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Sample records for intermolecular electron transfer

  1. Electrochemical study of the intermolecular electron transfer to Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of electron transfer reaction between cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase (NiR) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and various physiological/non physiological redox partners was investigated using cyclic voltammetry at the pyrolytic graphite electrode. While NiR did not exchange electron with the electrode, cytochrome c551 and azurin, both from Ps. aeruginosa, behaved as fast electrochemical systems. The intermolecular electron transfers between NiR and cytochrome c551 or azurin as electron shuttles, in the presence of nitrite, were studied. Second order rate constants of 2x106 and 1.4x105 M-1 s-1 are calculated for cytochrome c551 and azurin, respectively. The dependence of the second-order rate constant on ionic strength and pH is discussed. Finally, the effect of the global charge of the electron shuttles was explored using differently charged species (proteins or small ions). The experimental results suggest involvement of polar interactions as well as of hydrophobic contacts in the protein recognition prior to the intermolecular electron transfer. As the cross-reaction between Ps. nautica cytochrome c552 and Ps. aeruginosa NiR was shown to be as efficient as the catalytic reaction involving the physiological partners, it is concluded to a 'pseudo-specificity' in the recognition between NiR and the electron donor

  2. Effect of donor orientation on ultrafast intermolecular electron transfer in coumarin-amine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of donor amine orientation on nondiffusive ultrafast intermolecular electron transfer (ET) reactions in coumarin-amine systems has been investigated using femtosecond fluorescence upconversion measurements. Intermolecular ET from different aromatic and aliphatic amines used as donor solvents to the excited coumarin-151 (C151) acceptor occurs with ultrafast rates such that the shortest fluorescence lifetime component (?1) is the measure of the fastest ET rate (?1=?ETfast=(kETfast)-1), assigned to the C151-amine contact pairs in which amine donors are properly oriented with respect to C151 to maximize the acceptor-donor electronic coupling (Vel). It is interestingly observed that as the amine solvents are diluted by suitable diluents (either keeping solvent dielectric constant similar or with increasing dielectric constant), the ?1 remains almost in the similar range as long as the amine dilution does not cross a certain critical limit, which in terms of the amine mole fraction (xA) is found to be ?0.4 for aromatic amines and ?0.8 for aliphatic amines. Beyond these dilutions in the two respective cases of the amine systems, the ?1 values are seen to increase very sharply. The large difference in the critical xA values involving aromatic and aliphatic amine donors has been rationalized in terms of the largely different orients of the largely different orientational restrictions for the ET reactions as imposed by the aliphatic (n-type) and aromatic (?-type) nature of the amine donors [A. K. Satpati et al., J. Mol. Struct. 878, 84 (2008)]. Since the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the n-type aliphatic amines is mostly centralized at the amino nitrogen, only some specific orientations of these amines with respect to the close-contact acceptor dye [also of ?-character; A. K. Satpati et al., J. Mol. Struct. 878, 84 (2008) and E. W. Castner et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 2869 (2000)] can give suitable Vel and thus ultrafast ET reaction. In contrary, the HOMO of the ?-type aromatic amines is largely distributed throughout the whole molecule and thus most of the orientations of these amines can give significant Vel for ultrafast ET reactions with close-contact C151 dyes.

  3. Coupling of electrons to intermolecular phonons in molecular charge transfer dimers: A resonance Raman study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedron, D.; Speghini, A.; Mulloni, V.; Bozio, R.

    1995-08-01

    We report resonance Raman scattering (RRS) spectra and Raman excitation profiles (REP) of a system containing ? dimers of identical molecular radical ions measured with laser excitation in resonance with the charge transfer (CT) transition. A Peierls-Hubbard (PH) Hamiltonian has been used to model the investigated system and to calculate its optical and RRS properties. Results are reported for two polyoxometallate salts of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), namely (TTF)2(W6O19) and (TTF)2(Mo6O19) whose structures contain almost isolated (TTF+)2 dimers. The RRS spectra of (TTF)2(W6O19), measured in resonance with the CT absorption band centered at 832 nm, show three phonon modes located at 55, 90, and 116 cm-1 which are strongly resonance enhanced. These modes have been associated to the out-of-phase combinations of the translational motions of the two molecules composing the dimer. Such modes are effective in modulating the intradimer transfer integral, thus providing an efficient mechanism for coupling with the electronic system and for enhancement of the scattering intensity at resonance with the CT transition. The REP for the three strongly coupled modes of (TTF)2(W6O19) have been measured with laser excitation wavelengths ranging from 740 to 930 nm. Quantitative analysis of the REP data has been performed based on a perturbative solution of the PH model to second order in the electron-molecular-vibration (EMV) and electron-intermolecular-phonon (EIP) interactions. The CT absorption profile and the REP's have been calculated using a time correlator technique and the model parameters have been optimized in order to fit the experimental REP data. Infrared vibronic absorptions of (TTF)2(W6O19), originated by the EMV coupling, have been measured and independent information on the electronic parameters of the PH model have been derived. This has made the choice of the fitting parameters used for the REP calculations rather unambiguous and has allowed us to obtain, for the first time, reliable experimental estimates of the EIP coupling constants.

  4. Anion of the Formic Acid Dimer as a Model for Intermolecular Proton Transfer Induced by a [pi]* Excess Electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutral and anionic formic acid dimers have been studied at the second order Moeller-Plesset and coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations with augmented, correlation consistent basis sets of double- and triple-zeta quality. Scans of the potential energy surface for the anion were performed at the density functional level of theory with a hybrid B3LYP functional and a high quality basis set. Our main finding is that the formic acid dimer is susceptible to intermolecular proton transfer upon an excess electron attachment. The unpaired electron occupies a ?* orbital, the molecular moiety that accommodates an excess electron ''buckles'', and a proton is transferred to the unit where the excess electron is localized. In consequence of these geometrical transformations the electron vertical detachment energy becomes substantial, 2.35 eV. The anion is barely adiabatically unstable with respect to the neutral at 0 K. However, at standard conditions and in terms of Gibbs free energy, the anion is more stable than the neutral by 0.04 eV. The neutral and anionic dimers display different IR characteristics. In summary, the formic acid dimer can exist in two quasidegenerate states (neutral and anionic), which can be viewed as ''zero'' and ''one'' in the binary system. These two states are switchable and distinguishable

  5. Electronic transitions and intermolecular forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes two different subjects - electronic transitions and intermolecular forces - that are related mainly by the following observation: The wavenumber at which an electronic transition in an atom or molecule occurs, depends on the environment of that atom or molecule. This implies, for instance, that when a molecule becomes solvated its absorption spectrum may be shifted either to the blue or to the red side of the original gasphase spectrum. In part I attention is paid to the experimental aspects of VUV spectroscopy, both in the gasphase and in the condensed phase. In part II a series of papers are presented, dealing with the calculation of intermolecular forces (and some related topics) both for the ground state and for the excited state interactions, using different non-empirical methods. The calculations provide, among other results, a semiquantitative interpretation of the spectral blue shifts encountered in our experiments. (Auth.)

  6. Photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer from dimethyl aniline to 7-amino coumarin dyes in the surface of beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anjan; Seth, Debabrata; Chakrabarty, Debdeep; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2006-06-01

    The photoinduced electron-transfer reaction between Coumarin dyes and N,N-dimethylaniline has been investigated using steady-state and Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in the surface of beta-cyclodextrin in dimethyl formamide (DMF) solvent. The electron-transfer rate constant has been correlated with the free-energy change during the process. We have observed a diffusion-controlled ET process in pure DMF by showing a normal Marcus region. However, the picture is different in presence of cyclodextrin. Here the ET is retarded at higher free-energy region. This unusual feature in bimolecular electron-transfer reaction is assumed to be arising from the different binding possibility of the Coumarin molecules to the cyclodextrin moity. PMID:16458585

  7. Inter-molecular electronic transfer.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav

    Warrendale, PA : Materials Research Society, 2010 - (Steckel, J.; Kotov, N.; Norris, D.; Bawendi, M.; Kuno, M.), 1207N0905-1-7 ISBN 9781617387623. - (MRS Symposium Proceedings. 1207). [MRS Fall Meeting 2009. Boston (US), 30.11.2009-04.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 866; GA ?R GA202/07/0643 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : zero-dimensional nanostructures * quantum dots * DNA molecule * electric conduction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/PROC-1207-N09-05

  8. Fluorine-Substituted Phenols as Probes to Study Intermolecular Proton Transfer Induced by Excess Electron Attachment to Uracil-Phenol Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Haranczyk; Maciej Gutowski

    2004-01-01

    The experiments suggest that low-energy electrons, possibly localized on nucleic acid bases, induce DNA damage. The results of our recent studies strongly suggest that the excess electron attachment to the complex of a nucleic acid base with an amino acid can induce a barrier-free proton transfer (BFPT) from the amino acid to the O8 of uracil. The driving force for the proton transfer is to stabilize the excess electron localized on a ?* orbital. Our further studies also demonstrated that ...

  9. Intermolecular Hydrogen Transfer in Isobutane Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sugahara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Electron spin resonance (ESR spectra of butyl radicals induced with ?-ray irradiation in the simple isobutane (2-methylpropane hydrate (prepared with deuterated water were investigated. Isothermal annealing results of the ?-ray-irradiated isobutane hydrate reveal that the isobutyl radical in a large cage withdraws a hydrogen atom from the isobutane molecule through shared hexagonal-faces of adjacent large cages. During this “hydrogen picking” process, the isobutyl radical is apparently transformed into a tert-butyl radical, while the sum of isobutyl and tert-butyl radicals remains constant. The apparent transformation from isobutyl to tert-butyl radicals is an irreversible first-order reaction and the activation energy was estimated to be 35 ± 3 kJ/mol, which was in agreement with the activation energy (39 ± 5 kJ/mol of hydrogen picking in the ?-ray-irradiated propane hydrate with deuterated water.

  10. Fluorine-Substituted Phenols as Probes to Study Intermolecular Proton Transfer Induced by Excess Electron Attachment to Uracil-Phenol Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Haranczyk

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiments suggest that low-energy electrons, possibly localized on nucleic acid bases, induce DNA damage. The results of our recent studies strongly suggest that the excess electron attachment to the complex of a nucleic acid base with an amino acid can induce a barrier-free proton transfer (BFPT from the amino acid to the O8 of uracil. The driving force for the proton transfer is to stabilize the excess electron localized on a ?* orbital. Our further studies also demonstrated that BFPT occurs in anionic complexes of uracil with alanine, formic acid, as well as H2Se and H2S. We briefly determined factors governing the occurrence of proton transfer in complexes between anionic nucleic acid bases (NABs and proton donors. We found that the occurrence of BFPT in the uracil complexes is an outcome of the interplay between the deprotonation energy of a proton donor and the protonation energy of the anion of uracil. The density functional theory (DFT was applied as our research method. The B3LYP and MPW1K exchange-correlation functionals with 6-31++G** (5d basis set were used. The substitution of five hydrogen atoms with fluorine atoms in phenol molecule decreases the energy of deprotonation from 15.3 eV to 14.4 eV. There are 5 groups of F-substituted phenol isomers and 19 structures in total. These 19 molecules provide fine grid on the scale of deprotonation energy and can be used as a probe to study the BFPT phenomenon. In the case of uracil-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenol and uracil-2,4,6-trifluorophenol complexes, the excess electron attachment can induce BFPT from the hydroxyl group to the O8 atom of U, with the products being a hydrogenated uracil and a deprotonated fluorophenol. No BFPT is predicted for the anions of other uracil-phenol complexes. The estimated critical value of deprotonation energy of a F-substituted phenol for which BFPT takes place is 14.86-15.38 eV. Further studies can be preformed to obtain a higher accuracy of this estimation.

  11. Intermolecular electron transfer between coumarin dyes and aromatic amines in Triton-X-100 micellar solutions: Evidence for Marcus inverted region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) between coumarin dyes and aromatic amines has been investigated in Triton-X-100 micellar solutions and the results have been compared with those observed earlier in homogeneous medium. Significant static quenching of the coumarin fluorescence due to the presence of high concentration of amines around the coumarin fluorophore in the micelles has been observed in steady-state fluorescence studies. Time-resolved studies with nanosecond resolutions mostly show the dynamic part of the quenching for the excited coumarin dyes by the amine quenchers. A correlation of the quenching rate constants, estimated from the time-resolved measurements, with the free energy changes (?G0) of the ET reactions shows the typical bell shaped curve as predicted by Marcus outer-sphere ET theory. The inversion in the ET rates for the present systems occurs at an exergonicity (-?G0) of ?0.7-0.8 eV, which is unusually low considering the polarity of the Palisade layer of the micelles where the reactants reside. Present results have been rationalized on the basis of the two dimensional ET model assuming that the solvent relaxation in micellar media is much slower than the rate of the ET process. Detailed analysis of the experimental data shows that the diffusional model of the bimolecular quenching kinetics is not applicable for the ET reactions in the micellar solutions. In the present systems, the reactions can be better visualized as reactions can be better visualized as equivalent to intramolecular electron transfer processes, with statistical distribution of the donors and acceptors in the micelles. A low electron coupling (Vel) parameter is estimated from the correlation of the experimentally observed and the theoretically calculated ET rates, which indicates that the average donor-acceptor separation in the micellar ET reactions is substantially larger than for the donor-acceptor contact distance. Comparison of the Vel values in the micellar solution and in the donor-acceptor close contact suggests that there is an intervention of a surfactant chain between the interacting donor and acceptor in the micellar ET reaction

  12. Threshold formation of an intermolecular charge transfer complex of a semiconducting polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashchuk, O. D.; Sosorev, A. Yu.; Bruevich, V. V.; Paraschuk, D. Yu.

    2010-04-01

    It has been found that the formation of an intermolecular charge transfer complex in the ground electronic state between the model conjugated polymer (poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and the low-molecular-weight organic acceptor (2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone, TNF) occurs stepwise with an increase in the acceptor concentration in the blend as is observed in the optical absorption spectra of solutions. The threshold dependence of the absorption of the charge transfer complex is attributed to the stepwise change in the concentration of the charge transfer complexes, which is not explained by the standard model describing the optical characteristics of intermolecular charge transfer complexes. A kinematic model has been proposed to explain the threshold increase in the concentration of charge transfer complexes: at low acceptor concentrations, the charge transfer complex is formed primarily on the surface of a polymer coil, whereas as the acceptor fraction in the solution increases, TNF molecules penetrate inside the polymer coils, forming the charge transfer complex with the units of the polymer inside the coil.

  13. Determination of stepsize parameters for intermolecular vibrational energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, D. C.

    1992-03-01

    Intermolecular energy transfer of highly excited polyatomic molecules plays an important role in many complex chemical systems: combustion, high temperature, and atmospheric chemistry. By monitoring the relaxation of internal energy, we have observed trends in the collisional efficiency (beta) for energy transfer as a function of the substrate's excitation energy and the complexities of substrate and deactivator. For a given substrate beta increases as the deactivator's mass increase to approx 30 amu and then exhibits a nearly constant value; this is due to a mass mismatch between the atoms of the colliders. In a homologous series of substrate molecules (C3 to C8) beta decreases as the number of atoms in the substrate increases; replacing F with H increases beta. All substrates, except for CF2Cl2 and CF2HCl below 10,000 cm(exp -1), exhibited that beta is independent of energy, i.e., (Delta E)(sub all) is linear with energy. The results are interpreted with a simple model which considers that beta is a function of the ocillators energy and its vibrational frequency. Limitations of current approximations used in high temperature unimolecular reactions were evaluated and better approximations were developed. The importance of energy transfer in product yields was observed for the photoactivation of perfluorocyclopropene and the photoproduction of difluoroethyne.

  14. Intermolecular proton transfer induced by excess electron attachment to adenine(formic acid)n (n = 2, 3) hydrogen-bonded complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propensity of the neutral complexes between both adenine and 9-methyladenine (A/MA) with formic acid (FA) in 1:2 and 1:3 stoichiometries to bind an excess electron was studied using photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemistry computational methods. Although an isolated canonical adenine does not support bound valence anions, solvation by one formic acid molecule stabilizes the excess electron on adenine. The adiabatic electron affinities of the A/MA(FA)2,3 complexes span a range of 0.8-1.23 eV indicating that the anions of 1:2 and 1:3 stoichiometries are substantially more stable than the anionic A-FA dimer (EA = 0.67 eV), which we studied previously and an attachment of electron triggers double-BFPT, confirmed at the MPW1K level of theory, in all the considered systems. Hence, the simultaneous involvement of several molecules capable of forming cyclic hydrogen bonds with adenine remarkably increases its ability to bind an excess electron. The calculated vertical detachment energies for the most stable anions correspond well with those obtained using photoelectron spectroscopy. The possible biological significance of our findings is briefly discussed

  15. Photo-induced intermolecular charge transfer in porphyrin complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, M; Kleinekathöfer, U; Schreiber, Michael; Kilin, Dmitry; Kleinekathoefer, Ulrich

    2000-01-01

    Optical excitation of the sequential supermolecule H_2P-ZnP-Q induces an electron transfer from the free-base porphyrin (H_2P) to the quinone (Q) via the zinc porphyrin (ZnP). This process is modeled by equations of motion for the reduced density matrix which are solved numerically and approximately analytically. These two solutions agree very well in a great region of parameter space. It is shown that for the majority of solvents the electron transfer occurs with the superexchange mechanism.

  16. Intermolecular resonance energy transfer in the presence of a dielectric cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a Green's tensor method, we investigate the rate of resonance electronic energy transfer between two molecules near a dielectric cylinder. Both the case of a real and frequency-independent dielectric constant ? and the case of a Drude-Lorentz model for ?(?) are considered, the latter case including dispersion and absorption. If the donor is placed at a fixed position near the cylinder, we find that the energy transfer rate to the acceptor is enhanced compared to its vacuum value in a number of discrete hotspots, centered at the cylinder's surface. In the absence of dispersion and absorption the rate of energy transfer may be enhanced at most a few times. On the other hand, for the Drude-Lorentz model the enhancement may be huge (up to 106) and the hotspots are sharply localized at the surface. We show that these observations can be explained from the fact that in the resonance region of the Drude-Lorentz dielectric surface plasmons occur, which play the dominant role in transferring the electronic energy between the donor and the acceptor. The dependence of the energy transfer rate on the molecular transition frequency is investigated as well. For small intermolecular distances, the cylinder hardly affects the transfer rate, independent of frequency. For larger distances, the frequency dependence is quite strong, in particular in the stop-gap region. The role of the intermolecular distance in the frequency dependence may be explained qualitatively endence may be explained qualitatively using Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to calculate the spread in the frequencies of the intermediate photons.

  17. Electronic band structure and intermolecular interaction in substituted thiophene polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total energy calculations based on a density-functional tight-binding scheme have been performed on polymorphic modifications of various thiophene crystals. The electronic band structures exhibit a quasi-one-dimensional interaction in the triclinic crystals, while the monoclinic modifications show no dispersion over the whole Brillouin zone. The main interaction mechanism can be described as a d-? wave function overlap between sulfur and carbon. The strong intermolecular interaction may induce an interchain excitation, responsible for the different optical properties of the polymorphs

  18. Experimental test of the competition correction for charge capture from the matrix in intermolecular electron tunneling reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further experimental tests have been made of a previously presented method to correct for competition for charge capture from the matrix in intermolecular electron transfer (ET) reactions in rigid media. The method is based on a two-step tunneling model which takes into account the correlation between matrix charge capture and intermolecular electron transfer. The goal is to obtain reliable intermolecular ET rates as a function of distance from measurements on rigid solutions containing two randomly distributed solutes. The method should yield the same rate vs. distance function for different donor solute concentrations. Good agreement was obtained by applying the competition correction to pulse radioloysis data for the reaction of the biphenyl anion with 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF) at 77 K for donor:acceptor solute concentration ratios of 20:1 to 2:1. Worse agreement was obtained for the reaction of the biphenyl anion with phenanthrene in MTHF, in which case the reaction is slow, and its energetics are substantially influenced by solvation. For such slow reactions, accurate measurements of intermolecular ET rates require donor:acceptor solute concentration ratios so that the donor solute captures most of the matrix charges. Some biphenyl cations are produced by direct ionizations and are stable in frozen MTHF. 14 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  19. Effect of intramolecular disorder and intermolecular electronic interactions on the electronic structure of poly- p -phenylene vinylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Batista, Enrique R.; Tretiak, Sergei; Saxena, Avadh; Martin, Richard L.; Smith, D. L.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate the role of intramolecular conformational disorder and intermolecular electronic interactions on the electronic structure of disorder clusters of poly- p -phenylene vinylene (PPV) oligomers. Classical molecular dynamics is used to determine probable molecular geometries, and first-principles density functional theory calculations are used to determine electronic structure. Intramolecular and intermolecular effects are disentangled by contrasting results for densely packed oligomer clusters with those for ensembles of isolated oligomers with the same intramolecular geometries. We find that in PPV electron trap states are induced primarily by intramolecular configuration disorder, while the hole trap states are generated primarily from intermolecular electronic interactions.

  20. Site- and energy-selective slow-electron production through intermolecular Coulombic decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhberg, Kirill; Koloren?, P?emysl; Kuleff, Alexander I.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation of matter with light tends to electronically excite atoms and molecules, with subsequent relaxation processes determining where the photon energy is ultimately deposited and electrons and ions produced. In weakly bound systems, intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) enables very efficient relaxation of electronic excitation through transfer of the excess energy to neighbouring atoms or molecules that then lose an electron and become ionized. Here we propose that the emission site and energy of the electrons released during this process can be controlled by coupling the ICD to a resonant core excitation. We illustrate this concept with ab initio many-body calculations on the argon-krypton model system, where resonant photoabsorption produces an initial or `parent' excitation of the argon atom, which then triggers a resonant-Auger-ICD cascade that ends with the emission of a slow electron from the krypton atom. Our calculations show that the energy of the emitted electrons depends sensitively on the initial excited state of the argon atom. The incident energy can thus be adjusted both to produce the initial excitation in a chosen atom and to realize an excitation that will result in the emission of ICD electrons with desired energies. These properties of the decay cascade might have consequences for fundamental and applied radiation biology and could be of interest in the development of new spectroscopic techniques.

  1. Photoinduced electron transfer between the dendritic zinc phthalocyanines and anthraquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuizhi; Wen, Junri; Liu, Jiangsheng; Chen, Zhenzhen; Pan, Sujuan; Huang, Zheng; Peng, Yiru

    2015-03-01

    The intermolecular electron transfer between the novel dendritic zinc (II) phthalocyanines (G1-DPcB and G2-DPcB) and anthraquinone (AQ) was studied by steady-state fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopic methods. The effect of dendron generation on intermolecular electron transfer was investigated. The results showed that the fluorescence emission of these dendritic phthalocyanines could be greatly quenched by AQ upon excitation at 610 nm. The Stern- Volmer constant (KSV) of electron transfer was decreased with increasing the dendron generations. Our study suggested that these novel dendritic phthalocyanines were effective new electron donors and transmission complexes and could be used as a potential artifical photosysthesis system.

  2. Ultrafast intermolecular vibrational excitation transfer from solute to solvent: Observation of intermediate states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyewon; Park, Kwang-Hee; Kwak, Kyung-Won; Park, Sungnam; Cho, Minhaeng

    2013-08-01

    Ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) and IR pump-probe (PP) spectroscopy was used to study the intermolecular vibrational energy transfer process from the excited state of asymmetric stretching vibration of HN3 to the overtone band of C-O stretching vibration of solvent methanol. A series of time-resolved 2DIR spectra indicate an intermolecular vibrational excitation transfer between the two modes, since the corresponding cross peaks appear at longer waiting times (>20 ps). However, detailed analyses of temperature-dependent FTIR, dispersed IR PP, and 2DIR spectra showed that the vibrational relaxation of the azido stretch mode and its energy transfer to solvent methanol C-O stretch overtone mode involve not only heat dissipation directly to the solvent bath modes but also production of transient intermediate states. The present experimental work demonstrates that ultrafast nonlinear IR spectroscopy is quite useful to shed light into the complicated vibrational relaxation dynamics of H-bonded solute-solvent systems.

  3. Intermolecular relaxation has little effect on intra-peptide exchange-transferred NOE intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exchange-transferred nuclear Overhauser enhancement (etNOE) provides a useful method for determining the 3-dimensional structure of a ligand bound to a high-molecular-weight complex. Some concern about the accuracy of such structures has arisen because indirect relaxation can occur between the ligand and macromolecule. Such indirect relaxation, or spin diffusion, would lead to errors in interproton distances used as restraints in structure determination. We address this concern by assessing the extent of intermolecular spin diffusion in nineteen peptide-protein complexes of known structure. Transferred NOE intensities were simulated with the program CORONA (Calculated OR Observed NOESY Analysis) using the rate-matrix approach to include contributions from indirect relaxation between protein-ligand and intraligand proton pairs. Intermolecular spin diffusion contributions were determined by comparing intensities calculated with protonated protein to those calculated with fully deuterated protein. The differences were found to be insignificant overall, and to diminish at short mixing times and high mole ratios of peptide to protein. Spin diffusion between the peptide ligand and the protein contributes less to the etNOE intensities and alters fewer cross peaks than the well-studied intramolecular spin diffusion effects. Errors in intraligand interproton distances due to intermolecular relaxation effects were small on average and can be accounted for with the restraint funan be accounted for with the restraint functions commonly used in NMR structure determination methods. In addition, a rate-matrix approach to calculate distances from etNOESY intensities using a volume matrix comprising only intraligand intensities was found to give accurate values. Based on these results, we conclude that structures determined from etNOESY data are no less accurate due to spin diffusion than structures determined from conventional NOE intensities

  4. Molecular tips for scanning tunneling microscopy: intermolecular electron tunneling for single-molecule recognition and electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of molecular tips for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Molecular tips offer many advantages: first is their ability to perform chemically selective imaging because of chemical interactions between the sample and the molecular tip, thus improving a major drawback of conventional STM. Rational design of the molecular tip allows sophisticated chemical recognition; e.g., chiral recognition and selective visualization of atomic defects in carbon nanotubes. Another advantage is that they provide a unique method to quantify electron transfer between single molecules. Understanding such electron transfer is mandatory for the realization of molecular electronics. PMID:24420248

  5. Electron paramagnetic resonance of photocatalytic reaction which involve electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaise, M. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-10-13

    Transient radicals generated under photocatalytic reactions in a polar solvent and their electronically spinned polarization were discussed under UV irradiation by using EPR and N2 gas pulse laser time-divided EPR. The reaction is a reaction of electron transfer from such amines as DABCO or electron donor molecules of SO3{sup -} to such electron accepting compounds as 1,4-benzoquinone and maleic anhydride under the presence of photocatalysts (triple photosensitizers) such as benzophenone and xanthone (XT). Spin polarized cation radicals of DABCO and radical anions of XT were detected in association with one electron transfer. A triple mechanism lies in the spinned polarization of both radicals, and transient XT in the triple state begin the electron transfer reaction. Photo-excited XT acts as a photocatalyst in one electron transfer reaction, the triple XT turns into an electron accepting body, and the transient anion radicals of XT become the electron donor. The XT(S) acts as a photocatalyst in the inter-molecular electron transfer from amine (D) to quinone (A). Its reaction is expressed by the following formula: D + S{sup *} + A{yields}D{sup dot +}+S+A{sup dot -} (where S{sup *} denotes a photo-excited state). 53 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Skeletal rearrangement of o-propargylic formaldoximes by a gold-catalyzed cyclization/intermolecular methylene transfer sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Itaru; Gima, Shinya; Kudo, Yu; Terada, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal rearrangement of O-propargylic formaldoximes, in the presence of gold catalysts, afforded 4-methylene-2-isoxazolines in good to excellent yields by an intermolecular methylene transfer. In addition, the cascade reaction with maleimide in the presence of a gold catalyst afforded isoxazole derivatives by cyclization/methylene transfer and a subsequent ene reaction, whereas that using a copper catalyst gave oxazepines through a 2,3-rearrangement. PMID:25932619

  7. Chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI using intermolecular double-quantum coherences with multiple refocusing pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianhua; Cai, Congbo; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2014-07-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) provides a new type of image contrast in MRI. Due to the intrinsically low CEST effect, new and improved experimental techniques are required to achieve reliable and quantitative CEST images. In the present work, we proposed a novel and more sensitive CEST acquisition approach, based on the intermolecular double-quantum coherence with a module of multiple refocusing pulses (iDQC-MRP). Experiments were performed on creatine and egg white phantoms using a Varian 7T animal MRI scanner. The iDQC-MRP CEST technique showed a substantial enhancement in CEST and nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) signal intensities, compared to the standard single-quantum coherence approach. In addition, the iDQC-MRP approach increased the signal-to-noise ratio of acquired saturation images, compared to the conventional iDQC approach. The new iDQC-MRP CEST sequence provides a promising way for exploiting in vivo CEST and NOE imaging applications. PMID:24685983

  8. Intermolecular hydrogen transfer catalyzed by a flavodehydrogenase, bakers' yeast flavocytochrome b2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakers yeast flavocytochrome b2 is a flavin-dependent L-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase which also exhibits transhydrogenase activity. When a reaction takes place between [2-3H]lactate and a halogenopyruvate, tritium is found in water and at the halogenolactate C2 position. When the halogenopyruvate undergoes halide ion elimination, tritium is also found at the C3 position of the resulting pyruvate. The amount tau of this intermolecular tritium transfer depends on the initial keto acid-acceptor concentration. At infinite acceptor concentration, extrapolation yields a maximal transfer of 97 +/- 11%. This indicates that the hydroxy acid-derived hydrogen resides transiently on enzyme monoprotic heteroatoms and that exchange with bulk solvent occurs only at the level of free reduced enzyme. Using a minimal kinetic scheme, the rate constant for hydrogen exchange between Ered and solvent is calculated to be on the order of 10(2) M-1 S-1, which leads to an estimated pK approximately equal to 15 for the ionization of the substrate-derived proton while on the enzyme. It is suggested that this hydrogen could be shared between the active site base and Flred N5 anion. It is furthermore shown that some tritium is incorporated into the products when the transhydrogenation is carried out in tritiated water. Finally, with [2-2H]lactate-reduced enzyme, a deuterium isotope effect is observed on the rate of bromopyruvate disappearance. Extrapolation to infinite bromopyruvate conxtrapolation to infinite bromopyruvate concentration yields DV = 4.4. An apparent inverse isotope effect is determined for bromide ion elimination. These results strengthen the idea that oxidoreduction and elimination pathways involve a common carbanionic intermediate

  9. The inclusion of electron correlation in intermolecular potentials: Applications to the formamide dimer and liquid formamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brdarski, S.; Åstrand, P.-O.

    2000-01-01

    A test of the quality of the electrostatic properties and polarizabilities used in the nonempirical molecular orbital (NEMO) potential is carried out for formamide by calculating the molecular dipole moment and polarizability at the second-order Moller-Plesset (MP2) level of theory. The molecular dipole moment is 11% lower at the MP2 level than at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level, whereas the isotropic part of the polarizability is increased by 36% by adding electron correlation and using a considerably larger basis set. The atomic charges, dipole moments and polarizabilities obtained at the HF level are rescaled to get the correct molecular properties at the MP2 level. The potential minimum for the cyclic dimer of formamide is -17.50 kcal/mol with the MP2-scaled properties and is significantly lower than other potentials give. Two intermolecular potentials are constructed and used in subsequent molecular dynamics simulations: one with the regular NEMO potential and the other with the rescaled MP2 properties. A damping of the electrostatic field at short intermolecular distances is included in the present NEMO model. The average energies for liquid formamide are lower for the MP2-scaled model and are in good agreement with experimental results. The lowering of the simulation energy for the MP2-scaled potential indicates the strong dispersive interactions in liquid formamide.

  10. Relação entre transferência de carga e as interações intermoleculares em complexos de hidrogênio heterocíclicos Relationship between charge transfer and intermolecular interactions in heterocyclic hydrogen-bonded complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaz G. Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen-bonded complexes formed by the interaction of the heterocyclic molecules C2H4O and C2H5N with HF, HCN, HNC and C2H2 have been studied using density functional theory. The hydrogen bond strength has been analyzed through electron density charge transfer from the proton acceptor to the proton donor. The density charge transfer has been estimated using different methods such as Mulliken population analysis, CHELPG, GAPT and AIM. It has been shown that AIM-estimated charge transfer correlates very well with the hydrogen bond energy and the infrared bathochromic effect of the proton donor stretching frequencies.

  11. Electron transfer to sulfides:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of characterizing the steps associated with the dissociative reduction of sulfides has been addressed. The electrochemical reduction of diphenylmethyl para-methoxyphenyl sulfide in N,N-dimethylformamide, on both glassy carbon and mercury electrodes, was chosen as a test system. The electrode process involves the slow heterogeneous outer-sphere electron transfer to the sulfide, the fast cleavage of the C-S bond, the reduction of the ensuing carbon radical, and the self-protonation triggered by the generation of the strong base Ph2CH-. The latter reaction is rather slow, in agreement with the large intrinsic barriers characterizing proton transfers between CH-acids and carbon bases. The dissociative reduction was studied in the presence of an exogenous acid. The results, obtained by convolution analysis, point to a stepwise DET mechanism in which the ET step is accompanied by rather large reorganization energy. Similar results were obtained on both electrode materials. Analysis of the heterogeneous electron transfer and associated C-S bond cleavage indicate that the reduction of this and other sulfides lies between the stepwise dissociative electron transfers leading to the formation of stiff ?* radical anions and those going through the intermediacy of loose ?* radical anions

  12. Nonadiabatic anharmonic electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of an inner sphere, local mode vibration on an electron transfer is modeled using the nonadiabatic transition probability (rate) expression together with both the anharmonic Morse and the harmonic oscillator potential. For an anharmonic inner sphere mode, a variational analysis uses harmonic oscillator basis functions to overcome the difficulties evaluating Morse-model Franck-Condon overlap factors. Individual matrix elements are computed with the use of new, fast, robust, and flexible recurrence relations. The analysis therefore readily addresses changes in frequency and/or displacement of oscillator minimums in the different electron transfer states. Direct summation of the individual Boltzmann weighted Franck-Condon contributions avoids the limitations inherent in the use of the familiar high-temperature, Gaussian form of the rate constant. The effect of harmonic versus anharmonic inner sphere modes on the electron transfer is readily seen, especially in the exoergic, inverted region. The behavior of the transition probability can also be displayed as a surface for all temperatures and values of the driving force/exoergicity ?=??G. The temperature insensitivity of the transfer rate is clearly seen when the exoergicity equals the collective reorganization energy (?=?s) along a maximum ln (w) vs. ? ridge of the surface. The surface also reveals additional regions for ? where ln (w) appears to be insensitive to temperature, or effectivelyive to temperature, or effectively activationless, for some kinds of inner sphere contributions.

  13. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 3 presents studies that discuss findings in the various aspects of electron chemistry. The book is comprised of four chapters; each chapter reviews a work that tackles an issue in electron transfer chemistry. Chapter 1 discusses the photoinduced electron transfer in flexible biaryl donor-acceptor molecules. Chapter 2 tackles light-induced electron transfer in inorganic systems in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. The book also covers internal geometry relaxation effects on electron transfer rates of amino-centered systems. The sequential elec

  14. Theory of electron transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Rudolph A.

    1994-06-01

    An objective of the research performed on this grant is the understanding of the detailed behavior of a variety of electron transfer processes. Theories were developed for (1) the rate of electron transfer between a reagent in one liquid phase and another in a second (immiscible) liquid or polymer, (2) the rate of long distance electron transfer in proteins, (3) charge transfers spectra in frozen media, (d) scanning tunneling microscopy (stm) of molecular adsorbates, and (4) analysis of models of solvents used in computer simulations of electron transfer, particularly examining the error incurred by their common neglect of the electronic and vibrational contributions of the solvent's dielectric response.

  15. Intermolecular Attractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Concord Consortium

    2011-12-11

    Intermolecular attractions are responsible for everything from the temperatures at which substances boil to the power of your immune system in recognizing pathogens and the climbing ability of geckos! Feel the strength of London dispersion and dipole-dipole attractions, explore how intermolecular attractions affect boiling point and solubility, and investigate the special role of hydrogen bonds in DNA. Finally, design your own antibody based on intermolecular attractions.

  16. Intermolecular hydrogen bond complexes by in situ charge transfer complexation of o-tolidine with picric and chloranilic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Saad, Hosam A.; Adam, Abdel Majid A.

    2011-08-01

    A two new charge transfer complexes formed from the interactions between o-tolidine (o-TOL) and picric (PA) or chloranilic (CA) acids, with the compositions, [(o-TOL)(PA) 2] and [(o-TOL)(CA) 2] have been prepared. The 13C NMR, 1H NMR, 1H-Cosy, and IR show that the charge-transfer chelation occurs via the formation of chain structures O-H⋯N intermolecular hydrogen bond between 2NH 2 groups of o-TOL molecule and OH group in each PA or CA units. Photometric titration measurements concerning the two reactions in methanol were performed and the measurements show that the donor-acceptor molar ratio was found to be 1:2 using the modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The spectroscopic data were discussed in terms of formation constant, molar extinction coefficient, oscillator strength, dipole moment, standard free energy, and ionization potential. Thermal behavior of both charge transfer complexes showed that the complexes were more stable than their parents. The thermodynamic parameters were estimated from the differential thermogravimetric curves. The results indicated that the formation of molecular charge transfer complexes is spontaneous and endothermic.

