal stem cells following infusion in patients with advanced cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Several animal and few human studies suggest the beneficial role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in liver cirrhosis. However, little is known about the fate of MSCs after infusion in cirrhotic patients. We evaluated stem cell biodistribution after peripheral infusion of MSCs in four cirrhotic patients. Methods: After three passages of MSCs, the patients received a total of 250-400x106 cells, of which only 50% of the cells were labeled. Specific activities of 0.21-0.67 MBq/106 cells were maintained for the injected labeled MSCs. Planar whole-body acquisitions (anterior/posterior projections) were acquired immediately following infusion as well as at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 7th and 10th days after cell infusion. Results: After intravenous infusion, the radioactivity was first observed to accumulate in the lungs. During the following hours to days, the radioactivity gradually increased in the liver and spleen, with spleen uptake exceeding that in the liver in all patients. Region-of-interest analysis showed that the percentage of cells homing to the liver (following decay and background corrections and geometric mean calculation) increased from 0.0%-2.8% at immediately post-infusion images to 13.0-17.4% in 10th-day post-infusion. Similarly, the residual activities in the spleen increased from 2.0%-10.2% at immediately post-infusion images to 30.1%-42.2% in 10th-day post-infusion. During the same period, the residual activDuring the same period, the residual activities in the lungs decreased from 27.0-33.5% to 2.0-5.4%. Conclusion: The infusion of MSCs labeled with 111In-oxine through a peripheral vein is safe in cirrhosis. Cell labeling with 111In-oxine is a suitable method for tracking MSC distribution after infusion.

  5. Effects of intranasal insulin on hepatic fat accumulation and energy metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancheva, Sofiya; Koliaki, Chrysi; Bierwagen, Alessandra; Nowotny, Peter; Heni, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Szendroedi, Julia; Roden, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Studies in rodents suggest that insulin controls hepatic glucose metabolism through brain-liver crosstalk, but human studies using intranasal insulin to mimic central insulin delivery have provided conflicting results. In this randomized controlled crossover trial, we investigated the effects of intranasal insulin on hepatic insulin sensitivity (HIS) and energy metabolism in 10 patients with type 2 diabetes and 10 lean healthy participants (CON). Endogenous glucose production was monitored with [6,6-(2)H2]glucose, hepatocellular lipids (HCLs), ATP, and inorganic phosphate concentrations with (1)H/(31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Intranasal insulin transiently increased serum insulin levels followed by a gradual lowering of blood glucose in CON only. Fasting HIS index was not affected by intranasal insulin in CON and patients. HCLs decreased by 35% in CON only, whereas absolute hepatic ATP concentration increased by 18% after 3 h. A subgroup of CON received intravenous insulin to mimic the changes in serum insulin and blood glucose levels observed after intranasal insulin. This resulted in a 34% increase in HCLs without altering hepatic ATP concentrations. In conclusion, intranasal insulin does not affect HIS but rapidly improves hepatic energy metabolism in healthy humans, which is independent of peripheral insulinemia. These effects are blunted in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25576060

  6. [Inadvertent epidural infusion of paracetamol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charco Roca, L M; Ortiz Sánchez, V E; del Pino Moreno, A L

    2014-10-01

    A 45-year-old woman was accidentally administered an epidural infusion of paracetamol instead of levobupivacaine for postoperative pain therapy during the postoperative period of abdominal hysterectomy under general anesthesia combined with epidural analgesia. The patient had no neurological symptoms at any time, although a slight tendency to arterial hypotension that did not require treatment was observed. No rescue analgesia was necessary until 8h after the start of epidural infusion. The incidence of these types of errors is probably underestimated, although there are several cases reported with various drugs. PMID:24332361

  7. Localized infusion of IGF-I results in skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G. R.; McCue, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) peptide levels have been shown to increase in overloaded skeletal muscles (G. R. Adams and F. Haddad. J. Appl. Physiol. 81: 2509-2516, 1996). In that study, the increase in IGF-I was found to precede measurable increases in muscle protein and was correlated with an increase in muscle DNA content. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that direct IGF-I infusion would result in an increase in muscle DNA as well as in various measurements of muscle size. Either 0.9% saline or nonsystemic doses of IGF-I were infused directly into a non-weight-bearing muscle of rats, the tibialis anterior (TA), via a fenestrated catheter attached to a subcutaneous miniosmotic pump. Saline infusion had no effect on the mass, protein content, or DNA content of TA muscles. Local IGF-I infusion had no effect on body or heart weight. The absolute weight of the infused TA muscles was approximately 9% greater (P muscles. IGF-I infusion resulted in significant increases in the total protein and DNA content of TA muscles (P protein ratio of the hypertrophied TA was similar to that of the contralateral muscles. These results suggest that IGF-I may be acting to directly stimulate processes such as protein synthesis and satellite cell proliferation, which result in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  8. Sitting intravenous digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angiography for the thoracic outlet syndrome should be performed in erect position. The erect position and weight of the shoulder girdle are important factors in producing the clinical symptomes and positive angiographic findings. Conventional angiography in erect position could not be performed without risk. Intravenous digital subtraction angiography in sitting position, on the other hand, offered necessary informations without risk. (author)

  9. The shell of the nucleus accumbens has a higher dopamine response compared with the core after non-contingent intravenous ethanol administration

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, E. C.; Schier, C. J.; Wetzel, J. S.; Duvauchelle, C. L.; Gonzales, R A

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine increases in the nucleus accumbens after ethanol administration in rats, but the contributions of the core and shell subregions to this response are unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of various doses of intravenous (i.v.) ethanol infusions on dopamine in these two subregions of the nucleus accumbens. Male Long-Evans rats were infused with either acute i.v. ethanol (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg), repeated i.v. ethanol (four 1.0 g/kg infusions resulting in a cumulative ...

  10. Sensibilidad a la insulina en ovejas prepúberes con alimentación normal y con restricción alimenticia / Insulin sensitivity in prepubertal growing ewes with normal and restricted alimentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S E, Recabarren; A, Lobos; P, Muñoz; M, Calvillán; J, Parilo.

    Full Text Available Se ha demostrado, en borregas en crecimiento, que el ayuno está asociado a resistencia insulínica como un fenómeno adaptativo a la baja ingesta calórica. La restricción alimenticia es otra situación natural o experimental que puede enfrentar la hembra en crecimiento, en la cual la disponibilidad de [...] energía está por debajo de los requerimientos indispensables para el crecimiento. La sensibilidad a la insulina podría cambiar también como una adaptación fisiológica a la escasez de alimento. El objetivo del presente estudio fue reconocer si la sensibilidad a la insulina disminuye durante la restricción alimenticia de borregas en crecimiento. La sensibilidad a la insulina se evaluó con el test de tolerancia a la glucosa endovenosa (TTGEV). Cinco borregas con crecimiento normal y cinco borregas con restricción alimenticia por seis semanas, a partir de las 20 semanas de edad, se infundieron con una solución estéril de glucosa (300 mg/kg peso corporal, solución al 50%) en dos minutos. Se colectaron muestras de sangre desde la yugular mediante un catéter venoso 15 y 10 minutos antes de la infusión de glucosa, y a los 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 15, 17, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30 minutos después del inicio de la infusión en cuyo plasma se midió glucosa e insulina. Las concentraciones de glucosa (g/l) e insulina (µUI/ml) se analizaron con la fórmula de Matsuda y DeFronzo para determinar el índice de sensibilidad a la insulina (ISI-Composite). Se calculó también el área bajo la curva de insulina basal, estimulada e incremental y la constante de utilización de la glucosa. El ISI-C fue menor en las borregas con restricción alimenticia (636,43± 125,66) en comparación con las borregas controles (1528,18 ± 297,61 P Abstract in english It has been shown that fasting in growing ewes is associated with insulin resistance as an adaptative mechanism to the low energy supply. Food restriction is another experimental or natural situation that may occur for growing ewes where energy supply is under the requirement for growth. Insulin sen [...] sitivity may also change as a physiological adaptation to the shortage of food. The aim of the present study was to assess if insulin sensitivity decreases during food restriction in growing ewes. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). A glucose solution (300mg/kg body weight, 50% solution) was infused over two minutes into five normal growing 26-week old ewes and five 26 week-old ewes that had been restrictively fed from the age of 20 to 26 weeks. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each ewe by an indwelling jugular vein catheter 15 and 10 min before and at 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 15, 17, 20, 23, 25, 27 and 30 min after the initiation of the glucose infusion, and plasma glucose and insulin were measured by RIA. To determine the insulin sensitivity index (ISI), glucose and insulin concentrations were analyzed using the Matsuda and De Fronzo's formula (ISI-Composite). Basal, stimulated and incremental area under the curve of insulin and the glucose utilization constants were also calculated. ISI-C was lower in food-restricted female sheep (636.43 ± 125.66) compared to normal growing females (1528.18 ± 297.61), (P

