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1

Determination of 24-hour insulin infusion pattern by an artificial endocrine pancreas for intravenous insulin infusion with a miniature pump  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

UNLABELLED: Intravenous insulin infusion with a glucose controlled insulin infusion system (GCIIS) is known to restore glucose homeostasis. A simpler approach to improve blood glucose regulation is preprogrammed intravenous insulin infusion with portable pumps without sensor-mediated feedback. We report a study designed to evaluate whether the preprogrammed insulin infusion pattern to be used in the miniature insulin infusion pump (MIIP) could be optimized by concomitant employment of the GCIIS for blood glucose control. Six juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetics (mean age 31 yrs) were studied. Mean blood glucose (MBG) was 6.2 mmol/l +/- 0.5 (SD) during glucose controlled infusion and 5.3 +/- 0.6 during the combined MIIP + GCIIS-day. The insulin requirements calculated from the s.c. regimen (56 U +/- 10 SD) were identical to the GCIIS-measured (51 U +/- 14) and to the amounts delivered during the combined MIIP-GCIIS infusion day (54 U +/- 13). A mean surplus of 3 U was given by the GCIIS. Mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE) was 3.0 mmol/l during GCIIS-control, and 3.3 mmol/l during combined infusion. IN CONCLUSION: The GCIIS was found capable of calculating the 24-hour insulin dose in well-known, unstable diabetics; however, it did not improve the preprogrammed insulin infusion profile obtained by the MIIP.

KØlendorf, K; Christiansen, J S

1981-01-01

2

Brittle diabetes: long-term control with a portable, continuous, intravenous insulin infusion system.  

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A young woman had severe brittle diabetes mellitus that was critically unmanageable with all conventional insulin treatment. Continuous subcutaneous and intramuscular infusions of insulin also failed to control her metabolic instability. Use of a continuous intravenous infusion, however, whereby a portable, variable-rate, battery-operated syringe pump delivered insulin through a subcutaneously tunnelled central venous catheter, resulted in good control. When she was receiving hourly intramusc...

Bayliss, J.

1981-01-01

3

Potential life-threatening variations of drug concentrations in intravenous infusion systems: potassium chloride, insulin, and heparin  

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The investigation of concentrations of active agents in common carrier media for intravenous infusion revealed that potassium chloride tends to form a pool when it is added without mixing to carrier media in glass or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers which are already suspended in their functional position with ports pointing downwards. Heparin behaves in a similar fashion when added without mixing to carrier media in PVC containers. Such uneven distribution may expose a patient to potentially dangerous, possibly lethal, concentrations of a drug even when a relatively small amount of it is used. Insulin floats to the top of a Haemaccel container if its contents are not adequately mixed after addition of insulin. The resultant irregularity of insulin dosage may make the management of diabetic ketoacidosis more difficult. It is recommended that the instructions for the adequate mixing of contents should appear on all containers of carrier media for intravenous infusions.

Bergman, N.; Vellar, I.D.

1982-09-18

4

Metabolic response to three years of continuous, basal rate intravenous insulin infusion in type II diabetic patients.  

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We studied two obese type II diabetic patients before, during, and after 3 yr of continuous iv insulin infusion, delivered by means of totally implanted insulin infusion pumps. Tolerance of the devices was excellent, and no side-effects or episodes of significant hypoglycemia occurred. Glycosuria was eliminated, and mean 24-h plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels decreased in both patients and remained in or near the normal range for 3 yr. Improvements were also noted in serum triglyceride concentrations and vitreous fluorescein concentrations after iv fluorescein injection. Euglycemic insulin clamp studies showed that no significant change in glucose disposal rate occurred after 6 and 12 months of treatment. However, some improvement in insulin secretion during hyperglycemic insulin clamp studies occurred in both patients after 6 months of insulin infusion. Evaluation of the insulin-glycerol mixture used in the pump revealed that moderate degradation of insulin occurred in the pump during the 21-day flow cycle, resulting in 6-12% increases in fasting blood glucose levels; in addition, higher mol wt species of immunoreactive insulin were present in the patients' serum. We conclude that long term continuous iv infusion of insulin using a totally implantable infusion pump is practical in type II diabetic patients, is acceptable to patients, and is capable of providing near-normal glycemic control. PMID:3897260

Blackshear, P J; Shulman, G I; Roussell, A M; Nathan, D M; Minaker, K L; Rowe, J W; Robbins, D C; Cohen, A M

1985-10-01

5

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of different modes of insulin pump delivery. A randomized, controlled study comparing subcutaneous and intravenous administration of insulin aspart  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To study the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of three different modes of insulin infusion delivered by means of an insulin pump: subcutaneous bolus insulin injection once an hour, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and continuous intravenous insulin infusion.

Ihlo, C A; Lauritzen, Torsten

2011-01-01

6

Pharmacokinetics of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the reasons for the variability of blood glucose regulation in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients is the huge variation in subcutaneous absorption of intermediate-acting insulin. We have investigated the variation in insulin absorption during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in eight such patients. The content of insulin in the subcutaneous tissue was measured using 125I-labelled insulin. The concentration of free serum insulin and blood glucose was followed from 1 h before and from 7 h after breakfast on two consecutive days. The amount of insulin absorbed during 24 h differed in all cases by less than 3% from the daily insulin dose given by the pumps. Mean insulin absorption rates and mean free insulin concentration showed peak values 30-90 min after meal bolus injections; this was sufficient to maintain near-normal blood glucose. Mean free serum insulin correlated strongly with disappearance of insulin from the subcutaneous tissue (r = 0.98). From the insulin absorption rates and free insulin concentrations during basal constant insulin infusion, the half-time of serum insulin was calculated as 6 min. Compared with the known large variability in the absorption of intermediate-acting insulin, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion offers a precise and reproducible way of insulin administration resulting in post-prandial serum insulin peaks sufficient to maintain near-normal blood glucose levels. The half-time of serum insulin during subcutaneous infusion corresponds to values for intravenous infusion given in the literature, indicating that local degradation of insulin in subcutaneous tissue is of minor importance.

Lauritzen, Torsten; Pramming, S

1983-01-01

7

Drugs given by intravenous infusion  

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Nowadays for a large number of patients admitted to a hospital intravenous infusion of fluids is an important part of their treatment. These fluids serve as a correction of the fluid and/or electrolyte balance, as a carrier for drugs, as a substitute to oral nutrition or to compensate the loss of blood. Despite the fact, that many infusions are accompanied by a lot of problems, coherent and basical investigations into the origin of these problems have hardly been done. At the same time there ...

Steenhoek, Adrianus

1983-01-01

8

Development of individual insulin infusion profiles for open loop infusion systems  

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The computer program for the open loop infusion device simulated the feed-back structure of a closed loop insulin secretion control by an algorithm based upon a theoretical postprandial blood sugar profile. Fifteen unstable juvenile onset insulin requiring diabetics could be well controlled after two to three days of an intravenous open loop insulin infusion program. The programs consisted of two constant basal rates and superimposed wavy step profile programs activated at the beginning of ea...

Strack, Thomas; Krause, Ulrich; Schulz, Gerhard; Beyer, Ju?rgen; Beutelspacher, Friedrich; Nagel, Joachim H.

1984-01-01

9

Transition From Intravenous to Subcutaneous Insulin  

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OBJECTIVE The study objectives were 1) to assess the effectiveness and safety of a standardized protocol for the transition to subcutaneous insulin and oral feeding in diabetic or hyperglycemic patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who were receiving intravenous insulin and glucose at the time of the transfer from the intensive cardiac care unit to a general ward and 2) to identify predictors of transition outcome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective observational study. The protocol specifies that patients receive a 100% of their daily subcutaneous insulin requirement from the first day of oral feeding, calculated from the intravenous insulin rate during the final 12 h divided into two: 50% basal and 50% prandial. RESULTS In 142 patients (93 male, 49 female, age range 47–88 years, 135 with known diabetes) the first day after transition, 44.8% of blood glucose (BG) measurements were within the strict range of 100–140 mg/dL before meals and 100–180 mg/dL after meals, and 70.8% were within the broader ranges of 80–160 mg/dL and 80–200 mg/dL, respectively. Pre- or postprandial hypoglycemia (BG <70 mg/dL) occurred in 11 patients (7.7%) on the first day and in 38 patients (26.8%) on the first 3 days after transition. Old age, high doses of intravenous insulin, and wide BG variations in the 24 h before insulin infusion was stopped were predictive of poor BG control after transition. CONCLUSIONS This study shows the effectiveness and safety of a standardized protocol for the transition from intravenous to subcutaneous insulin in patients with ACS when regular oral feeding was resumed. PMID:21593302

Avanzini, Fausto; Marelli, Giuseppe; Donzelli, Walter; Busi, Giovanna; Carbone, Stefania; Bellato, Laura; Colombo, Elena Lucia; Foschi, Roberto; Riva, Emma; Roncaglioni, Maria Carla; De Martini, Mario

2011-01-01

10

[Pharmacokinetics of cephapirin sodium during intravenous infusion].  

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Studies on absorption and excretion of cephapirin (CEPR) are described. CEPR was administered by intravenous drip infusion to 4 healthy volunteers weighing 53 kg to 61 kg, and the serum levels were measured. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by one-compartment model and two-compartment model. Each model was comparatively applied to every founds. Most appropriate administration rate of intravenous drip infusion was discussed due to calculated serum levels, therapeutic AUC and effective time. PMID:6655830

Imoto, T

1983-08-01

11

INTRAVENOUS FENTANYL INFUSION AS AN ANALAGESIC AGENTS FOR LABOR PAIN  

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Introduction. There are few studies about intravenous fentanyl infusion for reduce labor pain. This study evaluate the usefulness of intravenous fentanyl infusion for labor analgesia. Methods. Seventy seven healthy pregnant women were randomized to recive 1.5-2.5µg/kg/hr intravenous fentanyl infusion (interventional group) or placebo (control group). Maternal labor pain intensity, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rate, frequency of nausea and v...

Soltani Nezhad, H.; SH ARAM; Monajjemi, Z.; Jaafar-zadeh, L.

2001-01-01

12

Intravenous insulin use: technical aspects and caveats.  

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Insulin has been in use for nearly a century, but its real clinical worth has been utilized only in the last one and half decade after the landmark study on tight glycaemic control by van Den Berghe. Intravenous (i.v.) insulin is the mainstay of treatment for hyperglycaemia in many acute settings as well as in managing diabetic complications. However, i.v. insulin usage may be associated with numerous potential errors which may have unintended consequences. A thorough knowledge of various aspects associated with insulin injection techniques such as preparations of i.v. insulin, calculation of correct dosage, precautions while using insulin with various i.v. fluids, formulating strategies to minimize insulin adsorption to tubing surface, choosing appropriate insulin injection accessories and devices, can help in optimal control of hyperglycaemia with minimal errors. Improvisation of insulin injection techniques is often necessary in resource challenged settings to minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with uncontrolled hyperglycaemia. PMID:23758001

Kalra, Sanjay; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

2013-05-01

13

Sudden death due to intravenous infusion of hair conditioner.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of sudden death in a 14-year-old girl due to self administration of hair conditioner through an intravenous infusion pump is described. This report demonstrates difficulties that may occur in determining the manner of death in such cases and outlines a specific danger that may occur when adolescents have unsupervised access to intravenous infusion equipment. PMID:9760091

Knight, D M; James, R A; Sims, D N; Bourne, A J; Martin, J; Byard, R W

1998-09-01

14

Subcutaneous insulin infusion: change in basal infusion rate has no immediate effect on insulin absorption rate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were simultaneously given subcutaneous infusions (1.12 IU/h each) of 125I-labeled Actrapid insulin in each side of the abdominal wall. After 24 h of infusion, the size of the infused insulin depots was measured by external counting for 5 h. The basal infusion rate was then doubled in one side and halved in the other for the next 4 h. Finally, 1.12 IU/h of insulin was given in both sides of the abdominal wall for an additional 3 h. The changes in the size of the depots were measured, and the absorption rates for each hour were calculated. During the first 5 h of infusion, the depot size was almost constant (approximately 5 IU) with an absorption rate that equaled the infusion rate. Doubling the infusion rate led to a significant increase in depot size, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h, and only thereafter was a significant increase seen. When the infusion rate was reduced to the initial 1.12 IU/h, the absorption rate remained elevated during the next 3 h. Correspondingly, when the infusion rate was decreased, the depot size also decreased, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h. The results show that a change in the basal insulin infusion rate does not lead to any immediate change in the insulin absorption rate. This should be considered when planning an insulin-infusion program that includes alteration(s) in the basal-rate settingtting

15

Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pumps.  

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Optimal blood glucose control and the restoration of the physiological insulin secretion is a current medical challenge andwill account for an overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality related to diabetes mellitus complications. Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) is the first step to the development of the so-called "artificial pancreas" and is intended to restore blood glucose levels and the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes. CSII using an external pump, offers both a better glycemic profile compared to multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) and a broader flexibility in everyday activities. The advantages of insulin pumps, i.e., basal delivery consistency, adjustable basal rates and low insulin depots also contribute to its reported clinical superiority. However, experience with CSII indicates that candidate patients should be carefully selected, thoroughly educated and vividly motivated to improve their blood glucose control. PMID:23393693

Valla, Vasiliki

2012-01-01

16

Insulin Delivery Route for the Artificial Pancreas: Subcutaneous, Intraperitoneal, or Intravenous? Pros and Cons  

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Insulin delivery is a crucial component of a closed-loop system aiming at the development of an artificial pancreas. The intravenous route, which has been used in the bedside artificial pancreas model for 30 years, has clear advantages in terms of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but cannot be used in any ambulatory system so far. Subcutaneous (SC) insulin infusion benefits from the broad expansion of insulin pump therapy that promoted the availability of constantly improving technology...

Renard, Eric

2008-01-01

17

Errors of intravenous fluid infusion rates in medical inpatients.  

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Prescriptions for intravenous (i.v.) fluids in hospitals may not be closely adhered to. This study prospectively examined whether prescribed i.v. fluids are administered at the correct rate. During a four-week period, the i.v. infusion rates in patients requiring continuous i.v. fluids and cared for by a single medical team in a district hospital were studied. The periods over which i.v. crystalloid fluid bags were administered were compared with the time prescribed. Of a total 207 bags, 53 (26%) were correctly administered at the prescribed rate (percentage error 10% to -10%), 138 bags (67%) were infused too slowly and 16 bags (8%) were infused too fast. Overall, the median (interquartile range) absolute percentage error (positive or negative) for all infused bags was 23% (9.7-50). Thirty-nine per cent of bags were infused accurately when a metered pump was used, compared to 21% of bags infused accurately when a metered pump was not used (p Metered pumps improve accuracy. Increased awareness of such errors, and the routine use of metered pumps should help improve the accuracy of i.v. fluid infusion rates. PMID:17990717

Rooker, Jemma C; Gorard, David A

2007-10-01

18

Severe insulin resistance treatment with intravenous chromium in septic shock patient  

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Full Text Available Insulin resistance has been well documented in critically ill patients. Adequate blood sugar control has been associated with better wound healing, and better outcomes in selected patient populations. Chromium is an essential component of human diet. It is believed to affect changes in glucose uptake. Several studies have shown beneficial effects of oral chromium in diabetic patients with insulin resistance, but role of intravenous chromium infusion has not been completely evaluated. We present a case of extreme insulin resistance in a 62-year-old woman with history of diabetes who suffered a cardiac arrest and respiratory failure, leading to aspiration pneumonia and septic shock requiring greater than 7000 units of insulin over a period of 12 h which was successfully treated with intravenous chromium replacement.

Salim R Surani

2012-01-01

19

Intravenous glucagon in a deliberate insulin overdose in an adolescent with type 1 diabetes mellitus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Massive insulin overdose may be associated with unpredictable and prolonged hypoglycemia. Concerns surrounding the potential provocation of insulin release from beta cells have previously prevented the use of intravenous glucagon as an adjunct to infusion of dextrose in this situation. We describe the case of a 15-yr-old boy with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who presented with profound hypoglycemia following an overdose of an unknown quantity of premixed insulin. Owing to an increasing dextrose requirement and a dependence on hourly intramuscular glucagon injections, a continuous intravenous infusion of glucagon was commenced which successfully avoided the requirement for central venous access or concentrated dextrose infusion. Nausea was managed with anti-emetics. Intramuscular and subcutaneous glucagon is effective in the management of refractory and severe hypoglycemia in youth with both T1DM and hyperinsulinism. Concerns regarding the precipitation of rebound hypoglycemia with the use of intravenous glucagon do not relate to those with T1DM. This treatment option may be a useful adjunct in the management of insulin overdose in youth with T1DM and may avoid the requirement for invasive central venous access placement. PMID:25229989

White, Mary; Zacharin, Margaret R; Werther, George A; Cameron, Fergus J

2014-09-17

20

Multiple intravenous infusions of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells reverse hyperglycemia in experimental type 2 diabetes rats.  

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The worldwide rapid increase in diabetes poses a significant challenge to current therapeutic approaches. Single-dose mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) infusion ameliorates hyperglycemia but fails to restore normoglycemia in diabetic animals. We therefore hypothesized that multiple intravenous MSC infusions may reverse hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2D) rats. We administered serial allogenous bone-marrow derived MSC infusions (1 × 10(6)cells/infusion) via the tail vein once every 2 weeks to T2D rats, induced by high-fat diet and streptozocin (STZ) administration. Hyperglycemia decreased only transiently after a single infusion in early-phase (1 week) T2D rats, but approximated normal levels after at least three-time infusions. This normal blood level was maintained for at least 9 weeks. Serum concentrations of both insulin and C-peptide were dramatically increased after serial MSC infusions. Oral glucose tolerance tests revealed that glucose metabolism was significantly ameliorated. Immunofluorescence analysis of insulin/glucagon staining revealed the restoration of islet structure and number after multiple MSC treatments. When multiple-MSC treatment was initiated in late-phase (5 week) T2D rats, the results were slightly different. The results of this study suggested that a multiple-MSC infusion strategy offers a viable clinical option for T2D patients. PMID:23770360

Hao, Haojie; Liu, Jiejie; Shen, Jing; Zhao, Yali; Liu, Huilin; Hou, Qian; Tong, Chuan; Ti, Dongdong; Dong, Liang; Cheng, Yu; Mu, Yiming; Liu, Jianping; Fu, Xiaobing; Han, Weidong

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Effects of intravenous delivery systems on infused red blood cells.  

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The effects of various intravenous delivery systems on the integrity of infused red blood cells (RBCs) were studied. Using a factorial design, whole blood and packed RBCs were infused through i.v. delivery systems employing various combinations of i.v. tubing diameter and length, needle gauge, infusion rate (5 and 50 ml/hr), type of infusion pump (piston, diaphragm, or peristaltic operation), and type of blood product. The age and temperature of the blood filter used were held constant. A 5-ml sample of the blood product obtained during each experimental run was analyzed for plasma free-hemoglobin to assess the degree of hemolysis. Osmotic fragility of the RBCs was evaluated by measuring the percentage of hemolysis in the blood products in various concentrations of sodium chloride solution. Type of blood product and i.v. pump were the only variables significantly influencing RBC hemolysis. In both blood products, a greater degree of hemolysis occurred with the peristaltic-type pump than with the other types of pumps. In packed RBCs, the diaphragm-type pump produced greater hemolysis than the piston-type pump, but hemolysis was similar in whole-blood samples. Regardless of the type of pump, more hemolysis occurred in whole blood at the 5-ml/hr infusion rate than at the 50-ml/hr rate, but the converse was true in packed RBCs. Samples of both blood products were less osmotically fragile than their respective controls at sodium chloride concentrations ranging from 0.30 to 0.50%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6702849

Gibson, J S; Leff, R D; Roberts, R J

1984-03-01

22

Case report: hyponatremia and generalized convulsion after intravenous oxytocin infusion  

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Full Text Available Most patients with drug-induced hyponatraemia are asymptomatic and the diagnosis is made incidentally following routine blood tests. Mild cases may be managed either by stopping the drug or by careful observation if the drug is considered essential. Severe hyponatremia (serum sodium levels less than 120 mmol/l is associated with increased morbidity and mortality (confusion, convulsions, coma, congestive heart failure e.g.. We present a case of severe water intoxication with convulsion and prolonged coma, following the use of a high dose syntocinon infusion. A 22-year-old female who has intrauterine anencephalic fetus was refered to our hospital. Intravenous oxytocin was used to induce first-trimester abortion, eight hours later generalized tonic-clonic seizures occured and coma followed. Hyponatremia was found as the cause and treated by intravenous infusion of hypertonic 3% NaCl. The patient recovered and no seizure observed on follow-up. The central nervous system manifestations of acute hyponatremia may be related to cerebral edema. Drugs administration and electrolyte disturbances should be remembered as causes of coma and seizure in obstetric patients.

Ufuk Emre

2009-03-01

23

Glucose uptake and pulsatile insulin infusion: euglycaemic clamp and (3-/sup 3/H)glucose studies in healthy subjects  

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To test the hypothesis that insulin has a greater effect on glucose metabolism when given as pulsatile rather than as continuous infusion, a 354-min euglycaemic clamp study was carried out in 8 healthy subjects. At random order soluble insulin was given intravenously either at a constant rate of 0.45mU/kg center dot min or in identical amounts in pulses of 1/sup 1///sub 2/ to 2/sup 1///sub 4/ min followed by intervals of 10/sup 1///sub 2/ to 9/sup 3///sub 4/ min. Average serum insulin levels were similar during the two infusion protocols, but pulsatile administration induced oscillations ranging between 15 and 62 ..mu..U/ml. Glucose uptake expressed as metabolic clearance rate (MCR) for glucose was significantly increased during pulsatile insulin delivery as compared with continuous administration (270-294 min: 8.7+-0.7 vs 6.8+-0.9 ml/kg center dot min, P < 0.01, and 330-354 min: 8.9 +- 0.5 vs 7.4 +- 0.9 ml/kg center dotmin, P<0.05). The superior efficacy of pulsatile insulin delivery on glucose uptake was not consistently found until after 210 min of insulin administration. In both infusion protocols, endogenous glucose production as estimated by the (3-/sup 3/H)glucose infusion technique was suppressed to insignificant values. Finally, the effect of insulin on endogenous insulin secretion and lipolysis as assessed by changes in serum C-peptide and serum FFA was uninfluenced by the infusion mode. In conclusion, insulin infusion resulting in physiological serum insulin levels enhances glucose uptake in peripheral tissues in healthy subjects to a higher degree when given in a pulsed pattern mimicking that of the normal endocrine pancreas than when given as a continuous infusion.

Schmitz, O.; Arnfred, J.; Hother Nielsen, O.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Oerskov, H.

1986-01-01

24

Intravenous ketamine infusions for chronic algodystrophy: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Chronic algodystrophy is difficult to treat, because the disease in this stage is usually resistant to many therapies. It particularly concerns conditions with predominant severe, intractable pain and disability of the involved extremity. In these, the severest cases, searching for effective pain control therapy is extremely important. Intravenous ketamine infusions constitute a promising therapy, which appeared recently. Ketamine possesses properties of blocking central sensitization and development of neuropathic pain through its effect on NMDA receptor, a critical factor in this process. The article presents problem of chronic, refractory algodystrophy, mechanism of ketamine action in pain control, literature review on treatment outcomes and authors' own experience in this field. Ketamine seems to be a useful option for pain control in patients with refractory algodystrophy. PMID:24710331

?yluk, Andrzej; Pastuszka, Joanna

2014-01-01

25

Immediate infusion-related adverse reactions to intravenous immunoglobulin in a prospective cohort of 1765 infusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is increasingly recommended for many diseases apart from primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Although effective and safe, adverse reactions may occur. We conducted a 2-year prospective observational study in 117 patients with PID who received regular IVIG replacement therapy at a median dose of 600mg/kg every 3 to 4weeks to examine IVIG's adverse effects; 1765 infusions were performed (mean=15/patient) in 75 males and 42 females (aged 3months to 77years) in 3 groups: ?9years (34.2%), 10-19years (26.5%), and ?20years (39.3%). Fifty patients had common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), 11 had X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), and 55 had other immune system disorders. The drugs administered were Octagam® (49.1%), Tegeline® (17.3%), Imunoglobulin® (18.6%), Flebogama® (12.9%), Vigam® (1.2%), and Kiovig® (0.4%). Immediate infusion-related adverse reactions occurred in the cases of 38 out 1765 infusions (2.15%, IC95% 1.53%-2.94%), which were classified as mild (81.6%), moderate (10.5%), or severe (7.9%). Time until reaction ranged from 10 to 240min (mean=85.7, median=60). Reaction rates were similar across age groups. The most common reactions were malaise, headache, and abdominal pain. Reported severe events were tightness of the throat and seizure. All symptoms improved with temporary or complete IVIG interruption and symptomatic medications. Sixteen of 38 reactions to infusions occurred in the presence of an acute infection (p=0.09). Tegeline® represented a greater reaction risk factor than Octagam® (p<0.001). These results indicate that IVIG infusion can be considered a safe procedure. Low reaction incidence and few severe immediate infusion-related adverse reactions were observed. PMID:25257732

Bichuetti-Silva, Danielli C; Furlan, Fernanda P; Nobre, Fernanda A; Pereira, Camila T M; Gonçalves, Tessa R T; Gouveia-Pereira, Mariana; Rota, Rafael; Tavares, Lusinete; Mazzucchelli, Juliana T L; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz T

2014-12-01

26

Lack of antibacterial activity after intravenous hydrogen peroxide infusion in experimental Escherichia coli sepsis.  

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The intravenous administration of hydrogen peroxide has been reported to benefit patients with pneumonia and to reduce Plasmodium parasitemia in experimentally infected mice. We assessed the antibacterial activity of intravenously infused hydrogen peroxide against hydrogen peroxide-susceptible Escherichia coli (MBC of hydrogen peroxide, 0.23 mM) in experimentally infected rabbits. No decrease in the level of bacteremia was detected at the maximum intravenous infusion rate of hydrogen peroxide...

Shenep, J. L.; Stokes, D. C.; Hughes, W. T.

1985-01-01

27

Haemolytic anaemia as a complication to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is an established treatment for various neuromuscular disorders. Recently, we have observed a few cases of haemolytic anaemia following IVIg treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of anaemia and haemolysis as a complication to IVIg. In a prospective study we included 28 post-polio patients treated with 2g per kilo of Privigen® and 22 CIDP patients treated with 1.7±0.4 (mean±SD) g per kilo of Kiovig®. The post-polio patients were all IVIg treatment naitive whereas the CIDP patients were in maintenance therapy. Venous blood samples were performed before and two weeks after infusion of IVIg. Following treatment blood haemoglobin declined from 8.6±0.8 to 8.1±1.3mmol/l, p<0.001. Furthermore, decreasing haptoglobin and increasing reticulocyte count, blood bilirubin, and lactate dehydrogenase were observed, all p<0.05. The decrease of haemoglobin was 0.79±1.2 in the treatment naive versus 0.25±0.3mmol/l in the long-term treated patients, p=0.05. Alterations of reticulocyte count, haptoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase were more pronounced in the treatment naive group, all p<0.05. In 7 patients we observed a substantial decline of haemoglobin of more than 1.5mmol/l (1.8-2.9). Six of those 7 patients had undetectable levels of haptoglobin after IVIg and the mean reticulocyte count, blood bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase increased 420%, 130% and 108%. All were in the de-novo treated group. Our observations indicate that treatment naive patients are susceptible to develop haemolysis. Haemolytic anaemia is a severe side effect that seems to be more frequent after immunoglobulin infusions than previously recognized.

Markvardsen, Lars HØj; Harbo, Thomas

28

Stabilized human insulin prevents catheter occlusion during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obstruction of infusion sets is a major cause of metabolic deterioration or even ketoacidosis during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). 21 type I, CSII-treated patients were studied in a prospective, randomized cross over design during two periods of three months to assess the effects of Genapol stabilized human insulin (HOE 21 PH H-TRONIN) on obstruction frequency of PVC catheters in comparison with a neutral preparation of biosynthetic human insulin (BHI). In a total observation time of 9.5 patient-years 79 catheter obstructions by precipitated insulin occurred with an incidence of 0.67 episodes per patient-month for BHI and 0.026 for HOE 21 PH. Improvement of metabolic control paralleled the reduction of obstruction frequency by HOE 21 PH. Thus, a stabilized insulin preparation is recommended for use in CSII to reduce the therapeutic risk. PMID:2091873

Walter, H M; Timmler, R; Mehnert, H

1990-02-01

29

Red Man Syndrome Adverse Reaction following Intravenous Infusion of Cefepime  

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We report the first case of cefepime-induced “red-man syndrome,” which appeared 30 min following drug infusion and was confirmed with a rechallenge test. This syndrome is classically associated with vancomycin infusion and is the result of non-IgE mediated mast cell degranulation. While this adverse effect can be easily managed with drug withdrawal and antihistamine administration, it is unknown whether it can be prevented with slower cefepime infusion and preinfusion antihistamines, as i...

Panos, George; Watson, Dionysios C.; Sargianou, Maria; Kampiotis, Dionysios; Chra, Paraskevi

2012-01-01

30

Protocol-directed insulin infusion sliding scales improve perioperative hyperglycaemia in critical care  

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Abstract Perioperative hyperglycaemia is associated with poor outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Frequent postoperative hyperglycaemia in cardiac surgery patients has led to the initiation of an insulin infusion sliding scale for quality improvement. A systematic review was conducted to determine whether a protocol-directed insulin infusion sliding scale is as safe and effective as a conventional practitioner-directed insulin infusion sliding scale, within targe...

Hui Man; Kumar Arun; Adams Gary G

2012-01-01

31

The contamination of intravenous fluids by writing on the infusion bag: Fact or fiction?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction -Laboratory experiments were conducted to ascertain whether Sharpie® brand black permanent marker ink will permeate through intravenous infusion bags. The practice of writing directly on infusion bags is a frequent yet controversial practice. There are no known written standards that exist which pertain to this practice. Methods – Five types of intravenous bags containing different solutions marked with black ink from a fine point felt tipped Sharpie® marker. Sample extraction occurred after infusion bags had been warmed to 40 C or remained ambient.  Spectrophotometric scans and measurements were conducted at 300 to 600 NM on each solution contained in the experimental bags. Writing with Sharpie® pens on filter paper and surgical tape was also conducted. Results – A total of 17 experiments were conducted with intravenous bags of five different types of manufacture.  There appeared to be no visible or ultraviolet spectrophotometric evidence of leaching of the ink from Sharpie® pens. Four different lot numbers of Sharpie® pens were used. Surgical tape that was written on using Sharpie® markers readily exhibited visible evidence of permeability. Discussion - The experiments conducted would appear to indicate that the infusion containers tested maintained an intact barrier to the application of Sharpie® brand permanent marker ink. Writing on surgical tape does not stop the permeability of Sharpie® pens. This study could serve as a suitable pilot study for others to conduct a much more comprehensive study using a greater number of intravenous containers, solutions and ink markers.   Keywords: Fluid therapy, infusion, ink, intravenous, writing.

James Daniel Langston

2013-11-01

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The pharmacokinetics of ifosfamide given as short and long intravenous infusions in cancer patients.  

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1. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of ifosfamide 5 g m-2 given by two regimens. Six patients (one female), median age 55 (range 40-71) years, all with lung cancer received 5 g m-2 ifosfamide (median ifosfamide dose 8.95 g) as an intravenous infusion over 0.5 h with mesna. Four other cancer patients (all male) of median age 52.5 (range 23-72) years were studied on seven treatment occasions with 5 g m-2 ifosfamide (median ifosfamide dose 8.88 g) as a 24 h intravenous infusion with mesna. P...

Lewis, L. D.; Fitzgerald, D. L.; Mohan, P.; Thatcher, N.; Harper, P. G.; Rogers, H. J.

1991-01-01

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Effect of intravenous iron-dextran (Imferon) infusion on antigen induced monarticular arthritis in rabbits.  

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The effect of intravenously infused iron-dextran (Imferon) on the progression of antigen induced monarticular arthritis in rabbits was studied. A rapid deposition of iron and apoferritin in the synovia of arthritis joints occurred after infusion of iron-dextran during either the acute or chronic phases of the disease. This coincided with the appearance of catalytic (bleomycin reactive) iron in the synovial fluid. There was no evidence, however, for an exacerbation of the antigen induced arthr...

Kind, C. N.; Blackham, A.; Morris, C. J.

1992-01-01

34

Treatment of lung cancer with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous sodium thiosulfate rescue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty-nine patients with primary lung cancer were treated with bronchial artery infusion of cisplatin and intravenous injection of an antidote, sodium thiosulfate. More than 50% reduction of tumor size (PR) was observed in 8 of 9 small cell carcinomas (SCLC) and in 16 of 40 non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). In NSCLC patients PR was obtained in 71% (12/17) after repeated infusions (? 200 mg cisplatin) and in 17% (4/23) after a single infusion (? 150 mg cisplatin). There was a significant linear relationship between cisplatin dose and tumor reduction in this group. No severe adverse effects were encountered. (orig.)

35

Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic step clamping with tracer glucose infusion and labeled glucose infusate for assessment of acute insulin resistance in pigs.  

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The present study aimed to establish hyperinsulinemic euglycemic step clamping with tracer glucose infusion and labeled glucose infusate (step hot-GINF HEC) for assessment of acute insulin resistance in anesthetized pigs and to arrange for combination with invasive investigative methods. Tracer enrichment was measured during D-[6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose infusion before and after surgical instrumentation (n = 8). Insulin dose-response characteristics were determined by two step hot-GINF HEC procedures, with accordingly labeled glucose infusates performed at a total of six insulin infusion rates ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 mU kg(-1) min(-1) (n = 8). Finally, three-step hot-GINF HEC (0.4, 1.2, and 2.0 mU kg(-1) min(-1)) was performed subsequent to major surgical trauma (n = 8). Tracer enrichment, basal glucose kinetics, and circulating levels of C-peptide, cortisol, glucagon, and catecholamines were not influenced by surgical instrumentation. Mean intraindividual coefficient of variance levels for glucose infusion rates and repeatedly measured insulin, glucose, and tracer enrichment indicated stable clamping conditions. Basal and maximal insulin-stimulated glucose utilization was twice as high as in humans at approximately 5.5 and 21 mg kg(-1) min(-1). Surgical trauma elicited pronounced peripheral and moderate hepatic insulin unresponsiveness (45% lower whole body glucose disposal and 19% less suppressed endogenous glucose release) and apparently diminished metabolic insulin clearance. Step hot-GINF HEC seems suitable for assessment of acute insulin resistance in anesthetized pigs, and combination with invasive investigative methods requiring surgical instrumentation can be accomplished without the premises for utilization of the technique being altered, but attention must be paid to alterations in metabolic insulin clearance. PMID:20371732

Gjessing, Petter Fosse; Fuskevåg, Ole-Martin; Hagve, Martin; Revhaug, Arthur; Irtun, Øivind

2010-06-01

36

Effect of prolonged intravenous glucose and essential amino acid infusion on nitrogen balance, muscle protein degradation and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene expression in calves  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous infusions of glucose and amino acids increase both nitrogen balance and muscle accretion. We hypothesised that co-infusion of glucose (to stimulate insulin and essential amino acids (EAA would act additively to improve nitrogen balance by decreasing muscle protein degradation in association with alterations in muscle expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Methods We examined the effect of a 5 day intravenous infusions of saline, glucose, EAA and glucose + EAA, on urinary nitrogen excretion and muscle protein degradation. We carried out the study in 6 restrained calves since ruminants offer the advantage that muscle protein degradation can be assessed by excretion of 3 methyl-histidine and multiple muscle biopsies can be taken from the same animal. On the final day of infusion blood samples were taken for hormone and metabolite measurement and muscle biopsies for expression of ubiquitin, the 14-kDa E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and proteasome sub-units C2 and C8. Results On day 5 of glucose infusion, plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were increased while urea nitrogen excretion and myofibrillar protein degradation was decreased. Co-infusion of glucose + EAA prevented the loss of urinary nitrogen observed with EAA infusions alone and enhanced the increase in plasma IGF-1 concentration but there was no synergistic effect of glucose + EAA on the decrease in myofibrillar protein degradation. Muscle mRNA expression of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, 14-kDa E2 and proteasome sub-unit C2 were significantly decreased, after glucose but not amino acid infusions, and there was no further response to the combined infusions of glucose + EAA. Conclusion Prolonged glucose infusion decreases myofibrillar protein degradation, prevents the excretion of infused EAA, and acts additively with EAA to increase plasma IGF-1 and improve net nitrogen balance. There was no evidence of synergistic effects between glucose + EAA infusion on muscle protein degradation or expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway.

Scaife Jes R

2008-02-01

37

Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men  

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We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp (HI), 40 mU/m(2) x min], 3-(3)H-glucose, indirect calorimetry, and iv glucose tolerance test. Free fatty acid concentrations were similar during basal steady state but 3.7- to 13-fold higher during clamps. P-glucagon increased and the insulin/glucagon ratio decreased at both LI and HI during Intralipid infusion. At LI, glucose oxidation decreased by 10%, whereas glucose disposal, glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were not significantly altered. At HI, glucose disposal, and glucose oxidation decreased by 12% and 24%, respectively, during Intralipid infusion. Glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but not in the nonoxidative) glucose metabolism in young healthy men. Moreover, insulin hypersecretion perfectly countered the free-fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Future studies are needed to determine the role of a prolonged moderate lipid load in subjects at increased risk of developing diabetes.

Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi

2003-01-01

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Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp (HI), 40 mU/m(2) x min], 3-(3)H-glucose, indirect calorimetry, and iv glucose tolerance test. Free fatty acid concentrations were similar during basal steady state but 3.7- to 13-fold higher during clamps. P-glucagon increased and the insulin/glucagon ratio decreased at both LI and HI during Intralipid infusion. At LI, glucose oxidation decreased by 10%, whereas glucose disposal, glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were not significantly altered. At HI, glucose disposal, and glucose oxidation decreased by 12% and 24%, respectively, during Intralipid infusion. Glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but not in the nonoxidative) glucose metabolism in young healthy men. Moreover, insulin hypersecretion perfectly countered the free-fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Future studies are needed to determine the role of a prolonged moderate lipid load in subjects at increased risk of developing diabetes.

Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi

2003-01-01

39

An unbiased glucose clamp method using a variable insulin infusion: its application in diabetic adolescents.  

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A simple, unbiased insulin-varying glucose clamp program is described. The aim of the program was to utilize a continuously updated array of data to predict insulin requirements for normoglycaemia. In assessing Type 1 diabetes the quantity of insulin required for maintenance of basal euglycaemia can be more clinically informative than other clamp methods. We present a method which uses an iterative computer program to predict changes in insulin infusion rate required for glucose clamping. Aft...

Matthews, Dr; Edge, Ja; Dunger, DB

1990-01-01

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Comparative study of intravenous urographic bolus (I.U.B.) and intravenous urographic infusion (I.U.I.) in dogs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two urographic methods were compared: the intravenous urographic bolus (i.u.b.) and the intravenous urographic infusion (i.u.i.). In both methods, two groups of seven healthy adult dogs of both sexes, weighing7.0 to 16.5 kg were used and were anaesthesized with 2% thiopentone sodium in doses of 20 mg/kg via cephalica. In the i.u.b., meglumine diatrizoate (Hypaque-M, 60%) was injected via saphena with a concentration of 282 mg of iodine per mi in doses of 564 mg of iodine per kg. In the i.u.i., meglumine diatrizoate was injected via saphena by drip infusion with a concentration of 200 mg of iodine per mi in doses of 500 mg of iodine per kg. Three series of two X-rays each were taken in ventrodorsal projection 1, 4 and 8 min and left lateral recumbency 30 sec after administering the contrast medium. The X-ray plates obtained were analyzed and compared intra and inter group considering the advance speed of the contrast medium, the radiographic density and outline, and kidney size. The advance speed of the contrast medium was higher in the i.u.i., reaching the kidney, ureter and bladder 1 min after administration in both projections; in ventrodorsal projections in the i.u.b. only the kidneys were reached while in the left lateral recumbency, the kidney and ureters were reached

 
 
 
 
41

Insulin compatibility with polymer materials used in external pump infusion systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a study designed to mimic actual user conditions for external insulin pump infusion, the insulin quality after passage through the infusion set was assessed by various analytical methods, including high performance liquid chromatography. The two infusion sets tested consisted of, firstly, a polyvinylchloride/rubber syringe and a polyvinylchloride catheter sterilized by gamma irradiation and, secondly, a polyethylene/polypropylene syringe connected to a polyethylene catheter and sterilized by ethylene oxide. The insulin solution delivered through the PVC infusion set showed a reduction of preservative to less than 30% of the initial content and increased formation of chemical transformation products of insulin varying from twice the reference level during the first day to more than three times on the third day. By contrast, the polyethylene/polypropylene infusion system showed only a minor decrease in preservative content and no increase in chemical transformation. These effects were observed irrespective of the brand of insulin and were not affected by increase of the zinc content of the insulin solution. Investigation of the influence of the sterilization methods performed on polyvinylchloride and polyethylene catheters revealed that gamma irradiated polyvinylchloride catheters were markedly harmful to the insulin solution, whereas ethylene oxide sterilization did not influence the chemical stability of insulin. PMID:2967145

Melberg, S G; Havelund, S; Villumsen, J; Brange, J

1988-04-01

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Superficial radial neuropathy secondary to intravenous infusion at the wrist: a case report  

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Radial sensory neuropathy is a rare clinical entity. Only one other case attributed to intravenous infusion at the wrist has been reported in the literature. Also known as cheiralgia paresthetica or Wartenberg’s disease, this benign compression mononeuropathy is often mis-diagnosed as is revealed in this case report. Understanding of the anatomy of the wrist, common etiologic factors which may be gleaned from the patient’s history, as well as pertinent symptoms and physical findings, may ...

Politylo, Julian; Decina, Philip A.; Lopes, Arthur A.

1993-01-01

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Uptake of iodinated deoxyuridine in a murine melonama following multiple-day intravenous infusions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techniques are described for multi-day intravenous (i.v.) infusions of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd) into mice. Percent incorporation into DNA as a thymidine (Thd) analog is reported, as measured by radioactive tag (125IdUrd) and by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Quantitative measurements of IdUrd incorporation in DNA are requisite for meaningful evaluation of the effects of radiation enhancement resulting from radiation sensitization and the stimulation of Auger cascades (photon activation)

44

Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infraction after High Dose Intravenous Immunoglobulin Infusion  

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Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIgs) are used for several indications, including autoimmune conditions. IVIg treatment is associated with several possible adverse reactions including induction of a hypercoagulable state. We report a 76-year-old woman treated with IVIg for myasthenia gravis, which developed chest pain and weakness following IVIg infusion. The symptoms were associated with ST segment depression in V4–6 and elevated troponin levels. The patient was diagnosed with non-ST elevati...

Yair Elitzur; Efrat Orenbuch-Harroch; Tomer Adar; Meir Mizrahi

2009-01-01

45

Differential effects of oral, peripheral intravenous, and intraportal glucose on hepatic glucose uptake and insulin and glucagon extraction in conscious dogs.  

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The effect of equal (1.1 +/- 0.1 g/kg body wt) amounts of glucose administered orally, or by peripheral intravenous or intraportal infusion on hepatic glucose uptake and fractional hepatic extraction of insulin and glucagon was studied in conscious dogs with chronically implanted Doppler flow probes on the portal vein and hepatic artery and catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, carotid artery, and superior mesenteric vein. Portal vein and hepatic vein plasma flow increased only after or...

Ishida, T.; Chap, Z.; Chou, J.; Lewis, R.; Hartley, C.; Entman, M.; Field, J. B.

1983-01-01

46

Suppression of insulin secretion by C-peptide infusion in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

A role for insulin in the regulation of its own secretion has been established; however, no such effect of C-peptide has been demonstrated. In order to reexamine the role of C-peptide and insulin in regulating beta cell secretion, we infused C-peptide as a primed continuous infusion of 1 ng/min per kg for 45 min to 7 healthy volunteers, and insulin in a similar manner at rates of 1 and 10 mU/min per kg for 2 h to 14 healthy subjects using the euglycemic insulin clamp technique. Plasma insulin and C-peptide were measured before and during the infusions. During C-peptide infusion, C-peptide levels rose from 1.8 +/- 0.2 to 2.3 +/- 0.2 ng/ml, and insulin levels fell from 14.5 +/- 0.8 to 11.0 +/- 1.0 microU/ml (P < 0.01). During low and high rate insulin infusions, insulin levels rose to 70 +/- 8 and 1,020 +/- 105 microU/ml, while C-peptide levels fell significantly from 1.9 +/- 0.2 to 1.5 +/- 0.2 and to 1.3 +/- 0.1 ng/ml, respectively. Thus 5- and 70-fold increases in circulating insulin levels caused 15% and 33% drops in serum C-peptide, respectively. However, a 30% increase in C-peptide levels caused a significant approximately 24% decrease in the levels of plasma insulin. We conclude that insulin induces a dose-dependent inhibition of beta cell secretion, which is even more sensitive to inhibition by C-peptide. These data suggest a physiological role for C-peptide in regulating human insulin secretion in vivo. PMID:7759223

Cohen, P; Barzilai, N; Karnieli, E

1995-05-01

47

Mesenchymal stem cells are short-lived and do not migrate beyond the lungs after intravenous infusion  

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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are under investigation as a therapy for a variety of disorders. Although animal models show long term regenerative and immunomodulatory effects of MSC, the fate of MSC after infusion remains to be elucidated. In the present study the localization and viability of MSC was examined by isolation and re-culture of intravenously infused MSC. C57BL/6 MSC (500,000) constitutively expressing DsRed-fluorescent protein and radioactively labeled with Cr-51 were infused via ...

Eggenhofer, E.; Benseler, V.; Kroemer, A.; Popp, F. C.; Geissler, E. K.; Schlitt, H. J.; Baan, C. C.; Dahlke, M. H.; Hoogduijn, M. J.

2012-01-01

48

The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of rabeprazole following single intravenous infusion and oral administration in healthy Chinese volunteers  

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To investigate the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of rabeprazole administrated by intravenous infusion and oral administration in healthy Chinese volunteers. A total of 20 male subjects were recruited and randomly assigned at the beginning of the study to receive a single dose of rabeprazole (20 mg) administrated either intravenously or orally. Following a 7-day washout period, all subjects received another 20mg dose via the alternate route. Intravenous dose was given in constant infusi...

Ruihua Shi; Xiyong Zhang; Dewang Wang; Haibo Zhang; Hongyu Yuan; Yongqing Wang; Hongwen Zhang; Ning Ou; Nana Tang; Ling Meng

2010-01-01

49

Effect of intravenous infusion of verapamil in patients of severe hypertension.  

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Full Text Available Thirty patients with diastolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg or more were administered a bolus dose of verapamil (0.15 mg/kg followed immediately by an intravenous infusion at a rate of 0.005 mg/kg/min for one hour. The patients were monitored during this period and three hours following the discontinuation of the infusion. The systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures before verapamil administration were 221.4 +/- 7.5, 134.3 +/- 2.7 and 163.4 +/- 4.1 mm Hg respectively, which decreased to 170.1 +/- 5.2, 99.1 +/- 3.7 and 122.8 +/- 3.6 mm Hg after intravenous bolus of verapamil. The fall in all the levels of blood pressure was significant (p less than 0.001 and was maintained at the lower levels throughout the infusion period and even three hours after discontinuation of the therapy. No untowards effects were observed and there was no significant change in heart rate and electrocardiogram. It, thus, proves to be an useful addition to the therapeutic armamentarium in the acute management of severe hypertension.

Verma S

1990-01-01

50

Nuclearmedical investigations on tissue concentration and hemodynamic effects of retrograde intravenous pressure infusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 12 patients with trophic foot-lesions (diabetic feet) retrograde intravenous pressure infusions (150 ml) containing radioactive tracers (99m Tc, 99m Tc labelled human serum albumin) were carried out. With the veins emptied time-activity curves over the legs reflect tissue concentrations after release of the occlusion. Tissue-concentration is about 3 times higher than after intraarterial and 7 times higher than after intravenous injection of the same dose. The high count-rates which can be measured in the wound-secretion demonstrate the 'rinsing effect' of the injected fluid. Hemodynamic investigations have been performed in a double blind study. 8 patients received buflomedil and 9 got placebo 3 times per week by retrograde intravenous pressure infusions. After 3 weeks there was an increase of the peak-flow on the lower leg (venous occlusion plethysmography), an increase of transcutaneous oxygen pressure and a fall of peak flow-time and of plasma-viscosity, both for buflomedil and for placebo (without statistical significance): Preliminary investigations after an arterial occlusion for 1 hour showed an increase of flow-values measured by venous occlusion plethysmography which reached a maximum after 4 to 5 days

51

Protocol-directed insulin infusion sliding scales improve perioperative hyperglycaemia in critical care  

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Full Text Available Abstract Perioperative hyperglycaemia is associated with poor outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Frequent postoperative hyperglycaemia in cardiac surgery patients has led to the initiation of an insulin infusion sliding scale for quality improvement. A systematic review was conducted to determine whether a protocol-directed insulin infusion sliding scale is as safe and effective as a conventional practitioner-directed insulin infusion sliding scale, within target blood glucose ranges. A literature survey was conducted to identify reports on the effectiveness and safety of an insulin infusion protocol, using seven electronic databases from 2000 to 2012: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Joanna Briggs Institute Library and SIGLE. Data were extracted using pre-determined systematic review and meta-analysis criteria. Seven research studies met the inclusion criteria. There was an improvement in overall glycaemic control in five of these studies. The implementation of protocols led to the achievement of blood glucose concentration targets more rapidly and the maintenance of a specified target blood glucose range for a longer time, without any increased frequency of hyperglycaemia. Of the seven studies, four used controls and three had no controls. In terms of the meta-analysis carried out, four studies revealed a failure of patients reaching target blood glucose levels (P P It can be concluded that the protocol-directed insulin infusion sliding scale is safe and improves blood glucose control when compared with the conventional practitioner-directed insulin infusion sliding scale. This study supports the adoption of a protocol-directed insulin infusion sliding scale as a standard of care for post-cardiac surgery patients.

Hui Man

2012-10-01

52

Intraperitoneal insulin delivery to patients with type 1 diabetes results in higher serum IGF-I bioactivity than continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with low IGF-I and altered levels of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) in plasma. This may be of importance for insulin sensitivity and the risk of developing diabetic complications. We hypothesized that IGF-I bioactivity is affected by the route of insulin administration and that continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) has a more pronounced effect than continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII).

Hedman, Christina A; Frystyk, Jan

2013-01-01

53

Use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion by a portable insulin pump during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus  

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Background/aim: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the most important goals in treating pregnancies complicated with diabetes is keeping glucose level within the normal range, especially in the first trimester. A portable insulin pump for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) represents the best form of therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects...

Zori? Svetlana; Mici? Dragan; Kendereški Aleksandra; Šumarac-Dumanovi? Mirjana; Cvijovi? Goran; Pejkovi? Danica; Cvetkovi? Miloš; Ljubi? Aleksandar; Dukanac-Stamenkovi? Jelena

2006-01-01

54

The exchangeable splenic platelet pool in response to intravenous infusion of isoprenaline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

8 healthy volunteers and 4 asplenic subjects, in whom autologous platelets had been labelled with radioactive sodium chromate, received intravenous infusions of isoprenaline in a dose of 0.03 ?g x kg-1 x min-1 over a period of 6 min. In the former group these infusions caused a significant decrease in the concentration of labelled as well as unlabelled platelets in the peripheral blood. Body surface countings showed that a significant increase in the count rate over the spleen occurred concomitantly with the decrease in the circulating platelet-bound radioactivity (PBR). In the group of asplenic subjects no change in PBR occurred. It is concluded that adrenergic beta-receptor stimulation causes a transitory trapping of platelets in the exchangeable splenic platelet pool. (author)

55

Effectiveness of intravenous ilomedin infusion and smoking cessation in the treatment of acutely symptomatic buerger disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the effectiveness of iloprost treatment in the management of symptomatic Buerger disease (BD) and assessed smoking cessation compliance, based on a single-center experience. Thirteen patients with BD were treated with sessions of intravenous (IV) Ilomedin infusion. At 1-year follow-up, pain status alteration, number of analgesics required, ankle-brachial index (ABI) change, compliance with supervised smoking cessation, and amputation-free rate were recorded. The pain status improved considerably according to a visual analog scale, the number of analgesics required was significantly reduced, and all patients improved their pain-free walking distance, the ABI, and their self-reported quality of life. Only 2 patients required minor amputations. Combination of IV Ilomedin infusion, supervised smoking cessation, and a specific follow-up protocol may lead to improvement in pain-free walking distance, pain status, quality of life, and substantial reduction in amputation risk. PMID:24366824

Spanos, Kostas; Georgiou, Evangelia; Saleptsis, Vassileios; Athanasoulas, Athanasios; Sakkas, Lazaros; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

2015-02-01

56

Bioactivity and pharmacokinetics of human proinsulin in comparison to human insulin after intravenous and subcutaneous injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypoglycemic actions of human insulin (1 IU/kg b.w.) and biosynthetic human proinsulin in about equimolar amounts were studied after intravenous and subcutaneous injection in rabbits. Blood samples were taken up to four hours after injection for the determination of blood glucose and immunoreactive levels of both insulin and human C-peptide. For the determination of human C-peptide, serum taken after proinsulin injection was divided into two fractions. One was examined directly by the human C-peptide radioimmunoassay and the other after incubation with a protein-A-sepharose coupled insulin antibody to find "free human C-peptide". Proinsulin in amounts equimolar to 1 IU insulin/kg b.w., exerted a 34% stronger hypoglycemic action after subcutaneous injection than after intravenous administration (area under curve estimation). Proinsulin-induced hypoglycemia did not last longer after intravenous administration than that induced by intravenous insulin. Although subcutaneous proinsulin did not show the same maximum decrease of blood glucose compared to subcutaneous insulin, its action was significantly prolonged (up to 180 min). Specific measurement of free human C-peptide showed no evidence of conversion of proinsulin to insulin and C-peptide. PMID:3049293

Schatz, H; Ammermann, S; Laube, H; Federlin, K

1988-07-01

57

In vivo expression of rat insulin after intravenous administration of the liposome-entrapped gene for rat insulin I.  

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A recombinant plasmid encoding rat preproinsulin I was encapsulated in large liposomes and intravenously injected in rats. Glycemia and blood, splenic, and hepatic insulin were assayed at various times beginning 6 hr after inoculation. The results were compared with controls that had received (i) empty liposomes, (ii) liposomes carrying the Escherichia coli pBR322 plasmid, (iii) the free rat insulin I gene, and (iv) no injection at all. Whereas all controls showed unchanged glucose and insuli...

Nicolau, C.; Le Pape, A.; Soriano, P.; Fargette, F.; Juhel, M. F.

1983-01-01

58

Sustained release disopyramide compared to plain capsules after change-over from intravenous infusion.  