  17. Model building of a protein-protein complexed structure using saturation transfer and residual dipolar coupling without paired intermolecular NOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For understanding the precise mechanisms of molecular recognition of proteins, three-dimensional structural analyses of the protein-protein complexes are essential. For this purpose, a new method to reveal complex structures was developed with the assistance of saturation transfer (SAT) and residual dipolar coupling (RDC) by heteronuclear NMR experiments, without any paired intermolecular NOE information. The SAT and RDC experiments provide the information of the interfacial residues and the relative orientations of the two protein molecules, respectively. Docking simulation was then made to reconstruct a complex conformation, which satisfies the SAT and RDC data. The method was applied to the CAD-ICAD complex structure, which was previously determined by the NOE-distance geometry method. The quality of the current model was evaluated.Abbreviations: ASA - accessible surface area; HSQC - heteronuclear single quantum correlation; MD - molecular dynamics; NOE - nuclear Overhauser effect; TROSY - Transverse-Relaxation Optimized Spectroscopy

  18. Intramolecular photo-switching and intermolecular energy transfer as primary photoevents in photoreceptive processes: The case of Euglena gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report the results of measurements performed by FLIM on the photoreceptor of Euglenagracilis. This organelle consists of optically bistable proteins, characterized by two thermally stable isomeric forms: A498, non fluorescent and B462, fluorescent. Our data indicate that the primary photoevent of Euglena photoreception upon photon absorption consists of two contemporaneous different phenomena: an intramolecular photo-switch (i.e., A498 becomes B462), and a intermolecular and unidirectional Forster-type energy transfer. During the FRET process, the fluorescent B462 form acts as donor for the non-fluorescent A498 form of the protein nearby, which acts as acceptor. We hypothesize that in nature these phenomena follow each other with a domino progression along the orderly organized and closely packed proteins in the photoreceptor layer(s), modulating the isomeric composition of the photoreceptive protein pool. This mechanism guarantees that few photons are sufficient to produce a signal detectable by the cell.

  19. MOLECULAR PACKING AND NPT-MOLECULAR DYNAMICS INVESTIGATION OF THE TRANSFERABILITY OF THE RDX INTERMOLECULAR POTENTIAL TO 2,4,6,8,1O,12- HEXANITROHEXAAZAISOWURTZITANE (HNIW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have explored the degree to which an intermolecular potential for the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX) is transferable for predictions of crystal structures (within the approximation of rigid molecules) of a similar chemical system,in this case, polymo...

  20. Interplay of Halogen and ?-? Charge-Transfer Bondings in Intermolecular Associates of Bromo- or Iododinitrobenzene with Tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosokha, Sergiy V; Loboda, Eric A

    2015-04-23

    Two modes of intermolecular interactions (halogen and ?-? charge-transfer bonding) between bromo- or iododinitrobenzene (XDNB) and tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) are compared. X-ray crystallography revealed that TMPD·XDNB cocrystals comprise alternating donors/acceptors stacks formed by ?-bonded (cofacial) TMPD and XDNB molecules. These structures also show two-point (C-X···O-N) halogen bonding between XDNB molecules resulting in formation of (XDNB)2 dimers. In solutions, XDNB and TMPD molecules formed 1:1 complexes showing strong absorption bands near 550 nm which followed the same Mulliken correlation as the associates of TMPD with the (halogen-free) nitro- and cyanobenzenes. In accord with the experimental data, density functional theory calculations with the M062X functional showed that TMPD·XDNB associates formed via ?-? charge-transfer bonding are more stable (by 6-12 kcal/mol) than their halogen-bonded analogues. If XDNB is replaced with iodo- or bromoperfluorinated benzenes, or TMPD is replaced with pyridine, the energy gap between the ?-? and halogen-bonded associates decreased. The analysis of the molecular-orbital interactions and surface electrostatic potentials of the interacting species indicated that charge-transfer contributions represent a critical component which determines variations of the strength of halogen bonding in these systems. PMID:25825078

  1. Complete Relaxation and Conformational Exchange Matrix (CORCEMA) Analysis of Intermolecular Saturation Transfer Effects in Reversibly Forming Ligand-Receptor Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, V.; Krishna, N. Rama

    2002-03-01

    A couple of recent applications of intermolecular NOE (INOE) experiments as applied to biomolecular systems involve the (i) saturation transfer difference NMR (STD-NMR) method and (ii) the intermolecular cross-saturation NMR (ICS-NMR) experiment. STD-NMR is a promising tool for rapid screening of a large library of compounds to identify bioactive ligands binding to a target protein. Additionally, it is also useful in mapping the binding epitopes presented by a bioactive ligand to its target protein. In this latter application, the STD-NMR technique is essentially similar to the ICS-NMR experiment, which is used to map protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid contact surfaces in complexes. In this work, we present a complete relaxation and conformational exchange matrix (CORCEMA) theory (H. N. B. Moseley et al., J. Magn. Reson. B108, 243-261 (1995)) applicable for these two closely related experiments. As in our previous work, we show that when exchange is fast on the relaxation rate scale, a simplified CORCEMA theory can be formulated using a generalized average relaxation rate matrix. Its range of validity is established by comparing its predictions with those of the exact CORCEMA theory which is valid for all exchange rates. Using some ideal model systems we have analyzed the factors that influence the ligand proton intensity changes when the resonances from some protons on the receptor protein are saturated. The results show that the intensity changes in the ligand signals in an intermolecular NOE experiment are very much dependent upon: (1) the saturation time, (2) the location of the saturated receptor protons with respect to the ligand protons, (3) the conformation of the ligand-receptor interface, (4) the rotational correlation times for the molecular species, (5) the kinetics of the reversibly forming complex, and (6) the ligand/receptor ratio. As an example of a typical application of the STD-NMR experiment we have also simulated the STD effects for a hypothetical trisaccharide bound to a protein. The CORCEMA theory for INOE and the associated algorithm are useful in a quantitative interpretation of the intensity changes in the ligand in both the STD-NMR and ICS-NMR, provided the identity of the receptor protons experiencing direct RF saturation is known. The formalism presented here is likely to be useful in the design of bioactive ligands to a specific target protein and in the quantitative mapping of binding epitopes and interfaces between molecules in complexes.

  2. Probing the ultrafast electron transfer at the CuPc/Au(111) interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core-hole clock spectroscopy and near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure measurements have been used to investigate the ultrafast electron transfer dynamics at the Copper(II) phthalocyanine (CuPc)/Au(111) interface. It was found that the strong electronic coupling between the first layer of CuPc molecules and Au(111) substrate favors ultrafast electron transfer from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the CuPc molecules to the conduction band of Au(111) in the time scale of ?6 fs. In contrast, the intermolecular electron transfer within multilayers of CuPc molecules via the weak van der Waals interaction was much slower

  3. Dynamical aspects of intermolecular proton transfer in liquid water and low-density amorphous ices

    OpenAIRE

    Tahat, Amani; Marti? Rabassa, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The microscopic dynamics of an excess proton in water and in low-density amorphous ices has been studied by means of a series of molecular dynamics simulations. Interaction of water with the proton species was modelled using a multistate empirical valence bond Hamiltonian model. The analysis of the effects of low temperatures on proton diffusion and transfer rates has been considered for a temperature range between 100 and 298 K at the constant density of 1 g cm -3 . We observed a marked slo...

  4. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1995-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 4 presents the reaction mechanisms involving the movement of single electrons. This book discusses the electron transfer reactions in organic, biochemical, organometallic, and excited state systems. Organized into four chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the photochemical behavior of two classes of sulfonium salt derivatives. This text then examines the parameters that control the efficiencies for radical ion pair formation. Other chapters consider the progress in the development of parameters that control the dynamics and reaction p

  5. Coherence in electron transfer pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N; Waldeck, David H

    2011-01-01

    Central to the view of electron-transfer reactions is the idea that nuclear motion generates a transition state geometry at which the electron/hole amplitude propagates coherently from the electron donor to the electron acceptor. In the weakly coupled or nonadiabatic regime, the electron amplitude tunnels through an electronic barrier between the donor and acceptor. The structure of the barrier is determined by the covalent and noncovalent interactions of the bridge. Because the tunneling barrier depends on the nuclear coordinates of the reactants (and on the surrounding medium), the tunneling barrier is highly anisotropic, and it is useful to identify particular routes, or pathways, along which the transmission amplitude propagates. Moreover, when more than one such pathway exists, and the paths give rise to comparable transmission amplitude magnitudes, one may expect to observe quantum interferences among pathways if the propagation remains coherent. Given that the effective tunneling barrier height and width are affected by the nuclear positions, the modulation of the nuclear coordinates will lead to a modulation of the tunneling barrier and hence of the electron flow. For long distance electron transfer in biological and biomimetic systems, nuclear fluctuations, arising from flexible protein moieties and mobile water bridges, can become quite significant. We discuss experimental and theoretical results that explore the quantum interferences among coupling pathways in electron-transfer kinetics; we emphasize recent data and theories associated with the signatures of chirality and inelastic processes, which are manifested in the tunneling pathway coherence (or absence of coherence). PMID:23833692

  6. Probing intermolecular protein-protein interactions in the calcium-sensing receptor homodimer using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Hansen, Jakob L

    2002-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) belongs to family C of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. The receptor is believed to exist as a homodimer due to covalent and non-covalent interactions between the two amino terminal domains (ATDs). It is well established that agonist binding to family C receptors takes place at the ATD and that this causes the ATD dimer to twist. However, very little is known about the translation of the ATD dimer twist into G-protein coupling to the 7 transmembrane moieties (7TMs) of these receptor dimers. In this study we have attempted to delineate the agonist-induced intermolecular movements in the CaR homodimer using the new bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique, BRET2, which is based on the transference of energy from Renilla luciferase (Rluc) to the green fluorescent protein mutant GFP2. We tagged CaR with Rluc and GFP2 at different intracellular locations. Stable and highly receptor-specific BRET signals were obtained in tsA cells transfected with Rluc- and GFP2-tagged CaRs under basal conditions, indicating that CaR is constitutively dimerized. However, the signals were not enhanced by the presence of agonist. These results could indicate that at least parts of the two 7TMs of the CaR homodimer are in close proximity in the inactivated state of the receptor and do not move much relative to one another upon agonist activation. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the BRET technology is unable to register putative conformational changes in the CaR homodimer induced by agonist binding because of the bulk sizes of the Rluc and GFP2 molecules.

  7. Two-Electron Transfer Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaxing; Balamurugan, D; Zhang, Peng; Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N

    2015-06-18

    The frontiers of electron-transfer chemistry demand that we develop theoretical frameworks to describe the delivery of multiple electrons, atoms, and ions in molecular systems. When electrons move over long distances through high barriers, where the probability for thermal population of oxidized or reduced bridge-localized states is very small, the electrons will tunnel from the donor (D) to acceptor (A), facilitated by bridge-mediated superexchange interactions. If the stable donor and acceptor redox states on D and A differ by two electrons, it is possible that the electrons will propagate coherently from D to A. While structure-function relations for single-electron superexchange in molecules are well established, strategies to manipulate the coherent flow of multiple electrons are largely unknown. In contrast to one-electron superexchange, two-electron superexchange involves both one- and two-electron virtual intermediate states, the number of virtual intermediates increases very rapidly with system size, and multiple classes of pathways interfere with one another. In the study described here, we developed simple superexchange models for two-electron transfer. We explored how the bridge structure and energetics influence multielectron superexchange, and we compared two-electron superexchange interactions to single-electron superexchange. Multielectron superexchange introduces interference between singly and doubly oxidized (or reduced) bridge virtual states, so that even simple linear donor-bridge-acceptor systems have pathway topologies that resemble those seen for one-electron superexchange through bridges with multiple parallel pathways. The simple model systems studied here exhibit a richness that is amenable to experimental exploration by manipulating the multiple pathways, pathway crosstalk, and changes in the number of donor and acceptor species. The features that emerge from these studies may assist in developing new strategies to deliver multiple electrons in condensed-phase redox systems, including multiple-electron redox species, multimetallic/multielectron redox catalysts, and multiexciton excited states. PMID:25583181

  8. Electron shuttling in electron transfer dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Diane; Smuczynska, Sylwia; Simons, Jack

    2009-06-01

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations have been performed on two model systems containing a disulfide linkage and one or two positively charged sites, aimed at gaining further insight into how and where electrons attach to positively charged peptides under electron capture (ECD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectroscopy conditions. Couplings among electronic states involving (i) an entrance-channel with the excess electron residing on a donor anion interacting with the positively charged peptide, (ii) a state in which the electron has been transferred to the SS [sigma]* orbital to cause bond cleavage, and (iii) a manifold of states in which the electron has been transferred to a ground- or excited-Rydberg orbital on a positive site. The results of this study suggest that specific excited Rydberg states play a key role in effecting electron shuttling to the SS [sigma]* orbital. The excited-Rydberg orbitals close in energy to the SS [sigma]* orbital and with sufficient radial extent to span the distance between the positive site and the SS [sigma]* orbital play the key role. Then, when the anion donor, excited-Rydberg, and SS [sigma]* orbitals achieve spatial proximity and similarity in energies, one can have what is termed here a shuttle of an electron from the donor to the SS [sigma]* orbital, which results in SS bond cleavage. For the singly and doubly charged systems studied here, it was the 3p and 3d Rydberg orbitals, respectively, that met these criteria of spatial and energetic proximity. For other peptides having different charge states, it will be other Rydberg orbitals that meet these criteria because the relative energies of the SS [sigma]* and Rydberg orbitals are governed by the (different) Coulomb stabilizations these orbitals experience. However, the evidence suggests that it is not very high-energy Rydberg states but states with 3 ETD, and ECID experiments.

  9. Dimensionality of intermolecular interactions in layered crystals by electronic-structure theory and geometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Janine; Deringer, Volker L; Dronskowski, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) and layered structures gained a lot of attention in the recent years ("post-graphene era"). The chalcogen cyanides S(CN)(2) and Se(CN)(2) offer themselves as interesting model systems to study layered inorganic crystal structures; both are built up from cyanide molecules connected by chalcogen bonds (ChBs). Here, we investigate ChBs and their cooperativity directly within the layers of the S(CN)(2) and Se(CN)(2) crystal structures and, furthermore, in putative O(CN)(2) and Te(CN)(2) crystal structures derived therefrom. Moreover, we determine the energetic contributions of ChBs within the layers to the overall stabilization energy. To compare these structures not only energetically but also geometrically, we derive a direction-dependent root mean square of the Cartesian displacement, a possible tool for further computational investigations of layered compounds. The molecular chains connected by ChBs are highly cooperative but do not influence each other when combined to layers: the ChBs are nearly orthogonal in terms of energy when connected to the same chalcogen acceptor atom. Layers built up from ChBs account for 41% to 79% of the overall interaction energy in the crystal. This provides new, fundamental insight into the meaning of ChBs, and therefore directed intermolecular interactions, for the stability of crystal structures. PMID:25363246

  10. Spectroscopic study on the intermolecular double proton transfer in 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine with acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine as starting material, a functionalized triazine derivative, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (NOTA) was synthesized in 14% yield through three steps: Kumada cross-coupling, Suzuki coupling and amination. Intermolecular double proton transfer of NOTA with acetic acid (HOAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in chloroform was investigated by UV–vis absorption and fluorescence emission. It is found that both NOTA/HOAc and NOTA/TFA undergo excited state double proton transfer, resulting in amino–imino tautomerization emission in excited state. - Highlights: ? A functionalized triazine derivative, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (NOTA) was synthesized in 14% yield through three steps: Kumada cross-coupling, Suzuki coupling and amination. ? Intermolecular double proton transfer of NOTA with acetic acid (HOAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in chloroform was investigated. ? Both NOTA/HOAc and NOTA/TFA undergo excited state double proton transfer. ? Amino–imino tautomerization emission in excited state are proposed.

  11. Electron transfer in helical polyaromatics.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Lubomír; Gál, Miroslav; Horá?ek, Michal; Teplý, Filip; Adriaenssens, Louis; Severa, Lukáš

    Xi´an : International Society of Electrochemistry, 2009. O06-O06. [International Symposium on Frontiers of Electrochemical Science and Technology. 12.08.2009-15.08.2009, Xi´an] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/08/1157; GA MŠk OC 140; GA ?R GA203/09/0705; GA ?R GP203/09/P502; GA MŠk ME09114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : electron transfer * helical polyaromatics Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  12. Absolute electron transfer efficiency of GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the absolute single-electron transfer efficiency of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). It is shown that the electron transfer and thus the detection efficiency, depend not only on the GEM geometry and gain but mostly on the electric field and electron diffusion in the gas volume preceding the GEM. We have demonstrated that conditions can be found, including pre-amplification of the single electrons in the gap preceding the GEM, in which full detection efficiency is obtained. The experimental electron transfer efficiency results are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations

  13. Two-Dimensional Free Energy Surfaces for Electron Transfer Reactions in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tachiya

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Change in intermolecular distance between electron donor (D and acceptor (A can induce intermolecular electron transfer (ET even in nonpolar solvent, where solvent orientational polarization is absent. This was shown by making simple calculations of the energies of the initial and final states of ET. In the case of polar solvent, the free energies are functions of both D-A distance and solvent orientational polarization. On the basis of 2-dimensional free energy surfaces, the relation of Marcus ET and exciplex formation is discussed. The transient effect in fluorescence quenching was measured for several D-A pairs in a nonpolar solvent. The results were analyzed by assuming a distance dependence of the ET rate that is consistent with the above model.

  14. Photoinduced electron-transfer chemistry of the bielectrophoric N-phthaloyl derivatives of the amino acids tyrosine, histidine and tryptophan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan de Kiff

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photochemistry of phthalimide derivatives of the electron-rich amino acids tyrosine, histidine and tryptophan 8–10 was studied with respect to photoinduced electron-transfer (PET induced decarboxylation and Norrish II bond cleavage. Whereas exclusive photodecarboxylation of the tyrosine substrate 8 was observed, the histidine compound 9 resulted in a mixture of histamine and preferential Norrish cleavage. The tryptophan derivative 10 is photochemically inert and shows preferential decarboxylation only when induced by intermolecular PET.

  15. Valence anions in complexes of adenine and 9-methyladenine with formic acid - stabilization by intermolecular proton transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurkiewicz, Kamil; Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Rak, Janusz; Radisic, Dunja; Eustis, Soren; Wang, Di; Bowen, Kit H.

    2007-02-07

    The photoelectron spectra of the adenine-formic acid (AFA)- and 9-methyladenine-formic acid (MAFA)- anionic complexes have been recorded with 2.540 eV photons. These spectra reveal broad features with maxima at 1.5-1.4 eV that indicate formation of stable valence anions in the gas phase. The neutral and anionic complexes of adenine/9- methyladenine and formic acid were also studied computationally at the B3LYP, second order Møller-Plesset and coupled clusters levels of theory, with the 6-31++G** and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets. The neutral complexes form cyclic hydrogen bonds and the most stable dimers are bound by 17.7 and 16.0 kcal/mol for AFA and MAFA, respectively. The theoretical results indicate that the excess electron in both (AFA)- and (MAFA)- occupies a p* orbital localized on adenine/9-methyladenine and the adiabatic stability of the most stable anions amounts to 0.67 and 0.54 eV for AFA- and MAFA-, respectively. The excess electron attachment to the complexes induces a barrierfree proton transfer (BFPT) from the carboxylic group of formic acid to a N atom of adenine or 9-mathyladenine. As a result, the most stable structures of the anionic complexes can be characterized as neutral radicals of hydrogenated adenine(9-methyladenine) solvated by a deprotonated formic acid. The BFPT to the N atoms of adenine may be biologically relevant because some of these sites are not involved in the Watson-Crick pairing scheme and are easily accessible in the cellular environment. We suggest that valence anions of purines might be as important as those of pyrimidines in the process of DNA damage by low energy electrons. The calculations were performed at the Academic Computer Center in Gda?sk (TASK) and at the Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. The MSCF resources were available through a Computational Grand Challenge Application grant.

  16. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Stams, A. J. M.; Bok, F.A.M. de; Plugge, C. M.; Eekert van, M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory syntrophic consortia of proton-reducing acetogenic bacteria and hydrogen-consuming methanogenic archaea. Anaerobic microorganisms that use insoluble electron acceptors for growth, such as iron- an...

  17. Electron transfer reactions in microporous solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallouk, T. E.

    1991-05-01

    We are studying the synthesis of light-induced electron transfer reactions which occur within microporous materials. Some highlights of our progress in the last year are in the fields of (1) electron transfer reactions of donor/acceptor molecules at the zeolite/solution interface; (2) photochemistry of zeolite/TiO2 composites; and (3) photochemistry of layered oxide semiconductors.

  18. Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex

    CERN Document Server

    Haverkate, Lucas; Johnson, Mark; Carter, Elisabeth; Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, Stephen; Mulder, Fokko; Kearley, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics within the CT complex, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the groundstate of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10-2 electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and NMR measurements, implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visi...

  19. Computer simulation of electron transfer in molecular electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Helena M. G.; Ramos, Marta M. D.

    2005-01-01

    The study of electron transfer through individual molecules bound to metal electrodes has become important due to the potential application in molecular electronic devices. Since the electronic and atomic motions in these molecules influence each other they need to be treated self-consistently. We have used self-consistent quantum chemistry molecular dynamics calculations to discuss some of the issues related to electron transfer through a spatially symmetric [9,10-Bis((2???-para-mercaptophen...

  20. Nuclear reorganization barriers to electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear barrier to electron transfer arises from the need for reorganization of intramolecular and solvent internuclear distances prior to electron transfer. For reactions with relatively small driving force (''normal'' free-energy region) the nuclear factors and rates increase as intrinsic inner-shell and outer-shell barriers decrease; this is illustrated by data for transition metal complexes in their ground electronic states. By contrast, in the inverted free-energy region, rates and nuclear factors decrease with decreasing ''intrinsic'' barriers; this is illustrated by data for the decay of charge-transfer excited states. Several approaches to the evaluation of the outer-shell barrier are explored in an investigation of the distance dependence of the nuclear factor in intramolecular electron-transfer processes. 39 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Advances in electron transfer chemistry, v.6

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, PS

    1999-01-01

    It is clear that electron transfer chemisty is now one of the most active areas of chemical study. Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry has been designed to allow scientists who are developing new knowledge in this rapidly expanding area to describe their most recent research findings. This volume will serve those interested in learning about current breakthroughs in this rapidly expanding area of chemical research.

  2. Coupled electron transfers in artificial photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarström, Leif; Styring, Stenbjörn

    2007-01-01

    Light-induced charge separation in molecular assemblies has been widely investigated in the context of artificial photosynthesis. Important progress has been made in the fundamental understanding of electron and energy transfer and in stabilizing charge separation by multi-step electron transfer. In the Swedish Consortium for Artificial Photosynthesis, we build on principles from the natural enzyme photosystem II and Fe-hydrogenases. An important theme in this biomimetic effort is that of cou...

  3. Electron Transfer for Large Molecules through Delocalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, D.; Reslan, R.; Hernandez, S.; Arnsen, C.; Lopata, K.; Govind, N.; Gao, Y.; Tolbert, S.; Schwartz, B.; Rubin, Y.; Nardes, A.; Kopidakis, N.

    2012-01-01

    Electron transfer for large molecules lies in between a Marcus-Theory two-state transfer and a Landauer description. We discuss a delocalization formalism which,through the introduction of artificial electric fields which emulate bulk dipole fields, allows calculation between a pair of identical molecules (A+A- (R)A-+A) with several open states. Dynamical electron polarization effects can be inserted with TDDFT and are crucial for large separations.

  4. Heat Transfer Augmentation for Electronic Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suabsakul Gururatana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The performance of electronic devices has been improving along with the rapid technology development. Cooling of electronic systems is consequently essential in controlling the component temperature and avoiding any hot spot. The study aims to review the present electronic cooling methods which are widely used in electronic devices. Approach: There are several methods to cool down the electronics components such as the pin-fin heat sink, confined jet impingement, heat pipe, micro heat sink and so on. Results: The cooling techniques can obviously increase heat transfer rate. Nonetheless, for active and passive cooling methods the pressure drop could extremely rise, when the heat transfer rate is increased. Conclusion: When the cooling techniques are used, it is clearly seen that the heat transfer increases with pressure drop. To avoid excessive expense due to high pressure drop, optimization method is required to obtain optimum cost and cooling rate.

  5. H2 and (H2)2 molecules with an ab initio optimization of wave functions in correlated state: electron–proton couplings and intermolecular microscopic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    K?dzielawa, Andrzej P.; Bielas, Agata; Acquarone, Marcello; Biborski, Andrzej; Ma?ka, Maciej M.; Spa?ek, Józef

    2014-12-01

    The hydrogen molecules H2 and {{?ft( {{H}2} \\right)}2} are analyzed with electronic correlations taken into account between the 1s electrons in an exact manner. The optimal single-particle Slater orbitals are evaluated in the correlated state of H2 by combining their variational determination with the diagonalization of the full Hamiltonian in the second-quantization language. All electron–ion coupling constants are determined explicitly and their relative importance is discussed. Sizable zero-point motion amplitude and the corresponding energy are then evaluated by taking into account the anharmonic contributions up to the ninth order in the relative displacement of the ions from their static equilibrium value. The applicability of the model to solid molecular hydrogen is briefly analyzed by calculating intermolecular microscopic parameters for the 2× {{H}2} rectangular configuration, as well its ground state energy.

  6. Electron transfer exchange in viologen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse radiolysis has been utilized to generate viologen radicals and to study the electron transfer rates and equilibria among a variety of such viologen systems as well as the electron transfer reactions between the viologens and other systems (quinones, nitrobenzene, Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6//sup 3+/). The viologen systems include polystyrene viologens, surfactant viologens and zwitterionic viologens. The electron transfer reactions were studied both in homogeneous and micellar systems. The rate of the reaction of the polymeric viologen radicals with Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6//sup 3+/ is slower by three orders of magnitudes than that of the zwitterionic viologen radical. This large difference in rates provides a route to determine equilibria constants for electron exchange between the viologen systems. Complex formation between semiquinones and the viologens is indicated. Implications of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters to photochemical energy conversion schemes is discussed

  7. Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Electron Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this research are threefold: (1) to develop methods for the study electron transfer processes at the single molecule level, (2) to develop a series of modifiable and structurally well defined molecular and nanoparticle systems suitable for detailed single molecule/particle and bulk spectroscopic investigation, (3) to relate experiment to theory in order to elucidate the dependence of electron transfer processes on molecular and electronic structure, coupling and reorganization energies. We have begun the systematic development of single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) of electron transfer and summaries of recent studies are shown. There is a tremendous need for experiments designed to probe the discrete electronic and molecular dynamic fluctuations of single molecules near electrodes and at nanoparticle surfaces. Single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) has emerged as a powerful method to measure properties of individual molecules which would normally be obscured in ensemble-averaged measurement. Fluctuations in the fluorescence time trajectories contain detailed molecular level statistical and dynamical information of the system. The full distribution of a molecular property is revealed in the stochastic fluctuations, giving information about the range of possible behaviors that lead to the ensemble average. In the case of electron transfer, this level of understanding is particularly important to the field of molecular and nanoscale electronics: from a device-design standpoint, understanding and controlling this picture of the overall range of possible behaviors will likely prove to be as important as designing ia the ideal behavior of any given molecule.

  8. Protein electron transfer: Dynamics and statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2013-07-01

    Electron transfer between redox proteins participating in energy chains of biology is required to proceed with high energetic efficiency, minimizing losses of redox energy to heat. Within the standard models of electron transfer, this requirement, combined with the need for unidirectional (preferably activationless) transitions, is translated into the need to minimize the reorganization energy of electron transfer. This design program is, however, unrealistic for proteins whose active sites are typically positioned close to the polar and flexible protein-water interface to allow inter-protein electron tunneling. The high flexibility of the interfacial region makes both the hydration water and the surface protein layer act as highly polar solvents. The reorganization energy, as measured by fluctuations, is not minimized, but rather maximized in this region. Natural systems in fact utilize the broad breadth of interfacial electrostatic fluctuations, but in the ways not anticipated by the standard models based on equilibrium thermodynamics. The combination of the broad spectrum of static fluctuations with their dispersive dynamics offers the mechanism of dynamical freezing (ergodicity breaking) of subsets of nuclear modes on the time of reaction/residence of the electron at a redox cofactor. The separation of time-scales of nuclear modes coupled to electron transfer allows dynamical freezing. In particular, the separation between the relaxation time of electro-elastic fluctuations of the interface and the time of conformational transitions of the protein caused by changing redox state results in dynamical freezing of the latter for sufficiently fast electron transfer. The observable consequence of this dynamical freezing is significantly different reorganization energies describing the curvature at the bottom of electron-transfer free energy surfaces (large) and the distance between their minima (Stokes shift, small). The ratio of the two reorganization energies establishes the parameter by which the energetic efficiency of protein electron transfer is increased relative to the standard expectations, thus minimizing losses of energy to heat. Energetically efficient electron transfer occurs in a chain of conformationally quenched cofactors and is characterized by flattened free energy surfaces, reminiscent of the flat and rugged landscape at the stability basin of a folded protein.

  9. Marcus theory for outer-sphere heterogeneous electron transfer: Predicting electron-transfer rates for quinones

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, Nv; Clegg, Ad; Klymenko, Ov; Coles, Ba; Compton, Rg

    2004-01-01

    Steady-state voltammetry is used to measure the heterogeneous electron-transfer rates for the reduction of quinones to determine the dependence of k0 on molecular size, according to Marcus theory. This dependence is then used to predict the electron-transfer rate constants of related quinones, and the predictions are compared to experimental measurements.

  10. Intermolecular approach to metal ion indicators based on polymer phase transitions coupled to fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shaojun; Jones, Aaron M; Du, Jie; Jackson, Randy K; Massing, Justin O; Kennedy, Daniel P; Bencivenga, Nicholas E; Planalp, Roy P; Burdette, Shawn C; Seitz, W Rudolf

    2012-10-21

    An approach to ratiometric fluorescence detection of quenching metal ions was devised by copolymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide with small percentages of bipyridine and amine monomers. The copolymer was divided into two portions. The amine group on one portion was functionalized with AlexaFluor555 (donor fluorophore) and the other with AlexaFluor647 (acceptor fluorophore). The indicator consists of a mixture of these two portions. Aggregation above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of this copolymer brings about a large increase in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Addition of Cu(II) and other complexing metal ions to the aggregated copolymer introduces charge onto the backbone, causing the copolymer to redissolve with a resulting decrease in FRET. The ratio of acceptor to donor fluorescence varies with Cu(II) concentration. A plot of intensity ratio vs. pCu is sigmoidal with a log K(f) of 6.1 for the Cu(II)-bipyridine complex. The data are consistent with the formation of a 1 : 1 complex. The copolymer responds to higher concentrations of other transition metal ions. The selectivity for Cu(II) is consistent with the literature values for 1 : 1 formation constants for bipyridine with metal ions. PMID:22911043

  11. NEGATIVE ELECTRON TRANSFER DISSOCIATION OF GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Jeremy J.; Leach, Franklin E.; Laremore, Tatiana N.; Kaplan, Desmond A.; Easterling, Michael L.; Linhardt, Robert J.; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Structural characterization of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) has been a challenge in the field of mass spectrometry, and the application of electron detachment dissociation (EDD) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) has shown great promise to GAG oligosaccharide characterization in a single tandem mass spectrometry experiment. In this work, we apply the technique of negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) to GAGs on a commercial ion trap mass spectrometer....

  12. Facile Interfacial Electron Transfer of Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhai Fan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We herein describe a method of depositing hemoglobin (Hb and sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN on GC electrodes that facilitate interfacial protein electron transfer. Well-defined, reproducible, chemically reversible peaks of Hb and SPAN can be obtained in our experiments. We also observed enhanced peroxidase activity of Hb in SPAN films. These results clearly showed that SPAN worked as molecular wires and effectively exchanged electrons between Hb and electrodes.Mediated by Conjugated Polymers

  13. Electron transfer in dinucleoside phosphate anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron transfer reaction within various dinucleoside phosphate radical anions has been investigated by ESR spectroscopy and pulse radiolysis. In the ESR work electrons are produced by photolysis of K4Fe(CN)6 in a 12 M LiCl glass at 770K. Upon photobleaching the electrons react with the dinucleoside phosphate to form the anion radical. The anions of the four DNA nucleosides were also produced and their ESR spectra were appropriately weighted and summed by computer to simulate the spectra found for the dinucleoside phosphate anions. From the analysis the relative amounts of each of the nucleoside anions in the dinucleoside phosphate anion were determined. Evidence suggests the electron affinity of the pyrimidine bases are greater than the purine bases; however, the results are not sufficient to distinguish between the individual purine or pyrimidine. When dinucleoside phosphate anions containing thymidine are warmed, protonation occurs only on thymine to produce the well known ''thymyl'' spectrum. Pulse radiolysis experiments on individual nucleotides (TMP, dAMP), mixtures of these nucleotides and the dinucleoside phosphate, TdA, in aqueous solution at room temperature show that in the TdA anion electron transfer occurs from adenine to thymine, whereas no electron transfer is found for mixtures of individual nucleotides. Protonation is found to occur only on thymine in the TdA anion in agreement with the ESR resultsement with the ESR results

  14. The electron transfer flavoprotein: ubiquinone oxidoreductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmough, Nicholas J; Frerman, Frank E

    2010-12-01

    Electron transfer flavoprotein: ubiqionone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain that together with electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) forms a short pathway that transfers electrons from 11 different mitochondrial flavoprotein dehydrogenases to the ubiquinone pool. The X-ray structure of the pig liver enzyme has been solved in the presence and absence of a bound ubiquinone. This structure reveals ETF-QO to be a monotopic membrane protein with the cofactors, FAD and a [4Fe-4S](+1+2) cluster, organised to suggests that it is the flavin that serves as the immediate reductant of ubiquinone. ETF-QO is very highly conserved in evolution and the recombinant enzyme from the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides has allowed the mutational analysis of a number of residues that the structure suggested are involved in modulating the reduction potential of the cofactors. These experiments, together with the spectroscopic measurement of the distances between the cofactors in solution have confirmed the intramolecular pathway of electron transfer from ETF to ubiquinone. This approach can be extended as the R. sphaeroides ETF-QO provides a template for investigating the mechanistic consequences of single amino acid substitutions of conserved residues that are associated with a mild and late onset variant of the metabolic disease multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD). PMID:20937244

  15. Promoting Knowledge Transfer with Electronic Note Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Andrew D.; Shambaugh, R. Neal; Doctor, Tasneem

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the differences between (a) copying and pasting text versus typed note-taking methods of constructing study notes simultaneously with (b) vertically scaffolded versus horizontally scaffold notes on knowledge transfer. Forty-seven undergraduate educational psychology students participated. Materials included 2 electronic

  16. Quantum effects in biological electron transfer.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de la Lande, A.; Babcock, N. S.; ?ezá?, Jan; Levy, B.; Sanders, B. C.; Salahub, D.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 14, ?. 17 (2012), s. 5902-5918. ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : electron transfer * tunnelling * decoherence * semi-classical molecular dynamics * density functional theory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.829, year: 2012

  17. Model for the charge-transfer probability in helium nanodroplets following electron-impact ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical model has been developed to describe the probability of charge transfer from helium cations to dopant molecules inside helium nanodroplets following electron-impact ionization. The location of the initial charge site inside helium nanodroplets subject to electron impact has been investigated and is found to play an important role in understanding the ionization of dopants inside helium droplets. The model is consistent with a charge migration process in small helium droplets that is strongly directed by intermolecular forces originating from the dopant, whereas for large droplets (tens of thousands of helium atoms and larger) the charge migration increasingly takes on the character of a random walk. This suggests a clear droplet size limit for the use of electron-impact mass spectrometry for detecting molecules in helium droplets

  18. Intermolecular bonding in conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Jeremy D.; Levine, Alex J.

    2005-03-01

    Soluble conjugated polymers may enable the development of fast sensitive biosensors. However, the tendency of these molecules to aggregate even at low concentrations has a profound effect on the fluorescence signal that these sensors rely on. We propose that the aggregation of doped conjugated polymers occurs due to the formation of weak interpolymeric bonds resulting from intermolecular electron tunneling at crossing points of the chains. Although these bonds are essentially covalent in character, they are significantly weaker (˜2 kBT) due to poor the intermolecular overlap of the electron wavefunctions as well as the delocalization of the pi-electrons along the polymer backbone. We show that the aggregates resulting from these bonds form either loosely bound braids or tight bundles of parallel chains depending on the strength of the electrostatic repulsion between the polymers. Surprisingly, we find that undoped polymers are unable to form parallel bundles. We also explore the interaction of SSH solitons on the chains with these intermolecular binding sites and demonstrate a roughly a four-fold enhancement of the binding strength when each chain has a soliton at the binding site.