  11. Efficacy and safety of intravenous iron sucrose in treating adults with iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Delfini Cançado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is the most common disorder in the world, affecting approximately 25% of the world`s population and the most common cause of anemia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron sucrose (IS in the treatment of adults with iron deficiency anemia METHODS: Eighty-six adult patients with iron deficiency anemia, who had intolerance or showed no effect with oral iron therapy, received a weekly dose of 200 mg of intravenous iron sucrose until the hemoglobin level was corrected or until receiving the total dose of intravenous iron calculated for each patient RESULTS: The mean hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were 8.54 g/dL and 7.63 ng/mL (pre-treatment and 12.1 g/dL and 99.0 ng/mL (post-treatment (p-value < 0.0001, respectively. The average increases in hemoglobin levels were 3.29 g/dL for women and 4.58 g/dL for men; 94% of male and 84% of female patients responded (hemoglobin increased by at least 2 g/dL to intravenous iron therapy. Correction of anemia was obtained in 47 of 69 (68.1% female patients and in 12 of 17 male (70.6% patients. A total of 515 intravenous infusions of iron sucrose were administered and iron sucrose was generally well tolerated with no moderate or serious adverse drug reactions recorded by the investigators. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm that the use of intravenous iron sucrose is a safe and effective option in the treatment of adult patients with iron deficiency anemia who lack satisfactory response to oral iron therapy. Intravenous iron sucrose is well tolerated and with a clinically manageable safety profile when using appropriate dosing and monitoring. The availability of intravenous iron sucrose would potentially improve compliance and thereby reduce morbidities from iron deficiency.

  12. The continuous infusion of acylated ghrelin enhances growth hormone secretion and worsens glucose metabolism in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ghigo, Ezio; Muccioli, Giampiero; Broglio, Fabio; Granata, Riccarda

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Acylated ghrelin (AG) has been discovered as a natural ligand of the GH secretagogue receptor type 1a and is now recognized as an important orexigenic factor. Besides stimulation of GH secretion and appetite, it exerts other central and peripheral actions including modulation of insulin secretion, glucose and lipid metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To define the effects of the continuous iv infusion of AG in humans with particular attention to metabolic parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We stu...

  13. [Clinical studies on dibekacin for infectious diseases following intramuscular and intravenous drip administration. Concentration in infected tissues and clinical responses (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Hashimoto, I; Sawada, Y; Mikami, J; Bekki, E; Kasai, Y; Nakanishi, M

    1981-06-01

    An antibiotic drug of aminoglycoside group, dibekacin (DKB) for parental use was used in 48 patients hospitalized due to acute or subacute infection of abdominal organs: 36 appendicitis, 9 cholecystitis and 3 others. DKB in a dose of 100 mg was given intramuscularly in 38 cases, and in 10 cases was given intravenously by single or drip infusion before the operation. The materials of A-bile, B-bile, wall of gallbladder, the appendix wall, ascites with pus and serum were taken during the operation. DKB concentration was measured by bioassay method with Bacillus Subtilis ATCC 6633 strain. With a few marked exceptions, DKB concentration in B-bile were higher than those in A-bile. DKB concentrations in gallbladder wall and appendix wall were directly proportional to the degree of pathological changes of inflammation. DKB concentrations in infected tissues after intravenous drip infusion, they were higher relatively than those after intramuscular administration. DKB concentrations in serum after intravenous drip infusion reached to peak immediately the end of infusion, and in the infected tissue they reached to peak at the same time and stayed for a relatively long time, then they were declined slowly. For the therapeutic purpose, DKB was given to the 6 patients with acute peritonitis of the above cases. DKB in a dose of 100 mg were administered by intravenous drip infusion for 2 hours, twice in a day for 3 - 10 days. Clinical response was excellent in 2 cases, good in 3 cases, fair in 1 case and poor in none. No adverse effect was observed. Therefore, it was supposed that DKB could be used safely by intravenous drip infusion. PMID:7289045

  14. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239Pu or 147Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Infusing Culture in Career Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the culture-infused career counselling (CICC) model. Six principles are foundational to a tripartite model emphasizing cultural self-awareness, awareness of client cultural identities, and development of a culturally sensitive working alliance. The core competencies ensure the cultural validity and relevance of career…

  16. Islet blood flow following insulin administration.

    OpenAIRE

    Sparrow, R.A.; Beckingham, I J

    1989-01-01

    Blood flow to the pancreatic islets of the anaesthetised rat was measured using the microsphere method. Basal flow was 29 (+/- 6) microliter/min per pancreas which was equivalent to 2.1 (+/- 0.2)% of the total pancreatic flow. The intravenous administration of 4 IU of soluble insulin, which rendered the animals hypoglycaemic, selectively increased islet flow to 93 (+/- 19) microliter/min per pancreas, equivalent to 5.4 (+/- 0.2)% of total pancreatic flow. It is suggested that this may be rela...

  17. Modern approach to basal-bolus therapy with glargine and glulisine insulin analoguesin various age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Volevodz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DCCT (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial study established that intensified insulin therapy in multiple daily injections (MDI or continuous insulin infusion (CSII regimens substantially reduce both development and progression of complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM as compared to conventional insulin therapy. Insulin analogues possess better pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics than unmodified human insulin agents. These characteristics are beneficial for management of diabetes mellitus, allowing better glycemic outcomes with lower incidence of hypoglycemia.Current review discusses specifics of therapy with glargine (Lantus® and glulisine (Apidra® insulin analogues. Authors analyzed available to date results from corresponding clinical trials in children, adolescents and adults. Pharmacoeconomic aspects and matters of dosage of glargine and glulisine are further addressed.

  18. Insulin pump (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The catheter at the end of the insulin pump is inserted through a needle into the abdominal ... with diabetes. Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer and the appropriate amount of insulin ...

  19. All about Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plan healthy meals. J Eat smaller serving sizes. All About Insulin Resistance American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800– ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 2: All About Insulin Resistance continued J Take the dog ...

  20. Insulin Sensitivity Assessed by Stable Isotopes with Oral Glucose Administration: Validation with Euglycaemic Clamp

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Acerini; Burak Salgin; Sarah Jackson; Rachel Williams; Leslie Bluck; David Dunger

    2013-01-01

    Methods of determining insulin sensitivity that use an oral challenge of glucose are preferred to those using intravenous administration since the measurement is made in conditions more akin to normal physiology. One previously reported protocol (ODILE) studies glucose uptake in isolation from absorption and endogenous production by the intravenous administration of tracer approximately forty-five minutes after the oral dose is given. However, this methodology has not been validated against o...