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The plasma concentration profile of disopyramide was examined in 13 patients with arrhythmias following acute myocardial infarction. Intravenous loading doses of 1.5 mg/kg followed by 0.7 mg/kg and then infusion of 0.3 mg kg-1h-1 resulted in final concentrations between 2.4 and 4.9 mg l. Change-over to oral therapy with disopyramide sustained release (SR) tablets was smooth, and therapeutic plasma concentrations were maintained throughout. Comparison of the plasma concentrations in a subseque...

Lien, E.; Bakke, O. M.

1983-01-01

59

Differential effects of cranial radiation on growth hormone response to arginine and insulin infusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth hormone responses to arginine infusion and to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were studied in 13 patients with neoplastic disease after treatment with radiation and chemotherapy. Patients who received intensive cranial radiation (greater than 2,400 rads) had no response to either arginine or insulin; those who received moderate cranial radiation (greater than or equal to 2,400 rads) had GH response to arginine but not to insulin; patients receiving no cranial radiation responded to both arginine and insulin. These data support the hypothesis that GH secretion in response to arginine infusion has a different mechanism in contrast to the response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and that the latter is more vulnerable to cranial radiation

60

Portable detectors for 125I-insulin absorption measurement during subcutaneous infusion with portable pumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Programmed subcutaneous insulin infusion is a promising method for normalisation of the blood glucose concentration in insulin-dependent diabetics. The absorption rate from the depot is usually measured intermittently by radioactively-labelled insulin and stationary scintillation detectors. Small portable detectors are an alternative, however, and continuous absorption measurements could be made during normal life conditions. Contrary to conventional single injection therapy, the insulin depot initially expands during infusion treatment, changing the geometry during measurements. In the present study the methodological aspects and geometrical dependences were investigated. Simulated studies were made with various plane disc 125I sources in Perspex phantoms as well as 125I-insulin absorption studies in short-term subcutaneous infusion experiments with anaesthetised rabbits. Results from portable, end-window Geiger-Mueller (GM) detectors fixed above the depots and close to the surfaces of phantom or skin were compared with results obtained by a conventional stationary NaI(Tl) detector 15 cm from the phantom or skin surface. With a 125I-insulin infusion site at 5 mm depth in the subcutaneous tissue of rabbits, an overall linear proportionality was found between the results obtained with a NaI(Tl) detector and a GM detector raised 15 mm above the skin surface inside the detector housing. (author)

 
 
 
 
61

The analysis and countermeasures of intravenous infusion operation assessment results analysis in nursing students at different levels  

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Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the problems existed in nursing students at different levels in the process of intravenous infusion, to make judgmental guide towards common problems in clinical teaching, to standardize nursing students’ operations at intravenous infusion, and to avoid errors and disputes. Methods: The authors analyzed the problems in secondary, tertiary, undergraduate nursing students in three levels at a provincial hospital from 2010 to 2012 during intravenous infusion therapy; and the clinical teaching administration means were also discussed. Results: the difference of the problems existed in nursing students at different levels is not significant. P values were greater than 0.05. The top five projects that lost scores are consistent. Conclusion: The key problems that can easily cause errors and disputes are those that mostly occurred in nursing students at intravenous infusion operations. In clinical teaching, judgmental guide on common problems should be emphasized, nursing students’ operations at intravenous infusion should be standardized, the critical awareness towards clinical operations should be developed, errors and disputes should be avoided, and nursing students’ sense of professionalism should be enhanced.

Jiao-rong ZHAO

2013-11-01

62

Langerhans cells that migrate to skin after intravenous infusion regulate the induction of contact hypersensitivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intravenous infusion of hapten-derivatized epidermal cells (EC) in syngeneic mice leads to two competing signals for contact hypersensitivity (CH), a dominant effector signal attributable to Langerhans cells (LC) and a suppressor signal from Thy-1+ EC. In vitro exposure of LC to low dose ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation before hapten-derivatization and infusion not only results in the abrogation of their effector signal but also causes the down-regulation of subsequent CH responses. To delineate the relevance of i.v. immunization to the study of CH and of LC as the immunologic targets of low dose UVB radiation, we examined the migratory and immunogenic properties of EC after i.v. infusion. Unsorted EC migrated from blood to skin and lymphoid tissues, reaching steady state distributions at 16 h after infusion. No significant differences were observed between the trafficking of EC in syngeneic and allogeneic transfers. LC localized preferentially to skin, whereas Thy-1+ EC trafficked to skin, the thymus, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen. The pattern of trafficking of unirradiated and low dose UVB-irradiated LC were identical, suggesting that low dose UVB radiation had little effect on LC migration. Finally, skin graft experiments demonstrated i.v. infused, hapten-derivatized LC that migrate to skin to retain their capacity to induce CH, a property that was converted by in vitro pretreatment with low dose UVB radiation into down-regulation. These findings confirm the releegulation. These findings confirm the relevance and utility of the i.v. immunization model in the study of CH and the influence of low dose UVB on this immune response. Our data also provide a basis for investigating the role of disparate trafficking patterns in generating effector and suppressor signals when hapten-derivatized EC are employed for CH

63

Fluctuation of adenosine concentration by modes of intravenous infusion based on mathematical simulation and experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adenosine, which has been used for a myocardial perfusion scan, shows rapid clearance from blood because of its short half-life of 99mTc injection and co-infusion of water via a three-way stopcock. Modes of co-infusion with various infusion speeds and volumes were examined. Intermission of adenosine infusion and rapid displacement by radionuclide co-injection significantly influenced the adenosine concentration in LV. Intermission of adenosine infusion for 2 seconds caused a 15% decrease in the adenosine concentration in the left ventricle. When a square-shaped input was assumed, a three-fold higher concentration of adenosine for 3 seconds created by radionuclide injection resulted in a +42% increase in the LV concentration. Based on a measured input function, radionuclide injection using three-way stopcock through one route caused a two- to three-fold increase in the steady concentratioe-fold increase in the steady concentration in the vein just after injection. When 0.5 ml of radionuclide was slowly co-injected, with three ways opened, it caused a relatively low fluctuation, creating a +34% to -47% change in concentration of LV. A flush of radionuclide with physiological saline significantly increased the adenosine concentration in LV, when short half-lives were assumed. An intravenous adenosine and radiopharmaceutical injection in the same line is feasible. However, the fluctuation of concentration depends significantly on the mode of injection. To minimize the fluctuation, a slow injection of a small volume of a myocardial imaging agent via a co-injection route, with three ways opened, is recommended. (author)

64

High antigenicity of intraperitoneal insulin infusion via implantable devices: preliminary rat studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraperitoneal insulin infusion of Genapol stabilized insulin via implantable devices significantly improves diabetes control and hypoglycemia frequency in type 1 diabetes while it increases insulin antibody levels. Causes for this particular antigenicity remain unknown. The role of insulin modifications occurring in the reservoir on the antigenicity observed was assessed by comparing the antigenicities of the insulin coming from the vial or from the pump reservoir. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with insulin sampled either from a vial (group 1) or from a pump reservoir during a refill of a clinical trial (group 2). Two control groups, one without insulin, the second one receiving a mixture of silicone and insulin were also studied. Human insulin antibody levels were assessed by RIA 10 days after 4 weekly immunizations. AIA levels were higher in group 1 compared to group 2 (P = 0.003 for the first experiment, P = 0.04 in the second experiment). The increased antigenicity of the insulin sampled from the implanted pump might be due to the insulin modifications occurring during the storage in the device. Insulin aggregates could be involved in this antigenicity since they are known to be antigenic and their concentration was shown to be related to the amplitude of the antigenic response. PMID:11280713

Jeandidier, N; Boullu, S; Delatte, E; Sapin, R; Steibel, J; Meyer, P; Uhl, C; Pinget, M

2001-01-01

65

Responses of blood glucose, insulin, glucagon, and Fatty acids to intraruminal infusion of propionate in hanwoo.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on ruminal fermentation characteristics and blood hormones and metabolites in Hanwoo (Korean cattle) steers. Four Hanwoo steers (average body wt. 270 kg, 13 month of age) equipped with rumen cannula were infused into rumens with 0.0 M (Water, C), 0.5 M (37 g/L, T1), 1.0 M (74 g/L, T2) and 1.5 M (111 g/L, T3) of propionate for 1 hour per day and allotted by 4×4 Latin square design. On the 5th day of infusion, samples of rumen and blood were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 300 min after intraruminal infusion of propionate. The concentrations of serum glucose and plasma glucagon were not affected (p>0.05) by intraruminal infusion of propionate. The serum insulin concentration at 60 min after infusion was significantly (pfatty acid (NEFA) at 60 and 180 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the propionate treatments than in C. Hence, intraruminal infusion of propionate stimulates the secretion of insulin, and decreases serum NEFA concentration rather than the change of serum glucose concentration. PMID:25557815

Oh, Y K; Eun, J S; Lee, S C; Chu, G M; Lee, Sung S; Moon, Y H

2015-02-01

66

Dose proportional pharmacokinetics of alprostadil (prostaglandin E1) in healthy volunteers following intravenous infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) (30, 60, 120 micrograms) was administered by intravenous infusion over a 120 min period in an open, three way randomized, cross-over study to 12 healthy male volunteers. For the evaluation of PGE1, PGE0 and 15-keto-PGE0, blood samples were drawn prior to, during and after the infusion. Analytical measurements were performed by gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization triple stage quadruple mass spectrometry, a highly specific and sensitive GC/MS/MS-method. During intravenous infusion of 30, 60 and 120 micrograms PGE1, endogenous plasma PGE1 concentrations increased from 1.7 +/- 0.8 to 4.2 +/- 1.1, 6.7 +/- 1.0 and 11.0 +/- 1.9 pg ml-1 respectively. PGE0 plasma concentrations increased from endogenous levels of 1.3 +/- 1.0 pg ml-1 to 7.6 +/- 2.1, 14.1 +/- 3.7 and 28.0 +/- 3.0 pg ml-1 respectively, whilst 15-keto-PGE0 plasma concentrations increased from endogenous levels of 10.2 +/- 13.9 pg ml-1 to 99.3 +/- 27.9, 190.4 +/- 52.5 and 357.2 +/- 72.6 pg ml-1 respectively. Within the dose range of 30-120 micrograms PGE1 2 h-1 there was a linear increase of Cmax and AUC with the dose. The results of the analysis of variance after baseline and dose-correction show a 90% confidence interval in the bioequivalence acceptance range of 80 to 125%. PMID:8527291

Cawello, W; Leonhardt, A; Schweer, H; Seyberth, H W; Bonn, R; Lomeli, A L

1995-01-01

67

Pharmacokinetics of foscarnet and distribution to cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous infusion in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.  

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To investigate the pharmacokinetics and effects of intravenous foscarnet, 13 relatively healthy male patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and a mean CD4+ lymphocyte value of 0.45 x 10(-9) cells per liter were given a continuous intravenous infusion of foscarnet (0.14 to 0.19 mg/kg per min) for 8 to 21 days. Blood and urine samples were taken during and after drug administration to monitor foscarnet concentrations. Lumbar puncture was performed during the infusion in five patie...

Sjo?vall, J.; Bergdahl, S.; Movin, G.; Ogenstad, S.; Saarima?ki, M.

1989-01-01

68

Arterial medial necrosis and hemorrhage induced in rats by intravenous infusion of fenoldopam mesylate, a dopaminergic vasodilator.  

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Fenoldopam mesylate, a selective, postsynaptic, dopaminergic vasodilator, was administered to rats for assessment of its clinical, toxicologic, and pathologic effects. Groups of 8 male and 8 female rats received 5, 25, 50, or 100 micrograms/kg/min by intravenous infusion for 24 hours. Groups of 12 male and 12 female rats received 2, 8, 16, or 20 mg/kg/day by intravenous injection once daily for 12 days. Tissues were examined by light microscopy. Rats infused for 24-hours with 5-100 micrograms...

Yuhas, E. M.; Morgan, D. G.; Arena, E.; Kupp, R. P.; Saunders, L. Z.; Lewis, H. B.

1985-01-01

69

The effects of intravenous aminoacid infusion on myocardial functions and postoperative analgesia during abdominal aortic surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Effects of intravenous aminoacid infusion onmyocardial functions and postoperative analgesia in abdominalaortic surgery were investigated.Materials and methods: Forty patients were randomlydivided into groups of general anaesthesia with or withoutaminoacid infusion (Group 1 and 2, n=10, combinedgeneral+epidural with or without amino acid infusion (Group3 and 4, n=10. Cardiac risk was evaluated using 2007 AHA/ACC and modified Goldman classifications. Intravenousaminoacid solution of 80 g/L was infused at 2.5 ml/kg/h for atotal of 8 hours. General anaesthesia included intravenousremifentanil, rocuronium, sevoflurane. The lumbar epiduralinclude; 10 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine; bolus dose, an infusionof 0.25% bupivacaine; 4 ml/h for 24 hours. Heart rate,arterial blood pressures were collected intraoperative every10 minute, 1, 24 hour postoperatively. Plasma creatinekinase MB fraction, troponin levels, pain assessment withnumeric analog scale were collected preoperatively, 1, 24hour postoperatively. Postoperative 24 hour analgesic usage,complications were recorded.Results: Patients with mild and severe cardiac risk werehigher in 2007 AHA/ACC classification (26/40, 65% thanmodified Goldman risk classification (5/40, 12.5% (p=0.04.In comparison between groups, myocardial enzyme levelsand complications showed no difference (p>0.05. The useof analgesics were lower in group 3 and 4 in comparison togroup 1 and 2 (p=0.002.Conclusion: During abdominal aortic surgery, intravenousinfusion of amino acid did not show significant changes onintraoperative and postoperative hemodynamic parametersand myocardial enzymes. The patients received combinedgeneral plus epidural anaesthesia showed more successfulpostoperative analgesia.Key words: Amino acid, abdominal aorta, vascular surgery,epidural anesthesia, general anesthesia, keratin kinase,troponin, postoperative analgesia

Mustafa Turhan

2013-03-01

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A pilot study to test the effect of pulsatile insulin infusion on cardiovascular mechanisms that might contribute to attenuation of renal compromise in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with proteinuria.  

Science.gov (United States)

We hypothesized that correction of insulin deficiency by pulsatile intravenous insulin infusion in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with nephropathy preserves renal function by mechanisms involving cardiac autonomic function, cardiac mass, or efficiency, or by hemostatic mechanisms. The control group (8 patients) received subcutaneous insulin (3-4 injections per day). The intravenous infusion group (10 patients) received three 1-hour courses of pulsed intravenous insulin infusion on a single day per week in addition to subcutaneous insulin. Laboratory measurements included 2-dimensional Doppler echocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory monitoring with heart rate variation analysis, platelet aggregation and adhesion, plasma fibrinogen, factor VII, von Willebrand factor, fibrinolytic activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and viscosity measured at baseline and 12 months. Blood pressure control was maintained preferentially with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen utilization was measured with each infusion and showed rapid increase from 0.8 to 0.9 (P = .005) at weekly treatments through 12 months. We observed an annualized decrease in creatinine clearance of 9.6 mL/min for controls vs 3.0 mL/min for infusion patients. Annualized fall in blood hemoglobin was 1.9 vs 0.8 g/dL, respectively (P = .013). There were no differences between the control and infusion group with respect to glycohemoglobin, advanced glycated end products, cholesterol, or triglycerides. No differences between the study groups for hemodynamic or hemostatic factors were evident. Blood pressures were not significantly different at baseline or 12 months. We conclude that although preservation of renal function with attenuation of loss of blood hemoglobin during 12 months of intravenous insulin infusion was associated with improvement in the efficiency of fuel oxidation as measured by respiratory quotient, this occurred without differences in metabolic/hemostatic factors, cardiac autonomic function, cardiac wall, or chamber size. Our hypothesis that preservation of renal function in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with proteinuria by weekly pulsed insulin infusion involves mechanisms from the autonomic nervous system, cardiac size, and function, or elements of hemostasis was not confirmed. PMID:17950093

Weinrauch, Larry A; Burger, Andrew J; Aepfelbacher, Franz; Lee, Annette T; Gleason, Ray E; D'Elia, John A

2007-11-01

71

Explorative study of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics after change in Basal insulin infusion rate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of insulin pumps is rapidly increasing and new, technologically more advanced pumps are continuously being developed. It is of interest to assess the clinical relevance of the many technical features of these pumps, e.g., the effect on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics with change in infusion rate.

Ihlo, Charlotte A; Lauritzen, Torsten

2011-01-01

72

The Experiences of School Nurses Caring for Students Receiving Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder in childhood. Today, children with diabetes are receiving new technologically advanced treatment options, such as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy. School nurses are the primary health caregivers of children with diabetes during school hours. Therefore, it is important…

Darby, Wendy

2006-01-01

73

Evaluation of intravenous medication errors with smart infusion pumps in an academic medical center.  

Science.gov (United States)

While some published research indicates a fairly high frequency of Intravenous (IV) medication errors associated with the use of smart infusion pumps, the generalizability of these results are uncertain. Additionally, the lack of a standardized methodology for measuring these errors is an issue. In this study we iteratively developed a web-based data collection tool to capture IV medication errors using a participatory design approach with interdisciplinary experts. Using the developed tool, a prevalence study was then conducted in an academic medical center. The results showed that the tool was easy to use and effectively captured all IV medication errors. Through the prevalence study, violation errors of hospital policy were found that could potentially place patients at risk, but no critical errors known to contribute to patient harm were noted. PMID:24551395

Ohashi, Kumiko; Dykes, Patricia; McIntosh, Kathleen; Buckley, Elizabeth; Wien, Matt; Bates, David W

2013-01-01

74

Response of colo-rectal hepatic metastases to concomitant radiotherapy and intravenous infusion 5 fluorouracil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-three patients with colo-rectal hepatic metastases were retrospectively reviewed after completing treatment with split course liver irradiation and continually infused concomitant intravenous 5-fluorouracil. Although no patient attained a complete response, an objective partial response was documented in 15 (Responders). The Responders had a median survival of 45 weeks whereas Non-responders had a median survival of 17 weeks. Patients with metastatic disease solely in the liver or those with a Karnofsky performance score (k.p.s) of over sixty, had a median survival of 49 weeks. Patients with multiple organ metastatic involvement had a median survival of 25 weeks and those with a Karnofsky with less than 60 had a median survival of 27 weeks. (p values of 0.006 and 0.03, respectively.) The overall survival of the group completing treatment was 30 weeks, and 19 patients (83%) achieved subjective palliation. The patients tolerated therapy well. There was minimal hematological toxicity; 3 patients developed a leucocyte count of less than 2000 and 1 developed a platelet count of 30,000. The palliation and prolongation of survival attained with minimal complications suggest that adjuvant liver irradiation with concomitant infusion 5-fluorouracil radiosensitization may be an option to offer patients identified to be at high risk of developing subclinical liver disease

75

Bioactivity of intraduodenally and intravenously infused fragments of luminal cholecystokinin releasing factor (LCRF).  

Science.gov (United States)

A luminal cholecystokinin releasing factor (LCRF), has been purified from intestinal secretion and found to have a mass of 8136 daltons. The amino-terminal 41 residues have been sequenced. Previous studies showed that intraduodenal infusion of the synthetic amino-terminal 35 amino acid peptide, LCRF1-35 significantly stimulated pancreatic protein and fluid secretion in conscious rats, but the peptide did not stimulate amylase release from isolated, dispersed pancreatic acini. In the present study, several fragments of LCRF were synthesized and tested for CCK-releasing activity (pancreatic protein secretion) to determine whether shorter fragments of LCRF exhibit the characteristic biological activity of native LCRF and synthetic LCRF1-35. Compounds tested were LCRF1-41, LCRF1-35, LCRF1-65 and LCRF11-25. Of the fragments shorter than LCRF1-35, only LCRF11-25 but not LCRF1-6 had significant CCK releasing activity. LCRF1-41 was equivalent to LCRF1-35 in potency and efficacy. Intravenous and intraduodenal infusion of LCRF1-35 elicited nearly identical dose-response curves. PMID:9556078

Spannagel, A W; Reeve, J R; Greeley, G H; Yanaihara, N; Liddle, R A; Green, G M

1998-02-27

76

Insulin pump therapy management in very young children with type 1 diabetes using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion  

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BACKGROUND: Compared to older children and adolescents very young patients with type 1 diabetes represent a unique population. We analyzed the age-dependent characteristics and parameters of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in children under 6 years of age with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We evaluated metabolic control and pump-dependent characteristics in 46 children with type 1 diabetes after 0.89 +/- 0.62 years of CSII. RESULTS: Metabolic control significantly improved after C...

Cerutti, Franco; Bobbio, Adriana

2009-01-01

77

Decline in mammary translational capacity during intravenous glucose infusion into lactating dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine effects of glucose on milk protein yield and mammary mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity in dairy cattle in early lactation. Eight multiparous cows at 73 ± 8 d in milk were randomly assigned to 2 treatments in a crossover design for two 6-d periods. Treatments were jugular infusion of either saline (Sal) or 896 g/d glucose (Glc). All cows were fed a total mixed ration with 42% neutral detergent fiber, had free access to water, and were milked twice a day. Within each period, blood samples were taken (d 5) and mammary tissue was collected by biopsy (d 6) from each hindquarter for Western blot analysis. In addition to Sal and Glc treatments, on d 6, rapamycin dissolved in 50% dimethyl sulfoxide was administered via the teat canals into the left quarters, with a control solution administered into the right quarters. Rapamycin had no effect on milk protein yields or phosphorylation state of mTOR signaling proteins. Infusions of Glc significantly increased milk yield but only tended to increase milk protein yields. Milk fat tended to be decreased in cows infused with Glc, whereas lactose yields were significantly increased. Glucose infusion did not increase plasma glucose levels, but insulin and nonessential AA concentrations increased by 21 and 16%, respectively, branched-chain AA concentrations decreased 24%, and essential AA concentrations tended to decrease by 14%. Infusion of Glc significantly decreased abundances of both phosphorylated and total ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in mammary tissue by 27 and 11%, respectively. Abundance of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) decreased significantly by 25%, whereas total 4EBP1 exhibited a tendency to decrease by 16%. We conclude that the mTOR signaling pathway is not the only regulator of milk protein synthesis. Decreases in essential AA concentrations in plasma suggest that protein synthesis was stimulated in nonmammary tissues of the body, presumably skeletal muscle. PMID:24268408

Curtis, R V; Kim, J J M; Bajramaj, D L; Doelman, J; Osborne, V R; Cant, J P

2014-01-01

78

The metabolic and hormonal adaptations of normal dogs to long-term exogenous sulfated insulin infusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperinsulinism frequently accompanies glucose normalization in type I diabetes but the long-term consequences of this exaggerated hormonal state are not known. To study this condition, normal dogs received constant exogenous sulfated insulin infusions for prolonged periods up to 43 weeks. During the interval and inspite of prevailing postabsorptive and fasting hypoglycemia, overt resistance to the infused insulin or loss of sensitivity did not occur. In counterring the imposed fasting hyperinsulinemia and the resulting hypoglycemia, fasting pancreatic glucagon levels rose while the fasting levels of several glucogenic precursors (lactate, pyruvate, and alanine) decreased. Fasting free fatty acid (FFA) levels were suppressed, but beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) levels were unchanged. Body weight did not change. Most remarkably, all changes measured in the fasting levels of the hormones and metabolites reverted to normal following the cessation of exogenous sulfated insulin infusion. In addition to the hormonal and metabolite adaptations invoked by chronic exogenous hyperinsulinism in the fasting state of these normal dogs, there were interesting responses to their usual mixed meals. Of particular interest in this regard were the plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA diurnal profiles. First of all, a definite and unusual postprandial glycemic excursion occurred. Second, insulin levels were elevated some sixfold, and rather unresponsive to the meal in general. Inspite of the depressed fasting FFA levels and the absence of a postprandial rise in insulinemia, FFA showed a distinct fall after the meal. Whether the sulfated insulins infused were of the bovine or porcine species of origin made no discernible difference.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3531758

Nomura, M; Greenberg, G R; Bahoric, A; Albisser, A M

1986-10-01

79

Reversal of insulin resistance in type I diabetes after treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.  

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Insulin responsiveness was studied with the euglycaemic glucose clamp technique in seven patients with type I diabetes and in six control subjects matched for age and weight. The glucose disposal rate was significantly reduced in the diabetic subjects when they were receiving conventional insulin treatment compared with the control group, showing insulin resistance in the diabetics. The diabetic patients were again studied after eight days of intensified metabolic control achieved with contin...

Lager, I.; Lo?nnroth, P.; Von Schenck, H.; Smith, U.

1984-01-01

80

Incretin hormone and insulin responses to oral versus intravenous lipid administration in humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Context: The incretin effect is responsible for the higher insulin response to oral glucose than to iv glucose at matching glucose levels. It is notknownwhetherthis effect is restricted to glucose only. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine whether insulin and incretin hormone responses are higher after oral vs. iv challenge of a lipid emulsion with matching triglyceride levels in humans. Design, Settings, and Participants: A lipid emulsion (Intralipid) was administered orally (3 ml/kg) or iv (variable infusion rates to match triglyceride levels after oral ingestion) in healthy lean males (n 12) at a University Clinical Research Unit. Samples were collected during 300 min. Main Outcome Measures:Wemeasured the suprabasal area under the curve for insulin, glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and the insulin secretory rate based on C-peptide levels by deconvolution. Results: Triglyceride levels increased similarly after oral and iv lipid; also, glucose and free fatty acid levels were similar in the two tests. Oral lipid elicited a clear insulin and C-peptide response, whereas no insulin or C-peptide responses were observed during iv lipid. Total and intact GIP and GLP-1 levels both increased after oral lipid administration but were not significantly altered after iv lipid. Conclusions: At matching triglyceride levels and with no difference in glucose and free fatty acid levels, oral lipid ingestion but not iv lipid infusion elicits a clear insulin response in association with increased GIP and GLP-1 concentrations. This may suggest that the incretin hormones also contribute to the islet response to noncarbohydrate nutrients.

Lindgren, Ola; Carr, Richard D

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of cognitive and psychomotor effects of intravenous buprenorphine infusion in human volunteers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the present study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship of the effects of buprenorphine on cognitive functioning in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three male volunteers received 0.6 mg buprenorphine as an intravenous infusion over 150 min. The cognitive and psychomotor performance was evaluated before and at various times after drug administration by a test battery consisting of trail-making test for visual information processing, finger-tapping test for psychomotor speed, and continuous reaction time for attention. Non-linear mixed effect modelling was used in the analysis of the PK/PD relationships. Buprenorphine caused significant deficits in cognitive and psychomotor functioning. The time course of cognitive and psychomotor impairment was found to have a slow distribution to the biophase from plasma with PK/PD models involving an effect compartment providing the best descriptions of the time course of the data. The values for half-life of biophase equilibration were consistent between the neuropsychological tests in the range of 66.6-84.9 min. The time to onset and duration of the cognitive and psychomotor impairment of buprenorphine was determined by a slow distribution to the biophase. PMID:18598301

Jensen, Mette L; Sjøgren, Per; Upton, Richard N; Foster, David J R; Bonde, Peter; Graae, Christian; Skram, Ulrik; Stevner, Lene; Christrup, Lona L

2008-07-01

82

Effect of glucose and insulin infusion on the myocardial extraction of a radioiodinated methyl-substituted fatty acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the one-way. An extraction of 14-iodophenyl-tetradecanoic acid (BMTDA) in the canine heart under fasting conditions and during infusion of glucose plus insulin in eight an esthetized greyhound dogs. Myocardial extraction measurements were made with dual tracer approach, using Tc-99m albumin as reference tracer. Prior to, and during, infusion of 10% glucose and 25 units of regular insulin, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma glucose, insulin and free fatty acid levels were measured. Myocardial blood flow was determined using Sn-113 and Ru-103 radioactive microspheres. The mean extraction fraction of BMTDA was 0.38+-SEM 0.06 at baseline and increased to 0.44+-0.06 during hyperglycemia plus insulin (P<0.025). Plasma glucose and insulin were higher during the infusion (P<0.01) while plasma free fatty acids significantly declined (P<0.01). There were no changes in hemodynamics or myocardial blood flow during the infusion. We conclude that glucose and insulin infusion result in increased first-pass extraction fraction of radioiodinated BMTDA unaccompanied by changes in coronary flow or hemodynamics, implying an insulin-mediated augmented transport of BMTDA. (orig.)

83

Use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion by a portable insulin pump during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/aim: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the most important goals in treating pregnancies complicated with diabetes is keeping glucose level within the normal range, especially in the first trimester. A portable insulin pump for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII represents the best form of therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of therapy with a portable insulin pump for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion during the first trimester of pregnancy on the quality of glycoregulation and pregnancy outcome in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods. A total of 17 newly diagnosed pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus were treated with CSII therapy for three months. The parameters of glycoregulation (hemoglobin A, glycosylated - HbA1c, mean blood glucose value in daily profiles - MBG, daily requirement for insulin - IJ/kg BM, lipid levels, blood pressure and renal function were estimated before and after the therapy. These parameters were correlated with parameters of pregnancy outcome: fetal weight, APGAR score, duration of pregnancy. Results. There was a significant improvement in HbA1c (8.94±1.62 vs. 6.90±1.22 %, p < 0.05, MBG (9.23±2.22 vs. 6.41±1.72 mmol/l, p < 0.01, and daily requirement for insulin (0.66±0.22 vs. 0.55±0.13 IJ/kg BM, p < 0.05 during the CSII therapy. There were significant correlations between fetal weight and HbA1c (r = -0.60, p < 0.05, triglyceride levels (r = ?0.63, p < 0.01, and the number of pregnancies (r = ?0.62, p < 0.01, as well as between APGAR score and MBG (r = ?0.52, p < 0.05 and cholesterol levels (r = ?0.65, p < 0,01 before a portable insulin pump was applicated. Conclusions. There was a significant improvement in the quality of glycoregulation during CSII therapy in the pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The quality of glycoregulation in the moment of conception was the important factor for pregnancy outcome.

Zori? Svetlana

2006-01-01

84

Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system  

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Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation,...

Pant, Deepanjali; Narani, Krishan Kumar; Sood, Jayashree

2010-01-01

85

Local and systemic tolerability of suprofen. Experience with intravenous administration and infusion in healthy volunteers (1st comm.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Local and systemic tolerability of alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-phenyl acetic acid (suprofen, Suprol 200 mg/ml intravenous injection and suprofen 200 mg/ml infusion were in the present single-blind crossover study assessed and compared with those of placebo i.v. 12 volunteers each were in random fashion assigned to one of the three treatment groups; for a period of 7 days the subjects received daily 2 intravenous injections or infusions of suprofen or placebo, respectively. Investigator and patients appreciation of local tolerability revealed that no pain or discomfort occurred in 98% of the subjects on suprofen and in 100% of those on placebo. The incidence of limited, moderate or mild, adverse reactions was in the suprofen group higher than in the placebo group. The laboratory tests for the treatment groups indicated no negative effects on either the hematopoietic organs or the liver function; no abnormal changes in ECG and cardiovascular parameters were observed during the treatment period. Tests of the renal parameters, i.e., creatinine clearance, creatinine, and urea (BUN), revealed negative shifts in the first two parameters, whereas BUN remained uninfluenced. On the basis of these results it can be stated that 200 mg/ml of suprofen, given either as intravenous injection or as infusion, were both locally and systemically well tolerated even on administration b.i.d. The more or less unfavorable shifts in the renal parameters, which occurred with placebo as well as with suprofen, require further investigation. PMID:4015741

Michos, N; Zulliger, H W; Fenzl, E

1985-01-01

86

Effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function in healthy humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Glyceryl trinitrate is a donor of nitric oxide that relaxes smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about the effect of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric emptying and no data exist on the possible effect of glyceryl trinitrate on small intestinal transit. AIM: To examine the effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function after a meal in healthy humans. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Each volunteer was examined during intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate 1 microg/kg x min or saline. A gamma camera technique was used to measure gastric emptying and small intestinal transit after a 1600-kJ mixed liquid and solid meal. Furthermore, duodenal motility was assessed by manometry. RESULTS: Glyceryl trinitrate did not change gastric mean emptying time, gastric half emptying time, gastric retention at 15 min or small intestinal mean transit time. Glyceryl trinitrate did not influence the frequency of duodenal contractions, the amplitude of duodenal contractions or the duodenal motility index. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate 1 microg/kg x min does not induce major changes in gastric or small intestinal motor function after a 1600-kJ meal in healthy volunteers.

Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Fuglsang, Stefan

2006-01-01

87

Continuous Insulin Infusion Improves Postoperative Glucose Control in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery  

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Postoperative glucose control directly affects the incidence of deep sternal wound infection and death after patients with diabetes have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting. We compared the effect upon glucose control of continuous insulin infusion with that of glucometer-guided insulin injection after coronary artery bypass.

Li, Jiun-yi; Sun, Shen; Wu, Shye-jao

2006-01-01

88

Renal haemodynamics, sodium and water reabsorption during continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. Renal haemodynamics, lithium and sodium clearance were measured in 14 patients treated with recombinant interleukin-2 for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. 2. Patients were studied before and after 72 h of continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2 (18x10(6) i.u..24 h-1.m-2) and 48 h post therapy. Cardiac output was measured by impedance cardiography. Effective renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate were determined by the renal clearances of 131I-hippuran and 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) respectively. Renal clearance of lithium (CLi) was used as an index of proximal tubular outflow. 3. Treatment caused a transient decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance, but cardiac output remained unchanged. Renal blood flow decreased and renal vascular resistance increased during and after treatment. Sodium clearance decreased from 1.10 (0.63/1.19) ml/min to 0.17 (0.18/0.32) ml/min (P=0.003). Glomerular filtration rate remained unchanged, whereas the median CLi decreased from 26 (17/32) ml/min to 17 (10/21) ml/min (P=0.008). Calculated absolute proximal reabsorption rate of water increased from 63 (40/69) ml/min to 71 (47/82) ml/min (P=0.04). The urinary excretion rate of thromboxane B2 and the ratio between excretion rates of thromboxane B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1alpha increased by 98% (P=0.022) and 175% (P=0.022) respectively. 4. The study suggests a specific recombinant interleukin-2-induced renal vasoconstrictor effect. Changes in renal prostaglandin synthesis may contribute to the decrease in renal blood flow. The lithium clearance data suggest that an increased proximal tubular reabsorption rate may contribute to the decreased sodium clearance during recombinant interleukin-2 treatment.

Geertsen, P F; von der Maase, H

1998-01-01

89

Tumor vascularity under hypertension induced by intravenous infusion of angiotensin II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied whether or not the blood flow of tumors was increased by AT-II-induced hypertension in patients. Angiograms of 51 patients before and after intravenous infusion of AT-II were compared carefully from 5 points of view which suggested increased tumor blood flow. These were, 1) Contraction of small arteries feeding normal tissue, 2) Enhanced visualization of tumor vessels, 3) Enhanced visualization of tumor stain, 4) Increase of venous return from tumor-bearing region, and 5) Enhanced visualization of metastatic lymph nodes. The results were as follows. Contractions of small arteries feeding normal tissue [Finding 1)] were observed in 34 cases (66.6 %) and enhanced visualization of tumor vessels, tumor stain and so on [Finding 2)-5] were observed in 18 cases (35.3 %). Concequently, an increase of tumor blood flow was suggested in 40 cases (78.4 %). Blood flow of human tumors and normal tissue during the full course of induced hypertension with AT-II were measures by means of radionuclide angiography (99mTc-RBC) and laser Doppler velocimetry. Activities of the tumor-bearing region and the mid-portion of the thigh (selected as normal tissue) were measured continuously by collimated scintillation detectors. In 26 measurements out of 31 (83.8 %), the activity in the thigh decreased promptly and returned to the baseline synchronously with the rise and fall of blood pressure. In contrast, in 11 measurements (34.4 %) the activity of the tumor-bearing region increased and returned to the baseline accompanying the change of blood pressure. Preliminary observations using laser Doppler velocimetry revealed an increase of blood flow in 5 tumors. In conclusion, the blood flow of human tumors was increased by AT-II, in agreement with the findings in animal tumors. (J.P.N.)

90

Validity of the Reduced-Sample-Insulin-Modified-Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test Using the Nonlinear Regression Approach  

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The Disposition Index, the product of the insulin sensitivity index (SI) and the acute insulin response to glucose, is linked in African-Americans to chromosome 11q. This link was determined with SI calculated with the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model and data from the Reduced-Sampled-Insulin-Modified-Frequently-Sampled-Intravenous-Glucose-Tolerance-Test (Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT). However, the application of the nonlinear regression approach to calculate SI using data from t...

Sumner, Anne E.; Luercio, Marcella F.; Frempong, Barbara A.; Ricks, Madia; Sen, Sabyasachi; Kushner, Harvey; Tulloch-reid, Marshall K.

2009-01-01

91

Integrated catheter system for continuous glucose measurement and simultaneous insulin infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new measurement system enables combination of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and insulin infusion. A sensor system comprising an optical glucose biosensor and an optical oxygen sensor is integrated into the insulin infusion catheter of an insulin pump. Both sensors rely on near infrared (NIR) phosphorescent porphyrin dyes, wherefore the signals can be read out transcutaneous and non-invasively with a custom-built phase fluorometer measurement module. The spectral properties of the indicator dyes and the optical setup of the measurement module were optimized to enable independent read-out in two channels. Dynamic ranges from 0 mmHg to 160 mmHg oxygen and 0mg/dL to 360 mg/dL glucose (LOD 2mg/dL) are covered by the oxygen and the glucose sensor, respectively. In-vivo measurements in pigs demonstrate good correlation of reference blood glucose levels and glucose values obtained with the presented sensor system. The evaluation of the clinical accuracy of the system with Clarke Error Grid Analysis showed similar results to CGM-devices currently on the market. PMID:25194803

Nacht, Barbara; Larndorfer, Christoph; Sax, Stefan; Borisov, Sergey M; Hajnsek, Martin; Sinner, Frank; List-Kratochvil, Emil J W; Klimant, Ingo

2015-02-15

92

Modelling the Effect of Exercise on Insulin Pharmacokinetics in "Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion" Treated Type 1 Diabetes Patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: The artificial pancreas is believed to ease the burden of constant management of type 1 diabetes for the patients substantially. An important aspect of the artificial pancreas development is the mathematical models used for control, prediction or simulation. A major challenge to the realization of the artificial pancreas is the effect of exercise on the insulin and plasma glucose dynamics. In this report, we take the first step towards a population model of exercise effects in type 1 diabetes. We focus on the effect on the insulin pharmacokinetics in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) treated patients by modelling the absorption rate as a function of exercise. Methods: Three models are estimated from 17 data sequences. All of them are based on a linear three-compartment base model. The models are based on stochastic differential equations to allow noise to enter the dynamics. In the first model, the insulin absorption rate parameter is replaced by a random walk. In the second model, the relationship between the absorption rate and exercise is modelled as a linear dependency, while in the third model this linear relationship depends on the intensity. A Lamperti transformation is used to ensure non-negative state values. A special focus is put on the structural identiflability of the base model, while the posterior identiflability is checked for all models from the conditional likelihood profiles. Results: The first model is disregarded due to the small number of observations during the exercise bout. From likelihood-ratio tests and information criteria, the third model is appointed as the best model to model the relationship between exercise and the insulin absorption. The posterior identiflability check showed that it was not possible to identify the variance of the measurement variance. Conclusion: A model to predict the insulin appearance in plasma during exercise in CSII treated patients is identified. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm the increase in insulin plasma concentration during exercise in type 1 diabetes patients. These studies should include dense sampling to allow for a fully data driven identification of an appropriate model.

Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Juhl, Rune

2013-01-01

93

The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of rabeprazole following single intravenous infusion and oral administration in healthy Chinese volunteers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of rabeprazole administrated by intravenous infusion and oral administration in healthy Chinese volunteers. A total of 20 male subjects were recruited and randomly assigned at the beginning of the study to receive a single dose of rabeprazole (20 mg administrated either intravenously or orally. Following a 7-day washout period, all subjects received another 20mg dose via the alternate route. Intravenous dose was given in constant infusion over 30 min, and the oral dose was given in two 10mg tablets. Intravenous administration yielded the following measurements: the terminal half-life was (62.4±10.7 min; the Cmax was (1308.6±266.4 ng·ml-1; the total body clearance was (0.21±0.05 L·min-1; the AUC0-? and AUC0-? were (99.6±21.9 mg?min?L-1 and (102. 4±23.3 mg?min?L-1, respectively. Oral administration yielded the following measurements: the half-life was (64.2±15.5 min; the Cmax was (508.3±180.2 ng·ml-1; Tmax was attained at about 229.5 min; the total body clearance was (0.31±0.10 L·min-1; the AUC0-? and AUC0-? were (69.5±20.0 mg?min?L-1 and (70.6±20.2 mg?min?L-1, respectively. The bioavailability of rabeprazole was estimated to be 70.1% in healthy Chinese volunteers. The total body clearance after oral administration was significantly higher than that measured following intravenous administration (P <0.01.

Ruihua Shi

2010-12-01

94

Intravenously injected insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I/IGF binding protein-3 complex exerts insulin-like effects in hypophysectomized, but not in normal rats.  

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Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) circulates in blood in two large molecular mass forms of 150 and 40 kD. Under normal conditions, most of the IGF is bound to the 150-kD complex by which it is retained in the circulation and therefore unable to exert acute insulin-like actions. The aim of this study was to answer the question whether or not IGF in the 40-kD complex is bioavailable to insulin target tissues and thus can cause acute insulin-like effects in vivo. Intravenously injected 1:1 molar ...

Zapf, J.; Hauri, C.; Futo, E.; Hussain, M.; Rutishauser, J.; Maack, C. A.; Froesch, E. R.

1995-01-01

95

Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of toal astragalosides after intravenous infusion of astragalosides injection in healthy Chinese volunteers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total astragalosides (TA) are the principal active constituents isolated from Radix Astragali, which has been extensively used in the traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years. However, few detailed pharmacokinetic studies about TA or its main component in human have been done to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics of astragaloside IV (AGS-IV), the primary ingredient of TA, and tolerance of TA after single- and multi-intravenous infusion of astragalosides injection (AI) in healthy Chinese volunteers. A LC-MS/MS assay was developed for AGS-IV determination in human plasma and urine, and the PK parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods. The mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values of AGS-IV were 2.12, 3.59, 3.71 and 5.17 ?g ml(-1) after single doses of 200, 300, 400 and 500 ml of AI, respectively. The corresponding mean values of area under the plasma concentration (AUC(0-?)) were 4.38, 9.75, 13.59 and 18.22 ?g h ml(-1), respectively, and the mean values of elimination half-life (t1/2) were 2.14, 2.59, 2.62 and 2.69 h, respectively. In the repeated dose study, no significant difference was observed between the PK parameters, peak time (Tmax), t1/2 and AUC, of day 1 and day 7. Cumulative urinary excretion of AGS-IV was 3.91% within 24 h after administration of 500 ml AI. AI was safe and well tolerated, and the adverse events, such as raised total bilirubin and rash, were mild and resolved spontaneously. In summary, the pharmacokinetic properties of AGS-IV are based on linear pharmacokinetics over the doses ranging from 200 to 500 ml of AI. No accumulation of AGS-IV was observed after repeated administration of AI once daily. AI was safe and well tolerated in this study, although cases of transient adverse events were observed. PMID:23838148

Xu, Meijuan; Yin, Jungang; Xie, Liyan; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Chong; Zou, Jiandong; Liu, Fang; Ju, Wenzheng; Li, Ping

2013-09-15

96

Seguridad en la administración intravenosa de medicamentos mediante bombas de infusión inteligentes / Intravenous drug infusion safety through smart pumps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Analizar el papel de las bombas de infusión inteligentes en la reducción de errores relacionados con la administración de medicación intravenosa. Método: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo que analiza la implementación de un sistema de bombas inteligentes de infusión intravenosa (Hospira [...] MedNetTM) y el papel de este sistema de seguridad en la detección de errores en la fase de administración de fármacos, sueros y sangre. Se incluyeron infusiones administradas en los hospitales de día de hematología, oncología, reumatología y oncopediatría. Se analizó la adherencia al sistema de seguridad, el número de errores de programación detectados, los fármacos comúnmente implicados en estos errores y las acciones de mejora. Resultados: Durante el periodo de estudio se implementaron 120 bombas inteligentes y se recogieron los datos de 70.028 infusiones. La adherencia al programa de seguridad fue del 62,30% en hematología (6.887 infusiones), del 60,30% en oncología (28.127 infusiones), del 46,50% en reumatología (1.950 infusiones) y del 1,8% en oncopediatría (139 infusiones). Se notificaron 3481 alertas por programación de las bombas fuera de los límites establecidos: 2716 de límite relativo y 765 de límite absoluto. En 807 infusiones (2,17%), se evitaron errores que podrían haber tenido consecuencias para los pacientes. Gracias a estos hallazgos, se implementaron una serie de estrategias con objeto de minimizar dichos errores en el futuro. Conclusiones: El sistema Hospira MedNetTM intercepta desviaciones con respecto a los protocolos establecidos en la infusión intravenosa, evitando potenciales efectos adversos a pacientes. También permite establecer medidas correctoras e implementar estrategias de mejora. Abstract in english Objective: To analyze the role of smart infusion pumps in reducing errors related with the administration of intravenous medications. Method: Retrospective, observational study analyzing the implementation of a system with smart intravenous infusion pumps (Hospira MedNetTM) and the role of the safet [...] y system for the detection of errors during the administration of drugs, sera, and blood. We included infusions administered at the day-care hospitals of hematology, oncology, rheumatology, and oncopediatrics. We analyzed adherence to the safety system, the number of programming errors detected, the commonly implicated drugs in these errors, and improvement actions Results: During the study period, 120 smart pumps were implemented and data on 70,028 infusions were gathered. The rate of adherence to the safety program was 62.30% in hematology (6,887 infusions), 60,30% in oncology (28,127 infusions), 46,50% in rheumatology (1,950 infusions) and 1.8% in oncopediatrics (139 infusions). 3,481 out of the established limits programming alerts were generated by the pumps: 2,716 of relative limit and 765 of absolute limit. En 807 infusions (2.17%), errors that could have had consequences for the patients could be prevented. These findings allowed implementing a series of strategies aimed at minimizing these errors in the future. Conclusions: The Hospira MedNetTM system detects deviations from the established protocols of intravenous infusion, preventing in this way potential adverse events for the patients. It also allows establishing correction measures and implementing the improvement strategies.

C., Gómez-Baraza; M.ª J., Agustín-Fernández; P. I., Palomo-Jiménez; J. M., Real-Campaña; R., Abad-Sazatornil.

2014-08-01

97

Turnover Modeling of Non-Esterified Fatty Acids in Rats after Multiple Intravenous Infusions of Nicotinic Acid  

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The objective of this investigation was to use a pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) approach to describe and evaluate a PK model of nicotinic acid (NiAc) in guinea pigs and a PD feedback model of changes in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in rats following multiple intravenous infusions of NiAc at different rates and durations of inhouse and literature (NEFA after extravascular NiAc dosing) data. Serial arterial blood samples were taken for evaluation of NiAc exposure i...

Isaksson, Christine; Gabrielsson, Johan; Wallenius, Kristina; Peletier, Lambertus A.; Toreson, Helena

2009-01-01

98

Blood Glucose Control Using a Novel Continuous Blood Glucose Monitor and Repetitive Intravenous Insulin Boluses: Exploiting Natural Insulin Pulsatility as a Principle for a Future Artificial Pancreas  

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The aim of this study was to construct a glucose regulatory algorithm by employing the natural pulsatile pattern of insulin secretion and the oscillatory pattern of resting blood glucose levels and further to regulate the blood glucose level in diabetic pigs by this method. We developed a control algorithm based on repetitive intravenous bolus injections of insulin and combined this with an intravascular blood glucose monitor. Four anesthetized pigs were used in the study. The animals develop...

Skjaervold, Nils K.; Dan Östling; Hjelme, Dag R.; Olav Spigset; Oddveig Lyng; Petter Aadahl

2013-01-01

99

Effectiveness of Multiple Daily Injections or Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion for Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Clinical Practice  

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Aims. To determine whether multiple daily injections (MDIs) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) contributes to better glucose control in children with different type 1 diabetes duration. Methods. Subjects were grouped according to early (?1 year after disease onset; 1A) or late (1–3 years after onset; 2A) MDIs/CSII treatment initiation. Corresponding control groups (1B, 2B) received insulin injections twice daily. Results. HbA1c levels were consistently lower in group 1A th...

Chun-xiu Gong; Li-ya Wei; Di Wu; Bing-yan Cao; Xi Meng; Lin-lin Wang

2014-01-01

100

QTc-interval prolongation associated with slow intravenous erythromycin lactobionate infusions in critically ill patients: a prospective evaluation and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intravenous erythromycin has recently been associated with significant QTc interval prolongation, torsades de pointes, and sudden cardiac death. The prolonged the QTc interval attributed to erythromycin typically is associated with rapid infusion rates in excess of 10 mg/minute. We prospectively assessed the relationship between QTc interval prolongation and erythromycin administration by slow intravenous infusion (mean rate 8.9 +/- 3.5 mg/minute, range 3.9-16.7 mg/minute). Electrocardiographic (ECG) rhythm strips were prospectively obtained in 44 critically ill patients receiving intravenous antibiotics (22 received erythromycin and 22 ceftazidime, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, or ampicillin-sulbactam as controls). The ECG recordings were obtained immediately before and within 15 minutes after drug infusions. Only the first available set of ECG strips were evaluated. Two controls had evidence of hepatic dysfunction; no patients receiving erythromycin did. The QTc interval was calculated using Bazett's formula by two blinded investigators. For controls, mean +/- 1 SD (range) QTc intervals were 423 +/- 96 (300-550) msec at baseline and 419 +/- 96 (280-610) msec after infusion (p = 0.712). In contrast, in the erythromycin group, the interval was significantly prolonged from 524 +/- 105 (360-810) msec at baseline to 555 +/- 134 (400-980) msec after infusion (p = 0.034). No patients experienced a dysrhythmia as a consequence of erythromycin infusion. Despite slow rates of infusion, QTc interval prolongation was significant. The clinical importance of this finding remains to be determined. PMID:8840374

Tschida, S J; Guay, D R; Straka, R J; Hoey, L L; Johanning, R; Vance-Bryan, K

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Short-lasting systemic and regional benefits of early crystalloid infusion after intravenous inoculation of dogs with live Escherichia coli  

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Full Text Available We investigated the systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of early crystalloid infusion in an experimental model of septic shock induced by intravenous inoculation with live Escherichia coli. Anesthetized dogs received an intravenous infusion of 1.2 x 10(10 cfu/kg live E. coli in 30 min. After 30 min of observation, they were randomized to controls (no fluids; N = 7, or fluid resuscitation with lactated Ringer's solution, 16 ml/kg (N = 7 or 32 ml/kg (N = 7 over 30 min and followed for 120 min. Cardiac index, portal blood flow, mean arterial pressure, systemic and regional oxygen-derived variables, blood lactate, and gastric PCO2 were assessed. Rapid and progressive cardiovascular deterioration with reduction in cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and portal blood flow (~50, ~25 and ~70%, respectively was induced by the live bacteria challenge. Systemic and regional territories showed significant increases in oxygen extraction and in lactate levels. Significant increases in venous-arterial (~9.6 mmHg, portal-arterial (~12.1 mmHg and gastric mucosal-arterial (~18.4 mmHg PCO2 gradients were also observed. Early fluid replacement, especially with 32 ml/kg volumes of crystalloids, promoted only partial and transient benefits such as increases of ~76% in cardiac index, of ~50% in portal vein blood flow and decreases in venous-arterial, portal-arterial, gastric mucosal-arterial PCO2 gradients (7.2 ± 1.0, 7.2 ± 1.3 and 9.7 ± 2.5 mmHg, respectively. The fluid infusion promoted only modest and transient benefits, unable to restore the systemic and regional perfusional and metabolic changes in this hypodynamic septic shock model.

Garrido A.G.

2005-01-01

102

Short-lasting systemic and regional benefits of early crystalloid infusion after intravenous inoculation of dogs with live Escherichia coli  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We investigated the systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of early crystalloid infusion in an experimental model of septic shock induced by intravenous inoculation with live Escherichia coli. Anesthetized dogs received an intravenous infusion of 1.2 x 10(10) cfu/kg live E. coli in 30 min. After [...] 30 min of observation, they were randomized to controls (no fluids; N = 7), or fluid resuscitation with lactated Ringer's solution, 16 ml/kg (N = 7) or 32 ml/kg (N = 7) over 30 min and followed for 120 min. Cardiac index, portal blood flow, mean arterial pressure, systemic and regional oxygen-derived variables, blood lactate, and gastric PCO2 were assessed. Rapid and progressive cardiovascular deterioration with reduction in cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and portal blood flow (~50, ~25 and ~70%, respectively) was induced by the live bacteria challenge. Systemic and regional territories showed significant increases in oxygen extraction and in lactate levels. Significant increases in venous-arterial (~9.6 mmHg), portal-arterial (~12.1 mmHg) and gastric mucosal-arterial (~18.4 mmHg) PCO2 gradients were also observed. Early fluid replacement, especially with 32 ml/kg volumes of crystalloids, promoted only partial and transient benefits such as increases of ~76% in cardiac index, of ~50% in portal vein blood flow and decreases in venous-arterial, portal-arterial, gastric mucosal-arterial PCO2 gradients (7.2 ± 1.0, 7.2 ± 1.3 and 9.7 ± 2.5 mmHg, respectively). The fluid infusion promoted only modest and transient benefits, unable to restore the systemic and regional perfusional and metabolic changes in this hypodynamic septic shock model.

A.G., Garrido; L.F., Poli de Figueiredo; R.J., Cruz Jr.; E., Silva; M., Rocha e Silva.

2005-06-01

103

Rapid intravenous infusion of 20 ml/kg saline does not impair resting pulmonary gas exchange in the healthy human lung  

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Rapid infusion of intravenous saline, a model of pulmonary interstitial edema, alters the distribution of pulmonary perfusion, raises pulmonary capillary blood volume, and increases bronchial wall thickness in humans. We hypothesized that infusion would disrupt pulmonary gas exchange by increasing ventilation/perfusion (V??a/Q??) inequality as opposed to a diffusive impairment in O2 exchange. Seven males (26 ± 3 yr; FEV1: 110 ± 16% predicted.) performed spirometry and had V??a/Q?? m...

Prisk, G. Kim; Olfert, I. Mark; Arai, Tatsuya J.; Wagner, Peter D.; Hopkins, Susan R.