  19. Intra- and intermolecular dispersion interactions in [N]cycloparaphenylenes: do they influence their structural and electronic properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent-Medina, José-Vicente; Pérez-Jiménez, Ángel-José; Moral, Mónica; San-Fabián, Emilio; Sancho-García, Juan-Carlos

    2015-05-18

    Cycloparaphenylenes (CPPs) are nanosized structures with unique isolated and bulk properties, and are synthetic targets for the template-driven bottom-up synthesis of carbon nanotubes. Thus, a systematic understanding of the supramolecular order at the nanoscale is of utmost relevance for molecular engineering. In this study, it is found that intramolecular noncovalent (dispersion) interactions must be taken into account for obtaining accurate estimates of the structural and optoelectronic properties of [n]CPP compounds, and their influence as the number of repeat units increases from n=4 to n=12 is also analyzed, both in the gas phase and in solution. The supramolecular self-assembly, for which both intra- and intermolecular noncovalent interactions are relevant, of [6]CPP is also investigated by calculating the binding energies of dimers taken along several crystal directions. These are also used to estimate the cohesive energy of the crystal, which is compared to the value obtained by means of dispersion-corrected DFT calculations using periodic boundary conditions. The reasonable agreement between both computational strategies points towards a first estimate of the [6]CPP cohesive energy of around 50 kcal?mol(-1) . PMID:25787110

  20. Theory of intermolecular forces

    CERN Document Server

    Margenau, H; Ter Haar, D

    1971-01-01

    Theory of Intermolecular Forces deals with the exposition of the principles and techniques of the theory of intermolecular forces. The text focuses on the basic theory and surveys other aspects, with particular attention to relevant experiments. The initial chapters introduce the reader to the history of intermolecular forces. Succeeding chapters present topics on short, intermediate, and long range atomic interactions; properties of Coulomb interactions; shape-dependent forces between molecules; and physical adsorption. The book will be of good use to experts and students of quantum mechanics

  1. Reaction coordinates for electron transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polarization fluctuation and energy gap formulations of the reaction coordinate for outer sphere electron transfer are linearly related to the constant energy constraint Lagrangian multiplier m in Marcus' theory of electron transfer. The quadratic dependence of the free energies of the reactant and product intermediates on m and m+1, respectively, leads to similar dependence of the free energies on the reaction coordinates and to the same dependence of the activation energy on the reorganization energy and the standard reaction free energy. Within the approximations of a continuum model of the solvent and linear response of the longitudinal polarization to the electric field in Marcus' theory, both formulations of the reaction coordinate are expected to lead to the same results.

  2. Electronic transfer between low-dimensional nanosystems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel

    Hoboken : Wiley, 2011 - (Nair, K.; Priya, S.; Jia, Q.), s. 33-40 ISBN 9781118059999. - (Ceramic Transactions. vol. 226). [Materials Science and Technology meeting 2010 (MS&T'10). Dielectric Ceramic Materials and Electronic Devices.. Houston (US), 17.10.2010-21.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : electron transfer * nanostructures quantum dots Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1118059999,descCd-tableOfContents.html

  3. Resonant electron transfer between quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Openov, L A

    1999-01-01

    An interaction of electromagnetic field with a nanostructure composed of two quantum dots is studied theoretically. An effect of a resonant electron transfer between the localized low-lying states of quantum dots is predicted. A necessary condition for such an effect is the existence of an excited bound state whose energy lies close to the top of the barrier separating the quantum dots. This effect may be used to realize the reversible quantum logic gate NOT if the superposition of electron states in different quantum dots is viewed as the superposition of bits 0 and 1.

  4. Electronic energy transfer in benzophenone adlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresenden, D; Carlson, A S; Partain, P J; Reynoso, G; Oudinarath, B; Martin, K A; Nishimura, A M

    1995-12-01

    The extent to which energy transfer occurs in electronically excited organic adlayer films on dielectric surfaces is investigated. Migration and subsequent trapping of the energy in the film are observed by pumping the singlet state of an organic adlayer of benzophenone and by monitoring the phosphorescence and fluorescence lifetimes. To observe the effects of adsorption, benzophenone was chosen as the adlayer because the energies of its well characterizedn,? carbonyl states are remarkably sensitive to solvent interactions. Upon excitation with a nitrogen laser, the perturbation on the electronic states of benzophenone by the substrate caused the emergence of the normally absent fluorescence from the adlayer traps at the interface between the surface of the dielectric substrate and the adlayer. Energy transfer to this interface was observed as a function of film thickness. On the surface of a single crystal of an organic crystal, naphthalene, energy transfer from the adlayer to the substrate was observed, whereas such transfer was not energetically possible with the other dielectric surfaces. PMID:24226914

  5. Electron Transfer Dissociation of Milk Oligosaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Liang; Catherine E. Costello

    2011-01-01

    For structural identification of glycans, the classic collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra are dominated by product ions that derived from glycosidic cleavages, which provide only sequence information. The peaks from cross-ring fragmentation are often absent or have very low abundances in such spectra. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is being applied to structural identification of carbohydrates for the first time, and results in some new and detailed information for glycan struc...

  6. Electron Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry in Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has rapidly evolved to become the platform of choice for proteomic analysis. While CID remains the major fragmentation method for peptide sequencing, electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is emerging as a complementary method for characterization of peptides and post-translational modifications (PTMs). Here, we review the evolution of ETD and some of its newer applications including characterization of PTMs, non-tryptic peptides and intact proteins. We will also discuss some ...

  7. Promoting Interspecies Electron Transfer with Biochar

    OpenAIRE

    Shanshan Chen; Amelia-Elena Rotaru; Pravin Malla Shrestha; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Fanghua Liu; Wei Fan; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar to that previously reported for granular activated carbon (GAC). Although the biochars investigated were 1000 times less conductive than GAC, they stimulated DIET in co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens with...

  8. Electron transfer in branched expanded pyridinium molecules.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hromadová, Magdaléna; Lachmanová, Št?pánka; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Fortage, J.; Dupeyre, G.; Perruchot, Ch.; Lainé, P. P.

    Aveiro : DEMAC - Universidade de Aveiro, 2014. s. 99-99. [Meeting of the Portuguese Electrochemical Society /19./. Iberian Meeting of Electrochemistry /16./. 30.06.2014-02.07.2014, Aveiro] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA14-05180S Grant ostatní: Rada Programu interní porpory projekt? mezinárodní spolupráce AV ?R M200401202 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electron transfer * electrochemistry * pyridinium Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  9. Kinetic ion thermometers for electron transfer dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Robert; Ture?ek, František

    2015-02-19

    Peptide fragment ions of the z-type were used as kinetic ion thermometers to gauge the internal energy of peptide cation-radicals produced by electron transfer in the gas-phase. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD)-produced z2 ions containing the leucine residue, z2(Leu-Lys) and z2(Leu-Arg), were found to undergo spontaneous dissociation by loss of C3H7 that was monitored by time-resolved kinetic measurements on the time scale of the linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Kinetic modeling of the dissociations, including collisional cooling and product loss by neutralization, provided unimolecular rate constants for dissociation that were converted to the z ion internal energies using RRKM theory. The internal energy of z2(Leu-Lys) and z2(Leu-Arg) fragment ions was found to decrease with the increasing size of the precursor peptide ion, indicating vibrational energy partitioning between the ion and neutral fragments and ergodic behavior. The experimentally determined excitation in the peptide cation-radicals upon electron transfer (285-327 kJ mol(-1)) was found to be lower than that theoretically calculated from the reaction exothermicity. The reasons for this missing energy are discussed. PMID:25594857

  10. Transfer coating by electron initiated polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high speed and depth of cure possible with electron initiated monomer/oligomer coating systems provide many new opportunities for approaches to product finishing. Moreover, the use of transfer or cast coating using films or metallic surfaces offers the ability to precisely control the surface topology of liquid film surfaces during polymerization. Transfer coating such as with textiles has been a commercial process for many years and the synergistic addition of EB technology permits the manufacture of unusual new products. One of these, the casting paper used in the manufacture of vinyl and urethane fabrics, is the first EB application to use a drum surface for pattern replication in the coating. In this case the coated paper is cured against, and then released from, an engraved drum surface. Recent developments in the use of plastic films for transfer have been applied to the manufacture of transfer metallized and coated paper and paperboard products for packaging. Details of these and related processes are presented as well as a discussion of the typical product areas (e.g. photographic papers, release papers, magnetic media) using this high speed transfer technology

  11. Transfer coating by electron initiated polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high speed and depth of cure possible with electron initiated monomer/oligomer coating systems provide many new opportunities for approaches to product finishing. Moreover, the use of transfer or cast coating using films or metallic surfaces offers the ability to precisely control the surface topology of liquid film surfaces during polymerization. Transfer coating such as with textiles has been a commercial process for many years and the synergistic addition of EB technology permits the manufacture of unusual new products. One of these, the casting paper used in the manufacture of vinyl and urethane fabrics, is the first EB application to use a drum surface for pattern replication in the coating. In this case the coated paper is cured against, and then released from, an engraved drum surface. Recent developments in the use of plastic films for transfer have been applied to the manufacture of transfer metallized and coated paper and paperboard products for packaging. Details of these and related processes will be presented as well as a discussion of the typical product areas using this high speed transfer technology. (author)

  12. Monitoring molecule dynamics by free electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Phenol radical cations and phenoxyl radicals were observed as direct products of free electron transfer from phenol-type solute molecules to solvent parent radical cations generated by ionizing irradiation. The finding of the two species in comparable amounts is attributed to the dynamics of the phenol molecule oscillating in the femtosecond range by vibration, rotation and other motions. Analyzing the hetero group rotation around the C-OH bond, two border line conformer structures can be distinguished such as the plane molecule and a rotated one where the substituent is twisted by 90 deg. Assuming a promt free electron transfer (FET) in each encounter, ionization of all rotation-caused conformer states should happen, resulting in different products. This seem reasonable under the aspect that accompanied with the rotation also electron distribution should change. Quantum-chemical calculations indicate that for phenol as solute primarily its conformers with perpendicular C-OH axis orientation to the aromatic ring tend to deprotonate after ionization. A quite similar behavior could be predicted for the heteroanalogous thio- and selenophenols. Quite generally considerable changes in the electron distribution of the ground state molecules with the twisting angle of the -OH, -SH and -SeH groups could be calculated, with the greatest differences between 'parallel' and 'perpendicular' conformations. On the assumption that FET projects the equilibrium solute conformer distribution onto the solute cation conformer one it is demonstrated that the experimental findings are compatible with a simple solute-cation internal relaxation model

  13. Short range photoinduced electron transfer in proteins: QM-MM simulations of tryptophan and flavin fluorescence quenching in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, Patrik R.; Liu, Tiqing

    2006-07-01

    Hybrid quantum mechanical-molecular mechanics (dynamics) were performed on flavin reductase (Fre) and flavodoxin reductase (Fdr), both from Escherichia coli. Each was complexed with riboflavin (Rbf) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN). During 50 ps trajectories, the relative energies of the fluorescing state (S 1) of the isoalloxazine ring and the lowest charge transfer state (CT) were assessed to aid prediction of fluorescence lifetimes that are shortened due to quenching by electron transfer from tyrosine. The simulations for the four cases display a wide range in CT-S 1 energy gap caused by the presence of phosphate, other charged and polar residues, water, and by intermolecular separation between donor and acceptor. This suggests that the Gibbs energy change (? G0) and reorganization energy ( ?) for the electron transfer may differ in different flavoproteins.

  14. Promoting Interspecies Electron Transfer with Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Liu, Fanghua; Fan, Wei; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar to that previously reported for granular activated carbon (GAC). Although the biochars investigated were 1000 times less conductive than GAC, they stimulated DIET in co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens with Geobacter sulfurreducens or Methanosarcina barkeri in which ethanol was the electron donor. Cells were attached to the biochar, yet not in close contact, suggesting that electrons were likely conducted through the biochar, rather than biological electrical connections. The finding that biochar can stimulate DIET may be an important consideration when amending soils with biochar and can help explain why biochar may enhance methane production from organic wastes under anaerobic conditions. PMID:24846283

  15. Promoting interspecies electron transfer with biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shanshan; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

    2014-01-01

    Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar to that previously reported for granular activated carbon (GAC). Although the biochars investigated were 1000 times less conductive than GAC, they stimulated DIET in co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens with Geobacter sulfurreducens or Methanosarcina barkeri in which ethanol was the electron donor. Cells were attached to the biochar, yet not in close contact, suggesting that electrons were likely conducted through the biochar, rather than biological electrical connections. The finding that biochar can stimulate DIET may be an important consideration when amending soils with biochar and can help explain why biochar may enhance methane production from organic wastes under anaerobic conditions.

  16. Dynamics and mechanisms of photoinduced electron transfer and related phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains papers which examine the fundamental aspects of photoinduced electron transfer reactions, an area in which a number of breakthroughs have recently occurred. This book is divided into four parts. Parts I and II are mainly concerned with the fundamental aspects of the inter- and intra-molecular charge transfer, electron transfer and related phenomena such as solvents effect, and solvation dynamics. Part III is concerned with electron transfer and energy transfer phenomena in polymers, films, crystals, and other confined systems. In Part IV, the mechanisms of the energy and electron transfer in biological photosynthetic systems, proteins and reaction center systems are discussed. (author). refs., figs

  17. Golden rule kinetics of transfer reactions in condensed phase: The microscopic model of electron transfer reactions in disordered solid matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, M. V.; Odinokov, A. V.; Titov, S. V.; Mitina, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    The algorithm for a theoretical calculation of transfer reaction rates for light quantum particles (i.e., the electron and H-atom transfers) in non-polar solid matrices is formulated and justified. The mechanism postulated involves a local mode (an either intra- or inter-molecular one) serving as a mediator which accomplishes the energy exchange between the reacting high-frequency quantum mode and the phonon modes belonging to the environment. This approach uses as a background the Fermi golden rule beyond the usually applied spin-boson approximation. The dynamical treatment rests on the one-dimensional version of the standard quantum relaxation equation for the reduced density matrix, which describes the frequency fluctuation spectrum for the local mode under consideration. The temperature dependence of a reaction rate is controlled by the dimensionless parameter ?0 = ??0/kBT where ?0 is the frequency of the local mode and T is the temperature. The realization of the computational scheme is different for the high/intermediate (?0 relation of the present approach to the Marcus ET theory and to the quantum-statistical reaction rate theory [V. G. Levich and R. R. Dogonadze, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. Khim. 124, 213 (1959); J. Ulstrup, Charge Transfer in Condensed Media (Springer, Berlin, 1979); M. Bixon and J. Jortner, Adv. Chem. Phys. 106, 35 (1999)] underlying it is discussed and illustrated by the results of computations for practically important target systems.

  18. Fast photoinduced electron transfer through DNA intercalation.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, C. J.; Arkin, M. R.; Ghatlia, N. D.; Bossmann, S.; Turro, N. J.; Barton, J. K.

    1994-01-01

    We report evidence for fast photoinduced electron transfer mediated by the DNA helix that requires metal complexes that are avid intercalators of DNA. Here the donor bis(phenanthroline)(dipyridophenazine)ruthenium(II) [Ru(phen)2dppz2+] and acceptor bis(9,10-phenanthrenequinone diimine)(phenanthroline)rhodium(III) [Rh(phi)2phen3+] intercalate into DNA with Kb > 10(6) M-1. Luminescence quenching experiments in the presence of two different lengths of DNA yield upward-curving Stern-Volmer plots ...

  19. Electron Transfer in Myoglobin-based Single-Electron Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Debin; Gannett, Peter; Lederman, David

    2009-03-01

    The mechanism of electron transfer by myoglobin was investigated using nanometer-gap platinum electrodes fabricated by breaking a small junction by electromigration at cryogenic temperatures. The experimental results suggest single electron transport behavior is mediated by resonance of the electronic levels of the heme group in a single myoglobin protein. Evidence for a two-step electron tunneling process, resulting from the structural relaxation of the protein with the addition of a single electron, was observed. Our experimental results show that the slow protein relaxation may result in resonant tunneling and the fast protein relaxation is the condition of two-step resonant tunneling behavior. The conformation and orientation of myoglobin in the gap of electrodes may significantly affect the conductance of these devices. The calculation for the conductance graph as a function of gate voltage and bias voltage was performed with the rate equations for electron tunneling via discrete quantum states and considering the two-step process. The results of calculation match those of our experiment.

  20. Quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process in Lorentzian plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Woo-Pyo; Jung, Young-Dae

    2014-08-01

    The quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process between a positive ion and a neutral atom collision is investigated in nonthermal generalized Lorentzian plasmas. The result shows that the nonthermal effect enhances the resonant electron transfer cross section in Lorentzian plasmas. It is found that the nonthermal effect on the classical resonant electron transfer cross section is more significant than that on the quantum tunneling resonant charge transfer cross section. It is shown that the nonthermal effect on the resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with an increase of the Debye length. In addition, the nonthermal effect on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with increasing collision energy. The variation of nonthermal and plasma shielding effects on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process is also discussed.

  1. Quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process in Lorentzian plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process between a positive ion and a neutral atom collision is investigated in nonthermal generalized Lorentzian plasmas. The result shows that the nonthermal effect enhances the resonant electron transfer cross section in Lorentzian plasmas. It is found that the nonthermal effect on the classical resonant electron transfer cross section is more significant than that on the quantum tunneling resonant charge transfer cross section. It is shown that the nonthermal effect on the resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with an increase of the Debye length. In addition, the nonthermal effect on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with increasing collision energy. The variation of nonthermal and plasma shielding effects on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process is also discussed

  2. Quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process in Lorentzian plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Woo-Pyo [Department of Electronics Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process between a positive ion and a neutral atom collision is investigated in nonthermal generalized Lorentzian plasmas. The result shows that the nonthermal effect enhances the resonant electron transfer cross section in Lorentzian plasmas. It is found that the nonthermal effect on the classical resonant electron transfer cross section is more significant than that on the quantum tunneling resonant charge transfer cross section. It is shown that the nonthermal effect on the resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with an increase of the Debye length. In addition, the nonthermal effect on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with increasing collision energy. The variation of nonthermal and plasma shielding effects on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process is also discussed.

  3. Electron transfer pathways in microbial oxygen biocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freguia, Stefano, E-mail: stefano@kais.kyoto-u.ac.j [Bio-analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8205 (Japan); Tsujimura, Seiya, E-mail: seiya@kais.kyoto-u.ac.j [Bio-analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8205 (Japan); Kano, Kenji, E-mail: kkano@kais.kyoto-u.ac.j [Bio-analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8205 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    The ability of some bacteria to enhance the rate of cathodic oxygen reduction to water has been recently discovered, opening the way to an entirely renewable and environmentally friendly concept of biocathode. In this study we reveal that several mechanisms may induce catalytic effects by bacteria. These comprise mechanisms that are putatively beneficial to the bacteria as well as mechanisms which are merely side effects, including quinone autoxidation and direct O{sub 2} reduction by heme compounds. Here we showed that 1 muM of ACNQ is able to generate a significant catalytic wave for oxygen reduction, with onset at approximately 0 V vs. SHE. Similarly, adsorption of hemin on a carbon surface catalyses O{sub 2} reduction to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with an onset of +0.2 V vs. SHE. To evaluate the catalytic pathways of live cells on cathodic oxygen reduction, two species of electrochemically active bacteria were selected as pure cultures, namely Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Shewanella putrefaciens. The former appears to exploit a self-excreted redox compound with redox characteristics matching those of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) for extracellular electron transfer. The latter appears to utilise outer membrane-bound redox compounds. Interaction of quinones and cytochromes with the membrane-bound electron transfer chain is yet to be proven.

  4. Electron transfer pathways in microbial oxygen biocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of some bacteria to enhance the rate of cathodic oxygen reduction to water has been recently discovered, opening the way to an entirely renewable and environmentally friendly concept of biocathode. In this study we reveal that several mechanisms may induce catalytic effects by bacteria. These comprise mechanisms that are putatively beneficial to the bacteria as well as mechanisms which are merely side effects, including quinone autoxidation and direct O2 reduction by heme compounds. Here we showed that 1 ?M of ACNQ is able to generate a significant catalytic wave for oxygen reduction, with onset at approximately 0 V vs. SHE. Similarly, adsorption of hemin on a carbon surface catalyses O2 reduction to H2O2 with an onset of +0.2 V vs. SHE. To evaluate the catalytic pathways of live cells on cathodic oxygen reduction, two species of electrochemically active bacteria were selected as pure cultures, namely Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Shewanella putrefaciens. The former appears to exploit a self-excreted redox compound with redox characteristics matching those of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) for extracellular electron transfer. The latter appears to utilise outer membrane-bound redox compounds. Interaction of quinones and cytochromes with the membrane-bound electron transfer chain is yet to be proven.

  5. Intermolecular spectroscopy of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic techniques have been very successfully applied to the study of individual molecules. The same techniques can also be used to investigate intermolecular interactions. Collision-induced absorption (CIA) and collision-induced light scattering (CILS) are important examples of intermolecular interactions. These effects can be described by the dynamical information contained in the general intermolecular correlation functions. One of the aims of this review is to stress the central role of these correlation functions in the field of intermolecular spectroscopy. Because they have a well-defined physical meaning, they are very suitable for the purpose of introducing new physical approximations, particularly in the case of liquids. Some aspects of the theory of CIA will be discussed, mainly as applied to gases. References to similar situations in CILS will occasionally be made, but no comprehensive review will be attempted. One of the basic quantities in CIA is the absorption coefficient. The question is investigated wether it can be expanded in powers of the density. Finally, the moments of the spectrum, interference effects and line shapes are discussed. (KBE)

  6. Electron transfer in gas surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis electron transfer between atoms and metal surfaces in general is discussed and the negative ionization of hydrogen by scattering protons at a cesiated crystalline tungsten (110) surface in particular. Experimental results and a novel theoretical analysis are presented. In Chapter I a theoretical overview of resonant electron transitions between atoms and metals is given. In the first part of chapter II atom-metal electron transitions at a fixed atom-metal distance are described on the basis of a model developed by Gadzuk. In the second part the influence of the motion of the atom on the atomic charge state is incorporated. Measurements presented in chapter III show a strong dependence of the fraction of negatively charged H atoms scattered at cesiated tungsten, on the normal as well as the parallel velocity component. In chapter IV the proposed mechanism for the parallel velocity effect is incorporated in the amplitude method. The scattering process of protons incident under grazing angles on a cesium covered surface is studied in chapter V. (Auth.)

  7. The Liability of banks in electronic fund transfer transaction

    OpenAIRE

    Algudah, Fayyad

    1993-01-01

    The liability of banks in electronic fund transfer (EFT) transactions is discussed in this thesis under the British and the United States law. The thesis covers banks’ liability in electronic credit and debit transfers. It covers banks’ liability in Electronic Fund Transfer at the Point Of Sale (EFTPOS), Automatic Teller Machines (ATM) and home and office banking. Liability of banks in credit card transactions and cheque truncation falls outside the scope of this thesis. In ...

  8. Activation entropy of electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Milischuk, A A; Newton, M D; Milischuk, Anatoli A.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.; Newton, Marshall D.

    2005-01-01

    We report microscopic calculations of free energies and entropies for intramolecular electron transfer reactions. The calculation algorithm combines the atomistic geometry and charge distribution of a molecular solute obtained from quantum calculations with the microscopic polarization response of a polar solvent expressed in terms of its polarization structure factors. The procedure is tested on a donor-acceptor complex in which ruthenium donor and cobalt acceptor sites are linked by a four-proline polypeptide. The reorganization energies and reaction energy gaps are calculated as a function of temperature by using structure factors obtained from our analytical procedure and from computer simulations. Good agreement between two procedures and with direct computer simulations of the reorganization energy is achieved. The microscopic algorithm is compared to the dielectric continuum calculations. We found that the strong dependence of the reorganization energy on the solvent refractive index predicted by conti...

  9. Theory of plasmon enhanced interfacial electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luxia; May, Volkhard

    2015-04-01

    A particular attempt to improve the efficiency of a dye sensitized solar cell is it's decoration with metal nano-particles (MNP). The MNP-plasmon induced enhancement of the local field enlarges the photoexcitation of the dyes and a subsequent improvement of the charge separation efficiency may result. In a recent work (2014 J. Phys. Chem. C 118 2812) we presented a theory of plasmon enhanced interfacial electron transfer for perylene attached to a TiO2 surface and placed in the proximity of a spherical MNP. These earlier studies are generalized here to the coupling of to up to four MNPs and to the use of somewhat altered molecular parameters. If the MNPs are placed close to each other strong hybridization of plasmon excitations appears and a broad resonance to which molecular excitations are coupled is formed. To investigate this situation the whole charge injection dynamics is described in the framework of the density matrix theory. The approach accounts for optical excitation of the dye coupled to the MNPs and considers subsequent electron injection into the rutile TiO2-cluster. Using a tight-binding model for the TiO2-system with about 105 atoms the electron motion in the cluster is described. We again consider short optical excitation which causes an intermediate steady state with a time-independent overall probability to have the electron injected into the cluster. This probability is used to introduce an enhancement factor which rates the influence of the MNP. Values larger than 500 are obtained.

  10. Electron transfer reactions in microporous solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouk, T.E.

    1992-05-01

    We have studied electron transfer quenching of the excited state of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} in aqueous suspensions of zeolites Y, L, and mordenite. The internal pore network of the zeolite is ion-exchanged with methylviologen cations, which quench the excited state of the surface-bound sensitizer. A detailed study of the quenching and charge recombination kinetics, using time-resolved luminescence quenching and transient diffuse reflectance spectroscopies, shows to remarkable effects: first, the excited state quenching is entirely dynamic is large-pore zeolites (L and Y), even when they are prepared as apparently dry'' powders (which still contain significant amounts of internally sited water). Second, a lower limit for the diffusion coefficient of the MV{sup 2+} ion in these zeolites, determined by this technique, is 10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}sec, i.e., only about one order of magnitude slower than a typical ion in liquid water, and 2--3 orders of magnitude faster than charge transfer diffusion of cations in polyelectrolyte films or membranes such as Nafion. Surface sensitization of internally platinized layered oxide semiconductors such as K{sub 4-x}H{sub x}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 17}{center dot}nH{sub 2}O (x {approx} 2.5) yields photocatalysts for the production of H{sub 2} and I{sub 3{minus}} in aqueous iodide solutions. Layered alkali niobates and titanates form a class of zeolitic wide-bandap semiconductors, and are the first examples of photocatalysts that evolve hydrogen from an electrochemically reversible (i.e., non-sacrificial) electron donor with visible light excitation.

  11. Photoinduced Electron-transfer Reaction of Pentafluoroiodobenzene with Alkenes

    OpenAIRE

    Qing-Yun Chen; Zheng-Yu Long; Ping Cao

    1997-01-01

    Irradiation of pentafluoroiodobenzene and alkenes gave the corresponding adducts. The presence of single electron-transfer scavengers, (p-dinitrobenzene and t-Bu2NO) and the free radical inhibitor (hydroquinone) suppressed the reaction. A photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism is proposed.

  12. Electron Transfer in Porphyrin Complexes in Different Solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Kilin, D S; Schreiber, M

    2000-01-01

    The electron transfer in different solvents is investigated for systems consisting of donor, bridge and acceptor. It is assumed that vibrational relaxation is much faster than the electron transfer. Electron transfer rates and final populations of the acceptor state are calculated numerically and in an approximate fashion analytically. In wide parameter regimes these solutions are in very good agreement. The theory is applied to the electron transfer in ${\\rm H_2P-ZnP-Q}$ with free-base porphyrin (${\\rm H_2P}$) being the donor, zinc porphyrin (${\\rm ZnP}$) the bridge, and quinone (${\\rm Q}$) the acceptor. It is shown that the electron transfer rates can be controlled efficiently by changing the energy of the bridging level which can be done by changing the solvent. The effect of the solvent is determined for different models.

  13. Oxide/Electrolyte interface: Electron transfer phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Ibáñez, P.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Electron transfer on a titanium dioxide/electrolyte solution interface has been studied. As observed by other researchers on similar interfaces (TiO2- and ZnO- electrolyte solution, slow consumption of OH- ions was found. A theoretical model has been developed for calculating the change in Fermi energy levels of both electrolyte solution and semiconductor, showing that ion consumption from the solution is favoured by a decreased difference in their Fermi energies. A kinetic constant (? is found to characterise the consumption process, its value increasing with electrolyte and semiconductor mass concentrations. Furthermore, this process may be used to estimate the point of zero charge of a titanium dioxide colloidal dispersion.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado un proceso de transferencia de electrones en la interfase dióxido de titanio/electrolito acuoso. Tal y como han observado otros investigadores en interfases similares (TiO2- y ZnO- electrolito, se ha detectado un consumo lento de iones OH-. Para dar explicación a este proceso, se ha desarrollado un modelo teórico basado en el cálculo de las energías de Fermi en el semiconductor y en el electrolito. De este modo, se demuestra que dicho consumo de iones está favorecido por una disminución de la diferencia entre ambos niveles de Fermi. Para caracterizar el proceso de consumo lento de OH- se define una constante cinética (?, cuyo valor aumenta a medida que crece la concentración másica de semiconductor y de electrolito en la suspensión. Adicionalmente, este fenómeno proporciona una herramienta para determinar experimentalmente el punto de carga nula de la suspensión de dióxido de titanio en el medio acuoso.

  14. Quantum coherent contributions in biological electron transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Dorner, Ross; Heaney, Libby; Farrow, Tristan; Roberts, Philippa G; Hirst, Judy; Vedral, Vlatko

    2011-01-01

    Many biological electron transfer (ET) reactions are mediated by metal centres in proteins. NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) contains an intramolecular chain of seven iron-sulphur (FeS) clusters, one of the longest chains of metal centres in biology and a test case for physical models of intramolecular ET. In biology, intramolecular ET is commonly described as a diffusive hopping process, according to the semi-classical theories of Marcus and Hopfield. However, recent studies have raised the possibility that non-trivial quantum mechanical effects play a functioning role in certain biomolecular processes. Here, we extend the semi-classical model for biological ET to incorporate both semi-classical and coherent quantum phenomena using a quantum master equation based on the Holstein Hamiltonian. We test our model on the structurally-defined chain of FeS clusters in complex I. By exploring a wide range of realistic parameters we and that, when the energy profile for ET along the chain is relatively at, ...

  15. Electron Transfer Dissociation of Milk Oligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liang; Costello, Catherine E.

    2011-06-01

    For structural identification of glycans, the classic collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra are dominated by product ions that derived from glycosidic cleavages, which provide only sequence information. The peaks from cross-ring fragmentation are often absent or have very low abundances in such spectra. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is being applied to structural identification of carbohydrates for the first time, and results in some new and detailed information for glycan structural studies. A series of linear milk sugars was analyzed by a variety of fragmentation techniques such as MS/MS by CID and ETD, and MS3 by sequential CID/CID, CID/ETD, and ETD/CID. In CID spectra, the detected peaks were mainly generated via glycosidic cleavages. By comparison, ETD generated various types of abundant cross-ring cleavage ions. These complementary cross-ring cleavages clarified the different linkage types and branching patterns of the representative milk sugar samples. The utilization of different MS3 techniques made it possible to verify initial assignments and to detect the presence of multiple components in isobaric peaks. Fragment ion structures and pathways could be proposed to facilitate the interpretation of carbohydrate ETD spectra, and the main mechanisms were investigated. ETD should contribute substantially to confident structural analysis of a wide variety of oligosaccharides.

  16. Electronic transfer of sensitive patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detterbeck, A M W; Kaiser, J; Hirschfelder, U

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop decision-making aids and recommendations for dental practitioners regarding the utilization and sharing of sensitive digital patient data. In the current environment of growing digitization, healthcare professionals need detailed knowledge of secure data management to maximize confidentiality and minimize the risks involved in both archiving patient data and sharing it through electronic channels. Despite well-defined legal requirements, an all-inclusive technological solution does not currently exist. The need for a preliminary review and critical appraisal of common practices of data transfer prompted a search of the literature and the Web to identify viable methods of secure data exchange and to develop a flowchart. A strong focus was placed on the transmission of datasets both smaller than and larger than 10 MB, and on secure communication by smartphone. Although encryption of patient-related data should be routine, it is often difficult to implement. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) are viable standards for secure e-mail encryption. Sharing of high-volume data should be accomplished with the help of file encryption. Careful handling of sensitive patient data is mandatory, and it is the end-user's responsibility to meet any requirements for encryption, preferably by using free, open-source (and hence transparent) software. PMID:25911828

  17. Vectorial electron transfer on designed surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, A. J.; Campion, A.; Fox, M. A.; Mallouk, T. E.; Webber, S. E.

    Bipolar CdSe/CoS semiconductor photoelectrode panels, capable of vectorial electron transfer, were used in series arrays to photodecompose water to yield hydrogen and oxygen in stoichiometric ratio with a maximum solar efficiency of about 1 precent. An analytical model was developed for these arrays which addresses the question of watersplitting and electrical power generation efficiencies as functions of the number of panels, the overpotential of the gas generating electrodes, incident light intensity, and the concentrations of the redox couples. Hydrogen production using a self-assembling zeolite system was discovered. Sensitized anatase TiO2 electrodes were used in photoelectrochemical cells employing variety of solution redox couples. The photoassisted production of hydrogen from methanol-water solutions containing mixtures of small particles of CdS/SiO2 and a wide bandgap semiconductor (TiO, ZnO, SnO2, or WO3), supported on silica and platinized was studied. The phenomenon of interparticle charge separation for Cds/SiO2 was found to be operative for CdS/SiO2 with WS sub 2/SiO2.

  18. The distance and temperature dependence of electron-transfer rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron transfer occurs over relatively long distances in a variety of systems. In interpreting the measured electron-transfer rates it is usually assumed that the rate constants depend exponentially on the distance separating the two redox sites and that this distance dependence arises from the decrease in the electronic coupling of the redox sites with increasing separation. Although the electronic coupling is an important factor determining the distance dependence of the rate, theoretical considerations suggest that the nuclear factors are also important. The various factors determining long-range electron-transfer rates are discussed and it is shown that very different distance dependences are predicted for reactions in the normal and inverted free-energy regions. The effect of the enthalpy change on the electron-transfer rate is also considered; three enthalpy regions are identified depending on the overall free energy and entropy changes for the reaction

  19. Golden rule kinetics of transfer reactions in condensed phase: The microscopic model of electron transfer reactions in disordered solid matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The algorithm for a theoretical calculation of transfer reaction rates for light quantum particles (i.e., the electron and H-atom transfers) in non-polar solid matrices is formulated and justified. The mechanism postulated involves a local mode (an either intra- or inter-molecular one) serving as a mediator which accomplishes the energy exchange between the reacting high-frequency quantum mode and the phonon modes belonging to the environment. This approach uses as a background the Fermi golden rule beyond the usually applied spin-boson approximation. The dynamical treatment rests on the one-dimensional version of the standard quantum relaxation equation for the reduced density matrix, which describes the frequency fluctuation spectrum for the local mode under consideration. The temperature dependence of a reaction rate is controlled by the dimensionless parameter ?0=??0/kBT where ?0 is the frequency of the local mode and T is the temperature. The realization of the computational scheme is different for the high/intermediate (?0 0? 1) temperature ranges. For the first (quasi-classical) kinetic regime, the Redfield approximation to the solution of the relaxation equation proved to be sufficient and efficient in practical applications. The study of the essentially quantum-mechanical low-temperature kinetic regime in its asymptotic limit requires the implementation of the exact relaxation equation. The coherent mechanism providing a non-vanishing reaction rate has been revealed when T? 0. An accurate computational methodology for the cross-over kinetic regime needs a further elaboration. The original model of the hopping mechanism for electronic conduction in photosensitive organic materials is considered, based on the above techniques. The electron transfer (ET) in active centers of such systems proceeds via local intra- and intermolecular modes. The active modes, as a rule, operate beyond the kinetic regimes, which are usually postulated in the existing theories of the ET. Our alternative dynamic ET model for local modes immersed in the continuum harmonic medium is formulated for both classical and quantum regimes, and accounts explicitly for the mode/medium interaction. The kinetics of the energy exchange between the local ET subsystem and the surrounding environment essentially determine the total ET rate. The efficient computer code for rate computations is elaborated on. The computations are available for a wide range of system parameters, such as the temperature, external field, local mode frequency, and characteristics of mode/medium interaction. The relation of the present approach to the Marcus ET theory and to the quantum-statistical reaction rate theory [V. G. Levich and R. R. Dogonadze, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. Khim. 124, 213 (1959); J. Ulstrup, Charge Transfer in Condensed Media (Springer, Berlin, 1979); M. Bixon and J. Jortner, Adv. Chem. Phys. 106, 35 (1999)] underlying it is discussed and illustrated by the results of computations for practically important target systems

  20. Electron Transfer Dissociation of iTRAQ Labeled Peptide Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hongling; Pappin, Darryl J.; Ross, Philip L.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Triply and doubly charged iTRAQ (isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation) labeled peptide cations from a tryptic peptide mixture of bovine carbonic anhydrase II were subjected to electron transfer ion/ion reactions to investigate the effect of charge bearing modifications associated with iTRAQ on the fragmentation pattern. It was noted that electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of triply charged or activated ETD (ETD + supplemental collisional activation of intact electron tran...