  1. Effect of insulin on human skeletal muscle protein synthesis is modulated by insulin-induced changes in muscle blood flow and amino acid availability

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Satoshi; RASMUSSEN, BLAKE B.; Cadenas, Jerson G.; Grady, James J; VOLPI, ELENA

    2006-01-01

    Insulin promotes muscle anabolism, but it is still unclear whether it stimulates muscle protein synthesis in humans. We hypothesized that insulin can increase muscle protein synthesis only if it increases muscle amino acid availability. We measured muscle protein and amino acid metabolism using stable-isotope methodologies in 19 young healthy subjects at baseline and during insulin infusion in one leg at low (LD, 0.05), intermediate (ID, 0.15), or high (HD, 0.30 mU·min?1·100 ml?1) doses. Insu...

  2. New-generation diabetes management: glucose sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Eda; Sherr, Jennifer L.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Tamborlane, William V.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common chronic disorders with an increasing incidence worldwide. Technologic advances in the field of diabetes have provided new tools for clinicians to manage this challenging disease. For example, the development of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion systems have allowed for refinement in the delivery of insulin, while continuous glucose monitors provide patients and clinicians with a better understanding of the minute to minute glucose variability, leading...

  3. Studies of insulin resistance in congenital generalized lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØvik, O; Vestergaard, H

    1996-01-01

    Two well-characterized patients with congenital, generalized lipodystrophy have been studied by the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique in combination with indirect calorimetry. Furthermore, glycogen synthase in muscle biopsies was studied in one patient with regard to enzyme activity, immunoreactive protein and mRNA levels. The patients had fasting hyperinsulinaemia, and the rate of total glucose disposal was severely impaired, primarily due to a decreased non-oxidative glucose metabolism. In the patient studied with muscle biopsy, the expected activation of glycogen synthase by insulin did not occur. In both patients there was severely increased hepatic glucose output in the basal state, suggesting a failure of insulin to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis. During insulin infusion a substantially elevated rate of lipid oxidation remained in the patients, in contrast to the almost completely suppressed lipid oxidation in the controls. It is concluded that patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy may present severe insulin resistance with regard to hepatic glucose production as well as muscle glycogen synthesis and lipid oxidation. The results suggest a postreceptor defect in the action of insulin in congenital generalized lipodystrophy. The further localization of such a defect is hampered by the still incomplete understanding of the pathways that link insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation to the ultimate action of insulin upon target cells.

  4. Role of diacylglycerol activation of PKC? in lipid-induced muscle insulin resistance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendroedi, Julia; Yoshimura, Toru; Phielix, Esther; Koliaki, Chrysi; Marcucci, Mellissa; Zhang, Dongyan; Jelenik, Tomas; Müller, Janette; Herder, Christian; Nowotny, Peter; Shulman, Gerald I.; Roden, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Muscle insulin resistance is a key feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes and is strongly associated with increased intramyocellular lipid content and inflammation. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for causing muscle insulin resistance in humans are still unclear. To address this question, we performed serial muscle biopsies in healthy, lean subjects before and during a lipid infusion to induce acute muscle insulin resistance and assessed lipid and inflammatory parameters that have been previously implicated in causing muscle insulin resistance. We found that acute induction of muscle insulin resistance was associated with a transient increase in total and cytosolic diacylglycerol (DAG) content that was temporally associated with protein kinase (PKC)? activation, increased insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 serine 1101 phosphorylation, and inhibition of insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and AKT2 phosphorylation. In contrast, there were no associations between insulin resistance and alterations in muscle ceramide, acylcarnitine content, or adipocytokines (interleukin-6, adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4) or soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Similar associations between muscle DAG content, PKC? activation, and muscle insulin resistance were observed in healthy insulin-resistant obese subjects and obese type 2 diabetic subjects. Taken together, these data support a key role for DAG activation of PKC? in the pathogenesis of lipid-induced muscle insulin resistance in obese and type 2 diabetic individuals. PMID:24979806

  5. Biodistribution and receptor imaging studies of insulin labelled with radioiodine in mice bearing H22 hepatocellular cacinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: It has been demonstrated that insulin receptor of hepatocellular carcinoma cells is overexpression. The biodistribution of 125I-insulin and receptor imaging studies of 131I-insulin in mice bearing solid liver tumor comprised of hepatic carcinoma H22 cells were performed to develop insulin as a carder of radioiodine. Methods: 1 )Insulin was radiolabeled with iodine-125 or iodine-131 using a Chloramines T method. Twenty mice bearing tumor were divided into 4 groups (n = 5 each) randomly. They were killed at 5, 15, 30, 60 min after 125I-insulin administered intravenously. The percentage of injected dose of 125I-insulin per gram of tissue(%ID/gdis) in mice bearing tumor were determined. 2) Another ten mice bearing tumor were selected to be as a inhibition group. They received cold insulin 2 mg intravenously 2 min ahead of administration of 125I-insulin and they were killed at 30 min (n=5) and 60 rain (n=5) randomly post 125I-insulin injection. The %ID/ginh and the inhibited rates[(%ID/gdis-%iD/ginh) %ID/gdis 100%] were obtained. 3) One tumor-mouse received 7.4 Mbq 13II-insulin intravenously, another received cold insulin 2 mg injection before 13II-insulin injection. Whole body images were carded out and the radioactivity ratios of tumor/normal were accounted at 60 min. Results: 1) The radiochemical purities of 125I-insulin and 13II-insulin were 96.7%-98.9%. The tumors uptake of the 125I-insulin increased gradually, its peak (%ID/gdis) was 3.44% 0.42% at 30 min peak (%ID/gdis) was 3.44% 0.42% at 30 min, when the normal tissues uptake decreased sharply post-injection. The radioactivity ratio of the tumor/blood and tumor/muscle reached to 1.44 and 3.62 respectively at 60 min. 2)The tumor-inhibition rate was 32.07% at 30 min and 37.42% at 60 min. 3) A high radioactivity accumulation in tumor region could be seen in the mouse at 60 min post 131I-insulin injection. The radioactivity ratio of the tumor/normal tissue was 2.13 and it declined to 1.37 after received insulin 2 mg intervention. Conclusions: The results indicated that the tumor in mice bearing hepatocellular carcinoma accumulated a higher radioiodine-insulin than the normal tissues did. Insulin could be a promising cattier to transfer radioiodine for scintigraphy and targeted therapy. (authors)

  6. Use of a variable tracer infusion method to determine glucose turnover in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single-compartment pool fraction model, when used with the hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp technique to measure rates of glucose turnover, sometimes underestimates true rates of glucose appearance (Ra) resulting in negative values for hepatic glucose output (HGO). We focused our attention on isotope discrimination and model error as possible explanations for this underestimation. We found no difference in [3-3H] glucose specific activity in samples obtained simultaneously from the femoral artery and vein (2,400 +/- 455 vs. 2,454 +/- 522 dpm/mg) in 6 men during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp study where insulin was infused at 40 mU.m-2.min-1 for 3 h; therefore, isotope discrimination did not occur. We compared the ability of a constant (0.6 microCi/min) vs. variable tracer infusion method (tracer added to the glucose infusate) to measure non-steady-state Ra during hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. Plasma specific activity fell during the constant tracer infusion studies but did not change from base line during the variable tracer infusion studies. By maintaining a constant plasma specific activity the variable tracer infusion method eliminates uncertainty about changes in glucose pool size. This overcame modeling error and more accurately measures non-steady-state Ra (P less than 0.001 by analysis of variance vs. constant infusion method). In conclusion, underestimation of Ra determined isotopically during hyperinsulinemic clamp studies is largely due to modelingc clamp studies is largely due to modeling error that can be overcome by use of the variable tracer infusion method. This method allows more accurate determination of Ra and HGO under non-steady-state conditions