2009-01-01

104

The comparison of 5-Fu pharmacokinetics on rabbit after left gastric intraarterial infusion and by peripheral intravenous administration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To compare the pharmacokinetics on rabbit after left gastric regional arterial infusion chemotherapy with peripheral intravenous administration. Methods: 18 rabbits were separated into 6 time-groups at random and 5-Fu (50 mg/kg) was infused through left gastric artery. Blood of portal vein and peripheral vein were sampled at different time. Finally all rabbits were killed and partial stomach tissues were sampled. Blood and stomach tissue were analysed with high efficacy liquid chromatography after disposed. Control group members were infused 5-Fu (50 mg/kg) by ear marginal vein and then blood and stomach tissue samples taken at different times were analysed with the same method. Results: The drug concentration-time curve of portal vein and peripheral vein both reached the peak at the fifth minute after drug administration in the two methods, then declined quickly and slowed down after 30 minutes, according with two-house models. The drug concentration in portal vein of the experimental group was obviously higher than in the peripheral vein and also higher than in the portal vein of the control group maintaining for a longer period. Drug concentration in stomach tissue of experimental group was 11 times of that of control group at the fifth minute and was similar after 2 hours in both methods groups. Conclusions: Drug concentration in blood of portal vein and stomach tissue can maintain a higher level in a longer period with the same local effect after left iod with the same local effect after left gastric arterial infusion chemotherapy showing high chemotherapeutic efficiency

105

Feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a simple insulin infusion protocol in a large volume cardiac surgery unit in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: Inpatient hyperglycemia management is essential, but difficult to achieve especially in a large volume cardiac surgery setup, thus necessitating use of nurse-led insulin protocols. A rapid flux of nurses dealing with a huge workload has been a cause for traditionally not using nurse-led protocols in most Indian institutes. The challenges we faced were to have a simple protocol for the nurses to accept it without compromising on glycemic control. Therefore, this observational study was planned to measure the efficacy and safety of the insulin infusion protocol in cardiac surgery patients. Materials and Methods: Insulin protocol was implemented, using seven fixed columns of infusion with the nurse making decisions to initiate and titrate doses based on simple rules. Blood glucose (BG) data captured from blood gas analyzers (glucometrics) in the intervention group (i.e., after protocol implementation) were compared to control group (i.e., before the protocol implementation). Results: The mean BG for the first 48 h was lower in the intervention group as compared to control group, without an increase in the episodes of hypoglycemia. The nurses found the protocol easy to understand, less time-consuming and there was no protocol deviation over 8 months after implementation. Conclusion: A small change in the process, allowing nurses to titrate insulin doses based on some rules and having seven fixed columns of insulin infusion rates, improved glycemic control and efficiency.

Bansal, Beena; Mithal, Ambrish; Carvalho, Pravin; Mehta, Yatin; Trehan, Naresh

2015-01-01

106

Effect of perioperative insulin infusion on surgical morbidity and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.7  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of perioperative insulin infusion on outcomes important to patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used 6 search strategies including an electronic database search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL, from their inception up to May 1, 2006, and included RCTs of perioperative insulin infusion (with or without glucose targets) measuring outcomes in patients undergoing any surgery. Pairs of reviewers working independently assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of included trials and abstracted data on perioperative outcomes (ie, outcomes that occurred during hospitalization or within 30 days of surgery). RESULTS: We identified 34 eligible trials. In the 14 trials that assessed mortality, there were 68 deaths among 2192 patients randomized to insulin infusion compared with 98 deaths among 2163 patients randomized to control therapy (random-effects pooled relative risk, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.94; 99% CI, 0.46-1.04; I2, 0%; 95% CI, 0.0%-47.4%). Hypoglycemia increased in the intensively treated group (20 trials, 119/1470 patients in insulin infusion vs 48/1476 patients in control group; relative risk, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.29-3.32; 99% CI, 1.09-3.88; I2, 31.5%; 95% CI, 0.0%-59.0%). No significant effect was seen in any other outcomes. The available mortality data represent only 40% of the optimal information size required to reliably detect a plausible treatment effect; potential methodological and reporting biases weaken inferences. CONCLUSION: Perioperative insulin infusion may reduce mortality but increases hypoglycemia in patients who are undergoing surgery; however, mortality results require confirmation in large and rigorous RCTs Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4

Gandhi, G.Y.; Murad, M.H.

2008-01-01

107

In silico evaluation of a control system and algorithm for automated insulin infusion in the ICU setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that tight control of glucose in the Intensive Care Unit reduces morbidity and mortality not only in diabetic patients but also in those non-diabetics who become transiently hyperglycemic. Taking advantage of a recently marketed subcutaneous glucose sensor we designed an Automatic Insulin Infusion System (AIIS for inpatient treatment, and tested its stability under simulated clinical conditions. Methods The system included: reference glucose, glucose sensor, insulin and glucose infusion controllers and emergency infusion logic. We carried out computer simulations using Matlab/Simulink®, in both common and worst-case conditions. Results The system was capable of controlling glucose levels without entering in a phase of catastrophic instability, even under severe simulated challenges. Care was taken to include in all simulations the 5-10 minute delay of the subcutaneous glucose signal when compared to the real-time serum glucose signal, a well-known characteristic of all subcutaneous glucose sensors. Conclusions When tested in-Silico, a commercially available subcutaneous glucose sensor allowed the stable functioning of a proportional-derivative Automatic Insulin Infusion System, which was able to maintain glucose within acceptable limits when using a well-established glucose response model simulating a patient. Testing of the system in vivo using animal models is now warranted.

Olmos Pablo R

2010-07-01

108

Blood glucose control in healthy subject and patients receiving intravenous glucose infusion or total parenteral nutrition using glucagon-like peptide 1  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It was the aim of the study to examine whether the insulinotropic gut hormone GLP-1 is able to control or even normalise glycaemia in healthy subjects receiving intravenous glucose infusions and in severely ill patients hyperglycaemic during total parenteral nutrition.

Nauck, Michael A; Walberg, Jörg

2004-01-01

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A Comparative Assessment the Efficacy of Intravenous Infusion of Sodium Valproate and Phenytion in the Treatment of Status Epilepticus  

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Background: Status epilepticus (SE) is a type of persistent lasting seizure with high mortality and morbidity. Numerous medications are suggested for the treatment of SE, two of which are sodium valproate and phenytoin. The purpose of this study is to conduct a comparison between the efficiencies of intravenous sodium valproate and phenytoin in the treatment of this type of epilepsy. Methods: This is a clinical trial study conducted on SE-suffering patients admitted to the emergency departments of Al-Zahra and Ayatollah Kashani Medical Centers of Isfahan in 2009 and 2010. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups and taken under treatment, separately by intravenous infusion sodium valproate and phenytoin. Results: No significant difference was observed between the two groups (at P = 0.06). In terms of incidence of the clinical complications, the incidence of clinical complications in the two groups was significantly different (at P = 0.03). Conclusions: Based on the findings the efficiency of sodium valproate is larger than that of the phenytoin, and thus, the treatment by sodium valproate is preferred over the treatment by phenytoin. PMID:23776727

Chitsaz, Ahmad; Mehvari, Jafar; Salari, Mehri; Gholami, Fataneh; Najafi, Mohammad-reza

2013-01-01

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Regional myocardial lidocaine concentration following continuous intravenous infusion early and later after myocardial infarction  

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The regional concentration of lidocaine using a double constant infusion technique (250 micrograms/kg/min x 15 minutes followed by 35 micrograms/kg/mg/min x 120 minutes) was studied immediately (2 hours) in seven dogs and 24 hours (six dogs) after myocardial infarction. Tissue levels were determined by gas chromatography and related to regional myocardial blood flow as determined by the radioactive microsphere technique in multiple samples. At 2 hours after infarction a significantly higher lidocaine concentration (4.1 +/- 0.42 micrograms/g) was found in zones with greatly reduced blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow less than 0.2 ml/min per g) when compared with that (2.6 +/- 0.19 micrograms/g) in zones with normal blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow greater than 0.8 ml/min per g) (p less than 0.01). In contrast, in the 24 hour model the opposite situation was observed. Although the concentration of lidocaine in the infarct zone was substantial, a significant decline in lidocaine tissue concentration was found in the zones of lowest blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow less than 0.2 ml/min per g) when compared with that in normal zones (1.76 +/- 0.21 versus 3.38 +/- 0.21 micrograms/g, p less than 0.001). In addition, no significant differences in lidocaine concentrations were found between endocardium and epicardium in any of the groups other than those related to regional myocardial blood flow. Thus, with the double constant infusion technique, lithe double constant infusion technique, lidocaine reached normal and ischemic myocardium in concentrations equivalent to therapeutic plasma concentrations, even in lower infarct blood flow zones, with no significant differences between endocardium and epicardium. Of perhaps greater significance, the age of the ischemic insult is an important determinant of lidocaine tissue distribution in infarcted myocardium

111

Two-year experience with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in relation to retinopathy and neuropathy  

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Thirty patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) who had advanced background retinopathy were randomized to unchanged conventional treatment (UCT) or to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). They were followed prospectively for 2 yr. The mean blood glucose and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) were significantly lower in the CSII group than in the UCT group. The mean blood glucose and HbA1C did not change from the first to the second year in either of the treatment groups in spite of less frequent home-monitoring of blood glucose and less frequent outpatient visits during the second year. Four patients in the CSII group and five in the UCT group developed proliferative retinopathy. However, a marginally significant trend was found toward more frequent improvement of retinal morphology in the CSII group (47%) than in the UCT group (13%). Beat-to-beat variation was found to deteriorate significantly with UCT compared with a nonsignificant improvement with CSII therapy. Vibration sense was unchanged in both treatment groups. It is concluded that near-normal blood glucose levels can be maintained with CSII therapy in spite of less frequent home-monitoring of blood glucose and outpatient visits. Furthermore, established background retinopathy may progress to proliferative retinopathy in spite of 2 yr of near-normal blood glucose levels. However, a marginally significant trend toward more frequent improvement of retinal morphology was found among CSII-treated patients compared with conventionally treated patients. Large-scale, prospective, randomized studies are needed to confirm these results.

Lauritzen, Torsten; Frost-Larsen, K

1985-01-01

112

Therapeutic response to intravenous infusions of glucocerebrosidase in a patient with Gaucher disease  

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Enzyme replacement has been under consideration as a therapeutic strategy for patients with Gaucher disease for more than two decades. Previous studies indicated that single injections of purified glucocerebrosidase reduced the amount of storage material in the liver. It was important to determine whether administration of exogenous enzyme on a regular basis would be of clinical benefit. The authors weekly i.v. infusions of a macrophage-targeted preparation of human placental glucocerebrosidase in a child with type 1 Gaucher disease increased hemoglobin over a 20-week period. The platelet count also increased. Phagocytic activity in the spleen decreased during the period of enzyme administration, and there was radiographic evidence of skeletal improvement. These observations document objective clinical responses to enzyme supplementation in a patient with a sphingolipid storage disorder

113

First Clinical Experience with a High-Capacity Implantable Infusion Pump for Continuous Intravenous Chemotherapy  

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Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of a new high-capacity pump for systemic venous chemotherapy and to verify the quality of implantation by interventional radiology staff. Methods: A total of 47 infusion pumps with a 60-ml reservoir and variable flow rates (2, 6, 8, or 12 ml/24 hr) were implanted by radiologists in 46 patients with solid tumor metastases requiring treatment with a single, continuously infused cytostatic agent. The reservoir was refilled transcutaneously, usually once weekly. The flow accuracy of the pump was assessed from actual drug delivery recorded on 34 patients over a minimum observation period of 180 days. Results: No early complications occurred in any of the 47 implants in 46 patients. A total of 12 (25.53%) complications occurred between 3 and 24 months after implantation. Seven (14.90%) of these were due to the external design of the pump, while five (10.63%) were related to the central venous catheter. In the 34 patients available for pump evaluation (follow-up of at least 180 days), the system was used for a total of 14,191 days (range 180-911 days, mean 417.38 days), giving an overall complication rate of 0.84 per 1000 days of operation. The mean flow rate accuracy was 90.26%. Conclusion: The new implantable pump showed good flow rate accuracy and reliable operation. The pump-related complications were related to its external design and have now been corrected by appropriate modifications. From a radiologic and surgical viewpoint, the va radiologic and surgical viewpoint, the venous implantation procedure is identical to that of conventional vascular access devices and can be performed by radiologists familiar with these techniques. The current limitations lie in the high cost of the pump and, for certain drugs, the short time between refills

114

Evaluation of platelet deposition at local thrombophlebitis, caused by intravenous infusion of anticancer drug (Bisantrene), with In-111-platelets in rabbits  

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Several anticancer drugs produce localized thrombophlebitis (LTP) when infused intravenously and LTP is the dose-limiting factor. LTP was studied in New Zealand albino rabbits by I.V. infusion of Bisantrene (BS: ? 40 mg/rabbit, six rabbits via ear veins, five via jugular veins, two control, 0.9% saline). Radioactivity in three sections of each harvested vein was determined with a gamma counter, and the ratio of radioactivity per mg of infused vein and control vein was determined and the results are presented in this paper. Scanning electron micrograph of BS-infused vein lumen revealed plaques of amorphous material (BS) and adherent platelet thrombus. Platelet deposition at BS-induced LTP in jugular and ear veins reached a maximum at four to eight hours. Thus, LTP could be imaged and quantified with In-111-labeled platelets

115

Clinical Performance of a Device That Applies Local Heat to the Insulin Infusion Site: A Crossover Study  

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Background Fast-acting insulin analogs have been available since 1996. The absorption rate of these insulins is still too slow to mimic the physiological insulin action in healthy subjects. This study investigates the clinical performance of InsuPatch™, a local skin-heating device, on postprandial glucose excursion. Methods Twenty-four type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion were included in this crossover study [10 male, 14 female, age: 43.5 ± 11.3 years, diabetes duration: 18.3 ± 10.5 years, glycosylated hemoglobin: 7.4 ± 0.8%, body mass index: 25.0 ± 3.0 kg/m² (mean ± standard deviation)]. The impact of local skin heating was measured by dividing the two-hour area under the curve by integration time (AUC/t120) for blood glucose (BG) above baseline after two standardized breakfast and dinner meal pairs (with and without heating) per subject. For the first breakfast pair, venous insulin concentration was also measured. Results A significant reduction was found for the AUC/t120 after breakfast and after dinner meals (42 breakfast meal pairs, AUC/t120 not heated 66.4 ± 32.8 mg/dl vs heated 56.8 ± 34.0 mg/dl, p = .017; 38 dinner meal pairs, AUC/t120 not heated 30.8 ± 31.0 mg/dl vs heated 18.4 ± 23.9 mg/dl, p = .0028). The maximum venous insulin concentration with heating was 27% higher than without heating (n = 23). The number of hypoglycemic events on days with heating (n = 9) was similar to the number of days without heating (n = 13). Conclusions Local heating of the skin around the infusion site significantly reduced postprandial BG by enhancing insulin absorption. The heating device was well tolerated, and it could facilitate development of closed-loop systems. PMID:22538141

Freckmann, Guido; Pleus, Stefan; Westhoff, Antje; Krinelke, Lars G.; Buhr, Andreas; Jendrike, Nina; Haug, Cornelia

2012-01-01

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Intravenously injected insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I/IGF binding protein-3 complex exerts insulin-like effects in hypophysectomized, but not in normal rats.  

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Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) circulates in blood in two large molecular mass forms of 150 and 40 kD. Under normal conditions, most of the IGF is bound to the 150-kD complex by which it is retained in the circulation and therefore unable to exert acute insulin-like actions. The aim of this study was to answer the question whether or not IGF in the 40-kD complex is bioavailable to insulin target tissues and thus can cause acute insulin-like effects in vivo. Intravenously injected 1:1 molar recombinant human (rh) IGF I/rhIGF binding protein (BP)-3 complex lowered blood glucose and stimulated glycogen synthesis in diaphragm of hypophysectomized, but not of normal rats. The serum half-lives of the two components of the complex were similar to each other, but considerably shorter in hypox than in normal rats. On neutral gel filtration of serum both components of the injected complex appeared predominantly in the 150-kD region in normal rats. In hypox rats which lack the 150-kD complex they were found in the 40-kD region and disappeared rapidly from the circulation. We conclude that in the absence of the 150-kD complex, IGF associated with the 40-kD complex can rapidly leave the vascular compartment, reach insulin or type 1 IGF receptors and exert acute insulin-like effects. PMID:7529258

Zapf, J; Hauri, C; Futo, E; Hussain, M; Rutishauser, J; Maack, C A; Froesch, E R

1995-01-01

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Assessment of right ventricular function by intravenous infusion of krypton-81m  

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Kr-81m equilibrium ventriculography was used to assess right ventricular (RV) function at rest (R) and during submaximal bicycle exercise (E) in patients (pts) with different cardiopulmonary disorders. Kr-81 was continuously eluted in 5% dextrose from a portable Rb-81 generator and infused through a peripheral vein. Due to the short half-life (13s) and the free diffusibility of Kr-81 through the alveolar membrane, activity in the left side of the heart is negligible. This allows imaging in a RAO position which provides the best separation between the right atrium and the RV. Determination of RV ejection fraction (RVEF) involved the definition of an endiastolic and an endsystolic region of interest by a semiautomatic computer algorithm. The standard deviation of RVEF determinations by two independent observers was 0.047. Kr-81 RVEF was related to X-ray angiographic (XR) RVEF and hemodynamic measurements. The correlation coefficient between Kr-81 and XR RVEF was 0.82(n=25). When all pts were divided into two groups according to their mean pulmonary artery pressure, significant differences in the RVEF during E between these groups were found with both Kr-81 and XR ventriculography. The correspondence between KR-81 and XR data underlines the potential of Kr-81 as a reliable noninvasive tool in assessing RV function

118

Alleviation of fatty liver in dairy cows with 14-day intravenous infusions of glucagon.  

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Twenty multiparous cows were fed additional concentrate during the final 30 d prepartum to cause susceptibility to fatty liver. From 14 to 42 d postpartum, all cows were subjected to a protocol to induce fatty liver and ketosis. To test glucagon as a treatment for fatty liver, either glucagon at 10 mg/d or excipient was infused via the jugular vein from 21 to 35 d postpartum. All cows had fatty liver at 14 d postpartum and became ketonemic and hypoglycemic during the induction of ketosis. Glucagon increased plasma glucose to 142% of that of controls throughout the 14-d treatment. The hypoinsulinemia present in cows with fatty liver was not affected by glucagon. Plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids were decreased by glucagon. At 6 d postpartum, liver triacylglycerol averaged 12.9% of liver (wet weight basis). Glucagon had decreased triacylglycerol content of livers by 71% at d 35. Glycogen was 1.0% of the wet weight of livers at 6 d in milk, but it was decreased by glucagon to 0.5% at 2 d after glucagon began. Glycogen then increased in cows treated with glucagon until at 38 d in milk liver glycogen was 3.7% versus 1.6% in controls. Our results document that glucagon decreases the degree of fatty liver in early lactation dairy cows, which also decreases the incidence of ketosis after alleviation of fatty liver. PMID:10386300

Hippen, A R; She, P; Young, J W; Beitz, D C; Lindberg, G L; Richardson, L F; Tucker, R W

1999-06-01

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Insulin: An Emerging Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia?  

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Accumulating evidence indicates a role for metabolic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is widely reported that Type 2 diabetes (T2D) increases the risk of developing AD, and several postmortem analyses have found evidence of insulin resistance in the AD brain. Thus, insulin-based therapies have emerged as potential strategies to slow cognitive decline in AD. The main methods for targeting insulin to date have been intravenous insulin infusion, intranasal insuli...

Morris, Jill K.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

2012-01-01

120

1040 prophylactic infusions with an unmodified intravenous immunoglobulin product causing few side-effects in patients with antibody deficiency syndromes.  

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Thirty-two patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and two patients with IgA and IgG subclass deficiency received a total of 1,040 intravenous (i.v.) infusions during 60 patient years with 7,575 g of a new immunoglobulin (Ig) preparation. The content of prekallikrein activators and the anti-complementary activity in the tested Ig preparation was low and, in comparison to seven other commercial i.v. Igs, so was the proportion of IgG polymers and fragments. The IgA content was always less than or equal to 0.02 g/l, often less than 0.004 g/l, and it was possible to continuously give the Ig prophylactically to four patients with anti-IgA antibodies, i.e. three with CVID and one with combined IgA-IgG2 deficiency. Adverse reactions were only noted in 4.7% of the 1,040 infusions and in 12 out of the 34 patients. None of the reactions were of the anaphylactic type, but two patients had moderate reactions and one had anuria, probably not caused by the Ig. A simultaneous infection seemed to increase the risk of phlogistic reactions, as five out of six patients who reacted with temperature rise and chills had a simultaneous upper respiratory tract infection. A substudy of various dosage schedules was performed with 11 patients receiving 203 infusions over 10.8 patient years. On 25 mg/kg/week of Ig given i.v. every five weeks, a mean increase in the preinfusion serum IgG level of 0.3 g/l was observed, as compared to earlier i.m. prophylaxis with the same dose. Only 1/4 of the patients on 25 mg/kg/week every five or three weeks reached a preinfusion IgG level greater than or equal to 3 g/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4030106

Björkander, J; Wadsworth, C; Hanson, L A

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Studies of embryotoxicity and the incidence of external malformations after continuous intravenous infusion of alpha-chaconine in pregnant rats.  

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Embryotoxicity and effects on the incidence of external malformations of the major potato glycoalkaloid alpha-chaconine (alpha-cha) were studied in rats. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 17) were given a continuous intravenous infusion of alpha-cha via implanted osmotic minipumps (1.7 mg/kg/day), to maintain a stable blood concentration on days 6-13 of gestation. Control animals received physiological saline solution or were left untreated, respectively. Blood serum levels of alpha-cha were monitored at selected time intervals during the treatment using a specific HPLC method. The foetal body weights and the number of resorbed or dead foetuses per litter in the alpha-cha treated group were not significantly different from the control groups. No case of malformation was detected among 143 foetuses inspected in the treated group. The average maternal blood serum concentration of alpha-cha measured during the experiment was 340 ng/ml. This is more than 20 times the average peak serum level previously reported for human volunteers after intake of potatoes with a total glycoalkaloid content at the upper safe limit for acute adverse effects. The results support the view that potato glycoalkaloids, at levels normally found in potatoes, do not present a risk for teratogenicity in humans. PMID:1608927

Hellenäs, K E; Cekan, E; Slanina, P; Bergman, K

1992-05-01

122

A Holstein cow-calf model for the transfer of ciprofloxacin through milk after a long-term intravenous infusion.  

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This study is part of an ongoing effort to develop animal models that provide milk and sufficient infant (offspring) plasma samples to fully describe a drug's pharmacokinetics to quantitate the risk to the nursing infant. Ciprofloxacin was administered to six healthy Holstein cows as a constant rate intravenous infusion (flow rate was weight adjusted) to achieve a steady-state concentration of approximately 300 ng/mL for 7 days. Plasma and milk samples were collected from the cow at regular intervals over the course of the 7 days. The plasma and milk samples were analyzed for ciprofloxacin by high-performance liquid chromatography. The milk was fed to calves, and calf plasma samples were analyzed to study the lactational transfer of ciprofloxacin from dam to nursing neonate. Remarkably, concentrations of ciprofloxacin in milk were 45 times higher than plasma drug concentrations in the dam. Approximately 6% of the administered dose was transferred to the milk, resulting in an average oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg to the calves with every feeding. The drug did not accumulate in the calves, and plasma concentrations were between one-tenth and one-fifth the plasma concentrations of the dam. PMID:23030707

Chiesa, O A; Idowu, O R; Heller, D; Smith, M; Nochetto, C; Chamberlain, P L; Gehring, R; von Bredow, J

2013-10-01

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Turnover modeling of non-esterified fatty acids in rats after multiple intravenous infusions of nicotinic acid.  

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The objective of this investigation was to use a pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) approach to describe and evaluate a PK model of nicotinic acid (NiAc) in guinea pigs and a PD feedback model of changes in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in rats following multiple intravenous infusions of NiAc at different rates and durations of inhouse and literature (NEFA after extravascular NiAc dosing) data. Serial arterial blood samples were taken for evaluation of NiAc exposure in guinea pigs and NEFA in rats. The biophase kinetics of NiAc was assumed to impact on NEFA turnover with feedback incorporated via an inhibitory moderator compartment. The response acted linearly on the production of moderator, which then acted inversely on the turnover rate of response. The potency, expressed as the amount of NiAc in the biophase causing a 50 % inhibitory effect (ID(50)), was 6.5 nmol +/- 31 % and the half-life of response (t(1/2, kout)) 2 min +/- 18 %. The half-life of tolerance (t(1/2, ktol)) was 9 min +/- 27 %. The model can be used to provide information about factors that determine the time course of NEFA response following different rates and routes of administration of NiAc or NiAc analogues. PMID:19809543

Isaksson, Christine; Gabrielsson, Johan; Wallenius, Kristina; Peletier, Lambertus A; Toreson, Helena

2009-01-01

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Effects of chronic intravenous infusions of dopexamine and isoprenaline to rats on D1-, beta 1- and beta 2-receptor-mediated responses.  

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1. Rats received intravenous infusions of dopexamine, an agonist with selectivity for D1-dopamine receptors and beta 2-adrenoceptors (240 micrograms kg-1 h-1), isoprenaline, a beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist (40 micrograms kg-1 h-1) or vehicle (isotonic saline at pH 2.5) for 7 days via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps. Tissues were then removed for determination of functional responsiveness to beta 1-adrenoceptor, beta 2-adrenoceptor and dopamine D1-receptor stimulation. 2. ...

Martin, S. W.; Broadley, K. J.

1994-01-01

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Comparison of intravenous infusions of iloprost and oral nifedipine in treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon in patients with systemic sclerosis: a double blind randomised study.  

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OBJECTIVE--To compare the long term effects of short term intravenous infusions of iloprost with those of oral nifedipine in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon associated with systemic sclerosis. DESIGN--Double blind, placebo controlled, randomised group comparison. SETTING--Dermatology outpatient clinic. PATIENTS--Twenty three patients with Raynaud's phenomenon associated with well documented systemic sclerosis (American Rheumatism Association criteria) and with typical abnormalities in fing...

Rademaker, M.; Cooke, E. D.; Almond, N. E.; Beacham, J. A.; Smith, R. E.; Mant, T. G.; Kirby, J. D.

1989-01-01

126

The importance of active learning and practice on the students' mastery of pharmacokinetic calculations for the intermittent intravenous infusion dosing of antibiotics  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters after intermittent intravenous infusion (III of antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides or vancomycin, has traditionally been a difficult subject for students in clinical pharmacology or pharmacokinetic courses. Additionally, samples taken at different intervals during repeated dose therapy require manipulation of sampling times before accurate calculation of the patient-specific pharmacokinetic parameters. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of active learning tools and practice opportunities on the ability of students to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters from the plasma samples obtained at different intervals following intermittent intravenous infusion. Methods An extensive reading note, with examples, and a problem case, based on a patient’s chart data, were created and made available to students before the class session. Students were required to work through the case before attending the class. The class session was devoted to the discussion of the case requiring active participation of the students using a random participation program. After the class, students were given additional opportunities to practice the calculations, using online modules developed by the instructor, before submitting an online assignment. Results The performance of students significantly (P?P? Conclusions Despite being a difficult subject, students achieve mastery of pharmacokinetic calculations for the topic of intermittent intravenous infusion when appropriate active learning strategies and practice opportunities are employed.

Mehvar Reza

2012-11-01

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Evaluation of myocardial viability following acute myocardial infarction using 201Tl SPECT after thallium-glucose-insulin infusion. Comparison with 18F-FDG positron emission tomography  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate myocardial viability in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We compared 201Tl SPECT after 201Tl with GIK (10% glucose 250 ml, insulin 5 U and KCI 10 mEq) infusion (GIK-201Tl) with resting 201Tl and 99mTc-pyrophosphate (PYP) dual SPECT, positron emission computed tomography (PET) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in 21 patients with their first AMI, who all underwent successful reperfusion. GIK-201Tl SPECT, 201Tl and 99mTc-PYP dual SPECT were done within 10 days after admission and 18F-FDG-PET was performed at 3 weeks. GIK-201Tl SPECT was obtained after 30 min of GIK-201Tl infusion. 18F-FDG (370 MBq) was injected intravenously after oral glucose (1 g/kg) loading, and then PET was obtained. PET and SPECT images were divided into 20 segments. Regional tracer uptake was scored using a 4-point scoring system (3=normal to 0=defect), and summed to a regional uptake score (RUS). Regional area means the infarcted area in which 99mTc-PYP accumulated. The number of decreased uptake segments (ES) was then determined. The infarcted area was defined as the area of 99mTc-PYP uptake. The ESs for the GIK-201Tl and 18F-FDG-PET images were significantly lower than the number of 99mTc-PYP uptake segments. The RUS for GIK-PYP uptake segments. The RUS for GIK-201Tl was higher than that for resting-201Tl imaging and similar to those for 18F-FDG-PET. In the detection of myocardial viability following AMI, GIK-201Tl imaging is useful with findings similar to those of 18F-FDG-PET. (author)

128

Possible activation of auto-immune thyroiditis from continuous subcutaneous infusion of genapol-containing insulin.  

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A case of a type 1 diabetic woman with auto-immune thyroiditis is reported, in whom repeated exposure to insulin containing Genapol(R) (polyethylen-polypropylenglycol) over 3 years reproducibly parallels with an increase of serum TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) above the normal limit. Previously, adverse effects of Genapol(R) insulin have been related to its intraperitoneal application, and thought to be restricted to anti-insulin-immunity; activating effects on thyroid auto-immunity have been repeatedly disputed. We suggest that Genapol(R) insulin should be replaced by other insulin preparations with a better safety record. PMID:11011223

Chantelau, E

2000-09-01

129

Effects of acute and chronic counterregulatory hormone infusions on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in diabetic dogs.  

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The effects of elevated EPI and CORT levels on KG, SI, and SG were studied in dogs with alloxan-induced diabetes. Conscious dogs received SAL, EPI 20 ng.kg-1.min-1 for 30 min (short EPI) or 72 h (long EPI), or CORT 200 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 60 min (short CORT) or 72 h (long CORT) before assessment of glucose metabolism by rapid sampling for glucose and insulin levels after 300 mg/kg i.v. glucose and exogenous insulin infusion designed to simulate the normal secretory pattern. With EPI infusion, KG fell acutely from 2.9 +/- 0.4 to 2.0 +/- 0.2%/min (SAL vs. short EPI, P < 0.05), but rose to 3.4 +/- 0.4%/min during long EPI. Minimal-model analysis of the glucose response with the insulin data as input showed that SI decreased acutely from 4.7 +/- 1.8 to 2.5 +/- 0.6 x 10(-5) min-1/pM (SAL vs. short EPI, P < 0.05), but rose to 4.5 +/- 2.5 x 10(-5) min-1/pM during long EPI. The effects of EPI on SG paralleled the results for KG and SI, with acute decline from 3.9 +/- 0.4 to 2.1 +/- 0.4 x 10(-2) min-1 (SAL vs. short EPI, P < 0.05) and recovery to 3.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(-2) min-1 during long EPI. During CORT infusion, KG tended to fall (SAL 2.9 +/- 0.4 vs. short CORT 2.5 +/- 0.5 vs. long CORT 2.2 +/- 0.5%/min).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1397720

Sleeman, M W; Christopher, M J; Martin, I K; Ward, G M; Alford, F P; Best, J D

1992-11-01

130

Is continuous insulin treatment safe in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage?  

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Full Text Available Florian Schlenk, Asita S SarrafzadehClinic of Neurosurgery, Charité Campus Virchow Medical Center, Berlin, GermanyObjectives: To investigate the long-term effect of continuous insulin infusion for glucose control on cerebral metabolism in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients. Methods: Prospective, nonrandomized study of 31 SAH patients in the ICU (52 ± 10 years, WFNS Grade 2.9 ± 1.6. A microdialysis catheter was inserted into the vascular territory of the aneurysm. Metabolic changes during 4 days after onset of insulin infusion were analyzed. Blood glucose levels >140 mg/dL after clinical stabilization were treated with intravenous insulin.Results: 24 patients were treated with intravenous insulin. Though no insulin-induced hypoglycemia occurred, cerebral glucose decreased on days 1–4 after insulin onset without reaching critical levels. Glycerol, a marker of membrane degradation, showed a reversible increase on day 1 while the lactate/pyruvate ratio remained stable and glutamate even decreased indicating absence of severe cerebral crisis following insulin infusion and excluding ischemia as a cause for cerebral glucose depletion.Conclusions: Concerning cerebral metabolism, long-term continuous insulin infusion appears to be safe as long as cerebral glucose levels do not fall below the physiological range. In view of the high incidence of hyperglycemia and need for insulin treatment, future studies on the effect of insulin on cerebral metabolism in SAH patients are desirable.Keywords: glucose, hyperglycemia, insulin, subarachnoid hemorrhage, microdialysis

Florian Schlenk

2008-09-01

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The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus: Its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions  

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Full Text Available The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2 by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions.

Jan G. Myburgh

2014-05-01

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The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus: its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2) by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions. PMID:24831995

Myburgh, Jan G; Kirberger, Robert M; Steyl, Johan C A; Soley, John T; Booyse, Dirk G; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Lowers, Russel H; Guillette, Louis J

2014-01-01

133

Effects of intravenous ghrelin injection on plasma growth hormone, insulin and glucose concentrations in calves at weaning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ghrelin action, which stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion, may alter during the weaning period in calves. Our objective was to compare the effects of intravenous ghrelin injection on plasma GH, insulin and glucose concentrations in calves around the weaning period. Four Holstein bull calves were fed whole milk and allowed free access to solid feeds, and weaned at 7 weeks of age. Measurements were performed at weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11 and 13, when calves were intravenously injected with ghrelin (1.0 ?g/kg body weight (BW)) through a catheter, and jugular blood samples were obtained temporally relative to the injection time. Estimated digestible energy intake per metabolic BW transiently decreased at week 7 because of low solid intake immediately after weaning, and thereafter gradually increased. Plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were not affected by ghrelin injection at all ages. In contrast, plasma GH concentrations increased with ghrelin injection at all ages. The incremental area of GH at week 7 was greatest and significantly higher compared with weeks 2, 4, 6 and 9. This result suggests that nutrient insufficiency immediately after weaning enhances GH responsiveness to ghrelin. PMID:23590504

Fukumori, Rika; Mita, Takako; Sugino, Toshihisa; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Kojima, Masayasu; Kangawa, Kenji; Obitsu, Taketo; Taniguchi, Kohzo

2013-04-01

134

Sensitization to methyl methacrylate in the plastic catheter of an insulin pump infusion set  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cases of allergic contact dermatitis due to acrylics in the adhesive used to attach the needle to the tubing have previously been reported in pump infusion set users, but never previously due to an acrylic in the plastic tubing itself, as in this case. The presence of methyl methacrylate demonstrated in the catheter of the patient’s own infusion set correlated with her positive patch test results. Since patch testing and chemical-physical analysis was negati...

Saccabusi, Stanislao; Boatto, Gianpiero; Asproni, Battistina; Pau, Amedeo

2001-01-01

135

Acute ST elevation myocardial infarction after intravenous immunoglobulin infusion in a young patient: a rare but probable adverse effect of immunoglobulin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is used in the treatment of a variety of disorders, including autoimmune conditions. IVIG has been considered a safe medication, with minor and transient adverse effects. With the wider use of IVIG, the reported rate of adverse effects has been increased, some of them are potentially fatal cardiovascular reactions due to induction of hypercoagulable state. We report a 40-year-old female treated with IVIG for Guillain-Barre syndrome, who developed chest pain 1 hr following IVIG infusion. The symptoms were associated with ST elevation in anterior leads on electrocardiogram. This anterior wall myocardial infarction (MI is compatible with IVIG-induced hypercoagulability and considered as a probable adverse effect of this medication. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably the first case report where a young patient developed acute MI without any cardiac risk factors after IVIG infusion. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 569-571

Manish Ruhela

2014-06-01

136

Continuous intravenous infusion of prostaglandin E1 improves myocardial perfusion reserve in patients with ischemic heart disease assessed by positron emission tomography. A pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent investigation has demonstrated that prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) therapy increased capillary density in explanted hearts. Dynamic 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) is reliable for non-invasive measurement of myocardial blood flow and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PGE1 therapy during 4 weeks on reduction of myocardial perfusion abnormalities and increase of MPR in the patients with ischemic heart disease. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 11 patients who had symptomatic heart failure and documented myocardial ischemia to 4 weeks intravenous infusion of PGE1 (2.5 ng/kg/min; 8 patients, age 60±13 years) or saline (3 patients, age 57±13 years). Dynamic 13N-ammonia PET scans at rest and during adenosine stress were obtained at baseline and 12 weeks after treatment completion. Quantitative size/severity of perfusion defects and MPR change from baseline to follow-up PET were determined using a 17-segment model. Compared with the control group, baseline MPR in the PGE1 group was significantly lower (1.96±0.78 vs. 2.71±0.73; P1 infusion (1.96±0.78 to 2.16±0.77; P1 infusion sueks of PGE1 infusion sustained MPR improvement in patients with ischemic heart disease. This may be an attractive therapeutic approach for no-option patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy. (author)

137

Medanta insulin protocols in patients undergoing cardiac surgery  

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Hyperglycemia is common in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and is associated with poor outcomes. This is a review of the perioperative insulin protocol being used at Medanta, the Medicity, which has a large volume cardiac surgery setup. Preoperatively, patients are usually continued on their preoperative outpatient medications. Intravenous insulin infusion is intiated postoperatively and titrated using a column method with a choice of 7 scales. Insulin dose is calculated as a factor of bl...

Bansal, Beena; Mithal, Ambrish; Carvalho, Pravin; Mehta, Yatin; Trehan, Naresh

2014-01-01

138

A phase II study of regional 2-weekly 5-fluorouracil infusion with intravenous folinic acid in the treatment of colorectal liver metastases.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forty patients with unresectable colorectal metastases confined to the liver were evaluated in a phase II study. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was delivered via a surgically placed hepatic artery catheter. Patients received folinic acid (200 mg m-2) intravenously over 2 h followed by a loading dose of intra-arterial 5-FU (400 mg m-2) over 15 min, then 5-FU (1600 mg m-2) by intra-arterial infusion over the following 22 h. This was repeated on day 2 and the whole schedule was repeated every 2 weeks. Re...

Howell, J. D.; Mcardle, C. S.; Kerr, D. J.; Buckles, J.; Ledermann, J. A.; Taylor, I.; Gallagher, H. J.; Budden, J.

1997-01-01

139

Effectiveness of multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for children with type 1 diabetes mellitus in clinical practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims. To determine whether multiple daily injections (MDIs) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) contributes to better glucose control in children with different type 1 diabetes duration. Methods. Subjects were grouped according to early (?1 year after disease onset; 1A) or late (1-3 years after onset; 2A) MDIs/CSII treatment initiation. Corresponding control groups (1B, 2B) received insulin injections twice daily. Results. HbA1c levels were consistently lower in group 1A than in group 1B (6 months (T2): 7.37% versus 8.21%; 12 months (T3): 7.61% versus 8.41%; 24/36 months (T4/T5): 7.61% versus 8.72%; all P disease duration was matched (7.61% versus 8.49%; P < 0.05). Logistic regression revealed no correlation between HbA1c level and MDIs/CSII therapy. HbA1c levels were only negatively related to insulin dosage. Conclusions. Blood glucose control was better in patients receiving MDIs/CSII than in those receiving conventional treatment. Early MDIs/CSII initiation resulted in prolonged maintenance of low HbA1c levels compared with late initiation. MDIs/CSII therapy should be combined with comprehensive management. PMID:25197275

Gong, Chun-Xiu; Wei, Li-Ya; Wu, Di; Cao, Bing-Yan; Meng, Xi; Wang, Lin-Lin

2014-01-01

140

Measuring the acute effect of insulin infusion on ATP turnover rate in human skeletal muscle using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance saturation transfer spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed to underlie the insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes. However, the relative time course of insulin action in stimulating ATP turnover rate and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle has not been examined. These two parameters were measured in young healthy subjects using the (31)P MRS saturation transfer method in conjunction with the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique respectively. Glucose infusion rate rose rapidly from 0 to 2.90?±?0.11?mg/kg(ffm)/min during the first 10?min of insulin infusion and further to 6.17?±?0.57?mg/kg(ffm)/min between 15 and 45?min. In contrast, baseline ATP turnover rate was 9.0?±?0.4?µmol/g/min of muscle and did not change during the first 45?min of insulin infusion. Between 50 and 80?minutes ATP turnover rate increased by 8% and remained steady to 150?minutes (9.7?±?0.5 µmol/g/min of muscle, p?=?0.03 vs baseline). The in vivo time course of insulin stimulation of skeletal muscle ATP turnover rate is not consistent with a rate limiting effect upon the initiation of insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis. PMID:20623795

Lim, Ee Lin; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Thelwall, Peter E; Taylor, Roy

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effects of increasing doses of glucagon-like peptide-1 on insulin-releasing phases during intravenous glucose administration in mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increase in insulin secretion caused by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1 mimetics observed during an intravenous glucose test (IVGTT) has been reported in both normal and disease animal models, as well as in humans. In this study, a hierarchical population modeling approach is used, together with a previously reported model relating glucose to insulin appearance, to determine quantitative in vivo dose-response relationships between GLP-1 dose level and both first- and second-phas...

Chan, Hui Min; Jain, Ritesh; Ahre?n, Bo; Pacini, Giovanni; D Argenio, David Z.

2011-01-01

142

Local and systemic tolerability of suprofen. Experience with intravenous administration and infusion in healthy volunteers (2nd comm.).  

Science.gov (United States)

12 healthy male volunteers who had given consent to the study each received in a randomized cross-over design 13 applications of 2-methyl-4-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-phenyl acetic acid (suprofen, Suprol) injection solution 200 mg/ml at 8 a.m. and at 2 p.m. as i.v. bolus injections or as infusions. It could be demonstrated, that suprofen given as multiple dose i.v. bolus injections or as multiple infusion doses was well tolerated. The peak plasma concentrations after i.v. bolus injections were in the range of 16.3 to 42.3 micrograms/ml (mean 26.5) and after 2 h between 1.3 and 9.8 micrograms/ml (mean 3.2). 1.5 h after the start of infusion (end of the infusion) the plasma concentrations were in the range of 4.0 and 11.2 micrograms/ml (mean 7.2) with a infusion rate of 4.6 mg/min for the first 30 min and then of 1.1 mg/min for about 57 additional min. At 2.5 h after the infusion applications the mean plasma level was 2.0 micrograms/ml. There was no indication of accumulation nor accelerated elimination during the 7-day period. There was no statistically significant difference between the plasma elimination after the last injection of the 7-day period and the plasma elimination after i.v. single injection as well as from the elimination after the last infusion of the 7-day period. PMID:4015742

Zulliger, H W; Michos, N; Fenzl, E

1985-01-01

143

The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus): Its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english ABSTRACT The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, includi [...] ng the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2) by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions.

Jan G., Myburgh; Robert M., Kirberger; Johan C.A., Steyl; John T., Soley; Dirk G., Booyse; Fritz W., Huchzermeyer; Russell H., Lowers; Louis J., Guillette Jr.

2014-01-01

144

Metabolic and hematologic changes occurring after rapid intravenous infusion of gammaglobulin in patients with antibody deficiency syndromes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Nós pretendemos investigar se o aumento de velocidade de infusão de gamaglobulina intravenosa (IVIG), está associada com alterações metabólicas e hematológicas em pacientes com deficiência de anticorpo. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Nós estudamos sete pacientes (2-16 anos) com deficiência primária [...] de anticorpo que já estavam em tratamento com reposição regular de IgG, na dose de 350-600 mg/kg a cada três semanas em preparados a 3%, por períodos de seis meses a quatro anos. Inicialmente a concentração dos preparados de IVIG foi aumentando para 6, 9 e 12% em infusões consecutivas numa velocidade constante 4 mg/kg/min. Subseqüentemente, na segunda fase do estudo, mantivemos a concentração a 12% e a velocidade de infusão foi aumentando para 8, 12, e 16 mg/kg/min. RESULTADOS: Clinicamente, todos os pacientes toleraram o aumento da concentração de IVIG na velocidade constante de 4 mg/kg/min. Entretanto, 3 pacientes apresentaram efeitos colaterais quando a velocidade de infusão aumentou para 8 e 16 mg/kg/min. CONCLUSÃO: Nós concluímos que alterações metabólicas e hematológicas podem ocorrer quando se administra preparados de IVIG em altas concentração e velocidade mesmo que os pacientes tolerem bem clinicamente. As vantagens de utilizar velocidades elevadas na infusão de IVIG devem ser reavaliadas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: We wished to investigate whether increased IgG infusion rates are associated with metabolic and hematologic changes in pediatric patients with antibody deficiency syndromes. METHODS: We studied 7 patients (2-16 years old) with primary antibody deficiencies who had been on regular IgG rep [...] lacement treatment, 350-600 mg/kg/dose every 3 weeks with a 3% IVIG preparation, for periods ranging from 6 months to 4 years. Initially, the IgG concentration of IVIG preparations was increased to 6, 9 and 12% in consecutive infusions at a constant IgG infusion rate of 4 mg/kg/min. Subsequently, the infusion rates were increased to 8, 12, and 16 mg/kg/min using the IVIG 12% preparation. RESULTS: Clinically, all patients tolerated increases in IVIG concentrations while the infusion rate was 4 mg/kg/min. However, 3 patients presented side effects when the infusion rate was increased to 8 and 16 mg/kg/min. CONCLUSION: We conclude that metabolic and hematologic sides effects occur with rapid infusion of IVIG even in patients who tolerate the increased infusion rate clinically. The advantages of using high infusion rates have to be re-evaluated.

Beatriz Tavares, Costa-Carvalho; Marisa, Lin; Dirceu, Solé; Magda Maria Sales, Carneiro-Sampaio; Ricardo Uhr, Sorensen; Charles Kirov, Naspitz.

1815-18-01

145

Ghrelin Infusion in Humans Induces Acute Insulin Resistance and Lipolysis Independent of Growth Hormone Signaling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE—Ghrelin is a gut-derived peptide and an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor. Exogenous ghrelin stimulates the release of GH (potently) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (moderately). Ghrelin is also orexigenic, but its impact on substrate metabolism is controversial. We aimed to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity in human subjects.

Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Gormsen, Lars Christian; Jessen, Niels; Lund, Sten; Hansen, Troels Krarup; Moller, Niels; Jorgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

2008-01-01

146

Evaluation of meropenem regimens suppressing emergence of resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii with human simulated exposure in an in vitro intravenous-infusion hollow-fiber infection model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergence of resistance to carbapenems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be suppressed by optimizing the administration of meropenem. However, whether the same is true for Acinetobacter baumannii is not fully understood. We assessed the bactericidal activity of meropenem and its potency to suppress the emergence of resistance in A. baumannii with human simulated exposure in an in vitro intravenous-infusion hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM). Two clinical strains of carbapenem-susceptible multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (CS-MDRAB), CSRA24 and CSRA91, were used, and their MICs and mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) were determined. Six meropenem dosage regimens (0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 g given every 8 h [q8h] with a 0.5-h or 3-h infusion for seven consecutive days) were simulated and then evaluated in the HFIM. Both the total population and resistant subpopulations of the two strains were quantified. Drug concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. All dosage regimens, except for the lowest dosage (0.5 g for both the 0.5-h and 3-h infusions), showed 3-log CFU/ml bacterial killing. Dosage regimens of 2.0 g with 0.5-h and 3-h infusions exhibited an obvious bactericidal effect and suppressed resistance. Selective amplification of subpopulations with reduced susceptibility to meropenem was suppressed with a percentage of the dosage interval in which meropenem concentrations exceeded the MPC (T>MPC) of ?20% or with a ratio of T>MPC to the percentage of the dosage interval in which drug concentrations are within the mutant selection window of ?0.25. Our in vitro data support the use of a high dosage of meropenem (2.0 g q8h) for the treatment of severe infection caused by CS-MDRAB. PMID:25182633

Li, Xin; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Xian-Jia; Yang, Yang; Gong, Wei-Tao; Xu, Bin; Zhu, Ying-Qun; Liu, Wei

2014-11-01

147

Effects and safety of allogenic mesenchymal stem cell intravenous infusion in active ankylosing spondylitis patients who failed NSAIDs: a 20-week clinical trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of intravenous (IV) infusion of allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients who are refractory to or cannot tolerate the side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). AS patients enrolled in this study received four IV infusions of MSCs on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. The percentage of ASAS20 responders (the primary endpoint) at the fourth week and the mean ASAS20 response duration (the secondary endpoint) were used to assess treatment response to MSC infusion and duration of the therapeutic effects. Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score Containing C-reactive Protein (ASDAS-CRP) and other preestablished evaluation indices were also adopted to evaluate the clinical effects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to detect changes of bone marrow edema in the spine. The safety of this treatment was also evaluated. Thirty-one patients were included, and the percentage of ASAS20 responders reached 77.4% at the fourth week, and the mean ASAS20 response duration was 7.1 weeks. The mean ASDAS-CRP score decreased from 3.6 ± 0.6 to 2.4 ± 0.5 at the fourth week and then increased to 3.2 ± 0.8 at the 20th week. The average total inflammation extent (TIE) detected by MRI decreased from 533,482.5 at baseline to 480,692.3 at the fourth week (p > 0.05) and 400,547.2 at the 20th week (p < 0.05). No adverse effects were noted. IV infusion of MSCs is a feasible, safe, and promising treatment for patients with AS. PMID:23711393

Wang, Peng; Li, Yuxi; Huang, Lin; Yang, Jiewen; Yang, Rui; Deng, Wen; Liang, Biling; Dai, Lie; Meng, Qingqi; Gao, Liangbin; Chen, Xiaodong; Shen, Jun; Tang, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Hou, Jingyi; Ye, Jichao; Chen, Keng; Cai, Zhaopeng; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong

2014-01-01

148

Le morte du tumour: histological features of tumor destruction in chemo-resistant cancers following intravenous infusions of pathotropic nanoparticles bearing therapeutic genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathotropic targeting of therapeutic nanoparticles to cancerous lesions is an innovative concept that has recently been reduced to practice in clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic cancer. Previously, we reported that intravenous infusions of Rexin-G, a pathotropic nanoparticle (or vector) bearing a cyto-ablative construct, induced tumor regression, reduced tumor burden, and improved survival, while enhancing the overall quality-of-life of patients with otherwise intractable chemotherapy-resistant cancers. In this report, we describe the major histopathological and radiologic features that are characteristic of solid tumors under the destructive influences of Rexin-G administered as a single therapeutic agent. To further promote tumor eradication and enhance cancer survival, we explored the potential of an auxiliary gene transfer strategy, specifically intended to induce a localized cancer auto-immunization in addition to assisting in acute tumor destruction. This immunization strategy uses Rexin-G in combination with Reximmune-C, a tumor targeted expression vector bearing a granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene. Intravenous infusions of Rexin-G were given first to induce apoptosis and necrosis in the metastatic tumor nodules, thus exposing tumor neo-antigens, followed by Reximmune-C infusions, intended to recruit immune cells discretely into the same compartments (or lesions). The intent of this two-step approach is to bring a complement of cells involved in humoral and cell-mediated immunity in close proximity to the immunizing tumor antigens in a concerted effort to assist in tumor eradication and to promote a cancer vaccination in situ. Herein, we also describe the distinctive histopathologic and immunocytochemical features of tumors in terminal cancer patients who received Rexin-G infusions in combination with Reximmune-C. In addition to documenting the first histological indications of clinical efficacy achieved by this novel personalized approach to cancer vaccination, we discuss new methods and strategies for advancing its therapeutic utility. Taken together with the clinical data, these histological studies serve as valuable landmarks for medical oncology, and as definitive benchmarks for the emerging field of cancer gene therapy. PMID:17487349

Gordon, Erlinda M; Chan, Maria Teresa; Geraldino, Nelson; Lopez, Francisco F; Cornelio, Gerardo H; Lorenzo, Conrado C; Levy, John P; Reed, Rebecca A; Liu, Liqiong; Hall, Frederick L

2007-06-01

149

Effect of dietary nitrogen content and intravenous urea infusion on ruminal and portal-drained visceral extraction of arterial urea in lactating Holstein cows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Urea extraction across ruminal and portal-drained visceral (PDV) tissues were investigated using 9 rumen-cannulated and multi-catheterized lactating dairy cows adapted to low-N (12.9% crude protein) and high-N (17.1% crude protein) diets in a crossover design. The interaction between adaptation to dietary treatments and blood plasma concentrations of urea was studied by dividing samplings into a 2.5-h period without urea infusion followed by a 2.5-h period with primed continuous intravenous infusion of urea (0.493 ± 0.012 mmol/kg of BW per h). Cows were sampled at 66 ± 14 and 68 ± 12 d in milk and produced 42 ± 1 and 36 ± 1 kg of milk/d with the high-N and low-N diets, respectively. The arterial blood urea concentration before urea infusion was 1.37 and 4.09 ± 0.18 mmol/L with low-N and high-N, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect the urea infusion-induced increase in arterial urea concentration (1.91 ± 0.13 mmol/L). Arterial urea extraction across the PDV and rumen increased from 2.7 to 5.4 ± 0.5% and from 7.1 to 23.8 ± 2.1% when cows were changed from high-N to low-N, respectively. Urea infusion did not decrease urea extractions, implying that urea transport rates were proportional to arterial urea concentrations. Urea extraction increased more across the rumen wall than across the total PDV for low-N compared with high-N, which implies that a larger proportion of total PDV uptake of arterial urea is directed toward the rumen with decreasing N intake. The ruminal vein - arterial (RA) concentration difference for ammonia increased instantly (first sampling 15 min after initiation of infusion) to the primed intravenous infusion when cows were adapted to the low-N diet. The RA difference for ammonia correlated poorly to the ventral ruminal concentration of ammonia (r = 0.55). Relating the RA difference for ammonia to a function of both ruminal ammonia concentration and the RA difference for urea markedly improved the fit (r = 0.85), indicating that a large fraction of ammonia released to the ruminal veinis absorbed from an epithelial ammonia pool not in equilibrium with the ventral ruminal ammonia pool. Changing cows from high-N to low-N affected the relative blood urea clearance by kidneys and PDV. The clearance by the kidneys decreased from 41 to 27 ± 2 L/h and the clearance by the PDV increased from 52 to 105 ± 12 L/h when the diet was changed from high-N to low-N. In conclusion, urea transport across gut epithelia in cattle is adapting to N status and driven by mass action. Data are commensurable with a model for urea transport across gut epithelia based on regulated expression or activity of facilitative urea transporters.

Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Storm, Adam Christian

2010-01-01

150

Pharmacokinetics of ifosfamide and its enantiomers following a single 1 h intravenous infusion of the racemate in patients with small cell lung carcinoma.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ifosfamide is a chiral pro-drug which is administered clinically in its racemic form. Serum concentrations of rac-ifosfamide and its enantiomers were measured in 12 patients with lung carcinoma following a mean (+/- s.d.) intravenous dose of 4.2 (0.83) g infused over 1 h. The mean (+/- s.d.) volumes of distribution (VSS) of rac, (R)- and (S)-ifosfamide were 0.61 (0.17), 0.60 (0.16) and 0.61 (0.19) l kg-1, respectively. The mean (+/- s.d.) half-lives and clearances were 6.57 (1.69), 7.12 (1.92...