  1. Computational Approach to Electron Charge Transfer Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Elvar Örn

    2013-01-01

    The step from ab initio atomic and molecular properties to thermodynamic - or macroscopic - properties requires the combination of several theoretical tools. This dissertation presents constant temperature molecular dynamics with bond length constraints, a hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics scheme, and tools to analyse statistical data and generate relative free energies and free energy surfaces. The methodology is applied to several charge transfer species and reactions in chemical environments - chemical in the sense that solvent, counter ions and substrate surfaces are taken in to account - which directly influence the reactants and resulting reaction through both physical and chemical interactions. All methods are though general and can be applied to different types of chemistry. First, the basis of the various theoretical tools is presented and applied to several test systems to show general (or expected) properties. Properties such as in the physical and (semi-)chemical interface between classical and quantum systems and the effects of molecular bond length constraints on the temperature during simulations. As a second step the methodology is applied to the symmetric and asymmetric charge transfer reactions between several first-row transition metals in water. The results are compared to experiments and rationalised with classical analytic expressions. Shortcomings of the methods are accounted for with clear steps towards improved accuracy. Later the analysis is extended to more complex systems composed of a larger osmium complex in solution and at the solute-substrate interfaces, where in particular the redox state of the complex is controlled through chemical means. The efficiency of the hybrid-classical and quantum mechanics method is used to generate adequate statistics and a simple post-sampling scheme used to generate free energy surfaces - which compare to full ab initio calculations. In the last part both the molecular dynamics and hybrid classical and quantum mechanics method are used to generate a vast data set for the accurate analysis of dynamical structure modes. This is for a large iridium-iridium dimer complex which shows a dramatic structural (and vibrational) change upon electronic excitation.

  2. Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkate, Lucas A.; Mulder, Fokko M. [Reactor Institute Delft, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands); Zbiri, Mohamed, E-mail: zbiri@ill.fr; Johnson, Mark R. [Institut Laue Langevin, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Carter, Elizabeth [Vibrational Spectroscopy Facility, School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, NSW 2008 (Australia); Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, S. [ChemE-NSM, Faculty of Chemistry, Delft University of Technology, 2628BL/136 Delft (Netherlands); Kearley, Gordon J. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-01-07

    Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10{sup ?2} electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems.

  3. Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10?2 electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems

  4. Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkate, Lucas A.; Zbiri, Mohamed; Johnson, Mark R.; Carter, Elizabeth; Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, S.; Mulder, Fokko M.; Kearley, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10-2 electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems.

  5. Heat Transfer Augmentation for Electronic Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Suabsakul Gururatana

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The performance of electronic devices has been improving along with the rapid technology development. Cooling of electronic systems is consequently essential in controlling the component temperature and avoiding any hot spot. The study aims to review the present electronic cooling methods which are widely used in electronic devices. Approach: There are several methods to cool down the electronics components such as the pin-fin heat sink, confined jet impingement, heat pipe,...

  6. 76 FR 29901 - Electronic Fund Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ...when the government of a foreign country sets the exchange rate after a transfer has...the central bank of the foreign country sets the exchange rate after the transfer has...not set or disclose a foreign exchange rate to the sender. It...

  7. 77 FR 71035 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ...Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) Market Research Study AGENCY: Financial Management...Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) Market Research Study.'' DATES: Written comments...Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) Market Research Study. OMB Number:...

  8. REFLECTIONS ON THE TWO-STATE ELECTRON TRANSFER MODEL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunschwig, B.S.

    2000-01-12

    There is general agreement that the two most important factors determining electron transfer rates in solution are the degree of electronic interaction between the donor and acceptor sites, and the changes in the nuclear configurations of the donor, acceptor, and surrounding medium that occur upon the gain or loss of an electron Ll-51. The electronic interaction of the sites will be very weak, and the electron transfer slow, when the sites are far apart or their interaction is symmetry or spin forbidden. Since electron motion is much faster than nuclear motion, energy conservation requires that, prior to the actual electron transfer, the nuclear configurations of the reactants and the surrounding medium adjust from their equilibrium values to a configuration (generally) intermediate between that of the reactants and products. In the case of electron transfer between , two metal complexes in a polar solvent, the nuclear configuration changes involve adjustments in the metal-ligand and intraligand bond lengths and angles, and changes in the orientations of the surrounding solvent molecules. In common with ordinary chemical reactions, an electron transfer reaction can then be described in terms of the motion of the system on an energy surface from the reactant equilibrium configuration (initial state) to the product equilibrium configuration (final state) via the activated complex (transition state) configuration.

  9. Intermolecular coulomb decay at weakly coupled heterogeneous interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Gregory A; Orlando, Thomas M

    2011-07-01

    Surface ejection of H(+)(H(2)O)(n=1-8) from low energy electron irradiated water clusters adsorbed on graphite and graphite with overlayers of Ar, Kr or Xe results from intermolecular Coulomb decay (ICD) at the mixed interface. Inner valence holes in water (2a(1)(-1)), Ar (3s(-1)), Kr (4s(-1)), and Xe (5s(-1)) correlate with the cluster appearance thresholds and initiate ICD. Proton transfer occurs during or immediately after ICD and the resultant Coulomb explosion leads to H(+)(H(2)O)(n=1-8) desorption with kinetic energies that vary with initiating state, final state, and interatomic or molecular distances. PMID:21797555

  10. Electron-Transfer Acceleration Investigated by Time Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vl?ek Jr., Antonín; Kvapilová, Hana; Towrie, M.; Záliš, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 48, ?. 3 (2015), s. 868-876. ISSN 0001-4842 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electron transfer * infrared spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 22.323, year: 2014

  11. Combining UV photodissociation with electron transfer for peptide structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher J; Marek, Ales; Pepin, Robert; Slovakova, Kristina; Turecek, Frantisek

    2015-03-01

    The combination of near-UV photodissociation with electron transfer and collisional activation provides a new tool for structure investigation of isolated peptide ions and reactive intermediates. Two new types of pulse experiments are reported. In the first one called UV/Vis photodissociation-electron transfer dissociation (UVPD-ETD), diazirine-labeled peptide ions are shown to undergo photodissociation in the gas phase to form new covalent bonds, guided by the ion conformation, and the products are analyzed by electron transfer dissociation. In the second experiment, called ETD-UVPD wherein synthetic labels are not necessary, electron transfer forms new cation-peptide radical chromophores that absorb at 355?nm and undergo specific backbone photodissociation reactions. The new method is applied to distinguish isomeric ions produced by ETD of arginine containing peptides. PMID:25800183

  12. Combining UV photodissociation with electron transfer for peptide structure analysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaffer, C. J.; Marek, Aleš; Pepin, R.; Slováková, K.; Ture?ek, F.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 50, ?. 3 (2015), s. 470-475. ISSN 1076-5174 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : electron transfer dissociation * laser photodissociation * peptide ions * cation radical * chromophores * isomer distinction Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.709, year: 2013

  13. 76 FR 81019 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...relating to electronic fund transfers, or dormancy, inactivity, or service fees, or expiration...the card, code, or other device. (5) Dormancy or inactivity fee. The terms ``dormancy fee'' and ``inactivity fee'' mean...

  14. Theory of electron transfer and ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main effort reported is directed toward charge transfer and ionization in high energy atomic collisions. The research may be divided into classical trajectory calculations, quantum - mechanical collision theory, and phenomenological treatments of quantal interference effects in heavy ion collisions

  15. Reactant-Product Quantum Coherence in Electron Transfer Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kominis, I. K.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the physical meaning of quantum superposition states between reactants and products in electron transfer reactions. We show that such superpositions are strongly suppressed and to leading orders of perturbation theory do not pertain in electron transfer reactions. This is because of the intermediate manifold of states separating the reactants from the products. We provide an intuitive description of these considerations with Feynman diagrams. We also discuss t...

  16. Interfacial Electron Transfer into Functionalized Crystalline Polyoxotitanate Nanoclusters

    OpenAIRE

    Snoeberger, Robert C.; Young, Karin J.; Tang, Jiji; Allen, Laura J.; Crabtree, Robert H.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Coppens, Philip; Batista, Victor S.; Jason B. Benedict

    2012-01-01

    Interfacial electron transfer (IET) between a chromophore and a semi-conductor nanoparticle is one of the key processes in a dye sensitized solar cell. Theoretical simulations of the electron transfer in polyoxotitanate nanoclusters Ti17O24(OPri)20 (Ti17) functionalized with four para-nitrophenyl acetylacetone (NPA-H) adsorbates, of which the atomic structure has been fully established by X-ray diffraction measurements, are presented. Complementary experimental information showing IET has bee...

  17. Electronic reorganization triggered by electron transfer: the intervalence charge transfer of a Fe³?/Fe²? bimetallic complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Alex; Angeli, Celestino; de Graaf, Coen; Robert, Vincent

    2015-04-30

    The key role of the molecular orbitals in describing electron transfer processes is put in evidence for the intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) of a synthetic nonheme binuclear mixed-valence Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) compound. The electronic reorganization induced by the IVCT can be quantified by controlling the adaptation of the molecular orbitals to the charge transfer process. We evaluate the transition energy and its polarization effects on the molecular orbitals by means of ab initio calculations. The resulting energetic profile of the IVCT shows strong similarities to the Marcus' model, suggesting a response behaviour of the ensemble of electrons analogue to that of the solvent. We quantify the extent of the electronic reorganization induced by the IVCT process to be 11.74 eV, a very large effect that induces the crossing of states reducing the total energy of the transfer to 0.89 eV. PMID:25739890

  18. Electron Transfer in Ferritin as Probed by Muon Spin Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, Mark T. F.; Kilcoyne, Susan H.

    Electron-transfer processes play a vital role in many biological phenomena, from energy storage to photosynthesis. Positive muons allow such transfer processes in macromolecules, such as proteins, to be probed on a microscopic level. We have used this probe via muon spin relaxation (?SR) to investigate electron-transfer processes in ferritin; the normal iron storage protein. Data collected at finite fields is well described using the Risch-Kehr model at all measured temperatures with inter and intra-chain diffusion rates of 109 and 1011 rad s-1 being determined respectively. The results are compared to similar measurements on other proteins.

  19. Conformational analysis of a Chlamydia-specific disaccharide ?-Kdo-(2?8)-?-Kdo-(2?O)-allyl in aqueous solution and bound to a monoclonal antibody: Observation of intermolecular transfer NOEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disaccharide ?-Kdo-(2?8)-?-Kdo (Kdo: 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) represents a genus-specific epitope of the lipopolysaccharide of the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia. The conformation of the synthetically derived disaccharide ?-Kdo-(2?8)-?-Kdo-(2?O)-allyl was studied in aqueous solution, and complexed to a monoclonal antibody S25-2. Various NMR experiments based on the detection of NOEs (or transfer NOEs) and ROEs (or transfer ROEs) were performed. A major problem was the extensive overlap of almost all 1H NMR signals of ?-Kdo-(2?8)-?-Kdo-(2?O)-allyl. To overcome this difficulty, HMQC-NOESY and HMQC-trNOESY experiments were employed. Spin diffusion effects were identified using trROESY experiments, QUIET-trNOESY experiments and MINSY experiments. It was found that protein protons contribute to the observed spin diffusion effects. At 800 MHz, intermolecular trNOEs were observed between ligand protons and aromatic protons in the antibody binding site. From NMR experiments and Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations, it was concluded that ?-Kdo-(2?8)-?-Kdo-(2?O)-allyl in aqueous solution exists as a complex conformational mixture. Upon binding to the monoclonal antibody S25-2, only a limited range of conformations is available to ?-Kdo-(2?8)-?-Kdo-(2?O)-allyl. These possible bound conformations were derived frome derived from a distance geometry analysis using transfer NOEs as experimental constraints. It is clear that a conformation is selected which lies within a part of the conformational space that is highly populated in solution. This conformational space also includes the conformation found in the crystal structure. Our results provide a basis for modeling studies of the antibody-disaccharide complex

  20. Catching the role of anisotropic electronic distribution and charge transfer in halogen bonded complexes of noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartocci, Alessio; Belpassi, Leonardo; Cappelletti, David; Falcinelli, Stefano; Grandinetti, Felice; Tarantelli, Francesco; Pirani, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    The systems studied in this work are gas-phase weakly bound adducts of the noble-gas (Ng) atoms with CCl4 and CF4. Their investigation was motivated by the widespread current interest for the intermolecular halogen bonding (XB), a structural motif recognized to play a role in fields ranging from elementary processes to biochemistry. The simulation of the static and dynamic behaviors of complex systems featuring XB requires the formulation of reliable and accurate model potentials, whose development relies on the detailed characterization of strength and nature of the interactions occurring in simple exemplary halogenated systems. We thus selected the prototypical Ng-CCl4 and Ng-CF4 and performed high-resolution molecular beam scattering experiments to measure the absolute scale of their intermolecular potentials, with high sensitivity. In general, we expected to probe typical van der Waals interactions, consisting of a combination of size (exchange) repulsion with dispersion/induction attraction. For the He/Ne-CF4, the analysis of the glory quantum interference pattern, observable in the velocity dependence of the integral cross section, confirmed indeed this expectation. On the other hand, for the He/Ne/Ar-CCl4, the scattering data unravelled much deeper potential wells, particularly for certain configurations of the interacting partners. The experimental data can be properly reproduced only including a shifting of the repulsive wall at shorter distances, accompanied by an increased role of the dispersion attraction, and an additional short-range stabilization component. To put these findings on a firmer ground, we performed, for selected geometries of the interacting complexes, accurate theoretical calculations aimed to evaluate the intermolecular interaction and the effects of the complex formation on the electron charge density of the constituting moieties. It was thus ascertained that the adjustments of the potential suggested by the analysis of the experiments actually reflect two chemically meaningful contributions, namely, a stabilizing interaction arising from the anisotropy of the charge distribution around the Cl atom in CCl4 and a stereospecific electron transfer that occurs at the intermolecular distances mainly probed by the experiments. Our model calculations suggest that the largest effect is for the vertex geometry of CCl4 while other geometries appear to play a minor to negligible role.

  1. Catching the role of anisotropic electronic distribution and charge transfer in halogen bonded complexes of noble gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartocci, Alessio; Belpassi, Leonardo; Cappelletti, David; Falcinelli, Stefano; Grandinetti, Felice; Tarantelli, Francesco; Pirani, Fernando

    2015-05-14

    The systems studied in this work are gas-phase weakly bound adducts of the noble-gas (Ng) atoms with CCl4 and CF4. Their investigation was motivated by the widespread current interest for the intermolecular halogen bonding (XB), a structural motif recognized to play a role in fields ranging from elementary processes to biochemistry. The simulation of the static and dynamic behaviors of complex systems featuring XB requires the formulation of reliable and accurate model potentials, whose development relies on the detailed characterization of strength and nature of the interactions occurring in simple exemplary halogenated systems. We thus selected the prototypical Ng-CCl4 and Ng-CF4 and performed high-resolution molecular beam scattering experiments to measure the absolute scale of their intermolecular potentials, with high sensitivity. In general, we expected to probe typical van der Waals interactions, consisting of a combination of size (exchange) repulsion with dispersion/induction attraction. For the He/Ne-CF4, the analysis of the glory quantum interference pattern, observable in the velocity dependence of the integral cross section, confirmed indeed this expectation. On the other hand, for the He/Ne/Ar-CCl4, the scattering data unravelled much deeper potential wells, particularly for certain configurations of the interacting partners. The experimental data can be properly reproduced only including a shifting of the repulsive wall at shorter distances, accompanied by an increased role of the dispersion attraction, and an additional short-range stabilization component. To put these findings on a firmer ground, we performed, for selected geometries of the interacting complexes, accurate theoretical calculations aimed to evaluate the intermolecular interaction and the effects of the complex formation on the electron charge density of the constituting moieties. It was thus ascertained that the adjustments of the potential suggested by the analysis of the experiments actually reflect two chemically meaningful contributions, namely, a stabilizing interaction arising from the anisotropy of the charge distribution around the Cl atom in CCl4 and a stereospecific electron transfer that occurs at the intermolecular distances mainly probed by the experiments. Our model calculations suggest that the largest effect is for the vertex geometry of CCl4 while other geometries appear to play a minor to negligible role. PMID:25978888

  2. Intermolecular covalent pi-pi bonding interaction indicated by bond distances, energy bands, and magnetism in biphenalenyl biradicaloid molecular crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingsong; Kertesz, Miklos

    2007-02-14

    Density-functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed for energy band structure and geometry optimizations on the stepped pi-chain, the isolated molecule and (di)cations of the chain, and various related molecules of a neutral biphenalenyl biradicaloid (BPBR) organic semiconductor 2. The dependence of the geometries on crystal packing provides indirect evidence for the intermolecular covalent pi-pi bonding interaction through space between neighboring pi-stacked phenalenyl units along the chain. The two phenalenyl electrons on each molecule, occupying the singly occupied molecular orbitals (SOMOs), are participating in the intermolecular covalent pi-pi bonding making them partially localized on the phenalenyl units and less available for intramolecular delocalization. The band structure shows a relatively large bandwidth and small band gap indicative of good pi-pi overlap and delocalization between neighboring pi-stacked phenalenyl units. A new interpretation is presented for the magnetism of the stepped pi-chain of 2 using an alternating Heisenberg chain model, which is consistent with DFT total energy calculations for 2 and prevails against the previous interpretation using a Bleaney-Bowers dimer model. The obtained transfer integrals and the magnetic exchange parameters fit well into the framework of a Hubbard model. All presented analyses on molecular geometries, energy bands, and magnetism provide a coherent picture for 2 pointing toward an alternating chain with significant intermolecular through-space covalent pi-pi bonding interactions in the molecular crystal. Surprisingly, both the intermolecular transfer integrals and exchange parameters are larger than the intramolecular through-bond values indicating the effectiveness of the intermolecular overlap of the phenalenyl SOMO electrons. PMID:17284004

  3. Electron transfer in self-assembled orthogonal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Anthony; Rostron, James P; Cesario, Michèle; Ulrich, Gilles; Ziessel, Raymond

    2006-07-01

    Two new molecular dyads, comprising pyrromethene (bodipy) and 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine (terpy) subunits, have been synthesized and fully characterized. Absorption and fluorescence spectral profiles are dominated by contributions from the bodipy unit. Zinc(II) cations bind to the vacant terpy ligand to form both 1:1 and 1:2 (cation:ligand) complexes, as evidenced by X-ray structural data, NMR and spectrophotometric titrations. Attachment of the cations is accompanied by a substantial decrease in fluorescence from the bodipy chromophore due to intramolecular electron transfer across the orthogonal structure. At low temperature, nuclear tunneling occurs and the rate of electron transfer is essentially activationless. However, activated electron transfer is seen at higher temperatures and allows calculation of the corresponding reorganization energy and electronic coupling matrix element. In both cases, charge recombination is faster than charge separation. PMID:16805483

  4. Nuclear interlevel transfer driven by electronic transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show how a gamma-ray laser might be made by optically exciting a transfer of population from a long-lived isomer to an energetically adjacent short-lived state of the same nucleus. We compare the advantages of using transitions of high multipolarity versus transitions of low multi-polarity. Preliminary numerical investigations of the mechanism show it to be somewhat favorable. 35 refs., 4 figs

  5. Effect of proton transfer on the electronic coupling in DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rak, Janusz [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-353 Gdansk (Poland)], E-mail: janusz@raptor.chem.univ.gda.pl; Makowska, Joanna [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-353 Gdansk (Poland); Voityuk, Alexander A. [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Institute of Computational Chemistry, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain)], E-mail: alexander.voityuk@icrea.es

    2006-06-20

    The effects of single and double proton transfer within Watson-Crick base pairs on donor-acceptor electronic couplings, V {sub da}, in DNA are studied on the bases of quantum chemical calculations. Four dimers [AT,AT], [GC,GC], [GC,AT] and [GC,TA)] are considered. Three techniques - the generalized Mulliken-Hush scheme, the fragment charge method and the diabatic states method - are employed to estimate V {sub da} for hole transfer between base pairs. We show that both single- and double proton transfer (PT) reactions may substantially affect the electronic coupling in DNA. The electronic coupling in [AT,AT] is predicted to be most sensitive to PT. Single PT within the first base pair in the dimer leads to increase in the hole transfer efficiency by a factor of 4, while proton transfer within the second pair should substantially, by 2.7 times, decrease the rate of charge transfer. Thus, directional asymmetry of the PT effects on the electronic coupling is predicted. The changes in the V {sub da} matrix elements correlate with the topological properties of orbitals of donor and acceptor and can be qualitatively rationalized in terms of resonance structures of donor and acceptor. Atomic pair contributions to the V {sub da} matrix elements are also analyzed.

  6. Effect of proton transfer on the electronic coupling in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of single and double proton transfer within Watson-Crick base pairs on donor-acceptor electronic couplings, V da, in DNA are studied on the bases of quantum chemical calculations. Four dimers [AT,AT], [GC,GC], [GC,AT] and [GC,TA)] are considered. Three techniques - the generalized Mulliken-Hush scheme, the fragment charge method and the diabatic states method - are employed to estimate V da for hole transfer between base pairs. We show that both single- and double proton transfer (PT) reactions may substantially affect the electronic coupling in DNA. The electronic coupling in [AT,AT] is predicted to be most sensitive to PT. Single PT within the first base pair in the dimer leads to increase in the hole transfer efficiency by a factor of 4, while proton transfer within the second pair should substantially, by 2.7 times, decrease the rate of charge transfer. Thus, directional asymmetry of the PT effects on the electronic coupling is predicted. The changes in the V da matrix elements correlate with the topological properties of orbitals of donor and acceptor and can be qualitatively rationalized in terms of resonance structures of donor and acceptor. Atomic pair contributions to the V da matrix elements are also analyzed

  7. Plugging in or going wireless: strategies for interspecies electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

    2014-01-01

    Interspecies exchange of electrons enables a diversity of microbial communities to gain energy from reactions that no one microbe can catalyze. The first recognized strategies for interspecies electron transfer were those that relied on chemical intermediates that are recycled through oxidized and reduced forms. Well-studied examples are interspecies H2 transfer and the cycling of sulfur intermediates in anaerobic photosynthetic communities. Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in which two species establish electrical contact is an alternative. Electrical contacts documented to date include electrically conductive pili, as well as conductive iron minerals and conductive carbon moieties such as activated carbon and biochar. Interspecies electron transfer is central to the functioning of methane-producing microbial communities. The importance of interspecies H2 transfer in many methanogenic communities is clear, but under some circumstances DIET predominates. It is expected that further mechanistic studies and broadening investigations to a wider range of environments will help elucidate the factors that favor specific forms of interspecies electron exchange under different environmental conditions. PMID:24904551

  8. Plugging in or Going Wireless: Strategies for Interspecies Electron Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PravinMallaShrestha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Interspecies exchange of electrons enables a diversity of microbial communities to gain energy from reactions that no one microbe can catalyze. The first recognized strategies for interspecies electron transfer were those that relied on chemical intermediates that are recycled through oxidized and reduced forms. Well-studied examples are interspecies H2 transfer and the cycling of sulfur intermediates in anaerobic photosynthetic communities. Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET in which two species establish electrical contacts is an alternative. Electrical contacts documented to date include electrically conductive pili, as well as conductive iron minerals and conductive carbon moieties such as activated carbon and biochar. It seems likely that there are additional alternative strategies for interspecies electrical connections that have yet to be discovered. Interspecies electron transfer is central to the functioning of methane-producing microbial communities. The importance of interspecies H2 transfer in many methanogenic communities is clear, but under some circumstances DIET predominates. It is expected that further mechanistic studies and broadening investigations to a wider range of environments will help elucidate the factors that favor specific forms of interspecies electron exchange under different environmental conditions.

  9. Plugging in or Going Wireless : Strategies for Interspecies Electron Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Pravin; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

    2014-01-01

    Interspecies exchange of electrons enables a diversity of microbial communities to gain energy from reactions that no one microbe can catalyze. The first recognized strategies for interspecies electron transfer were those that relied on chemical intermediates that are recycled through oxidized and reduced forms. Well-studied examples are interspecies H2 transfer and the cycling of sulfur intermediates in anaerobic photosynthetic communities. Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in which two species establish electrical contact is an alternative. Electrical contacts documented to date include electrically conductive pili, as well as conductive iron minerals and conductive carbon moieties such as activated carbon and biochar. Interspecies electron transfer is central to the functioning of methane-producing microbial communities. The importance of interspecies H2 transfer in many methanogenic communities is clear, but under some circumstances DIET predominates. It is expected that further mechanistic studies and broadening investigations to a wider range of environments will help elucidate the factors that favor specific forms of interspecies electron exchange under different environmental conditions.

  10. Electrochemical proton-coupled electron transfer: Beyond the golden rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical proton-coupled electron transfer rate constant expressions that interpolate between the golden rule and solvent-controlled limits are derived. These expressions include the effects of solvent dynamics and thus are applicable for a wide range of vibronic couplings and solvent relaxation times. The golden rule limit is defined in terms of weak vibronic coupling and fast solvent relaxation, and the solvent-controlled limit is defined in terms of strong vibronic coupling and slow solvent relaxation. In the golden rule limit, the rate constant is proportional to the square of the vibronic coupling and is independent of the solvent relaxation time. In the solvent-controlled limit, the rate constant is independent of the vibronic coupling and increases as the solvent relaxation time decreases. The interconversion between the solvent-controlled and golden rule limits can be induced by altering the proton donor-acceptor mode frequency and the overlap between the reactant and product proton vibrational wave functions, as well as the electronic coupling, the solvent relaxation time, and the overpotential. The kinetic isotope effect behaves differently in the solvent-controlled and golden rule limits and thus provides a unique probe for characterizing electrochemical proton-coupled electron transfer processes. The analogous rate constant expressions for electrochemical electron transfer and homogeneous proton-coupled electron transfer are also presented. The impacron transfer are also presented. The impact of electrode overpotential, solvent relaxation time, and proton donor-acceptor mode frequency on the rate constants are analyzed for model systems.

  11. Golden rule kinetics of transfer reactions in condensed phase: the microscopic model of electron transfer reactions in disordered solid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, M V; Odinokov, A V; Titov, S V; Mitina, E A

    2013-12-21

    The algorithm for a theoretical calculation of transfer reaction rates for light quantum particles (i.e., the electron and H-atom transfers) in non-polar solid matrices is formulated and justified. The mechanism postulated involves a local mode (an either intra- or inter-molecular one) serving as a mediator which accomplishes the energy exchange between the reacting high-frequency quantum mode and the phonon modes belonging to the environment. This approach uses as a background the Fermi golden rule beyond the usually applied spin-boson approximation. The dynamical treatment rests on the one-dimensional version of the standard quantum relaxation equation for the reduced density matrix, which describes the frequency fluctuation spectrum for the local mode under consideration. The temperature dependence of a reaction rate is controlled by the dimensionless parameter ?0 = ??0/k(B)T where ?0 is the frequency of the local mode and T is the temperature. The realization of the computational scheme is different for the high/intermediate (?0 rule, operate beyond the kinetic regimes, which are usually postulated in the existing theories of the ET. Our alternative dynamic ET model for local modes immersed in the continuum harmonic medium is formulated for both classical and quantum regimes, and accounts explicitly for the mode?medium interaction. The kinetics of the energy exchange between the local ET subsystem and the surrounding environment essentially determine the total ET rate. The efficient computer code for rate computations is elaborated on. The computations are available for a wide range of system parameters, such as the temperature, external field, local mode frequency, and characteristics of mode/medium interaction. The relation of the present approach to the Marcus ET theory and to the quantum-statistical reaction rate theory [V. G. Levich and R. R. Dogonadze, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. Khim. 124, 213 (1959); J. Ulstrup, Charge Transfer in Condensed Media (Springer, Berlin, 1979); M. Bixon and J. Jortner, Adv. Chem. Phys. 106, 35 (1999)] underlying it is discussed and illustrated by the results of computations for practically important target systems. PMID:24359347

  12. Direct Interspecies Electron Transfer between Geobacter metallireducens and Methanosarcina barkeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Liu, Fanghua; Markovaite, Beatrice; Chen, Shanshan; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is potentially an effective form of syntrophy in methanogenic communities, but little is known about the diversity of methanogens capable of DIET. The ability of Methanosarcina barkeri to participate in DIET was evaluated in coculture with Geobacter metallireducens. Cocultures formed aggregates that shared electrons via DIET during the stoichiometric conversion of ethanol to methane. Cocultures could not be initiated with a pilin-deficient G. metallireducens strain, suggesting that long-range electron transfer along pili was important for DIET. Amendments of granular activated carbon permitted the pilin-deficient G. metallireducens isolates to share electrons with M. barkeri, demonstrating that this conductive material could substitute for pili in promoting DIET. When M. barkeri was grown in coculture with the H2-producing Pelobacter carbinolicus, incapable of DIET, M. barkeri utilized H2 as an electron donor but metabolized little of the acetate that P. carbinolicus produced. This suggested that H2, but not electrons derived from DIET, inhibited acetate metabolism. P. carbinolicus-M. barkeri cocultures did not aggregate, demonstrating that, unlike DIET, close physical contact was not necessary for interspecies H2 transfer. M. barkeri is the second methanogen found to accept electrons via DIET and the first methanogen known to be capable of using either H2 or electrons derived from DIET for CO2 reduction. Furthermore, M. barkeri is genetically tractable, making it a model organism for elucidating mechanisms by which methanogens make biological electrical connections with other cells. PMID:24837373

  13. Electron transfer between colloidal ZnO nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayoun, Rebecca; Whitaker, Kelly M; Gamelin, Daniel R; Mayer, James M

    2011-03-30

    Colloidal ZnO nanocrystals capped with dodecylamine and dissolved in toluene can be charged photochemically to give stable solutions in which electrons are present in the conduction bands of the nanocrystals. These conduction-band electrons are readily monitored by EPR spectroscopy, with g* values that correlate with the nanocrystal sizes. Mixing a solution of charged small nanocrystals (e(-)(CB):ZnO-S) with a solution of uncharged large nanocrystals (ZnO-L) caused changes in the EPR spectrum indicative of quantitative electron transfer from small to large nanocrystals. EPR spectra of the reverse reaction, e(-)(CB):ZnO-L + ZnO-S, showed that electrons do not transfer from large to small nanocrystals. Stopped-flow kinetics studies monitoring the change in the UV band-edge absorption showed that reactions of 50 ?M nanocrystals were complete within the 5 ms mixing time of the instrument. Similar results were obtained for the reaction of charged nanocrystals with methyl viologen (MV(2+)). These and related results indicate that the electron-transfer reactions of these colloidal nanocrystals are quantitative and very rapid, despite the presence of ~1.5 nm long dodecylamine capping ligands. These soluble ZnO nanocrystals are thus well-defined redox reagents suitable for studies of electron transfer involving semiconductor nanostructures. PMID:21384897

  14. Electron Transfer Between Colloidal ZnO Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayoun, Rebecca; Whitaker, Kelly M.; Gamelin, Daniel R.; Mayer, James M.

    2011-03-30

    Colloidal ZnO nanocrystals capped with dodecylamine and dissolved in toluene can be charged photochemically to give stable solutions in which electrons are present in the conduction bands of the nanocrystals. These conduction-band electrons are readily monitored by EPR spectroscopy, with g* values that correlate with the nanocrystal sizes. Mixing a solution of charged small nanocrystals (e{sub CB}{sup -}:ZnO-S) with a solution of uncharged large nanocrystals (ZnO-L) caused changes in the EPR spectrum indicative of quantitative electron transfer from small to large nanocrystals. EPR spectra of the reverse reaction, e{sub CB}{sup -}:ZnO-L + ZnO-S, showed that electrons do not transfer from large to small nanocrystals. Stopped-flow kinetics studies monitoring the change in the UV bandedge absorption showed that reactions of 50 {micro}M nanocrystals were complete within the 5 ms mixing time of the instrument. Similar results were obtained for the reaction of charged nanocrystals with methyl viologen (MV{sup 2+}). These and related results indicate that the electron-transfer reactions of these colloidal nanocrystals are quantitative and very rapid, despite the presence of {approx}1.5 nm long dodecylamine capping ligands. These soluble ZnO nanocrystals are thus well-defined redox reagents suitable for studies of electron transfer involving semiconductor nanostructures.

  15. Light-driven microbial dissimilatory electron transfer to hematite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dao-Bo; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Ling-Li; Li, Wen-Wei; Huang, Yu-Xi; Pei, Dan-Ni; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-11-14

    The ability of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms (DMRM) to conduct extracellular electron transfer with conductive cellular components grants them great potential for bioenergy and environmental applications. Crystalline Fe(III) oxide, a type of widespread electron acceptor for DMRM in nature, can be excited by light for photocatalysis and microbial culture-mediated photocurrent production. However, the feasibility of direct electron transfer from living cells to light-excited Fe(III) oxides has not been well documented and the cellular physiology in this process has not been clarified. To resolve these problems, an electrochemical system composed of Geobacter sulfurreducens and hematite (?-Fe2O3) was constructed, and direct electron transfer from G. sulfurreducens cells to the light-excited ?-Fe2O3 in the absence of soluble electron shuttles was observed. Further studies evidenced the efficient excitation of ?-Fe2O3 and the dependence of photocurrent production on the biocatalytic activity. Light-induced electron transfer on the cell-?-Fe2O3 interface correlated linearly with the rates of microbial respiration and substrate consumption. In addition, the G. sulfurreducens cells were found to survive on light-excited ?-Fe2O3. These results prove a direct mechanism behind the DMRM respiration driven by photo-induced charge separation in semiconductive acceptors and also imply new opportunities to design photo-bioelectronic devices with living cells as a catalyst. PMID:25238285

  16. Resonant Auger decay driving intermolecular Coulombic decay in molecular dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinter, F.; Schöffler, M. S.; Kim, H.-K.; Sturm, F. P.; Cole, K.; Neumann, N.; Vredenborg, A.; Williams, J.; Bocharova, I.; Guillemin, R.; Simon, M.; Belkacem, A.; Landers, A. L.; Weber, Th.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Dörner, R.; Jahnke, T.

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, it was predicted that an electronically excited atom or molecule placed in a loosely bound chemical system (such as a hydrogen-bonded or van-der-Waals-bonded cluster) could efficiently decay by transferring its excess energy to a neighbouring species that would then emit a low-energy electron. This intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) process has since been shown to be a common phenomenon, raising questions about its role in DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation, in which low-energy electrons are known to play an important part. It was recently suggested that ICD can be triggered efficiently and site-selectively by resonantly core-exciting a target atom, which then transforms through Auger decay into an ionic species with sufficiently high excitation energy to permit ICD to occur. Here we show experimentally that resonant Auger decay can indeed trigger ICD in dimers of both molecular nitrogen and carbon monoxide. By using ion and electron momentum spectroscopy to measure simultaneously the charged species created in the resonant-Auger-driven ICD cascade, we find that ICD occurs in less time than the 20femtoseconds it would take for individual molecules to undergo dissociation. Our experimental confirmation of this process and its efficiency may trigger renewed efforts to develop resonant X-ray excitation schemes for more localized and targeted cancer radiation therapy.

  17. Mathematics and electronics - the conceptual transfer problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waks, S.

    1988-07-01

    The article deals with the gap between the technological-school student's mastery of pure mathematical principles and his/her competence in their implementation in electronics and suggests a means for narrowing this, using a case study. A cooperative effort by mathematics and electronics teachers, involving coordination of content, teaching strategies and timing, was implemented on two groups (treatment and control). The treatment group achieved significantly higher average scores in tests in those questions where the mathematical reinforcement provided in the treatment process could be used - and this in spite of the group's weaker standing in the electronics course. Moreover, it was establised that treatment students adopted a more analytical approach in their solution strategies, while control students tended to rely more on recall and 'ready-made' formulae. The main conclusion of our case study is that mastery of mathematical theory and principles is a prerequisite to efficient tackling of technological problems, but is not always enough. Cooperation between the maths and electronics teachers contributes to improvement of the teaching-learning process in a technological discipline.

  18. Electron transfer in syntrophic communities of anaerobic bacteria and archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Stams, A. J. M.; Plugge, C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Interspecies electron transfer is a key process in methanogenic and sulphate-reducing environments. Bacteria and archaea that live in syntrophic communities take advantage of the metabolic abilities of their syntrophic partner to overcome energy barriers and break down compounds that they cannot digest by themselves. Here, we review the transfer of hydrogen and formate between bacteria and archaea that helps to sustain growth in syntrophic methanogenic communities. We also describe the proces...