  7. Simple intravenous fluid regimens to control fever in hospitalized stroke patients: a theoretical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengart, Axel J; Zhu, Liang; Schappeler, Thomase; Goldenberg, Fernando D

    2009-01-01

    Fever is an independent predictor of worse outcome in stroke patients. We hypothesized that a peripheral infusion of saline in chilled or ice slurry form can be a practical adjuvant therapy to maintain euthermia. We developed a theoretical model simulating systemic body cooling in response to 0 degrees C saline and 50% ice slurry. Temperature elevations up to 39 degrees C were studied with respect to the time needed to reach a core temperature of 37 degrees C. Mathematical modeling identified a cooling rate of 0.48 degrees C/hr and 0.24 degrees C/hr using a 450 mL/hr infusion of 50% ice slurry and chilled saline. A reduction of the infusion rate to 150 mL/hr decreased euthermia time by a factor of 3; however, the total amount of coolant remained constant. Thus, based on mathematical modeling, peripheral infusions of saline in chilled or ice slurry form can be used as an adjunct therapy to achieve euthermia and control fever. Using intravenous coolants in an on-demand, temperature-guided and supervised treatment setting seems most reasonable to avoid potentially unsafe use of extended fluid volumes and infusion times. PMID:19042131

  8. Increased interaction with insulin receptor substrate 1, a novel abnormality in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caruso, Michael; Ma, Danjun

    2014-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) is a key mediator of insulin signal transduction. Perturbations involving IRS1 complexes may lead to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Surprisingly little is known about the proteins that interact with IRS1 in humans under health and disease conditions. We used a proteomic approach to assess IRS1 interaction partners in skeletal muscle from lean healthy control subjects (LCs), obese insulin-resistant nondiabetic control subjects (OCs), and participants with T2D before and after insulin infusion. We identified 113 novel endogenous IRS1 interaction partners, which represents the largest IRS1 interactome in humans and provides new targets for studies of IRS1 complexes in various diseases. Furthermore, we generated the first global picture of IRS1 interaction partners in LCs, and how they differ in OCs and T2D patients. Interestingly, dozens of proteins in OCs and/or T2D patients exhibited increased associations with IRS1 compared with LCs under the basal and/or insulin-stimulated conditions, revealing multiple new dysfunctional IRS1 pathways in OCs and T2D patients. This novel abnormality, increased interaction of multiple proteins with IRS1 in obesity and T2D in humans, provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of insulin resistance and identifies new targets for T2D drug development.

  9. Insulin Aspart (rDNA Origin) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insulin aspart solution with another type of insulin (NPH insulin) in the same syringe. Your doctor will ... not be mixed with insulin preparations other than NPH insulin. Insulin aspart suspension should not be mixed ...

  10. [Radioimmunological determination of insulin in patients with manifest diabetes mellitus as a guide for the planning of therapy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilker, T; Kränzlin, T; Schweigart, U; Ermler, R; Bottermann, P

    1976-04-30

    Intravenous glucose tolerance test followed by combined intravenous glucose-glibenclamid tolerance test were performed to differentiate between sulfonylurea-dependent and insulin-dependent diabetics. As a criterion of sufficient sulfonylurea-induced insulin secretion the extent of the difference of the insulin secretion between both tests was taken. If the difference is more than 600/muE/h insulin treatment seems not to be necessary and oral treatment with sulfonylurea derivates seems to be successful. In comparison with the clinical course of 55 patients the criterion was right in 50 cases. 5 patients could not be classified by the clinical course. Their more-secretion of insulin was in between 200 and 550 muE/mlhour. PMID:818495

  11. Low flow measurement for infusion pumps: implementation and uncertainty determination of the normalized method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intravenous drug delivery is a standard practice in hospitalized patients. As the blood concentration reached depends directly on infusion rate, it is important to use safe devices that guarantee output accuracy. In pediatric intensive care units, low infusion rates (i.e. lower than 10.0 ml/h) are frequently used. Thus, it would be necessary to use control programs to search for deviations at this flow range. We describe the implementation of a gravimetric method to test infusion pumps in low flow delivery. The procedure recommended by the ISO/IEC 60601-2-24 standard was used being a reasonable option among the methods frequently used in hospitals, such as infusion pumps analyzers and volumetric cylinders. The main uncertainty sources affecting this method are revised and a numeric and graphic uncertainty analysis is presented in order to show its dependence on flow. Additionally, the obtained uncertainties are compared to those presented by an automatic flow analyzer. Finally, the results of a series of tests performed on a syringe infusion pump operating at low rates are shown.

  12. Intravenous Antiepileptic Drugs in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Vlasov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Launching four intravenous antiepileptic drugs: valproate (Depakene and Convulex, lacosamide (Vimpat, and levetiracetam (Keppra – into the Russian market has significantly broadened the possibilities of rendering care to patients in seizure emergency situations. The chemi- cal structure, mechanisms of action, indications/contraindications, clinical effectiveness and tolerability, advantages/disadvantages, and adverse events of using these drugs in urgent and elective neurology are discussed. 

  13. Anaphylactic reaction to intravenous diclofenac

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Ranju; Bansal Deepak; Baduni Neha; Vajifdar Homay

    2011-01-01

    Diclofenac sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used as an opioid sparing agent for postoperative analgesia. Anaphylaxis due to intravenous diclofenac sodium is very rare. We report a case of anaphylactic reaction to IV diclofenac sodium, occurring postoperatively in a 25-year-old primigravida, the clinical features of which mimicked pulmonary embolism. The rarity, clinical importance and the diagnostic dilemma associated prompted us to report this case.

  14. Anaphylactic reaction to intravenous diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ranju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diclofenac sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used as an opioid sparing agent for postoperative analgesia. Anaphylaxis due to intravenous diclofenac sodium is very rare. We report a case of anaphylactic reaction to IV diclofenac sodium, occurring postoperatively in a 25-year-old primigravida, the clinical features of which mimicked pulmonary embolism. The rarity, clinical importance and the diagnostic dilemma associated prompted us to report this case.

  15. Intravenous proton pump inhibitors for peptic ulcer bleeding: Clinical benefits and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Chi Cheng, Bor-Shyang Sheu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer bleeding is a common disease and recurrent bleeding is an independent risk factor of mortality. Infusion with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs prevents recurrent bleeding after successful endoscopic therapy. A gastric acidic environment of less than pH 5.4 alters coagulation function and activates pepsin to disaggregate platelet plugs. Gastric acid is secreted by H+, K+-ATPase, naming the proton pump. This update review focuses on the mechanism and the role of PPIs in the clinical management of patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. An intravenous omeprazole bolus followed by high-dose continuous infusion for 72 h after successful endoscopic therapy can prevent the recurrent bleeding. In the Asian, however, the infusion dosage can possibly be diminished whilst preserving favorable control of the intragastric pH and thereby still decreasing rates of recurrent bleeding. Irrespective of the infusion dosage of PPIs, rates of recurrent bleeding remain high in patients with co-morbidities. Because recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding may be prolonged in those with co-morbidities, a low-dose infusion of IV PPIs for up to 7-day may result in better control of recurrent bleeding of peptic ulcers. Due to the inter-patient variability in CYP2C19 genotypes, the infusion form of new generation PPIs, such as esomeprazole, should be promising for the prevention of recurrent bleeding. This article offers a comprehensive review of clinical practice, highlighting the indication, the optimal dosage, the duration, and the potential limitation of PPIs infusion for peptic ulcer bleeding.