Corlett, S. A.; Parker, D.; Chrystyn, H.

1995-01-01

151

Effects of increasing doses of glucagon-like peptide-1 on insulin-releasing phases during intravenous glucose administration in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increase in insulin secretion caused by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1 mimetics observed during an intravenous glucose test (IVGTT) has been reported in both normal and disease animal models, as well as in humans. In this study, a hierarchical population modeling approach is used, together with a previously reported model relating glucose to insulin appearance, to determine quantitative in vivo dose-response relationships between GLP-1 dose level and both first- and second-phase insulin release. Parameters of the insulin kinetic model were estimated from the complete set of glucose and insulin data collected in 219 anesthetized nonfasted NMR-imaged mice after intravenous injection of glucose (1 g/kg) alone or with GLP-1 (0.03-100 nmol/kg). The resulting dose-response curves indicate a difference in GLP-1 effect on the two release phases, as is also evident from the different ED(50) parameter values (0.107 vs. 6.65 nmol/kg for phase 1 vs. phase 2 insulin release parameters). The first phase of insulin release is gradually augmented with increasing GLP-1 dose, reaching saturation at a dose of ~1 nmol/kg, while the second-phase release changes more abruptly at GLP-1 doses between 3 and 10 nmol/kg and shows a more pronounced 100-fold increase between control and the high GLP-1 dose of 100 nmol/kg Moreover, separate disposition indices calculated for phase 1 and 2 insulin release, show a different pattern of increase with increasing GLP-1 dose. PMID:21307364

Chan, Hui Min; Jain, Ritesh; Ahrén, Bo; Pacini, Giovanni; D'Argenio, David Z

2011-05-01

152

Normal neurologic and developmental outcome after an accidental intravenous infusion of expressed breast milk in a neonate.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Here we describe a premature male infant who was accidentally given 10 mL of expressed breast milk intravenously over a 3.5-hour period. Having survived this event with supportive care, this boy was attending regular school with no obvious neurologic or learning difficulties at 6 years of age. In 1998, after a query on an e-mail discussion group for health care providers in neonatology (NICU-net), we were informed of 8 similar events that proved fatal in 3 infants. A root-cause analysis revealed that accidental intravenous administration of breast milk or formula can be avoided by the use of color-coded enteral-administration sets with Luer connections that are not compatible with intravenous cannulas. The addition of methylene blue to feeds, or bolus enteral feeds (instead of continuous gastric feedings), may also help prevent such errors. These cases show the value of gathering information about rare but important events through a neonatal network. In addition, they confirm that prevention of medical error should focus on faulty systems rather than faulty people.

Ryan, C Anthony

2012-02-03

153

Insulin  

Science.gov (United States)

... syringe to inject their insulin. Others use insulin pens, jet injectors, or pumps. Read the information in this section ... new one. Do not use insulin needles (syringes), pens, and injectors after the expiration date printed on the label ...

154

Intravenous ethanol increases dopamine release in the ventral striatum in humans: PET study using bolus-plus-infusion administration of [(11)C]raclopride.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol increases the interstitial dopamine (DA) concentration in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of experimental animals, but positron emission tomography (PET) studies using the single-bolus protocol of the [(11)C]-raclopride competition paradigm have yielded conflicting results in humans. To resolve disparate previous findings, we utilized the bolus-plus-infusion (B/I) method, allowing both baseline and intervention quantification of [(11)C]raclopride binding during a single 105-minute PET scan, to investigate possible ethanol-induced DA release in nine healthy male subjects. A 25-minute intravenous ethanol (7.6%) infusion, resulting in a 1.3?g/L mean blood ethanol concentration, was administered using masked timing during the PET scan. Automated region-of-interest analysis testing the difference between baseline (40-50 minutes) and intervention (60-85 minutes) revealed an average 12.6% decrease in [(11)C]raclopride binding in the ventral striatum (VST, P=0.003) including the NAcc. In addition, a shorter time interval from the start of ethanol infusion to the first subjective effect was associated with a greater binding potential decrease bilaterally in the VST (r=0.92, P=0.004), and the feeling of pleasure was associated with a decrease in binding potential values in both the caudate nucleus (r=-0.87, P=0.003) and putamen (r=-0.74; P=0.02). These results confirm that ethanol induces rapid DA release in the limbic striatum, which can be reliably estimated using the B/I method in one imaging session.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 10 December 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.209. PMID:25492110

Aalto, Sargo; Ingman, Kimmo; Alakurtti, Kati; Kaasinen, Valtteri; Virkkala, Jussi; Någren, Kjell; Rinne, Juha O; Scheinin, Harry

2014-12-10

155

A 125I-radiolabelled probe for vinblastine and vindesine radioimmunoassays: applications to measurements of vindesine plasma levels in man after intravenous injections and long-term infusions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transformation of vinblastine into a reactive acid azide was used for the preparation of a vindesine-glycyl-tyrosine conjugate. This conjugate was radiolabelled [125I] and used as a tracer for the radioimmunoassay of vinblastine and vindesine with antisera developed by the Eli Lilly Research Laboratories and by the authors. Its higher specific activity as compared to tritiated vinblastine significantly increases the sensitivity of the assay (0.05 ?g/l as compared to 0.6 ?g/l). It was then possible to monitor vindesine plasma levels for more than 60 h after intravenous bolus injection and to evaluate the elimination rates more accurately. When plasma levels were also measurable using tritiated vinblastine a satisfactory agreement was observed with determinations performed with radioiodinated vindesine-glycyl-tyrosine. Furthermore, the use of a #betta#-emitting probe simplifies the radioimmunoassay procedure and accordingly increases its reproducibility. A few examples of vindesine level measurements in human plasma collected after bolus intravenous injection and during long-term infusion are given. (Auth.)

156

Pharmacokinetics of G3139, a phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to bcl-2, after intravenous administration or continuous subcutaneous infusion to mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

An 18-mer full-phosphorothioate oligonucleotide with sequence antisense to the first six codons of the open reading frame of bcl-2 (G3139) has shown efficacy against the DoHH2 lymphoma implanted in severe combined immunodeficient mice. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of 35S-labeled G3139 in female BALB/c mice after single i.v. bolus administration or s.c. infusion for 1 week. After 100 microg i.v. bolus (approximately 5 mg/kg), the radioactivity was rapidly distributed and eliminated, with low blood levels 6 hr after administration. Most of the initial plasma radioactivity was protein bound (98% at 5 min). Tissue to plasma ratios were 87 for kidney, 17 for liver, 5 for spleen, 2.5 for heart and lung and 3.5 for gut. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of G3139 showed triexponential kinetics, with alpha, beta and gamma half-lives of 5 min, 37 min and 11 hr, respectively. After 106 microg/day s.c. infusion, plasma steady state was reached by day 3, when half of the radioactivity was protein bound and 66 to 86% of the radioactivity was associated with parent drug (0.9 microg/ml). The plasma half-life of elimination for G3139 was 22 hr. Tissue to plasma ratios were similar to those after i.v. bolus administration, but accumulation was observed in all organs including bone marrow, where the levels reached were in the cytotoxic range. G3139 was metabolized to at least three different products, all observed in plasma, liver and kidney. Two metabolites eluted before the parent compound and one after the parent compound. There was greater degradation in the liver 6 hr after i.v. administration than at 24 hr, 48 hr, 3 days and 7 days after s.c. administration. In the kidney, most radioactivity was G3139. All degradation products were found in the urine but only traces of parent drug were eliminated. After both routes of administration, most of the radioactivity was eliminated in the urine and to a lesser extent in the feces. Significantly more radioactivity was excreted in the urine after i.v. bolus, compared with s.c. infusion (33% on day 1 and 55% by day 3 for i.v. vs. 7.2% on day 1 and 12.9% by day 3 for s.c.). These data show that s.c. infusion resulted in less excretion and metabolism of the administered dose. PMID:9103525

Raynaud, F I; Orr, R M; Goddard, P M; Lacey, H A; Lancashire, H; Judson, I R; Beck, T; Bryan, B; Cotter, F E

1997-04-01

157

Type B insulin resistance syndrome induced by systemic lupus erythematosus and successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin: case report and systematic review.  

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Type B insulin resistance syndrome is characterized by the formation of autoantibodies against insulin receptors, which can cause severe hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Systemic lupus erythematosus is the most common underlying diseases of the syndrome. This report details our study of a case involving a Chinese female with type B insulin resistance syndrome as well as systemic lupus erythematosus who completely recovered after undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, specifically pulse therapy utilizing intravenous immunoglobulin. We also conducted search in MEDLINE and Chinese BioMedicine database to identify relevant literatures published in the past 46 years. From our searches, six case reports in Chinese, 15 case reports, and a 28-year perspective article in English met our criteria; a total of 67 cases were included in our report. The mean age of subjects at presentation for groups A, B, and C were 42.95, 44.10, and 41.68 years, respectively, yielding no significant difference between these groups. African Americans were the most susceptible group to type B insulin resistance syndrome, followed by Asians representing 20.90 % of all cases. Comparisons between the three main racial groups surveyed indicated that the mean age of subjects at presentation were very contiguous for African Americans and Asians, and mean age of white people was remarkably higher than either of the first two groups. The syndrome appeared most common among Asian males, and white males were relatively less likely to suffer from type B insulin resistance syndrome. Hypoglycemia was most commonly observed in white people than in other racial groups. Hypoalbuminemia, elevated serum immunoglobulin G, and elevated sedimentation rates were more common in African Americans; Asian cases were more likely to show low serum C3 or C4 and nephritis. Two cases received intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, which has a remarkably rapid effect on insulin resistance. PMID:23053690

Zhang, Sigong; Wang, Guochun; Wang, Jinping

2013-02-01

158

[A case report of liver metastasis from rectal cancer effectively treated with intravenous infusion of cisplatin alone].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 49-year-old man with liver metastasis from rectal cancer was treated with cisplatin (CDDP) alone. Cisplatin was administered intravenously 3 times at a dose of 50 mg (31 mg/m2). He achieved an excellent PR (94% decrease) as determined by CT scanning, and plasma CEA level decreased from 37 to 2.2 ng/ml. The side effects were nausea, vomiting, and reflux esophagitis, but neither leucopenia nor renal dysfunction was observed. As a result, a radical operation could be undertaken. PMID:2053776

Furutani, M; Shimada, Y; Inoue, K; Tobe, T

1991-06-01

159

Symptomatic cerebral oedema during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis: effect of adjuvant octreotide infusion  

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Abstract Introduction A potentially lethal complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children is brain oedema, whether caused by DKA itself or by the therapeutic infusion of insulin and fluids. Case presentation A 10-year old previously healthy boy with DKA became unconscious and apnoeic due to cerebral oedema (confirmed by abnormal EEG and CT-scan) during treatment with intravenous fluids (36 ml/h) and insulin (0.1 units/kg/h). He was intubated and artific...

Seewi Ora; Vierzig Anne; Roth Bernhard; Schönau Eckhard

2010-01-01

160

Efeitos da infusão contínua de propofol ou etomidato sobre variáveis intracranianas em cães Effects of propofol or etomidate intravenous infusion on intracranial variables in dogs  

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Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da infusão contínua de propofol ou de etomidato sobre as variáveis intracranianas em cães nomocapneicos. Foram utilizados 20 cães adultos distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo propofol (GP e grupo etomidato (GE. Para o GP, os animais foram induzidos à anestesia com propofol (10mg/kg e, ato contínuo, iniciaram-se a infusão do fármaco (0,6mg/kg/min e a ventilação controlada. No GE, o etomidato foi usado para indução (5mg/kg e manutenção empregando-se a dose de 0,5mg/kg/min nos 10 minutos iniciais e, em seguida, de 0,2mg/kg/min. Após 30 minutos da implantação do cateter de fibra óptica do monitor de pressão intracraniana (PIC na superfície do córtex cerebral direito, realizaram-se as primeiras mensurações (M1 da PIC, da pressão de perfusão cerebral (PPC, da temperatura intracraniana (TIC, de temperatura corpórea (TC, da pressão arterial média (PAM e da frequência cardíaca (FC. As demais mensurações ocorreram em intervalos de 20 minutos (M2, M3 e M4. O propofol e o etomidato não ocasionaram alterações significativas nas variáveis estudadas com exceção da TC e TIC. Concluiu-se que a infusão contínua desses fármacos em cães mantém a perfusão cerebral e a autorregulação cerebral. Cães anestesiados com etomidato apresentam efeitos adversos intensos e redução gradativa da temperatura corpórea e intracraniana.The effects of total intravenous infusion of propofol or etomidate on intracranial variables in normocapneic dogs were evaluated. Twenty adult mongrel dogs were randomly allotted to: propofol group (GP or etomidate group (GE. In GP animals, the propofol was used for induction (10mg/kg, followed by immediate continuous infusion of the drug (0.6mg/kg/min and controlled ventilation. In GE dogs, the etomidate was used for induction (5mg/kg, followed by a continuous rate infusion (CRI at 0.5mg/kg/min during the first ten minutes and, right after, it was changed to 0.2mg/kg/min. The initial measurement (M1 was recorded 30 minutes after the implant of the fiber optic catheter and, after that, every 20 minutes (M2, M3, and M4. The studied parameters were intracranial pressure (ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP, intracranial temperature (ICT, body temperature (BT, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and heart rate (HR. The propofol and etomidate did not change the studied variables, except the ICT and BT. It was concluded that the continuous infusion of these drugs maintains the cerebral perfusion and autoregulation. Dogs anesthetized with etomidate have adverse effects and body and intracranial temperature decrease.

D.P. Paula

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

HEPATIC ARTERIAL INFUSION AND INTRAVENOUS CHEMOTHERAPY IN UNRESECTABLE LIVER METASTASES FROM COLORECTAL CANCER VERSUS SYSTEMIC CHEMOTHERAPY ALONE  

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Full Text Available Methods: In collaboration with Angiography Lab - “Floreasca” Emergency Hospital ,14 patients with hepatic metastases of colorectal origin, unresecable, were administered hepatic intraarterial chemotherapy and 22 patients were administered only systemic chemotherapy with Oxaliplatinum 150 mg, 5 Fluorouracil 2500 mg, Follinate calcium 150 mg. Results: It was thus demonstrated that the therapy using HAI with 5 Fluorouracil, Pharmarubicin, Iomeron, in association with a systemic regimen based on Oxaliplatin and 5 Fluorouracil (an average of 4 cures was efficient in 64% of cases . Moreover, tumor response to therapy allowed consequent curative resection or RFA in 18% of cases. OS was of 20 months and PFS of 11months. In conclusion, administering chemotherapy by hepatic arterial infusion is both efficient and well tolerated in unresecable metastases of colo-rectal cancers. Associating systemic chemotherapy improves on the response rates. The femoral catheter implant is feasible and easies the administration of palliative and neo-adjuvant treatments

Sânziana Ionescu

2011-08-01

162

Effects of insulin on adipose tissue blood flow in man  

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Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) rises after nutrient ingestion. It is not clear whether this is due to insulin. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of insulin in the regulation of subcutaneous ATBF. We have investigated the role of insulin in the regulation of ATBF in normal, healthy subjects in a three-step procedure to determine the functional level at which insulin may potentially exert its effect. Fifteen subjects were studied on two occasions. On the first visit, 75 g oral glucose was given. In the second, similar plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose were achieved by dynamic intravenous infusions of insulin and glucose. The increase in ATBF after oral glucose (4.2 ± 1.4 ml min?1 (100 g tissue)?1, P = 0.01) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that after intravenous infusions (1.5 ± 0.6 ml min?1 (100 g tissue)?1 P < 0.05). For the local delivery of potentially vasoactive substances and simultaneous measurement of ATBF, we describe a novel combination of methods, which we have called ‘microinfusion’. We have used this technique to show that locally infused insulin, even at pharmacological concentrations, had no demonstrable effect on ATBF in nine subjects. We conclude that whilst insulin does not have a direct effect on ATBF, it is likely to be an important mediator, possibly acting via sympathetic activation. In the postprandial state, other candidate peptides and hormones are also likely to play important roles. PMID:11986393

Karpe, Fredrik; Fielding, Barbara A; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Ilic, Vera; Macdonald, Ian A; Frayn, Keith N

2002-01-01

163

Eventos adversos en 1395 infusiones con diferentes preparados de gammaglobulina intravenosa / Adverse events in 1395 infusions with different intravenous gammaglobulin products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los procesos de aislamiento y esterilización de la gammaglobulina endovenosa (IVIG) afectan las características del producto terminado y, por lo tanto, su tolerabilidad. Distintos productos tienen diferentes incidencias de reacciones adversas. Este trabajo cuantifica los eventos adversos (EA) inmedi [...] atos provocados por distintas preparaciones de IVIG. Analizamos 1395 infusiones en 28 pacientes, con una mediana de 32.5 por sujeto (rango 2-214), utilizando seis preparados distintos de IVIG, con una dosis total promedio de 40.3 ± 8.3 g. Analizamos retrospectivamente 1 031 infusiones y 364 prospectivamente. Los pacientes utilizaron una media de 2.68 ± 1.8 IVIG diferentes, con una mediana de 2 (rango 1-6) por persona. El número de marcas comerciales utilizadas se relacionó con el número de infusiones recibidas, r = 0.73. En 24 (2.3%) de 1031 infusiones analizadas en forma retrospectiva se registraron EA que afectaron a 11 de los 23 casos incluidos, con una media de 2.18 ± 1.08 EA por afectado. De 24 pacientes y de 364 infusiones prospectivas, en 14 pacientes y en 32 (7.2%) procedimientos se observaron EA. Veinticuatro (42.9%) de 56 EA fueron leves, 31 (55.5%) moderados y uno (1.8%) fue grave. La velocidad de infusión fue de 9.04 ± 4.6 g/h para las que presentaron EA vs. 10.6 ± 4.6 g/h para las que no (p = 0.31). La incidencia, la gravedad y la proporción de pacientes afectados con EA para cada marca comercial de IVIG fueron muy diferentes entre sí. Esta información debe ser tomada en cuenta en el momento de selección de la IVIG a utilizar. Abstract in english The processes of isolation and sterilization of intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) affect the end product characteristics and, therefore, its tolerability. Different products have different incidences of adverse reactions. The aim of this study was to quantify the immediate adverse events (AE) caused [...] by the different IVIG preparations. We analyzed 1 395 infusions in 28 patients, with a median of 32.5 per subject (range 2-214), using six different IVIG preparations, with an average dose 40.3 ±8.3 g. One thousand and thirty-one infusions were analyzed retrospectively and 364 prospectively. Patients used a mean of 2.68 ±1.8 different IVIGs, with a median of 2 (range 1-6) per person. The number of trademarks used was related to the number of infusions received, r = 0.73. AE presented in 24 (2.3%) of 1 031 infusions retrospectively analyzed, affecting 11 of 23 patients enrolled, with a mean of 2.18 ± 1.08 AE per subject. Of 24 patients and 364 infusions prospectively analyzed, AE were observed in 14 patients and in 32 (7.2%) procedures. Twenty-four (42.9%) of 56 AE were mild, 31 (55.5%) moderate and one (1.8%) severe. The infusion rate was 9.04±4.6 g/h for those presenting AE vs. 10.6±4.6 g/h for those who did not (p = 0.31, NS). The incidence, severity and proportion of patients with AE for each brand of IVIG were very different from each other. This information should be taken into account when selecting the IVIG to be used.

Alejandro, Malbrán; Blas, Larrauri; María Cecilia, Juri; Diego S., Fernández Romero.

2013-10-01

164

Adverse Reactions of Intravenous Immunoglobulin  

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Full Text Available Immunodeficient patients received 109 intravenous Immunoglobulin (IvIg infusion, 9 infusions (8.2% were followed by adverse reactions consisting of 5 mild, 1 moderate and 3 severe reactions. Predisposing factors were: Infusion speed (20 drops per min or more, presence of IgA antibody, and active infection at the time of infusion

AH Farhoudi

2001-07-01

165

Intravenous paracetamol infusion: Superior pain management and earlier discharge from hospital in patients undergoing palliative head-neck cancer surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Paracetamol; a cyclooxygenase inhibitor; acts through the central nervous system as well as serotoninergic system as a nonopioid analgesic. A prospective, double-blinded, and randomized-controlled study was carried out to compare the efficacy of preoperative 1g intravenous (iv) paracetamol with placebo in providing postoperative analgesia in head-neck cancer surgery. Materials and Methods: From 2008 February to 2009 December, 80 patients for palliative head-neck cancer surgery were randomly divided into (F) and (P) Group receiving ivplacebo and iv paracetamol, respectively, 5 min before induction. Everybody received fentanyl before induction and IM diclofenac for pain relief at8 hourly for 24 h after surgery. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and amount of fentanyl were measured for postoperative pain assessment (24 h). Results and Statistical analysis: The mean VAS score in 1st, 2nd postoperative hour, and fentanyl requirement was less and the need for rescue analgesic was delayed in ivparacetamol group which were all statistically significant. Paracetamol group had a shorter surgical intensive care unit (SICU) and hospital stay which was also statistically significant. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the effectiveness of ivparacetamol as preemptive analgesic in the postoperative pain control after head-neck cancer surgery and earlier discharge from hospital. PMID:25276627

Majumdar, Saikat; Das, Anjan; Kundu, Ratul; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Hazra, Bimal; Mitra, Tapobrata

2014-01-01

166

CDDP chemotherapy combined with radiation for the head and neck cancer. Comparison between intravenous and intraarterial infusion  

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The present study describes the results of chemotherapy by cisplatin combined with the radiation therapy. A total of 12 patients with the head and neck cancer were treated. The location of the primary site was the maxillary sinus in 4 cases, the tongue in 2 cases, the maxillary gingiva in 2 cases and the mandibular gingiva in 2 cases. The buccal mucosa and mandibular bone were affected in each one case. The Histological types of the tumors were squamous cell carcinomas in 11 cases and adenocarcinoma in one case. Six patients were treated by intraarterial injection of cisplatin and another six patients were treated by intravenous injection of cisplatin. Total dose from 30 to 50 Gy of irradiation was administrated to both groups. Results of the therapy of 10 patients were CR in 6 cases, PR in 3 cases and NC in one case. The CR rate was 60 percent and PR rate was 30 percent. CR was achieved in all 4 cases treated by intraarterial administration of cisplatin.

Mikami, Yutaka; Iseki, Tomio; Kaji, Ryuichi

1987-11-01

167

Fractional flow reserve and minimum Pd/Pa ratio during intravenous adenosine infusion: very similar but not always the same.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims: Maximum and stable hyperaemia are critical prerequisites for the accurate measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR). However, in some patients in whom hyperaemia is induced through a central vein (IV) the minimum distal coronary pressure to aortic pressure ratio (Pd/Pa ratio) develops before the stabilisation of hyperaemia. We sought to describe the prevalence, magnitude and clinical implications of this phenomenon. Methods and results: The FFR tracing archive of a single institution was reviewed and a total of 104 high-quality IV-FFR recordings from 90 patients were identified. Whenever the minimum Pd/Pa ratio was found before the onset of stable hyperaemia, a search for the lowest Pd/Pa ratio within the steady-state hyperaemic plateau was performed and labelled as FFRstable. Whilst in most cases the minimum Pd/Pa ratio developed during stable hyperaemia, in 19 cases (prevalence of 18.3% [95% CI: 12.0% to 26.8%]) this value was found before the stabilisation of the hyperaemic state. In such cases, the minimum Pd/Pa ratio stabilised later at a higher level (0.77±0.09 vs. 0.81±0.08, p0.80. Conclusions: During IV adenosine infusion, the minimum Pd/Pa ratio occurs before the stabilisation of hyperaemia in a significant proportion of cases. While the overall difference between the minimum Pd/Pa ratio and its FFRstable counterpart is small, reclassification of stenosis severity might occur, if choosing between the minimum and stable values of FFR within the same trace. PMID:25366652

Echavarria-Pinto, Mauro; Petraco, Ricardo; van de Hoef, Tim P; Gonzalo, Nieves; Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Tarkin, Jason M; Ibañez, Borja; Sen, Sayan; Jimenez-Quevedo, Pilar; Nuñez-Gil, Ivan J; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Alfonso, Fernando; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Macaya, Carlos; Piek, Jan J; Davies, Justin; Escaned, Javier

2014-10-22

168

Durable remission of inoperable liver metastasis from rectal cancer after hepatic arterial infusion of oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil in combination with intravenous cetuximab.  

Science.gov (United States)

At diagnosis of a cT3N0M1 adenocarcinoma of the rectum with synchronous inoperable liver metastases, a 59-year-old man was treated with preoperative radiotherapy (5×5 Gy), followed by laparoscopy-assisted anterior resection of the rectum with total mesorectal excision. At the first postoperative evaluation, a new lung metastasis was detected. First-line chemotherapy with folfiri (5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, leucovorin) resulted in transient stabilization of the metastatic liver disease. At progression, oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil-folinic acid were administered by intrahepatic arterial infusion, in combination with intravenous cetuximab. A partial radiologic response was obtained, with complete metabolic response on fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography, and normalization of carcinoembryonic antigen values. The solitary lung metastasis was sequentially treated with radiotherapy and resection. Five years after the initial diagnosis, this patient remains free from progression, with residual cystic remnants of the liver metastases visible on conventional computed tomography imaging, but not enhancing with fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography. PMID:21980258

Van Bael, K; Aerts, M; de Ridder, M; de Gréve, J; Delvaux, G; Neyns, B

2011-10-01

169

Pharmacokinetics of treosulfan and its active monoepoxide in pediatric patients after intravenous infusion of high-dose treosulfan prior to HSCT.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pro-drug treosulfan (TREO) is currently evaluated in randomized phase III clinical trials as a conditioning agent prior to HSCT. In the present paper pharmacokinetics of both TREO and its biologically active monoepoxide (S,S-EBDM) was investigated in pediatric patients for the first time. The studies were carried out in 16 children (median age 7.5years) undergoing TREO-based preparative regimen prior to HSCT, who received 10, 12 or 14g/m(2) of the drug as a 1h or 2h intravenous infusion. Plasma concentrations of TREO as well as S,S-EBDM were determined using the validated HPLC-MS/MS method. The changes in S,S-EBDM concentration over time followed TREO levels. The area under the curve (AUC) of TREO was 100-fold higher than AUC of S,S-EBDM. No statistically significant dependency of the dose-normalized AUC of either TREO or S,S-EBDM on the patients' age and body surface area was stated. Moreover, plasma Cmax as well as AUC of S,S-EBDM demonstrated linear correlation with the Cmax and AUC of TREO, respectively. The biological half-lives of TREO and S,S-EBDM were similar. This indicates that S,S-EBDM was completely eliminated from the patients' blood within relatively short time, comparable to TREO. PMID:25527118

G?ówka, Franciszek; Kasprzyk, Anna; Roma?ski, Micha?; Wróbel, Tomasz; Wachowiak, Jacek; Szpecht, Dawid; Ka?wak, Krzysztof; Wiela-Hoje?ska, Anna; Dziatkiewicz, Paulina; Te?yk, Artur; ?aba, Czes?aw

2015-02-20

170

Studies on Several Hormone Responses Following Intravenous Alimentation: Insulin and growth hormone responses following oral or intravenous alimentation in patient with far advanced gastric cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glucose tolerance, insulin and growth hormone responses following glucose for amino acids administration by means of parenteral or oral load were studied in patients with far advanced gastric cancer. Hormone responses following nutrients load showed in patients with gastric cancer were compared to those of healthy subjects. Results were as follows:1) Blood sugar appearance following oral glucose administration was diminished in patients with far advanced gastric cancer. 2) The insulin responses of gastric cancer following oral glucose were also diminished as compared to that of normal subjects and were identical with parenteral route. 3) Parenteral administration of glucose or amino acids to patients with gastric cancer resulted in a increase of plasma growth hormone level. 4) Lower insulin response to amino acids was observed on parenteral administration in patient with gastric cancer as in healthy subjects. 5) Author discussed that the low insulin response after oral glucose administration showed in gastric cancer, and any additional insulin requirement arise when longer periods of parenteral amino acid administration are necessary, as in the patient with malnutrition.

171

Whole body insulin responsiveness is higher in beef steers selected for increased muscling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the impact of selection for greater muscling on whole body insulin responsiveness in cattle, as reflected by greater uptake of glucose in response to constant insulin infusion and greater glucose disappearance following an intravenous glucose tolerance test. This study used 18-month-old steers from an Angus herd visually assessed and selected for divergence in muscling over 15 years. Eleven high-muscled (High), 10 low-muscled (Low) and 3 high-muscled steers, which were heterozygous for a myostatin polymorphism (HighHet), were infused with insulin using the hyperinsulineamic-euglyceamic clamp technique. Insulin was constantly infused at two levels, 0.6 ?IU/kg per min and 6.0 ?IU/kg per min. Glucose was concurrently infused to maintain euglyceamia and the steady state glucose infusion rate (SSGIR) indicated insulin responsiveness. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was also administered at 200 mg/kg live weight. Sixteen blood samples were collected from each animal between -30 and 130 min relative to the administration of intravenous glucose, plasma glucose and insulin concentration was determined in order to analyse insulin secretion and glucose disappearance. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was also measured in basal plasma samples. At the low insulin infusion rate of 0.6 mU/kg per min, the SSGIR was 73% higher for the High muscling genotype animals when compared to the Low (P<0.05). At the high insulin infusion rate of 6.0 mU/kg per min, these differences were proportionately less with the High and the HighHet genotypes having only 27% and 34% higher SSGIR (P<0.05) than the Low-muscled genotype. The High-muscled cattle also had 30% higher plasma IGF-1 concentrations compared to the Low-muscled cattle. There was no effect of muscling genotype on basal insulin or basal glucose concentrations, glucose disappearance or insulin secretion following an intravenous glucose tolerance test. The increased whole body insulin responsiveness in combination with higher IGF-1 concentrations in the High-muscled steers is likely to initiate a greater level of protein synthesis, which may partially explain the increased muscle accretion in these animals. PMID:22440349

McGilchrist, P; Pethick, D W; Bonny, S P F; Greenwood, P L; Gardner, G E

2011-08-01

172

Enhancing the [(13) C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate MRS studies by infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A change in myocardial metabolism is a known effect of several diseases. MRS with hyperpolarized (13) C-labelled pyruvate is a technique capable of detecting changes in myocardial pyruvate metabolism, and has proven to be useful for the evaluation of myocardial ischaemia in vivo. However, during fasting, the myocardial glucose oxidation is low and the fatty acid oxidation (?-oxidation) is high, which complicates the interpretation of pyruvate metabolism with the technique. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium (GIK) could increase the myocardial glucose oxidation in the citric acid cycle, reflected as an increase in the [(13) C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate MRS measurements in fasted rats. Two groups of rats were infused with two different doses of GIK and investigated by MRS after injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate. No [(13) C]bicarbonate signal could be detected in the fasted state. However, a significantincrease in the [(13) C]bicarbonate signal was observed by the infusion of a high dose of GIK. This study demonstrates that a high [(13) C]bicarbonate signal can be achieved by GIK infusion in fasted rats. The increased [(13) C]bicarbonate signal indicates an increased flux of pyruvate through the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex and an increase in myocardial glucose oxidation through the citric acid cycle. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Lauritzen, Mette Hauge; Laustsen, Christoffer

2013-01-01

173

Enhancing the [13C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1?13C]pyruvate MRS studies by infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium  

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A change in myocardial metabolism is a known effect of several diseases. MRS with hyperpolarized 13C?labelled pyruvate is a technique capable of detecting changes in myocardial pyruvate metabolism, and has proven to be useful for the evaluation of myocardial ischaemia in vivo. However, during fasting, the myocardial glucose oxidation is low and the fatty acid oxidation (??oxidation) is high, which complicates the interpretation of pyruvate metabolism with the technique. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium (GIK) could increase the myocardial glucose oxidation in the citric acid cycle, reflected as an increase in the [13C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1?13C]pyruvate MRS measurements in fasted rats. Two groups of rats were infused with two different doses of GIK and investigated by MRS after injection of hyperpolarized [1?13C]pyruvate. No [13C]bicarbonate signal could be detected in the fasted state. However, a significant increase in the [13C]bicarbonate signal was observed by the infusion of a high dose of GIK. This study demonstrates that a high [13C]bicarbonate signal can be achieved by GIK infusion in fasted rats. The increased [13C]bicarbonate signal indicates an increased flux of pyruvate through the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex and an increase in myocardial glucose oxidation through the citric acid cycle. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Lauritzen, Mette Hauge; Laustsen, Christoffer

2013-01-01

174

Antifungal effects of the nonlinear pharmacokinetics of cilofungin, a 1,3-beta-glucan synthetase inhibitor, during continuous and intermittent intravenous infusions in treatment of experimental disseminated candidiasis.  

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Cilofungin (LY-121019) is a fungicidal cell wall-active 1,3-beta-glucan synthetase inhibitor with a short plasma half-life and saturable nonlinear plasma pharmacokinetics. To optimize the in vivo efficacy of this compound, we studied the effects of its linear and nonlinear pharmacokinetics during continuous versus intermittent intravenous infusion of cilofungin in the treatment of experimental disseminated candidiasis in persistently granulocytopenic rabbits. Six groups of rabbits were studie...

Walsh, T. J.; Lee, J. W.; Kelly, P.; Bacher, J.; Lecciones, J.; Thomas, V.; Lyman, C.; Coleman, D.; Gordee, R.; Pizzo, P. A.

1991-01-01

175

Efeitos da infusão contínua de propofol ou etomidato sobre variáveis intracranianas em cães / Effects of propofol or etomidate intravenous infusion on intracranial variables in dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os efeitos da infusão contínua de propofol ou de etomidato sobre as variáveis intracranianas em cães nomocapneicos. Foram utilizados 20 cães adultos distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo propofol (GP) e grupo etomidato (GE). Para o GP, os animais foram induzidos à anestesia [...] com propofol (10mg/kg) e, ato contínuo, iniciaram-se a infusão do fármaco (0,6mg/kg/min) e a ventilação controlada. No GE, o etomidato foi usado para indução (5mg/kg) e manutenção empregando-se a dose de 0,5mg/kg/min nos 10 minutos iniciais e, em seguida, de 0,2mg/kg/min. Após 30 minutos da implantação do cateter de fibra óptica do monitor de pressão intracraniana (PIC) na superfície do córtex cerebral direito, realizaram-se as primeiras mensurações (M1) da PIC, da pressão de perfusão cerebral (PPC), da temperatura intracraniana (TIC), de temperatura corpórea (TC), da pressão arterial média (PAM) e da frequência cardíaca (FC). As demais mensurações ocorreram em intervalos de 20 minutos (M2, M3 e M4). O propofol e o etomidato não ocasionaram alterações significativas nas variáveis estudadas com exceção da TC e TIC. Concluiu-se que a infusão contínua desses fármacos em cães mantém a perfusão cerebral e a autorregulação cerebral. Cães anestesiados com etomidato apresentam efeitos adversos intensos e redução gradativa da temperatura corpórea e intracraniana. Abstract in english The effects of total intravenous infusion of propofol or etomidate on intracranial variables in normocapneic dogs were evaluated. Twenty adult mongrel dogs were randomly allotted to: propofol group (GP) or etomidate group (GE). In GP animals, the propofol was used for induction (10mg/kg), followed b [...] y immediate continuous infusion of the drug (0.6mg/kg/min) and controlled ventilation. In GE dogs, the etomidate was used for induction (5mg/kg), followed by a continuous rate infusion (CRI) at 0.5mg/kg/min during the first ten minutes and, right after, it was changed to 0.2mg/kg/min. The initial measurement (M1) was recorded 30 minutes after the implant of the fiber optic catheter and, after that, every 20 minutes (M2, M3, and M4). The studied parameters were intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), intracranial temperature (ICT), body temperature (BT), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR). The propofol and etomidate did not change the studied variables, except the ICT and BT. It was concluded that the continuous infusion of these drugs maintains the cerebral perfusion and autoregulation. Dogs anesthetized with etomidate have adverse effects and body and intracranial temperature decrease.

D.P., Paula; N., Nunes; C.T.D., Nishimori; P.C.F., Lopes; R., Carareto; P.S.P., Santos.

2010-04-01

176

Continuous 24-h nicotinic acid infusion in rats causes FFA rebound and insulin resistance by altering gene expression and basal lipolysis in adipose tissue  

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Nicotinic acid (NA) has been used as a lipid drug for five decades. The lipid-lowering effects of NA are attributed to its ability to suppress lipolysis in adipocytes and lower plasma FFA levels. However, plasma FFA levels often rebound during NA treatment, offsetting some of the lipid-lowering effects of NA and/or causing insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study was designed to determine whether a prolonged, continuous NA infusion in rats produces a FF...

Oh, Young Taek; Oh, Ki-sook; Choi, Yong Min; Jokiaho, Anne; Donovan, Casey; Choi, Sangdun; Kang, Insug; Youn, Jang H.

2011-01-01

177

Rapid translocation of hepatic glucokinase in response to intraduodenal glucose infusion and changes in plasma glucose and insulin in conscious rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rate of liver glucokinase (GK) translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in response to intraduodenal glucose infusion and the effect of physiological rises of plasma glucose and/or insulin on GK translocation were examined in 6-h-fasted conscious rats. Intraduodenal glucose infusion (28 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) after a priming dose at 500 mg/kg) elevated blood glucose levels (mg/dl) in the artery and portal vein from 90 +/- 3 and 87 +/- 3 to 154 +/- 4 and 185 +/- 4, respectively, at 10 min. At 120 min, the levels had decreased to 133 +/- 6 and 156 +/- 5, respectively. Plasma insulin levels (ng/ml) in the artery and the portal vein rose from 0.7 +/- 0.1 and 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 11.8 +/- 1.5 and 20.2 +/- 2.0 at 10 min, respectively, and 12.4 +/- 3.1 and 18.0 +/- 4.8 at 30 min, respectively. GK was rapidly exported from the nucleus as determined by measuring the ratio of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic immunofluorescence (N/C) of GK (2.9 +/- 0.3 at 0 min to 1.7 +/- 0.2 at 10 min, 1.5 +/- 0.1 at 20 min, 1.3 +/- 0.1 at 30 min, and 1.3 +/- 0.1 at 120 min). When plasma glucose (arterial; mg/dl) and insulin (arterial; ng/ml) levels were clamped for 30 min at 93 +/- 7 and 0.7 +/- 0.1, 81 +/- 5 and 8.9 +/- 1.3, 175 +/- 5 and 0.7 +/- 0.1, or 162 +/- 5 and 9.2 +/- 1.5, the N/C of GK was 3.0 +/- 0.5, 1.8 +/- 0.1, 1.5 +/- 0.1, and 1.2 +/- 0.1, respectively. The N/C of GK regulatory protein (GKRP) did not change in response to the intraduodenal glucose infusion or the rise in plasma glucose and/or insulin levels. The results suggest that GK but not GKRP translocates rapidly in a manner that corresponds with changes in the hepatic glucose balance in response to glucose ingestion in vivo. Additionally, the translocation of GK is induced by the postprandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin. PMID:14656711

Chu, Chang An; Fujimoto, Yuka; Igawa, Kayano; Grimsby, Joseph; Grippo, Joseph F; Magnuson, Mark A; Cherrington, Alan D; Shiota, Masakazu

2004-04-01

178

A Run-to-Run Control Strategy to Adjust Basal Insulin Infusion Rates in Type 1 Diabetes  

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Maintaining good glycemic control is a daily challenge for people with type 1 diabetes. Insulin requirements are changing constantly due to many factors, such as levels of stress and physical activity. The basal insulin requirement also has a circadian rhythm, adding another level of complexity. Automating the adjustment of insulin dosing would result in improved glycemic control, as well as an improved quality of life by significantly reducing the burden on the patient. Building on our previ...

Palerm, Cesar C.; Zisser, Howard; Jovanovic?, Lois; Doyle, Francis J.

2008-01-01

179

Effect of intravenous infusion of dobutamine hydrochloride on the development of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients via inhibiting the release of tumor necrosis factor-?.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the effects of dobutamine hydrochloride on early postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? concentration in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty, 124 patients undergoing unilateral total hip arthroplasty, aged 70-92 years old, were randomly assigned to four groups (n=31) as follows: a control group of patients receiving only saline (intravenous infusion, i.v.); and groups receiving 2, 4, or 6?gkg(-1)min(-1) (i.v.) of dobutamine hydrochloride. Cognitive functions were assessed on the day before surgery (T1), and the 1st day (T2), 3rd day (T3), and 7th day (T4) postsurgery using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). The plasma TNF-? protein level was determined 10min before anesthesia (Ta), and 10min (Tb), 30min (Tc), and 60min (Td) after anesthesia by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cognitive disorder was observed within the first 3 days after hip arthroplastic surgery, and it had recovered 7 days after the operation in the control group of patients. Administration of 2 or 4?gkg(-1)min(-1) dobutamine hydrochloride was able to reverse the early POCD. Simultaneously, an increase of plasma TNF-? levels 30min after anesthesia was observed (41.34±9.61 vs. 27.75±5.45), which was significantly suppressed by the administration of low-dose dobutamine hydrochloride (29.23±7.32 vs. 41.34±9.61) but not by high-dose dobutamine hydrochloride (45.9±12.11 vs. 41.34±9.61). Together, our data indicated that the plasma concentration of TNF? was engaged in the effect of dobutamine hydrochloride on POCD. PMID:25131356

Sun, Defeng; Yang, Lin; Wu, Yue; Liu, Ruochuan; Han, Jun; Wang, Lijie

2014-10-15

180

Desarrollo tecnológico de sulfato de cinc 5 mg/mL infusión intravenosa / Technological development of zinc sulphate 5 mg/mL intravenous infusion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se desarrolló una formulación de sulfato de cinc 5 mg/mL para infusión intravenosa que cumplió con las especificaciones de calidad de la USP 26, así como con el estudio de la estabilidad física, química, microbiológica y biológica de la solución, almacenada en envases de vidrio neutro de 5 mL de cal [...] idad hidrolítica I. El producto se expuso al calor por 90 días, y al calor y acción de la luz durante un período de 180 días, así como a vida de estante en condiciones normales de temperatura ambiente. Se comprobó la efectividad de los preservativos antimicrobianos presentes en la formulación. De los estudios realizados se determinó que la solución es estable por un período de más de 18 meses, almacenada a temperatura ambiente. Abstract in english A formulation of zinc sulphate 5 mg/mL for intravenous infusion was developed. It met the quality specifications of the USP 26, and it underwent the study of physical, chemical, microbiological and biological stability of the solution stored in neutral glass flasks of 5 ml of hydrolitic quality I. T [...] he product was exposed to heat for 90 days and to heat and the action of light for a period of 180 days, as well as to a shelf life under normal conditions of room temperature. It was proved the effectivity of the antimicrobial preservatives present in the formulation. According to the conducted studies, it was determined that the solution is stable for more than 18 months stored at room temperature.

Armando, Gato del Monte; Ania, González Villazón; Zenia, Pardo Ruiz.

2005-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Adverse Reactions of Intravenous Immunoglobulin  

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OBJECTIVES To study the frequency, type, and severity of adverse reactions to intravenous immunoglobulin infusions and possible preventable measures. METHODS We prospectively studied the frequency, type, and severity of adverse reactions in 104 intravenous immunoglobulin infusions (IntraglobinTMF) given to 13 patients suffering from several immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases over 15 months in King Hussein Medical Center. The sever...

Al-wahadneh, A. M.; Khriesat, I. A.; Kuda, E. H.

2001-01-01

182

Diferença entre volume de fluidos cristaloides intravenosos prescritos e infundidos em pacientes no pós-operatório precoce Difference between intravenous crystalloid fluids prescribed and infused in patients during early postoperative period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi auditar a real quantidade de fluídos cristalóides infundidos por via intravenosa em pacientes submetidos a operações abdominais de grande porte num hospital universitário. MÉTODOS: Computou-se a carga hídrica total (CHT de fluidos cristalóides intravenosos infundida diariamente do 1º ao 4º dia de PO em 31 pacientes submetidos à operações de grande porte. Comparou-se a CHT com a carga hídrica prescrita (CHP pelo médico. A CHT foi definida como a somatória da CHP acrescida de diluentes e medicações intravenosas. O protocolo do serviço recomendava a hidratação venosa no peri-operatório entre 30 e 50 mL/Kg/dia em pacientes com prescrição de jejum oral. A comparação entre CHT e CHP foi realizada em todos os dias de pós-operatório pelo teste t pareado. Estabeleceu-se em 5% o nível de significância estatística. RESULTADOS: A CHT infundida do 1º ao 4ºdia de pós-operatório foi de 12,8 (6,4-17,5 L. Desse total, 9,5 litros (74,3% corresponderam a CHP e 3,3 L (25,7% a diluentes e medicações venosas. Em todos os dias de pós-operatório a CHT foi significativamente maior que a CHP (pOBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to audit the real amount of crystalloid intravenous fluids infused in patients underwent major abdominal operations in a University hospital. METHODS: The whole intravenous crystalloid fluid load (CHT infused from the 1st to the 4th postoperative day in 31 patients underwent major abdominal operations was registered. This amount was compared to the volume daily prescribed (CHP by the physician. CHT was defined as the sum of CHP plus diluents and intravenous drugs received by the patients. Hydration protocol of the service was 30-50 mL/Kd/day for patient with nil per os prescription. Comparisons between CHT and CHP was done in each postoperative day using paired T test. A 5% level was established as significant. RESULTS: CHT summed from 1st to 4th PO days was (mean and range 12.8 (6.4-17.5 L corresponding to 9.5 L (74.3% of CHP and 3.3 L (25.7% of diluents and intravenous drugs. In each postoperative day, CHT was significantly greater than CHP (p<0.001. Until the 3rd PO day patients received a CHT greater than 50 mL/Kg/day. CONCLUSION:. Medical prescription does not contain the real amount of crystalloid intravenous fluids infused. Diluents and intravenous drug may reach 25% of the intravenous fluids load.

José Eduardo de Aguilar-Nascimento

2010-02-01

183

High heritability and genetic correlation of intravenous glucose- and tolbutamide-induced insulin secretion among non-diabetic family members of type 2 diabetic patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of quantitative measures of glucose regulation obtained from a tolbutamide-modified frequently sampled IVGTT (t-FSIGT) and to correlate the heritability of the glucose-stimulated beta cell response to the tolbutamide-induced beta cell response. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) having an exclusive effect on either glucose- or tolbutamide-stimulated insulin release were identified. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic family members of patients with type 2 diabetes underwent a t-FSIGT with intravenous injection of glucose at t?=?0 min and tolbutamide at t?=?20 min. Measurements of plasma glucose, serum insulin and serum C-peptide were taken at 33 time points from fasting to 180 min. Insulin secretion rate, acute insulin response (AIR), disposition index (DI) after glucose and disposition index after tolbutamide (DIT), insulin sensitivity (SI), glucose effectiveness (SG) and beta cell responsiveness to glucose were calculated. A polygenic variance component model was used to estimate heritability, genetic correlations and associations. RESULTS: We found high heritabilities for acute insulin secretion subsequent to glucose stimulation (AIRglucose h (2)?±?SE: 0.88?±?0.14), but these were slightly lower after tolbutamide (AIRtolbutamide h (2)?±?SE: 0.69?±?0.14). We also estimated the heritabilities for SI (h (2)?±?SE: 0.26?±?0.12), SG (h (2)?±?SE: 0.47?±?0.13), DI (h (2)?±?SE: 0.56?±?0.14), DIT (h (2)?±?SE: 0.49?±?0.14) and beta cell responsiveness to glucose (h (2)?±?SE: 0.66?±?0.12). Additionally, strong genetic correlations were found between measures of beta cell response after glucose and tolbutamide stimulation, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.77 to 0.88. Furthermore, we identified five SNPs with an exclusive effect on either glucose-stimulated (rs5215, rs1111875, rs11920090) or tolbutamide-stimulated (rs10946398, rs864745) insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our data demonstrate thatboth glucose- and tolbutamide-induced insulin secretions are highly heritable traits, which are largely under the control of the same genes.

Gjesing, Anette P; Hornbak, Malene

2014-01-01

184

Microvascular Recruitment in Insulin Resistance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this PhD work a new method for measuring microvascular recruitment was developed and evaluated, using continues real-time imaging of contrast enhanced ultrasound. Gas-filled microbubbles were infused intravenously and by taking advantage of the echogenic properties of the microbubbles the resonating sound from the microbubbles in the systemic circulation were recorded for determination of microvascular recruitment in designated muscle segments. Results showed that microvascular recruitment increased with insulin stimulation by ~30% in rats and ~40% in humans (study I). Furthermore, it was observed that muscle contractions increased muscle perfusion rapidly by 3-4 fold and by 1-2 fold compared to basal and insulin, respectively, in both rat and human skeletal muscle (study I). The real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound method was applied to investigate the vaso-active effect of the incretin hormone glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the microcirculation. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 analogs are drugs used for treatments of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but the vascular effects of GLP-1 in vivo are elusive. Here it was shown that GLP-1 rapidly increased the microvascular recruitment in human and rat skeletal muscle by ~60% and ~30%, respectively, and independently of insulin (study II and III). However, when rats consumed a 60 E% high fat diet acute administration of GLP-1 ameliorated both the early (5 days) and the more prolonged (8 weeks) high fat diet induced impairment of insulin action in the microvasculature and restored normal microvascular function by increasing the microvascular recruitment similar to in control animals. This effect of GLP-1 on microvascular recruitment was associated with a restoration of both whole body insulin sensitivity and muscle glucose uptake when co-infused with insulin in the 5 days but not in the 8 week high fat diet intervention. Thus, like insulin, GLP-1 increased microvascular recruitment but unlike insulin no direct effect on muscle glucose uptake of GLP-1 was observed.

SjØberg, Kim Anker

2014-01-01

185

Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep  

Science.gov (United States)

Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9) acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (PGLUT4) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B) differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (PGLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were downregulated (P<0.05) in ST muscle with C16:1 infusion. These results show that C16:1 infusion for 28 days reduced weight gain, intramuscular adipocyte size and total lipid content, and circulating insulin levels. These changes appear to be mediated through alterations in expression of genes regulating glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation specifically in the muscles. PMID:25429233

Duckett, Susan K; Volpi-Lagreca, Gabriela; Alende, Mariano; Long, Nathan M

2014-01-01

186

Acute metabolic effects and half-lives of intravenously administered insulinlike growth factors I and II in normal and hypophysectomized rats.  

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Insulinlike growth factors (IGF) act qualitatively like insulin on insulin target tissues in vitro. In the circulation in vivo they are bound to specific carrier proteins. In this form or when continuously infused into hypophysectomized (hypox) rats they do not exert acute insulinlike effects on glucose homeostasis. This study definitively shows that intravenous bolus injections of pure IGF I or II act acutely on glucose homeostasis: they lower the blood sugar, enhance the disappearance of U-...

Zapf, J.; Hauri, C.; Waldvogel, M.; Froesch, E. R.

1986-01-01

187

The conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine in man. Direct measurement by continuous intravenous tracer infusions of L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and L-[1-13C] tyrosine in the postabsorptive state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steady state phenylalanine and tyrosine turnover and the rate of conversion of phenylalanine of tyrosine in vivo were determined in 6 healthy postabsorptive adult volunteers. Continuous infusions of tracer amounts of L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine were determined intravenously for 13-14 hr. After 9-10 hr, a priming dose followed by a continuous infusion of L-[1-13C]tyrosine was added and maintained, along with the [2H5]phenylalanine infusion, for 4 hr. Venous plasma samples were obtained before the initiation of each infusion and every 30 min during the course of the combined [2H5]phenylalanine and [13C]tyrosine infusion for determination of isotopic enrichments of [2H5]phenylalanine, [13C]tyrosine, and [2H4]tyrosine by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometric analysis of the N-trifluoroacetyl-, methyl ester derivatives of the amino acids. Calculated from the observed enrichments, free phenylalanine and tyrosine turnover rates were 36.1 +/- 5.1 mumole . kg-1 . h-1 and 39.8 +/- 3.5 mumole . kg-1 . h-1, respectively. Phenylalanine was converted to tyrosine at the rate of 5.83 +/- 0.59 mumole . kg-1 . h-1, accounting for approximately 16% of either the phenylalanine or the tyrosine flux. The results indicate that the normal basal steady state phenylalanine hydroxylase activity in vivo in man is lower than that obtained from phenylalanine loading studies. This supports the existence of some typs. This supports the existence of some type of substance activation of the enzyme as reflected in the previously reported exponential relationship between phenylalanine concentration and phenylalanine hydroxylase activity in vitro. The use of continuous simultaneous infusions of tracer amounts of stable isotope-labeled phenylalanine and tyrosine provides a direct means for studying physiological regulation of phenylalanine hydroxylase activity in vivo

188

Formation of biologically active 13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin E1 during intravenous infusion of prostaglandin E1 in newborns with ductus arteriosus-dependent congenital heart disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma concentrations of prostaglandin (PG) E1 (12-150, median 25 pg ml-1) and 13,14-dihydro-PGE1 (3-62, median 45.5 pg ml-1) were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in eight newborns with ductus arteriosus-dependent congenital heart disease during continuous intravenous infusion of PGE1. Formation of 13,14-dihydro-PGE1 was demonstrated for the first time in neonates. Since 13,14-dihydro-PGE1 has similar biological activities as the parent compound PGE1, pharmacological effects during PGE1 infusion are most likely related to both PGE1 and the generation and action of 13,14-dihydro-PGE1. PMID:1576056

Leonhardt, A; Schweer, H; Wolf, D; Seyberth, H W

1992-01-01

189

Response of plasma glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous glucose tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment investigated the metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. The experiment used 12 multiparous Holstein cows that calved in late winter in a seasonally calving pasture-based system and were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. In each of four 5-wk experimental periods commencing at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 (±9.1) days in milk (DIM), cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1kg of DM grain (control; CON) or 6kg of DM grain (GRN) as a ration. Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for the CON and GRN treatments, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated minimum daily total intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. The standard intravenous glucose tolerance test using 0.3g of glucose per kilogram of body weight was performed on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) responses were measured. Milk yield, milk solids yield, body weight, and basal plasma glucose were greater in the GRN compared with the CON treatment. The area under the plasma response curve relative to baseline (AUC) for glucose, insulin, and NEFA and their apparent fractional clearance rates indicated varied whole body responsiveness to insulin in terms of glucose metabolism throughout the 670-d lactation. The glucose AUC 0 to 20 min postinfusion was increased at 560 DIM, indicating reduced utilization of glucose by the mammary gland at this stage of lactation. The NEFA clearance rate, 6 to 30 min postinfusion, was greater at 460 and 560 DIM. These data indicated an increase in lipogenic activity or a decrease in lipolysis as lactation progressed, suggestive of an overall increase in responsiveness to insulin in terms of whole body lipid metabolism as lactation progressed. These observations are consistent with decreased priority of lactation beyond 300 DIM. Cows in the GRN treatment had decreased whole body responsiveness to hyperglycemia compared with CON cows in terms of glucose clearance and AUC for the glucose response. Variation in the response curves of plasma glucose, NEFA, and insulin was predominantly a result of stage of lactation and not diet. This may be due to changes in mammary gland uptake of glucose that is independent of insulin and the responsiveness of peripheral tissues to the actions of insulin at different stages of the lactation that are independent of diet. PMID:25468690

Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Moate, P J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

2015-01-01

190

Infusão de insulina em terapia intensiva: ensaio controlado randomizado / Insulin infusion in intensive care: randomized controlled trial / Infusion de insulina en cuidados intensivos: ensayo controlado aleatorizado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Ensaio clínico controlado e aleatorizado que comparou o uso de protocolo de insulina intensivo e convencional na evolução clínica de pacientes em sepse grave e choque séptico, nas primeiras 72 h. Foi conduzido em um hospital universitário na cidade de São Paulo. Os pacientes (n=46) foram alocados e [...] m dois grupos: glicêmico intensivo (glicemia entre 80-110mg/dl) e convencional (180-220mg/dl). Utilizaram-se testes t-Student e Qui-Quadrado na análise dos dados. Observou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa (p Abstract in spanish Ensayo clínico aleatorio controlado y randomizado que comparó el uso de protocolo de insulina intensivo y convencional en la evolución clínica de pacientes en sepsis grave y shock séptico, en las primeras 72 horas. Fue realizado en un hospital universitario de la ciudad de São Paulo. Los pacientes [...] (n=46) fueron distribuidos en dos grupos: glucémico intensivo (glucemia entre 80-110mg/dl) y convencional (180-220mg/dl). Se utilizaron tests t-Student y Chi-cuadrado para análisis de los datos. Se observó diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p Abstract in english This randomized controlled trial compared the use of an intensive and conventional insulin protocol on clinical outcomes in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock, in the first 72 hours. It was conducted at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo. Patients (n=46) were allocated into tw [...] o groups: intensive glycemic (blood glucose between 80-110mg/dl) and conventional (180-220mg/dl). The Student's t-test and chi-square test were used for data analysis. A statistically significant (p

Milena Penteado Ferraro, Miranda; Jeiel Carlos Lamonica, Crespo; Silvia Regina, Secoli.