  19. Water effects on electron transfer in azurin dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, Agostino; Corni, Stefano; Di Felice, Rosa; Molinari, Elisa

    2006-11-30

    Recent experimental and theoretical analyses indicate that water molecules between or near redox partners can significantly affect their electron-transfer (ET) properties. Here, we study the effects of intervening water molecules on the electron self-exchange reaction of azurin (Az) by using a newly developed ab-initio method to calculate transfer integrals between molecular sites. We show that the insertion of water molecules in the gap between the copper active sites of Az dimers slows down the exponential decay of the ET rates with the copper-to-copper distance. Depending on the distance between the redox sites, water can enhance or suppress the electron-transfer kinetics. We show that this behavior can be ascribed to the simultaneous action of two competing effects: the electrostatic interaction of water with the protein subsystem and its ability to mediate ET coupling pathways. PMID:17125342

  20. Pulse radiolysis studies of electron transfer processes in polar glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work pulse radiolysis studies are reported which were performed in polar glasses at temperatures ranging from 4 to 160 K. The aim of this work was to investigate the trapping and solvation mechanism of electrons in polar glasses and to study the decay of these electrons by tunnelling. The trapping of electrons in ethylene glycol-water glasses (EG/H2O) and LiCl glasses has been studied and a theory is presented which can explain the decay of absorption on the red side of the absorption maximum of trapped electrons in an 8 M NaOH glass. The decay of the trapped electrons in a 8 M NaOH glass and in ethylene glycol-water glasses has been studied in the presence of the following electron acceptors: CrO42-, Fe(CN)63- and NO2-. It is shown how a distance dependence appears in the Franck-Condon factors if electrostatic interactions between the trapped electron and a scavenger are incorporated in existing theories of electron transfer. Expressions are derived which can adequately explain the observed temperature dependence in the presence of H+. The theory can also explain why each electron acceptor studied behaves differently in the electron transfer process. (Auth.)

  1. Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic atomic-collision processes at intermediate and high energies are being studied theoretically at Penn State by Alston and Winter. In the high velocity regime, single-electron capture is treated using a high order multiple-scattering approach; extensive comparison with experiment and analysis of mechanisms have been made. Fitting the calculated amplitude with a simple analytic form, the asymptotic velocity dependence of the cross section is obtained. The effect on the capture amplitude of altering the inner part of the internuclear potential has also been explored. In the intermediate velocity regime, earlier work on collisions between protons and hydrogenic-ion targets using a coupled-state approach is being extended to the two-electron helium target. 29 refs

  2. Numerical modeling of fast electron energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper methods of calculating energy transport by fast electrons that are currently used in the ''Diana'' program are described; this program is intended to address issues in laser thermonuclear fusion. A method is proposed for solving a kinetic equation which has the following properties: conservativeness, the absence of constraints on the grid spacing relation, monitonicity, and second order approximation. The applicability of a ''front-back'' approximation is analyzed

  3. High-pressure effects on intramolecular electron transfer compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the effect of pressure on the fluorescence spectra of the intramolecular electron transfer compound N-(1-pyrenylmethyl), N-methyl-4-methoxyaniline (Py-Am) and its model version, with poly(methyl methacrylate) blended in, at high pressure up to 7 GPa. The emission properties of Py-Am and pyrene show distinct difference with the increase of pressure. This difference indicates the strength of the charge transfer interaction resulting from the adjusting of the conformation of Py-Am with increase of pressure. The relationship between the electronic state of the molecule and pressure is discussed

  4. Ultrafast proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) dynamics in 9-anthranol-aliphatic amine system

    OpenAIRE

    Nibbering Erik T. J.; Dreyer Jens; Verma Sandeep; Ghosh Hirendra N.; Adamczyk Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Femtosecond infrared absorption studies strongly suggest that photoexcited 9-anthranol takes part in an ultrafast electron transfer (ET) reaction in electron-donating triethylamine solvent, but that ultrafast proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) occurs in diethylamine solvent.

  5. pH-Dependent Reduction Potentials and Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Mechanisms in Hydrogen-Producing Nickel Molecular Electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, Samantha; Fernandez, Laura; Appel, Aaron M.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    The nickel-based Ph Bz 2 2 P N electrocatalysts, which are comprised of a nickel atom and two 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane ligands, have been shown to effectively catalyze H2 production in acetonitrile. Recent electrochemical experiments revealed a linear dependence of the NiII/I reduction potential on pH, suggesting a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction. In the proposed mechanism, the catalytic cycle begins with a PCET process involving electrochemical electron transfer to the nickel center and intermolecular proton transfer from an acid to the pendant amine ligand. This paper presents quantum mechanical calculations of this PCET process to examine the thermodynamics of the sequential mechanisms, in which either the electron or the proton transfers first (ET–PT and PT–ET, respectively), and the concerted mechanism (EPT). The favored mechanism depends on a balance among many factors, including the acid strength, association free energy for the acid–catalyst complex, PT free energy barrier, and ET reduction potential. The ET reduction potential is less negative after PT, favoring the PT–ET mechanism, and the association free energy is less positive after reduction, favoring the ET–PT mechanism. The calculations, along with analysis of the experimental data, indicate that the sequential ET–PT mechanism is favored for weak acids because of the substantial decrease in the association free energy after reduction. For strong acids, however, the PT–ET mechanism may be favored because the association free energy is somewhat smaller and PT is more thermodynamically favorable. The concerted mechanism could also occur, particularly for intermediate acid strengths. In the context of the entire catalytic cycle for H2 production, the initial PCET process involving intermolecular PT has a more negative reduction potential than the subsequent PCET process involving intramolecular PT. As a result, the second PCET should occur spontaneously, which is consistent with cyclic voltammogram experiments. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  6. Energy and electron transfer processes in polymethine dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymethine dyes and its derivatives are attractive for their interesting optical and photo-electric properties. They are used as very efficient spectral sensitizers and laser dyes. Due to the high rate constant of deactivation channels of such dyes the primary processes of bimolecular processes as energy or electron transfer proceed within not more than some picoseconds or even shorter. In the case of a polymethine which does not isomerize we were able to show by means of time-resolved absorption spectroscopy that the singlet state photoelectron transfer to methyl- and benzylviologen had an efficiency of 0.15 with rate constants of 6.7·109 and 4.6·109 l/mole·s, respectively, yielding the polymethine dication radical. The photoreduction with tetraphenylborate and potassium rhodanide is also very efficient with an efficiency of about 0.10 with rate constants of 2.4·1010 and 1.6·1010 l/mole·s, respectively, yielding the polymethine neutral radical. The spectral differences of the observed radical spectra are small. The investigation of the temperature dependence of the photo induced electron transfer of the investigated polymethine to methylviologen results in an activation energy ?G*=24 kJ/mole and a value of the frequency factor of A=4.7·1014 l/mole·s. Strong deviation from a linear Arrhenius plot was observed at low temperatures which can be explained by solvent-solute interaction decreasing the electronteraction decreasing the electron transfer rate constant at lower temperatures. The calculated electron transfer rate constants agree with the assumption of the investigated process as a diffusion-controlled one. Energy transfer occurs as a efficient competitive deactivation channel from photo excited polymethine dyes to other chromophore systems with a strong overlapping of the fluorescence and the absorption bands of the donor and the acceptor, respectively. We have investigated the time and spectral evolution of the energy transfer process from a polymethine dye to different energy acceptor dyes in solution. The general question within this respect was the involvement of an intermediate electron transfer as competitive process in the energy transfer process. Whereas the Foerster energy transfer radius calculated from the time-resolved data exceeds the value received from the overlap integral by 15%, indicating deviation from a normal Foerster decay type the semilogarithmic plot of the ground state recovery kinetics vs. square root of time results in an ideal straight line dependence. No intermediate spectra as well as intermediate time behaviour was found in these complexes

  7. Resonant optical electron transfer in one-dimensional multiwell structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukanov, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    We consider coherent single-electron dynamics in the one-dimensional nanostructure under resonant electromagnetic pulse. The structure is composed of two deep quantum wells positioned at the edges of structure and separated by a sequence of shallow internal wells. We show that complete electron transfer between the states localized in the edge wells through one of excited delocalized states can take place at discrete set of times provided that the pulse frequency matches one...

  8. Photoinduced electron transfer reactions of rose bengal and selected electron donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarna, T.; Zajac, J. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Biophysics); Bowman, M.K. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.); Truscott, T.G. (Univ. of Keele (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    The photoinduced electron transfer reactions of the triplet state of rose bengal (RB) and several electron donors were investigated by the complementary techniques of steady state and time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and laser flash photolysis (LFP). The yield of radicals varied with the light fluence rate, RB concentration and, in particular, the electron donor used. Thus for L-dopa (dopa, dihydroxyphenylalanine) only 10% of RB anion radical (RB[sup [minus

  9. Heterogeneous electron transfer of pesticides. Current trends and applications.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokolová, Romana; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Pospíšil, Lubomír

    Kerala : Transworld Research Network, 2008 - (Colombini, M.; Tassi, L.), s. 43-76 ISBN 978-81-7895-343-4 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA400400505; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk OC 140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : heterogeneous electron transfer * pesticides * redox reactions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  10. CORRELATING ELECTRONIC AND VIBRATIONAL MOTIONS IN CHARGE TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Munira

    2014-06-27

    The goal of this research program was to measure coupled electronic and nuclear motions during photoinduced charge transfer processes in transition metal complexes by developing and using novel femtosecond spectroscopies. The scientific highlights and the resulting scientific publications from the DOE supported work are outlined in the technical report.

  11. Electronic structure charge transfer excitations, and high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high precision local density electronic band structure results (for YBa2Cu3O7, YBa2Cu3O6, and GdBa2Cu3O7) lead to the possibly important role of charge transfer excitations as the mechanism of high Tc superconductivity. They explain the coexistence of magnetism and superconductivity in the high Tc rare-earth superconductors

  12. Probing Inhomogeneous Vibrational Reorganization Energy Barriers of Interfacial Electron Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Duohai; Hu, Dehong; Lu, H. Peter

    2005-09-01

    We report an atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal Raman microscopy study on the interfacial electron transfer of a dye-sensitization system, alizarin adsorbed upon TiO2 nanoparticles. Resonance Raman and absorption spectral analyses revealed the distribution of the mode-specific vibrational reorganization energies encompassing different local sites (~250 nm spatial resolution), suggesting spatially inhomogeneous vibrational reorganization energy and different Franck-Condon coupling factors of the interfacial electron transfer. We found that the total vibrational reorganization energy was inhomogeneous from site to site, and specifically, the mode-specific analyses indicated that the energy distributions were inhomogeneous for bridging normal modes and homogeneous for nonbridging normal modes, especially for modes far away from the alizarin- TiO2 coupling hydroxyl modes. Our results demonstrate a significant step forward in characterizing site-specific inhomogeneous interfacial charge transfer dynamics.

  13. Multicopper oxidases : intramolecular electron transfer and O2 reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wherland, Scot; Farver, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The multicopper oxidases are an intriguing, widespread family of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of O2 to water by a variety of single-electron and multiple-electron reducing agents. The structure and properties of the copper binding sites responsible for the latter chemical transformations have been studied for over 40 years and a detailed picture is emerging. This review focuses particularly on the kinetics of internal electron transfer between the type 1 (blue) copper site and the trinuclear center, as well as on the nature of the intermediates formed in the oxygen reduction process.

  14. Rate coefficients and inelastic momentum transfer cross sections for electronic excitation of N2 by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rate coefficients, as a function of the electron temperature, have been determined from the integral cross sections for excitation of the 19 singlet and triplet electronic states of N2 within 14.2 eV of the ground state. For electron temperatures less than 10 eV, the rates for excitation of the A 3?+/sub u/, B 3Pi/sub g/, W 3?/sub u/, and a 1Pi/sub g/ are all greater than that for excitation of the C 3Pi/sub u/ state. The differential cross sections for excitation of these same electronic states were also used to calculate the inelastic momentum transfer associated with the excitation of these states. The total momentum transfer cross section for electrons in N2, as a function of the electron energy, was obtained by adding the inelastic momentum transfer to that associated with elastic scattering. Inelastic momentum transfer accounts for about 25% of the total momentum transfer above 15 eV. Over the energy range 20--60 eV, inelastic scattering contributes 20--25% to the total N2 electron scattering cross section. The total scattering cross section obtained here is in good agreement with a recent direct measurement of this cross section

  15. Syntrophic growth via quinone-mediated interspecies electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica A.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which microbial species exchange electrons are of interest because interspecies electron transfer can expand the metabolic capabilities of microbial communities. Previous studies with the humic substance analog anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) suggested that quinone-mediated interspecies electron transfer (QUIET) is feasible, but it was not determined if sufficient energy is available from QUIET to support the growth of both species. Furthermore, there have been no previous studies on the mechanisms for the oxidation of anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AHQDS). A co-culture of Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens metabolized ethanol with the reduction of fumarate much faster in the presence of AQDS, and there was an increase in cell protein. G. sulfurreducens was more abundant, consistent with G. sulfurreducens obtaining electrons from acetate that G. metallireducens produced from ethanol, as well as from AHQDS. Co-cultures initiated with a citrate synthase-deficient strain of G. sulfurreducens that was unable to use acetate as an electron donor also metabolized ethanol with the reduction of fumarate and cell growth, but acetate accumulated over time. G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens were equally abundant in these co-cultures reflecting the inability of the citrate synthase-deficient strain of G. sulfurreducens to metabolize acetate. Evaluation of the mechanisms by which G. sulfurreducens accepts electrons from AHQDS demonstrated that a strain deficient in outer-surface c-type cytochromes that are required for AQDS reduction was as effective at QUIET as the wild-type strain. Deletion of additional genes previously implicated in extracellular electron transfer also had no impact on QUIET. These results demonstrate that QUIET can yield sufficient energy to support the growth of both syntrophic partners, but that the mechanisms by which electrons are derived from extracellular hydroquinones require further investigation. PMID:25741332

  16. Simulations of charge transfer in Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) are a variant of traditional CCD technology well suited to applications that demand high speed operation in low light conditions. On-chip signal amplification allows the sensor to effectively suppress the noise introduced by readout electronics, permitting sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates. The devices have been the subject of many detailed studies concerning their operation, however there has not been a study into the transfer and multiplication process within the EMCCD gain register. Such an investigation has the potential to explain certain observed performance characteristics, as well as inform further optimisations to their operation. In this study, the results from simulation of charge transfer within an EMCCD gain register element are discussed with a specific focus on the implications for serial charge transfer efficiency (CTE). The effects of operating voltage and readout speed are explored in context with typical operating conditions. It is shown that during transfer, a small portion of signal charge may become trapped at the semiconductor-insulator interface that could act to degrade the serial CTE in certain operating conditions

  17. Electron transfer quenching of the rose bengal triplet state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C R; Kochevar, I E

    1997-07-01

    The potential for electron transfer quenching of rose bengal triplet (3RB2-) to compete with energy transfer quenching by oxygen was evaluated. Rate constants for oxidative and reductive quenching were measured in buffered aqueous solution, acetonitrile and in small unilamellar liposomes using laser flash photolysis. Biologically relevant quenchers were used that varied widely in structure, reduction potential and charge. Radical ion yields (phi i) were measured by monitoring the absorption of the rose bengal semireduced (RB.3-) and semioxidized (RB.-) radicals. The results in solution were analyzed as a function of the free energy for electron transfer (delta G) calculated using the Weller equation including electrostatic terms. Exothermic oxidative quenching was about 10-fold faster than exothermic reductive quenching in aqueous solution. The quenching rate constants decreased as delta G approached zero in both aqueous and acetonitrile solution. Exceptions to these generalizations were observed that could be rationalized by specific steric or electrostatic effects or by a change in mechanism. The results suggest that electron transfer reactions with some potential quenchers in cells could compete with formation of singlet oxygen [O2(1 delta g)]. Values of phi i were generally greater for reductive quenching and, for oxidative quenching, greater in acetonitrile than in buffer. Electron transfer quenching of 3RB2- in liposomes, below the phase transition temperature was slower than in solution for both lipid-soluble and water-soluble quenchers indicating that these reactions may not compete with formation of O2(1 delta g) during cell photosensitization. PMID:9230700

  18. Electron transfer mechanisms of DNA repair by photolyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dongping

    2015-04-01

    Photolyase is a flavin photoenzyme that repairs two DNA base damage products induced by ultraviolet (UV) light: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts. With femtosecond spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis, investigators have recently made significant advances in our understanding of UV-damaged DNA repair, and the entire enzymatic dynamics can now be mapped out in real time. For dimer repair, six elementary steps have been characterized, including three electron transfer reactions and two bond-breaking processes, and their reaction times have been determined. A unique electron-tunneling pathway was identified, and the critical residues in modulating the repair function at the active site were determined. The dynamic synergy between the elementary reactions for maintaining high repair efficiency was elucidated, and the biological nature of the flavin active state was uncovered. For 6-4 photoproduct repair, a proton-coupled electron transfer repair mechanism has been revealed. The elucidation of electron transfer mechanisms and two repair photocycles is significant and provides a molecular basis for future practical applications, such as in rational drug design for curing skin cancer. PMID:25830375

  19. Electron Transfer Mechanisms of DNA Repair by Photolyase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dongping

    2015-04-01

    Photolyase is a flavin photoenzyme that repairs two DNA base damage products induced by ultraviolet (UV) light: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts. With femtosecond spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis, investigators have recently made significant advances in our understanding of UV-damaged DNA repair, and the entire enzymatic dynamics can now be mapped out in real time. For dimer repair, six elementary steps have been characterized, including three electron transfer reactions and two bond-breaking processes, and their reaction times have been determined. A unique electron-tunneling pathway was identified, and the critical residues in modulating the repair function at the active site were determined. The dynamic synergy between the elementary reactions for maintaining high repair efficiency was elucidated, and the biological nature of the flavin active state was uncovered. For 6-4 photoproduct repair, a proton-coupled electron transfer repair mechanism has been revealed. The elucidation of electron transfer mechanisms and two repair photocycles is significant and provides a molecular basis for future practical applications, such as in rational drug design for curing skin cancer.

  20. Vibrationally Assisted Electron Transfer Mechanism of Olfaction: Myth or Reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Chang, Po-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Smell is a vital sense for animals. The mainstream explanation of smell is based on recognition of the odorant molecules through characteristics of their surface, e.g., shape, but certain experiments suggest that such recognition is complemented by recognition of vibrational modes. According to this suggestion an olfactory receptor is activated by electron transfer assisted through odorant vibrational excitation. The hundreds to thousands of different olfactory receptors in an animal recognize odorants over a discriminant landscape with surface properties and vibrational frequencies as the two major dimensions. In the present paper we introduce the vibrationally assisted mechanism of olfaction and demonstrate for several odorants that, indeed, a strong enhancement of an electron tunneling rate due to odorant vibrations can arise. We discuss in this regard the influence of odorant deuteration and explain, thereby, recent experiments performed on Drosophila melanogaster. Our demonstration is based on known physical properties of biological electron transfer and on ab initio calculations on odorants carried out for the purpose of the present study. We identify a range of physical characteristics which olfactory receptors and odorants must obey for the vibrationally assisted electron transfer mechanism to function. We argue that the stated characteristics are feasible for realistic olfactory receptors, noting, though, that the receptor structure presently is still unknown, but can be studied through homology modeling.

  1. Ultrafast Photoinduced Electron Transfer in Green Fluorescent Protein Bearing a Genetically Encoded Electron Acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoxuan; Yu, Yang; Zhou, Meng; Hu, Cheng; Gao, Feng; Li, Jiasong; Liu, Xiaohong; Deng, Kai; Zheng, Peng; Gong, Weimin; Xia, Andong; Wang, Jiangyun

    2015-06-17

    Electron transfer (ET) is widely used for driving the processes that underlie the chemistry of life. However, our abilities to probe electron transfer mechanisms in proteins and design redox enzymes are limited, due to the lack of methods to site-specifically insert electron acceptors into proteins in vivo. Here we describe the synthesis and genetic incorporation of 4-fluoro-3-nitrophenylalanine (FNO2Phe), which has similar reduction potentials to NAD(P)H and ferredoxin, the most important biological reductants. Through the genetic incorporation of FNO2Phe into green fluorescent protein (GFP) and femtosecond transient absorption measurement, we show that photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from the GFP chromophore to FNO2Phe occurs very fast (within 11 ps), which is comparable to that of the first electron transfer step in photosystem I, from P700* to A0. This genetically encoded, low-reduction potential unnatural amino acid (UAA) can significantly improve our ability to investigate electron transfer mechanisms in complex reductases and facilitate the design of miniature proteins that mimic their functions. PMID:26020364

  2. Alternating electron and proton transfer steps in photosynthetic water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauss, André; Haumann, Michael; Dau, Holger

    2012-10-01

    Water oxidation by cyanobacteria, algae, and plants is pivotal in oxygenic photosynthesis, the process that powers life on Earth, and is the paradigm for engineering solar fuel-production systems. Each complete reaction cycle of photosynthetic water oxidation requires the removal of four electrons and four protons from the catalytic site, a manganese-calcium complex and its protein environment in photosystem II. In time-resolved photothermal beam deflection experiments, we monitored apparent volume changes of the photosystem II protein associated with charge creation by light-induced electron transfer (contraction) and charge-compensating proton relocation (expansion). Two previously invisible proton removal steps were detected, thereby filling two gaps in the basic reaction-cycle model of photosynthetic water oxidation. In the S(2) ? S(3) transition of the classical S-state cycle, an intermediate is formed by deprotonation clearly before electron transfer to the oxidant (Y Z OX). The rate-determining elementary step (?, approximately 30 µs at 20?°C) in the long-distance proton relocation toward the protein-water interface is characterized by a high activation energy (E(a) = 0.46 ± 0.05 eV) and strong H/D kinetic isotope effect (approximately 6). The characteristics of a proton transfer step during the S(0) ? S(1) transition are similar (?, approximately 100 µs; E(a) = 0.34 ± 0.08 eV; kinetic isotope effect, approximately 3); however, the proton removal from the Mn complex proceeds after electron transfer to . By discovery of the transient formation of two further intermediate states in the reaction cycle of photosynthetic water oxidation, a temporal sequence of strictly alternating removal of electrons and protons from the catalytic site is established. PMID:22988080

  3. Electron transfer, decoherence, and protein dynamics: insights from atomistic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narth, Christophe; Gillet, Natacha; Cailliez, Fabien; Lévy, Bernard; de la Lande, Aurélien

    2015-04-21

    Electron transfer in biological systems drives the processes of life. From cellular respiration to photosynthesis and enzymatic catalysis, electron transfers (ET) are chemical processes on which essential biological functions rely. Over the last 40 years, scientists have sought understanding of how these essential processes function in biology. One important breakthrough was the discovery that Marcus theory (MT) of electron transfer is applicable to biological systems. Chemists have experimentally collected both the reorganization energies (?) and the driving forces (?G°), two parameters of Marcus theory, for a large variety of ET processes in proteins. At the same time, theoretical chemists have developed computational approaches that rely on molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry calculations to access numerical estimates of ? and ?G°. Yet another crucial piece in determining the rate of an electron transfer is the electronic coupling between the initial and final electronic wave functions. This is an important prefactor in the nonadiabatic rate expression, since it reflects the probability that an electron tunnels from the electron donor to the acceptor through the intervening medium. The fact that a protein matrix supports electron tunneling much more efficiently than vacuum is now well documented, both experimentally and theoretically. Meanwhile, many chemists have provided examples of the rich physical chemistry that can be induced by protein dynamics. This Account describes our studies of the dynamical effects on electron tunneling. We present our analysis of two examples of natural biological systems through MD simulations and tunneling pathway analyses. Through these examples, we show that protein dynamics sustain efficient tunneling. Second, we introduce two time scales: ?coh and ?FC. The former characterizes how fast the electronic coupling varies with nuclear vibrations (which cause dephasing). The latter reflects the time taken by the system to leave the crossing region. In the framework of open quantum systems, ?FC is a short time approximation of the characteristic decoherence time of the electronic subsystem in interaction with its nuclear environment. The comparison of the respective values of ?coh and ?FC allows us to probe the occurrence of non-Condon effects. We use ab initio MD simulations to analyze how decoherence appears in several biological cofactors. We conclude that we cannot account for its order of magnitude by considering only the atoms or bonds directly concerned with the transfer. Decoherence results from contributions from all atoms of the system appearing with a time delay that increases with the distance from the primarily concerned atoms or bonds. The delay and magnitude of the contributions depend on the chemical nature of the system. Finally, we present recent developments based on constrained DFT for efficient and accurate evaluations of the electronic coupling in ab initio MD simulations. These are promising methods to study the subtle fluctuations of the electronic coupling and the mechanisms of electronic decoherence in biological systems. PMID:25730126

  4. 77 FR 10373 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing: Revisions to Heat Transfer Fluid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...Electronics Manufacturing: Revisions to Heat Transfer Fluid Provisions AGENCY: Environmental...Reporting Rule related to fluorinated heat transfer fluids. More specifically, EPA...the definition of fluorinated heat transfer fluids and to the provisions...

  5. Energy transfer of a relativistic electron beam to a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy loss of a relativistic electron beam and the accompanying plasma heating have been measured in an experiment injecting and electron beam of 500 keV, 0.5 kA and 20 ns pulse duration into a plasma of density between 1011 cm-3 and 1012 cm-3 confined in a magnetic mirror trap with 0.2T in the homogeneous middle section of 2 m length. The diamagnetic loop measurements show plasma perpendicular energies corresponding to heating efficiencies up to 10%. Results with an energy analyser show that the beam loses about 10% of its energy. Beam energy spectrum and loss as a function of time are shown. Energy losses and plasma electron heating agree within a factor two with theoretical calculations for energy transfer due to the beam excited instability at the electron plasma frequency. (author)

  6. Ligand reorganization and activation energies in nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activation energy and ligand reorganization energy for nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions in chemical and biological systems are investigated in this paper. The free energy surfaces and the activation energy are derived exactly in the general case in which the ligand vibration frequencies are not equal. The activation energy is derived by free energy minimization at the transition state. Our formulation leads to the Marcus-Hush [J. Chem. Phys. 24, 979 (1956); 98, 7170 (1994); 28, 962 (1958)] results in the equal-frequency limit and also generalizes the Marcus-Sumi [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] model in the context of studying the solvent dynamic effect on electron transfer reactions. It is found that when the ligand vibration frequencies are different, the activation energy derived from the Marcus-Hush formula deviates by 5%-10% from the exact value. If the reduced reorganization energy approximation is introduced in the Marcus-Hush formula, the result is almost exact

  7. Large scale oil lease automation and electronic custody transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typically, oil field production operations have only been automated at fields with long term production profiles and enhanced recovery. The automation generally consists of monitoring and control at the wellhead and centralized facilities. However, Union Pacific Resources Co. (UPRC) has successfully implemented a large scale automation program for rapid-decline primary recovery Austin Chalk wells where purchasers buy and transport oil from each individual wellsite. This project has resulted in two significant benefits. First, operators are using the system to re-engineer their work processes. Second, an inter-company team created a new electronic custody transfer method. This paper will describe: the progression of the company's automation objectives in the area; the field operator's interaction with the system, and the related benefits; the research and development of the new electronic custody transfer method

  8. Electron transfer and photoprotective properties of melanins in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, J M; Willis, I

    1997-08-01

    The polyquinoid nature of eumelanin(s) enables them to couple oxidation of electron donors with the reduction of electron acceptors. We have studied the ability of synthetic (Sigma) and "biological" (cuttlefish sepia) melanins to mediate electron transfer between hydroxybenzene donors (tyrosine, dopa, chemical depigmenters) and model acceptors (ferricyanide, tyrosinase). 1) Depending on the reductant, melanin either retards or accelerates ferricyanide reduction. Reaction kinetics are consistent with a mechanism involving non-interactive binding of both hydroxybenzene and ferricyanide to melanin prior to coupled electron transfer. 2) Melanins also act as an electron conduit in markedly accelerating the tyrosinase-catalyzed oxygenation of p-hydroxyanisole (MMEH). The active species appears to be a complex between melanin and MMEH. The magnitude of both effects depend on the type of melanin as well as its oxidation state. Sepia (eu)melanin appears to protect against UV-induced damage to acid-soluble collagen, as judged by irreversible loss of intrinsic collagen fluorescence. Photoprotection against this type of damage appears primarily to involve optical absorption/scattering by the pigment. PMID:9263328

  9. Laser decal transfer of electronic materials with thin film characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqué, Alberto; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Metkus, Kristin M.; Kim, Heungsoo; Mathews, Scott; Bailey, Thomas; Chen, Xianhai; Young, Lydia J.

    2008-02-01

    We describe a novel technique, called laser decal transfer, for the laser forward transfer of electronic inks that allows the non-contact direct writing of thin film-like patterns and structures on glass and plastic substrates. This technique allows the direct printing of materials such as metallic nano-inks from a donor substrate to the receiving substrate while maintaining the size and shape of the area illuminated by the laser transfer pulse. That is, the area of the donor substrate or ribbon exposed to the laser pulse releases an identical area of nano-ink material which retains its shape while it travels across the gap between the ribbon and the receiving substrate forming a deposited pattern of the same dimensions. As a result, this technique does not exhibit the limited resolution, non-uniform thickness, irregular edge features and surrounding debris associated with earlier laser forward transfer techniques. Continuous and uniform metallic lines typically 5 micrometers or less in width, and a few hundred nanometers in thickness were fabricated by laser decal transfer. These lines are of similar scale as patterns generated by lithographic techniques. Once transferred, the lines are laser-cured in-situ using a CW laser beam, becoming electrically conductive with resistivities as low as 3.4 ?? cm. This novel laser direct-write technique is a significant improvement in terms of quality and fidelity for directwrite processes and offers great promise for electronic applications such as in the development, customization, modification, and/or repair of microelectronic circuits.

  10. Statistical Analysis of Electron Transfer Dissociation Pairwise Fragmentation Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenzhou; Song, Chi; Bailey, Derek J; Tseng, George C.; Coon, Joshua J.; Wysocki, Vicki H

    2011-01-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is an alternative peptide dissociation method developed in recent years. Compared with the traditional collision induced dissociation (CID) b and y ion formation, ETD generates c and z ions and the backbone cleavage is believed to be less selective. We have reported previously the application of a statistical data mining strategy, K-means clustering, to discover fragmentation patterns for CID, and here we report application of this approach to ETD spectra....

  11. Comprehensive Comparison of Collision Induced Dissociation and Electron Transfer Dissociation

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Henrik; Matthiesen, Rune; Kandasamy, Kumaran; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2008-01-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is a recently introduced mass spectrometric technique which has proven to be an excellent tool for the elucidation of labile post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation of serine and threonine residues. However, unlike collision induced dissociation (CID), which has been studied for decades, the intricacies of ETD-based fragmentation have not yet been firmly established or systematically addressed. In this analysis, we have...

  12. Marcus wins nobel prize in chemistry for electron transfer theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the work of Rudolf Marcus of Caltech leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry open-quotes for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems.close quotes Applications of Marcus' theory include such diverse phenomena as photosynthesis, electrically conducting polymers, chemiluminescence, and corrosion. Historical aspects of his career are given. 10 refs., 1 fig

  13. Intramolecular electron transfer in single-site-mutated azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Skov, L K

    1993-01-01

    Single-site mutants of the blue, single-copper protein, azurin, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were reduced by CO2- radicals in pulse radiolysis experiments. The single disulfide group was reduced directly by CO2- with rates similar to those of the native protein [Farver, O., & Pecht, I. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 6968-6972]. The RSSR- radical produced in the above reaction was reoxidized in a slower intramolecular electron-transfer process (30-70 s-1 at 298 K) concomitant with a further reduction of the Cu(II) ion. The temperature dependence of the latter rates was determined and used to derive information on the possible effects of the mutations. The substitution of residue Phe114, situated on the opposite side of Cu relative to the disulfide, by Ala resulted in a rate increase by a factor of almost 2. By assuming that this effect is only due to an increase in driving force, lambda = 135 kJ mol-1 for the reorganization energy was derived. When Trp48, situated midway between the donor and the acceptor, was replaced by Leu or Met, only a small change in the rate of intramolecular electron transfer was observed, indicating that the aromatic residue in this position is apparently only marginally involved in electron transfer in wild-type azurin. Pathway calculations also suggest that a longer, through-backbone path is more efficient than the shorter one involving Trp48. The former pathway yields an exponential decay factor, beta, of 6.6 nm-1. Another mutation, raising the electron-transfer driving force, was produced by changing the Cu ligand Met121 to Leu, which increases the reduction potential by 100 mV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Exciton/Charge-transfer Electronic Couplings in Organic Semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Difley, Seth; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2010-01-01

    Charge transfer (CT) states and excitons are important in energy conversion processes that occur in organic light emitting devices (OLEDS) and organic solar cells. An ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method for obtaining CT?exciton electronic couplings between CT states and excitons is presented. This method is applied to two organic heterodimers to obtain their CT?exciton coupling and adiabatic energy surfaces near their CT?exciton diabatic surface crossings. The results show ...

  15. Electron Transfer Reactions: Generalized Spin-Boson Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Merkli, Marco; Berman, Gennady; Sayre, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a mathematically rigorous analysis of a generalized spin-boson system for the treatment of a donor-acceptor (reactant-product) quantum system coupled to a thermal quantum noise. The donor/acceptor probability dynamics describes transport reactions in chemical processes in presence of a noisy environment -- such as the electron transfer in a photosynthetic reaction center. Besides being rigorous, our analysis has the advantages over previous ones that (1) we incl...

  16. The Electron Transfer System of Syntrophically Grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PBD; ENIGMA; GTL; VIMSS; Walker, Christopher B.; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin K.; Ringbauer Jr., Joseph A.; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Hazen, Terry C.; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David A.

    2009-06-22

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  17. Photoinduced electron transfer in singly labeled thiouredopyrenetrisulfonate azurin derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borovok, N; Kotlyar, A B

    1999-01-01

    A novel method for the initiation of intramolecular electron transfer reactions in azurin is reported. The method is based on laser photoexcitation of covalently attached thiouredopyrenetrisulfonate (TUPS), the reaction that generates the low potential triplet state of the dye with high quantum efficiency. TUPS derivatives of azurin, singly labeled at specific lysine residues, were prepared and purified to homogeneity by ion exchange HPLC. Transient absorption spectroscopy was used to directly monitor the rates of the electron transfer reaction from the photoexcited triplet state of TUPS to Cu(II) and the back reaction from Cu(I) to the oxidized dye. For all singly labeled derivatives, the rate constants of copper ion reduction were one or two orders of magnitude larger than for its reoxidation, consistent with the larger thermodynamic driving force for the former process. Using 3-D coordinates of the crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin and molecular structure calculation of the TUPS modified proteins, electron transfer pathways were calculated. Analysis of the results revealed a good correlation between separation distance from donor to Cu ligating atom (His-N or Cys-S) and the observed rate constants of Cu(II) reduction.