  16. Intravenous magnetic nanoparticle cancer hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang HS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hui S Huang, James F Hainfeld Nanoprobes, Yaphank, NY, USA Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles heated by an alternating magnetic field could be used to treat cancers, either alone or in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. However, direct intratumoral injections suffer from tumor incongruence and invasiveness, typically leaving undertreated regions, which lead to cancer regrowth. Intravenous injection more faithfully loads tumors, but, so far, it has been difficult achieving the necessary concentration in tumors before systemic toxicity occurs. Here, we describe use of a magnetic nanoparticle that, with a well-tolerated intravenous dose, achieved a tumor concentration of 1.9 mg Fe/g tumor in a subcutaneous squamous cell carcinoma mouse model, with a tumor to non-tumor ratio > 16. With an applied field of 38 kA/m at 980 kHz, tumors could be heated to 60°C in 2 minutes, durably ablating them with millimeter (mm precision, leaving surrounding tissue intact. Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, hyperthermia, cancer, alternating magnetic field, intravenous delivery

  17. Treatment of multiple system atrophy using intravenous immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Peter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple system atrophy (MSA is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology, manifesting as combination of parkinsonism, cerebellar syndrome and dysautonomia. Disease-modifying therapies are unavailable. Activation of microglia and production of toxic cytokines suggest a role of neuroinflammation in MSA pathogenesis. This pilot clinical trial evaluated safety and tolerability of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG in MSA. Methods This was a single-arm interventional, single-center, open-label pilot study. Interventions included monthly infusions of the IVIG preparation Privigen®, dose 0.4 gram/kg, for 6 months. Primary outcome measures evaluated safety and secondary outcome measures evaluated preliminary efficacy of IVIG. Unified MSA Rating Scale (UMSARS was measured monthly. Quantitative brain imaging using 3T MRI was performed before and after treatment. Results Nine subjects were enrolled, and seven (2 women and 5 men, age range 55–64 years completed the protocol. There were no serious adverse events. Systolic blood pressure increased during IVIG infusions (p Conclusions Treatment with IVIG appears to be safe, feasible and well tolerated and may improve functionality in MSA. A larger, placebo-controlled study is needed.

  18. In Vivo Toxicity of Intravenously Administered Silica and Silicon Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Galagudza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Both silicon and silica nanoparticles (SiNPs and SiO2NPs, respectively are currently considered to be promising carriers for targeted drug delivery. However, the available data on their in vivo toxicity are limited. The present study was aimed at investigation of SiNP and SiO2NP (mean diameter 10 and 13 nm, respectively toxicity using both morphological and functional criteria. Hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats 5, 21 and 60 days after administration of NPs. Inner ear function was determined using otoacoustic emission testing at 21 and 60 days after infusion of NPs. Furthermore, the histological structure of liver, spleen and kidney samples was analyzed. Intravenous infusion of SiNPs or SiO2NPs (7 mg/kg was not associated with significant changes in hemodynamic parameters. Hearing function remained unchanged over the entire observation period. Both inter- and intragroup changes in blood counts and biochemical markers were non-significant. Histological findings included the appearance of foreign body-type granulomas in the liver and spleen as well as microgranulation in the liver after administration of NPs. The number of granulomas was significantly lower after administration of SiNPs compared with SiO2NPs. In conclusion, both tested types of NPs are relatively biocompatible nanomaterials, at least when considering acute toxicity.

  19. Assessment of the optimal temporal window for intravenous CT cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindera, Sebastian T.; Nelson, Rendon C.; Paulson, Erik K.; DeLong, David M.; Merkle, Elmar M. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The optimal temporal window of intravenous (IV) computed tomography (CT) cholangiography was prospectively determined. Fifteen volunteers (eight women, seven men; mean age, 38 years) underwent dynamic CT cholangiography. Two unenhanced images were acquired at the porta hepatis. Starting 5 min after initiation of IV contrast infusion (20 ml iodipamide meglumine 52%), 15 pairs of images at 5-min intervals were obtained. Attenuation of the extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) and the liver parenchyma was measured. Two readers graded visualization of the higher-order biliary branches. The first biliary opacification in the EBD occurred between 15 and 25 min (mean, 22.3 min {+-} 3.2) after initiation of the contrast agent. Biliary attenuation plateaued between the 35- and the 75-min time points. Maximum hepatic parenchymal enhancement was 18.5 HU {+-} 2.7. Twelve subjects demonstrated poor or non-visualization of higher-order biliary branches; three showed good or excellent visualization. Body weight and both biliary attenuation and visualization of the higher-order biliary branches correlated significantly (P<0.05). For peak enhancement of the biliary tree, CT cholangiography should be performed no earlier than 35 min after initiation of IV infusion. For a fixed contrast dose, superior visualization of the biliary system is achieved in subjects with lower body weight. (orig.)

  20. Intravenous Pamidronate in the Treatment of Severe Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylva Skalova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH is a rare disorder caused by CYP24A1 loss-of-function mutation, resulting in impaired degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Pamidronate, an intravenously administered bisphosphonate, which is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption, has been reported only once for treatment IIH. We present a case of a previously healthy 5-month-old boy with IIH, where calcemia peaked to 5 mmol/L. Treatment with methylprednisone and furosemide had only minor effects; therefore, 2 intravenous infusions of pamidronate (0.6 mg/kg per dose corrected the serum calcium level to 2.95 mmol/L. Furthermore, CYP24A1 homozygous mutation p.R396W (c.1186c>t was identified in this patient, confirming the clinical diagnosis of IIH. In conclusion, IIH has a favorable outcome once properly detected and appropriately treated. Pamidronate has a beneficial effect in those patients with IIH where glucocorticoids and furosemide fail to meet the expectations.  

  1. Metformin and insulin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated the effect of metformin (N,N-dimethylbiguanide), a biguanide known to be less toxic than phenformin, on insulin binding to its receptors, both in vitro and in vivo. Specific 125I-insulin binding to cultured IM-9 human lymphocytes and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was determined after preincubation with metformin. Specific 125I-insulin binding to circulating monocytes was also evaluated in six controls, eight obese subjects, and six obese type II diabetic patients before and after a short-term treatment with metformin. Plasma insulin levels and blood glucose were also measured on both occasions. Metformin significantly increased insulin binding in vitro to both IM-9 lymphocytes and MCF-7 cells; the maximum increment was 47.1% and 38.0%, respectively. Metformin treatment significantly increased insulin binding in vivo to monocytes of obese subjects and diabetic patients. Scatchard analysis indicated that the increased binding was mainly due to an increase in receptor capacity. Insulin binding to monocytes of normal controls was unchanged after metformin as were insulin levels in all groups; blood glucose was significantly reduced after metformin only in diabetic patients. These data indicate that metformin increases insulin binding to its receptors in vitro and in vivo. The effect in vivo is observed in obese subjects and in obese type II diabetic patients, paralleling the clinical effectiveness of this antidiabetic agent, affectiveness of this antidiabetic agent, and is not due to receptor regulation by circulating insulin, since no variation in insulin levels was recorded

  2. Prolonged fever after Infliximab infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Katz; Michael Frank

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacologic management for ulcerative colitis (UC) has recently been expanded to include anti- tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for severe disease. Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed again TNF ? was first tested in patients with Crohn’s disease. In addition to serious infections, malignancy, drug induced lupus and other autoimmune diseases, serum sickness-like reactions, neurological disease, and infusion reactions further complicate the use of Infliximab. W...

  3. Propofol-Related Infusion Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Theodore; Radhakrishnan, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Propofol is a drug that is used for induction of anaesthesia at surgery. Its use is sometimesassociated with sudden hemodynamic instability, which may be life-threatening.Aim & Objectives: To report the occurrence of the propofol-related infusion syndrome in a child.Methods/Study Design: A 13 year- old girl who received a bolus dose of propofol for induction ofanaesthesia at surgery developed sudden hemodynamic instability.Results/Findings: Investigations suggested that the child ...