2013-06-01

191

Use of microdialysis-based continuous glucose monitoring to drive real-time semi-closed-loop insulin infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and automated insulin delivery may make diabetes management substantially easier, if the quality of the resulting therapy remains adequate. In this study, a semi-closed-loop control algorithm was used to drive insulin therapy and its quality was compared to that of subject-directed therapy. Twelve subjects stayed at the study site for approximately 70 hours and were provided with the investigational Automated Pancreas System Test Stand (APS-TS), which was used to calculate insulin dosage recommendations automatically. These recommendations were based on microdialysis CGM values and common diabetes therapy parameters. For the first half of their stay, the subjects directed their diabetes therapy themselves, whereas for the second half, the insulin recommendations were delivered by the APS-TS (so-called algorithm-driven therapy). During subject-directed therapy, the mean glucose was 114 mg/dl compared to 125 mg/dl during algorithm-driven therapy. Time in target (90 to 150 mg/dl) was approximately 46% during subject-directed therapy and approximately 58% during algorithm-driven therapy. When subjects directed their therapy, approximately 2 times more hypoglycemia interventions (oral administration of carbohydrates) were required than during algorithm-driven therapy. No hyperglycemia interventions (delivery of addition insulin) were necessary during subject-directed therapy, while during algorithm-driven therapy, 2 hyperglycemia interventions were necessary. The APS-TS was able to adequately control glucose concentrations in the subjects. Time in target was at least comparable or moderately higher during closed-loop control and markedly fewer hypoglycemia interventions were required, thus increasing patient safety. PMID:25205589

Freckmann, Guido; Jendrike, Nina; Pleus, Stefan; Buck, Harvey; Bousamra, Steven; Galley, Paul; Thukral, Ajay; Wagner, Robin; Weinert, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia

2014-11-01

192

The use of a volumetric infusion pump for the intra-arterial infusion of drugs.  

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Volumetric infusion pumps are widely used for intravenous infusions. We have extended their use to the intra-arterial infusion of drugs. An in vitro evaluation of the performance of such devices, under experimental conditions comparable to an intra-arterial infusion, was carried out. The results obtained confirmed the accuracy of volumetric infusion pumps for intra-arterial infusions. The system was found to be safe, reliable and simple in clinical practice.

Cooper, A. M.; Lilliman, M.

1985-01-01

193

Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells: Viable therapy for type III.C. a diabetes mellitus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transition from acute pancreatitis to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is a rare manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma because of impaired glucose tolerance and suppresses insulin secretion. We report the case of a 26-year-old male with pancreatic diabetes caused by parathyroid adenoma induced chronic pancreatitis. He had serum C-peptide 0.12 ng/ml, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody 5.0 IU/ml, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C 8.9%, and required 72 IU/day of biphasic-isophane insulin injection for uncontrolled hyperglycemia. We treated him with his own adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem-cells (IS-ADMSC along with his bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSC. Autologous IS-ADMSC + BM-HSC were infused into subcutaneous tissue, portal and thymic circulation without any conditioning. Over a follow-up of 27 months, the patient is maintaining fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels of 132 and 165 mg/dl, respectively, with HbA1C 6.8% and requiring 36 IU/day of biphasic-isophane insulin. Co-infusion of IS-ADMSC + BM-HSC offers a safe and viable therapy for type III.C.a Diabetes Mellitus.

Umang G Thakkar

2014-12-01

194

Can continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion improve health-related quality of life in patients with shwachman-bodian-diamond syndrome and diabetes?  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract We report the first case of the use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in a patient with Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) and diabetes. An Italian boy received diagnosis of SBDS at the age of 7 months (SBDS gene mutation: c.183-184TA?CT and c.258+2T?C in compound heterozygous). The patient presented an impaired psychosocial functioning with difficulties in mental health, body pain experiences, attention deficit disorder, somatic complaints, behavioral and social problems. Total Intelligence Quotient (T-IQ) was within the normal range for age (T-IQ=109). The patient developed clinical diabetes at the age of 13 years (glycemia 282?mg/dL at 120?min of oral glucose tolerance test, glycosylated hemoglobin level of 7.5%, anti-?-cell antibodies negative; glucagon test yielding a C peptide level at zero-time of 1.5?ng/mL and at 6?min of 2.0?ng/mL). Multiple daily injection therapy with insulin was started. Nevertheless, because of a relevant needle phobia and the recurrent hypoglycemia due to poor nutrition secondary to depression, after 3 years the patient started CSII. After 12 months a new evaluation showed (1) better social adaptation, (2) meliorated self-esteem and self-efficacy, (3) reduced psychosocial suffering, and (4) improved health-related quality of life, assessed by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 3.0 Diabetes Module. Thus CSII seems to be crucial to improve health-related quality of life in patients affected by diabetes and genetic disorders. PMID:25269020

Terlizzi, Vito; Zito, Eugenio; Mozzillo, Enza; Raia, Valeria; Franzese, Adriana

2015-01-01

195

Effect of intravenous omega-3 fatty acid infusion and hemodialysis on fatty acid composition of free fatty acids and phospholipids in patients with end-stage renal disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have been reported to have decreased levels of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ?-3 PUFAs administered intravenously during HD, as well as the effect of HD treatment, on the fatty acid composition of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), plasma phospholipids, and platelet phospholipids.

Madsen, Trine; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup

2011-01-01

196

Direct Effects of TNF-? on Local Fuel Metabolism and Cytokine Levels in the Placebo-Controlled, Bilaterally Infused Human Leg: Increased Insulin Sensitivity, Increased Net Protein Breakdown, and Increased IL-6 Release  

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Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) has widespread metabolic actions. Systemic TNF-? administration, however, generates a complex hormonal and metabolic response. Our study was designed to test whether regional, placebo-controlled TNF-? infusion directly affects insulin resistance and protein breakdown. We studied eight healthy volunteers once with bilateral femoral vein and artery catheters during a 3-h basal period and a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. One artery was perfused with sa...

Bach, Ermina; Nielsen, Roni R.; Vendelbo, Mikkel H.; Møller, Andreas B.; Jessen, Niels; Buhl, Mads; K- Hafstrøm, Thomas; Holm, Lars; Pedersen, Steen B.; Pilegaard, Henriette; Biensø, Rasmus S.; Jørgensen, Jens O. L.; Møller, Niels

2013-01-01

197

Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ? Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ? Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ? Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [3H]glucose and 2-deoxy[14C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats

198

MATLAB-implemented estimation procedure for model-based assessment of hepatic insulin degradation from standard intravenous glucose tolerance test data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Present study provides a novel MATLAB-based parameter estimation procedure for individual assessment of hepatic insulin degradation (HID) process from standard frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) data. Direct access to the source code, offered by MATLAB, enabled us to design an optimization procedure based on the alternating use of Gauss-Newton's and Levenberg-Marquardt's algorithms, which assures the full convergence of the process and the containment of computational time. Reliability was tested by direct comparison with the application, in eighteen non-diabetic subjects, of well-known kinetic analysis software package SAAM II, and by application on different data. Agreement between MATLAB and SAAM II was warranted by intraclass correlation coefficients ?0.73; no significant differences between corresponding mean parameter estimates and prediction of HID rate; and consistent residual analysis. Moreover, MATLAB optimization procedure resulted in a significant 51% reduction of CV% for the worst-estimated parameter by SAAM II and in maintaining all model-parameter CV% MATLAB-based procedure was suggested as a suitable tool for the individual assessment of HID process. PMID:23122301

Di Nardo, Francesco; Mengoni, Michele; Morettini, Micaela

2013-05-01

199

Renal response to graded intravenous hypertonic NaCl infusion in healthy and hypertensive subjects:dose-related impairment in distal NaCl reabsorption  

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The effects of graded acute intravenous hypertonic NaCl loads on the baseline relationship between osmolal clearance and free water reabsorption established during high NaCl dietary intake and on the fractional excretion of various ions were investigated in 15 healthy subjects and in 12 “normal renin” essential hypertensive patients. No significant influence on the baseline relationship could be demonstrated after a moderate NaCl load in the healthy subjects, while free water reabsorption...

Rado?, J. P.; Juhos, E.; Dorhout Mees, E. J.

1980-01-01

200

Characterization and comparison of insulin resistance induced by Cushing Syndrome or diestrus against healthy control dogs as determined by euglycemic- hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp profile glucose infusion rate using an artificial pancreas apparatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (EHGC) method is a gold standard for assessing insulin resistance in humans. However, this method has yet to be commonly used with dogs, due to the requirement of frequent blood sampling for glucose measurement and adjusting glucose infusion rate (GIR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate insulin resistance, induced either by Cushing Syndrome (CS) or diestrus in dogs, as determined by GIR by EHGC, using an artificial pancreas apparatus. Twenty animals were used in this study with ten (7 females and 3 males) serving as healthy controls, four (3 females, 1 male) diagnosed with CS, and six (all females) undergoing diestrus. A higher GIR value indicates increased insulin sensitivity and lower insulin resistance. GIR of healthy control animals was determined to be within a reference range of [10.6-21.3] with a median of 15.2 mg/kg/min. In comparison, the CS group had a median of 5.4 mg/kg/min; whereas the diestrus group exhibited a median of 8.9 mg/kg/min. Insulin resistant animals suffering from CS and undergoing diestrus demonstrated reductions of 65 and 40% in GIR, respectively; thus indicating differences in degree of insulin insensitivity can be discerned using the EHGC method. PMID:22785565

Fukuta, Hiroko; Mori, Akihiro; Urumuhan, Nazarbek; Lee, Peter; Oda, Hitomi; Saeki, Kaori; Kurishima, Miyuki; Nozawa, Satoshi; Mizutani, Hisashi; Mishina, Suguru; Arai, Toshiro; Sako, Toshinori

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

Calcineurin inhibitors acutely improve insulin sensitivity without affecting insulin secretion in healthy human volunteers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: New Onset Diabetes After Transplantation is related to treatment with immunosuppressive medica-tions. Clinical studies have shown that risk of new onset diabetes is greater with tacrolimus compared with cyclosporine. The diabetogenicity of cyclosporine and tacrolimus has been attributed to both beta cell dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: This is the first trial to investigate beta cell function and insulin sensitivity using gold standard methodology in healthy human volunteers treated with clinically relevant doses of cyclosporine and tacrolimus. We document that both drugs acutely increase insulin sensitivity, while first phase and pulsatile insulin secretion remain unaffected. This study demonstrates that cyclosporine and tacrolimus have similar acute effects on glucose metabolism in healthy humans. ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE. Introducing the calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) has improved the outcome of organ transplants, but complications such as New Onset Diabetes mellitus After Transplantation (NODAT) cause impairment of survival rates. The relative contribution of each CNI to the pathogenesis and development of NODAT remains unclear. We sought to compare the impact of CsA and Tac on glucose metabolism in human subjects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH. Ten healthy men underwent 5-hour infusions of CsA, Tac and saline in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. During infusion glucose metabolism was investigated using following methods: A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), glucose-stimulated insulin concentration time-series and indirect calorimetry. RESULTS. Clamp derived insulin sensitivity was increased by 25 % during CsA (P <0.0001) and 13 % during Tac administration (P= 0.047), whereas first phase and pulsatile insulin secretion were unaffected. Coinciding with the CNI induced improved insulin sensitivity, glucose oxidation rates increased, whileinsulin clearance rates decreased, only non-significantly. Tac singularly lowered hsCRP levels, otherwise no changes were observed in circulating glucagon, FFA or adiponectin levels. Mean blood levels of CNIs were 486.9 ± 23.5 ?g/l for CsA and 12.8 ± 0.5 ?g/l for Tac. CONCLUSIONS. In conclusion acute effects of intravenous CsA and to a lesser degree Tac infusions in healthy volunteers include increased insulin sensitivity, without any effect on first phase or pulsatile insulin secretion.

Øzbay, Aygen; MØller, Niels

2012-01-01

202

Medanta insulin protocols in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperglycemia is common in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and is associated with poor outcomes. This is a review of the perioperative insulin protocol being used at Medanta, the Medicity, which has a large volume cardiac surgery setup. Preoperatively, patients are usually continued on their preoperative outpatient medications. Intravenous insulin infusion is intiated postoperatively and titrated using a column method with a choice of 7 scales. Insulin dose is calculated as a factor of blood glucose and patient's estimated insulin sensitivity. A comparison of this protocol is presented with other commonly used protocols. Since arterial blood gas analysis is done every 4 hours for first two days after cardiac surgery, automatic data collection from blood gas analyzer to a central database enables collection of glucose data and generating glucometrics. Data auditing has helped in improving performance through protocol modification. PMID:25143899

Bansal, Beena; Mithal, Ambrish; Carvalho, Pravin; Mehta, Yatin; Trehan, Naresh

2014-07-01

203

Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine in relation to ALA-D activity after intravenous infusion of Ca-EDTA.  

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Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine, urinary ALA concentration, and ALA-D activity in blood were studied for four hours in two male lead workers during and after a one hour infusion of Ca-EDTA 2Na. Urinary and plasma lead concentrations increased as a result of administering Ca-EDTA 2Na, and the ratios of lead concentrations in plasma to those in urine were greatly increased. The increase of plasma lead concentration was not due to the haemolytic effect of Ca-EDTA ...

Ishihara, N.; Shiojima, S.; Hasegawa, K.

1984-01-01

204

Effect of Aggressive Early High-Dose Intravenous Amino Acid Infusion and Early Trophic Enteral Nutrition on Very Low Birth Weight Infants  

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Objective: Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants are at risk of growth delay if they do not receive adequate nutritional support. This study evaluated the effect of aggressive early high-dose amino acid infusion plus early enteral trophic feeding on growth in VLBW infants within the first day of life. Study design: The effect of a high-dose 3 g amino acid (HAA)/kg/d regimen beginning on the first day of life was compared with that of low-dose amino acid (LAA) supplementation at a dose ...

Man-Yau Ho; Yu-Hsuan Yen; Hsiang-Yin Chen; Shu-Chen Chien; Mao-Chih Hsieh; Yao-Shun Yang

2012-01-01

205

Estudos hemodinâmicos e da função endotelial em porcas saudáveis após injeção em bolus endovenoso de azul de metileno / Hemodynamic and vascular endothelium function studies in healthy pigs after intravenous bolus infusion of methylene blue  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Benefícios clínicos obtidos pelo azul de metileno (AM) no tratamento da vasoplegia induzida pela ação do óxido nítrico (NO) têm sido relatados na sepse, na síndrome da resposta inflamatória sistêmica (SIRS) em cirurgia cardíaca e no choque anafilático, mas a sua segurança é muitas vezes qu [...] estionada, principalmente relacionada aos seus efeitos hemodinâmicos e à possibilidade de causar disfunção endotelial. O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar os efeitos hemodinâmicos e a função endotelial da infusão endovenosa in vivo do AM em porcos. MÉTODOS: O protocolo de estudo incluiu dois grupos experimentais de porcas fêmeas: Grupo I (Controle) - os animais (n = 6) não receberam AM; Grupo II (AM) - os animais receberam 3 mg/kg de AM em forma de bolus endovenoso. Após quinze minutos de registro dos parâmetros hemodinâmicos os animais foram sacrificados por exsangüinação, e os estudos in vitro foram conduzidos usando segmentos de artérias coronária, hepática, mesentérica superior, renal, para determinar o efeito do AM na função endotelial relacionada com a liberação de NO. Mediu-se também o NO plasmático nos dois grupos experimentais. RESULTADOS: Os resultados obtidos no presente estudo foram: 1) a infusão endovenosa de AM (3,0 mg/kg) não causou nenhuma alteração hemodinâmica significativa; 2) os valores absolutos e porcentuais e nitrito/nitrato plasmático (NOx) não apresentaram diferenças nos dois grupos experimentais; 3) o estudo in vitro dos segmentos arteriais (coronária, hepática, renal e mesentérica superior) não apresentou disfunção endotelial nos dois grupos. Os resultados sugerem que a injeção endovenosa de AM é segura. Esse dado concorda com dados clínicos no qual o AM foi utilizado para tratar a síndrome vasoplégica após circulação extracorpórea, síndrome da resposta infamatória sistêmica (SIRS) e anafilaxia. Os resultados não foram inesperados porque os animais não apresentavam vasoplegia, não se esperando que a inibição da guanilatociclase tenha algum efeito. CONCLUSÃO: A infusão em bolus endovenoso in vivo na dose investigada (3 mg/kg) não causou alterações hemodinâmicas e comprometimento da liberação in vitro de NO. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Clinical benefit of methylene blue (MB) treating NO-induced vasoplegia has been reported in sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in cardiac surgery and anaphylactic shock, but its safety is sometimes questioned, mainly regarding its hemodynamic effects and the possibilit [...] y of causing endothelium dysfunction. To examine the nitric oxide plasma levels and cardiovascular effects of the infusion of MB in vivo and its effects on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent in vitro vascular relaxation. METHODS: The study protocol included two experimental groups of female pigs: Group I (Control) - the animals (n=6) did not receive MB; Group II (MB) - the animals received 3 mg/kg of MB intravenous bolus infusion. After fifteen minutes of hemodynamic parameter recording the animals were sacrificed by exsanguination, and in vitro studies were conducted using segments of coronary, hepatic, superior mesenteric and renal arteries, to determine the effect of MB on the arterial endothelium function with regard to NO release. Nitric oxide plasma levels (NOx) were measured in each of the experimental groups. RESULTS: The results obtained in the present investigation were: 1) intravenous infusion of MB (3.0 mg/kg) caused no hemodynamic changes; 2) absolute and percent plasma NOx values did not differ between the experimental groups; and 3) in vitro study of vascular relaxation showed no significant difference between groups. These results show that MB intravenous infusion seems to be safe. This finding agrees with data from clinical experiments where MB was used to treat vasoplegic syndrome after cardiopulmonary bypass, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and anaphylaxis. These

Antonio Carlos, Menardi; Fernanda, Viaro; Walter Vilella de Andrade, Vicente; Alfredo José, Rodrigues; Paulo Roberto Barbosa, Évora.

2006-10-01

206

Effect of short-term intralipid infusion on the immune response during low-dose endotoxemia in humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Novel anti-inflammatory effects of insulin have recently been described, and insulin therapy to maintain euglycemia suppresses the plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) and increases the survival of critically ill patients. We aimed to explore the effect of short-term high levels of plasma FFA on the inflammatory response to a low dose of endotoxin. Fourteen healthy male volunteers underwent the following two trials in a randomized crossover design: 1) continuous infusion of 20% Intralipid [0.7 ml.kg(-1).h(-1) (1.54 g/kg)] for 11 h, and 2) infusion of isotonic saline for 11 h (control). In each trial, heparin was given to activate lipoprotein lipase, and an intravenous bolus of endotoxin (0.1 ng/kg) was given after 6 h of Intralipid/saline infusion. Blood samples and muscle and fat biopsies were obtained before the Intralipid/saline infusion and before as well as after infusion of an endotoxin bolus. Plasma levels of FFA, triglycerides, and glycerol were markedly increased during the Intralipid infusion. Endotoxin exposure induced an increase in plasma levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and neutrophils and further stimulated gene expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin was significantly pronounced during Intralipid infusion. Short-term hyperlipidemia enhances the inflammatory response to endotoxin, and skeletal muscle and adipose tissue are capable of producing essential inflammatory mediators after endotoxin stimulation Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2

Krogh-Madsen, R.; Plomgaard, P.

2008-01-01

207

Use of biosynthetic human C-peptide in the measurement of insulin secretion rates in normal volunteers and type I diabetic patients.  

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We undertook this study to examine the accuracy of plasma C-peptide as a marker of insulin secretion. The peripheral kinetics of biosynthetic human C-peptide (BHCP) were studied in 10 normal volunteers and 7 insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Each subject received intravenous bolus injections of BHCP as well as constant and variable rate infusions. After intravenous bolus injections the metabolic clearance rate of BHCP (3.8 +/- 0.1 ml/kg per min, mean +/- SEM) was not significantly differen...

Polonsky, K. S.; Licinio-paixao, J.; Given, B. D.; Pugh, W.; Rue, P.; Galloway, J.; Karrison, T.; Frank, B.

1986-01-01

208

A mixture of the branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine increases ovulation rate in ewes when infused during the late luteal phase of the oestrous cycle: an effect that may be mediated by insulin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The positive relationship between nutritional state and ovulation rate in sheep may involve the action of specific nutrients on gonadotrophin release. LH and FSH secretion is controlled in part by hypothalamic GnRH, which is in turn influenced by central adrenergic and serotonergic neuronal systems. In this experiment the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine were examined for effects on LH and FSH secretion. A mixture of the three amino acids was infused into ewes for 5 days immediately before luteolysis, a time when nutritional effects on ovulation rate occur. The infusion significantly increased ovulation rate without any associated increase in FSH or LH. However, the infusion did increase plasma insulin concentrations and this effect, together with the high levels of blood urea observed, suggests that these amino acids had increased the supply of energy substrates to the follicles. An increase in insulin-mediated glucose uptake by follicles could be the stimulus responsible for the increase in ovulation rate. The ability of the animal to utilize BCAAs for energy metabolism may be an important component of the ovulation responses to nutrition. PMID:7616165

Downing, J A; Joss, J; Scaramuzzi, R J

1995-05-01

209

Effect of Aggressive Early High-Dose Intravenous Amino Acid Infusion and Early Trophic Enteral Nutrition on Very Low Birth Weight Infants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW preterm infants are at risk of growth delay if they do not receive adequate nutritional support. This study evaluated the effect of aggressive early high-dose amino acid infusion plus early enteral trophic feeding on growth in VLBW infants within the first day of life. Study design: The effect of a high-dose 3 g amino acid (HAA/kg/d regimen beginning on the first day of life was compared with that of low-dose amino acid (LAA supplementation at a dose of 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/d. The primary outcome measures were the days of regained birth weight and achieved full enteral feeding. Result: Compared with the 19 infants in the LAA group, the 17 infants in the HAA group achieved significantly earlier full enteral feeding (7.8 ± 3.6 vs. 15.2 ± 8.9, p = 0.003 and regained birth weight (13.3 ± 3.8 vs. 17.5 ± 7.9, p = 0.047. In addition, shorter parenteral nutrition time was achieved by HAA administration (p < 0.05. Total energy intake was greater during the first 7 days of life in the HAA group (85 ± 12 kcal/kg/d on day 7 than in the LAA group (60 ± 16 kcal/kg/d on day 7, p < 0.001. Other clinical parameters such as length of hospital stay and morbidity favored the use of HAA. Conclusion: Aggressive early simultaneous amino acid administration plus enteral feeding during the first few days of life for preterm infants was associated with improved weight gain and earlier full enteral feeding.

Man-Yau Ho

2012-11-01

210

Direct effects of TNF-? on local fuel metabolism and cytokine levels in the placebo-controlled, bilaterally infused human leg: increased insulin sensitivity, increased net protein breakdown, and increased IL-6 release  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) has widespread metabolic actions. Systemic TNF-? administration, however, generates a complex hormonal and metabolic response. Our study was designed to test whether regional, placebo-controlled TNF-? infusion directly affects insulin resistance and protein breakdown. We studied eight healthy volunteers once with bilateral femoral vein and artery catheters during a 3-h basal period and a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. One artery was perfused with saline and one with TNF-?. During the clamp, TNF-? perfusion increased glucose arteriovenous differences (0.91 ± 0.17 vs. 0.74 ± 0.15 mmol/L, P = 0.012) and leg glucose uptake rates. Net phenylalanine release was increased by TNF-? perfusion with concomitant increases in appearance and disappearance rates. Free fatty acid kinetics was not affected by TNF-?, whereas interleukin-6 (IL-6) release increased. Insulin and protein signaling in muscle biopsies was not affected by TNF-?. TNF-? directly increased net muscle protein loss,which may contribute to cachexia and general protein loss during severe illness. The finding of increased insulin sensitivity, which could relate to IL-6, is of major clinical interest and may concurrently act to provide adequate tissue fuel supply and contribute to the occurrence of systemic hypoglycemia. This distinct metabolic feature places TNF-? among the rare insulin mimetics of human origin.

Bach, E.; Nielsen, Roni R.

2013-01-01

211

Direct effects of TNF-? on local fuel metabolism and cytokine levels in the placebo-controlled, bilaterally infused human leg: increased insulin sensitivity, increased net protein breakdown, and increased IL-6 release.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) has widespread metabolic actions. Systemic TNF-? administration, however, generates a complex hormonal and metabolic response. Our study was designed to test whether regional, placebo-controlled TNF-? infusion directly affects insulin resistance and protein breakdown. We studied eight healthy volunteers once with bilateral femoral vein and artery catheters during a 3-h basal period and a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. One artery was perfused with saline and one with TNF-?. During the clamp, TNF-? perfusion increased glucose arteriovenous differences (0.91 ± 0.17 vs. 0.74 ± 0.15 mmol/L, P = 0.012) and leg glucose uptake rates. Net phenylalanine release was increased by TNF-? perfusion with concomitant increases in appearance and disappearance rates. Free fatty acid kinetics was not affected by TNF-?, whereas interleukin-6 (IL-6) release increased. Insulin and protein signaling in muscle biopsies was not affected by TNF-?. TNF-? directly increased net muscle protein loss, which may contribute to cachexia and general protein loss during severe illness. The finding of increased insulin sensitivity, which could relate to IL-6, is of major clinical interest and may concurrently act to provide adequate tissue fuel supply and contribute to the occurrence of systemic hypoglycemia. This distinct metabolic feature places TNF-? among the rare insulin mimetics of human origin. PMID:23835341

Bach, Ermina; Nielsen, Roni R; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Møller, Andreas B; Jessen, Niels; Buhl, Mads; K-Hafstrøm, Thomas; Holm, Lars; Pedersen, Steen B; Pilegaard, Henriette; Biensø, Rasmus S; Jørgensen, Jens O L; Møller, Niels

2013-12-01

212

Comparison among the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, and oral glucose tolerance test for assessment of insulin sensitivity in healthy Standardbreds.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE To compare, in horses, estimates of insulin sensitivity obtained from minimal model analysis (MMA) of a frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) with estimates from the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) and to evaluate the validity of surrogate estimates of insulin sensitivity derived from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). ANIMALS 18 mature Standardbreds (mean ± SD body weight, 428.9 ± 35.9 kg; mean ± SD body condition score, 4.4 ± 1.0 [on a scale of 1 to 9]). PROCEDURES All horses underwent at least 2 of the 3 procedures (EHC [n = 15], insulin-modified FSIGTT [18], and OGTT [18]) within a 10-day time frame to evaluate insulin sensitivity. RESULTS Insulin sensitivity variables derived from the EHC and FSIGTT were strongly correlated (r = 0.88). When standardized to the same units of measure, these measures were still strongly correlated (r = 0.86) but were not equivalent. Area under the curve, peak insulin concentration, insulin concentration at 120 minutes, and 2 calculated indices from glucose and insulin data from the OGTT were significantly correlated with the EHC- and FSIGTT-derived estimates of insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In healthy Standardbreds with moderate body condition score, insulin sensitivities from the EHC and FSIGTT were strongly correlated but not equivalent. Estimates derived from an OGTT also may be useful to estimate insulin sensitivity. PMID:25535665

Pratt-Phillips, Shannon E; Geor, Ray J; McCutcheon, L Jill

2015-01-01

213

Studies on insulin secretion and insulin resistance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes in young Indians  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Patients with Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. In the discrete genetic syndrome of NIDDY (non-insulin-dependent diabetes in the young), the situation is less clear and these aspects is the subject of this thesis. This study included Indian pasients with three generation transmission of NIDDM via one parent. The insulin and C-peptide responses to oral and intravenous glucose in patients with NIDDY were studied. The insulin and glucose responses to non-glucose secretogogues glucagon, tolbutamide and arginine, in NIDDY were also investigated. The following aspects with regard to insulin resistance in NIDDY were examined: glucose and free fatty acid response to intravenous insulin administration, insulin binding to circulating erythrocytes and monocytes, 125I-insulin binding to the solubilized erythrocyte membrane receptor and 125I-insulin binding to fibroblasts in culture

214

Technosphere insulin: an inhaled prandial insulin product.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the important role of insulin in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and in light of common barriers to insulin use, new strategies for insulin delivery by routes other than intravenous and subcutaneous injection have been investigated since the discovery of insulin in the 1920s. Most companies researching and developing pulmonary administration systems for the use of insulin announced the termination of product development following the failure of the first US FDA-approved inhaled insulin product, Exubera. One company in particular continued their pursuit of a useful inhaled insulin product. MannKind Corporation has developed a powder formulation of insulin that allows for a high percentage of the administered insulin to be absorbed via the lung. Their product, AFREZZA (Technosphere insulin), is currently under review by the FDA for use in patients with diabetes. Technosphere insulin appears to overcome some of the barriers that contributed to the market withdrawal of Exubera by the manufacturer. Studies with Technosphere insulin have shown it to be a unique insulin formulation in that it is very rapid acting, has a relatively short duration of action, and is efficacious in terms of improved glycemic control without contributing to increased weight gain or the incidence of hypoglycemia when compared with other prandial insulin products. Additionally, Technosphere insulin has demonstrated a favorable safety and tolerability profile in clinical studies to date. PMID:20462282

Neumiller, Joshua J; Campbell, R Keith

2010-06-01

215

Autonomic blockade improves insulin sensitivity in obese subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is an important risk factor for the development of insulin resistance. Initial compensatory mechanisms include an increase in insulin levels, which are thought to induce sympathetic activation in an attempt to restore energy balance. We have previously shown, however, that sympathetic activity has no beneficial effect on resting energy expenditure in obesity. On the contrary, we hypothesize that sympathetic activation contributes to insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, we determined insulin sensitivity using a standard hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp protocol in obese subjects randomly assigned in a crossover design 1 month apart to receive saline (intact day) or trimetaphan (4 mg/min IV, autonomic blocked day). Whole-body glucose uptake (MBW in mg/kg per minute) was used as index of maximal muscle glucose use. During autonomic blockade, we clamped blood pressure with a concomitant titrated intravenous infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine. Of the 21 obese subjects (43±2 years; 35±2 kg/m(2) body mass index) studied, 14 were insulin resistant; they were more obese, had higher plasma glucose and insulin, and had higher muscle sympathetic nerve activity (23.3±1.5 versus 17.2±2.1 burst/min; P=0.03) when compared with insulin-sensitive subjects. Glucose use improved during autonomic blockade in insulin-resistant subjects (MBW 3.8±0.3 blocked versus 3.1±0.3 mg/kg per minute intact; P=0.025), with no effect in the insulin-sensitive group. These findings support the concept that sympathetic activation contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and may result in a feedback loop whereby the compensatory increase in insulin levels contributes to greater sympathetic activation. PMID:25001269

Gamboa, Alfredo; Okamoto, Luis E; Arnold, Amy C; Figueroa, Rocio A; Diedrich, André; Raj, Satish R; Paranjape, Sachin Y; Farley, Ginnie; Abumrad, Naji; Biaggioni, Italo

2014-10-01

216

Anestesia venosa total em regime de infusão alvo-controlada: uma análise evolutiva / Total intravenous anesthesia as a target-controlled infusion: an evolutive analysis / Anestesia venosa total en régimen de infusión objeto controlada: un análisis evolutivo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia venosa total (AVT) sofreu diversos avanços desde o início da utilização da técnica. Desde a síntese dos primeiros anestésicos venosos, com a introdução dos barbitúricos (1921) e do tiopental (1934), a AVT evoluiu até o desenvolvimento da AVT com auxílio de bomb [...] as com infusão alvo-controlada (IAC). O primeiro modelo farmacocinético para uso em IAC foi descrito por Schwilden em 1981. Foi demonstrado, a partir daí, que era possível manter a concentração plasmática desejada de um fármaco utilizando-se bomba de infusão gerenciada por computador. CONTEÚDO: Este artigo visou a descrever as bases teóricas da IAC, a apresentar uma proposta de desenvolvimento de um vocabulário comum em IAC ainda não publicado no Brasil e a fazer uma análise crítica dos aspectos atuais da IAC no mundo e no Brasil. CONCLUSÕES: A chegada de novas bombas de infusão dotadas dos modelos farmacocinéticos do remifentanil, sufentanil e propofol inaugura outro capítulo da AVT e alinha o Brasil com a tendência mundial em IAC. Esses sistemas possibilitarão a IAC de hipnóticos e opióides concomitantemente. A conclusão mais importante, no entanto, refere-se à economia à medida que os fármacos utilizados nessas bombas não ficarão restritos apenas a uma empresa farmacêutica, a exemplo do que ocorreu com o propofol. Hoje já se dispõe de equipamentos para utilização de propofol e opióides, em IAC, que aceitam qualquer apresentação farmacêutica com a vantagem da possibilidade de alteração da concentração do fármaco na seringa, de acordo com a diluição desejada. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La anestesia venosa total (AVT) tuvo diversos avances desde el inicio de la utilización de la técnica. Desde la síntesis de los primeros anestésicos venosos, con la introducción de los barbitúricos (1921) y del tiopental (1934), la AVT evolucionó hasta el desarrollo de la [...] AVT con el auxilio de bombas con infusión objeto controlada (IOC). El primer modelo farmacocinético descrito para uso en IOC, fue descrito por Schwilden en 1981. Quedó demostrado a partir de entonces, que era posible mantener la concentración plasmática deseada de un fármaco utilizando bomba de infusión por computador. CONTENIDO: Este artigo quiso dejar sentadas las bases teóricas de la IOC, presentar una propuesta de desarrollo de un vocabulario común en IOC todavía no publicado en Brasil y hacer un análisis crítico de los aspectos actuales de la IOC en el mundo y en Brasil. CONCLUSIONES: La llegada de nuevas bombas de infusión dotadas de los modelos farmacocinéticos del remifentanil, sufentanil y propofol inaugura otro capítulo de la AVT y coloca a Brasil a tono con la tendencia mundial en IOC. Esos sistemas facilitarán la IOC de hipnóticos y opioides concomitantemente. La conclusión más importante, sin embargo, se refiere a la economía en la medida en que los fármacos utilizados en esas bombas no quedarán restrictos a solamente una empresa farmacéutica, como por ejemplo lo que ocurrió con el propofol. Hoy ya disponemos de equipos para la utilización de propofol y opioides en IOC, que aceptan cualquier presentación farmacéutica con la ventaja de poder alterar la concentración del fármaco en la jeringuilla de acuerdo con la dilución que se desee. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND DOBJECTIVES: Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) has seen several developments since it was first used. Since the synthesis of the first intravenous anesthetics, with the introduction of barbiturates (1921) and thiopental (1934), TIVA has evolved until the development of TIVA with tar [...] get-controlled infusion pumps (TCI). The first pharmacokinetic model for the use of TCI was described by Schwilden in 1981. From that moment on, it was demonstrated that it is possible to maintain the desired plasma concentration of a drug using an infusion pump managed by a computer. CONTENTS: The objective o

Fernando Squeff, Nora.

2008-04-01

217

Symptomatic cerebral oedema during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis: effect of adjuvant octreotide infusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A potentially lethal complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA in children is brain oedema, whether caused by DKA itself or by the therapeutic infusion of insulin and fluids. Case presentation A 10-year old previously healthy boy with DKA became unconscious and apnoeic due to cerebral oedema (confirmed by abnormal EEG and CT-scan during treatment with intravenous fluids (36 ml/h and insulin (0.1 units/kg/h. He was intubated and artificially ventilated, without impact on EEG and CT-scan. Subsequently, adjuvant infusion of octreotide was applied (3.5 ?g/kg/h, suppressing growth hormone (GH and IGF-1 production and necessitating the insulin dose to be reduced to 0.05 - 0.025 units/kg/h. The brain oedema improved and the boy made a full recovery. Conclusion Co-therapy with octreotide was associated with a favourable outcome in the present patient with DKA and cerebral oedema. Whether this could be ascribed to the effects of octreotide on the insulin requirement or on the GH/IGF-axis remains to be elucidated.

Seewi Ora

2010-08-01

218

[Methods of administration of insulin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Since insulin was discovered advances in insulin therapy have consisted in improvements of the metabolic balance and the patient's comfort. At present, nothing but intensive insulin therapy can ensure a sufficient metabolic control. This requires multiple injections which pen injectors should make more acceptable and infusions of insulin. In the years to come, treatment will use other routes of administrations, insulin distribution will be linked to glucose levels and native insulin will be replaced by synthetic insulin analogues the properties of which will vary with chemical substitutions. PMID:2141134

Rodier, M

1990-05-19

219

Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids partially prevent lipid-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle without limiting acylcarnitine accumulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acylcarnitine accumulation in skeletal muscle and plasma has been observed in numerous models of mitochondrial lipid overload and insulin resistance. Fish oil n3PUFA (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) are thought to protect against lipid-induced insulin resistance. The present study tested the hypothesis that the addition of n3PUFA to an intravenous lipid emulsion would limit muscle acylcarnitine accumulation and reduce the inhibitory effect of lipid overload on insulin action. On three occasions, six healthy young men underwent a 6-h euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp accompanied by intravenous infusion of saline (Control), 10% Intralipid® [n6PUFA (omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids)] or 10% Intralipid®+10% Omegaven® (2:1; n3PUFA). The decline in insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose infusion rate, muscle PDCa (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activation) and glycogen storage associated with n6PUFA compared with Control was prevented with n3PUFA. Muscle acetyl-CoA accumulation was greater following n6PUFA compared with Control and n3PUFA, suggesting that mitochondrial lipid overload was responsible for the lower insulin action observed. Despite these favourable metabolic effects of n3PUFA, accumulation of total muscle acylcarnitine was not attenuated when compared with n6PUFA. These findings demonstrate that n3PUFA exert beneficial effects on insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose storage and oxidation independently of total acylcarnitine accumulation, which does not always reflect mitochondrial lipid overload. PMID:24611892

Stephens, Francis B; Mendis, Buddhike; Shannon, Chris E; Cooper, Scott; Ortori, Catharine A; Barrett, David A; Mansell, Peter; Tsintzas, Kostas

2014-09-01

220

Acute hyperglycemia reduces myocardial blood flow reserve and the magnitude of reduction is associated with insulin resistance: a study in nondiabetic humans using contrast echocardiography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of acute hyperglycemia per se on coronary perfusion in humans is undefined. We evaluated the effects of short-term hyperglycemia on myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR) in healthy nondiabetic volunteers. Twenty-one nondiabetic volunteers (76 % females, mean ± SD, age 48 ± 5 years) had noninvasive MBFR assessment while exposed to pancreatic clamp with somatostatin and replacement glucagon and growth hormone infusions, with frequent interval plasma glucose (PG) monitoring. Insulin was infused at 0.75 mU/kg/min to mimic postprandial plasma insulin concentrations, and glucose was infused to maintain euglycemia (PG 93.9 ± 7.3 mg/dl) followed by hyperglycemia (PG 231.5 ± 18.1 mg/dl). Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) was performed during each glycemic steady state using continuous infusion of Definity at rest and during regadenoson (Lexiscan 5 ml (400 ?g) intravenous bolus) infusion to quantify myocardial blood flow (MBF) and determine MBFR. Insulin resistance (IR) was assessed by glucose infusion rate (GIR; mg/kg/min) at euglycemia. Median stress MBF, MBFR, and ? reserve were significantly reduced during acute hyperglycemia versus euglycemia (stress MBF 3.9 vs 5.4, P = 0.02; MBFR 2.0 vs 2.7, P noninvasively by MCE, is significantly decreased during acute hyperglycemia in nondiabetic volunteers, and the magnitude of this reduction is modulated by IR. PMID:23180239

Abdelmoneim, Sahar S; Hagen, Mary E; Mendrick, Edward; Pattan, Vishwanath; Wong, Benjamin; Norby, Barbara; Roberson, Tamara; Szydel, Troy; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda; Mulvagh, Sharon L

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

Glucose Infusion into Exercising Dogs after Confinement: Rectal and Active Muscle Temperatures  

Science.gov (United States)

Intravenous glucose infusion into ambulatory dogs results in attenuation of exercise-induced increase of both rectal and thigh muscle temperatures. That glucose (Glu) infusion attenuates excessive increase in body temperature from restricted activity during confinement deconditioning. Intravenous glucose infusion attenuates the rise in exercise core temperature in deconditioned dogs by a yet undefined mechanism.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Falecka-Wieczorek, I.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

1995-01-01

222

Comparison of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), stress-redistribution-reinjection thallium-201 SPECT and low dose dobutamine echocardiography for prediction of reversible dysfunction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The usefulness of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 (GI-Tl) infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in predicting reversible dysfunction has not been evaluated, so the present study recruited 20 patients with regional ischemic dysfunction for investigation. All patients underwent GI-Tl SPECT, post-stress Tl reinjection imaging and low dose dobutamine echocardiography. The diagnostic accuracy of these 3 techniques in predicting functional recovery was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In segments with functional recovery, regional Tl activities of GI-Tl SPECT were significantly higher than those of reinjection imaging (p<0.05), although there were no significant differences in segments without recovery. The area under the ROC curve for GI-Tl SPECT (0.75{+-}0.06) was greater than that for reinjection imaging (0.68{+-}0.07). The optimal cutoff values to identify viable myocardium were considered to be 55% of peak activity for GI-Tl SPECT and 50% for reinjection imaging. At this cutoff point, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of functional recovery were, respectively, 85% and 61% for GI-Tl SPECT, and 73% and 61% for reinjection imaging. Dobutamine echocardiography had the same sensitivity (85%), but lower specificity (48%) than GI-Tl SPECT. Continuous infusion of GI-Tl solution enhances regional Tl uptake compared with conventional post-stress reinjection imaging. This study suggests that GI-Tl SPECT is superior to reinjection imaging and dobutamine echocardiography in predicting functional recovery after ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. (author)

Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kondo, Makoto; Motohiro, Masayuki; Usami, Satoru [Shimada Municipal Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)

2001-12-01

223

[Intravenous leiomyomatosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Intravenous leiomyomatosis was diagnosed in 3 women of reproductive age (35-37 years of age). The tumor located in the uterus or its broad ligament. Histologically, the tumor is represented by intravenous smooth muscle cells. The discussion covers histogenesis of the disease which can be associated with disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis, uterine leiomyoma, diffuse pulmonary leiomyomatosis. Intravenous leiomyomatosis is believed to be of tumor origin and to arise in hormonal disturbances. PMID:3250385

Parkhomenko, Iu G; Kozlov, M V; Matiushkov, S S

1988-01-01

224

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide : a bifunctional glucose-dependent regulator of glucagon and insulin secretion in humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the glucose dependency of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) effects on insulin and glucagon release in 10 healthy male subjects ([means ± SEM] aged 23 ± 1 years, BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 5.5 ± 0.1%). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Saline or physiological doses of GIP were administered intravenously (randomized and double blinded) during 90 min of insulin-induced hypoglycemia, euglycemia, or hyperglycemia. RESULTS During hypoglycemia, GIP infusion caused greater glucagon responses during the first 30 min compared with saline (76 ± 17 vs. 28 ± 16 pmol/L per 30 min, P < 0.008), with similar peak levels of glucagon reached after 60 min. During euglycemia, GIP infusion elicited larger glucagon responses (62 ± 18 vs. -11 ± 8 pmol/L per 90 min, P < 0.005). During hyperglycemia, comparable suppression of plasma glucagon (-461 ± 81 vs. -371 ± 50 pmol/L per 90 min, P = 0.26) was observed with GIP and saline infusions. In addition, during hyperglycemia, GIP more than doubled the insulin secretion rate (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS In healthy subjects, GIP has no effect on glucagon responses during hyperglycemia while strongly potentiating insulin secretion. In contrast, GIP increases glucagon levels during fasting and hypoglycemic conditions, where it has little or no effect on insulin secretion. Thus, GIP seems to be a physiological bifunctional blood glucose stabilizer with diverging glucose-dependent effects on the two main pancreatic glucoregulatory hormones.

Christensen, Mikkel; Vedtofte, Louise

2011-01-01

225

Managing diabetes with inhaled insulin  

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The incidence of diabetes is increasing world-wide. Many individuals with diabetes require insulin to control their blood sugar and prevent both microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with this chronic disease. Current regimens involve delivery of subcutaneous insulin by injection or continuous insulin infusion. One area of research to advance diabetes care is aimed at developing alternate routes of insulin administration that will make daily management less invasive for ...

Mastrandrea, Lucy D.

2012-01-01

226

Comparison of the anti-emetic efficacy of different doses of ondansetron, given as either a continuous infusion or a single intravenous dose, in acute cisplatin-induced emesis. A multicentre, double-blind, randomised, parallel group study. Ondansetron Study Group.  

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A total of 535 chemotherapy naive, hospitalised patients (263 male/272 female) scheduled to receive cisplatin (50-120 mg m-2)-containing regimens participated in a randomised, double-blind, parallel group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three intravenous dose schedules of ondansetron in the prophylaxis of acute nausea and emesis. One hundred and eighty two patients received a loading dose of 8 mg of ondansetron followed by a 24 h infusion of 1 mg h-1 (group 1); 180 and 173 patien...

Seynaeve, C.; Schuller, J.; Buser, K.; Porteder, H.; Belle, S.; Sevelda, P.; Christmann, D.; Schmidt, M.; Kitchener, H.; Paes, D.

1992-01-01

227

Intravenous therapy  

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Intravenous administration of fluids, drugs, and nutrition is very common in hospitals. Although insertion of peripheral and central cannulae and subsequent intravenous therapy are usually well tolerated, complications that prolong hospitalisation, and in some cases cause death, can arise on occasions. Additionally, many cannulae are inserted unnecessarily. This article seeks to review this area and to outline good medical practice.

Waitt, C.; Waitt, P.; Pirmohamed, M.

2004-01-01

228

Effect of ethanolic extracts of Ananas comosus L. leaves on insulin sensitivity in rats and HepG2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanolic extracts of Ananas comosus L. leaves (AC) enriched with phenols have hypoglycemic activity in diabetic rats. Here, we investigated the effect of AC on insulin sensitivity in rats and HepG2. In high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotozin-treated diabetic Wistar rats subjected to challenge with exogenous human insulin, AC treatment at an oral dose of 0.40 g/kg could significantly improve sensitivity to exogenous insulin. After a sub-acute treatment, AC also could inhibit the development of insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotozin-treated diabetic rats following the test of loss of tolbutamide-induced blood glucose lowering action. For intravenous insulin/glucose infusion test, high-fat diet-fed and low-dose alloxan-treated Wistar rats were associated with insulin resistance, which was improved after AC or fenofibrate treatment. AC application inhibited the development of insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. The above animal models were well developed to simulate type 2 diabetes. Taken together, our results suggest that AC may improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes and could be developed into a new potential natural product for handling of insulin resistance in diabetic patients. PMID:16753349

Xie, Weidong; Wang, Wei; Su, Hui; Xing, Dongming; Pan, Yang; Du, Lijun

2006-08-01

229

Eradicating hepatitis C virus ameliorates insulin resistance without change in adipose depots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is associated with lipid-related changes and insulin resistance; the latter predicts response to antiviral therapy, liver disease progression and the risk of diabetes. We sought to determine whether insulin sensitivity improves following CHC viral eradication after antiviral therapy and whether this is accompanied by changes in fat depots or adipokine levels. We compared 8 normoglycaemic men with CHC (genotype 1 or 3) before and at least 6 months post viral eradication and 15 hepatitis C antibody negative controls using an intravenous glucose tolerance test and two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp with [6,6-(2) H2 ] glucose to assess peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy quantified abdominal fat compartments, liver and intramyocellular lipid. Peripheral insulin sensitivity improved (glucose infusion rate during high-dose insulin increased from 10.1 ± 1.6 to 12 ± 2.1 mg/kg/min/, P = 0.025), with no change in hepatic insulin response following successful viral eradication, without any accompanying change in muscle, liver or abdominal fat depots. There was corresponding improvement in incremental glycaemic response to intravenous glucose (pretreatment: 62.1 ± 8.3 vs post-treatment: 56.1 ± 8.5 mm, P = 0.008). Insulin sensitivity after viral clearance was comparable to matched controls without CHC. Post therapy, liver enzyme levels decreased but, interestingly, levels of glucagon, fatty acid-binding protein and lipocalin-2 remained elevated. Eradication of the hepatitis C virus improves insulin sensitivity without alteration in fat depots, adipokine or glucagon levels, consistent with a direct link of the virus with insulin resistance. PMID:24716635

Milner, K-L; Jenkins, A B; Trenell, M; Tid-Ang, J; Samocha-Bonet, D; Weltman, M; Xu, A; George, J; Chisholm, D J

2014-05-01

230

Metabolic changes following sibutramine-assisted weight loss in obese individuals: role of plasma free fatty acids in the insulin resistance of obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between insulin-mediated glucose disposal and daylong free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations before and after sibutramine-assisted weight loss was investigated in 24 healthy, normotensive, nondiabetic, obese women (body mass index [BMI] >30.0 kg/m(2)). The 24 volunteers were defined as being insulin-resistant (IR) or insulin-sensitive (IS) on the basis of their steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration in response to a 180-minute continuous intravenous infusion of octreotide, insulin, and glucose. The mean (+/- SEM) SSPG concentrations were significantly higher (P SSPG concentrations decreased significantly (P SSPG of the IS group (69 +/- 6 to 73 +/- 7 mg/dL. The improvement in insulin sensitivity in the IR group after weight loss was associated with a significant decline in daylong plasma glucose (P >.001) and insulin (P =.02) concentrations, without a weight-loss-associated decrease in daylong plasma FFA responses. In contrast, there was no significant change in plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA concentrations following weight loss in the IS group. These results indicate that daylong FFA concentrations vary substantially in obese individuals as a function of whether they are IR or IS. Furthermore the observation that the IR group was more insulin-sensitive after weight loss, associated with lower daylong insulin concentrations in the absence of a significant decrease in circulating FFA concentrations, suggests that resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal in obese individuals cannot be entirely due to high FFA levels. PMID:11436188

McLaughlin, T; Abbasi, F; Lamendola, C; Kim, H S; Reaven, G M

2001-07-01

231

A comparison of insulin suppression tests performed with somatostatin and octreotide with particular reference to tolerability.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the tolerability of insulin suppression test (IST) using octreotide instead of somatostatin, we compared the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) values and the safety during and after the test in 17 normal volunteers. The subject received IST twice (with somatostatin or with octreotide) in random order. During the test, all subjects were infused with regular insulin and glucose simultaneously for 180 min. In addition, either somatostatin or octreotide was infused intravenously over the same period of time. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide were measured. The subject response to the test was recorded during and one day after the test by a structured questionnaire. The SSPG and the steady-state plasma insulin (SSPI) values reached during IST were similar, irrespective of the use of somatostatin or octreotide. There was a positive correlation between the SSPG values obtained from both methods (r = 0.67, P = 0.003). However, the mean intra-individual coefficient of variation is 17.9% for SSPG. The SSPG levels, no matter from which method, correlated positively with the 2-h insulin after oral glucose challenge. Most adverse events (especially gastrointestinal discomfort) occurred after the test, and increased much more after using octreotide than somatostatin (P = 0.002 by chi 2 test). In conclusion, the SSPG values measured by IST using octreotide or somatostatin are similar in normal healthy subjects. Yet, the octreotide method has more adverse events after the test. PMID:11269891

Hwu, C M; Kwok, C F; Chiang, S C; Wang, P Y; Hsiao, L C; Lee, S H; Lin, S H; Ho, L T

2001-03-01

232

Diagnosis of coronary artery disease by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy with intravenous infusion of SUNY4001 (adenosine) in effort angina pectoris. The clinical trial report at multi-center. Phase II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty-four patients with effort angina pectoris were evaluated with SUNY4001 (adenosine) thallium-201 (201Tl) myocardial scintigraphy to detect coronary artery disease. These patients had single-vessel disease (?American Heart Association (AHA) 90% stenosis) in either right coronary artery (RCA) or left anterior descending (LAD). Adenosine was infused at the rate of 120 or 140 ?g/kg/min for six minutes. One hundred eleven MBq of 201Tl was injected after three minutes of the start of the infusion. The early and delayed images were obtained by SPECT imaging. The sensitivity was 94.7% at 120 ?g/kg/min and 84.2% at 140 ?g/kg/min. Adenosine 201Tl myocardial scintigraphy showed high accuracy for detecting significant coronary artery disease. Adverse reactions occurred in 77.3% of the patients. Regarding the rates of the adverse reactions, there was no significant difference between 120 and 140 ?g/kg/min. Major adverse reactions were Chest pain/discomfort (52.3%) and Flushing/Feeling of warmth (27.3%). No serious complication was observed at any infusion rate. Most of adverse reactions disappeared shortly. Only two patients required treatment for moderate chest pain, which, however, disappeared in several minutes. One of the treatments was merely the termination of adenosine infusion, and the other was sublingual spray of nitroglycerin. Adenosine infusion caused slight decrease in blood pressure and increase in heart rate. The hemodynamncrease in heart rate. The hemodynamic changes resolved within several minutes after the adenosine infusion. Decrease in systolic blood pressure of more than 20 mmHg from the base level occurred in 26.1% and 52.4% at 120 and 140 ?g/kg/min infusion rate respectively. Therefore, the adenosine infusion at 120 ?g/kg/min should be considered safe and useful for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease by pharmacologic stress imaging. (author)

233

Intravenous lidocaine has no impact on rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block. Randomised study  

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Intravenous lidocaine is increasingly used in surgical patients. As it has neuromuscular blocking effects, we tested the impact of an intravenous lidocaine infusion on the time course of a rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block.