  18. Kinetics and mechanisms of photoinduced electron-transfer reaction of zinc myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) between zinc myoglobin (ZnPPMb) and a variety of quenchers, such as hexacyanoferrate(III)([Fe(CN)6]3-) and hexaammineruthenium(III)(Ru(NH3)6]3+ ions, cationic viologens, copper(II) protein (stellacyanin), and metmyoglobins, has been studied in aqueous degassed solutions. The excited triplet state of ZnPPMb(*ZnPPMb) was quenched by [Fe(CN)6]3- in a self-associated complex. Both quenching rate constant and formation constant of the self-associated complex decrease with increasing ionic strengths. The thermal backward ET reaction for this system was not observed; it is most likely that the backward ET step is much faster than the quenching reaction. All of the cationic quenchers examined in this work did not form a self-associated complex with *ZnPPMb, and the intermolecular quenching occurred. The thermal backward ET reaction was observed for these cationic quenchers. Not only photoinduced ET but also thermal backward ET reactions were insensitive to the driving force of the reactions, suggesting that the reactions are controlled by conformational changes in ZnPPMb. The quenching rate constants increase with increasing ionic strength for the cationic quenchers. The effects of poly-L-lysine hydrochloride, sodium poly-L-glutamate, and sodium cyclo-hexaphosphate were also examined. The active site of the *ZnPPMb toward both anionf the *ZnPPMb toward both anionic and cationic quenchers is assumed to be the positively charged site near the heme pocket. (author)

  19. The reorganization energy of electron transfer in nonpolar solvents: Molecular level treatment of the solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intermolecular electron transfer in a solute pair consisting of pyrene and dimethylaniline is investigated in a nonpolar solvent, n-hexane. The earlier elaborated approach [M. Tachiya, J. Phys Chem. 97, 5911 (1993)] is used; this method provides a physically relevant background for separating inertial and inertialess polarization responses for both nonpolarizable and polarizable molecular level simulations. The molecular-dynamics technique was implemented for obtaining the equilibrium ensemble of solvent configurations. The nonpolar solvent, n-hexane, was treated in terms of OPLS-AA parametrization. Solute Lennard-Jones parameters were taken from the same parametrization. Solute charge distributions of the initial and final states were determined using ab initio level [HF/6-31G(d,p)] quantum-chemical calculations. Configuration analysis was performed explicitly taking into account the anisotropic polarizability of n-hexane. It is shown that the Gaussian law well describes calculated distribution functions of the solvent coordinate, therefore, the rate constant of the ET reaction can be characterized by the reorganization energy. Evaluated values of the reorganization energies are in a range of 0.03-0.11 eV and significant contribution (more then 40% of magnitude) comes from anisotropic polarizability. Investigation of the reorganization energy ? dependence on the solute pair separation distance d revealed unexpected behavior. The dependence has a very sharp peak or. The dependence has a very sharp peak at the distance d=7 A where solvent molecules are able to penetrate into the intermediate space between the solute pair. The reason for such behavior is clarified. This new effect has a purely molecular origin and cannot be described within conventional continuum solvent models

  20. Topological characterisation of intermolecular lithium bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader's atoms in molecules topological theory was employed to analyse the B3LYP/6-311++G(3d2f,3p2d) electron distributions of several adducts that contain LiF. The results indicate significant differences between lithium bonding (LB) and hydrogen bonding (HB): (i) in spite of their larger stability, the charge density at the intermolecular critical points of LB complexes is about half of its value in the corresponding HB complexes, suggesting a dominant role of electrostatic interactions in the former; (ii) the Li atom in LB compounds is more shared between the base atom and the attached fluorine than hydrogen in HB complexes; and (iii) the Li atom gains electron charge from the hydrogens in all the complexes here studied, undergoing energetic stabilisation

  1. Electron Transfer Dissociation (ETD) of Peptides Containing Intrachain Disulfide Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Scott R.; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xinrong; Xia, Yu

    2012-02-01

    The fragmentation chemistry of peptides containing intrachain disulfide bonds was investigated under electron transfer dissociation (ETD) conditions. Fragments within the cyclic region of the peptide backbone due to intrachain disulfide bond formation were observed, including: c (odd electron), z (even electron), c-33 Da, z + 33 Da, c + 32 Da, and z-32 Da types of ions. The presence of these ions indicated cleavages both at the disulfide bond and the N-C? backbone from a single electron transfer event. Mechanistic studies supported a mechanism whereby the N-C? bond was cleaved first, and radical-driven reactions caused cleavage at either an S-S bond or an S-C bond within cysteinyl residues. Direct ETD at the disulfide linkage was also observed, correlating with signature loss of 33 Da (SH) from the charge-reduced peptide ions. Initial ETD cleavage at the disulfide bond was found to be promoted amongst peptides ions of lower charge states, while backbone fragmentation was more abundant for higher charge states. The capability of inducing both backbone and disulfide bond cleavages from ETD could be particularly useful for sequencing peptides containing intact intrachain disulfide bonds. ETD of the 13 peptides studied herein all showed substantial sequence coverage, accounting for 75%-100% of possible backbone fragmentation.

  2. DNA Damage Induced by Low-Energy Electrons: Electron Transfer and Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of the short single strand of DNA, GCAT, in which guanine (G) or adenine (A) have been removed, were bombarded under vacuum by 4 to 15 eV electrons. The fragments corresponding to base release and strand breaks (SB) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and their yields compared with those obtained from unmodified GCAT. From such a comparison, it is shown that, using GCAT as a model system (1) most SB result from electron capture by DNA bases followed by electron transfer to the phosphate group and (2) the initial capture probability depends on the coherence of the electron wave within the tetramer

  3. Effects of electrostatic interactions on electron transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fast reactions of electron transfer are studied by pulse radiolysis. This technique allows the creation in about 10-8 second radicals and radical ions with high redox potentials. For solvated electrons electrostatic interaction on the kinetics of reactions limited by diffusion is described by Debye's equation when ion mobility is known. Deviation from theory can occur in ion pairs formation. This is evidenced experimentally for anions by cation complexation with a cryptate. Relatively slow reactions are more sensitive to electrostatic interactions than limited by diffusion. If ion pairs are not formed kinetics constant depends on dielectric constant of solvent and reaction radius. Experimentally is studied the effect of electrostatic interaction on the rate constants of solvated electrons with anions and cations in water-ethanol mixtures where the dielectric constant change from 80 to 25 at room temperature. 17 refs

  4. Electron transfer between insoluble dihydronicotinamide polymer and insoluble benzoquinone polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubokawa, N.; Endo, T.; Okawara, H.

    1982-08-01

    The electron transfer between insoluble polymer containing 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (BNAH) structure (P-BNAH) and benzoquinone (Q) structure (P-Q) by use of alloxan (A) as an electron carrier was investigated. Although no reaction occurred on suspending the P-BNAH and P-Q in ethanol/water, P-Q was reduced smoothly to hydroquinone structure (P-HQ) by addition of A. The results suggest that A was reduced by P-BNAH to give A radical (A-) or dialuric acid (D) and then A- (or D) reduced P-Q, whereby A was regenerated and thus indicated that the oxidation reduction between insoluble solid polymers was mediated by A as an electron carrier.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of nonpolarizable inorganic salt solution interfaces: NaCl, NaBr, and NaI in transferable intermolecular potential 4-point with charge dependent polarizability (TIP4P-QDP) water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Brad A.; Patel, Sandeep

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of the liquid-vapor interface of 1M salt solutions of nonpolarizable NaCl, NaBr, and NaI in polarizable transferable intermolecular potential 4-point with charge dependent polarizability water [B. A. Bauer et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 359 (2009)]; this water model accommodates increased solvent polarizability (relative to the condensed phase) in the interfacial and vapor regions. We employ fixed-charge ion models developed in conjunction with the TIP4P-QDP water model to reproduce ab initio ion-water binding energies and ion-water distances for isolated ion-water pairs. The transferability of these ion models to the condensed phase was validated with hydration free energies computed using thermodynamic integration (TI) and appropriate energy corrections. Density profiles of Cl-, Br-, and I- exhibit charge layering in the interfacial region; anions and cation interfacial probabilities show marked localization, with the anions penetrating further toward the vapor than the cations. Importantly, in none of the cases studied do anions favor the outermost regions of the interface; there is always an aqueous region between the anions and vapor phase. Observed interfacial charge layering is independent of the strength of anion-cation interactions as manifest in anion-cation contact ion pair peaks and solvent separated ion pair peaks; by artificially modulating the strength of anion-cation interactions (independent of their interactions with solvent), we find little dependence on charge layering particularly for the larger iodide anion. The present results reiterate the widely held view of the importance of solvent and ion polarizability in mediating specific anion surface segregation effects. Moreover, due to the higher parametrized polarizability of the TIP4P-QDP condensed phase {1.31 Å3 for TIP4P-QDP versus 1.1 Å3 (TIP4P-FQ) and 0.87 Å3 (POL3) [Ponder and Case, Adv. Protein Chem. 66, 27 (2003)]} based on ab initio calculations of the condensed-phase polarizability reduction in liquid water, the present simulations highlight the role of water polarizability in inducing water molecular dipole moments parallel to the interface normal (and within the interfacial region) so as to favorably oppose the macrodipole generated by the separation of anion and cation charge. Since the TIP4P-QDP water polarizability approaches that of the experimental vapor phase value for water, the present results suggest a fundamental role of solvent polarizability in accommodating the large spatial dipole generated by the separation of ion charges. The present results draw further attention to the question of what exact value of condensed phase water polarizability to incorporate in classical polarizable water force fields.

  6. Electron-transfer reactions of tryptophan and tyrosine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation of tryptophan, tyrosine, and derivatives by oxidizing radicals was studied by pulse radiolysis in aqueous solutions at 20 0C. Rate constants for the oxidation of tryptophan derivatives with .N3 and Br2-. radicals vary from 8 x 108 to 4.8 and 109 M-1 s-1 and oxidation goes to completion; no pH dependence was observed. Oxidation rate constants for tyrosine derivatives increase upon deprotonation of the phenolic residue at higher pH. Redox potentials for the indolyl and phenoxyl radicals were derived from the measured equilibrium constants by using p-methoxyphenol (E/sub 7.5/ = 0.6 and E13 = 0.4 V), bisulfite (E3 = 0.84 V), and guanosine (E7 = 0.91 V) redox couples as reference systems. Redox potentials of tryptophan derivatives were found to be in dependent on the nature of the side chain and higher than the redox potentials of tryptophan derivatives. Electron transfer from tyrosine to tryptophyl radical was found to be slow in neutral media and is suggested to proceed via multiple steps, one of which is proton transfer from tyrosine to tryptophyl radical followed by electron transfer. 26 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  7. Mechanism of cobalt self-exchange electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Andrew M; Nocera, Daniel G

    2013-10-01

    A heptanuclear cobalt cluster was synthesized in two different oxidation states, Co(II)7 and a mixed valence Co(III)Co(II)6, as a soluble model of a cobalt-phosphate/borate (Co-OEC) water splitting catalyst. Crystallographic characterization indicates similar cluster cores, distinguished primarily at the central Co atom. An anion associates to the cluster cores via hydrogen bonding. Using an isotope exchange method, an anomalously slow self-exchange electron transfer rate constant (k(obs) = 1.53 × 10(-3) M(-1) s(-1) at 40 °C and 38 mM [OTf] in MeCN), as compared to that predicted from semiclassical Marcus theory, supports a charge transfer process that is accelerated by dissociation of the anion from the oxidized cluster. This mechanism sheds light on the inverse dependence of anions in the self-repair mechanism of Co-OECs. Moreover, because H2O cannot directly bridge cobalt centers, owing to the encapsulation of the central Co within the cluster core, the observed results address a long-standing controversy surrounding the Co(2+/3+) self-exchange electron transfer reaction of the hexaaqua complex. PMID:23987247

  8. Role of Electron--Electron Interactions on Spin Effects in Electron--Hole Recombination in Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Mousumi; Mazumdar, S.; Ramasesha, S

    2004-01-01

    We extend our theory of electron--hole recombination in organic light emitting diodes to investigate the possibility that high energy singlet and triplet excited states with large electron--hole separations are generated in such processes, over and above the lowest singlet and triplet excitons. Our approach involves a time-dependent calculation of the interchain / intermolecular charge--transfer within model Hamiltonians that explicitly include electron-electron interactions...

  9. Incorporating electron-transfer functionality into synthetic metalloproteins from the bottom-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jing; Kharenko, Olesya A; Ogawa, Michael Y

    2006-12-11

    The alpha-helical coiled-coil motif serves as a robust scaffold for incorporating electron-transfer (ET) functionality into synthetic metalloproteins. These structures consist of a supercoiling of two or more aplha helices that are formed by the self-assembly of individual polypeptide chains whose sequences contain a repeating pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues. Early work from our group attached abiotic Ru-based redox sites to the most surface-exposed positions of two stranded coiled-coils and used electron-pulse radiolysis to study both intra- and intermolecular ET reactions in these systems. Later work used smaller metallopeptides to investigate the effects of conformational gating within electrostatic peptide-protein complexes. We have recently designed the C16C19-GGY peptide, which contains Cys residues located at both the "a" and "d" positions of its third heptad repeat in order to construct a nativelike metal-binding domain within its hydrophobic core. It was shown that the binding of both Cd(II) and Cu(I) ions induces the peptide to undergo a conformational change from a disordered random coil to a metal-bridged coiled-coil. However, whereas the Cd(II)-protein exists as a two-stranded coiled-coil, the Cu(I) derivative exists as a four-stranded coiled-coil. Upon the incorporation of other metal ions, metal-bridged peptide dimers, tetramers, and hexamers are formed. The Cu(I)-protein is of particular interest because it exhibits a long-lived (microsecond) room-temperature luminescence at 600 nm. The luminophore in this protein is thought to be a multinuclear CuI4Cys4(N/O)4 cage complex, which can be quenched by exogenous electron acceptors in solution, as shown by emission-lifetime and transient-absorption experiments. It is anticipated that further investigation into these systems will contribute to the expanding effort of bioinorganic chemists to prepare new kinds of functionally active synthetic metalloproteins. PMID:17140193

  10. Scanning electron microscopy in nematode-induced giant transfer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M G; Dropkin, V H

    1976-01-01

    A study of giant cells induced by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in roots of Impatiens balsamina was made by scanning electron microscopy. The cytoplasmic contents of giant cells were removed by a procedure based on KOH digestion, to reveal inner wall structure. Wall ingrowths typical of transfer cells are present in giant cells from six days onwards after induction. They develop on walls adjacent to vascular tissues, and their distribution and development was examined. Pit fields contianing plasmodesmata become elaborated in walls between giant cells, but pit fields are lost between giant cells and cells outside them. The distribution of plasmodesmata in pit fields suggests that de novo formation of plasmodesmata occurs in walls between giant cells. Various aspects of giant cell formation and function are discussed and wall ingrowth development is compared in giant cells and normal transfer cells. PMID:1001022

  11. A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Takatoshi; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The fluctuations of optical gap induced by the environment play crucial roles in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as a white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to take the thermal fluctuation of excitation energies into account. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equ...

  12. Extracting electron transfer coupling elements from constrained density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constrained density functional theory (DFT) is a useful tool for studying electron transfer (ET) reactions. It can straightforwardly construct the charge-localized diabatic states and give a direct measure of the inner-sphere reorganization energy. In this work, a method is presented for calculating the electronic coupling matrix element (Hab) based on constrained DFT. This method completely avoids the use of ground-state DFT energies because they are known to irrationally predict fractional electron transfer in many cases. Instead it makes use of the constrained DFT energies and the Kohn-Sham wave functions for the diabatic states in a careful way. Test calculations on the Zn2+ and the benzene-Cl atom systems show that the new prescription yields reasonable agreement with the standard generalized Mulliken-Hush method. We then proceed to produce the diabatic and adiabatic potential energy curves along the reaction pathway for intervalence ET in the tetrathiafulvalene-diquinone (Q-TTF-Q) anion. While the unconstrained DFT curve has no reaction barrier and gives Hab?17 kcal/mol, which qualitatively disagrees with experimental results, the Hab calculated from constrained DFT is about 3 kcal/mol and the generated ground state has a barrier height of 1.70 kcal/mol, successfully predicting (Q-TTF-Q)- to be a class II mixed-valence compound

  13. Modeling biofilms with dual extracellular electron transfer mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Schenk, Jim; Ivory, Cornelius; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2013-11-28

    Electrochemically active biofilms have a unique form of respiration in which they utilize solid external materials as their terminal electron acceptor for metabolism. Currently, two primary mechanisms have been identified for long-range extracellular electron transfer (EET): a diffusion- and a conduction-based mechanism. Evidence in the literature suggests that some biofilms, particularly Shewanella oneidensis, produce components requisite for both mechanisms. In this study, a generic model is presented that incorporates both diffusion- and conduction-based mechanisms and allows electrochemically active biofilms to utilize both simultaneously. The model was applied to Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms using experimentally generated data found the literature. Our simulation results showed that 1) biofilms having both mechanisms available, especially if they can interact, may have metabolic advantage over biofilms that can use only a single mechanism; 2) the thickness of Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms is likely not limited by conductivity; 3) accurate intrabiofilm diffusion coefficient values are critical for current generation predictions; and 4) the local biofilm potential and redox potential are two distinct measurements and cannot be assumed to have identical values. Finally, we determined that cyclic and squarewave voltammetry are currently not good tools to determine the specific percentage of extracellular electron transfer mechanisms used by biofilms. The developed model will be a critical tool in designing experiments to explain EET mechanisms.

  14. Transcriptomic and genetic analysis of direct interspecies electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

    2013-01-01

    The possibility that metatranscriptomic analysis could distinguish between direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) and H2 interspecies transfer (HIT) in anaerobic communities was investigated by comparing gene transcript abundance in cocultures in which Geobacter sulfurreducens was the electron-accepting partner for either Geobacter metallireducens, which performs DIET, or Pelobacter carbinolicus, which relies on HIT. Transcript abundance for G. sulfurreducens uptake hydrogenase genes was 7-fold lower in cocultures with G. metallireducens than in cocultures with P. carbinolicus, consistent with DIET and HIT, respectively, in the two cocultures. Transcript abundance for the pilus-associated cytochrome OmcS, which is essential for DIET but not for HIT, was 240-fold higher in the cocultures with G. metallireducens than in cocultures with P. carbinolicus. The pilin gene pilA was moderately expressed despite a mutation that might be expected to repress pilA expression. Lower transcript abundance for G. sulfurreducens genes associated with acetate metabolism in the cocultures with P. carbinolicus was consistent with the repression of these genes by H2 during HIT. Genes for the biogenesis of pili and flagella and several c-type cytochrome genes were among the most highly expressed in G. metallireducens. Mutant strains that lacked the ability to produce pili, flagella, or the outer surface c-type cytochrome encoded by Gmet_2896 were not able to form cocultures with G. sulfurreducens. These results demonstrate that there are unique gene expression patterns that distinguish DIET from HIT and suggest that metatranscriptomics may be a promising route to investigate interspecies electron transfer pathways in more-complex environments.

  15. ATP-induced electron transfer by redox-selective partner recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Sandra E.; Goetzl, Sebastian; Jeoung, Jae-Hun; Bommer, Martin; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Hildebrandt, Peter; Dobbek, Holger

    2014-08-01

    Thermodynamically unfavourable electron transfers are enabled by coupling to an energy-supplying reaction. How the energy is transduced from the exergonic to the endergonic process is largely unknown. Here we provide the structural basis for an energy transduction process in the reductive activation of B12-dependent methyltransferases. The transfer of one electron from an activating enzyme to the cobalamin cofactor is energetically uphill and relies on coupling to an ATPase reaction. Our results demonstrate that the key to coupling is, besides the oxidation state-dependent complex formation, the conformational gating of the electron transfer. Complex formation induces a substitution of the ligand at the electron-accepting Co ion. Addition of ATP initiates electron transfer by provoking conformational changes that destabilize the complex. We show how remodelling of the electron-accepting Co2+ promotes ATP-dependent electron transfer; an efficient strategy not seen in other electron-transferring ATPases.

  16. Parton models of high momentum transfer electron-nuclear scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy electron-nuclear scattering processes are discussed from the point of view of a parton model description. The light-cone formalism is introduced in a schematic presentation emphasizing: (i) the connection to relativistic dynamics, (ii) the phenomenological construction of the far off-shell components of wave functions, and (iii) asymptotic scaling laws. A survey is made of some of the recent calculations based on a nucleon constituent parton model and their comparison with data for momentum transfers Q22. A prospective discussion is also made on multiquark nuclear components and the quark parton model in QCD

  17. Large momentum transfer electron scattering from few-nucleon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the experimental results from a series of measurements at SLAC of large momentum transfer (Q2 > 20 fm-2) electron scattering at forward angles from nuclei with A less than or equal to 4. Theoretical interpretations of these data in terms of traditional nuclear physics models and in terms of quark constituent models are described. Some physics questions for future experiments are explored, and a preview of possible future measurements of magnetic structure functions of light nuclei at large Q2 is given

  18. Light induced electron transfer reactions of metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of the excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), ruthenium(II), osmium(II), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) are described. The electron transfer reactions of the ground and excited states are discussed and interpreted in terms of the driving force for the reaction and the distortions of the excited states relative to the corresponding ground states. General considerations relevant to the conversion of light into chemical energy are presented and progress in the use of polypyridine complexes to effect the light decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen is reviewed

  19. Electronic excitation energy transfer between quasi-zero-dimensional systems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav; Mao, H.

    Tokyo : The Surface Science Society of Japan, 2014, s. 11-17. ISSN 1348-0391. [International Conference on Atomically Controlled Surfaces, Interfaces and Nanostructures /12/ - International Colloquium on Scanning Probe Microscopy /21./. Tsukuba (JP), 04.11.2013-08.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : quantum dots * energy transfer * electron-phonon interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/result?item1=4&word1=Atomically+Controlled+Surfaces+ AND +kral

  20. Nanoscale and single-molecule interfacial electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Glargaard; Wackerbarth, Hainer

    2003-01-01

    Electrochemical science and technology in the 21st century have reached high levels of sophistication. A fundamental quantum mechanical theoretical frame for interfacial electrochemical electron transfer (ET) was introduced by Revaz Dogonadze. This frame has remained for four decades as a basis for comprehensive later theoretical work and data interpretation in many areas of chemistry, electrochemistry, and biology. We discuss here some new areas of theoretical electrochemical ET science, with focus on nanoscale electrochemical and bioelectrochemical sciences. Particular attention is given to in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and single-electron tunneling (SET, or Coulomb blockade) in electrochemical. systems directly in aqueous electrolyte solution and at room temperature. We illustrate the new theoretical formalism and its perspectives by recent cases of electrochemical SET, negative differential resistance patterns, and by ET dynamics of organized assemblies of biological macromolecules, such as redox metalloproteins and oligonucleotides on single-crystal Au(III)-electrode surfaces.

  1. Effect of electrostatic interactions on electron-transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast reactions of electron transfer are studied by pulsed radiolysis. By this technique radicals and ionic radicals with high redox potentials are created homogeneously in the solution in about 10-8 second. For solvated electron effect of electrostatic interaction on kinetics of reactions limited by diffusion is obtained with a good approximation by the Debye equation when ion mobility is known. Deviation from the theory occurs in ion pair formation, which is evidenced experimentally in reactions between anions when cations are complexed by a cryptate. Slow reactions k 8 M-1 s-1 are more sensitive to electrostatic interactions than reactions limited by diffusion. When there is no ion pair formation the velocity constant depends upon dielectric constant of the solvent and reaction distance. 17 refs

  2. Electron transfer through RNA: chemical probing of dual distance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Tadao; Otsuka, Yumiko; Nakamura, Mitsunobu; Yamana, Kazushige

    2011-11-15

    Electron transfer (ET) through RNA duplexes possessing 2'-O-pyrenylmethy uridine (Upy) and 5-bromouracil (BrU) as an electron donor and accepter set was investigated. Reductive decomposition of the BrU resulted from the ET over long distances (up to ten AU base pairs) was detected in the RNA conjugates. The RNA mediated ET from the pyrene to BrU showed dual distance dependence. This is well consistent with the previous observation for ET from Upy to nitrobenzene in RNA. In contrast, little or no reductive decomposition of the BrU was observed in the DNA conjugates when the Upy and BrU were separated by more than four AT base pairs. PMID:22014752

  3. Coupling capillary zone electrophoresis with electron transfer dissociation and activated ion electron transfer dissociation for top-down proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yimeng; Riley, Nicholas M; Sun, Liangliang; Hebert, Alexander S; Yan, Xiaojing; Westphall, Michael S; Rush, Matthew J P; Zhu, Guijie; Champion, Matthew M; Mba Medie, Felix; Champion, Patricia A DiGiuseppe; Coon, Joshua J; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-05-19

    Top-down proteomics offers the potential for full protein characterization, but many challenges remain for this approach, including efficient protein separations and effective fragmentation of intact proteins. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) has shown great potential for separation of intact proteins, especially for differentially modified proteoforms of the same gene product. To date, however, CZE has been used only with collision-based fragmentation methods. Here we report the first implementation of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) with online CZE separations for top-down proteomics, analyzing a mixture of four standard proteins and a complex protein mixture from the Mycobacterium marinum bacterial secretome. Using a multipurpose dissociation cell on an Orbitrap Elite system, we demonstrate that CZE is fully compatible with ETD as well as higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and that the two complementary fragmentation methods can be used in tandem on the electrophoretic time scale for improved protein characterization. Furthermore, we show that activated ion electron transfer dissociation (AI-ETD), a recently introduced method for enhanced ETD fragmentation, provides useful performance with CZE separations to greatly increase protein characterization. When combined with HCD, AI-ETD improved the protein sequence coverage by more than 200% for proteins from both standard and complex mixtures, highlighting the benefits electron-driven dissociation methods can add to CZE separations. PMID:25893372

  4. Determination of the electronics transfer function for current transient measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Scharf, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We describe a straight-forward method for determining the transfer function of the readout of a sensor for the situation in which the current transient of the sensor can be precisely simulated. The method relies on the convolution theorem of Fourier transforms. The specific example is a planar silicon pad diode connected with a 50 $\\Omega $ cable to an amplifier followed by a 5 GS/s sampling oscilloscope. The charge carriers in the sensor were produced by picosecond lasers with light of wavelengths of 675 and 1060 nm. The transfer function is determined from the 1060 nm data with the pad diode biased at 1000 V. It is shown that the simulated sensor response convoluted with this transfer function provides an excellent description of the measured transients for the laser light of both wavelengths, at voltages 50 V above the depletion voltage of about 90 V up to the maximum applied voltage of 1000 V. The method has been developed for the precise measurement of the dependence of the drift velocity of electrons an...

  5. Promoting direct interspecies electron transfer with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fanghua; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

    2012-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is added to methanogenic digesters to enhance conversion of wastes to methane, but the mechanism(s) for GAC’s stimulatory effect are poorly understood. GAC has high electrical conductivity and thus it was hypothesized that one mechanism for GAC stimulation of methanogenesis might be to facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between bacteria and methanogens. Metabolism was substantially accelerated when GAC was added to co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens grown under conditions previously shown to require DIET. Cells were attached to GAC, but did not aggregate as they do when making biological electrical connections between cells. Studies with a series of gene deletion mutants eliminated the possibility that GAC promoted electron exchange via interspecies hydrogen or formate transfer and demonstrated that DIET in the presence of GAC did not require the electrically conductive pili and associated c-type cytochrome involved in biological interspecies electrical connections. GAC also greatly stimulated ethanol metabolism and methane production in co-cultures of G. metallireducens and Methanosarcina barkeri. Cells were attached to GAC, but not closely aggregated, suggesting little opportunity for biological electrical contacts between the species. GAC also enhanced methane production in samples from a methanogenic digester in which Methanosaeta were the predominant methanogens. The results demonstrate that GAC can promote DIET and suggest that stimulation of metabolism in methanogenic digesters can be attributed, at least in part, to the high conductivity of GAC providing better interspecies electrical connections than those that can be forged biologically.

  6. Dissociative electron transfer to organic chlorides: electrocatalysis at metal cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isse, Abdirisak A; Gottardello, Silvia; Durante, Christian; Gennaro, Armando

    2008-05-01

    The reductive cleavage of a series of organic chlorides, including chloroaromatics, benzyl chlorides, activated chloroalkanes and polychloromethanes, was investigated at Ag, Cu, Pd and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in CH(3)CN + 0.1 M (C(2)H(5))(4)NClO(4). The silver cathode was either a 2-mm diameter disc, fabricated from Ag wire, or nanoclusters of average diameter d = 304 nm, prepared by electrodeposition on GC. Ag, Cu and Pd electrodes have shown remarkable electrocatalytic properties for the reduction of several compounds. The peak potentials recorded at these electrodes, for example, at upsilon = 0.1 V s(-1) are positively shifted by 0.3-0.8 V with respect to the reduction potentials measured at a non catalytic electrode such as GC. Electrocatalysis is strictly related to the concerted nature of the dissociative electron transfer to the carbon-chlorine bond. No catalysis is observed when the dissociative electron transfer to RCl occurs according to a stepwise mechanism involving the intermediate formation of a radical anion. The catalytic surfaces affect the reaction scheme, offering a more favourable route possibly through the formation of strongly adsorbed activated complexes. PMID:18414732

  7. ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER: EXPLORING THE DIFFICULTIES OF SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MPAKWANA ANNASTACIA MTHEMBU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally the banking laws, regulations and supervision were designed primarily to address the fundamental principle relating to safe and sound business practices by financial institutions. In order to maintain safe and sound business practice it is of outmost importance that customers are protected against losses resulting from inadequate remedies available to them. Banking by its very nature is a high risk business. However, the major risks associated with banking are legal risks, credit interest rates and liquidity. Internet banking has increased some of these risks by creating new ones. Electronic funds transfers are based on technology which by its nature is designed to extend the geographical reach of banks and customers. This kind of a market expansion extend beyond borders, therefore there will be problems which banks will try to avoid like regulation and supervision. Other regulatory and legal risks include, the uncertainty about legal requirements in some countries and jurisdiction ambiguities regarding the responsibilities of different national authorities. Customers and banks may be exposed to legal risks associated with non-compliance with different national laws and regulations including consumer protection laws, record keeping and report requirements. Due to insecurity created by electronic funds transfer, it of importance to analyse measures under South African Law and whether these measures can effectively prevent insecurity and what lessons can be learned from abroad.

  8. Mass transfer of electron acceptor aross the capillary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Piepenbrink, M.; Grathwohl, P.

    2005-12-01

    Transverse dispersion has been identified as a potentially limiting parameter controlling the mixing of electron donors and electron acceptors for natural attenuation of plumes originating from continuously emitting sources, however determining reactive transverse dispersion coefficients is not a simple task. The objective of this work is to elaborate the mass transfer of electron acceptor across the capillary fringe. A two-dimensional numerical reactive transport model and a fully controlled tank experiment are set up to investigate the mass transfer across the capillary and reactive fringe, where the oxygen supply is the limiting factor. The tank (77.9 times 14 times 0.8 cm) is made from acrylic-glass and filled with glass beads (0.5-0.75mm). Sodium dithionite, an easily oxidizable compound, is used as a surrogate for contaminants and is continuously injected from the inlets of the tank and reaches a steady state flow. Air circulates on the top of the glass beads. The oxygen concentrations as well as the reactive products (sulfate) are measured at the outlets of the tank with an oxygen sensor and via IC. In addition to that, resazurine, a redox indicator, is added to visualize the redox zones. These two-dimensional experimental results show quantitatively and qualitatively how the oxygen concentrations decrease at the plume fringe. Two dimensional numerical simulations with Min3P predicted oxygen distributions are compared with the experimental results. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by Helmholtz Association and Helmholtz Research Center UFZ; Project: `Virtual Institute for isotope biogeochemistry-biologically mediated processes at geochemical gradients and interfaces in soil - aquifer systems', Contract VH-VI-155.

  9. Photoinduced tautomerism of 2,6-dicarbomethoxyphenol in DMF–water mixtures: Perturbation from intermolecular processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report the spectral signatures of photoinduced tautomerism of 4-methyl-2,6-dicarbomethoxyphenol (CMOH) in DMF–water mixtures with varying compositions. Excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction of CMOH has been observed in bulk DMF, indicated by dual fluorescence from its normal and tautomeric forms while only a single emission peak is observed in water from its anionic species. Binary mixture of a polar aprotic (DMF) and a polar protic (water) solvent gives rise to a competition between intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding (with media) processes of the probe. This competition is found to be largely dependent on the proton affinity of the media and also on the excitation energy. Solvent separated ion pair and intermolecularly H-bonded CMOH–Solvent complex have been detected in the excited state at specific solvent compositions that are converted to the anionic form due to the change in excitation wavelengths. The formation of hydrogen bonded 1:1 molecular clusters of different rotamers of CMOH with DMF and water in the ground state has been investigated using quantum chemical calculations. A combined experimental and theoretical analysis indicates that the HOMO to LUMO transitions dictate the electronic absorption profiles of the CMOH–DMF and CMOH–water clusters. These findings are expected to shed light on the mechanism of acid–base reactions of several hydrogen bonded systems that are part of many biologically relevant processes. -- Highlights: •Photoinduced tautomerization of CMOH has been studied in DMF–water mixture. •CMOH forms 1:1 molecular clusters with DMF and water. •The competition between intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding is revealed. •HOMO to LUMO transition dictates the absorption spectra of CMOH in DMF and water

  10. Cluster PEACE observations of electrons during magnetospheric flux transfer events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Owen

    Full Text Available During the first quarter of 2001 the apogees of the Cluster spacecraft quartet precessed through midday local times. This provides the first opportunity for 4 spacecraft studies of the bow shock, magnetosheath and the dayside magnetopause current layer and boundary layers. In this paper, we present observations of electrons in the energy range ~ 10 eV–26 keV made by the Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE located just inside the magnetopause boundary, together with supporting observations by the Flux Gate Magnetometer (FGM. During these observations, the spacecraft have separations of ~ 600 km. This scale size is of the order or less than the typical size of flux transfer events (FTEs, which are expected to be observed following bursts of reconnection on the dayside magnetopause. We study, in detail, the 3-D configuration of electron populations observed around a series of enhancements of magnetosheath-like electrons which were observed within the magnetosphere on 2 February 2001. We find that individual spacecraft observe magnetic field and electron signatures that are consistent with previous observations of magnetospheric FTEs. However, the differences in the signatures between spacecraft indicate that these FTEs have substructure on the scale of the spacecraft separation. We use these differences and the timings of the 4 spacecraft observations to infer the motions of the electron populations and thus the configuration of these substructures. We find that these FTEs are moving from noon towards dusk. The inferred size and speed of motion across the magnetopause, in one example, is ~ 0.8 RE and ~ 70 km s-1 respectively. In addition, we observe a delay in and an extended duration of the signature at the spacecraft furthest from the magnetopause. We discuss the implications of these 4 spacecraft observations for the structure of these FTEs. We suggest that these may include a compression of the closed flux tubes ahead of the FTE, which causes density and field strength enhancements; a circulation of open flux tubes within the FTE itself, which accounts for the delay in the arrival of the magnetosheath electron populations at locations deepest within the magnetosphere; and a possible trapping of magnetospheric electrons on the most recently opened flux tubes within the FTE.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; solar wind - magnetosphere interactions

  11. Electronic excitation transfer in clustered chromophore systems: Calculation of time-resolved observables for intercluster transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, A. H.; Fayer, M. D.

    1991-04-01

    A theoretical description is given for electronic excitation transport among interacting clusters of chromophores. Each cluster is a finite volume system with a limited number of chromophores. At high cluster concentration, intercluster transfer will become significant. The theory is based on a first-order cumulant approximation of the solution to the transport master equation. Gs(t) the probability of finding the excitation on the initially excited chromophore is calculated. The problem is first solved for two clusters at fixed separations. This result is extended to many clusters and then to the thermodynamic limit of an infinite number of clusters in an infinite volume. An example calculation is performed of excitation transport among chromophores on the surfaces of interacting micelles. For realistic parameters characterizing the system octadecylrhodamine B (chromophores) in Triton X-100 micelles, it is found that intermicelle excitation transfer can compete with intramicelle transfer. For an isolated micelle-chromophore system (chromophores on the surface of a sphere), a new time domain expression for Gs(t) is obtained.

  12. Photoinduced electron transfer from chloropromazine and promethazine to chloroalkanes accompanied by cleavage of C Cl bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Sukhendu; Sapre, Avinash V.

    2001-08-01

    Electron transfer from two phenothiazine derivatives namely promethazine and chloropromazine to chloroalkanes namely carbontetrachloride and chloroform has been studied by steady state fluorescence and transient absorption techniques. These phenothiazine derivatives also form weak charge transfer complexes with the above two chloroalkanes. Picosecond transient absorption studies provide direct evidence for two processes: (1) charge separation in the charge transfer complex and (2) electron transfer from the excited state of phenothiazines to chloroalkanes. A modified Marcus electron transfer theory proposed by Saveant [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109 (1987) 6788], which incorporates the bond cleavage, has been used to explain the observed experimental results.

  13. The Golden Rule. Application for fun and profit in electron transfer, energy transfer, and excited-state decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akitaka; Meyer, Thomas J

    2012-10-28

    Time-dependent perturbation theory and application of the Golden Rule have been shown to be quantitatively applicable to electron transfer in the inverted region, energy transfer, and excited-state decay based on spectroscopic measurements on d?(6) polypyridyl complexes of Ru(II), Os(II), and Re(I). PMID:22842806

  14. Modular electron transfer circuits for synthetic biology: Insulation of an engineered biohydrogen pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Agapakis, Christina M.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2010-01-01

    Electron transfer is central to a wide range of essential metabolic pathways, from photosynthesis to fermentation. The evolutionary diversity and conservation of proteins that transfer electrons makes these pathways a valuable platform for engineered metabolic circuits in synthetic biology. Rational engineering of electron transfer pathways containing hydrogenases has the potential to lead to industrial scale production of hydrogen as an alternative source of clean fuel and experimental assay...

  15. Characterization of electron transfer dissociation in the Orbitrap Velos HCD cell.

    OpenAIRE

    Frese, CK; Nolting, D. (Dorothea-Maria); Altelaar, AF; Griep-Raming, J; Mohammed, S; Heck, AJ

    2013-01-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is commonly employed in ion traps utilizing rf fields that facilitate efficient electron transfer reactions. Here, we explore performing ETD in the HCD collision cell on an Orbitrap Velos instrument by applying a static DC gradient axially to the rods. This gradient enables simultaneous three dimensional, charge sign independent, trapping of cations and anions, initiating electron transfer reactions in the center of the HCD cell where oppositely charged io...