  4. Severe thrombocytopenia following tirofiban infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Sulaiman, Kadhim

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with acute coronary syndrome. He was administered glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist (tirofiban) for a left anterior descending artery thrombus detected during percutaneous coronary intervention. He developed very severe thrombocytopenia 24 h after tirofiban infusion with no signs of bleeding. The thrombocytopenia spontaneously resolved after stopping tirofiban without any significant clinical sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of tiro...

  5. What is Nano-Infusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page from Nano-Link describes Nano-Infusion. This program "promotes integration and inclusion of nanoscale concepts into high school and college level education." Teachers are encouraged to join the free program to obtain training, support, and nano-related supplies that will aid in introducing nano experiments into their classrooms. To join the program, applicants merely need to create an account on the Nan-Link website and complete and introductory survey.

  6. Safety and effectiveness of home intravenous antibiotic therapy for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujal, A; Sola, J; Hernandez, M; Villarino, M-A; Machado, M-L; Baylina, M; Tajan, J; Oristrell, J

    2015-06-01

    Home intravenous antibiotic therapy is an alternative to hospital admission for moderately severe infections. However, few studies have analyzed its safety and effectiveness in the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. The purpose of this study is to analyze the safety and effectiveness of home intravenous antibiotic therapy in multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. We analyzed prospectively all patients admitted to our service who underwent home intravenous antibiotic therapy during the period 2008-2012. All the treatments were administered by caretakers or self-administered by patients, through elastomeric infusion devices. Effectiveness was evaluated by analyzing the readmission rate for poor infection control. Safety was evaluated by analyzing adverse events, catheter-related complications, and readmissions not related to poor infection control. There were 433 admissions (in 355 patients) for home intravenous antibiotic therapy during the study period. There were 226 (52.2 %) admissions due to multidrug-resistant bacterial infections and 207 (47.8 %) due to non-multidrug-resistant infections. Hospital readmissions in patients with multidrug-resistant infections were uncommon. Multidrug-resistant enterococcal infections, healthcare-associated infections, and carbapenem therapy were independent variables associated with increased readmissions due to poor infection control. Readmissions not related to poor infection control, adverse events, and catheter-related complications were similar in multidrug-resistant compared to non-multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Home intravenous therapy, administered by patients or their caretakers using elastomeric infusion pumps, was safe and effective for the treatment of most multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. PMID:25655757

  7. NEWER STRATEGIES FOR INSULIN DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nisha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is a proteinaceous hormone produced in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas and used as a treatment in the diabetes mellitus. Successful oral insulin delivery involves overcoming the enzymatic and physical barriers and taking steps to conserve bioactivity during formulation processing. Newer strategies for insulin delivery include insulin pen injector, Refillable insulin injection pen, Insulin Syringe, Transfersome and Implantable insulin pumps.

  8. A part-randomized study of intravenous oseltamivir in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várkonyi, I; Chappey, C; Giraudon, M; Burleigh, L

    2015-06-01

    Seriously ill patients with influenza may be unable to take oral medication. The safety of intravenous oseltamivir was evaluated in adults and adolescents. This prospective, part-randomized study enrolled hospitalized patients aged ?13 years with clinical or laboratory-confirmed influenza, who started study medication within 144 h of illness onset. Patients with normal renal function received oseltamivir 100 or 200 mg every 12 h for 5 days by slow intravenous infusion. Patients with renal impairment received lower doses, appropriate to the degree of impairment. Blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetics, and nasal swabs were taken to monitor viral shedding and resistance [reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and culture]. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored for 30 days from treatment initiation. Of the 118 patients enrolled, 103 had normal renal function. On day 1, 64 patients had laboratory-confirmed influenza. Ninety-four (80 %) patients completed 5 days of oseltamivir treatment (32 intravenous only). Sixty-eight and 13 patients reported on-treatment AEs and serious AEs (SAEs), respectively (62 and nine during intravenous dosing, respectively). For 33 and six patients, these AEs and SAEs were considered treatment-related (31 and five during intravenous dosing, respectively); 11 patients had AEs causing treatment withdrawal. Five patients died. Adequate systemic exposure to oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) was achieved at the intravenous doses tested. Oseltamivir-resistant viruses (H275Y) were detected in two patients. In seriously ill, hospitalized patients with/without renal impairment, intravenous oseltamivir was not associated with adverse safety findings at the dosages tested and achieved systemic OC exposures at least as high as the approved oral dose. PMID:25678009

  9. Boron biodistribution after boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo dynamic tissue boron concentration measurements are not available for BNCT in clinical settings. Whole blood boron concentrations and converting factors are currently used in stead to estimate the boron concentrations in the target tissues and the ensuing radiation doses. We studied with ICP-AES the boron concentrations in blood after 2 hour intravenous infusions of BPA-F in 8 patients (290 mg/kg). As BPA-F is water soluble we calculated respective doses per lean body weight (LBW (360 - 471 mg/kg) - the peak plasma concentrations and area under plasma boron concentration time curve correlated with the mg/LBW dose, but not with dose per skin surface area (mg/m2). The mean boron concentrations in plasma, whole blood and red cells at the infusion were 32.1 ± 3.3, 23.3 ± 2.4 and 9.5 ± 2.8, respectively. LBW doses should be considered to ensure more homogenous dosing and BNCT irradiation. (author)

  10. Acute hormonal response to glucose, lipids and arginine infusion in overweight cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lucile J M; Lutz, Thomas A; Daumas, Caroline; Bleis, Philippe; Nguyen, Patrick; Biourge, Vincent; Dumon, Henri J W

    2014-01-01

    In cats, the incidence of obesity and diabetes is increasing, and little is known about specific aspects of the endocrine control of food intake in this species. Recent data suggest that ghrelin has an important role in the control of insulin secretion and vice versa, but this role has never been demonstrated in cats. Here we aimed to improve our understanding about the relationship between insulin, amylin and ghrelin secretion in response to a nutrient load in overweight cats. After a 16 h fast, weekly, six overweight male cats underwent randomly one of the four testing sessions: saline, glucose, arginine and TAG. All solutions were isoenergetic and isovolumic, and were injected intravenously as a bolus. Glucose, insulin, acylated ghrelin (AG), amylin and prolactin were assayed in plasma before and 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 min after the nutrient load. A linear mixed-effects model was used to assess the effect of bolus and time on the parameters. A parenteral bolus of glucose or arginine increased insulin and ghrelin concentrations in cats. Except for with the TAG bolus, no suppression of ghrelin was observed. The absence of AG suppression after the intravenous load of arginine and glucose may suggest: (1) that some nutrients do not promote satiation in overweight cats; or that (2) AG may be involved in non-homeostatic consumption mechanisms. However, the role of ghrelin in food reward remains to be assessed in cats. PMID:25191616