Czarnetzki, C.; Lysakowski, Christopher; Elia, Nadia; Tramer, Martin

2012-01-01

234

Warmed intravenous infusion for controlling intraoperative hypothermia / Infusión venosa calentada en el control de la hipotermia durante el período intraoperatorio / Infusão venosa aquecida no controle da hipotermia no período intraoperatório  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: verificar a eficácia da intervenção de infusão venosa aquecida, na prevenção da hipotermia em pacientes no período intraoperatório. MÉTODO: estudo experimental, comparativo, de campo, prospectivo e quantitativo, realizado em um hospital público federal. A [...] amostra foi constituída por 60 adultos, que tiveram, como um dos critérios de inclusão, a temperatura axilar entre 36 e 37,1ºC e acesso cirúrgico abdominal, divididos em grupos controle e experimental, compostos utilizando-se a técnica de amostragem probabilística sistemática. RESULTADOS: nos 2 grupos, 22 pacientes (73,4%) saíram da sala de operação com hipotermia, ou seja, temperatura inferior a 36ºC (p=1,0000). A temperatura da sala de operação na entrada do paciente e a temperatura do paciente na entrada da sala de operação foram estatisticamente significativas para influenciar a ocorrência de hipotermia. CONCLUSÃO: o planejamento e implementação das intervenções de enfermagem, realizadas pelo enfermeiro, são essenciais para prevenção da hipotermia e manutenção da normotermia perioperatória. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: verificar la eficacia de la intervención de infusión venosa calentada en la prevención de la hipotermia en pacientes en el período intraoperatorio. MÉTODO: estudio experimental, comparativo, de campo, prospectivo y cuantitativo, en un hospital público fed [...] eral. La muestra abarcó a 60 adultos, que tuvieron como uno de los criterios de inclusión la temperatura axilar entre 36ºC y 37,1ºC y acceso quirúrgico abdominal, divididos en grupos control y experimental, compuestos utilizándose la técnica de muestreo probabilístico sistemático. RESULTADOS: en los 2 grupos, 22 pacientes (73,4%) salieron del quirófano con hipotermia, o sea, temperatura inferior a 36ºC (p=1,0000). La temperatura del quirófano cuando de la entrada del paciente y la temperatura del paciente cuando de la entrada en el quirófano fueron estadísticamente significativas para influir en la ocurrencia de hipotermia. CONCLUSÍON: la planificación e implementación de las intervenciones de enfermería practicadas por el enfermero son esenciales para prevenir la hipotermia y mantener la normotermia perioperatoria. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to verify the effectiveness of warmed intravenous infusion for hypothermia prevention in patients during the intraoperative period. METHOD: experimental, comparative, field, prospective and quantitative study undertaken at a federal public hospital. The [...] sample was composed of 60 adults, included based on the criteria of axillary temperature between 36ºC and 37.1ºC and surgical abdominal access, divided into control and experimental groups, using the systematic probability sampling technique. RESULTS: 22 patients (73.4%) from both groups left the operating room with hypothermia, that is, with temperatures below 36ºC (p=1.0000). The operating room temperature when patients arrived and patients' temperature when they arrived at the operating room were statistically significant to affect the occurrence of hypothermia. CONCLUSION: the planning and implementation of nursing interventions carried out by baccalaureate nurses are essential for preventing hypothermia and maintaining perioperative normothermia.

Ana Lúcia De, Mattia; Maria Helena, Barbosa; João Paulo Aché de, Freitas Filho; Adelaide De Mattia, Rocha; Nathália Haib Costa, Pereira.

2013-06-01

235

Warmed intravenous infusion for controlling intraoperative hypothermia Infusión venosa calentada en el control de la hipotermia durante el período intraoperatorio Infusão venosa aquecida no controle da hipotermia no período intraoperatório  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to verify the effectiveness of warmed intravenous infusion for hypothermia prevention in patients during the intraoperative period. METHOD: experimental, comparative, field, prospective and quantitative study undertaken at a federal public hospital. The sample was composed of 60 adults, included based on the criteria of axillary temperature between 36ºC and 37.1ºC and surgical abdominal access, divided into control and experimental groups, using the systematic probability sampling technique. RESULTS: 22 patients (73.4% from both groups left the operating room with hypothermia, that is, with temperatures below 36ºC (p=1.0000. The operating room temperature when patients arrived and patients' temperature when they arrived at the operating room were statistically significant to affect the occurrence of hypothermia. CONCLUSION: the planning and implementation of nursing interventions carried out by baccalaureate nurses are essential for preventing hypothermia and maintaining perioperative normothermia. OBJETIVO: verificar la eficacia de la intervención de infusión venosa calentada en la prevención de la hipotermia en pacientes en el período intraoperatorio. MÉTODO: estudio experimental, comparativo, de campo, prospectivo y cuantitativo, en un hospital público federal. La muestra abarcó a 60 adultos, que tuvieron como uno de los criterios de inclusión la temperatura axilar entre 36ºC y 37,1ºC y acceso quirúrgico abdominal, divididos en grupos control y experimental, compuestos utilizándose la técnica de muestreo probabilístico sistemático. RESULTADOS: en los 2 grupos, 22 pacientes (73,4% salieron del quirófano con hipotermia, o sea, temperatura inferior a 36ºC (p=1,0000. La temperatura del quirófano cuando de la entrada del paciente y la temperatura del paciente cuando de la entrada en el quirófano fueron estadísticamente significativas para influir en la ocurrencia de hipotermia. CONCLUSÍON: la planificación e implementación de las intervenciones de enfermería practicadas por el enfermero son esenciales para prevenir la hipotermia y mantener la normotermia perioperatoria. OBJETIVO: verificar a eficácia da intervenção de infusão venosa aquecida, na prevenção da hipotermia em pacientes no período intraoperatório. MÉTODO: estudo experimental, comparativo, de campo, prospectivo e quantitativo, realizado em um hospital público federal. A amostra foi constituída por 60 adultos, que tiveram, como um dos critérios de inclusão, a temperatura axilar entre 36 e 37,1ºC e acesso cirúrgico abdominal, divididos em grupos controle e experimental, compostos utilizando-se a técnica de amostragem probabilística sistemática. RESULTADOS: nos 2 grupos, 22 pacientes (73,4% saíram da sala de operação com hipotermia, ou seja, temperatura inferior a 36ºC (p=1,0000. A temperatura da sala de operação na entrada do paciente e a temperatura do paciente na entrada da sala de operação foram estatisticamente significativas para influenciar a ocorrência de hipotermia. CONCLUSÃO: o planejamento e implementação das intervenções de enfermagem, realizadas pelo enfermeiro, são essenciais para prevenção da hipotermia e manutenção da normotermia perioperatória.

Ana Lúcia De Mattia

2013-06-01

236

Comparison of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), stress-redistribution-reinjection thallium-201 SPECT and low dose dobutamine echocardiography for prediction of reversible dysfunction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The usefulness of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 (GI-Tl) infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in predicting reversible dysfunction has not been evaluated, so the present study recruited 20 patients with regional ischemic dysfunction for investigation. All patients underwent GI-Tl SPECT, post-stress Tl reinjection imaging and low dose dobutamine echocardiography. The diagnostic accuracy of these 3 techniques in predicting functional recovery was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In segments with functional recovery, regional Tl activities of GI-Tl SPECT were significantly higher than those of reinjection imaging (p<0.05), although there were no significant differences in segments without recovery. The area under the ROC curve for GI-Tl SPECT (0.75±0.06) was greater than that for reinjection imaging (0.68±0.07). The optimal cutoff values to identify viable myocardium were considered to be 55% of peak activity for GI-Tl SPECT and 50% for reinjection imaging. At this cutoff point, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of functional recovery were, respectively, 85% and 61% for GI-Tl SPECT, and 73% and 61% for reinjection imaging. Dobutamine echocardiography had the same sensitivity (85%), but lower specificity (48%) than GI-Tl SPECT. Continuous infusion of GI-Tl solution enhances regional Tl uptake compared with conventional post-stress reinjection imaging. This study suggests that GI-Tl SPECT is superior to reinjts that GI-Tl SPECT is superior to reinjection imaging and dobutamine echocardiography in predicting functional recovery after ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. (author)

237

Comparison of the anti-emetic efficacy of different doses of ondansetron, given as either a continuous infusion or a single intravenous dose, in acute cisplatin-induced emesis. A multicentre, double-blind, randomised, parallel group study. Ondansetron Study Group.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 535 chemotherapy naive, hospitalised patients (263 male/272 female) scheduled to receive cisplatin (50-120 mg m-2)-containing regimens participated in a randomised, double-blind, parallel group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three intravenous dose schedules of ondansetron in the prophylaxis of acute nausea and emesis. One hundred and eighty two patients received a loading dose of 8 mg of ondansetron followed by a 24 h infusion of 1 mg h-1 (group 1); 180 and 173 patients received single doses of 32 mg (group II) and 8 mg (group III) respectively, followed by a 24 h placebo infusion. Complete and major control (less than or equal to 2 emetic episodes) of acute emesis was achieved in 74% of patients in group I, 78% in group II and 74% in group III. Seventy seven per cent of the patients in group I, and 75% of patients in groups II and III respectively experienced no or mild nausea during the 24 h observation period. A retrospective stratification of the efficacy data on the basis of patient gender showed the response rate in females to be significant lower (43% vs 67%; less than 0.001). Ondanestron was well tolerated; mild headache was the most commonly reported adverse event (11% of patients) with a similar incidence in the three groups of patients. In conclusion, a single intravenous dose of 8 mg of ondansetron given prior to chemotherapy is as effective as a 32 mg daily dose given as either a single dose of a continuous infusion in the prophylaxis of acute cisplatin-induced emesis. PMID:1386245

Seynaeve, C; Schuller, J; Buser, K; Porteder, H; Van Belle, S; Sevelda, P; Christmann, D; Schmidt, M; Kitchener, H; Paes, D

1992-07-01

238

The diagnostic value for ischemic heart disease of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy by intravenous infusion of SUNY4001 (adenosine). The report of clinical trial at multi-center. Phase III  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With two hundreds and seven patients unable to exercise adequately, the diagnostic accuracy and adverse reaction of 201Tl myocardial scintigraphy with the pharmacologic stress by SUNY4001 (adenosine) infusion were studied. Adenosine was infused for six minutes at the rate of 120 ?g/kg/min, and then 201Tl was injected after three minutes from the start of infusion. The early and delayed images were obtained by SPECT imaging. According to angiography, ?American Heart Association (AHA) 90% stenosis was defined as significant. The sensitivity of detecting coronary artery disease was 87.1% and the specificity was 46.0%. Adverse reactions occurred in 66.7% of the patients, most of which disappeared shortly with no need for treatment. Major adverse reactions were chest pain/discomfort (30.4%), flushing/feeling of warmth (22.4%) and blood pressure decrease (17.4%). Adenosine infusion caused slight decrease in blood pressure and increase in heart rate. These hemodynamic changes were resolved within several minutes from the termination of adenosine infusion. We concluded that adenosine-201Tl imaging is safe and useful to detect coronary artery disease in patients unable to exercise adequately. (author)

239

Insulin pump therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin pump therapy makes use of an external device to deliver insulin continuously from a refillable storage reservoir by means of a cannula placed under the skin. A pump is intended to simulate pancreatic function in that it can be programmed to deliver an adjustable basal rate of insulin throughout the day, with higher infusion rates triggered by the push of a button at meal times or to correct a high blood glucose fluctuation. Insulin pumps have been mainly used in patients with type 1 diabetes. There are a number of recent technological innovations that support a more sophisticated approach to insulin dosing using insulin pumps.3 In this article we provide an overview of the use of such therapy. PMID:22966100

2012-09-01

240

Glucose and insulin effects on the novo amino acid synthesis in young men: studies with stable isotope labeled alanine, glycine, leucine, and lysine.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have explored interrelationships between te dynamic aspects of whole body glucose and alanine and glycine metabolism in adult humans. Using a primed, continuous intravenous infusion of [1-13C] leucine or lysine given simultaneously with [2H3] or [15N]alanine or [15N]glycine, respectively, whole body alanine and glycine fluxes and their rates of de novo synthesis were determined in three experiments with healthy young men. Subjects were studied in the post-absorptive state and during a 150 min period of an intravenous infusion with unlabeled glucose, at a rate of 4 mg.kg-1 min-1. In one experiment, insulin was given together with the glucose infusion to maintain normoglycemia. In the other two studies, subjects received glucose alone. For the post-absorptive state, alanine flux (mean +/- SEM) was 381 +/- 26 and 317 +/- 18 mumole.kg-1 hr-1 in two separate experiments and glycine flux was 240 +/- 22 mumole.kg-1 hr-1. De novo synthesis of alanine and glycine accounted for 75%-81% and 81% of flux, respectively. Infusion with glucose alone raised plasma glucose to a mean level of 152 mg/dl and increased alanine flux, due to a rise in alanine synthesis of 98 mumole.kg-1 hr-1 (p less than 0.01). Glycine flux and synthesis rate were unaffected by the glucose infusion. When insulin was given with glucose to maintain normoglycemia, the rate of alanine synthesis was unchanged. Because glucose uptake rate, measured with [6,6-2H2] glucose was the same whether glucose was infused along or with exogenous insulin, these results support the view that the circulating plasma glucose level itself may affect alanine synthesis and that the hyperglycemic state is an important factor in regulating interorgan nitrogen transfer, via alanine, in various pathophysiologic states. PMID:6815417

Robert, J J; Bier, D M; Zhao, X H; Matthews, D E; Young, V R

1982-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Quality of life in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple daily injections  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: The aims of the study were to compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a National Danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with either continuous subcutaneous insulin injection (CSII) or multiple daily insulin injections (MDI), and to investigate whether HRQoL assessments were influenced by treatment duration. METHODS: Participants were recruited through the Danish Registry for Diabetes in Childhood and Adolescence. A total of 700 children and adolescents (360 girls), 8-17 years, were included. Of these, 295 were treated with CSII (160 for more than one year) and 405 with MDI (238 for more than one year). Participants and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Diabetes and Generic Module. HbA1c was analyzed centrally. RESULTS: Parents reported children and adolescents on CSII for more than one year to have less diabetes-related symptoms and worry, less problems in communicating diabetes, and better generic functioning compared with those on MDI. Children and adolescents on CSII for more than one year reported less diabetes-related symptoms, but more treatment problems, and better generic functioning in all subscales except social functioning compared with those on MDI for more than one year. Comparing those on CSII and MDI for less than one year, no differences in HRQoL ratings were found, apart from better rating of treatment barriers in the MDI group. CONCLUSIONS: This Danish national study on HRQoL in children and adolescents on CSII or MDI showed better HRQoL in children and adolescents on long time CSII, particularly concerning generic HRQoL.

Birkebæk, Niels; Kristensen, Lene Juel

2014-01-01

242

Clinical pharmacology of infusion fluids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fluids are used for intravenous infusion during practically all surgeries, but several different compositions are available on the market. Crystalloid fluids comprise lactated or acetated Ringer solutions, normal saline, Plasma-Lyte, hypertonic saline, and glucose. They lack allergic properties but are prone to cause peripheral tissue oedema. Their turn­ over is governed by physiological factors such as dehydration and drug effects. Colloid fluids include hydroxyethyl starch, albumin, dextra...

Hahn, Robert G.

2012-01-01

243

Backbone cyclic insulin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Backbone cyclic insulin was designed and prepared by reverse proteolysis in partial organic solvent of a single-chain precursor expressed in yeast. The precursor contains two loops to bridge the two chains of native insulin. The cyclisation method uses Achromobacter lyticus protease and should be generally applicable to proteins with C-terminal lysine and proximal N-terminal. The presence of the ring-closing bond and the native insulin disulfide patterns were documented by LC-MS peptide maps. The cyclic insulin was shown to be inert towards degradation by CPY, but was somewhat labile towards chymotrypsin. Intravenous administration of the cyclic insulin to Wistar rats showed the compounds to be equipotent to HI despite much lower insulin receptor affinity. PMID:20641002

Andersen, Asser S; Palmqvist, Eva; Bang, Susanne; Shaw, Allan C; Hubalek, Frantisek; Ribel, Ulla; Hoeg-Jensen, Thomas

2010-09-01

244

Immunoglobulin replacement treatment by rapid subcutaneous infusion  

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Long term intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion is an effective treatment for children with immunodeficiencies, but can be complicated by poor venous access, systemic adverse reactions, and the need for frequent hospital admission. Rapid subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) infusion has been found to be effective in adults with primary immunodeficiency. Twenty six children were treated with SCIG for a median period of two years (range six months to 3.5 years). Fifteen ...

Gaspar, J.; Gerritsen, B.; Jones, A.

1998-01-01

245

Development of insulin delivery systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Delivery system of insulin is vital for its acceptance and adherence to therapy for achieving the glycemic targets. Enormous developments have occurred in the delivery system of insulin during the last twenty years and each improvement was aimed at two common goals: patients convenience and better glycemic control. Till to date, the various insulin delivery systems are: syringes/vials, injection aids, jet injectors, transmucosal delivery, transdermal delivery, external insulin infusion pump, implantable insulin pumps, insulin pens and insulin inhalers. Syringe/vial is the oldest and conventional method, still widely used and relatively cheaper. Modern plastic syringes are disposable, light weight with microfine needle for patients convenience and comfort. Oral route could be the most acceptable and viable, if the barriers can be overcome and under extensive trial. Insulin pen device is an important milestone in the delivery system of insulin as it is convenient, discrete, painless, attractive, portable with flexible life style and improved quality of life. More than 80% of European diabetic patients are using insulin pen. Future digital pen will have better memory option, blood glucose monitoring system, insulin dose calculator etc. Insulin infusion pump is a good option for the children, busy patients with flexible lifestyle and those who want to avoid multiple daily injections. Pulmonary route of insulin delivery is a promising, effective, non-invasive and acceptable alternative method. Exubera, the world first insulin inhaler was approved by FDA in 28 January 2006. But due to certain limitations, it has been withdrawn from the market in October 2007. The main concern of inhaled insulin are: long term pulmonary safety issues, cost effectiveness and user friendly device. In future, more acceptable and cost effective insulin inhaler will be introduced. Newer avenues are under extensive trial for better future insulin delivery systems. PMID:18285745

Siddiqui, N I; Siddiqui, Ni; Rahman, S; Nessa, A

2008-01-01

246

In vivo characterization of insulin uptake by dog renal cortical epithelium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vivo 125I-labeled insulin uptake by dog renal tubular epithelium was studied using the single-pass multiple indicator dilution (MID) method and analyzed by a computer-assisted model of transcapillary exchange and substrate-cell interaction. Anesthetized dogs received an intrarenal arterial bolus of multiple tracers: [3H]dextran greater than 70 kDa (plasma reference), [14C]inulin (extracellular reference), and 125I-insulin. Rapid serial sampling of the renal venous and urine outflows was performed. The renal venous outflow curves of 125I-insulin fell below [14C]inulin implying postglomerular extraction and antiluminal membrane (ALM) uptake. The fractional urine recovery of 125I-insulin was less than 0.03, indicating luminal tubular uptake of filtered hormone. After intravenous infusion of unlabeled insulin, repeat MID runs with tracer revealed saturable ALM uptake as evidenced by the 125I-insulin renal venous outflow curves approaching [14C]inulin. Luminal tubular uptake was unchanged and therefore unsaturable. The 125I-insulin renal venous data were studied using three mathematical models, incorporating postglomerular reversible binding, irreversible binding or transport. The best fit was obtained using the transport model. The modeling analysis is consistent with either uptake into a virtual epithelial membrane space (i.e., insulin never enters the cell but binds to or is distributed along the ALM) or insulin actually enters the intracellular compartment. In vivo rs the intracellular compartment. In vivo uptake of 125I-insulin ALM is characterized by a Km of 15.44 nM

247

Reações infusionais imediatas a agentes imunobiológicos endovenosos no tratamento de doenças autoimunes: experiência de 2.126 procedimentos em um centro de infusão não oncológico / Immediate infusional reactions to intravenous immunobiological agents for the treatment of autoimmune diseases: experience of 2126 procedures in a non-oncologic infusion centre  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: Com o crescimento do uso de drogas imunobiológicas (IBD) ampliamos o conhecimento sobre sua eficácia e segurança. Objetivo: Analisar as reações infusionais imediatas (RII) às IBD endovenosas - infliximabe (IFX), rituximabe (RTX), abatacepte (ABT) e tocilizumabe (TCZ) - no tratamento [...] de doenças autoimunes. Método: Avaliamos 2.126 infusões feitas no CID (Centro de Infusão) em 268 pacientes. A droga usada, a indicação clínica, o tempo de infusão e o uso de pré-medicação foram determinados pelo médico prescritor. Foram consideradas RII todas as intercorrências apresentadas durante a infusão e/ou período observacional de 30 minutos. A conduta adotada nas RII seguiu os protocolos do CID. Resultados: Em relação ao tipo de IBD, as infusões foram distribuídas em: IFX (1.584; 74,5%), TCZ (226; 10,63%), RTX (185; 8,7%) e ABT (131; 6,16%). As RII foram descritas em 87 procedimentos (4,09%): 77 no grupo IFX e 10 no grupo RTX. Não foram descritas RII nos grupos de ABT e TCZ. A maioria foi considerada leve (n = 5; 41,17%) ou moderada (n = 50; 58,81%) e não houve reações graves. Das infusões interrompidas, 79 (92,9%) foram reiniciadas e concluídas com êxito. Apenas seis (0,28%) não foram concluídas por causa das RII. Conclusão: Apesar da diferença entre o número de procedimentos por droga, trata-se de uma análise de "vida real", na qual a incidência de RII foi semelhante à descrita na literatura. A baixa incidência de RII corrobora os dados de segurança tanto de forma quantitativa como qualitativa e ressalta a importância do acompanhamento médico especializado durante a infusão. Abstract in english Introduction: With the increasing use of immunobiological drugs (IBD), the knowledge about their effectiveness and safety has increased. Objective: To analyze the immediate infusional reactions (IIR) to intravenous IBD: infliximab (IFX), rituximab (RTX), abatacept (ABT) and tocilizumab (TCZ) on [...] the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Method: 2126 infusions performed in the Infusion Centre - CID in 268 patients were analyzed. The used drug, its clinical indication, infusion time, and use of premedication were determined by the prescribing physician. All intercurrences presented during infusion and/or during a thirty minutes observation period were considered as IIR. The approach adopted in IIR followed the protocols of the Infusion Centre - CID. Results: Regarding the type of IBD, the infused drugs given were: IFX (1584, 74.5%), TCZ (226, 10.63%), RTX (185, 8.7%) and ABT (131, 6,16%). IIR were described in 87 procedures (9.4%): 77 - IFX group and 10 - RTX group. IIR were not described in ABT and TCZ groups. Most were considered as mild (n = 5; 41.17%) or moderate (n = 50, 58.81%) reactions; there were no serious reactions. Regarding to discontinue infusions, 79 (92.9%) were resumed and completed successfully. Only six (0.28% of infusions) were not completed because of IIR. Conclusion: Despite the differences between the number of procedures per drug, ours is a "real life" analysis, where the incidence of IIR was similar to that described in the literature. The low incidence of IIR corroborates the safety data, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and underscores the importance of specialized medical support during infusion.

Ingrid Bandeira, Moss; Monique Bandeira, Moss; Debora Silva dos, Reis; Reno Martins, Coelho.

2014-04-01

248

Krypton 81m infusion studies. Chapter 18  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technique is described to give a continuous, constant-rate, intravascular infusion of 81Krsup(m). Modifications of earlier generators included production of sodium-free 81Rb, the use of a solution of commercial sterile isotonic non-ionic 5% dextrose-in-water as an eluant, the incorporation of a constant-rate infusion pump, and the miniaturization of the generator column and catheter system. Results are presented of studies of 81Krsup(m) distribution in dogs, using both intravenous and intra-arterial infusion. (author)

249

Effects of insulin on human adipose tissue metabolism in vivo.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. The metabolic effects of insulin on human adipose tissue were studied by combining the euglycaemic clamp technique with measurement of arteriovenous differences across the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the anterior abdominal wall. 2. Eight normal subjects were studied after an overnight fast, and for 120 min during infusion of insulin (mean arterialized plasma insulin 50-55 m-units/l). 3. During the insulin infusion, the arterialized and abdominal venous levels of both non-esterified fatt...

Coppack, Sw; Frayn, Kn; Humphreys, Sm; Dhar, H.; Hockaday, Td

1989-01-01

250

Effect of age on insulin stimulation of sympathetic nervous system activity in man.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that oral glucose increases plasma norepinephrine (NE) in man, an effect which is more pronounced in the elderly. Recently we have shown that hyperinsulinemia results in a dose-dependent increase in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in young men independent of changes in blood glucose. We now report studies of the influence of hyperinsulinemia on SNS activity in healthy elderly. Euglycemic glucose clamp studies were performed at 2 insulin infusion rates, 2 mU/kg/min (young 22-37 yr, n = 7; old 63-77 yr, n = 9) and 5 mU/kg/min (young 22-36 yr, n = 7; old 64-75 yr, n = 5) nonobese men. Control studies were performed in 5 young and 3 old subjects. In control studies there were no significant changes in NE or cardiovascular measures in either group. Insulin infusion at 2 mU/kg/min in young subjects were associated with significant increases in NE, (p less than 0.001) pulse (p less than 0.05), pulse pressure (p less than 0.005) and double product (pulse x systolic pressure) (p less than 0.01). In contrast 2 mU/kg/min insulin infusion in the elderly did not result in an increase in NE, and cardiovascular changes were limited to an increase in pulse pressure (p less than 0.01). The changes in NE at this insulin infusion dose were greater in the young than in the old (p less than 0.005). Insulin infusion at 5 mU/kg/min in young subjects were associated with significant increases in NE, (p less than 0.001) mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) (p less than 0.001), pulse pressure (p less than 0.001) and double product (p less than 0.001). In contrast 5 mU/kg/min insulin infusion in the elderly did not result in an increase in NE, and cardiovascular changes were limited to a decrease in MABP (p less than 0.001) only. The change in NE and MABP at this insulin infusion dose were greater in the young than in the old (p less than 0.001) for each). In the young group the increases in NE were greater during the 2 mU/kg/min studies than in the control studies (p less than 0.001) and the increases in NE during the 5 mU/kg/min studies were greater than during the 2 mU/kg/min studies (p less than 0.001). In the old group there were no differences in NE or cardiovascular measures between the control, 2 mU or 5 mU insulin infusions. These studies indicate diminished insulin-induced SNS activation in the elderly. The disparity in the elderly between the enhanced SNS response to oral glucose and the blunted response to intravenous insulin and glucose suggests that splanchnic factors may mediate the SNS activation after oral glucose. PMID:6755163

Minaker, K L; Rowe, J W; Young, J B; Sparrow, D; Pallotta, J A; Landsberg, L

1982-12-01

251

Avaliação da efetividade e segurança do protocolo de infusão de insulina de Yale para o controle glicêmico intensivo Assessment of effectiveness and safety of Yale insulin infusion protocol in a brazilian medical and surgical Intensive Care Unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O controle glicêmico intensivo ocupa lugar de destaque no manuseio dos pacientes críticos. O objetivo desde estudo foi avaliar a efetividade e a segurança do protocolo de insulinoterapia por via venosa de Yale nos pacientes críticos internados em unidade de terapia intensiva geral em hospital comunitário. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo e comparativo entre 2 coortes de pacientes críticos, antes e após a implantação do controle glicêmico intensivo. Os desfechos de interesse do estudo foram glicemia média durante o tratamento, tempo para atingir a faixa alvo de 80 a 140 mg/dL, percentual de glicemia dentro desta faixa e incidência de hipoglicemia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 112 pacientes, divididos em dois grupos. Sessenta pacientes constituíram o grupo controle (GC e 52 o grupo protocolo (GP. A glicemia média no GP foi de 131,2 ± 14,7 mg/dL versus 181,7 ± 36,1 mg/dL no GC. Os pacientes no GP alcançaram a faixa alvo mais rápido [mediana 7h (4 - 10h versus mediana 96h (46 - 278h] no GC. O percentual de glicemia dentro da faixa-alvo foi de 65% no GP e de 32% no GC. Não houve diferença estatística significativa na incidência de hipoglicemia grave; 4 pacientes no GP versus 2 pacientes no GC. CONCLUSÕES: O protocolo de insulinoterapia por via venosa contínua de Yale, mostrou-se efetivo e seguro para o manuseio do controle glicêmico em unidade de terapia intensiva que atende pacientes clínicos e cirúrgicos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Actually tight glycemic control is a major concern in critical care. The objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and safety of Yale insulin infusion protocol in a Brazilian medical and surgical intensive care unit. METHODS: Retrospective, before-after cohort study. Selected end-points were mean blood glucose levels, time-to-reach target range of 80 - 140 mg/dL, and percent of blood glucose in target range and hypoglycemia incidence. RESULTS: Were studied 112 patients: 60 in control group (CG and 52 in protocol group (PG. Bedside blood glucose was measured 5392 times for a mean value of 131.2 ± 14.7 mg/dL in the PG versus 2485 times for a mean value of 181.7 ± 36.1 mg/dL in the CG. Blood glucose values were in the target range 65% and 32% of the times, respectively for PG and CG groups (p < 0.001. The median time to reach glucose target range was 7 h (range 4 -10 h for PG and 96 hr (range 46 - 278 h for CG (p < 0.001. Incidence of severe hypoglycemia did not reach difference statistically significant: 4 patients in PG versus 2 patients in CG. CONCLUSIONS: Yale insulin infusion protocol was effective and safe to improve blood glucose control in a Brazilian medical and surgical intensive care unit.

José Roberto Carvalho Diener

2006-09-01

252

Regional antibiotic infusion of the heart.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regional arterial infusion of the heart and lung with an antibiotic did not increase the drug in the aortic serum to concentrations that would be clinically significant when compared with concentrations which can be attained by the intravenous method in a near normal functioning heart. PMID:1257869

Waterman, N G; Temes, G D; Scharfenberger, L

1976-04-01

253

Rapid Self-infusion of Tap Water  

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Full Text Available Intravenous self-infusion of tap water has never been reported in the literature.  We present a 24-year-old healthy man who self-administered 2.5 L of tap water over 2 hours and developed acute illness including fever, change of mental status, acute hemolysis, low-grade disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute kidney injury.  

Sanjay Chaudhary

2013-03-01

254

Managing diabetes with inhaled insulin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The incidence of diabetes is increasing world-wide. Many individuals with diabetes require insulin to control their blood sugar and prevent both microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with this chronic disease. Current regimens involve delivery of subcutaneous insulin by injection or continuous insulin infusion. One area of research to advance diabetes care is aimed at developing alternate routes of insulin administration that will make daily management less invasive for patients. This review will focus on inhaled insulin, a novel formulation which takes advantage of drug delivery through the pulmonary system. The pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of inhaled insulin will be discussed. In addition, the status of inhaled insulin as a potential therapy for individuals with diabetes will be reviewed.

Lucy D Mastrandrea

2012-01-01

255

Effect of intravenous infusion of a soybean oil emulsion on plasma concentration of 15-Keto-13, 14-dihydro-prostaglandin F2? and ovarian function in cycling Holstein heifers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Feeding of rumen-inert linoleic acid (dietary PGF2? precursor) may alter ovarian activity by augmenting PGF synthesis and stimulating energy balance. Six cycling Holstein heifers (mean body weight of 310 kg) received (IV) either 1 L of a 20% soybean oil emulsion (50% linoleic, 26% oleic, 10% palmitic, 9% linolenic and 3.5% stearic; 2 Mcal; n=3) or 1 L of physiological saline (n=3) over 4 h on days 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 of the oestrous cycle. Each heifer was challenged with 3 mg oestradiol (IV; day 15) and 100 units oxytocin (IV; day 16). Plasma progesterone (p4; days 7-oestrus), oestradiol (days 9-13) and PGFM (days 9-13, day 15 (-2 to 10 h after oestradiol) and day 16 (-1 to 2 h after oxytocin)) were determined. Pre-infusion concentrations of PGFM (pg/mL) were similar for treated (32.1±3.9) and saline (31.5±2.6) animals. After each infusion of Intralipid, plasma PGFM increased (P4 profiles (days 7-oestrus) were dissimilar (P3 mm as determined by ultrasound) per ovary (6.0 vs. 2.0; P<0.01), and accumulative follicular size per ovary (31.8 vs. 10.8 mm; P<0.01). Fatty acids (i.e. linoleic acid) can alter PGF secretion, luteal function and follicular dynamics during the oestrous cycle. (author). 28 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

256

Rat insulin turnover in vivo  

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Zucker lean and obese rats were injected under pentobarbital anesthesia with 125I-labeled insulin; at timed intervals from 30 to 120 sec, blood samples were extracted and used for the estimation of insulin levels by RIA. A group of rats from each series was maintained under a constant infusion of noradrenaline. For each insulin determination, a duplicate blood sample containing the same amount of insulin as that used in the RIA, but without the radioactive label, was used as a blank for insul...

Can?as Perea, Xavier; Ferna?ndez Lo?pez, Jose? Antonio; Arde?vol Grau, Anna; Ada?n Lie?bana, Cristina; Esteve Ra?fols, Montserrat; Rafecas Jorba, Immaculada; Remesar Betlloch, Xavier; Alemany, Maria?

1995-01-01

257

Intensive Insulin Therapy in Surgical Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

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Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to assess the efficiency of intensive insulin therapy in surgical patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2 in intensive care unit in relation to the effect on postoperative clinical progression and 90-day survival of patients. Materials and Methods. The study included 89 patients hospitalized in intensive care unit for various surgical pathologies, with DM 2 in past medical history. On admission the patients were divided into 4 groups in a random manner. First 72 h target glycemia range for groups 1 and 2 was glucose level of 6.5–8.5 mmol/L, and for groups 3 and 4 — 8.6–11.0 mmol/L. Continuous insulin infusion was chosen for the treatment of groups 1 and 3 for the same period, the patients of groups 2 and 4 were given divided insulin injections. The severity of all patients was studied first 24 h and 72 h after inpatient treatment according to APACHE II, SAPS II.Conclusion. In ICU patients suffering from type 2 DM with various surgical pathology, target glycemic levels of 6.5–8.5 and 8.6–11.0 within the frame of one insulin therapy method are not associated with the differences in relation to the severity and outcome of the main pathology. Glycemic control in target range of 6.5–11.0 mmol/L by intravenous insulin infusion has the advantage over divided insulin subcutaneous injections regarding the severity and outcome of the main pathology.

?.S. Komissarova

2013-03-01

258

Acute metabolic effects and half-lives of intravenously administered insulinlike growth factors I and II in normal and hypophysectomized rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulinlike growth factors (IGF) act qualitatively like insulin on insulin target tissues in vitro. In the circulation in vivo they are bound to specific carrier proteins. In this form or when continuously infused into hypophysectomized (hypox) rats they do not exert acute insulinlike effects on glucose homeostasis. This study definitively shows that intravenous bolus injections of pure IGF I or II act acutely on glucose homeostasis: they lower the blood sugar, enhance the disappearance of U-[14C]glucose from serum and increase its incorporation into diaphragm glycogen in normal and hypox rats in the presence of antiinsulin serum. The same effects were obtained with recombinant human IGF I injected intravenously either with or without antiinsulin serum into normal rats. Free fatty acid levels decreased transiently only in normal animals. Lipid synthesis from glucose in adipose tissue was not stimulated in hypox and barely stimulated in normal rats. The half-life of injected IGF I or II in normal rats (approximately 4 h) is strikingly different from that in hypophysectomized rats (20-30 min) and appears to depend on the growth hormone-induced 150,000-200,000-mol wt IGF carrier protein that is lacking in hypophysectomized rats. 15 min after the bolus serum IGF I and II concentrations were similar to steady state levels during long-term infusion in hypox rats. Free IGF was barely detectable, however, in the infused animals, whereas 40-100% was found free 15 min after the bolus. These observations for the first time confirm the hypothesis that only free IGF, but not the IGF carrier protein complex, is bioavailable to insulin target tissues. PMID:3711334

Zapf, J; Hauri, C; Waldvogel, M; Froesch, E R

1986-01-01

259

Effects of insulin on hexose transport across blood-brain barrier in normoglycemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of insulin on 3-O-[14C] methylglucose transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were studied in conscious rats under steady-state normoglycemic conditions. The [14C]methylglucose was infused intravenously at a constant rate, and animals were killed at various times between 5 and 30 min after the initiation of the infusion. The time course of the arterial plasma concentration of [14C]methylglucose was determined in timed arterial blood samples taken during the infusion. Local cerebral tissue concentrations of [14C]methylglucose at the time of killing were determined by quantitative autoradiography of brain sections. The rate constants for inward and outward transport of [14C]methylglucose across the BBB, K1, and k2, respectively, were estimated by a least-squares, best-fit of a kinetic equation to the measured time courses of plasma and tissue concentrations. The equilibrium distribution ration, K1/k2, for [14C]methylglucose in brain increased by ? 10-11% in the hyperinsulinemic animals. Because 3-O-[14C]methylglucose shares the same carrier that transports glucose and other hexoses across the BBB, these results suggest that hyperinsulinemia decreases the rate constants for transport but increases the distribution space for hexoses in brain. These effects are, however, quite small and are probably minor or negligible when compared bably minor or negligible when compared with the major effects of insulin in other tissues

260

Insulin therapies: Current and future trends at dawn  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin is a key player in the control of hyperglycemia for type 1 diabetes patients and selective individuals in patients of type 2 diabetes. Insulin delivery systems that are currently available for the administration of insulin include insulin syringes, insulin infusion pumps, jet injectors and pens. The traditional and most predictable method for the administration of insulin is by subcutaneous injections. The major drawback of current forms of insulin therapy is their invasive nature. To decrease the suffering, the use of supersonic injectors, infusion pumps, sharp needles and pens has been adopted. Such invasive and intensive techniques have spurred the search for alternative, more acceptable methods for administering insulin. Several non-invasive approaches for insulin delivery are being pursued. The newer methods explored include the artificial pancreas with closed-loop system, transdermal insulin, and buccal, oral and pulmonary routes. This review focuses on the new concepts that are being explored for use in future. PMID:23493823

Yaturu, Subhashini

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

[Insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus: past and present].  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of insulin can be considered the milestone of diabetes mellitus history and a great achievement for its treatment. The first insulin available was the regular. Afterwards, Hagedorn added the protamine to the insulin, thus, creating the NPH insulin. In the 1950s an insulin free of protamine was synthesized: the lente insulin. With the advent of molecular biology, synthetic human insulin was synthesized using recombinant DNA technology. Most recently several types of insulin analogues were available, providing the patients with better metabolic control. Type 1 diabetes mellitus treatment includes plain substitution and individualization for short-acting plus long-acting insulin according to the physician's assistance, besides regular practice of physical activities and diet orientations. In type 1 diabetes mellitus the insulin of low variability is the best choice since basal/bolus insulin therapy or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump can mimetize the physiological release of insulin by beta cells. PMID:18438537

Pires, Antonio Carlos; Chacra, Antonio Roberto

2008-03-01

262

Avaliação da efetividade e segurança do protocolo de infusão de insulina de Yale para o controle glicêmico intensivo / Assessment of effectiveness and safety of Yale insulin infusion protocol in a brazilian medical and surgical Intensive Care Unit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O controle glicêmico intensivo ocupa lugar de destaque no manuseio dos pacientes críticos. O objetivo desde estudo foi avaliar a efetividade e a segurança do protocolo de insulinoterapia por via venosa de Yale nos pacientes críticos internados em unidade de terapia intensi [...] va geral em hospital comunitário. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo e comparativo entre 2 coortes de pacientes críticos, antes e após a implantação do controle glicêmico intensivo. Os desfechos de interesse do estudo foram glicemia média durante o tratamento, tempo para atingir a faixa alvo de 80 a 140 mg/dL, percentual de glicemia dentro desta faixa e incidência de hipoglicemia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 112 pacientes, divididos em dois grupos. Sessenta pacientes constituíram o grupo controle (GC) e 52 o grupo protocolo (GP). A glicemia média no GP foi de 131,2 ± 14,7 mg/dL versus 181,7 ± 36,1 mg/dL no GC. Os pacientes no GP alcançaram a faixa alvo mais rápido [mediana 7h (4 - 10h) versus mediana 96h (46 - 278h)] no GC. O percentual de glicemia dentro da faixa-alvo foi de 65% no GP e de 32% no GC. Não houve diferença estatística significativa na incidência de hipoglicemia grave; 4 pacientes no GP versus 2 pacientes no GC. CONCLUSÕES: O protocolo de insulinoterapia por via venosa contínua de Yale, mostrou-se efetivo e seguro para o manuseio do controle glicêmico em unidade de terapia intensiva que atende pacientes clínicos e cirúrgicos. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Actually tight glycemic control is a major concern in critical care. The objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and safety of Yale insulin infusion protocol in a Brazilian medical and surgical intensive care unit. METHODS: Retrospective, before-after cohort [...] study. Selected end-points were mean blood glucose levels, time-to-reach target range of 80 - 140 mg/dL, and percent of blood glucose in target range and hypoglycemia incidence. RESULTS: Were studied 112 patients: 60 in control group (CG) and 52 in protocol group (PG). Bedside blood glucose was measured 5392 times for a mean value of 131.2 ± 14.7 mg/dL in the PG versus 2485 times for a mean value of 181.7 ± 36.1 mg/dL in the CG. Blood glucose values were in the target range 65% and 32% of the times, respectively for PG and CG groups (p

José Roberto Carvalho, Diener; Carlos Eduardo Elias dos, Prazeres; Cilmar Mello da, Rosa; Urubatan Collaço, Alberton.

2006-09-01

263

Efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e analgésicos da cetamina por via epidural, por infusão intravenosa contínua ou pela associação de ambas, em cães submetidos à osteossíntese de fêmur / Cardiorespiratory and analgesic effects of ketamine via epidural route, intravenous continuous infusion or association of both, in dogs submitted to femoral osteosynthesis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cetamina tem demonstrado efeito analgésico em doses subanestésicas, além da manutenção da estabilidade dos parâmetros fisiológicos. O estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e a analgesia pós-operatória da cetamina administrada por via epidural, por infusão intravenosa contínua ou [...] pela associação de ambas, em cães submetidos à osteossíntese de fêmur. Foram utilizadas 25 cadelas, hígidas, distribuídas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: CEP (2mg kg-1 de cetamina associada à lidocaína 2% via epidural), CIV (lidocaína 2% via epidural e 1mg kg-1 de cetamina IV seguido de infusão contínua IV com 100µg kg min-1 da mesma), CIVEP (2mg kg-1 de cetamina associada à lidocaína 2% via epidural e 1mg kg-1 de cetamina IV, seguido de infusão contínua IV com 100µg kg min-1) e CON (anestesia epidural com lidocaína 2%). Avaliaram-se FC, f, PAS, PAM, PAD, T°C, tempo de bloqueio motor e analgesia pós-operatória por meio de escala analógica visual. Houve elevação da FC no CIV e diminuição desse parâmetro no CEP. As pressões arteriais mantiveram-se dentro dos valores fisiológicos e não foram observadas diferenças na f e T°C. O tempo de duração do bloqueio anestésico foi potencializado nos grupos que receberam cetamina epidural, diferindo significativamente em relação ao controle. O tempo para a analgesia resgate não diferiu entre os grupos. Conclui-se que a administração de cetamina pela via epidural, por infusão contínua intravenosa ou pela associação de ambas promoveu estabilidade cardiorrespiratória no período transcirúrgico, porém não foi capaz de prolongar a duração da analgesia pós-operatória em cães submetidos à osteossíntese de fêmur. Abstract in english Ketamine has demonstrated analgesic effects in subanesthetic doses, besides the maintenance of stability of physiological parameters. The study aimed to evaluate the cardiorespiratory effects and the post operative analgesia of ketamine via epidural route, intravenous continuous infusion or associat [...] ion of both, in dogs submitted to femoral osteosynthesis. Twenty-five healthy bitches were randomly assigned to four groups: CEP (2mg kg-1 of ketamine associated with lidocaine 2% via epidural route), CIV (lidocaine 2% via epidural route and 1mg kg-1 of ketamine IV, followed by IV continuous infusion of 100µg kg min-1 of ketamine), CIVEP (epidural anesthesia identical to CEP and ketamine infusion as in CIV) and CON (epidural anesthesia with lidocaine 2%). HR, RR, SAP, MAP, DAP and T°C, sensitive blockade time and post operative analgesia measured with visual analog scale were evaluated. There was an increase in HR in CIV and decrease of this parameter in CEP. Arterial pressures kept within physiological values and differences in RR and T°C were not observed. The anesthetic blockade time was augmented in the groups which received epidural ketamine, differing significantly in relation to the control. The time for rescue analgesia did not differ between the groups. It can be concluded the administration of ketamine via epidural route, intravenous continuous infusion or the association of both promoted cardiorespiratory stability during the operative period; however, it was not able to extend the duration of post operative analgesia in dogs submitted to femoral osteosynthesis.

Adriano Bonfim, Carregaro; Gabrielle Coelho, Freitas; Jenifer de Santana, Marques; Thomas Alexander, Trein; Virgínia Heinze, Pohl; Fabiano Zanini, Salbego; Alceu Gaspar, Raiser.

1583-15-01

264

Continuous versus Intermittent Infusions of Ceftazidime for Treating Exacerbation of Cystic Fibrosis?  

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The present multicenter, randomized crossover study compared the safety and efficacy of continuous infusion with those of short infusions of ceftazidime in patients with cystic fibrosis. Patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization received two successive courses of intravenous tobramycin and ceftazidime (200 mg/kg of body weight/day) for pulmonary exacerbation administered as thrice-daily short infusions or as a continuous infusion. The primary endpoint was the variation in the ...

Hubert, Dominique; Le Roux, Evelyne; Lavrut, Thibaud; Wallaert, Benoit; Scheid, Philippe; Manach, Dominique; Grenet, Dominique; Sermet-gaudelus, Isabelle; Ramel, Sophie; Cracowski, Claire; Sardet, Anne; Wizla, Nathalie; Deneuville, Eric; Garraffo, Rodolphe

2009-01-01

265

Insulin and Insulin Resistance  

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As obesity and diabetes reach epidemic proportions in the developed world, the role of insulin resistance and its consequences are gaining prominence. Understanding the role of insulin in wide-ranging physiological processes and the influences on its synthesis and secretion, alongside its actions from the molecular to the whole body level, has significant implications for much chronic disease seen in Westernised populations today. This review provides an overview of insulin, its history, stru...

Wilcox, Gisela

2005-01-01

266

Estabilidad de parecoxib en dilución con otros fármacos y administración en perfusión continua IV para el control del dolor postoperatorio / Stability of parecoxib in dilution with other drugs and administered in continuous intravenous infusion for the management of postoperative pain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar la estabilidad de parecoxib en un sistema de infusión continua elastomérica portátil IV para 24 horas, en dilución con opiáceos (cloruro mórfico, meperidina ó tramadol), antieméticos y suero fisiológico, durante las 24 horas del postoperatorio; así como, comprobar el resultado anal [...] gésico, la aparición de efectos secundarios y el grado de satisfacción de pacientes intervenidos de cirugía mayor susceptibles de tratamiento con dichos fármacos. Material y Métodos: El infusor es un dispositivo desechable y ligero con un depósito elastomérico para administrar medicación. Se realizaron varias pruebas mezclando parecoxib, opiáceos, antieméticos y suero fisiológico y se observó su estabilidad durante 24 horas. Procedimos a observar la mezcla en repetidas ocasiones y la dilución siempre permaneció estable, clara, sin partículas y transparente; por lo que se decidió utilizar dicha mezcla en el infusor IV para el tratamiento del dolor postoperatorio, siempre bajo la supervisión de un anestesiólogo. Se estudiaron un total de 118 pacientes, 46 mujeres (39%) y 72 hombres (61%), ASA I-IV, edad media 59,75 +/- 14,25 (18-89), 92 (78%) fueron intervenidos de cirugía general y 26 (22%) de urología. El llenado del infusor según ASA, edad y tipo de intervención del paciente, se realizó con: parecoxib 80 mg + metoclopramida Cl H 20 ó 30 mg + suero fisiológico en los 118 pacientes, se añadió cloruro mórfico en 65 pacientes, meperidina en 30 y tramadol en 23, a administrar en 24 horas tras la intervención quirúrgica. Se valoró la intensidad del dolor según EAV a la llegada a la Sala de Despertar y a las 24 horas, resultado analgésico, efectos secundarios y grado de satisfacción. Resultados: El resultado analgésico fue muy bueno en 60 pacientes (50,85%); bueno en 40 (33,90%); regular en 12 (10,17%) y suspendido el tratamiento en 6 (5%) por efectos secundarios. Los efectos secundarios aparecieron en 30 casos (25%): 4 con sudoración (3%), 1 con desorientación (0,8%) y 7 con somnolencia y mareo (6%) 3 de ellos con interrupción del tratamiento. En cuanto a las náuseas y/o vómitos: 18 pacientes necesitaron rescate antiemético, y en 3, hubo que suspender el tratamiento. El grado de satisfacción del paciente fue: muy satisfactorio en 56 pacientes (47,5%); satisfactorio en 46 (39%), deficiente en 10 (8,5%) y suspendido el tratamiento en 6 (5%) por efectos secundarios. Conclusiones: La posibilidad de utilizar parecoxib sólo o unido a otros fármacos en perfusión continua IV para el tratamiento del dolor agudo postoperatorio, es una opción a considerar. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the stability of parecoxib in a portable elasto-meric pump system for IV infusión in dilution with opioids (morphine chloride, pethidine or tramadol), antiemetics and saline solution during 24 hours in the postoperative period; as well as to verify the analgesic result, the in [...] cidence of side effects and the degree of satisfaction in patients undergoing major surgery that were eligible for treatment with these drugs. Material and Methods: The infuser pump is a light disposable device with an elas-tomeric deposit to administer the medication. Several tests combining parecoxib, opioids, antiemetics and saline solution were carried out and its stability was demonstrated during 24 hours. The mixture was then observed in several occasions and was shown that the dilution always remained stable, clear, with no particles and transparent; therefore it was decided to use that combination in the IV infuser for the treatment of postoperative pain, always under the anaesthesiologist supervisión. A total of 118 patients were studied, 46 women (39%) and 72 men studied (61%), ASA ITV, mean age 59.75 +/- 14.25 (18-89); 92 (78%) underwent general surgery procedures and 26 (22%) urologic ones. The filling of infuser according to ASA, age and type of surgery of the patient, was made with: parecoxib 80 mg + metoclopramide CL H

P., Acín; C., Bono; R., Martínez; A., Faci; E., Facorro; I., Manzanares; MªJ., Velamazán; Mª, Sanz; E., Pastor.

2007-04-01

267

Estabilidad de parecoxib en dilución con otros fármacos y administración en perfusión continua IV para el control del dolor postoperatorio Stability of parecoxib in dilution with other drugs and administered in continuous intravenous infusion for the management of postoperative pain  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la estabilidad de parecoxib en un sistema de infusión continua elastomérica portátil IV para 24 horas, en dilución con opiáceos (cloruro mórfico, meperidina ó tramadol, antieméticos y suero fisiológico, durante las 24 horas del postoperatorio; así como, comprobar el resultado analgésico, la aparición de efectos secundarios y el grado de satisfacción de pacientes intervenidos de cirugía mayor susceptibles de tratamiento con dichos fármacos. Material y Métodos: El infusor es un dispositivo desechable y ligero con un depósito elastomérico para administrar medicación. Se realizaron varias pruebas mezclando parecoxib, opiáceos, antieméticos y suero fisiológico y se observó su estabilidad durante 24 horas. Procedimos a observar la mezcla en repetidas ocasiones y la dilución siempre permaneció estable, clara, sin partículas y transparente; por lo que se decidió utilizar dicha mezcla en el infusor IV para el tratamiento del dolor postoperatorio, siempre bajo la supervisión de un anestesiólogo. Se estudiaron un total de 118 pacientes, 46 mujeres (39% y 72 hombres (61%, ASA I-IV, edad media 59,75 +/- 14,25 (18-89, 92 (78% fueron intervenidos de cirugía general y 26 (22% de urología. El llenado del infusor según ASA, edad y tipo de intervención del paciente, se realizó con: parecoxib 80 mg + metoclopramida Cl H 20 ó 30 mg + suero fisiológico en los 118 pacientes, se añadió cloruro mórfico en 65 pacientes, meperidina en 30 y tramadol en 23, a administrar en 24 horas tras la intervención quirúrgica. Se valoró la intensidad del dolor según EAV a la llegada a la Sala de Despertar y a las 24 horas, resultado analgésico, efectos secundarios y grado de satisfacción. Resultados: El resultado analgésico fue muy bueno en 60 pacientes (50,85%; bueno en 40 (33,90%; regular en 12 (10,17% y suspendido el tratamiento en 6 (5% por efectos secundarios. Los efectos secundarios aparecieron en 30 casos (25%: 4 con sudoración (3%, 1 con desorientación (0,8% y 7 con somnolencia y mareo (6% 3 de ellos con interrupción del tratamiento. En cuanto a las náuseas y/o vómitos: 18 pacientes necesitaron rescate antiemético, y en 3, hubo que suspender el tratamiento. El grado de satisfacción del paciente fue: muy satisfactorio en 56 pacientes (47,5%; satisfactorio en 46 (39%, deficiente en 10 (8,5% y suspendido el tratamiento en 6 (5% por efectos secundarios. Conclusiones: La posibilidad de utilizar parecoxib sólo o unido a otros fármacos en perfusión continua IV para el tratamiento del dolor agudo postoperatorio, es una opción a considerar.Objective: To evaluate the stability of parecoxib in a portable elasto-meric pump system for IV infusión in dilution with opioids (morphine chloride, pethidine or tramadol, antiemetics and saline solution during 24 hours in the postoperative period; as well as to verify the analgesic result, the incidence of side effects and the degree of satisfaction in patients undergoing major surgery that were eligible for treatment with these drugs. Material and Methods: The infuser pump is a light disposable device with an elas-tomeric deposit to administer the medication. Several tests combining parecoxib, opioids, antiemetics and saline solution were carried out and its stability was demonstrated during 24 hours. The mixture was then observed in several occasions and was shown that the dilution always remained stable, clear, with no particles and transparent; therefore it was decided to use that combination in the IV infuser for the treatment of postoperative pain, always under the anaesthesiologist supervisión. A total of 118 patients were studied, 46 women (39% and 72 men studied (61%, ASA ITV, mean age 59.75 +/- 14.25 (18-89; 92 (78% underwent general surgery procedures and 26 (22% urologic ones. The filling of infuser according to ASA, age and type of surgery of the patient, was made with: parecoxib 80 mg + metoclopramide CL H 20 or 30 mg + saline solution for the 118 patients, morphine chloride was added in 65 patients, petidine in 30

P. Acín

2007-04-01

268

Somatostatin does not alter insulin-mediated glucose disposal.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the effect of somatostatin (SRIH) infusion on insulin-mediated glucose disposal (Rd) in normal young subjects (n = 8) to determine the influence of SRIH on insulin action. Paired 3-h euglycemic insulin clamp studies were performed in random order employing insulin alone (25 mU/m2 X min) or insulin with SRIH (250 micrograms/h) and replacement of basal glucagon (0.4 ng/kg X min). Basal plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon (IRG), and GH concentrations, hepatic glucose production, and Rd were similar on each occasion. Steady state (10-180 min) plasma insulin insulin alone, 283 +/- 10 (+/- SEM); insulin, IRG, and SRIH, 284 +/- 10 pmol/L) and glucagon levels (insulin alone, 84 +/- 7; insulin, IRG, and SRIH, 82 +/- 7 ng/L) were similar. Hepatic glucose production (insulin alone, 0.66 +/- 0.12; insulin, IRG, and SRIH, 0.78 +/- 0.48 mg/kg X min) and Rd (insulin alone, 8.16 +/- 0.62; insulin, IRG, and SRIH, 8.17 +/- 0.61 mg/kg X min) were not different at steady state. We conclude that SRIH infusion with glucagon replacement does not augment insulin-mediated glucose disposal in normal young subjects at physiological insulin levels. PMID:2885337

Meneilly, G S; Elahi, D; Minaker, K L; Rowe, J W

1987-08-01

269

Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep  

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Full Text Available Susan K Duckett, Gabriela Volpi-Lagreca, Mariano Alende, Nathan M LongAnimal and Veterinary Sciences Department, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USAAbstract: Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9 acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (P<0.01 weight gain by 77%. Serum palmitoleic levels increased (P<0.05 in a linear manner with increasing levels of C16:1 infusion. Cis-11 vaccenic (C18:1 cis-11 acid, a known elongation product of palmitoleic acid, was also elevated (P<0.05 in serum after 14 days and 21 days of infusion. Plasma insulin levels were lower (P<0.05 (10 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 than controls (0 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 at 14 days and 28 days of infusion. Infusion of C16:1 resulted in linear increases in tissue concentrations of palmitoleic, cis-11 vaccenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids in a dose-dependent manner. Total lipid content of the semitendinosus (ST muscle and mesenteric adipose tissue was reduced (P<0.01 in both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose levels. Total lipid content and mean adipocyte size in the longissimus muscle was reduced (P<0.05 in the 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose level only, whereas total lipid content and adipocyte size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was not altered. Total lipid content of the liver was also unchanged with C16:1 infusion. Palmitoleic acid infusion upregulated (P<0.05 acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid elongase-6 (ELOVL6, and Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit, transcript variant 1 (AMPK mRNA expressions in liver, subcutaneous adipose, and ST muscle compared to the controls. However, mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (P<0.05 GLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were downregulated (P<0.05 in ST muscle with C16:1 infusion. These results show that C16:1 infusion for 28 days reduced weight gain, intramuscular adipocyte size and total lipid content, and circulating insulin levels. These changes appear to be mediated through alterations in expression of genes regulating glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation specifically in the muscles.Keywords: adipocytes, longissimus muscle, lipogenesis, insulin level, serum, fatty acid

Duckett SK

2014-11-01

270

A comparison of continuous infusion of vecuronium and atracurium in midline and paramedian laparotomies.  