  16. Photoinduced electron transfer reaction in polymer-surfactant aggregates: Photoinduced electron transfer between N,N-dimethylaniline and 7-amino coumarin dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoinduced electron transfer between coumarin dyes and N,N-dimethylaniline has been investigated by using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) micelles and PVP-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (SDS) polymer-surfactant aggregates. A slower rate of electron transfer is observed in PVP-SDS aggregates than in polymer-free SDS micelles. A Marcus type inversion is observed in the correlation of free energy change in comparison with the electron transfer rate. The careful investigation reveals that C-151 deviates from the normal Marcus inverted region compared to its analogs C-152 and C-481 due to slower rotational relaxation and smaller translational diffusion coefficient

  17. Electron transfer flavoprotein deficiency: Functional and molecular aspects.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiff, M; Froissart, R

    2006-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder that can be due to a deficiency of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or its dehydrogenase (ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). ETF is a mitochondrial matrix protein consisting of alpha- (30kDa) and beta- (28kDa) subunits encoded by the ETFA and ETFB genes, respectively. In the present study, we have analysed tissue samples from 16 unrelated patients with ETF deficiency, and we report the results of ETF activity, Western blot analysis and mutation analysis. The ETF assay provides a reliable diagnostic tool to confirm ETF deficiency in patients suspected to suffer from MADD. Activity ranged from less than 1 to 16% of controls with the most severely affected patients disclosing the lowest activity values. The majority of patients had mutations in the ETFA gene while only two of them harboured mutations in the ETFB gene. Nine novel disease-causing ETF mutations are reported.

  18. Radiolytic and electron-transfer reactions in supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using supercritical fluids as solvents is useful for both practical and theoretical reasons. It has been proposed to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for synthesis because it eliminates the air pollution arising from other solvents. The properties of supercritical fluids can be easily varied with only modest changes in temperature and density, so they provide a way of testing theories of chemical reactions. It has also been proposed to use supercritical fluids for the treatment of hazardous mixed waste. For these reasons the authors have studied the production of radiolytic species in supercritical CO2 and have measured their reactivity as a function of density. They have shown that the C2O4+ is formed. They also have shown that the electron transfer reactions of dimethylaniline to C2O4+ and CO2(e-) to benzoquinone are diffusion controlled over a considerable density range

  19. Electron transfer and thermodiffusion in copper telluride melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An average diffusion coefficient and an ''apparent'' effective charge of copper ion in copper telluride melt were determined on the basis of the experimental data obtained during electron transfer and thermodiffusion investigation. The ''apparent'' effective charge value of copper ions increases in telluride melt with increasing temperature. Temperature dependence of the ''apparent'' effective charge of copper ions indicates a significant increase of ion concentration in the melt. The temperature dependence of the average diffusion coefficient is presented. The existance of a minimum on the temperature dependence curve is explained by the rearrangement of the short-range ordered structure with space configuration of homopolar bonds to the line structure of chain type. Calculations of the ionic component fraction in electric conductivity and in copper telluride melt demonstrated the decrease of ions contribution to the total conductivity from 0.82% at 1130 deg C to 0.69% at 1207 deg C

  20. Electron Transfer Reactions: Generalized Spin-Boson Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Merkli, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a mathematically rigorous analysis of a generalized spin-boson system for the treatment of a donor-acceptor (reactant-product) quantum system coupled to a thermal quantum noise. The donor/acceptor probability dynamics describes transport reactions in chemical processes in presence of a noisy environment -- such as the electron transfer in a photosynthetic reaction center. Besides being rigorous, our analysis has the advantages over previous ones that (1) we include a general, non energy-conserving system-environment interaction, and that (2) we allow for the donor or acceptor to consist of multiple energy levels lying closely together. We establish explicit expressions for the rates and the efficiency (final donor-acceptor population difference) of the reaction. In particular, we show that the rate increases for a multi-level acceptor, but the efficiency does not.

  1. A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmentally induced fluctuations of the optical gap play a crucial role in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to account for excitation energies’ thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, since the original work of HSR, many groups have employed stochastic models to simulate the same transfer dynamics. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equations via the generalized Langevin approach. Based on this connection, we propose a novel scheme to take account of reorganization effects within the framework of stochastic models. The proposed scheme provides a better description of the population dynamics especially in the regime of strong exciton-phonon coupling. Finally, we discuss the effect of the bath reorganization in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of ideal J-aggregates in terms of the Stokes shifts. We find a simple expression that relates the reorganization contribution to the Stokes shifts – the reorganization shift – to the ideal or non-ideal exciton delocalization in a J-aggregate. The reorganization shift can be described by three parameters: the monomer reorganization energy, the relaxation time of the optical gap, and the exciton delocalization length. This simple relationship allows one to understand the physical origin of the Stokes shifts in molecular aggregates

  2. Photoinduced Electron Transfer Between Conjugated Polymers and a Homologous Series of TCNQ Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeger, Alan J.; Wudl, Fred; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Janssen, Rene. A. J.; Martin, Nazario

    1996-12-01

    The results of photoinduced absorption (PIA) and photoluminescence studies of the photoinduced electron transfer reactions from conjugated polymer donors onto a series of acceptors based on TCNQ and benzoquinone derivatives containing fused aromatic rings are summarized. The results are compared to the well-defined photoinduced electron transfer demonstrated from conjugated polymer donors onto buckminsterfullerene, C{60}. For the TCNQ derivatives, the efficiency of the electron transfer process correlates with the reduction potential of the acceptors. However, photoinduced electron transfer was not observed in the case of the benzoquinone derivatives, although their electrochemical reduction potentials are similar to C{60}.

  3. Ab initio study on electron excitation and electron transfer in tryptophan-tyrosine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, ab initio calculation has been performed to evaluate the transition energy of electronic excitation in tryptophan and tyrosine by using semiempirical molecular orbital method AM1 and complete active space self-consistent field method. The solvent effect has been considered by means of the conductor-like screening model. After geometric optimizations of isolated tryptophan and tyrosine, and their corresponding radicals and cations, reaction heat of these electron transfer reactions have been obtained by the means of complete active space self-consistent field method. The transition energies from the ground state, respectively, to the lowest excited state and to the lowest triplet state of these two amino acids are also calculated and compared with the experimentally observed values. The ionization potential and electron affinity are also calculated for tryptophan and tyrosine employing Koopmans' theorem and ab initio calculation. Compared with the experimental measurements, the theoretical results are found satisfactory. Theoretical results give good explanations on the experimental phenomena that N3· can preferably oxide the side chain of tryptophan residue and then the electron transfer from tyrosine residue to tryptophan residue follows in peptides involving tryptophan and tyrosine

  4. Ab initio study on electron excitation and electron transfer in tryptophan tyrosine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Li, Xiang-Yuan

    2002-11-01

    In this article, ab initio calculation has been performed to evaluate the transition energy of electronic excitation in tryptophan and tyrosine by using semiempirical molecular orbital method AM1 and complete active space self-consistent field method. The solvent effect has been considered by means of the conductor-like screening model. After geometric optimizations of isolated tryptophan and tyrosine, and their corresponding radicals and cations, reaction heat of these electron transfer reactions have been obtained by the means of complete active space self-consistent field method. The transition energies from the ground state, respectively, to the lowest excited state and to the lowest triplet state of these two amino acids are also calculated and compared with the experimentally observed values. The ionization potential and electron affinity are also calculated for tryptophan and tyrosine employing Koopmans' theorem and ab initio calculation. Compared with the experimental measurements, the theoretical results are found satisfactory. Theoretical results give good explanations on the experimental phenomena that N 3rad can preferably oxide the side chain of tryptophan residue and then the electron transfer from tyrosine residue to tryptophan residue follows in peptides involving tryptophan and tyrosine.

  5. Thermal transfer structures coupling electronics card(s) to coolant-cooled structure(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Parida, Pritish R; Schmidt, Roger R

    2014-12-16

    Cooling apparatuses and coolant-cooled electronic systems are provided which include thermal transfer structures configured to engage with a spring force one or more electronics cards with docking of the electronics card(s) within a respective socket(s) of the electronic system. A thermal transfer structure of the cooling apparatus includes a thermal spreader having a first thermal conduction surface, and a thermally conductive spring assembly coupled to the conduction surface of the thermal spreader and positioned and configured to reside between and physically couple a first surface of an electronics card to the first surface of the thermal spreader with docking of the electronics card within a socket of the electronic system. The thermal transfer structure is, in one embodiment, metallurgically bonded to a coolant-cooled structure and facilitates transfer of heat from the electronics card to coolant flowing through the coolant-cooled structure.

  6. Long-Range Photoinduced Electron Transfer Through a DNA Helix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C. J.; Arkin, M. R.; Jenkins, Y.; Ghatlia, N. D.; Bossmann, S. H.; Turro, N. J.; Barton, J. K.

    1993-11-01

    Rapid photoinduced electron transfer is demonstrated over a distance of greater than 40 angstroms between metallointercalators that are tethered to the 5' termini of a 15-base pair DNA duplex. An oligomeric assembly was synthesized in which the donor is Ru(phen)_2dppz^2+ (phen, phenanthroline, and dppz, dipyridophenazine) and the acceptor is Rh(phi)_2phen^3+ (phi, phenanthrenequinone diimine). These metal complexes are intercalated either one or two base steps m from the helix termini. Although the ruthenium-modified oligonucleotide hybridized to an unmodified complement luminesces intensely, the ruthenium-modified oligomer hybridized to the rhodium-modified oligomer shows no detectable luminescence. Time-resolved studies point to a lower limit of 109 per second for the quenching rate. No quenching was observed upon metallation of two complementary octamers by Ru(phen)_32+ and Rh(phen)_33+ under conditions where the phen complexes do not intercalate. The stacked aromatic heterocycles of the DNA duplex therefore serve as an efficient medium for coupling electron donors and acceptors over very long distances.

  7. Electron transfer in peptides: on the formation of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracht, Sonja; Messerer, Matthias; Lang, Matthieu; Eckhardt, Sonja; Lauz, Miriam; Grobéty, Bernard; Fromm, Katharina M; Giese, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    Some microorganisms perform anaerobic mineral respiration by reducing metal ions to metal nanoparticles, using peptide aggregates as medium for electron transfer (ET). Such a reaction type is investigated here with model peptides and silver as the metal. Surprisingly, Ag(+) ions bound by peptides with histidine as the Ag(+)-binding amino acid and tyrosine as photoinducible electron donor cannot be reduced to Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) under ET conditions because the peptide prevents the aggregation of Ag atoms to form AgNPs. Only in the presence of chloride ions, which generate AgCl microcrystals in the peptide matrix, does the synthesis of AgNPs occur. The reaction starts with the formation of 100?nm Ag@AgCl/peptide nanocomposites which are cleaved into 15?nm AgNPs. This defined transformation from large nanoparticles into small ones is in contrast to the usually observed Ostwald ripening processes and can be followed in detail by studying time-resolved UV/Vis spectra which exhibit an isosbestic point. PMID:25663127

  8. Direct electron transfer from glucose oxidase immobilized on a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A direct electron transfer reaction of glucose oxidase was observed on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode. ? A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed at the formal potential of approximately -0.439 V. ? The apparent electron transfer rate constant was measured to be 5.27 s-1. ? A mechanism for the observed direct electron transfer reaction was proposed, which consists of a two-electron and a two-proton transfer. - Abstract: A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed for the direct electron transfer (DET) reaction of an immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode at the formal potential (Eo') of -0.439 V versus Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl. The electron transfer rate constant (ks) was calculated to be 5.27 s-1. The dependence of Eo' on pH indicated that the direct electron transfer of the GOx was a two-electron transfer process, coupled with two-proton transfer. The results clearly demonstrate that the nano-porous glassy carbon electrode is a cost-effective and ready-to-use scaffold for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor.

  9. Double strand interaction is the predominant pathway for intermolecular recombination of adeno-associated viral genomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermolecular recombination is the foundation for dual vector mediated larger gene transfer by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV). To identify precursors for intermolecular recombination, we sequentially infected skeletal muscle with AAV LacZ trans-splicing viruses. At 1 month postinfection, nearly all inputting single-strand (ss) AAV genomes were cleared out in muscle. If ss-ss interaction is absolutely required for intermolecular recombination, LacZ expression from sequential infection will be negligible to that from coinfection. Interestingly, expression from sequential infection reached ?50% of that from coinfection at the 1-month time-point in BL6 mice. In immune deficient SCID mice, expression from sequential infection was comparable to that from coinfection at the 4- and 13-month time points. Our results suggest that ds interaction represents the predominant pathway for AAV intermolecular recombination

  10. Coherent phonons in CdSe quantum dots triggered by ultrafast electron transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachtveitl J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The origin of coherent oscillations in CdSe quantum dots and in the CdSe/methylviologen electron transfer system is studied. In CdSe/methylviologen coherent phonons are triggered by the electron transfer from the quantum dot to methylviologen.

  11. Concerted proton-coupled electron transfer from a metal-hydride complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrez, Marc; Steinmetz, Romain; Ott, Sascha; Gloaguen, Frederic; Hammarström, Leif

    2015-02-01

    Metal hydrides are key intermediates in the catalytic reduction of protons and CO2 as well as in the oxidation of H2. In these reactions, electrons and protons are transferred to or from separate acceptors or donors in bidirectional proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) steps. The mechanistic interpretation of PCET reactions of metal hydrides has focused on the stepwise transfer of electrons and protons. A concerted transfer may, however, occur with a lower reaction barrier and therefore proceed at higher catalytic rates. Here we investigate the feasibility of such a reaction by studying the oxidation–deprotonation reactions of a tungsten hydride complex. The rate dependence on the driving force for both electron transfer and proton transfer—employing different combinations of oxidants and bases—was used to establish experimentally the concerted, bidirectional PCET of a metal-hydride species. Consideration of the findings presented here in future catalyst designs may lead to more-efficient catalysts.

  12. Concerted proton-coupled electron transfer from a metal-hydride complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrez, Marc; Steinmetz, Romain; Ott, Sascha; Gloaguen, Frederic; Hammarström, Leif

    2014-02-01

    Metal hydrides are key intermediates in the catalytic reduction of protons and CO2 as well as in the oxidation of H2. In these reactions, electrons and protons are transferred to or from separate acceptors or donors in bidirectional protoncoupled electron transfer (PCET) steps. The mechanistic interpretation of PCET reactions of metal hydrides has focused on the stepwise transfer of electrons and protons. A concerted transfer may, however, occur with a lower reaction barrier and therefore proceed at higher catalytic rates. Here we investigate the feasibility of such a reaction by studying the oxidation–deprotonation reactions of a tungsten hydride complex. The rate dependence on the driving force for both electron transfer and proton transfer—employing different combinations of oxidants and bases—was used to establish experimentally the concerted, bidirectional PCET of a metal-hydride species. Consideration of the findings presented here in future catalyst designs may lead to more-efficient catalysts. PMID:25615667

  13. Electron transfer reactions of macrocyclic compounds of cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1978-08-01

    The kinetics and mechanisms of reduction of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Br/sub 2/, and I/sub 2/ by various macrocyclic tetraaza complexes of cobalt(II), including Vitamin B/sub 12r/, were studied. The synthetic macrocycles studied were all 14-membered rings which varied in the degree of unsaturation,substitution of methyl groups on the periphery of the ring, and substitution within the ring itself. Scavenging experiments demonstrated that the reductions of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ produce free hydroxyl radicals only in the case of Co((14)ane)/sup 2 +/ but with none of the others. In the latter instances apparently H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ simultaneously oxidizes the metal center and the ligand. The reductions of Br/sub 2/ and I/sub 2/ produce an aquohalocobalt(III) product for all reductants (except B/sub 12r/ + Br/sub 2/, which was complicated by bromination of the corrin ring). The mechanism of halogen reduction was found to involve rate-limiting inner-sphere electron transfer from cobalt to halogen to produce a dihalide anion coordinated to the cobalt center. This intermediate subsequently decomposes in rapid reactions to halocobalt(III) and halogen atom species or reacts with another cobalt(II) center to give two molecules of halocobalt(III). The reductions of halomethylcobaloximes and related compounds and diamminecobaloxime by Cr/sup 2 +/ were also studied. The reaction was found to be biphasic in all cases with the reaction products being halomethane (for the halomethylcobaloximes), Co/sup 2 +/ (in less than 100 percent yield), a Cr(III)-dimethylglyoxime species, a small amount of free dmgH/sub 2/, and a highly-charged species containing both cobalt and chromium. The first-stage reaction occurs with a stoichiometry of 1:1 producing an intermediate with an absorption maximum at 460 nm for all starting reagents. The results were interpreted in terms of inner-sphere coordination of the cobaloxime to the Cr(II) and electron transfer through the oxime N-O bond.

  14. ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER: EXPLORING THE DIFFICULTIES OF SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MPAKWANA ANNASTACIA MTHEMBU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Generally the banking laws, regulations and supervision were designed primarily to address the fundamental principle relating to safe and sound business practices by financial institutions. In order to maintain safe and sound business practice it is of outmost importance that customers are protected against losses resulting from inadequate remedies available to them. Banking by its very nature is a high risk business. However, the major risks associated with banking are legal risks, credit interest rates and liquidity. Internet banking has increased some of these risks by creating new ones. Electronic funds transfers are based on technology which by its nature is designed to extend the geographical reach of banks and customers. This kind of a market expansion extend beyond borders, therefore there will be problems which banks will try to avoid like regulation and supervision. Other regulatory and legal risks include, the uncertainty about legal requirements in some countries and jurisdiction ambiguities regarding the responsibilities of different national authorities. Customers and banks may be exposed to legal risks associated with non-compliance with different national laws and regulations including consumer protection laws, record keeping and report requirements. Due to insecurity created by electronic funds transfer, it of importance to analyse measures under South African Law and whether these measures can effectively prevent insecurity and what lessons can be learned from abroad.

  15. Amperometric enzyme biosensors based on optimised electron-transfer pathways and non-manual immobilisation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2002-02-01

    Development of reagentless biosensors implies the tight and functional immobilisation of biological recognition elements on transducer surfaces. Specifically, in the case of amperometric enzyme electrodes, electron-transfer pathways between the immobilised redox protein and the electrode surface have to be established allowing a fast electron transfer concomitantly avoiding free-diffusing redox species. Based on the specific nature of different redox proteins and non-manual immobilisation procedures possible biosensor designs are discussed, namely biosensors based on (i) direct electron transfer between redox proteins and electrodes modified with self-assembled monolayers; (ii) anisotropic orientation of redox proteins at monolayer-modified electrodes; (iii) electron-transfer cascades via redox hydrogels; and (iv) electron-transfer via conducting polymers. PMID:11996220

  16. The microwave-look into the photo electrode: What can we learn about interfacial electron transfer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By combining photo-electrochemical and photo-induced microwave conductivity measurements, information on potential dependent minority charge carrier accumulation, on interfacial minority carrier concentration and on interfacial charge transfer rates can be obtained. It suggests a correlation between electron transfer processes and accumulated charge carriers dominated by non-equilibrium conditions. This is inconsistent with the general assumptions leading to the classical Marcus-Gerischer electron transfer at electrodes, conceived for weak interaction, quasi-equilibrium and absence of polarisability effects. It is considered only to be applicable in special situations. A non-linear interfacial electron transfer theory, the properties of which are outlined, will on the other hand open the potential for new phenomena. They include faster (stimulated), and cooperative electron transfer. The latter, which is excluded by the classical theory, requires non linear dynamic feedback polarisability, which will have to be developed on the basis of structural-electronic considerations for semiconductor interfaces to become highly catalytic

  17. Application of the density matrix method to the primary electron transfer in photosynthetic reaction centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, M.; Fujimura, Y. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry); Yeh, C.Y.; Lin, S.H. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (USA). Dept. of Chemistry Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Center for the Study of Early Events in Photosynthesis)

    1990-11-15

    The ultrafast time evolution of the primary electron transfer processes in photosynthetic reaction centers is theoretically studied by consideration of protein-induced and direct mechanisms in the density matrix method. The effective Liouvillian for the primary electron transfer processes in the pigment molecules is derived by projecting out the variables of the protein subunits. The protein-induced and direct electron transfer mechanisms are considered through the imaginary and real parts of the effective Liouvillian respectively. The model calculations of the population changes in the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis show that the protein-induced electron transfer mechanism plays an important role in the primary electron transfer processes. The model calculation is carried out without invoking the adiabatic approximation, i.e. stationary approximation of the off-diagonal density matrix elements. (orig.).

  18. 77 FR 50243 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...time period to cancel a transfer extends beyond the date upon which a remittance transfer...among providers or to make spending, budgeting, or other financial decisions. However...used by consumers [[Page 50282

  19. Protein dynamics and electron transfer: Electronic decoherence and non-Condon effects

    OpenAIRE

    Skourtis, Spiros S.; Balabin, Ilya A.; Kawatsu, Tsutomu; Beratan, David N.

    2005-01-01

    We compute the autocorrelation function of the donor-acceptor tunneling matrix element ?TDA(t)TDA(0)? for six Ru-azurin derivatives. Comparison of this decay time to the decay time of the time-dependent Franck-Condon factor {computed by Rossky and coworkers [Lockwood, D. M., Cheng, Y.-K. & Rossky, P. J. (2001) Chem. Phys. Lett. 345, 159-165]} reveals the extent to which non-Condon effects influence the electron-transfer rate. ?TDA(t)TDA(0)? is studied as a function of donor-acceptor d...

  20. Harvesting and Electron-Exchange Energy Transfer by d0 Metallocene-Based Organized Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukova G.V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution will provide an up-to-date overview of novel experimental and theoretical (derived quantum-chemically knowledge on photonics of group IV metallocene-based systems, also with respect to their prominent use in catalysis and photoluminescent sensor activity. We have developed photophysical approach to study measurable properties of the frontier MOs of the complexes, estimate orbital nature of rare long-lived ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT excited states and also supramolecular interactions between basic components of catalytic systems for polymerization: d0-metal complexes and unsaturated hydrocarbon substrates in fluid systems. In the similar way, the photophysical approach is highlighted to enable studying fine intermolecular interactions in homogeneous systems with low (catalytic concentrations of metal complexes that cannot be achieved by other conventional methods.

  1. Electron transfer precedes ATP hydrolysis during nitrogenase catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Simon; Danyal, Karamatullah; Shaw, Sudipta; Lytle, Anna K; Dean, Dennis R; Hoffman, Brian M; Antony, Edwin; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2013-10-01

    The biological reduction of N2 to NH3 catalyzed by Mo-dependent nitrogenase requires at least eight rounds of a complex cycle of events associated with ATP-driven electron transfer (ET) from the Fe protein to the catalytic MoFe protein, with each ET coupled to the hydrolysis of two ATP molecules. Although steps within this cycle have been studied for decades, the nature of the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and ET, in particular the order of ET and ATP hydrolysis, has been elusive. Here, we have measured first-order rate constants for each key step in the reaction sequence, including direct measurement of the ATP hydrolysis rate constant: kATP = 70 s(-1), 25 °C. Comparison of the rate constants establishes that the reaction sequence involves four sequential steps: (i) conformationally gated ET (kET = 140 s(-1), 25 °C), (ii) ATP hydrolysis (kATP = 70 s(-1), 25 °C), (iii) Phosphate release (kPi = 16 s(-1), 25 °C), and (iv) Fe protein dissociation from the MoFe protein (kdiss = 6 s(-1), 25 °C). These findings allow completion of the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the Fe protein, showing that the energy of ATP binding and protein-protein association drive ET, with subsequent ATP hydrolysis and Pi release causing dissociation of the complex between the Fe(ox)(ADP)2 protein and the reduced MoFe protein. PMID:24062462

  2. Combined influences of electronic structure, solvent energetics and solvent dynamics on electron transfer kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms of electron transfer reactions are analyzed theoretically, with particular emphasis on the role of electronic structure and the manner in which its influence may be affected by energetic and dynamical properties of the medium in which the reaction occurs. Theoretical techniques are developed both for calculating and interpreting the extent of donor/acceptor coupling in terms of superexchange models. The role of solvent is studied in a variety of ways, including the use of (1) supermolecule clusters containing inner-shell solvent, (2) continuum reaction field models, and (3) classical molecular dynamics simulation of solvated ions. Electronic structure computations based on ab initio or semi-empirical (INDO) orbital models have been applied to redox processes involving metal ions complexed to various ligends, including the porphyrin macrocyle. Studies of metallocene/metallocinium (Cp2M/Cp2M+) redox pairs have identified an interesting mechanistic contrast for the cases of M = Fe and M = Co, which are found to be controlled, respectively, by superxchange mechanisms of the electron and hole type. The electronic coupling was demonstrated to conform quantiatively (to within 95%) to a 1-electron model. The electronic coupling is also strongly-dependent on relative orientation of reactants, and the relative energetics of these oreintations are in turn, strongly influenced by the nature of the medium. Analysis of the properties of the medium. Analysis of the properties of aqueous ferrous and ferric ions in terms of equilibrium H/D isotope effects have been carried out by exploiting classical molecular dynamics techniques, in conjunction with the MFE supercomputing facilities

  3. On the theory of electron transfer reactions at semiconductor/liquid interfaces. II. A free electron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi Qin; Marcus, R. A.

    2000-10-01

    Electron transfer reactions at semiconductor/liquid interfaces are studied using the Fermi Golden rule and a free electron model for the semiconductor and the redox molecule. Bardeen's method is adapted to calculate the coupling matrix element between the molecular and semiconductor electronic states where the effective electron mass in the semiconductor need not equal the actual electron mass. The calculated maximum electron transfer rate constants are compared with the experimental results as well as with the theoretical results obtained in Part I using tight-binding calculations. The results, which are analytic for an s-electron in the redox agent and reduced to a quadrature for pz- and dz2-electrons, add to the insight of the earlier calculations.

  4. Investigating the mechanism of thylakoid direct electron transfer for photocurrent generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioanodes incorporating thylakoids from spinach were studied to determine the mechanism of direct electron transfer to carbon electrodes. These electrodes generated a photocurrent of 0.43 ± 0.02 ?A/cm2. The change in this photocurrent was measured when individual components of thylakoids were removed, inhibited, or activated in order to determine which components contributed to the photocurrent. The results indicate that photosystems I and II, plastoquinone, cytochrome b6f, and plastocyanin are involved in the direct electron transfer mechanism and both electron transport pathways in photosynthesis (cyclic and noncyclic) contribute to the photocurrent. One of the benefits to using an organelle as a biocatalyst is the possibility for multiple electron transfer pathways at the electrode surface. The reported thylakoid electrodes show a contribution of electrons from the first five electron transfer steps in photosynthesis with only the last two steps not participating

  5. A Comparison of Electron-Transfer Dynamics inIonic Liquids and Neutral Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wishart J. F.; Lee, H.Y.; Issa, J.B.; Isied, S.S.; Castner, Jr., E.W.; Pan, Y.; Hussey, C.L.; Lee, K.S.

    2012-03-01

    The effect of ionic liquids on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a donor-bridge-acceptor system is examined for two ionic liquid solvents, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide. The results are compared with those for the same system in methanol and acetonitrile solution. Electron-transfer rates were measured using time-resolved fluorescence quenching for the donor-bridge-acceptor system comprising a 1-N,1-N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine donor, a proline bridge, and a coumarin 343 acceptor. The photoinduced electron-transfer processes are in the inverted regime (-{Delta}G > {lambda}) in all four solvents, with driving forces of -1.6 to -1.9 eV and estimated reorganization energies of about 1.0 eV. The observed electron-transfer kinetics have broadly distributed rates that are generally slower in the ionic liquids compared to the neutral solvents, which also have narrower rate distributions. To describe the broad distributions of electron-transfer kinetics, we use two different models: a distribution of exponential lifetimes and a discrete sum of exponential lifetimes. Analysis of the donor-acceptor electronic coupling shows that for ionic liquids this intramolecular electron-transfer reaction should be treated using a solvent-controlled electron-transfer model.

  6. Electron-transfer acceleration investigated by time resolved infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vl?ek, Antonín; Kvapilová, Hana; Towrie, Michael; Záliš, Stanislav

    2015-03-17

    Ultrafast electron transfer (ET) processes are important primary steps in natural and artificial photosynthesis, as well as in molecular electronic/photonic devices. In biological systems, ET often occurs surprisingly fast over long distances of several tens of angströms. Laser-pulse irradiation is conveniently used to generate strongly oxidizing (or reducing) excited states whose reactions are then studied by time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. While photoluminescence decay and UV-vis absorption supply precise kinetics data, time-resolved infrared absorption (TRIR) and Raman-based spectroscopies have the advantage of providing additional structural information and monitoring vibrational energy flows and dissipation, as well as medium relaxation, that accompany ultrafast ET. We will discuss three cases of photoinduced ET involving the Re(I)(CO)3(N,N) moiety (N,N = polypyridine) that occur much faster than would be expected from ET theories. [Re(4-N-methylpyridinium-pyridine)(CO)3(N,N)](2+) represents a case of excited-state picosecond ET between two different ligands that remains ultrafast even in slow-relaxing solvents, beating the adiabatic limit. This is caused by vibrational/solvational excitation of the precursor state and participation of high-frequency quantum modes in barrier crossing. The case of Re-tryptophan assemblies demonstrates that excited-state Trp ? *Re(II) ET is accelerated from nanoseconds to picoseconds when the Re(I)(CO)3(N,N) chromophore is appended to a protein, close to a tryptophan residue. TRIR in combination with DFT calculations and structural studies reveals an interaction between the N,N ligand and the tryptophan indole. It results in partial electronic delocalization in the precursor excited state and likely contributes to the ultrafast ET rate. Long-lived vibrational/solvational excitation of the protein Re(I)(CO)3(N,N)···Trp moiety, documented by dynamic IR band shifts, could be another accelerating factor. The last discussed process, back-ET in a porphyrin-Re(I)(CO)3(N,N) dyad, demonstrates that formation of a hot product accelerates highly exergonic ET in the Marcus inverted region. Overall, it follows that ET can be accelerated by enhancing the electronic interaction and by vibrational excitation of the reacting system and its medium, stressing the importance of quantum nuclear dynamics in ET reactivity. These effects are experimentally accessible by time-resolved vibrational spectroscopies (IR, Raman) in combination with quantum chemical calculations. It is suggested that structural dynamics play different mechanistic roles in light-triggered ET involving electronically excited donors or acceptors than in ground-state processes. While TRIR spectroscopy is well suitable to elucidate ET processes on a molecular-level, transient 2D-IR techniques combining optical and two IR (or terahertz) laser pulses present future opportunities for investigating, driving, and controlling ET. PMID:25699661

  7. Structural, dynamic, and energetic aspects of long-range electron transfer in photosynthetic reaction centers

    OpenAIRE

    Kriegl, Jan M.; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer within proteins plays an essential role in biological energy transduction. Electron donor and acceptor cofactors are bound in the protein matrix at specific locations, and protein–cofactor interactions as well as protein conformational changes can markedly influence the electron transfer rates. To assess these effects, we have investigated charge recombination from the primary quinone acceptor to the special pair bacteriochlorophyll dimer in wild-type reacti...

  8. Influence of intermolecular order at the interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sehati, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis covers a range of different surfaces and interfaces of organic molecules/polymers and metallic materials. It is of vita importance to understand how charge transfer processes and other electrical interactions existing at physisorped contacts can influence the electronic structure at an interface. Hence our mission in these studies was to understand the physics happening at the aforementioned surfaces and interfaces of relevance to electronic devices, mainly s...

  9. Ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulation of electron transfer process: Fractional electron approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiancheng; Hu, Hao; Hu, Xiangqian; Cohen, Aron J.; Yang, Weitao

    2008-03-01

    Electron transfer (ET) reactions are one of the most important processes in chemistry and biology. Because of the quantum nature of the processes and the complicated roles of the solvent, theoretical study of ET processes is challenging. To simulate ET processes at the electronic level, we have developed an efficient density functional theory (DFT) quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical (MM) approach that uses the fractional number of electrons as the order parameter to calculate the redox free energy of ET reactions in solution. We applied this method to study the ET reactions of the aqueous metal complexes Fe(H2O)62+/3+ and Ru(H2O)62+/3+. The calculated oxidation potentials, 5.82 eV for Fe(II/III) and 5.14 eV for Ru(II/III), agree well with the experimental data, 5.50 and 4.96 eV, for iron and ruthenium, respectively. Furthermore, we have constructed the diabatic free energy surfaces from histogram analysis based on the molecular dynamics trajectories. The resulting reorganization energy and the diabatic activation energy also show good agreement with experimental data. Our calculations show that using the fractional number of electrons (FNE) as the order parameter in the thermodynamic integration process leads to efficient sampling and validate the ab initio QM/MM approach in the calculation of redox free energies.

  10. Specific intermolecular interactions of organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Baev, Alexei K

    2012-01-01

    This volume sets out the development of the thermodynamic theory of specific intermolecular interactions for a wide spectrum of organic compounds, laying down the framework of an unconventional approach to H-bonding based on a pentacoordinate carbon atom.

  11. Photoinduced electron transfer in fullerene triads bearing pyrene and fluorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photochemical properties of pyrene and fluorene appended fulleropyrrolidine triads (AH1-C60-AH2; AH1=pyrene and fluorene; AH2=naphthalene and phenyl) are reported. Electrochemical studies using cyclic voltammetry technique and DFT calculations at B3LYP/3-21G(*) method revealed that the charge-separated states in pyrene and fluorene appended triads are pyrenedot+-C60dot-AH2 and fluorenedot+-C60dot-AH2, respectively; however, no such charge-separated states could be established for naphthalene and phenyl appended triads. As demonstrated from the time resolved fluorescence, upon excitation of AH moiety in nonpolar solvents, energy transfer predominantly occurred from the singlet excited fluorophore to the C60 moiety, whereas in polar DMF charge-separation also contributed to the fluorescence quenching. Additionally, charge separation also occurred from the singlet excited C60 to the pyrene or fluorene entities of the triads in DMF. The rates and quantum yields of charge separation obtained by time-resolved emission studies were around 109s-1 and 0.9-0.6 for pyrene-C60-AH2 and fluorene-C60-AH2 triads. Nanosecond transient absorption spectral studies performed by using 355nm laser light on the triads, exhibited transient bands corresponding to thibited transient bands corresponding to the C60dot- and pyrenedot+ or fluorenedot+, thus establishing the occurrence of electron transfer in these triads in DMF. The rates of charge recombination obtained by monitoring the decay of the C60dot- were found to be around 106s-1 in DMF which resulted in the lifetimes of the radical ion pairs up to 1000ns indicating charge stabilization in pyrene-C60-AH2 and fluorene-C60-AH2 triads. The formations of long-lived charge-separated states, pyrenedot+-C60d'ot-AH2 and fluorenedot+-C60dot-AH2 in DMF, were rationalized by evaluating the Marcus parameters from the temperature dependence of the charge-recombination rate constants

  12. Role of ligand substitution on long-range electron transfer in azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Jeuken, L J

    2000-01-01

    Azurin contains two potential redox sites, a copper centre and, at the opposite end of the molecule, a cystine disulfide (RSSR). Intramolecular electron transfer between a pulse radiolytically produced RSSR- radical anion and the blue Cu(II) ion was studied in a series of azurins in which single-site mutations were introduced into the copper ligand sphere. In the Met121His mutant, the rate constant for intramolecular electron transfer is half that of the corresponding wild-type azurin. In the His46Gly and His117Gly mutants, a water molecule is co-ordinated to the copper ion when no external ligands are added. Both these mutants also exhibit slower intramolecular electron transfer than the corresponding wild-type azurin. However, for the His117Gly mutant in the presence of excess imidazole, an azurin-imidazole complex is formed and the intramolecular electron-transfer rate increases considerably, becoming threefold faster than that observed in the native protein. Activation parameters for all these electron-transfer processes were determined and combined with data from earlier studies on intramolecular electron transfer in wild-type and single-site-mutated azurins. A linear relationship between activation enthalpy and activation entropy was observed. These results are discussed in terms of reorganization energies, driving force and possible electron-transfer pathways.