  11. Effects of Intravenous Ketamine on Explicit and Implicit Measures of Suicidality in Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca B.; Nock, Matthew K.; Charney, Dennis S.; Mathew, Sanjay J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Intravenous ketamine has shown rapid antidepressant effects in early trials, making it a potentially attractive candidate for depressed patients at imminent risk of suicide. The Implicit Association Test (IAT), a performance-based measure of association between two concepts, may have utility in suicide assessment. Methods Twenty-six patients with treatment-resistant depression were assessed for suicidality 2 hours prior to, and 24 hours following, a single subanesthetic dose of intravenous ketamine using the suicidality item of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-SI). Ten patients also completed IATs assessing implicit suicidal associations at comparable time points. In a second study, 9 patients received thrice-weekly ketamine infusions over a 12-day period. Results 24-hours after a single infusion, MADRS-SI scores were reduced by an average of 2.08 points on a 0–6 scale (p<.001; d=1.37), and 81% of patients received a rating of 0 or 1 post-infusion. Implicit associations between self- and escape-related words were also reduced following ketamine (p=.003; d=1.36), with reductions correlated across implicit and explicit measures. MADRS-SI reductions were sustained for 12 days by repeated-dose ketamine (2.9-point mean reduction; p<.001; d=2.42). Conclusions These preliminary findings support the premise that ketamine has rapid beneficial effects on suicidal cognition and warrants further study. PMID:19545857

  12. Comparison of the physiological relevance of systemic vs. portal insulin delivery to evaluate whole body glucose flux during an insulin clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Tiffany D; Jenkins, Erin C; O'Brien, Tracy P; McCoy, Gregory A; Havlik, Allison E; Nass, Erik R; Nicholson, Wendell E; Printz, Richard L; Shiota, Masakazu

    2015-02-01

    To understand the underlying pathology of metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, an accurate determination of whole body glucose flux needs to be made by a method that maintains key physiological features. One such feature is a positive differential in insulin concentration between the portal venous and systemic arterial circulation (P/S-IG). P/S-IG during the determination of the relative contribution of liver and extra-liver tissues/organs to whole body glucose flux during an insulin clamp with either systemic (SID) or portal (PID) insulin delivery was examined with insulin infusion rates of 1, 2, and 5 mU·kg(-1)·min(-1) under either euglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions in 6-h-fasted conscious normal rats. A P/S-IG was initially determined with endogenous insulin secretion to exist with a value of 2.07. During an insulin clamp, while inhibiting endogenous insulin secretion by somatostatin, P/S-IG remained at 2.2 with PID, whereas, P/S-IG disappeared completely with SID, which exhibited higher arterial and lower portal insulin levels compared with PID. Consequently, glucose disappearance rates and muscle glycogen synthetic rates were higher, but suppression of endogenous glucose production and liver glycogen synthetic rates were lower with SID compared with PID. When the insulin clamp was performed with SID at 2 and 5 mU·kg(-1)·min(-1) without managing endogenous insulin secretion under euglycemic but not hyperglycemic conditions, endogenous insulin secretion was completely suppressed with SID, and the P/S-IG disappeared. Thus, compared with PID, an insulin clamp with SID underestimates the contribution of liver in response to insulin to whole body glucose flux. PMID:25516552

  13. Forecasting correct sodium balance in hemodiafiltration procedures involving infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, B; Limido, D; Sforzini, S; Beretta, P; Bonoldi, G; Dadone, C; Di Filippo, G; Mariani, P; Mascia, F; Pincella, G

    1991-01-01

    Four patients, stable on acetate hemodialysis (AHD), were switched to acetate-free biofiltration (AFB) which differs from AHD and bicarbonate hemodialysis (BHD) in that the dialysate contains no buffer, which is given intravenously as a hypertonic (1/6 M) Na bicarbonate solution. Within the 1st month the patients developed thirst and hypertension attributed to a positive Na balance. The aim of this investigation was to check this (1) by a study based on the predictable changes induced in the body compartments of 13 patients by the infusion and ultrafiltration (UF) of a hypertonic solution and (2) by direct determination and calculation of 28 Na mass balances in BHD and AFB. The theoretical model indicated that infusion of 4.87 liters of a 166.7 mEq/l Na bicarbonate solution and UF of the same amount caused a positive balance of 233 mosm of Na. The Na mass balances showed a relationship between Na transmembrane gradient and loss or gain of Na in both methods (p less than 0.0001). The slopes of the regression lines were not significantly different but there was a highly significant difference between the y axis intercepts (p less than 0.0001), which indicates that the same Na transmembrane gradient that gives no net change of Na in BHD, induces a net gain of 240 mosm (120 mEq of Na) in AFB and that to obtain the same Na balance dialysate Na should be reduced by about 8 mEq/l in AFB. These data are the same as the theoretical forecast which could be extended to all hemodiafiltration methods in which solutions of any tonicity have to be infused, in order to correctly predict the Na balance. PMID:1801854

  14. Acute cellular insulin resistance and hyperglycemia associated with hypophosphatemia after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garazi, Esther; Bridge, Suzanne; Caffarelli, Anthony; Ruoss, Stephen; Van der Starre, Pieter

    2015-01-15

    Successful glycemic control reduces morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery patients. Protocols that include insulin infusions are commonly followed to achieve target blood glucose levels. Insulin resistance has been reported and linked to low serum phosphate levels in animal models and studies in diabetic outpatients, but not in postoperative patients. The following case series is a retrospective observational review of 8 cardiac surgery patients who developed insulin resistance early after surgery; this resistance was reversed by correcting serum hypophosphatemia. We discuss the multiple underlying mechanisms causing hypophosphatemia. PMID:25611002

  15. Luminal uptake and intracellular transport of insulin in renal proximal tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that proteins taken up from the renal tubular fluid are transported into lysosomes in proximal tubule cells. Recently, however, it has been postulated that insulin in isolated perfused rat kidneys did not accumulate in lysosomes but to a certain degree in the Golgi region. The present study was undertaken to investigate the intracellular handling of biologically unaltered insulin in rat renal proximal tubule cells. Rats were prepared for in vivo micropuncture and either a colloidal gold insulin complex or insulin monoiodinated in the A-14 position (125I-insulin) was microinfused into proximal tubules. After 5, 10, 25 or 60 min the tubules were fixed by microinfusion of glutaraldehyde and processed for electron microscopy or electron microscope autoradiography. A qualitative analysis of tubules infused with colloidal gold insulin or 125I-insulin showed that insulin was taken up by endocytosis and transported to lysosomes, and a quantitative autoradiographic analysis of the 125I-insulin microinfused tubules showed that the grain density after five min was significantly increased for endocytic vacuoles and for lysosomes. After 60 min the grain density was still significant over lysosomes. The accumulation of grains was non-significant over all other areas analyzed at any time. This study shows that insulin is taken up from the luminal side of the proximal tubule by endocytosis and transported to the lysosomes. There was no significant transport to the Golgi region

  16. Direct vs. indirect pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis as a function of glucose infusion rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was initiated to determine the influence of the rate of exogenous glucose administration on liver glycogen synthesis by the direct (glucose uptake and incorporation into glycogen) vs the indirect pathway (glucose degradation to 3-carbon intermediates, e.g., lactate, prior to incorporation into glycogen). Catheterized rats were fasted 2 days prior to receiving a 3 hr infusion of glucose at rates of 0 to 230 ?mol/min/kg containing tracer [6-3H]- and [U-14C]-glucose. Plasma glucose (r = 0.80), insulin (r = 0.90) and lactate (r = 0.84) were correlated with glucose infusion rate. The rate of liver glycogen deposition (0.46 +/- 0.03 ?mol/min/g) did not differ between a glucose infusion rate of 20 and 230 ?mol/min/kg. At the lowest and highest glucose infusion rates hepatic glycogenesis accounted for 87 +/- 6 and 9 +/- 1% of the total glucose load, respectively. The percent contribution of the direct pathways to glycogen deposition ([3H] specific activity in hepatic glycogen/[3H] specific activity in plasma glucose) increased from 16 +/- 3 to 83 +/- 5% from lowest to highest glucose infusion rates (prevailing plasma glucose concentrations: 9 +/- 1 and 21 +/- 2 mM, respectively). The results indicate that the relative contribution of the direct and indirect pathways of glucogen synthesis are dependent upon the glucose load or plasma glucose concentration

  17. Insulin signaling in primary adipocytes in insulin sensitive and insulin resistant states

    OpenAIRE

    Aili Fagerholm, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of people world-wide develops the disease type 2 diabetes. Development of type 2 diabetes is characterized by a shift from an insulin sensitive state to an insulin resistant state in peripheral insulin responding organs, which originates from the development of insulin resistance in the adipose tissue. Insulin resistance in combination with reduced pancreatic insulin secretion lead to overt type 2 diabetes. In this thesis, the insulin signaling network in primary adipocytes...