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This was a study to compare continuous intravenous infusion of atracurium with continuous intravenous infusion of vecuronium for intraoperative muscle relaxation in 62 ASA I / II patients. Scheduled for laparotomies and pelvic surgeries under general anaesthesia. They were randomly allocated in two groups to receive either vecuronium infusion of 50 microg/kg/hour following a bolus dose of 0.1 microg/kg, or atracurium infusion of 400 microg/kg/hour following a bolus dose of 0.5 microg/kg. The ...

Chaudhari L; Shetty A; Buddhi M; Krishnan G

1999-01-01

271

Protein ingestion induces muscle insulin resistance independent of leucine-mediated mTOR activation.  

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Increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations are associated with insulin resistance and intravenous amino acid infusion blunts insulin-mediated glucose disposal. We tested the hypothesis that protein ingestion impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal by leucine-mediated mTOR signaling, which can inhibit AKT. We measured glucose disposal and muscle p-mTOR(Ser2448), p-AKT(Ser473) and p-AKT(Thr308) in 22 women during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure with and without concomitant ingestion of whey protein (0.6 g per kg fat-free mass; n=11) or leucine that matched the amount given with whey protein (n=11). Both whey protein and leucine ingestion raised plasma leucine concentration by ?2-fold and muscle p-mTOR(Ser2448) by ?30% above the values observed in the control (no amino acid ingestion) studies; p-AKT(Ser473) and p-AKT(Thr308) were not affected by whey protein or leucine ingestion. Whey protein ingestion decreased insulin-mediated glucose disposal (38.8 [30.8, 61.8] vs 51.9 [41.0, 77.3] µmol glucose per µU insulin·ml(-1)·min(-1); P<0.01; medians [quartiles]) whereas ingestion of leucine did not (52.3 [43.3, 65.4] vs 52.3 [43.9, 73.2]). These results indicate that: 1) protein ingestion causes insulin resistance and could be an important regulator of postprandial glucose homeostasis, and 2) the insulin-desensitizing effect of protein ingestion is not due to inhibition of AKT by leucine-mediated mTOR signaling. PMID:25475435

Smith, Gordon I; Yoshino, Jun; Stromsdorfer, Kelly L; Klein, Seth J; Magkos, Faidon; Reeds, Dominic N; Klein, Samuel; Mittendorfer, Bettina

2014-12-01

272

Cost-Minimization Analysis Favours Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose over Ferric Sucrose for the Ambulatory Treatment of Severe Iron Deficiency  

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Objective: Intravenous iron is widely used to treat iron deficiency in day-care units. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) allows administration of larger iron doses than iron sucrose (IS) in each infusion (1000 mg vs. 200 mg). As FCM reduces the number of infusions required but is more expensive, we performed a cost-minimization analysis to compare the cost impact of the two drugs. Materials and Methods: The number of infusions and the iron dose of 111 consecutive patients who received intravenous i...

Calvet Calvo, Xavier

2012-01-01

273

Whole body insulin resistance in myotonic dystrophy.  

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To quantitate the degree of whole body insulin resistance in patients with myotonic dystrophy, three separate euglycemic insulin infusions were given to ambulatory patients and the results compared with findings in normal control subjects. Basal glucose and insulin values were similar for the two groups. There was no significant difference in insulin clearance rates between normal subjects and patients at the three insulin infusion rates used. A highly significant decrease in the whole body glucose disposal rate was seen during the 120-minute insulin infusion in the patients with myotonic dystrophy compared with normal subjects at all three insulin dosages (20 mU/m2/min: 2.18 +/- 0.29 [standard error] versus 5.49 +/- 1.72 mg/kg/min, p less than 0.0001; 80 mU/m2/min: 4.16 +/- 0.34 versus 8.49 +/- 0.45 mg/kg/min, p less than 0.0001; 200 mU/m2/min: 5.22 +/- 0.53 versus 10.06 +/- 0.50 mg/kg/min, p less than 0.0001). These marked decreases in glucose disposal rates for the patients were adjusted in accordance with their 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to correct for the difference in muscle mass between patients and controls. This adjusted glucose disposal rate was 15 to 25% lower (p less than 0.02) in the patients with myotonic dystrophy at insulin infusion rates of 20 and 80 mU. During the 200 mU insulin infusions, the adjusted glucose disposal rate remained lower than that in normal subjects but was of borderline statistical significance. These studies suggest that moderately severe whole body insulin resistance is responsible for the postprandial hyperinsulinemia typically seen in patients with myotonic dystrophy. PMID:6367619

Moxley, R T; Corbett, A J; Minaker, K L; Rowe, J W

1984-02-01

274

Assessment of insulin sensitivity/resistance  

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Insulin resistance is one pretty troublesome entity which very commonly aggravates metabolic syndrome. Many methods and indices are available for the estimation of insulin resistance. It is essential to test and validate their reliability before they can be used as an investigation in patients. At present, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance test are the most reliable methods available for estimating insulin resistance and are being used as a reference standard...

Gutch, Manish; Kumar, Sukriti; Razi, Syed Mohd; Gupta, Kumar Keshav; Gupta, Abhinav

2015-01-01

275

Distinct role of adiposity and insulin resistance in glucose intolerance: studies in ventromedial hypothalamic-lesioned obese rats.  

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It remains unclear whether adiposity plays an important role in glucose intolerance independently of insulin resistance. We investigated whether adiposity and insulin resistance had distinct roles in glucose intolerance in rats. We examined glucose tolerance and insulin resistance using ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH)-lesioned rats in the dynamic and the static phases of obesity (2 and 14 weeks after lesioning, respectively). Rats were fed either normal chow or a fructose-enriched diet (60% of total calories). The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed by bolus injection of glucose solution (1 g/kg) and blood sampling after 0, 5 10, 30, and 60 minutes. Insulin resistance was evaluated from the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) value during continuous infusion of glucose, insulin, and somatostatin. SSPG was not increased in VMH-lesioned rats in the dynamic phase of obesity, but increased markedly in the static phase. The area under the glucose curve (glucose AUC) during IVGTT was increased in VMH-lesioned rats in the static phase, but not in the dynamic phase, when compared with their sham-operated counterparts. A fructose-enriched diet for 2 or 14 weeks increased SSPG values to a similar extent in both sham-operated and VMH-lesioned rats without inducing excess adiposity, but glucose intolerance was only developed in the obese rats. The plasma leptin level, an excellent indicator of adiposity, was significantly related to the glucose AUC independently of the insulin level. Insulin resistance or increased adiposity alone is not sufficient to impair glucose tolerance, but increased adiposity plays an important role in the development of glucose intolerance in an insulin-resistant state. PMID:12037724

Kageyama, Asako; Hirano, Tsutomu; Kageyama, Haruaki; Osaka, Toshimasa; Namba, Yoshio; Tsuji, Masatomi; Adachi, Mitsuru; Inoue, Shuji

2002-06-01

276

Relapsing insulin-induced lipoatrophy, cured by prolonged low-dose oral prednisone: a case report  

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Abstract Introduction Circumscript, progressing lipoatrophy at the insulin injection sites is an unexplained, however rare condition in diabetes mellitus. Case presentation We report a case of severe localised lipoatrophy developing during insulin pump-treatment (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion) with the insulin analogue lispro (Humalog®) in a woman with type-1 diabetes mellitus. After 11 months of progressing lipoatrophy at two spots on the...

Chantelau Ernst A; Praetor Ruth; Praetor Jörg; Poll Ludger W

2011-01-01

277

Correlation between insulin clearance and insulin responsiveness: studies in normal, obese, hyperthyroid, and Cushing's syndrome patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin clearance and secretion determine the plasma insulin concentration. To elucidate the significance of these parameters in man, we employed the euglycemic insulin clamp technique to measure insulin sensitivity, insulin responsiveness, and insulin clearance, and we calculated the basal insulin delivery rate. In 27 patients (six normal, six obese, ten hyperthyroid, and five with Cushing's syndrome), insulin was infused at rates of 0.3, 1, 3, or 10 mU/Kg/min, and insulin concentration and glucose utilization were measured. C-peptide concentrations were measured before and during insulin infusion and decreased significantly, indicating a reduction of endogenous insulin secretion to 62% of basal in normals and a similar reduction in the other groups. Maximal responsiveness to insulin was a glucose utilization rate of 450 +/- 20 mg/min/m2 in normals, unchanged in obese, 42% increased in hyperthyroid, and 34% decreased in Cushing's syndrome patients. Sensitivity to insulin was decreased in all three abnormal groups. Insulin clearance rates were 1,050 +/- 80 mL/min/m2 for normals, not significantly changed in obese, 45% increased in hyperthyroid, and 33% decreased in Cushing's syndrome patients. All three abnormal groups showed hyperinsulinemia compared to normal. The basal insulin delivery rates were calculated as 7.0 +/- 0.3 mU/min/m2, with a threefold increase in obese and in hyperthyroid and no significant change in Cushing's syndrome patients. Insulin clearance correlated well with insulin responsiveness (r = .65, P less than 0.001), but poorly with insulin sensitivity (r = .36).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3526086

Cohen, P; Barzilai, N; Barzilai, D; Karnieli, E

1986-08-01

278

Melorheostosis and its treatment with intravenous zoledronic acid  

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We report a case of melorheostosis, a rare bone disorder characterised by mesodermal dysplasia, and its successful and prolonged treatment with the intravenous bisphosphonate zoledronic acid. The middle-aged man presented with pain and swelling of his tibia, which was diagnosed by imaging and bone biopsy as being due to melorheostosis. There was early symptom control after a single infusion of intravenous zoledronic acid. Prolonged symptom relief was accompanied by long-term suppression of th...

Hollick, Rosemary Jane; Black, Alison; Reid, David

2010-01-01

279

Factors predictive of intravenous fluid administration errors in Australian surgical care wards  

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Background: Intravenous (IV) fluid administration is an integral component of clinical care. Errors in administration can cause detrimental patient outcomes and increase healthcare costs, although little is known about medication administration errors associated with continuous IV infusions.

Han, P.; Coombes, I.; Green, B.

2005-01-01

280

Insulin action in aging man: evidence for tissue-specific differences at low physiologic insulin levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effect of age on insulin action in several tissues. Euglycemic insulin clamp studies were performed on healthy young (n = 7, 20 to 35 years, 10 and 20 mU/m2 X min insulin infusions) and old (n = 7, 66 to 80 years, 8 and 16 mU/m2 X min insulin infusions) adults. Insulin values were similar during both the lower (young, 24 +/- 1.6, old, 24 +/- 2.1 microU/ml) and higher (young, 40 +/- 3.3; old, 39 +/- 3.8 microU/ml) insulin infusion rates. Although suppression of hepatic glucose output (HGO) was more rapid (p less than .05) in the elderly group at each dose, HGO was eventually suppressed to similar levels in both age groups (low dose: young, 34.4 +/- 10.8, old, 25.3 +/- 1.8 mg/m2 X min; higher dose: young, 22.8 +/- 10.2, old, 6.2 +/- 2.1 mg/m2 X min). Glucose disposal was less (p less than .01) in the aged group at both insulin infusion rates. Suppression of C-peptide was slower in the elderly participants (p less than .05) in the low dose study. Suppression of free fatty acid and glucagon levels was the same in each age group. We concluded that the insulin resistance of aging is not generalized to all tissues. PMID:3546473

Meneilly, G S; Minaker, K L; Elahi, D; Rowe, J W

1987-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Quantification of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in HIV-infected individuals: comparison of patients treated and untreated with protease inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

To describe the distribution of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in HIV-infected patients, the authors measured insulin-mediated glucose disposal (IMGD) in 51 subjects (24 protease inhibitor (PI)-treated subjects and 27 non-PI-treated subjects). IMGD was determined by measuring the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the last 30 minutes of a 180-minute intravenous infusion of octreotide, glucose, and insulin. In addition, oral glucose tolerance testing was performed. SSPG concentrations varied six-fold in both groups, and the mean values +/- SEM did not differ between PI-treated and non-PI-treated groups (8.7 +/- 0.9 vs. 8.0 +/- 0.7 mmol/L, respectively). The mean fasting plasma glucose concentration +/- SEM was higher in the PI-treated subjects than in the non-PI-treated subjects (5.44 +/- 0.11 vs. 5.05 +/- 0.11 mmol/L, respectively; p =.01), whereas fasting plasma insulin concentrations did not differ. PI-treated patients also had significantly higher plasma glucose (p =.001) and insulin (p =.03) responses to the oral glucose challenge. However, whereas the incremental plasma glucose response during the first 30 minutes was significantly higher in PI-treated patients, the incremental insulin response in the two groups was identical. In conclusion, insulin sensitivity varies widely in HIV-infected patients irrespective of PI treatment, and the adverse effect of PIs on insulin sensitivity is likely to be of modest magnitude. Finally, PI treatment may have an inhibitory effect on insulin secretion. PMID:12792353

Beatty, George; Khalili, Mandana; Abbasi, Fahim; Chu, James; Reaven, Gerald M; Rosen, Alan; Schmidt, Jamey M; Stansell, John; Koch, Johannes

2003-05-01

282

Enhancement of insulin action after oral glucose ingestion.  

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Previous investigations in normal humans and rats have shown an increase in insulin sensitivity and binding affinity of adipocytes isolated 1-3 h after glucose ingestion. To determine whether a rapid enhancement of the action of insulin follows glucose ingestion in vivo, the present studies have utilized 120-min 20 mU/m2 X min euglycemic insulin infusions before and after 7.5-, 15-, 25-, and 100-g oral glucose loads. Euglycemic insulin infusions after the carbohydrate challenge were begun aft...

Kingston, W. J.; Livingston, J. N.; Moxley, R. T.

1986-01-01

283

Superselective intraarterial infusion therapy for head and neck carcinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the results of superselective intraarterial cisplatin (CDDP) infusion therapy combined with irradiation for 23 patients, mainly advanced head and neck carcinoma. All patients received intraarterial CDDP infusions with intravenous sodium thiosulfate (STS) neutralization. CDDP infusion was performed by the Seldinger's technique in 16 patients and by the implanted intraarterial reservoir system in 7 patients. STS was also infused by the reservoir system implanted at the forearm in most patients. An overall response was observed in 21 of the 23 (91.3%) patients. Complete and partial responses were achieved in 16 (69.6%) and 5 (21.7%) patients, respectively. There were no patients with worse than grade III complications. We concluded that superselective intraarterial infusion therapy with a high dose of CDDP and STS was very effective for the management of advanced head and neck carcinomas and we recommend the implantable reservoir system for both CDDP and STS administration as an easy and low-invasive method. (author)

284

Genetic variation at glucose and insulin trait loci and response to glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) therapy: the IMMEDIATE trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanistic effects of intravenous glucose, insulin and potassium (GIK) in cardiac ischemia are not well understood. We conducted a genetic sub-study of the Immediate Myocardial Metabolic Enhancement During Initial Assessment and Treatment in Emergency care (IMMEDIATE) Trial to explore effects of common and rare glucose and insulin-related genetic loci on initial to 6-h and 6- to 12-h change in plasma glucose and potassium. We identified 27 NOTCH2/ADAM30 and 8 C2CD4B variants conferring a 40-57% increase in glucose during the first 6?h of infusion (P<5.96 × 10(-6)). Significant associations were also found for ABCB11 and SLC30A8 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and glucose responses, and an SEC61A2 SNP with a potassium response to GIK. These studies identify genetic factors that may impact the metabolic response to GIK, which could influence treatment benefits in the setting of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). PMID:25135348

Ellis, K L; Zhou, Y; Beshansky, J R; Ainehsazan, E; Yang, Y; Selker, H P; Huggins, G S; Cupples, L A; Peter, I

2015-02-01

285

Intravenous iron therapy: how far have we come?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Oral iron supplementation is usually the first choice for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) because of its effectiveness and low cost. But unfortunately in many iron deficient conditions, oral iron is a less than the ideal treatment mainly because of adverse events related to the gastroi [...] ntestinal tract as well as the long course required to treat anemia and replenish body iron stores. The first iron product for intravenous use was high-molecular-weight iron dextran. However, dextran-containing intravenous iron preparations are associated with an elevated risk of anaphylactic reactions, which made physicians reluctant to prescribe intravenous iron in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia for many years. In 1999 and 2001, two new intravenous iron preparations (ferric gluconate and iron sucrose) were introduced into the market as safer alternatives to iron dextran. Over the last five years, three new intravenous iron dextran-free preparations have been developed and have better safety profiles than the more traditional intravenous compounds, as none require test doses and all these products are promising in respect to a more rapid replacement of body iron stores (15-60 minutes/infusion) as they can be given at higher doses (from 500 mg to more than 1000 mg/infusion). The purpose of this review is to discuss some pertinent issues in relation to the history, pharmacology, administration, efficacy, safety profile and toxicity of intravenous iron for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia.

Rodolfo Delfini, Cançado; Manuel, Muñoz.

2011-12-01

286

Intravenous iron therapy: how far have we come?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral iron supplementation is usually the first choice for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA because of its effectiveness and low cost. But unfortunately in many iron deficient conditions, oral iron is a less than the ideal treatment mainly because of adverse events related to the gastrointestinal tract as well as the long course required to treat anemia and replenish body iron stores. The first iron product for intravenous use was high-molecular-weight iron dextran. However, dextran-containing intravenous iron preparations are associated with an elevated risk of anaphylactic reactions, which made physicians reluctant to prescribe intravenous iron in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia for many years. In 1999 and 2001, two new intravenous iron preparations (ferric gluconate and iron sucrose were introduced into the market as safer alternatives to iron dextran. Over the last five years, three new intravenous iron dextran-free preparations have been developed and have better safety profiles than the more traditional intravenous compounds, as none require test doses and all these products are promising in respect to a more rapid replacement of body iron stores (15-60 minutes/infusion as they can be given at higher doses (from 500 mg to more than 1000 mg/infusion. The purpose of this review is to discuss some pertinent issues in relation to the history, pharmacology, administration, efficacy, safety profile and toxicity of intravenous iron for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia.

Rodolfo Delfini Cançado

2011-12-01

287

Optical detection of intravenous infiltration  

Science.gov (United States)

Infiltration of medications during infusion therapy results in complications ranging from erythema and pain to tissue necrosis requiring amputation. Infiltration occurs from improper insertion of the cannula, separation of the cannula from the vein, penetration of the vein by the cannula during movement, and response of the vein to the medication. At present, visual inspection by the clinical staff is the primary means for detecting intravenous (IV) infiltration. An optical sensor was developed to monitor the needle insertion site for signs of IV infiltration. Initial studies on simulated and induced infiltrations on a swine model validated the feasibility of the methodology. The presence of IV infiltration was confirmed by visual inspection of the infusion site and/or absence of blood return in the IV line. Potential sources of error due to illumination changes, motion artifacts, and edema were also investigated. A comparison of the performance of the optical device and blinded expert observers showed that the optical sensor has higher sensitivity and specificity, and shorter detection time than the expert observers. An improved model of the infiltration monitoring device was developed and evaluated in a clinical study on induced infiltrations of healthy adult volunteers. The performance of the device was compared with the observation of a blinded expert observer. The results show that the rates of detection of infiltrations are 98% and 82% for the optical sensor and the observer, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the optical sensor are 0.97 and 0.98, respectively.

Winchester, Leonard W.; Chou, Nee-Yin

2006-02-01

288

Motor Stepper Berbasis Mikrokontroller ATMega 8535 Pada Perancangan Sistem Kendali Otomatis Tetesan Cairan Infus Pada Pasien.  

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The function infuse which is to give intravenous fluids to patients on a regular basis Mistakes in giving intra venous fluids may be detrimental to the patient, also if there are problems with blockage or running out of liquids if not immediately addressed would be dangerous for patients. Infuse the current user is still manually where mistakes – mistakes such as these are still common, there fore we make an infusion control device design that can work automatically and digit...

Nugraha, Arie Yudha

2011-01-01

289

Insulin pumps.  

Science.gov (United States)

The last year has seen a continued uptake of insulin pump therapy in most countries. The USA is still a leader in pump use, with probably some 40% of type 1 diabetic patients on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), but the large variation in usage within Europe remains, with relatively high use (>?15%) in, for example, Norway, Austria, Germany and Sweden and low use (Portugal. There is much speculation on the factors responsible for this variation, and the possibilities include physician attitudes to CSII and knowledge about its benefits and indications for its use (and inappropriate beliefs about dangers), the availability of reimbursement from insurance companies or funding from national health services, the availability of sufficient diabetes nurse educators and dietitians trained in pump procedures, and clear referral pathways for the pump candidate from general practitioner or general hospital to specialist pump centre. There are now several comprehensive national guidelines on CSII use (see ATTD Yearbook 2009) but more work needs to be done in unifying uptake and ensuring all those who can benefit do so. Technology developments recently include increasing use of pumps with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) connectivity (see elsewhere in this volume) and the emergence of numerous manufacturers developing so-called 'patch pumps', often for the type 2 diabetes market. Interestingly, the evidence base for CSII in this group is not well established, and for this reason the selected papers on CSII in this section include several in this area. The use of CSII in diabetic pregnancy is a long-established practice, in spite of the lack of evidence that it is superior to multiple daily injections (MDI), and few randomised controlled trials have been done in recent years. Several papers in this field this year continue the debate about the usefulness of CSII in diabetic pregnancy and are reviewed here. It is pleasing to see more research on the psychosocial aspects of CSII during the year, both from the point of view of how psychological beliefs influence outcomes on CSII (is there a type of patient who does particularly well or poorly on CSII?) and how CSII affects psychological factors like mood, behaviour and quality of life. Quality of life is a difficult topic with doubts that the instruments always capture the aspects of quality of life important to the patient, and there have been conflicting results over the years about whether CSII alters quality of life. Patients in the clinic usually say that it does, and more evidence for quality of life improvement in pump therapy is reviewed here. PMID:21323808

Pickup, J

2011-02-01

290

Heparina e insulina en el tratamiento de la pancreatitis aguda por hipertrigliceridemia: Experiencia en 5 casos / Heparin and/or insulin treatment of acute pancreatitis caused by hypertriglyceridemia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Hypertriglyceridemia over 1,000 mg/dl can provoke acute pancreatitis and its persistence can worsen the clinical outcome. On the contrary, a rapid decrease in triglyceride level is beneficial. Plasmapheresis has been performed in some patients to remove chylomicrons from the circulation, [...] while heparin and/or insulin have been administered in some other cases to rapidly reduce blood triglycerides. Heparin and insulin stimulate lipoprotein-lipase activity and accelerate chylomicron degradation. Aim: To report five patients with acute pancreatitis treated with heparin and insulin. Patients and methods: Five patients (4 females and 1 male) seen in the last two years, who suffered acute pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia are reported. Initial blood triglyceride levels were above 1,000 mg/dl (range 1,590-8,690 mg/dl). Besides the usual treatment of acute pancreatitis, heparin and/or insulin were administered intravenously in continuous infusion. Heparin dose was guided by usual parameters of blood coagulation, and insulin dose, by serial determinations of blood glucose. Pancreatic necrosis was demonstrated in 4 patients. Results: Serum triglyceride levels decreased to

Zoltán, Berger F; Rodrigo, Quera P; Jaime, Poniachik T; Danny, Oksenberg R; Julia, Guerrero P.

1373-13-01

291

Glucose tolerance, insulin release, and insulin binding to monocytes in kidney transplant recipients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate glucose tolerance following renal transplantation, intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), with evaluation of hormonal responses to the intravenous glucose load and percent specific 125I-insulin binding to peripheral blood monocytes, were studied in eight clinically stable kidney transplant recipients. For comparison purposes, identical studies were done in eight control subjects and seven clinically stable hemodialysis patients. One transplant recipient was glucose intolerant, with fasting hyperglycemia, elevated HbA1C, and abnormal glucose decay constant. Impaired pancreatic insulin release appeared to be the major factor accounting for his glucose intolerance. The seven glucose-tolerant transplant recipients had significantly increased insulin release during IVGTT compared to control subjects, and significant correlations were found among insulin release, glucose decay constant, and fasting blood sugar in those patients. Insulin binding to monocytes was significantly greater in transplant recipients than control subjects due to an increase in insulin binding capacity per cell. A significant correlation was found between percent specific 125I-insulin binding and steroid dose, expressed as mg/kg body weight/day, in those patients. Thus, chronic steroid administration does not cause glucose intolerance in transplant recipients who manifest steroid-associated increases in pancreatic insulin release and cellular insulin biic insulin release and cellular insulin binding capacity

292

How to Keep an Infusion Log: Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG)  

Science.gov (United States)

... molecules that are folded and shaped in three dimensions to fit over foreign materials or antigens such ... until the donor returns and gives another virus negative donation within a 2 month period of the ...

293

ADVERSE EFFECTS OF INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH ANTIBODY DEFICIENCY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long-term intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion is an effective treatment for children with humoral immunodeficiencies, already be complicated by systemic ad¬verse effects. In order to determine the adverse effects of intravenous immunoglobulin inpatients with antibody deficiency, 45 immunodeficientpatients receiving intravenous immunoglobulin were studied during a 36-month period at Children's Medical Center. The investigated group included 25 patients with common variable immunod...

Akefeh Ahmadi Afshar; Lida Atarod; Gharagozlou, M.; Movahedi, M.; Nikzad, M.; Rezaei, N.; Zahra Pourpak; Moin, M.; Farhoudi, A.; Aghamohammadi, A.; Nasrin Bazargan; Maryam Mahmoudi; Abolmaali, K.

2003-01-01

294

Suspension of basal insulin to avoid hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes treated with insulin pump  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Treatment with continuous s.c. insulin infusion (CSII) provides better glycemic control and lower risk of hypoglycemia than conventional therapy with multiple daily insulin injections. These benefits have been related to a more reliable absorption and an improved pharmacokinetic profile of insulin delivered through CSII therapy. However, even for patients treated with CSII, exaggerated postmeal hyperglycemic excursions and late postabsorptive hypoglycemia can still constitute a therapeutic challenge. Two female patients with type 1 diabetes who began treatment with CSII required to increase their previous breakfast insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio in order to achieve postprandial glycemic goals. However, they simultaneously presented recurrent episodes of late hypoglycemia several hours after breakfast bolus. Advancing the timing of the bolus was ineffective and bothersome for patients. In both cases, the best therapeutic option was to set a basal insulin rate of zero units per hour during 6?h after breakfast. Even so, they need to routinely take a midmorning snack with 10–20?g of carbohydrates to avoid late postabsorptive hypoglycemia. They have been using this insulin schedule for about 3 years without complications. The action of prandial insulin delivered through insulin pumps can be inappropriately delayed for the requirements of some patients. Although suspension of basal rate can be an acceptable therapeutic alternative for them, these cases demonstrate that new strategies to improve the bioavailability of prandial insulin infused through CSII are still needed. Learning points CSII remains the most physiologically suitable system of insulin delivery available today.Additionally, the duration of action of prandial insulin delivered through insulin pumps can be excessively prolonged in some patients with type 1 diabetes.These patients can present recurrent late episodes of hypoglycemia several hours after the administration of insulin boluses.The routine suspension of basal insulin for several hours, leaving meal bolus to cover both prandial and basal insulin requirements, can be a therapeutic option for these subjects. PMID:25614824

Sánchez-Hernández, Rosa M; Rodríguez-Cordero, Julia; Jiménez-Ortega, Angelines; Nóvoa, Francisco J

2015-01-01

295

Treating gastrointestinal cancer by intervention, intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy, intravenous micro-pump chemotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

157 cases of gastrointestinal cancer patients after resection were randomly divided into treated group and control group. The treated group (intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with postoperative continuous intraarterial infusion and intravenous micro-pump chemotherapy) consisted of 72 cases, the control group (Intravenous chemotherapy), 85 cases. The peritoneal and hepatic metastasis rates and 3 a survival rate were studied. The intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with the postoperative continuous intraarterial infusion and intravenous micro-pump chemotherapy is an effective way to control the recurrence on the peritoneal and hepatic metastasis of advanced gastrointestinal neoplasms after operation. (authors)

296

[Case of ulcerative colitis refractory to intravenous cyclosporine therapy successfully treated with infliximab].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with relapse of ulcerative colitis (UC). We diagnosed it as a refractory UC because intravenous corticosteroid therapy had no effect. Intravenous cyclosporine therapy and other conventional therapies did not lead to remission. Then the possibility of infliximab was discussed with the patient and her parents and treatment with infliximab was started. Infliximab was infused intravenously at a dose of 5mg per kilograms of body weight. Immediately after the first infusion, clinical symptoms improved, and clinical remission was achieved within 12 weeks. It is suggested that infliximab can be effective for refractory UC. PMID:18460856

Tsuya, Ryosuke; Motoya, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakagaki, Suguru; Nishioka, Hitoshi; Hagiwara, Takeshi; Kozawa, Hiroshi; Kurokawa, Sei; Ambo, Tomonori; Imamura, Akimichi

2008-05-01

297

Insulin pharmacokinetics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Where adjustments of diet, physical activity, and dosage of insulin are well known to diabetologists and diabetic patients, present-day knowledge of factors of importance to the pharmacokinetics of insulin is frequently ignored. The pharmacokinetics of insulin comprise the absorption process, the distribution including binding to circulating insulin antibodies, if present, and to insulin receptors, and its ultimate degradation and excretion. The distribution and metabolism of absorbed insulin follow that of endogenous insulin. The distribution and metabolism cannot be actively changed, except in the case of circulating insulin antibodies, which in rare cases also may cause insulin resistance. The use of insulin preparation of low immunogeneity will avoid or reduce this course of variation in action. The absorption process, the detailed mechanisms of which are still unknown, is influenced by many variables where some can be controlled, thereby reducing the intrapatient variability in insulin absorption, which may reach 35%, causing a corresponding metabolic lability. Besides the known differences in timing among different preparations, the size of dose, the injected volume, and the insulin concentration are determinants of absorption role. Fortuitous injection technique contributes to variance, as do changes in blood flow of the injected tissue. This may be induced by changes in ambient temperature, exercise of injected limb, or local massage. Regional differences are also due to differences in blood flow. Serum insulin peaks may peak up to 1 h after injection of soluble insulin into the thigh versus into the abdominal wall. Local degradation of insulin seems of less importance but may, in rare cases, be the cause of high insulin "requirements." Available evidence is reviewed and the importance of implementing the consequences in the daily care of the insulin-treated patient is emphasized.

Binder, C; Lauritzen, Torsten

1984-01-01

298

Lipid induced insulin resistance affects women less than men and is not accompanied by inflammation or impaired proximal insulin signaling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AbstractObjective: We have previously shown that overnight fasted women have higher insulin stimulated whole body and leg glucose uptake despite a higher intramyocellular triacylglycerol concentration than men. Women also express higher muscle mRNA levels of proteins related to lipid metabolism than men. We therefore hypothesized that women would be less prone to lipid induced insulin resistance. Research and design methods: Insulin sensitivity of whole body and leg glucose disposal was studied in 16 young well matched healthy men and women infused with intralipid or saline for 7h. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (1.42 mU·kg(-1)·min(-1)) clamp. Results: Intralipid infusion reduced whole body glucose infusion rate 26% in women and 38% in men (p<0.05) and insulin stimulated leg glucose uptake was reduced significantly less in women (45%) than men (60%) after intralipid infusion. Hepatic glucose production was decreased during the clamp similarly in women and men irrespective of intralipid infusion. Intralipid did not impair insulin or AMPK signaling in muscle and subcutaneous fat, did not cause accumulation of muscle lipid intermediates, and did not impair insulin stimulated glycogen synthase activity in muscle or increase plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro glucose transport in giant sarcolemmal vesicles was not decreased by acute exposure to fatty acids. Leg lactate release was increased and respiratory exchange ratio was decreased by intralipid. Conclusion: Intralipid infusion causes less insulin resistance of muscle glucose uptake in women than in men. This insulin resistance is not due to decreased canonical insulin signaling, accumulation of lipid intermediates, inflammation or direct inhibition of glucose transporter activity. A higher leg lactate release and lower glucose oxidation with intralipid infusion may rather suggest a metabolic feed back regulation of glucose metabolism.

HØeg, Louise D; SjØberg, Kim Anker

2011-01-01

299

Lack of suppression of insulin secretion by hyperinsulinemia in a patient with an insulinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The regulation of insulin secretion in patients with insulinoma is known to be abnormal. For example, physiological and pharmacological stimuli often fail to stimulate insulin in such patients. Recently, insulin has been found to inhibit its own secretion in normal subjects. To determine if insulin has this effect in patients with insulinoma, we infused insulin at rates of 1 and 10 mU/kg X min in such a patient and in eight normal subjects. Euglycemia was maintained by the euglycemic glucose clamp technique, and endogenous insulin secretion was estimated by measuring plasma C-peptide levels. In the normal subjects, plasma C-peptide declined from 1.60 +/- 0.22 (+/- SEM) to 1.16 +/- 0.17 and 0.82 +/- 0.11 ng/ml during the low and high dose insulin infusions, respectively, indicating 27% (P less than 0.01) and 48% (P less than 0.001) decreases in endogenous insulin secretion at moderately elevated and extremely elevated insulin levels, respectively. In the insulinoma patient, plasma C-peptide was 2.6 ng/ml basally, did not change during the low dose insulin infusion, and rose to 3.4 ng/ml during the high dose insulin infusion. We conclude that the feedback regulation of insulin secretion by insulin that occurs in normal subjects is absent in insulinoma patients. This finding could have pathophysiological and possibly diagnostic significance. PMID:3023422

Cohen, P; Barzilai, N; Bar-Ilan, R; Yassin, K; Karnieli, E

1986-12-01

300

Oral Insulin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.

Kalra Sanjay; Kalra Bharti; Agrawal Navneet

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Disposition of intravenous 123iodopentamidine in man  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study compared the disposition of the radiopharmaceutical [123I]iodopentamidine with that of pentamidine after intravenous infusion by measuring plasma concentrations of each using scintilation counting and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. There was rapid hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of the 123I label. Distribution kinetics of the 123I label were similar to those of pentamidine, but its elimination half-life (41 ± 27 h) was longer than that of pentamidine measured by HPLC (11 ± 8 h). [123I]iodopentamidine distribution reflects that of pentamidine, but elimination of the radiopharmaceutical appears slower

302

Glutamate receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus contribute to insulin-induced sympathoexcitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sympathoexcitatory response to insulin is mediated by neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH). Previous studies have reported that stimulation of ARC neurons increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) through glutamate receptor activation in the PVH. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether glutamatergic neurotransmission in the PVH contributes to insulin-induced sympathoexcitation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (275-400 g) were infused with isotonic saline or insulin (3.75mU/kg/min) plus 50% dextrose to maintain euglycemia. IV infusion of insulin significantly increased lumbar SNA without a significant change in mean ABP, renal SNA, heart rate, or blood glucose. Bilateral PVH injection of the excitatory amino acid antagonist kynurenic acid (KYN) lowered lumbar SNA and ABP of animals infused with insulin. Similarly, a cocktail of the NMDA antagonist AP5 and non-NMDA antagonist CNQX reduced lumbar SNA and mean ABP during infusion of insulin. In a final experiment, bilateral PVH injection of AP5 only but not CNQX lowered lumbar SNA and mean ABP of animals infused with insulin. The peak changes in lumbar SNA and mean ABP of insulin-treated animals were not different between KYN, AP5 plus CNQX, or AP5 alone. These drug treatments did not alter any variable in animals infused with saline. Altogether, these findings suggest that glutamatergic NMDA neurotransmission in the PVH contributes to insulin-induced sympathoexcitation. PMID:25475355

Stocker, Sean D; Gordon, Kathryn W

2014-12-01

303

Continuous ampicillin infusion as an alternative to intermittent infusion for adult inpatients: a case series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intravenous ampicillin has been extensively used for various kinds of infections for more than fifty years. This drug is administered intermittently, which can result in missed or delayed drug administration and sleep interruption that can have a negative impact on the quality of life during hospitalization. Continuous infusion may solve these concerns. We reviewed the cases of five patients who were treated with continuous ampicillin infusions in our hospital. The ampicillin serum concentrations were from 11.3 to 32.8 ?g/mL, which was above the ampicillin MICs of the causative organisms, ?0.06 to 4 ?g/mL. Although the dosages given of ampicillin varied in each case, the serum concentrations showed a strong correlation with creatinine clearance (r(2) = 0.91). All the patients improved at the time of discharge, or transfer to another hospital, with no significant complications during the continuous infusion. Continuous ampicillin infusion could be a better alternative for frequent intermittent infusion for adult inpatients with infections due to ampicillin-susceptible organisms. PMID:24972584

Ogawa, Taku; Kasahara, Kei; Ikawa, Kazuro; Shigeta, Junichi; Komatsu, Yuko; Kuruno, Noriko; Uno, Kenji; Maeda, Koichi; Mikasa, Keiichi

2014-10-01

304

Somatostatin infusion enhances hepatic glucose production during hyperglucagonemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Somatostatin (SRIH) is widely employed in metabolic studies to permit quantitation of glucose production and disposal rates while the endocrine pancreas is suppressed and the hormonal milieu is under the investigator's control. In these studies it is assumed that if peripheral levels of insulin and glucagon are the same during SRIH infusion as during control studies, the effects of these hormones on glucose metabolism are equivalent. If the effect of glucagon is influenced by SRIH infusion, then these techniques may be unsuitable for the study of the regulation of hepatic glucose output. To assess the influence of SRIH on glucagon-stimulated hepatic glucose production (Ra), we determined Ra during paired studies in ten healthy (five younger and five older) subjects. In each study an insulin infusion designed to yield physiologic systemic insulin levels of 20 to 30 microU/mL was given from 0 to 210 minutes. In addition, from 60 to 210 minutes either glucagon alone (3.5 ng/kg/min) (I + IRG) or glucagon (3.5 ng/kg/min) and SRIH (250 micrograms/h) (I + IRG + SRIH) was infused. Since results for plasma levels of insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and Ra were similar in young and old subjects, the two age groups were combined for analysis. Basal plasma insulin, glucagon, C-peptide, glucose, and Ra were similar in each arm of the study. Insulin values were nearly identical from 60 to 210 minutes (I + IRG, 23.8 +/- 1.1; I + IRG + SRIH, 24.0 +/- 1.0 microU/mL).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2893970

Meneilly, G S; Minaker, K L; Elahi, D; Rowe, J W

1988-03-01

305

High serum resistin is associated with an increase in adiposity but not a worsening of insulin resistance in Pima Indians  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Resistin is an adipokine with putative prodiabetogenic properties. Like other hormones secreted by adipose tissue, resistin is being investigated as a possible etiologic link between excessive adiposity and insulin resistance. Although there is growing evidence that circulating levels of this adipokine are proportional to the degree of adiposity, an effect on insulin resistance in humans remains unproven. To evaluate the relations among resistin, obesity, and insulin resistance, we measured fasting serum resistin levels in 113 nondiabetic (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) Pima Indians (ages 29 +/- 7 years, body fat 31 +/- 8%, resistin 3.7 +/- 1.1 ng/ml [means +/- SD]), who were characterized for body composition (assessed by hydrodensitometry or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), whole-body insulin sensitivity (M; assessed by hyperinsulinemic clamp), basal hepatic glucose output (BHGO) and hepatic glucose output during low-dosage insulin infusion of a hyperinsulinemic clamp (HGO; a measure of hepatic insulinresistance), and acute insulin secretory response (AIR; assessed by 25-g intravenous glucose tolerance test). Follow-up measurements of M, BHGO, HGO, and AIR were available for 34 subjects who had normal glucose tolerance at baseline and remained nondiabetic at follow-up. The average time to follow-up was 4.5 +/- 2.7 years. In cross-sectional analyses, serum resistin levels were positively associated with percent body fat (r = 0.37, P = 0.0001) and 2-h glucose (r = 0.19, P = 0.04), respectively. Serum resistin levels were not associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels, M, BHGO, HGO, or AIR (r = 0.17, 0.12, -0.13, -0.06, -0.03, and -0.04, respectively; all P > 0.05). After adjusting for percent body fat, there was no association between serum resistin levels and 2-h glucose (r = 0.06, P = 0.6). In prospective analyses, high serum resistin levels at baseline were not associated with a decline in M (r = -0.1, P > 0.5). Resistin levels were, however, associated with increases in percent body fat, fastingplasma insulin, and HGO (r = 0.34, 0.36, and 0.37; all P 0.1). We conclude that in Pima Indians, like other human populations, circulating resistin levels are proportional to the degree of adiposity, but not the degree of insulin resistance. We unexpectedly found that high serum resistin levels do predict future increases in percent body fat. Our data suggest that resistin promotes obesity but not obesity-associated insulin resistance in humans.

de Courten, Barbora; Degawa-Yamauchi, Mikako

2004-01-01

306

Influence of age on clearance of insulin in man.  

Science.gov (United States)

With advancing age, glucose-induced insulin release is decreased in vitro, yet circulating insulin levels after glucose challenge are not decreased in the elderly. Age-related changes in insulin clearance may contribute to this discrepancy. We employed the 2-h euglycemic clamp technique to examine insulin clearance (C1) during steady-state insulin infusions (N = 53) at rates of 20, 80, and 200 mU/m2/min in healthy young (N = 16, age range 22-37 yr, relative weight 1.07 +/- 0.03) and old (N = 10, age range 63-77 yr, relative weight 1.14 +/- 0.03) men. Steady-state insulin levels were statistically significantly higher (P less than 0.01) in the elderly at each infusion rate. C1 was 40% lower (p less than 0.01) in the infusion rate. There was no effect of increasing relative weight on C1 within age groups. Within each age group, C1 was similar in insulin infusion rates of 20 and 80 mU/m2/min (young P less than 0.05, old P less than 0.001), implying a saturable system for insulin clearance. Alterations in C1 contribute to changes in insulin levels with age and may reconcile the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro studies of glucose-induced insulin release. These results indicate the value of evaluating C1 as one determinant of circulating insulin level in states of abnormal insulin physiology. PMID:6759219

Minaker, K L; Rowe, J W; Tonino, R; Pallotta, J A

1982-10-01

307

Insulin therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires Intensive Insulin Therapy. Implementation of intensive therapy should be early and prolonged as suggested by the results of Diabetes control and complications trial and Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. Proper implementation of intensive therapy requires a course teaching flexible intensive insulin treatment combining dietary freedom and insulin adjustment as shown by the Dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomized controlled trial. Pen injectors appear to be feasible for routine use although pumps may be required in special situations. Various types of insulin are available in the market, including newer analogs (Iispro, aspart, glargine). Although insulin analogs seem to be more physiological, controlled studies suggested either similar efficacy to regular insulin or only a minor benefit in favor of insulin analogs. The primary concern in developing countries like India is the cost-benefit ratio of short acting insulin analogs in the treatment of diabetic children but this still remains unclear. It would be premature to recommend switching patients to newer analogs especially those who are well controlled, especially when the long-term data is still awaited. The choice of post-meal short acting insulin in toddlers may be decided by the care provider if deemed appropriate. Noninvasive insulin deliveries are now in development. It does appear that the most clinically viable non-invasive system to date may be pulmonary delivery. PMID:17079829

Yadav, S; Parakh, Ankit

2006-10-01

308

Insulin aspart pharmacokinetics : An assessment of its variability and underlying mechanisms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Insulin aspart (IAsp) is used by many diabetics as a meal-time insulin to control postprandial glucose levels. As is the case with many other insulin types, the pharmacokinetics (PK), and consequently the pharmacodynamics (PD), is associated with clinical variability, both between and within individuals. The present article identifies the main physiological mechanisms that govern the PK of IAsp following subcutaneous administration and quantifies them in terms of their contribution to the overall variability. Material and methods: CT scanning data from Thomsen et al. (2012) are used to investigate and quantify the properties of the subcutaneous depot. Data from Brange et al. (1990) are used to determine the effects of insulin chemistry in subcutis on the absorption rate. Intravenous (i.v.) bolus and infusion PK data for human insulin are used to understand and quantify the systemic distribution and elimination (Porksen et al., 1997; Sjostrand et al., 2002). PK and PD profiles for type 1 diabetics from Chen et al. (2005) are analyzed to demonstrate the effects of IAsp antibodies in terms of bound and unbound insulin. PK profiles from Thorisdottir et al. (2009) and Ma et al. (2012b) are analyzed in the nonlinear mixed effects software Monolix (R) to determine the presence and effects of the mechanisms described in this article. Results: The distribution of IAsp in the subcutaneous depot show an initial dilution of approximately a factor of two in a single experiment. Injected insulin hexamers exist in a chemical equilibrium with monomers and dimers, which depends strongly on the degree of dilution in subcutis, the presence of auxiliary substances, and a variety of other factors. Sensitivity to the initial dilution in subcutis can thus be a cause of some of the variability. Temporal variations in the PK are explained by variations in the subcutaneous blood flow. IAsp antibodies are found to be a large contributor to the variability of total insulin PK in a study by Chen et al. (2005), since only the freefraction is eliminated via the receptors. The contribution of these and other sources of variability to the total variability is quantified via a population PK analysis and two recent clinical studies (Thorisdottir et al., 2009; Ma et al., 2012b), which support the presence and significance of the identified mechanisms. Conclusions: IAsp antibody binding, oligomeric transitions in subcutis, and blood flow dependent variations in absorption rate seem to dominate the PK variability of IAsp. It may be possible via e.g. formulation design to reduce some of these variability factors. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Roge, Rikke Meldgaard

2014-01-01

309

Continuous-infusion adriamycin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discusses the diminished cardiotoxicity as well as diminished nausea and vomiting with continuous infusions of adriamycin to patients undergoing radiation therapy, particularly with infusions of 48 hours or longer, and best with 96-hour infusions, the longest duration that has been studied systematically. In breast cancer, data show that more adriamycin is better, but only for a selected subgroup of patients: those with complete remission. The diminished cardiotoxicity makes the use of adriamycin more attractive in the adjuvant situation, where increased safety will decrease the chances of long-term complications and make retreatment easy for cured patients who develop second malignancies

310

Glucose tolerance, insulin release, and insulin binding to monocytes in kidney transplant recipients  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to evaluate glucose tolerance following renal transplantation, intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), with evaluation of hormonal responses to the intravenous glucose load and percent specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding to peripheral blood monocytes, were studied in eight clinically stable kidney transplant recipients. For comparison purposes, identical studies were done in eight control subjects and seven clinically stable hemodialysis patients. One transplant recipient was glucose intolerant, with fasting hyperglycemia, elevated HbA1C, and abnormal glucose decay constant. Impaired pancreatic insulin release appeared to be the major factor accounting for his glucose intolerance. The seven glucose-tolerant transplant recipients had significantly increased insulin release during IVGTT compared to control subjects, and significant correlations were found among insulin release, glucose decay constant, and fasting blood sugar in those patients. Insulin binding to monocytes was significantly greater in transplant recipients than control subjects due to an increase in insulin binding capacity per cell. A significant correlation was found between percent specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding and steroid dose, expressed as mg/kg body weight/day, in those patients. Thus, chronic steroid administration does not cause glucose intolerance in transplant recipients who manifest steroid-associated increases in pancreatic insulin release and cellular insulin binding capacity.

Briggs, W.A.; Wielechowski, K.S.; Mahajan, S.K.; Migdal, S.D.; McDonald, F.D.

1982-03-01

311

Attenuated insulin response and normal insulin sensitivity in lean patients with ankylosing spondylitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine insulin response to intravenous glucose load and insulin sensitivity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Fourteen nonobese male patients with AS and 14 matched healthy controls underwent frequent-sampling intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT). Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were calculated using the computer-minimal and homeostasis-model assessment 2 (HOMA2) models. Fasting glucose, insulin, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride levels, HOMA2, glucose effectiveness, insulin sensitivity and insulin response to FSIVGTT did not differ between patients and controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations tended to be higher in AS patients than in controls. Second-phase beta-cell responsiveness was 37% lower (p = 0.05) in AS patients than in controls. A negative correlation was found between the percentage of beta-cell secretion and IL-6 in all subjects (r = -0.54, p = 0.006). We found normal insulin sensitivity but attenuated glucose utilization in the second phase of FSIVGTT in AS patients. Our results indicate that elevated IL-6 levels may play a pathophysiological role in attenuating beta-cell responsiveness, which may explain the association between elevated IL-6 levels and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:16366418

Penesova, A; Rovensky, J; Zlnay, M; Dedik, L; Radikova, Z; Koska, J; Vigas, M; Imrich, R

2005-01-01

312

Evaluation of maternal infusion therapy during pregnancy for fetal development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this project was to study the possible association between maternal infusion treatments during pregnancy and variables of fetal development as well as the occurrence of congenital abnormalities (CA in a case-control design. The large population-based data set of the Hungarian Case?Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities (HCCSCA was evaluated based on the medically recorded infusion treatment during pregnancy. Of 22,843 case pregnant women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities, 112 (0.5%, while of 38,151 control pregnant women who had newborn infants without any defects, 262 (0.7%, had infusion treatment during pregnancy. Infusion treatment was more frequent in the control group than in the case group with congenital abnormalities (adjusted POR with 945 95% CI: 0.7, 0.6-0.9 and there was no higher rate of maternal infusion treatments in any congenital abnormality group. Mean gestational age was shorter and mean birth weight was smaller in control newborn infants without CA born to mothers with infusion treatment during pregnancy than in the babies of mothers without infusion treatment. The prevalence of mild intrauterine growth retardation was more frequent in the fetuses of pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum treated with infusion. The results of the study suggest that infusion treatment of pregnant women did not associate with a higher risk of congenital abnormalities. In addition, the intravenous infusion of drugs has some, but limited efficacy to prevent the adverse effects of hyperemesis gravidarum and threatened preterm delivery.

2005-10-01

313

Insulin pump therapy in adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Restoration of the physiological insulin secretion is a current medical challenge and a dream for patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Continuous insulin therapy using pumps was the first step to the development of artificial pancreas. The aim of diabetes treatment is to achieve strict glycemic control in order to avoid the development of long-term diabetic complications while reducing the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) using an external pump, offers both a better blood glucose stability as compared to multiple daily injections and a broader flexibility in life mode, and reduces the frequency of severe hypoglycemia. The advantages of the insulin pump (consistency of basal delivery, adjustable basal rates, and low insulin depots allowing the reduction of glycemic variability) have contributed to its reported superiority compared with multiple daily injections (MDI). However, experience with CSII indicates that candidates for insulin pump therapy must be carefully selected and strongly motivated to improve their glucose control. Finally, the use of CSII in patients with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 now appears to be a good alternative to the ineffective MDI regimens observed in some of these patients. PMID:21864741

Didangelos, Triantafillos; Iliadis, Fotios

2011-08-01

314

Saline infusion sonohysterography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saline infusion sonohysterography consists of ultrasonographic imaging of the uterus and uterocervical cavity, using real-time ultrasonography during injection of sterile saline into the uterus. When properly performed, saline infusion sonohysterography can provide information about the uterus and endometrium. The most common indication for sonohysterography is abnormal uterine bleeding. sonohysterography should not be performed in a woman who is pregnant or could be pregnant or in a woman with a pelvic infection or unexplained pelvic tenderness. Physicians who perform or supervise diagnostic saline infusion sonohysterograpy should have training, experience, and demonstrated competence in gynecologic ultrasonography and saline infusion sonohysterography. Portions of this document were developed jointly with the American College of Radiology and the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. PMID:14968760

2004-01-01

315

Somatostatin enhances insulin-mediated glucose disposal in elderly subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Somatostatin (SRIH) infusion has been widely used in metabolic studies of carbohydrate metabolism. While the effects of SRIH itself on various aspects of carbohydrate economy have been assessed in young adults, such studies have not been conducted in the elderly, which represent an increasingly important study group. To examine the effect of SRIH on insulin-mediated glucose disposal in the elderly, we studied 12 (7 men and 5 women) healthy nonobese subjects, aged 65-80 yr. Paired 3-h euglycemic insulin clamp studies were performed in random order employing insulin alone (22 mU/m2.min) or insulin with SRIH (250 micrograms/h) and glucagon (0.4 ng/kg.min) to maintain normal basal plasma glucagon levels. Basal plasma insulin, glucose, glucagon, GH, and glucose production and disappearance were similar on each occasion. Steady state (10-180 min) mean plasma insulin [insulin alone, 298 +/- 12 (+/- SE); insulin; glucagon, and SRIH, 304 +/- 15 pmol/L] and glucagon (insulin alone, 85 +/- 7; insulin, glucagon, and SRIH, 96 +/- 9 ng/L) concentrations were similar. At steady state (150-180 min) glucose production was suppressed to similar levels (insulin alone, 26 +/- 7; insulin, glucagon, and SRIH, 36 +/- 13 mumol/kg.min). However, steady state glucose disposal was significantly higher during the SRIH infusion (insulin alone, 295 +/- 26; insulin, glucagon, and SRIH, 346 +/- 32 mumol/kg.min; P less than 0.02). We conclude that SRIH augments insulin-mediated glucose disposal in healthy older subjects at physiological levels of insulin. PMID:2899090

Meneilly, G S; Elahi, D; Minaker, K L; Rowe, J W

1988-08-01

316

Radionuclide venography using continuous Kr-81 m infusion: preliminary note  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Continuous infusion of Kr-81m presents important advantages compared to the commonly used radionuclides for venography. High count rates can be accumulated, and a high resolution collimator can be employed to ensure good quality images. The study can be repeated immediately and multiple views can be performed until a satisfactory result is obtained. The production of radionuclide from a Rb-81--Kr-81m generator suitable for intravenous infusion is almost the same as that which is suitable for ventilation. The same generator can first be used for venography and then for ventilation imaging to complete the work-up patients suspected of having thromboembolic disease

317

Human intravenous pharmacokinetics and absolute oral bioavailability of cefatrizine.  

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Cefatrizine was administered intravenously and orally at dose levels of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg to normal male volunteers in a crossover study. Intravenous pharmacokinetics were dose linear over this range; mean peak plasma concentrations at the end of 30-min infusions were, respectively, 18, 37, and 75 micrograms/ml, total body clearance was 218 ml/min per 1.73 m2, renal clearance was 176 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and mean retention time in the body was 1.11 h. Cumulative urinary excretion of intac...

Pfeffer, M.; Gaver, R. C.; Ximenez, J.

1983-01-01

318

Effect of oral antacids on disposition of intravenous enoxacin.  

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The effect of an intensive aluminum-magnesium hydroxide antacid regimen (Maalox TC) on the disposition of intravenous enoxacin was studied in six male and six female volunteers. A single 400-mg dose of enoxacin was administered intravenously over 30 min on two occasions separated by a 1-week washout period. Thirty milliliters of Maalox TC was administered at -8, -2.5, -0.5, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 7.5, 9.5, 11.5, 13.5, and 15.5 h relative to the start of one enoxacin infusion. The enoxacin dose in whi...

Nix, D. E.; Lebsack, M. E.; Chapelsky, M.; Sedman, A. J.; Busch, J.; Norman, A.

1993-01-01

319

Pressão arterial, respostas metabólicas e autonômicas à insulina e infusão de intralipid® em pacientes chagásicos Presión arterial, respuestas metabólicas y autonómicas a la insulina e infusión de intralipid® en pacientes chagásicos Blood pressure, metabolic and autonomic responses to insulin and intralipid® infusion in chagasic patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Infusão de intralipid e heparina resulta em aumento da pressão arterial e também em anormalidades autonômicas em indivíduos normais e hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade a insulina e o impacto da infusão de intralipid e de heparina (ILH sobre a resposta hemodinâmica, metabólica e autonômica em pacientes com a forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Doze pacientes com a forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas e 12 voluntários saudáveis foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial basal e a frequência cardíaca foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. Os níveis plasmáticos de noradrenalina encontravam-se ligeiramente aumentados no grupo de pacientes chagásicos. Após o Teste de Tolerância a Insulina (TTI, houve um declínio significativo na glicose dos dois grupos. A Infusão de ILH resultou em aumento da pressão arterial em ambos os grupos, mas não houve nenhuma mudança significativa na noradrenalina plasmática. O componente de Baixa Frequência (BF mostrou-se semelhante e aumentou de forma semelhante em ambos os grupos. O componente de Alta Frequência (AF apresentou-se menor no grupo chagásico. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas apresentaram aumento da atividade simpática no momento basal e uma resposta inadequada à insulina. Eles também tiveram um menor componente de alta frequência e sensibilidade barorreflexa prejudicada no momento basal e durante a infusão de intralipid e heparina.FUNDAMENTO: La Infusión de intralipid® y de heparina trae como resultado un aumento de la presión arterial y también de las anormalidades autonómicas en los individuos normales e hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la sensibilidad a la insulina y el impacto de la infusión de intralipid® y de heparina (ILH sobre la respuesta hemodinámica, metabólica y autonómica en pacientes con la forma indefinida de la Enfermedad de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Fueron evaluados doce pacientes con la forma indefinida de la Enfermedad de Chagas y 12 voluntarios sanos. RESULTADOS: La presión arterial basal y la frecuencia cardíaca fueron similares en los dos grupos. Los niveles plasmáticos de noradrenalina estaban ligeramente más elevados en el grupo de pacientes chagásicos. Después del Test de Tolerancia a la Insulina (TTI, se produjo una ostensible disminución en la glucosa de los dos grupos. La Infusión de ILH trajo como consecuencia el aumento de la presión arterial en ambos grupos, pero no hubo ningún cambio significativo en la noradrenalina plasmática. El componente de Baja Frecuencia (BF, fue similar y aumentó de forma parecida en ambos grupos. El componente de Alta Frecuencia (AF se presentó con un menor nivel en el grupo chagásico. CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes con una forma indeterminada de la Enfermedad de Chagas, presentaron un aumento en la actividad simpática al momento basal y una respuesta inadecuada a la insulina. También tuvieron un menor componente de alta frecuencia y de sensibilidad barorrefleja, que fue perjudicado en el momento basal y durante la infusión de intralipid® y heparina.BACKGROUND: Intralipid and heparin infusion results in increased blood pressure and autonomic abnormalities in normal and hypertensive individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate insulin sensitivity and the impact of Intralipid and heparin (ILH infusion on hemodynamic, metabolic, and autonomic response in patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease. METHODS: Twelve patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease and 12 healthy volunteers were evaluated. RESULTS: Baseline blood pressure and heart rate were similar in both groups. Plasma noradrenaline levels were slightly increased in the Chagas' group. After insulin tolerance testing (ITT, a significant decline was noted in glucose in both groups. ILH infusion resulted in increased blood pressure in both groups, but there was no significant change in plasma noradrenaline. The low-frequency component (LF was similar and similarly increased in both groups. The high-frequency compo

Claudia Cristina Soares Silva

2012-03-01

320

Pressão arterial, respostas metabólicas e autonômicas à insulina e infusão de intralipid® em pacientes chagásicos / Blood pressure, metabolic and autonomic responses to insulin and intralipid® infusion in chagasic patients / Presión arterial, respuestas metabólicas y autonómicas a la insulina e infusión de intralipid® en pacientes chagásicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: Infusão de intralipid e heparina resulta em aumento da pressão arterial e também em anormalidades autonômicas em indivíduos normais e hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade a insulina e o impacto da infusão de intralipid e de heparina (ILH) sobre a resposta hemodinâmica, metabóli [...] ca e autonômica em pacientes com a forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Doze pacientes com a forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas e 12 voluntários saudáveis foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial basal e a frequência cardíaca foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. Os níveis plasmáticos de noradrenalina encontravam-se ligeiramente aumentados no grupo de pacientes chagásicos. Após o Teste de Tolerância a Insulina (TTI), houve um declínio significativo na glicose dos dois grupos. A Infusão de ILH resultou em aumento da pressão arterial em ambos os grupos, mas não houve nenhuma mudança significativa na noradrenalina plasmática. O componente de Baixa Frequência (BF) mostrou-se semelhante e aumentou de forma semelhante em ambos os grupos. O componente de Alta Frequência (AF) apresentou-se menor no grupo chagásico. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas apresentaram aumento da atividade simpática no momento basal e uma resposta inadequada à insulina. Eles também tiveram um menor componente de alta frequência e sensibilidade barorreflexa prejudicada no momento basal e durante a infusão de intralipid e heparina. Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: La Infusión de intralipid® y de heparina trae como resultado un aumento de la presión arterial y también de las anormalidades autonómicas en los individuos normales e hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la sensibilidad a la insulina y el impacto de la infusión de intralipid® y de heparina (IL [...] H) sobre la respuesta hemodinámica, metabólica y autonómica en pacientes con la forma indefinida de la Enfermedad de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Fueron evaluados doce pacientes con la forma indefinida de la Enfermedad de Chagas y 12 voluntarios sanos. RESULTADOS: La presión arterial basal y la frecuencia cardíaca fueron similares en los dos grupos. Los niveles plasmáticos de noradrenalina estaban ligeramente más elevados en el grupo de pacientes chagásicos. Después del Test de Tolerancia a la Insulina (TTI), se produjo una ostensible disminución en la glucosa de los dos grupos. La Infusión de ILH trajo como consecuencia el aumento de la presión arterial en ambos grupos, pero no hubo ningún cambio significativo en la noradrenalina plasmática. El componente de Baja Frecuencia (BF), fue similar y aumentó de forma parecida en ambos grupos. El componente de Alta Frecuencia (AF) se presentó con un menor nivel en el grupo chagásico. CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes con una forma indeterminada de la Enfermedad de Chagas, presentaron un aumento en la actividad simpática al momento basal y una respuesta inadecuada a la insulina. También tuvieron un menor componente de alta frecuencia y de sensibilidad barorrefleja, que fue perjudicado en el momento basal y durante la infusión de intralipid® y heparina. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Intralipid and heparin infusion results in increased blood pressure and autonomic abnormalities in normal and hypertensive individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate insulin sensitivity and the impact of Intralipid and heparin (ILH) infusion on hemodynamic, metabolic, and autonomic response in [...] patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease. METHODS: Twelve patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease and 12 healthy volunteers were evaluated. RESULTS: Baseline blood pressure and heart rate were similar in both groups. Plasma noradrenaline levels were slightly increased in the Chagas' group. After insulin tolerance testing (ITT), a significant decline was noted in glucose in both groups. ILH infusion resulted in increased blood pressure in both groups, but there was no significant change i

Claudia Cristina Soares, Silva; Carlos Alberto Martins, Santos; Cristiano, Mostarda; Eduardo Moacyr, Krieger; Heno Ferreira, Lopes.

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

Role of free fatty acids and insulin in determining free fatty acid and lipid oxidation in man.  

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Plasma FFA oxidation (measured by infusion of 14C-palmitate) and net lipid oxidation (indirect calorimetry) are both inhibited by insulin. The present study was designed to examine whether these insulin-mediated effects on lipid metabolism resulted from a decline in circulating FFA levels or from a direct action of the hormone on FFA/lipid oxidation. Nine subjects participated in two euglycemic insulin clamps, performed with and without heparin. During each insulin clamp study insulin was inf...

Groop, L. C.; Bonadonna, R. C.; Shank, M.; Petrides, A. S.; Defronzo, R. A.

1991-01-01

322

Intravenous adenosine SPECT thallium imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper determines the safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) adenosine in females for the evaluation of coronary artery disease, since only limited data are available. Eighty consecutive studies of 78 female subjects (aged 43-83 years) using IV adenosine (0.14 mg/kg per minute) with T1-201 SPECT imaging were reviewed. Fifty-eight (73%) had mild symptoms; mild dyspnea (24%), flushing (23%), chest pain (23%), headache (11%), dizziness (11%), weakness (9%), nausea (8%), abdominal pain (8%), arm pain (6%), chest tightness (4%), neck tightness (4%), dry mouth (4%), and dropped P waves (4%). Four had moderate symptoms: dyspnea requiring Proventil or aminophylline (2%), significant hypotension (1%), and third-degree atrioventicular heart block (1%). Two had severe symptoms (ventricular tachycardia requiring cardioversion (1%) and severe dyspnea requiring epinephrine (1%). Twenty-two (28%) underwent cardiac catheterization that demonstrated coronary artery disease or postangioplasty results. The thallium SPECT images were 94% sensitive and 100% specific in detecting significant disease. The one false-negative result was in a subject who experienced no symptoms for ECG changes during adenosine infusion. Ischemic ECG changes were 35% sensitive and 100% specific. Chest pain was 53% sensitive and 60% specific

323

Disposition of intravenous radioactive acyclovir  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetic and metabolic disposition of (8-14C)acyclovir (ACV) was investigated in five subjects with advanced malignancy. The drug was administered by 1-hr intravenous infusion at doses of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg. Plasma and blood radioactivity-time, and plasma concentration-time data were defined by a two-compartment open kinetic model. There was nearly equivalent distribution of radioactivity in blood and plasma. The overall mean plasma half-life and total body clearance +/- SD of ACV were 2.1 +/- 0.5 hr and 297 +/- 53 ml/min/1.73 m2. Binding of ACV to plasma proteins was 15.4 +/- 4.4%. Most of the radioactive dose excreted was recovered in the urine (71% to 99%) with less than 2% excretion in the feces and only trace amounts in the expired Co2. Analyses by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that 9-(carboxymethoxymethyl)guanine was the only significant urinary metabolite of ACV, accounting for 8.5% to 14.1% of the dose. A minor metabolite (less than 0.2% of dose) had the retention time of 8-hydroxy-9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine. Unchanged urinary ACV ranged from 62% to 91% of the dose. There was no indication of ACV cleavage to guanine. Renal clearance of ACV was approximately three times the corresponding creatinine clearances

324

Adipose-derived resistin and gut-derived resistin-like molecule–? selectively impair insulin action on glucose production  

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The adipose-derived hormone resistin is postulated to link obesity to insulin resistance and diabetes. Here, the infusion of either resistin or the resistin-like molecule–? (RELM?) rapidly induced severe hepatic but not peripheral insulin resistance. In the presence of physiologic hyperinsulinemia, the infusion of purified recombinant resistin, increasing circulating resistin levels by approximately twofold to 15-fold, inhibited glucose metabolism such that lower rates of glucose infusion...

Rajala, Michael W.; Obici, Silvana; Scherer, Philipp E.; Rossetti, Luciano

2003-01-01

325

Characterization of the insulin resistance of aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

To clarify the nature of the insulin resistance of aging we studied the dose response for insulin-induced glucose disposal and the binding of insulin to circulating monocytes in healthy young and old men. A total of 49 two-hour euglycemic insulin clamp studies were performed in 17 young and 10 old healthy nonobese subjects. While the old group had lower estimates of lean body mass and greater estimates of total body fat than the young group, these differences did not exceed 5% and did not reach statistical significance. Insulin was infused at 20 mU/m2 per min (young = 8, old = 5); 80 mU/m2 per min (young = 13, old = 9); 200 mU/m2 per min (young = 9, old = 5). Increasing levels of hyperinsulinemia were associated with dose-dependent increases in steady-state glucose infusion rates in young and old. The maximal glucose infusion rates (milligrams per kilogram body weight per minute) were the same for young and old. However, the dose-response curve was shifted to the right in the old subjects. In the four individuals in each age group in whom studies were performed at each dose level, the Km was 54 +/- 14 microU/ml in the young and 113 +/- 11 microU/ml in the old (P less than 0.02). Correction of glucose infusion rate for lean body mass had no effect on comparisons between age groups. These data indicate an age-associated decline in sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin without a change in maximal tissue responsiveness. Studies of insulin binding with 14 young and 9 old subjects indicated no effect of age on the insulin binding to receptors on circulating monocytes (young = 5.25 +/- 0.35; old = 6.22 +/- 0.53% of 125I-insulin bound/10(7) cells). These studies suggest that aging may be associated with a postreceptor defect in insulin action manifested by decreased whole-body tissue sensitivity to insulin without a change in tissue responsiveness. PMID:6345585

Rowe, J W; Minaker, K L; Pallotta, J A; Flier, J S

1983-06-01

326

Insulin dose-dependent reductions in plasma amino acids in man.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantitative relationship between insulin and plasma amino acid (AA) levels were characterized in five healthy young men during euglycemic insulin infusions (6, 10, 30, and 400 mU . m-2 . min-1). The endogenous production and disposal of glucose were determined for the 6 mU . m-2 . min-1 insulin infusion using 6,6-dideuteroglucose. While 8 of 10 AA decreased in a dose-responsive pattern to increasing levels of insulin, alanine and glycine concentrations remained unaffected. For isoleucine and proline, the insulin levels required for a half-maximal response were less than for glucose disposal (P less than 0.05), but, for all other insulin-influenced AA, the levels required were similar to those for glucose disposal. These studies indicate that insulin sensitivity of AA is similar to that of glucose disposal and that AA responses to insulin exhibit a physiologically relevant, dose-response relationship. PMID:3510558

Fukagawa, N K; Minaker, K L; Young, V R; Rowe, J W

1986-01-01

327

Effects of intravenous methyl palmoxirate on the turnover and oxidation of fatty acids in conscious dogs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methyl palmoxirate (MP) is a member of a class of hypoglycemic agents that inhibit fatty acid oxidation in vitro. The studies presented here were undertaken to determine the effects of intravenous (IV) MP on tracer-determined rates of fatty acid oxidation and systemic adipose tissue lipolysis in dogs. MP (40 mg/kg) was administered IV to five mongrel dogs using a primed continuous infusion of (1-{sup 14}C)palmitate to determine palmitate kinetics. Palmitate concentration and rate of appearance decreased rapidly (from 155 +/- 25 to 47 +/- 6 mumol/L and 2.9 +/- 0.5 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1, respectively, at 15 minutes, both P less than .05). Palmitate oxidation also decreased, from 1.5 +/- 0.4 to 0.3 +/- 0.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1, P less than .05. Oxidative clearance decreased by approximately 50% 90 minutes after MP administration (P less than .05). Fractional oxidation of palmitate also decreased by approximately 40% (P less than .05). Plasma insulin increased from 45 +/- 6 to 240 +/- 93 pmol/L at 15 minutes (P less than .05). Plasma glucose decreased over the course of study by approximately 20% (P less than .05). In summary, MP has a specific inhibitory effect on plasma free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation in dogs, confirming previous in vitro observations in an in vivo model. In addition, it has a potent antilipolytic effect when administered IV, an effect likely mediated by stimulation of insulin secretion. The observation that systemic FFA oxidation was only partially suppressed at this relatively high dose of MP is consistent with previous studies suggesting that MP may exert its major effect in the liver, and may be less potent in extrahepatic tissues.

Bailey, J.W.; Jensen, M.D.; Miles, J.M. (Mayo Medical School, Rochester, MN (USA))

1991-04-01

328

Effects of intravenous methyl palmoxirate on the turnover and oxidation of fatty acids in conscious dogs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methyl palmoxirate (MP) is a member of a class of hypoglycemic agents that inhibit fatty acid oxidation in vitro. The studies presented here were undertaken to determine the effects of intravenous (IV) MP on tracer-determined rates of fatty acid oxidation and systemic adipose tissue lipolysis in dogs. MP (40 mg/kg) was administered IV to five mongrel dogs using a primed continuous infusion of [1-14C]palmitate to determine palmitate kinetics. Palmitate concentration and rate of appearance decreased rapidly (from 155 +/- 25 to 47 +/- 6 mumol/L and 2.9 +/- 0.5 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1, respectively, at 15 minutes, both P less than .05). Palmitate oxidation also decreased, from 1.5 +/- 0.4 to 0.3 +/- 0.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1, P less than .05. Oxidative clearance decreased by approximately 50% 90 minutes after MP administration (P less than .05). Fractional oxidation of palmitate also decreased by approximately 40% (P less than .05). Plasma insulin increased from 45 +/- 6 to 240 +/- 93 pmol/L at 15 minutes (P less than .05). Plasma glucose decreased over the course of study by approximately 20% (P less than .05). In summary, MP has a specific inhibitory effect on plasma free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation in dogs, confirming previous in vitro observations in an in vivo model. In addition, it has a potent antilipolytic effect when administered IV, an effect likely mediated by stimulation of insulin secretion. The observation that systemic FFA oxidation was only paon that systemic FFA oxidation was only partially suppressed at this relatively high dose of MP is consistent with previous studies suggesting that MP may exert its major effect in the liver, and may be less potent in extrahepatic tissues

329

Infusion-embolization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transcatheter intra-arterial therapy for the cancer patient encompasses infusion of chemotherapy and embolization. Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapeutic agents has been resurrected because of the availability of new drugs, combinations of drugs, and the capability of percutaneous selective catheter placement. Intra-arterial infusion has been effective in patients with carcinomas of the liver, bladder, prostate, uterus, ovary, and lung and in bone and soft tissue sarcomas, melanomas, and tumors of the brain. Embolization of the arterial supply, creating ischemia of the neoplasm, has been employed in the therapeutic management of patients with primary and secondary neoplasms of the liver, kidney, and bone. The median survival of 100 patients with neoplasms of the liver from the time of hepatic artery embolization was 11.5 months. In 100 patients with pulmonary metastases from carcinoma of the kidney, 28 experienced a response to renal artery embolization, a therapeutic delay of 4 to 7 days, nephrectomy, and Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone). Seven of 12 patients with giant cell tumor of the pelvis and lumbar spine responded to arterial embolization after all other therapy failed. Chemoembolization, the combination of arterial infusion of chemotherapy and embolization, can be accomplished by the use of microencapsulated agents, liposomes, and particulate emboli with drugs. This approach integrates the advantages of infusion and occlusion, and has considerable potential. Intra-arterial immunotherapy has been initiated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) administration into renal neoplasms in patients with metastatic disease. PMID:6093984

Wallace, S; Charnsangavej, C; Carrasco, C H; Bechtel, W

1984-12-01

330

Intravenous metronidazole for treatment of infections involving anaerobic bacteria.  

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Intravenous metronidazole was administered, either by continuous or intermittent infusion, to 20 patients with infections involving anaerobic bacteria; 14 of the 20 patients were changed to oral administration of metronidazole for completion of therapy. Six of eight patients with infections derived from oropharyngeal bacterial flora were cured; the addition of ampicillin was required in one patient, however, because of an incomplete response to metronidazole. Eight of eleven evaluable patient...

George, W. L.; Kirby, B. D.; Sutter, V. L.; Wheeler, L. A.; Mulligan, M. E.; Finegold, S. M.

1982-01-01

331

Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.  

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Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment is shown to be effective in a selected group of patients with a chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The proportion of patients that improve after IVIg treatment varies between studies. Because 40% of a group of IVIg treated CIDP patients needed intermittent IVIg infusions to maintain their improved clinical condition, it is expected that IVIg is effective, at least in this subgroup of patients. However, the proportion of patien...

Doorn, P. A.

1994-01-01

332

Human proinsulin: bioactivity and pharmaco-kinetics after intravenous and subcutaneous administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypoglycemic actions of biosynthetic human proinsulin and human insulin (1 IU insulin/kg b.w. and about equimolar amounts of proinsulin) were studied after intravenous and subcutaneous injection in rabbits. Blood samples were taken up to four hours after injection for the determination of blood glucose and immunoreactive levels of both insulin and human C-peptide. For the determination of human C-peptide, serum taken after proinsulin injection was divided into two fractions. One was examined directly by the human C-peptide radioimmunoassay and the other after incubation with a protein-A-sepharose coupled insulin antibody to find "free human C-peptide". In amounts equimolar to 1 IU insulin/kg b.w., proinsulin exerted an about one third stronger hypoglycemic action (area under curve estimation) after s.c. compared to i.v. injection. Proinsulin-induced hypoglycemia did not last longer after intravenous administration than that induced by intravenous insulin. Although subcutaneous proinsulin did not show the same maximum decrease of blood glucose as subcutaneous insulin, its action was significantly prolonged (up to 180 min). Specific measurement of free human C-peptide showed no evidence of conversion of proinsulin to insulin and C-peptide. PMID:3056805

Schatz, H; Ammermann, S

1988-01-01

333

Continuous radioisotope infusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Continuous infusion of a radioactive marker was used instead of a conventional bolus injection to improve haemodynamic studies. Tc-99m was infused into the blood circulation at a constant rate for 100-300 seconds and the activity in the target structure was measured by a gamma camera with a computer system or by a single detector. The concentration of the marker increased linearly at the same rate throughout the circulating system. Due to variations in transport time from infusion site to different parts of the system the rise of activity occurred at different times. A theory for the calculations was presented and consequently confirmed in a model study. Blood flow patterns in artificial kidneys and alterations in renal blood flow induced by angiotensin were studied. The results are presented as time-function curves or as computer images. This technique can be used to evaluate distributions and alterations of flow in separate parts of a complex circulating system. (author)

334

In vivo kinetics of insulin action on peripheral glucose disposal and hepatic glucose output in normal and obese subjects.  

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To determine whether abnormal kinetics of insulin's biologic actions contribute to the overall insulin resistance in obesity, we compared the rate of activation and deactivation of insulin's effects to stimulate glucose disposal rate (Rd) and inhibit hepatic glucose output (HGO) in 12 nonobese and 10 obese subjects using the euglycemic clamp technique at insulin infusion rates of 15, 40, 120, and 1,200 mU/M2 per min. In both groups, stimulation of Rd was faster the higher the insulin infusion...

Prager, R.; Wallace, P.; Olefsky, J. M.

1986-01-01

335

Zoledronic acid infusion for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available John A SunyeczLaurel Highlands Ob/Gyn, Hopwood, Pennsylvania, USA and MenopauseRx, Inc., Uniontown, PA, USAAbstract: Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and high health care costs. Bisphosphonates are standard therapy for treatment of osteoporosis. However, patient compliance and persistence with oral weekly or monthly bisphosphonate therapy are suboptimal and may lead to reduced effectiveness. Zoledronic acid (ZOL is an intravenous bisphosphonate that is given once yearly for the treatment of osteoporosis via a medically supervised 15-minute infusion. This ensures compliance for a full 12 months. In clinical trials, an annual infusion of ZOL 5 mg has shown sustained efficacy in reducing hip and spine fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. It has also been shown to increase bone density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia (low bone mass and in men with osteoporosis. Transient flu-like symptoms are the most common adverse effects following ZOL infusion, and these can generally be managed with acetaminophen. The availability of an intravenous bisphosphonate that ensures compliance over a long dosing interval may help to overcome barriers to efficacy resulting from poor long-term compliance with oral agents.Keywords: fractures, intravenous bisphosphonate, osteoporosis, zoledronic acid

John A Sunyecz

2010-10-01

336

Plasma Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium During Hypocalcaemia Induced by a Standardized EDTA Infusion in Cows  

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The intravenous Na2EDTA infusion technique allows effective specific chelation of circulating Ca2+ leading to a progressive hypocalcaemia. Methods previously used were not described in detail and results obtained by monitoring total and free ionic calcium were not comparable due to differences in sampling and analysis. This paper describes a standardized EDTA infusion technique that allowed comparison of the response of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between 2...

Jmd, Enemark; Rj, Jørgensen; Lsb, Mellau

2001-01-01

337

Evaluation of slow infusions of co-trimoxazole by using predictive pharmacokinetics.  

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Digital computer simulations of plasma concentration-time profiles of single intravenous infusions of trimethoprim (160 mg)/sulfamethoxazole (800 mg) based on data from other workers showed that increasing the infusion period from the hitherto generally recommended 1 to 1.5 h to 6 h did not significantly affect the interval (approximately 10 h and 8.5 h, respectively) during which trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole plasma concentrations were maintained above their minimum effective plasma conc...

Morgan, D. J.; Raymond, K.

1980-01-01

338

Glycine and urea kinetics in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in human: effect of intralipid infusion  

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The rates of oxidation of glycine and ureagenesis were quantified in the basal state and in response to an intravenous infusion of intralipid with heparin (IL) in healthy subjects (n = 8) and in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 6). During fasting, no significant difference in weight-specific rate of appearance (Ra) of glycine, glycine oxidation, and urea synthesis was observed. Intralipid infusion resulted in a significant increase in plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate in both gr...

Dasarathy, Srinivasan; Kasumov, Takhar; Edmison, John M.; Gruca, Lourdes L.; Bennett, Carole; Duenas, Clarita; Marczewski, Susan; Mccullough, Arthur J.; Hanson, Richard W.; Kalhan, Satish C.

2009-01-01

339

Infusion pumps for systemic and intra-arterial chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases.  

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Over a 12 month period, we prospectively evaluated the use of an ambulatory infusion pump for intra-arterial and intravenous chemotherapy in patients with colorectal liver metastases. In all, 274 separate infusions were given with minor complications occurring on six occasions. Administering treatment on an outpatient basis rather than as an inpatient has resulted in savings of over Pounds 17000 in the first year.

Howell, J. D.; Gallagher, H.; Kane, E.; Maguire, R.; Mcardle, C. S.

1997-01-01

340

Systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of enalaprilat infusion in experimental normotensive sepsis  

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Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to improve splanchnic perfusion in distinct shock states. We hypothesized that enalaprilat potentiates the benefits of early fluid resuscitation in severe experimental sepsis, particularly in the splanchnic region. Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated mongrel dogs received an intravenous infusion of live Escherichia coli over a period of 30 min. Thereafter, two interventions were performed: fluid infusion (normal saline, 32 mL/kg ov...

Rahal L.; Garrido A.G.; Cruz Jr. R.J.; Rocha e Silva M.; Poli-de-Figueiredo L.F.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

The pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil administered by arterial infusion in advanced colorectal hepatic metastases.  

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The pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) following its administration via the hepatic artery in conjunction with biodegradable albumin microspheres and angiotensin II have been studied. Peripheral venous concentrations of 5FU are lower and plasma clearance values higher following intrahepatic arterial administration compared with a similar dose administered by intravenous infusion over both 2 h and 24 h. For the 2 h drug infusions, plasma 5FU concentrations following co-treatment with ang...

Goldberg, J. A.; Kerr, D. J.; Watson, D. G.; Willmott, N.; Bates, C. D.; Mckillop, J. H.; Mcardle, C. S.

1990-01-01

342

Infusion of donor leukocytes to induce tolerance in organ allograft recipients  

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To further enhance chimerism, 229 primary allograft recipients have received perioperative intravenous infusion of a single dose of 3 to 6 × 108 unmodified donor bone marrow (BM) cells/kg body weight. In addition, 42 patients have been accrued in a concurrent protocol involving multiple (up to three) sequential perioperative infusions of 2 × 108 BM cells/kg/day from day 0–2 posttransplantation (PTx). Organ recipients (n = 133) for whom BM was not available were monitored as controls. The ...

Salgar, S. K.; Shapiro, R.; Dodson, F.; Corry, R.; Mccurry, K.; Zeevi, A.; Pham, S.; Abu-elmagd, K.; Reyes, J.; Jordan, M.; Keenan, R.; Griffith, B.; Sesky, T.; Ostrowski, L.; Starzl, T. E.

1999-01-01

343

Intravenous amino acids in third trimester isolated oligohydramnios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the efficacy of maternal administration of intravenous amino acid solution in improving amniotic fluid volume in cases of isolated oligohydramnios and to observe its impact on mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. Study Design: A prospective case series. Methodology: Forty two women with singleton pregnancy, well established gestational age and clinically and sonographically proven isolated oligohydramnios in the third trimester before 36 weeks were administered amino acid solution intravenously after excluding cases of premature rupture of membranes, congenital anomaly of fetus, maternal pulmonary, cardiovascular and hypertensive disorders, and severe placental insufficiency (raised S/D ratio). Pre-infusion and postinfusion Amniotic fluid Index (AFI) was measured and repeated weekly. Women were followed till delivery. Results: According to repeated measurement analysis of variance, mean pre-infusion AFI was 4.7 cm, mean one week postinfusion AFI was 5.8 cm, mean two week post-infusion AFI was 6.2 cm and mean three week AFI was 6.3 cm (p-value 0.029, significant). Cesarean section became a predominant mode of delivery in this group without a firm evidence of associated fetal compromise. Conclusion: Amino acid infusion is an effective therapy for raising AFI in isolated oligohydramnios in this case series. Liberal use of cesarean section in this selected group should be carefully re-evaluated. (author)

344

Concentration-effect relationships of propofol after total intravenous anesthesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the concentration-effect relationships of propofol during recovery after total intravenous anesthesia, 20 female patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery were studied. In 10 patients (Group B) the propofol infusion was supplemented with an epidural block with bupivacaine to evaluate the relation between the blood concentration of propofol and various pharmacodynamic end-points. The remaining 10 patients (Group A) received an alfentanil infusion intravenously instead of the epidural block to assess the dynamic interactions of alfentanil and propofol. Postoperative performances (drowsiness, amnesia, cooperation, and orientation) were evaluated by means of scoring scales. Critical flicker fusion threshold (CFF) also was used to assess the level of postoperative alertness. A propofol blood concentration of 2.5 micrograms/mL was required for satisfactory hypnosis during surgery and at 0.8 +/- 0.4 microgram/mL, the patients were considered fully awake. A concomitant alfentanil infusion reduced the propofol concentration required by 0.2-0.4 microgram/mL for the same degree of effect. Rapid recovery was seen in all patients, but in the group receiving alfentanil infusion there was a shift to the left of the concentration-effect curve in regard to drowsiness and a statistically significant prolongation of recovery by CFF-measurement which suggests a possible dynamic interaction with alfentanil. We conclude that there is a good correlation between the blood concentration of propofol and the pharmacodynamic responses during recovery. PMID:8214698

Wessén, A; Persson, P M; Nilsson, A; Hartvig, P

1993-11-01

345

Superselective arterial infusion and concomitant radiotherapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Superselective arterial infusion for patients with advanced head and neck cancer has been increasingly applied in Japan. We analyzed our experiences and evaluated the efficacy and safety of this treatment. Through October 1999 to March 2002, 29 patients, ranging in age between 33 and 71 years (median 52 years), received superselective intra-arterial infusion therapy of cisplatin (100-120 mg/m{sup 2}/week) with simultaneous intravenous infusion of thiosulfate for neutralizing cisplatin toxicity, and conventional concomitant extrabeam radiotherapy (65 Gy/26 f/6.5 weeks). Four patients were diagnosed with stage III and 25 with stage IV. Thirteen patients were considered contraindicated for surgery, and the other 16 patients rejected radical surgery. Primary tumor sites included paranasal sinus (11 patients), hypopharynx (7), oropharynx (6), oral cavity (4), and parotid gland (1). During the median follow-up period of 20 months, there was no apparent recurrence in 14 (48.3%) of 29 patients. Eleven (37.9%) patients died of disease, and three (10.3%) were alive with disease. In twenty-one patients (72.4%) the primary lesions were well-controlled. Acute toxic effects were moderate, and severe toxic events occurred in four cases, namely, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia, sepsis, tetraplasia, and osteoradionecrosis. We confirmed the effectiveness and safety of superselective arterial infusion and concomitant radiotherapy. Furthermore, we must establish the optimal procedures and schedule, as well as the indications for this treatment. This treatment protocol may improve the prognosis of patients with unresectable disease and patients rejecting surgical treatment. Further study in this particular area is needed. (author)

Homma, Akihiro; Suzuki, Fumiyuki; Inuyama, Yukio; Fukuda, Satoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

2003-05-01

346

Superselective arterial infusion and concomitant radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Superselective arterial infusion for patients with advanced head and neck cancer has been increasingly applied in Japan. We analyzed our experiences and evaluated the efficacy and safety of this treatment. Through October 1999 to March 2002, 29 patients, ranging in age between 33 and 71 years (median 52 years), received superselective intra-arterial infusion therapy of cisplatin (100-120 mg/m2/week) with simultaneous intravenous infusion of thiosulfate for neutralizing cisplatin toxicity, and conventional concomitant extrabeam radiotherapy (65 Gy/26 f/6.5 weeks). Four patients were diagnosed with stage III and 25 with stage IV. Thirteen patients were considered contraindicated for surgery, and the other 16 patients rejected radical surgery. Primary tumor sites included paranasal sinus (11 patients), hypopharynx (7), oropharynx (6), oral cavity (4), and parotid gland (1). During the median follow-up period of 20 months, there was no apparent recurrence in 14 (48.3%) of 29 patients. Eleven (37.9%) patients died of disease, and three (10.3%) were alive with disease. In twenty-one patients (72.4%) the primary lesions were well-controlled. Acute toxic effects were moderate, and severe toxic events occurred in four cases, namely, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia, sepsis, tetraplasia, and osteoradionecrosis. We confirmed the effectiveness and safety of superselective arterial infusion and concomitant radiotherapy. Furthermore, we must eitant radiotherapy. Furthermore, we must establish the optimal procedures and schedule, as well as the indications for this treatment. This treatment protocol may improve the prognosis of patients with unresectable disease and patients rejecting surgical treatment. Further study in this particular area is needed. (author)

347

Pharmacokinetics of Zanamivir following Intravenous Administration to Subjects with and without Renal Impairment  

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Intravenous zanamivir is in clinical development for the treatment of influenza in hospitalized patients, many of whom have renal impairment. This open-label study evaluated zanamivir pharmacokinetics and clinical safety following a single 100-mg intravenous infusion dose in subjects with impaired renal function compared with normal renal function. Male and female subjects between 18 and 79 years of age were recruited, four subjects to each renal function group (normal function and mild, mode...

Weller, Stephen; Jones, Lori S.; Lou, Yu; Peppercorn, Amanda; Ng-cashin, Judith

2013-01-01

348

Teicoplanin pharmacokinetics in intravenous drug abusers being treated for bacterial endocarditis.  

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The pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin were determined after multiple 30-min intravenous infusions of 10 to 15 mg/kg every 12 to 24 h in 11 intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) patients being treated for bacterial endocarditis. Multiple serum samples were obtained over 7 to 14 days. Twenty-four-hour urine collections were obtained on days 1 and 5. Serum concentration-time data were analyzed by using multiple-dose pharmacokinetic analysis (NONLIN84). Results were compared with pharmacokinetic parameters...

Rybak, M. J.; Lerner, S. A.; Levine, D. P.; Albrecht, L. M.; Mcneil, P. L.; Thompson, G. A.; Kenny, M. T.; Yuh, L.

1991-01-01

349

Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study  

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Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is des...

Steele, Megan L.; Jan Axtner; Antje Happe; Matthias Kröz; Harald Matthes; Friedemann Schad

2014-01-01

350

Lipolytic response to glucose infusion in human subjects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have determined the effect of various rates of glucose infusion on the rates of release of glycerol (R/sub a/ glycerol), free fatty acids (R/sub a/ FFA), and on energy metabolism in normal human volunteers. Plasma kinetics were determined with use of the stable isotopic tracers D-5-glycerol and (1- TC)palmitate, and energy metabolism was determined by indirect calorimetry. The effect of glucose infusion on R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA was dose-dependent. At 4 mg x kg x min , both R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA were suppressed; at 8 mg x kg x min , R/sub a/ FFA was even more depressed, but R/sub a/ glycerol was similar to the value during the 4 mg x kg x min infusion. At all infusion rates tested, the amount of potential energy available from the sum of the glucose infusion and endogenously mobilized fat was always greater than when no glucose was infused. Glucose decreased fat mobilization by both inhibiting lipolysis and stimulating reesterification, thus causing a significant increase in triglyceride-fatty acid substrate cycling within the adipose tissue. Plasma insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay.

Wolfe, R.R.; Peters, E.J.

1987-02-01

351

Lipolytic response to glucose infusion in human subjects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have determined the effect of various rates of glucose infusion on the rates of release of glycerol (R/sub a/ glycerol), free fatty acids (R/sub a/ FFA), and on energy metabolism in normal human volunteers. Plasma kinetics were determined with use of the stable isotopic tracers D-5-glycerol and [1-13C]palmitate, and energy metabolism was determined by indirect calorimetry. The effect of glucose infusion on R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA was dose-dependent. At 4 mg x kg-1 x min-1, both R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA were suppressed; at 8 mg x kg-1 x min-1, R/sub a/ FFA was even more depressed, but R/sub a/ glycerol was similar to the value during the 4 mg x kg-1 x min-1 infusion. At all infusion rates tested, the amount of potential energy available from the sum of the glucose infusion and endogenously mobilized fat was always greater than when no glucose was infused. Glucose decreased fat mobilization by both inhibiting lipolysis and stimulating reesterification, thus causing a significant increase in triglyceride-fatty acid substrate cycling within the adipose tissue. Plasma insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay

352

Reactive hypoglycaemia following GLP-1 infusion in pancreas transplant recipients  

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The aim of the study was to determine whether reactive hypoglycaemia in pancreas transplant recipients that followed administration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was associated with excessive insulin, insufficient glucagon, or both. Methodology involved six portally drained pancreas recipients who received GLP-1 (1.5 pmol/kg/min) or placebo infusion on randomized occasions during glucose-potentiated arginine testing. The second subject developed symptomatic hypoglycaemia [plasma glucose ...

Rickels, M. R.; Naji, A.

2010-01-01

353

Hypoglycemia rates with basal insulin analogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypoglycemia has for the most part been studied inadequately for both of the commonly used long-acting insulin analogs in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Almost all existing trials have been designed to investigate changes in glycemic control and not differences in hypoglycemia events. In this review, we present an overview of the hypoglycemic data available from the randomized controlled trials comparing insulin glargine and insulin detemir with NPH or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The limited head-to-head glargine versus detemir data are also discussed with comments on early results relating to the newer insulin analog, degludec. Basal insulin analogs are associated with reduced nocturnal hypoglycemia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Most studies have excluded participants with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia or previous severe events, however, and hypoglycemia reporting is variable and inconsistent. This limits interpretation for those with long-duration type 1 diabetes, and particularly impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, or long-duration more insulin-deficient type 2 diabetes. New optimally designed studies are required to elucidate the true impact of basal analogs on hypoglycemia burden in those living with long-term insulin therapy. PMID:21668338

Little, Stuart; Shaw, James; Home, Philip

2011-06-01

354

Porcine somatotropin alters insulin response in growing pigs by reducing insulin sensitivity rather than changing responsiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exogenous porcine somatotropin (pST) treatment consistently improves growth performance and reduces fat deposition in pigs, and it is hypothesized that one component of the mechanism is through altering the sensitivity and/or responsiveness to insulin. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of pST treatment on whole-body glucose metabolism in response to varying doses of insulin. Eight barrows were surgically prepared with indwelling catheters and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (0 or 120 ?g pST/kg BW · d) for 13 d. Whole-body glucose kinetics were measured during infusion of [6-(3)H]-glucose under basal conditions and during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps at various insulin infusion rates (7, 28, and 140, and 14, 70, and 280 ng insulin/kg BW · min) and alterations in the dose-response parameters were calculated with nonlinear regression. Treatment with pST increased basal plasma concentrations of glucose (36%; P = 0.005), insulin (276%; P = 0.001), and NEFAs (177%; P = 0.01) and decreased the rate of glucose disappearance (-59%; P = 0.001). The responsiveness (maximum response) for steady state glucose infusion rate to maintain glycemia was not altered by pST (112 vs 106 ?mol/min · kg; P = 0.78), whereas the sensitivity (effective dose at 50% of maximum response) was increased almost 7-fold (1.3 vs 8.7 ng/mL; P = 0.027). Similar responses were observed for rate of glucose disappearance and insulin-dependent glucose utilization. Therefore, pST-induced insulin resistance with regard to whole-body glucose uptake is due to a reduced sensitivity to insulin, rather than a change in responsiveness. PMID:22425435

Wray-Cahen, D; Dunshea, F R; Boyd, R D; Bell, A W; Bauman, D E

2012-07-01

355

Racl Signaling Is Required for Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake and Is Dysregulated in Insulin-Resistant Murine and Human Skeletal Muscle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The actin cytoskeleton-regulating GTPase Racl is required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in cultured muscle cells. However, involvement of Racl and its downstream signaling in glucose transport in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant mature skeletal muscle has not previously been investigated. We hypothesized that Racl and its downstream target, p21-activated kinase (PAK), are regulators of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse and human skeletal muscle and are dysregulated in insulin-resistant states. Muscle-specific inducible Racl knockout (KO) mice and pharmacological inhibition of Racl were used to determine whether Racl regulates insulin-stimulated glucose transport in mature skeletal muscle. Furthermore, Racl and PAK1 expression and signaling were investigated in muscle of insulin-resistant mice and humans. Inhibition and KO of Racl decreased insulin-stimulated glucose transport in mouse soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles ex vivo. Had KO mice showed decreased insulin and glucose tolerance and trended toward higher plasma insulin concentrations after intraperitoneal glucose injection. Racl protein expression and insulin-stimulated PAK(Thr423) phosphorylation were decreased in muscles of high fat-fed mice. In humans, insulin-stimulated FAX activation was decreased in both acute insulin-resistant (intralipid infusion) and chronic insulin-resistant states (obesity and diabetes). These findings show that Racl is a regulator of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and a novel candidate involved in skeletal muscle insulin resistance.

Sylow, L.; Jensen, T. E.

2013-01-01

356

What´s cheapest, intravenous iron sucrose- or intravenous iron carboxymaltose treatment in IBD patients? : It dependent on the economic evaluation perspective!  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  What´s cheapest, intravenous iron sucrose- or intravenous iron carboxymaltose treatment in IBD patients? It dependent on the economic evaluation perspective!   Aim: To evaluate the health care cost for intravenous iron sucrose (Venofer®, Vifor) and intravenous iron carboxymaltose (Ferinject®, Vifor) treatment to IBD patients in an outpatient setting.   Background: Intravenous iron sucrose can be given as a maximum of 200 mg Fe++ per infusion vs. intravenous iron carboxymaltose that can be given as a maximum of 1000 mg Fe++ in a single infusion leading to fewer infusions and visits. The drug-cost per mg iron is for iron carboxymaltose approximately double the cost of iron sucrose.   Patients and Methods: Data related to 111 IBD-patients treated with intravenous iron at Aarhus University Hospital from August 2005 until October 2009 was used for the economic evaluation. Analysis included a Budget Impact Analysis (BIA) from a hospital perspective, a Cost Effective Analysis (CEA) from a patient perspective and a Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) consecutively including 20 IBD patients' willingness-to-pay' (WTP) assessment. BIA and CEA analysis were based on total infusion-doses from 500 mg Fe++ till 1600 mg Fe++. The WTP analysis was based on a total infusion-dose at 1400 mg Fe++. The evaluations are analysed assuming that the effect parameter (quantity of iron delivered) is comparable regardless of the iron formulation given intravenously.   Results: The BIA including price for drug, utensils and ½ hour spend by a nurse per visit; showed approximately 150€ extra cost per 1000 mg Fe++ administrated, if iron carboxymaltose was chosen. In contrast the CEA including both BIA-values and patient-related costs (transportation and lost income) showed iron carboxymaltose to be more cost-effective than iron sucrose, due to fewer outpatient setting visits. As IBD-patients could have less income as the average of the background population due to disease activity, sensitivity analysis using a 50% income level weredone, showing the same tendency but less significant. The average patients WTP for a total of iron-dose was to 233€ to reduce the numbers of infusion from 7 till 2.    Conclusion: The cost of choosing iron carboxymaltose rather than iron sucrose in treatment of iron deficiency in IBD differs depending of the economic perspective chosen. Only the Budget Impact Analysis showed iron sucrose to be the cheapest. If the patients' perspective is included in the economic evaluation iron carboxymaltose is the most cost-effective.

Bager, Palle; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik

357

Pharmacokinetics of enoxacin and its oxometabolite following intravenous administration to patients with different degrees of renal impairment.  

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Enoxacin is a fluorinated quinolone with potential clinical use in the treatment of serious infections. Twenty-three patients (age, 19 to 87 years) with different degrees of renal function, including a group undergoing chronic hemodialysis, received enoxacin (400 mg) by intravenous infusion (1 h). Blood samples were collected before infusion; at the end of infusion; and at 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and 3, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 h after infusion. Enoxacin and oxoenoxacin con...

Auwera, P.; Stolear, J. C.; George, B.; Dudley, M. N.

1990-01-01

358

Ultrastructural pulmonary changes induced by intravenously administered 3-methylindole in goats.  

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Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize early pulmonary lesions in goats after a 2-hour intravenous infusion of 0.04 g 3-methylindole (3MI) per kilogram body weight. Groups of 2 or 3 goats were euthanized at 0.5, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after the beginning of the infusion. Changes in lung ultrastructure were compared to noninfused and carrier-infused (propylene glycol) controls. By 0.5 hour, mitochondria and intracellular vesicles were swollen in capillary endothelial, alveola...

Bradley, B. J.; Carlson, J. R.

1980-01-01

359

Insulin resistance and regulation of serum amino acid levels in myotonic dystrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

To quantify the degree of whole body insulin resistance in patients with myotonic dystrophy and to determine if these same patients display signs of a whole body decrease in the action of insulin on amino acid uptake and glucose disposal, three separate 120 min studies employing the euglycaemic insulin clamp technique (20, 80 and 200 m-units min-1 m-2) were performed on five ambulatory patients with myotonic dystrophy. The results were compared with findings obtained in identical studies in 21 normal volunteers. Myotonic dystrophy patients showed a slower, less marked decline in the serum concentration of insulin sensitive amino acids (threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine) during all three insulin infusions compared with normals. The greatest difference occurred at the low physiological elevations of insulin produced by the 20 m-units min-1 m-2 infusion. Alanine levels fell significantly below baseline in patients with myotonic dystrophy after 60 and 120 min of insulin infusion with all three rates of insulin infusion. Normal subjects had only a minimal, insignificant decline in arterialized alanine concentrations during the three different insulin infusions. Creatinine adjusted rates of whole body glucose disposal were 30-40% lower in the myotonic dystrophy group at all three doses of insulin compared with the normals. This demonstrates that their insulin resistance was not due simply to a reduction in muscle mass. The overall pattern of findings in these studies of patients with myotonic dystrophy indicates that there is a whole body derangement in the regulation of circulating amino acid levels by insulin as well as a marked decrease in the action of this hormone in stimulating glucose uptake by target tissues. PMID:3530612

Moxley, R T; Kingston, W J; Minaker, K L; Corbett, A J; Rowe, J W

1986-10-01

360

Effects of metoclopramide on duodenal motility and flow events, glucose absorption, and incretin hormone release in response to intraduodenal glucose infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contribution of small intestinal motor activity to nutrient absorption is poorly defined. A reduction in duodenal flow events after hyoscine butylbromide, despite no change in pressure waves, was associated with reduced secretion of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and a delay in glucose absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of metoclopramide on duodenal motility and flow events, incretin hormone secretion, and glucose absorption. Eight healthy volunteers (7 males and 1 female; age 29.8 ± 4.6 yr; body mass index 24.5 ± 0.9 kg/m²) were studied two times in randomized order. A combined manometry and impedance catheter was used to measure pressure waves and flow events in the same region of the duodenum simultaneously. Metoclopramide (10 mg) or control was administered intravenously as a bolus, followed by an intraduodenal glucose infusion for 60 min (3 kcal/min) incorporating the ¹?C-labeled glucose analog 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG). We found that metoclopramide was associated with more duodenal pressure waves and propagated pressure sequences than control (P < 0.05 for both) during intraduodenal glucose infusion. However, the number of duodenal flow events, blood glucose concentration, and plasma 3-[¹?C]OMG activity did not differ between the two study days. Metoclopramide was associated with increased plasma concentrations of GLP-1 (P < 0.05) and GIP (P = 0.07) but lower plasma insulin concentrations (P < 0.05). We concluded that metoclopramide was associated with increased frequency of duodenal pressure waves but no change in duodenal flow events and glucose absorption. Furthermore, GLP-1 and GIP release increased with metoclopramide, but insulin release paradoxically decreased. PMID:20829521

Kuo, Paul; Bellon, Max; Wishart, Judith; Smout, André J; Holloway, Richard H; Fraser, Robert J L; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L; Rayner, Christopher K

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
361

Continuous versus Intermittent Infusions of Ceftazidime for Treating Exacerbation of Cystic Fibrosis?  

Science.gov (United States)

The present multicenter, randomized crossover study compared the safety and efficacy of continuous infusion with those of short infusions of ceftazidime in patients with cystic fibrosis. Patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization received two successive courses of intravenous tobramycin and ceftazidime (200 mg/kg of body weight/day) for pulmonary exacerbation administered as thrice-daily short infusions or as a continuous infusion. The primary endpoint was the variation in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) during the course of antibiotic treatment. Sixty-nine of the 70 patients enrolled in the study received at least one course of antibiotic treatment. The improvement in FEV1 at the end of therapy was not statistically different between the two treatment procedures (+7.6% after continuous infusion and +5.5% after short infusions) but was better after continuous ceftazidime treatment in patients harboring resistant isolates (P < 0.05). The interval between the course of antibiotic treatments was longer after the continuous infusion than after the short infusion of ceftazidime (P = 0.04). The mean serum ceftazidime concentration during the continuous infusion was 56.2 ± 23.2 ?g/ml; the mean peak and trough concentrations during the short infusions were 216.3 ± 71.5 and 12.1 ± 8.7 ?g/ml, respectively. The susceptibility profiles of the P. aeruginosa isolates remained unchanged and were similar for both regimens. Quality-of-life scores were similar whatever the treatment procedure, but 82% of the patients preferred the continuous-infusion regimen. Adverse events were not significantly different between the two regimens. In conclusion, the continuous infusion of ceftazidime did not increase its toxicity and appeared to be as efficient as short infusions in patients with cystic fibrosis as a whole, but it gave better results in patients harboring resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa. PMID:19528265

Hubert, Dominique; Le Roux, Evelyne; Lavrut, Thibaud; Wallaert, Benoit; Scheid, Philippe; Manach, Dominique; Grenet, Dominique; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Ramel, Sophie; Cracowski, Claire; Sardet, Anne; Wizla, Nathalie; Deneuville, Eric; Garraffo, Rodolphe

2009-01-01

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Glucose and amino acid metabolism in aging man: differential effects of insulin.  

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Insulin is a major regulator of glucose and body protein homeostasis, both of which demonstrate age-related changes. To clarify insulin's role in these age-related changes and to compare age-related glucose and protein homeostatic responses, insulin-mediated aspects of glucose and amino acid metabolism were simultaneously examined in healthy postabsorptive young (n = 5, mean age, 25 years) and elderly (n = 5, mean age, 76 years) men. Primed constant infusions of L-[1-13C]leucine and L-[15N]alanine were administered during a basal period (0 to 180 minutes) and during four separate single rate euglycemic insulin infusions (180 to 360 minutes). Steady state insulin concentrations were 16 +/- 1, 29 +/- 3, 75 +/- 5, and 2407 +/- 56 microU/mL in the