  18. INSULIN THERAPY TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Živi?

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The insulin classification regarding the duration of its effect gradually be-comes outdated; it is necessary to speak first about the insulin therapy regimes. The intensified insulin therapy regarding the type of multiple daily insulin injections be-comes an indisputable standard. The progress in the "protein engineering" with the formation of a wide spectrum of insulin analogues provides for moving forward to-wards modern diabetology and the concept of strict individualization of the insulin therapy. The experience becomes a pattern in creating two existing formulas of the insulin "short" analogues, namely HUMALAG with the replacement of the proline and lysinane places with those of 28 and 29, and NOVORAPID with aspartic acid at the 28th place in the B chain. The most recent long-effect analogues are created by amino acid changes with the glycine residual at the position A21 and two ariginines added to the positions B31 and B32 - insulin "glargin" - LANTUS. The development of short and long effect analogues imposed the logical need for formulating "new" fixed insulin combination's as well. New combination's are made of two kinds of ac-tual insulin, namely, the fast-effect analogues of the aspart type or lystroinsulin and protamine-retarded preparations - neutral protamine - lystroinsulin. Three kinds of combinations are made.

  19. Biosimilar Insulins: Basic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lutz; Hompesch, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Until now most of the insulin used in developed countries has been manufactured and distributed by a small number of multinational companies. Beyond the established insulin manufacturers, a number of new players have developed insulin manufacturing capacities based on modern biotechnological methods. Because the patents for many of the approved insulin formulations have expired or are going to expire soon, these not yet established companies are increasingly interested in seeking market approval for their insulin products as biosimilar insulins (BI) in highly regulated markets like the EU and the United States. Differences in the manufacturing process (none of the insulin manufacturing procedures are 100% identical) can lead to insulins that to some extent may differ from the originator insulin. The key questions are if subtle differences in the structure of the insulins, purity, and so on are clinically relevant and may result in different biological effects. The aim of this article is to introduce and discuss basic aspects that may be of relevance with regard to BI. PMID:24876530

  20. Comparison of palmitic acid kinetics during glucose or ketone body infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketone body interactions can be observed for extended ketosis by infusion by monoacetoacetin (the monoglyceride of acetoacetic acid). Palmitic acid kinetics were compared on the 5th day of glucose or ketone body-glucose infusions. 20 rats were fed complete diets intravenously at the rate of 50 ml/day. All diets contained vitamins, trace minerals, electrolytes, amino acids and 1 kcal/ml of non-protein energy. Rats were divided by energy source: Group A (n = 10) received energy from glucose and Group B (n = 10) from 72% monoacetoacetin plus 28% glucose. Diets were given at 1/2 and 3/4 rats on days 1 and 2, respectively and at full rate for days 3-5. Urinary nitrogen losses, body weight and dietary intake were measured daily. Palmitate kinetics was measured on day 5 using a continuous infusion of [1-14C] palmitate and measuring C-14 in breath and plasma and plasma palmitate by GC. The two groups had similar body weight changes and urinary nitrogen losses over the 3 days of full intake Group A had lower plasma palmitate (88 +/- 7 vs 105 +/- 6 micromol/l) but similar turnover (17.1 +/- 2.4 vs 15.0 +/- 1.9 mmol/hr) and oxidation 2.3 +/- 0.3 vs 2.2 +/- 0.05 mmol/hr) compared to Group B. These data show that feeding monoacetoacetin intravenously does not stimulate fatty acid metabolism in the well nourished rat

  1. A novel subcutaneous infusion delivery system based on osmotic pump: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Ma, Rui; Mei, Danyu; Jing, Pei; Dong, Xiao; Li, Bingsheng; Yang, Yanfang; Du, Lina; Mei, Xing-Guo; Hu, Fu-Qiang

    2014-02-01

    An economical, convenient portable drug delivery system combining osmotic pump with subcutaneous infusion was developed, which was composed of three primary components: water chamber, osmotic pump chamber and support base. Ceftriaxone sodium (CRO) was selected as the model drug and osmotic pump tablets were prepared. The influence of osmotic agents on drug release profiles was evaluated. As the adjustment made by the osmotic agents was limited, the compositions of semipermeable membrane were investigated to determine significant associations of factors based on orthogonal design. The in vitro release profiles of the optimum formulation achieved to the predetermined value (15?±?3?min for the initial release time T(i) and 5.75?±?0.25?h for the extent release time T(e)). The pharmacokinetic profiles of this drug delivery system were evaluated in Beagle dogs. In vivo results demonstrated that the osmotic pump subcutaneous infusion administration was equivalent to intravenous injection administration in terms of bioavailability. Moreover, constant drug plasma levels with minimized fluctuations could be achieved with this osmotic pump subcutaneous infusion system, compared with intravenous injection. PMID:24102136

  2. Do perceptions of insulin pump usability impact attitudes toward insulin pump therapy? A pilot study of individuals with type 1 and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, James J; Gilgen, Emily

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of perceived insulin pump usability on attitudes toward insulin pump therapy in diabetic individuals currently treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI). This comparative, single-arm study recruited 28 adults with type 1 (n = 16) and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes (n = 12) to evaluate 2 current insulin pumps: Medtronic Revel 723 (Pump 1), Asante Snap Insulin Pump (Pump 2). Participants were randomized 1:1 to 1 of 2 assessment sequences: Pump 1 followed by Pump 2; and Pump 2 followed by Pump 1. Structured observational protocols were utilized to assess participants' ability and time required to learn/perform common tasks associated with pump setup/use. Participants used a modified version of the System Usability Scale (SUS) and investigator-developed questionnaires to rate pump usability and task difficulty; pre-post questionnaires assessed changes in attitudes toward insulin pump therapy. All participants completed the study. SUS scores showed Pump 2 to be more usable than Pump 1 on all usability attributes. Participants rated Pump 2 more positively than Pump 1, overall mean SUS scores of 5.7 versus 4.1 respectively, F(1, 52) = 32.7, P Pump 2 last, 5.3 versus 4.4 for Pump 1 last, F(1, 52) = 10.8, P Pump 2 was preferred for all tasks: manual bolus (86%), bolus calculation (71%), managing basal rates (93%), interpreting alarms (96%), transferring settings (100%), changing insulin and infusion sets (93%), all P pump usability can directly impact acceptance and use of features that may benefit those who wear them. Simpler pump devices that decrease perceptions of complexity may encourage broader use of this technology. PMID:25269659

  3. Anemia and the Need for Intravenous Iron Infusion after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Kotkiewicz, Adam; Donaldson, Keri; Dye, Charles; Rogers, Ann M.; Mauger, David; Kong, Lan; Eyster, M Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of anemia, iron deficiency, and the long-term need for IV iron following Roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has not been well characterized. Three-hundred and nineteen out of 904 consecutive subjects who underwent RYGB at Penn State Hershey Medical Center from 1999 to 2006 met the inclusion criteria for a preoperative complete blood count (CBC) and at least one CBC >6 months following surgery. Cumulative incidence of anemia 7 years post procedure was 58%. Menstruation statu...

  4. Multiple infusions of human intravenous immunoglobulin in chimpanzees do not lead to immune elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibl, H;