  13. Diameter selective electron transfer from encapsulated ferrocenes to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, Yoko; Suzuki, Hironori; Tange, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Toshiya

    2014-10-01

    The diameter selective photoluminescence quenching of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is observed upon ferrocene encapsulation, which can be attributed to electron transfer from the encapsulated ferrocenes to the SWCNTs. Interestingly, the dependence of the electron transfer process on the nanotube diameter is governed by the molecular orientation of the ferrocenes in the SWCNT rather than the reduction potentials of the SWCNT.The diameter selective photoluminescence quenching of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is observed upon ferrocene encapsulation, which can be attributed to electron transfer from the encapsulated ferrocenes to the SWCNTs. Interestingly, the dependence of the electron transfer process on the nanotube diameter is governed by the molecular orientation of the ferrocenes in the SWCNT rather than the reduction potentials of the SWCNT. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Calculated binding energies of FeCp2@SWCNTs and additional spectroscopic characterization are described in ESI. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04398g

  14. Double- and single-electron transfer in H++K collisions from 0.3 to 4keV: Separation of direct double transfer and two-step successive single-electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double-electron transfer and two-step single-electron transfer in collisions of proton with potassium-metal target are measured in the collision energy from 0.3 to 4 keV by using a charge-inversion mass spectrometry. Two prominent H- ion peaks are observed with different values of the energy loss and show different target density dependences. The peak with larger energy loss is identified as double-electron transfer and the other as two-step successive single-electron transfer from the analysis of the target density dependence. The two-step single-electron transfer is considered to occur as the process accompanying spontaneous Ly-? emission, followed by negative H- formation. A theoretical analysis is also carried out, and the single-electron transfer cross section obtained is found to be in excellent agreement with the present measurement, while the present measurement for double-electron transfer is found to be much smaller than those evaluated earlier and the present theory

  15. Modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency of electron bombarded charge coupled device detector for low energy electrons.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horá?ek, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 76, ?. 9 (2005), 093704:1-6. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA202/03/1575 Keywords : electron bombarded CCD * modulation transfer function * detective quantum efficiency Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2005

  16. Energy transfer studies of coumarin dyes using electron pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse radiolysis studies of the triplets of four 7-amino coumarin laser dyes were carried out in benzene. Energy transfer technique was used to confirm and also to determine the characteristics of these triples. Use of these studies in energy transfer dye lasers is discussed. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  17. Experimental insights on the electron transfer and energy transfer processes between Ce3+-Yb3+ and Ce3+-Tb3+ in borate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontakke, Atul D.; Ueda, Jumpei; Katayama, Yumiko; Dorenbos, Pieter; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2015-03-01

    A facile method to describe the electron transfer and energy transfer processes among lanthanide ions is presented based on the temperature dependent donor luminescence decay kinetics. The electron transfer process in Ce3+-Yb3+ exhibits a steady rise with temperature, whereas the Ce3+-Tb3+ energy transfer remains nearly unaffected. This feature has been investigated using the rate equation modeling and a methodology for the quantitative estimation of interaction parameters is presented. Moreover, the overall consequences of electron transfer and energy transfer process on donor-acceptor luminescence behavior, quantum efficiency, and donor luminescence decay kinetics are discussed in borate glass host. The results in this study propose a straight forward approach to distinguish the electron transfer and energy transfer processes between lanthanide ions in dielectric hosts, which is highly advantageous in view of the recent developments on lanthanide doped materials for spectral conversion, persistent luminescence, and related applications.

  18. On the involvement of electron transfer reactions in the fluorescence decay kinetics heterogeneity of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababou, A; Bombarda, E

    2001-10-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence study of single tryptophan-containing proteins, nuclease, ribonuclease T1, protein G, glucagon, and mastoparan, has been carried out. Three different methods were used for the analysis of fluorescence decays: the iterative reconvolution method, as reviewed and developed in our laboratory, the maximum entropy method, and the recent method that we called "energy transfer" method. All the proteins show heterogeneous fluorescence kinetics (multiexponential decay). The origin of this heterogeneity is interpreted in terms of current theories of electron transfer process, which treat the electron transfer process as a radiationless transition. The theoretical electron transfer rate was calculated assuming the peptide bond carbonyl as the acceptor site. The good agreement between experimental and theoretical electron-transfer rates leads us to suggest that the electron-transfer process is the principal quenching mechanism of Trp fluorescence in proteins, resulting in heterogeneous fluorescence kinetics. Furthermore, the origin of apparent homogeneous fluorescence kinetics (monoexponential decay) in some proteins also can be explained on the basis of electron-transfer mechanism. PMID:11567101

  19. Syntrophic growth with direct interspecies electron transfer as the primary mechanism for energy exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

    2013-01-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) through biological electrical connections is an alternative to interspecies H2 transfer as a mechanism for electron exchange in syntrophic cultures. However, it has not previously been determined whether electrons received via DIET yield energy to support cell growth. In order to investigate this, co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens, which can transfer electrons to wild-type G.?sulfurreducens via DIET, were established with a citrate synthase-deficient G.?sulfurreducens strain that can receive electrons for respiration through DIET only. In a medium with ethanol as the electron donor and fumarate as the electron acceptor, co-cultures with the citrate synthase-deficient G.?sulfurreducens strain metabolized ethanol as fast as co-cultures with wild-type, but the acetate that G.?metallireducens generated from ethanol oxidation accumulated. The lack of acetate metabolism resulted in less fumarate reduction and lower cell abundance of G.?sulfurreducens. RNAseq analysis of transcript abundance was consistent with a lack of acetate metabolism in G.?sulfurreducens and revealed gene expression levels for the uptake hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, the pilus-associated c-type cytochrome OmcS and pili consistent with electron transfer via DIET. These results suggest that electrons transferred via DIET can serve as the sole energy source to support anaerobic respiration.

  20. Role of protein fluctuation correlations in electron transfer in photosynthetic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, Alexander I.; Berman, Gennady P.

    2015-04-01

    We consider the dependence of the electron transfer in photosynthetic complexes on correlation properties of random fluctuations of the protein environment. The electron subsystem is modeled by a finite network of connected electron (exciton) sites. The fluctuations of the protein environment are modeled by random telegraph processes, which act either collectively (correlated) or independently (uncorrelated) on the electron sites. We derived an exact closed system of first-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, for the average density matrix elements and for their first moments. Under some conditions, we obtained analytic expressions for the electron transfer rates and found the range of parameters for their applicability by comparing with the exact numerical simulations. We also compared the correlated and uncorrelated regimes and demonstrated numerically that the uncorrelated fluctuations of the protein environment can, under some conditions, either increase or decrease the electron transfer rates.

  1. The Role of Protein Fluctuation Correlations in Electron Transfer in Photosynthetic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Nesterov, Alexander I

    2014-01-01

    We consider the dependence of the electron transfer in photosynthetic complexes on correlation properties of random fluctuations of the protein environment. The electron subsystem is modeled by a finite network of connected electron (exciton) sites. The fluctuations of the protein environment are modeled by random telegraph processes, which act either collectively (correlated) or independently (uncorrelated) on the electron sites. We derived an exact closed system of first-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, for the average density matrix elements and for their first moments. Under some conditions, we obtain analytic expressions for the electron transfer rates. We compare the correlated and uncorrelated regimes, and demonstrated numerically that the uncorrelated fluctuations of the protein environment can, under some conditions, either increase or decrease the electron transfer rates.

  2. Toward transferable interatomic van der Waals potentials: The role of multipole electrostatics and many-body dispersion without electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bereau, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    We estimate polarizabilities of atoms in molecules without electron density, using a Voronoi partitioning approach instead. The resulting atomic dispersion coefficients are calculated, as well as many-body dispersion effects on intermolecular potential energies. We also estimate contributions from multipole electrostatics and compare them to dispersion. We assess the performance of the resulting intermolecular potential from dispersion and electrostatics for more than 1,300 neutral and charged, small organic molecular dimers. Applications to water clusters, the benzene crystal, the anti-cancer drug ellipticine---intercalated between two Watson-Crick DNA base pairs, as well as six macro-molecular host-guest complexes highlight the potential of this method and help to identify points of future improvement. Overall, the method achieves an accuracy well within sophisticated empirical force fields, such as OPLS and Amber FF03, while exhibiting a simple parametrization protocol without the need for experimental inp...

  3. On the connection of semiclassical instanton theory with Marcus theory for electron transfer in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a derivation of Marcus theory of electron transfer in solution starting from semiclassical instanton theory. The conventional semiclassical instanton theory provides an inadequate description of the electron transfer process in the inverted Marcus regime. This has been attributed to the lack of backscattering in the product region, which is represented as a semi-infinite continuum of states. For electron transfer processes in condensed phase, the electronic states in the acceptor well are bound, which violates the continuum assumption. We show by detailed analysis of the minimum action path of a model system for electron transfer that the proper tunneling coordinate is a delocalized, “bead-count” mode. The tunneling mode is analytically continued in the complex plane as in the traditional derivation. Unlike the traditional analysis where the method of steepest descent is used, the tunneling coordinate is treated as a quasi-zero mode. This feature allows including the influence of backscattering in the acceptor well and leads to the recovery of the Marcus formula for the rate of electron transfer. The results have implications on the performance of ring polymer molecular dynamics for the study of electron transfer dynamics.

  4. Density functional theory based analysis of photoinduced electron transfer in a triazacryptand based K? sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Edward A; Besley, Nicholas A

    2015-03-26

    The electronic structure and photoinduced electron transfer processes in a K(+) fluorescent sensor that comprises a 4-amino-naphthalimide derived fluorophore with a triazacryptand ligand is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) in order to rationalize the function of the sensor. The absorption and emission energies of the intense electronic excitation localized on the fluorophore are accurately described using a ?SCF Kohn-Sham DFT approach, which gives excitation energies closer to experiment than TDDFT. Analysis of the molecular orbital diagram arising from DFT calculations for the isolated molecule or with implicit solvent cannot account for the function of the sensor, and it is necessary to consider the relative energies of the electronic states formed from the local excitation on the fluorophore and the lowest fluorophore ? chelator charge transfer state. The inclusion of solvent in these calculations is critical since the strong interaction of the charge transfer state with the solvent lowers its energy below the local fluorophore excited state making a reductive photoinduced electron transfer possible in the absence of K(+), while no such process is possible when the sensor is bound to K(+). The rate of electron transfer is quantified using Marcus theory, which gives a rate of electron transfer of k(ET) = 5.98 × 10(6) s(-1). PMID:25734899

  5. Visible-Light-Driven Intermolecular [2+2] Cycloadditions between Coumarin-3-Carboxylates and Acrylamide Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zhu, Fu-Ping; Jin, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Ju; Chen, Han; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2015-07-13

    This paper reports a room temperature visible-light-driven protocol for the intermolecular [2+2] cycloadditions between coumarin-3-carboxylates and acrylamides analogs by an energy-transfer process. Using an iridium complex FIrPic as a photosensitizer and a 3?W blue LED as a light source, an array of cyclobutabenzocypyranones were prepared in moderate to excellent yields. PMID:26096526

  6. ElectronTransfer Induced Ring Opening of α-Epoxyketones: Spirodioxolane Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Nikpour

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereospecific formation of spirodioxolanes has been observed on electron transfer induced ring opening of α-epoxyketones by 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate in the presence of cyclohexanone

  7. 36 CFR 1235.50 - What specifications and standards for transfer apply to electronic records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT TRANSFER OF RECORDS...i.e. , ordered collections of data items...separate files. (c) Digital geospatial data files...document format records, digital photographic records...NARA Electronic Records Management Initiative Web...

  8. Radicals and radical ions as intermediates of electron transfer processes through peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Giese, Bernd; Eckhardt, Sonja; Lauz, Miriam; Gao, Jian; Wang, Min

    2013-01-01

    Electron transfer (ET) through peptides and proteins is a key biochemical process, which involves radicals and radical ions as reactive intermediates. We have developed an assay that allows us to study this fundamental chemical reaction.

  9. An Electron Transfer Approach to the Preparation of Highly Functionalized Anthraquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Vanelle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of highly functionalized quinones was prepared by an original reaction of 2,3-bis(chloromethyl-1,4-dimethoxyanthraquinone (6 with various nitronate anions under electron transfer reaction conditions.

  10. An Electron Transfer Approach to the Preparation of Highly Functionalized Anthraquinones

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Vanelle; Thierry Terme; Abdelouahab Beziane

    2005-01-01

    A series of highly functionalized quinones was prepared by an original reaction of 2,3-bis(chloromethyl)-1,4-dimethoxyanthraquinone (6) with various nitronate anions under electron transfer reaction conditions.

  11. Electron transfer from CO2lg-bullet- to perylene in cyclohexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2lg-bullet- formed by the reactions of the electron with CO2 in cyclohexane transfers an electron to perylene with a rate constant of 2.9 x 1010 M-1s-1. G?580nm for the perylene radical anion is 9 x 103 molecules (100 eV)-1 M -1 cm-1. The transfer of an electron from CO2lg-bullet+ to an aromatic molecule is a significant process when CO2 is used as an electron scavenger in solution where the production of excited states of the aromatic molecule is studied. 24 refs., 6 figs

  12. Electron emission for transfer ionization in 70 keV H+ on He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present experimental results for doubly differential electron emission in transfer ionization produced by H+ projectiles on a He target at 70 keV impact energy. Energy spectra were obtained at emission angles of ?=0 deg., 20 deg. and 50 deg., and compared with spectra of total electron emission, these being dominated by single ionization. A cusp-shaped emission of electrons at the velocity of the emerging H0 projectiles, and an enhanced electron emission from binary-encounter collisions are observed in the transfer ionization spectra. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  13. Electron emission for transfer ionization in 70 keV H{sup +} on He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, G.; Focke, P.; Gonzalez, A.D.; Suarez, S.; Fregenal, D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, 8400 S C de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    1999-08-14

    We present experimental results for doubly differential electron emission in transfer ionization produced by H{sup +} projectiles on a He target at 70 keV impact energy. Energy spectra were obtained at emission angles of {theta}=0 deg., 20 deg. and 50 deg., and compared with spectra of total electron emission, these being dominated by single ionization. A cusp-shaped emission of electrons at the velocity of the emerging H{sup 0} projectiles, and an enhanced electron emission from binary-encounter collisions are observed in the transfer ionization spectra. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  14. Electron transfer dynamics and excited state branching in a charge-transfer platinum(II) donor-bridge-acceptor assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, Paul A; Delor, Milan; Sazanovich, Igor V; Bouganov, Oleg V; Tikhomirov, Sergei A; Stasheuski, Alexander S; Parker, Anthony W; Greetham, Gregory M; Towrie, Michael; Davies, E Stephen; Meijer, Anthony J H M; Weinstein, Julia A

    2014-12-21

    A linear asymmetric Pt(ii) trans-acetylide donor-bridge-acceptor triad designed for efficient charge separation, NAP[triple bond, length as m-dash]Pt(PBu3)2[triple bond, length as m-dash]Ph-CH2-PTZ (), containing strong electron acceptor and donor groups, 4-ethynyl-N-octyl-1,8-naphthalimide (NAP) and phenothiazine (PTZ) respectively, has been synthesised and its photoinduced charge transfer processes characterised in detail. Excitation with 400 nm, ?50 fs laser pulse initially populates a charge transfer manifold stemming from electron transfer from the Pt-acetylide centre to the NAP acceptor and triggers a cascade of charge and energy transfer events. A combination of ultrafast time-resolved infrared (TRIR) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopies, supported by UV-Vis/IR spectroelectrochemistry, emission spectroscopy and DFT calculations reveals a self-consistent photophysical picture of the excited state evolution from femto- to milliseconds. The characteristic features of the NAP-anion and PTZ-cation are clearly observed in both the TRIR and TA spectra, confirming the occurrence of electron transfer and allowing the rate constants of individual ET-steps to be obtained. Intriguingly, has three separate ultrafast electron transfer pathways from a non-thermalised charge transfer manifold directly observed by TRIR on timescales ranging from 0.2 to 14 ps: charge recombination to form either the intraligand triplet (3)NAP with 57% yield, or the ground state, and forward electron transfer to form the full charge-separated state (3)CSS ((3)[PTZ(+)-NAP(-)]) with 10% yield as determined by target analysis. The (3)CSS decays by charge-recombination to the ground state with ?1 ns lifetime. The lowest excited state is (3)NAP, which possesses a long lifetime of 190 ?s and efficiently sensitises singlet oxygen. Overall, molecular donor-bridge-acceptor triad demonstrates excited state branching over 3 different pathways, including formation of a long-distant (18 Å) full charge-separated excited state from a directly observed vibrationally hot precursor state. PMID:25361227

  15. Observation of orientation-dependent electron transfer in molecule–surface collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, Nils; Golibrzuch, Kai; Bartels, Christof; Chen, Li; Auerbach, Daniel J.; Wodtke, Alec M.; Scha?fer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    How molecules point in space—that is, their spatial orientation—determines how they interact with their environment. Exchange of energy, photons, and particles as well as chemical reactions are all elementary processes that depend on orientation. Electron transfer reactions are of particular interest because of their importance in a remarkably wide range of phenomena. In this work, we examine electron transfer reactions at surfaces, which control the change of oxidation state in surface c...

  16. Electron transfer and photophosphorylation in mitochondria of buckwheat after irradiation of seeds with ?-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-sowing irradiation of seeds at 500 R activates the transfer of electrons by photosynthetic electron transfer path of isolated buchwheat chloroplasts in the ontogenesis and stimulates the conjugated photosynthetic phosphorilation. An increased content of NADPxH2 is observed along with an elevated level of ATP production. Intensification of oxidative phosphorilation and growth of the P/O ratio of mitochondria has been shown in the ''irradiated'' plants, together with a concomitant increase of ATPhase activity in chloroplasts and mitochondria

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Demonstrations for the Mechanism behind Enhanced Microbial Electron Transfer by CNT Network

    OpenAIRE

    Xian-Wei Liu; Jie-Jie Chen; Yu-Xi Huang; Xue-Fei Sun; Guo-Ping Sheng; Dao-Bo Li; Lu Xiong; Yuan-Yuan Zhang; Feng Zhao; Han-Qing Yu

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) share the principle of the microbially catalyzed anodic substrate oxidation. Creating an electrode interface to promote extracellular electron transfer from microbes to electrode and understanding such mechanisms are crucial for engineering BESs. In this study, significantly promoted electron transfer and a 10-times increase in current generation in a BES were achieved by the utilization of carbon nanotube (CNT) network, compared with carbon paper. The mechan...

  18. Oxygenation of methylarenes to benzaldehyde derivatives by a polyoxometalate mediated electron transfer-oxygen transfer reaction in aqueous sulfuric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bidyut Bikash; Efremenko, Irena; Neumann, Ronny

    2015-05-13

    The synthesis of benzaldehyde derivatives by oxygenation of methylarenes is of significant conceptual and practical interest because these compounds are important chemical intermediates whose synthesis is still carried out by nonsustainable methods with very low atom economy and formation of copious amounts of waste. Now an oxygenation reaction with a 100% theoretical atom economy using a polyoxometalate oxygen donor has been found. The product yield is typically above 95% with no "overoxidation" to benzoic acids; H2 is released by electrolysis, enabling additional reaction cycles. An electrocatalytic cycle is also feasible. This reaction is possible through the use of an aqueous sulfuric acid solvent, in an aqueous biphasic reaction mode that also allows simple catalyst recycling and recovery. The solvent plays a key role in the reaction mechanism by protonating the polyoxometalate thereby enabling the activation of the methylarenes by an electron transfer process. After additional proton transfer and oxygen transfer steps, benzylic alcohols are formed that further react by an electron transfer-proton transfer sequence forming benzaldehyde derivatives. PMID:25901934

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Demonstrations for the Mechanism behind Enhanced Microbial Electron Transfer by CNT Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Chen, Jie-Jie; Huang, Yu-Xi; Sun, Xue-Fei; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Li, Dao-Bo; Xiong, Lu; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Feng; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) share the principle of the microbially catalyzed anodic substrate oxidation. Creating an electrode interface to promote extracellular electron transfer from microbes to electrode and understanding such mechanisms are crucial for engineering BESs. In this study, significantly promoted electron transfer and a 10-times increase in current generation in a BES were achieved by the utilization of carbon nanotube (CNT) network, compared with carbon paper. The mechanisms for the enhanced current generation with the CNT network were elucidated with both experimental approach and molecular dynamic simulations. The fabricated CNT network was found to be able to substantially enhance the interaction between the c-type cytochromes and solid electron acceptor, indicating that the direct electron transfer from outer-membrane decaheme c-type cytochromes to electrode might occur. The results obtained in this study will benefit for the optimized design of new materials to target the outer membrane proteins for enhanced electron exchanges.

  20. Measured multipole moments of continuum electron transfer angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The velocity space distribution of electrons emitted near the forward direction from collisions involving fast, highly stripped oxygen ions with gaseous and solid targets is presented and described in terms of multipole moments of the ejected charge distribution, which permits direct comparison with recent theory. The measurements are produced by employing position-sensitive electron detection to combine emission angle definition with conventional electrostatic spectrometry. Agreement obtained between theory and distributions observed for binary continuum electron loss processes coupled with a similar multipole content observed with solid targets suggests a model of convoy electron production dominated by electron loss from the projectile within the bulk of the target. Further, the connection between multipoles of the projectile electron emission distribution in single collisions and the state of excitation of that projectile excited states may provide the basis for a probe of the state of ions traversing bulk solid matter. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Insights into proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms of electrocatalytic H2 oxidation and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, Samantha; Fernandez, Laura; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2012-09-25

    The design of molecular electrocatalysts for H2 oxidation and production is important for the development of alternative renewable energy sources that are abundant, inexpensive, and environmentally benign. Recently nickel-based molecular electrocatalysts with pendant amines that act as proton relays for the nickel center were shown to effectively catalyze H2 oxidation and production. We developed a quantum mechanical approach for studying proton-coupled electron transfer processes in these types of molecular electrocatalysts. This theoretical approach is applied to a nickel-based catalyst in which phosphorous atoms are directly bonded to the nickel center and nitrogen atoms of the ligand rings act as proton relays. The cataly c step of interest involves electron transfer between the nickel complex and the electrode as well as intramolecular proton transfer between the nickel and nitrogen atoms. This process can occur sequentially, with either the electron or proton transferring first, or concertedly, with the electron and proton transferring simultaneously without a stable intermediate. The heterogeneous rate constants are calculated as functions of overpotential for the concerted electron-proton transfer reaction and the two electron transfer reactions in the sequential mechanisms. Our calculations illustrate that the concerted electron-proton transfer standard rate constant will increase as the equilibrium distance between the nickel and nitrogen atoms decreases and as the nitrogen atoms become more mobile to facilitate the contraction of this distance. This approach assists in the identification of the favored mechanisms under various experimental conditions and provides insight into the qualitative impact of substituents on the nitrogen and phosphorous atoms. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under FWP 56073.

  2. Polynomial identities for ternary intermolecular recombination

    CERN Document Server

    Bremner, Murray R

    2010-01-01

    The operation of binary intermolecular recombination, originating in the theory of DNA computing, permits a natural generalization to n-ary operations which perform simultaneous recombination of n molecules. In the case n = 3, we use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities of degree <= 9 satisfied by this trilinear nonassociative operation. Our approach requires computing a basis for the nullspace of a large integer matrix, and for this we compare two methods: (i) the row canonical form, and (ii) the Hermite normal form with lattice basis reduction. In the conclusion, we formulate some conjectures for the general case of n-ary intermolecular recombination.

  3. Concerted electron-proton transfer in the optical excitation of hydrogen-bonded dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westlake, Brittany C.; Brennaman, Kyle M; Concepcion, Javier J; Paul, Jared J.; Bettis, Stephanie E; Hampton, Shaun D; Miller, Stephen A.; Lebedeva, Natalia V.; Forbes, Malcolm D. E.; Moran, Andrew M.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Papanikolas, John M.

    2011-05-24

    The simultaneous, concerted transfer of electrons and protons—electron-proton transfer (EPT)—is an important mechanism utilized in chemistry and biology to avoid high energy intermediates. There are many examples of thermally activated EPT in ground-state reactions and in excited states following photoexcitation and thermal relaxation. Here we report application of ultrafast excitation with absorption and Raman monitoring to detect a photochemically driven EPT process (photo-EPT). In this process, both electrons and protons are transferred during the absorption of a photon. Photo-EPT is induced by intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) excitation of hydrogen-bonded-base adducts with either a coumarin dye or 4-nitro-4'-biphenylphenol. Femtosecond transient absorption spectral measurements following ICT excitation reveal the appearance of two spectroscopically distinct states having different dynamical signatures. One of these states corresponds to a conventional ICT excited state in which the transferring H? is initially associated with the proton donor. Proton transfer to the base (B) then occurs on the picosecond time scale. The other state is an ICT-EPT photoproduct. Upon excitation it forms initially in the nuclear configuration of the ground state by application of the Franck–Condon principle. However, due to the change in electronic configuration induced by the transition, excitation is accompanied by proton transfer with the protonated base formed with a highly elongated ?H–B bond. Coherent Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of a vibrational mode corresponding to the protonated base in the optically prepared state.

  4. Effect of resonant-to-bulk electron momentum transfer on the efficiency of electron-cyclotron current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficiency of current drive by electron-cyclotron waves is investigated numerically by a bounce-average Fokker-Planck code to elucidate the effects of momentum transfer from resonant to bulk electrons, finite bulk temperature relative to the energy of resonant electrons, and trapped electrons. Comparisons are made with existing theories to assess their validity and quantitative difference between theory and code results. Difference of nearly a factor of 2 was found in efficiency between some theory and code results. 4 refs., 4 figs

  5. A new semiclassical decoupling scheme for electronic transitions in molecular collisions - Application to vibrational-to-electronic energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.-W.; Lam, K. S.; Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    A new semiclassical decoupling scheme (the trajectory-based decoupling scheme) is introduced in a computational study of vibrational-to-electronic energy transfer for a simple model system that simulates collinear atom-diatom collisions. The probability of energy transfer (P) is calculated quasiclassically using the new scheme as well as quantum mechanically as a function of the atomic electronic-energy separation (lambda), with overall good agreement between the two sets of results. Classical mechanics with the new decoupling scheme is found to be capable of predicting resonance behavior whereas an earlier decoupling scheme (the coordinate-based decoupling scheme) failed. Interference effects are not exhibited in P vs lambda results.

  6. Modeling time-coincident ultrafast electron transfer and solvation processes at molecule-semiconductor interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lesheng; Giokas, Paul G.; Kanai, Yosuke; Moran, Andrew M.

    2014-06-01

    Kinetic models based on Fermi's Golden Rule are commonly employed to understand photoinduced electron transfer dynamics at molecule-semiconductor interfaces. Implicit in such second-order perturbative descriptions is the assumption that nuclear relaxation of the photoexcited electron donor is fast compared to electron injection into the semiconductor. This approximation breaks down in systems where electron transfer transitions occur on 100-fs time scale. Here, we present a fourth-order perturbative model that captures the interplay between time-coincident electron transfer and nuclear relaxation processes initiated by light absorption. The model consists of a fairly small number of parameters, which can be derived from standard spectroscopic measurements (e.g., linear absorbance, fluorescence) and/or first-principles electronic structure calculations. Insights provided by the model are illustrated for a two-level donor molecule coupled to both (i) a single acceptor level and (ii) a density of states (DOS) calculated for TiO2 using a first-principles electronic structure theory. These numerical calculations show that second-order kinetic theories fail to capture basic physical effects when the DOS exhibits narrow maxima near the energy of the molecular excited state. Overall, we conclude that the present fourth-order rate formula constitutes a rigorous and intuitive framework for understanding photoinduced electron transfer dynamics that occur on the 100-fs time scale.

  7. 77 FR 77187 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...funds at a new exchange rate. Under the...institution fees and foreign taxes. Finally...transfer by a foreign country's...ltrif]The exchange rate used to calculate...rounding of the exchange rate; and...other local foreign taxes,...

  8. Interatomic and intermolecular Coulombic decay: the coming of age story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, T.

    2015-04-01

    In pioneering work by Cederbaum et al an excitation mechanism was proposed that occurs only in loosely bound matter (Cederbaum et al 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4778): it turned out, that (in particular) in cases where a local Auger decay is energetically forbidden, an excited atom or molecule is able to decay in a scheme which was termed ‘interatomic Coulombic decay’ (or ‘intermolecular Coulombic decay’) (ICD). As ICD occurs, the excitation energy is released by transferring it to an atomic or molecular neighbor of the initially excited particle. As a consequence the neighboring atom or molecule is ionized as it receives the energy. A few years later the existence of ICD was confirmed experimentally (Marburger et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 203401; Jahnke et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 163401; Öhrwall et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 173401) by different techniques. Since this time it has been found that ICD is not (as initially suspected) an exotic feature of van der Waals or hydrogen bonded systems, but that ICD is a very general and common feature occurring after a manifold of excitation schemes and in numerous weakly bound systems, as revealed by more than 200 publications. It was even demonstrated, that ICD can become more efficient than a local Auger decay in some system. This review will concentrate on recent experimental investigations on ICD. It will briefly introduce the phenomenon and give a short summary of the ‘early years’ of ICD (a detailed view on this episode of investigations can be found in the review article by U Hergenhahn with the same title (Hergenhahn 2011 J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184 78)). More recent articles will be presented that investigate the relevance of ICD in biological systems and possible radiation damage of such systems due to ICD. The occurrence of ICD and ICD-like processes after different excitation schemes and in different systems is covered in the middle section: in that context the helium dimer (He2) is a particularly interesting (and exotic) system in which ICD was detected. It was employed in several publications to elucidate the strong impact of nuclear motion on ICD and its longrange-character. The review will present these findings and their initial theoretical predictions and give insight into most recent time-resolved measurements of ICD.

  9. A new intermolecular mechanism to selectively drive photoinduced damages

    CERN Document Server

    Gokhberg, Kirill; Kuleff, Alexander I; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2014-01-01

    Low-energy electrons (LEEs) are known to be effective in causing strand breaks in DNA. Recent experiments show that an important direct source of LEEs is the intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) process. Here we propose a new cascade mechanism initiated by core excitation and terminated by ICD and demonstrate its properties. Explicit calculations show that the energies of the emitted ICD-electrons can be controlled by selecting the initial atomic excitation. The properties of the cascade may have interesting applications in the fields of electron spectroscopy and radiation damage. Initiating such a cascade by resonant X-ray absorption from a high-Z element embedded in a cancerous cell nucleus, ICD will deliver genotoxic particles \\textit{locally} at the absorption site, increasing in that way the controllability of the induced damage.

  10. An unprecedented self-assembled porous framework constructed by intermolecular S···S contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unprecedented self-assembled porous framework is constructed with a multi-sulfur donor molecule with ferrocenyl group (FcVET). The solvent-specific framework maintained by intermolecular S···S contacts forms one-dimensional hexagonal channels (? ? 7.5 A) filled with the solvated molecules. A careful evacuation of the solvated FcVET crystals leaves solvent-free FcVET crystals in which the identical framework structure with the same intermolecular S···S contacts is maintained. In contrast to the polar hydrogen bond donor-acceptor pairs, thiol-containing moieties are not regarded as good hydrogen bond tectons due to their insufficient polarity. On the other hand, although it is not directional, the intermolecular S···S interaction can be used in forming functional molecular assemblies as exemplified in the sulfur-rich molecular complexes of 4,5-bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene (ET) and metal-bisdithiolene complexes. These intermolecular charge transfer complexes need close contacts in solid states to exhibit electrical conductivity or magnetic properties, and the S···S interactions provide favorable interactions among the molecular components. The significant strength of this intermolecular interaction originates from a complementary electrophile-nucleophile interaction, or can be explained by a polar flattening model

  11. Electron transfer and coupling in graphene–tungsten disulfide van der Waals heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiaqi; Kumar, Nardeep; Bellus, Matthew Z.; Chiu, Hsin-Ying; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Hui

    2014-11-01

    The newly discovered two-dimensional materials can be used to form atomically thin and sharp van der Waals heterostructures with nearly perfect interface qualities, which can transform the science and technology of semiconductor heterostructures. Owing to the weak van der Waals interlayer coupling, the electronic states of participating materials remain largely unchanged. Hence, emergent properties of these structures rely on two key elements: electron transfer across the interface and interlayer coupling. Here we show, using graphene–tungsten disulfide heterostructures as an example, evidence of ultrafast and highly efficient interlayer electron transfer and strong interlayer coupling and control. We find that photocarriers injected in tungsten disulfide transfer to graphene in 1?ps and with near-unity efficiency. We also demonstrate that optical properties of tungsten disulfide can be effectively tuned by carriers in graphene. These findings illustrate basic processes required for using van der Waals heterostructures in electronics and photonics.

  12. Comparison of three methods for calculation of electron transfer probability in H+ + Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a theoretical model of ion-atom collisions where we described electron dynamics by the time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) and the ion dynamics by classical mechanics through the Ehrenfest method. We have compared three methods to calculate the probability of electron transfer during H+ + Ne collision. By discussing these issues we shall be able to understand how these methods work, what their limitations are and whether they admit of any improvements. -- Highlights: ? We have developed a theoretical model of ion-atom collisions based on TDDFT. ? We have compared three methods to calculate the probability of electron transfer in H+ + Ne. ? Electron transfer cross sections showed a good agreement with available experimental data.

  13. Effect of size quantization on interfacial electron transfer dynamics in TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Hirendra N. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Max-Born Institute for Nonlinear and Short Pulse Spectroscopy, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Interfacial electron transfer dynamics was carried out in alizarin sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with quantum size using femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. The TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been synthesized by arrested precipitation method. Electron injection dynamics were found to be multi-exponential with time constants of 100 fs, 17 ps and 50 ps. This observation was explained on the basis discreteness of the conduction band levels due to finite size effect. The back electron transfer (BET) dynamics found to be very slow as compared to the bulk system. The result gives us direct proof of non-adiabatic electron transfer reaction in a strong binding dye like alizarin.

  14. Electron transfer from sulfate-reducing becteria biofilm promoted by reduced graphene sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Zhang, Dun; Wang, Yi; Wu, Jiajia

    2012-01-01

    Reduced graphene sheets (RGSs) mediate electron transfer between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and solid electrodes, and promote the development of microbial fuel cells (MFC). We have investigated RSG-promoted electron transfer between SRB and a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The RGSs were produced at high yield by a chemical sequence involving graphite oxidation, ultrasonic exfoliation of nanosheets, and N2H4 reduction. Cyclic voltammetric testing showed that the characteristic anodic peaks (around 0.3 V) might arise from the combination of bacterial membrane surface cytochrome c3 and the metabolic products of SRB. After 6 d, another anodic wave gradually increased to a maximum current peak and a third anodic signal became visible at around 0 V. The enhancements of two characteristic anodic peaks suggest that RSGs mediate electron-transfer kinetics between bacteria and the solid electrode. Manipulation of these recently-discovered electron-transport mechanisms will lead to significant advances in MFC engineering.

  15. Modulating the electronic structure of chromophores by chemical substituents for efficient energy transfer: application to fluorone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Andrew M; Liu, Claire; Valentine, Andrew J S; Mazziotti, David A

    2014-08-01

    Strong electron correlation within a quasi-spin model of chromophores was recently shown to enhance exciton energy transfer significantly. Here we investigate how the modulation of the electronic structure of the chromophores by chemical substitution can enhance energy-transfer efficiency. Unlike previous work that does not consider the direct effect of the electronic structure on exciton dynamics, we add chemical substituents to the fluorone dimer to study the effect of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents on exciton energy transfer. The exciton dynamics are studied from the solution of a quantum Liouville equation for an open system whose model Hamiltonian is derived from excited-state electronic structure calculations. Both van der Waals energies and coupling energies, arising from the Hellmann-Feynman force generated upon transferring the dimers from infinity to a finite separation, are built into the model Hamiltonian. Though these two effects are implicitly treated in dipole-based models, their explicit and separate treatment as discussed here is critical to forging the correct connection with the electronic structure calculations. We find that the addition of electron-donating substituents to the fluorone system results in an increase in exciton-transfer rates by factors ranging from 1.3-1.9. The computed oscillator strength is consistent with the recent experimental results on a larger heterodimer system containing fluorone. The oscillator strength increases with the addition of electron-donating substituents. Our results indicate that the study of chromophore networks via electronic structure will help in the future design of efficient synthetic light-harvesting systems. PMID:25062094

  16. Local intermolecular interactions for selective CO2 capture by zeolitic imidazole frameworks: energy decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermolecular energy decomposition analysis (EDA) is reported for the binding of CO2 with zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIF) to provide a molecular level interpretation of the recent capacity and selectivity measurements of several ZIFs and to suggest a theoretical guideline to improve their performance further, using 1 nm size of organic linker fragment of the ZIFs as a target molecule. The EDA suggests that the local electronic interaction of CO2 and the substituent groups, mainly frozen density and polarization interactions with little charge transfer, is the primary binding interaction, but the electron correlation effects can be equally or more important depending on the binding geometry and functional groups. The present correlated calculations identify the preferred ZIF binding sites for various gases including CO2 to be mostly near the benzene substituent groups rather than the plane of imidazole rings. We predict that the NH2-substituted ZIF would have an enhanced capacity of CO2 as compared to the NO2-substituted ZIF that was recently synthesized and reported to be one of the materials with the best capacity results along with high gas selectivity. The present calculations may imply that the local functionality of the linking organics, rather than detailed framework structures, may be of primary importance in designing certain high capacity MOF or ZIF materials.F materials.

  17. Tuning intramolecular electron and energy transfer processes in novel conjugates of La2@C80 and electron accepting subphthalocyanines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lai; Rudolf, Marc; Trukhina, Olga; Slanina, Zdenek; Uhlik, Filip; Lu, Xing; Torres, Tomas; Guldi, Dirk M; Akasaka, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    A series of two conjugates with La2@C80 and subphthalocyanine (SubPc) have been prepared and characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry, absorption, fluorescence, and femtosecond resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The strong electron-donating character of La2@C80 is essential to power an intramolecular electron-transfer in the La2@C80-SubPc conjugates upon photoexcitation. PMID:25407560

  18. Properties of the transfer matrices of deflecting magnet systems for free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oscillation of the free electron laser (FEL) requires the high current and low emittance electron beam. The beam transport system should be achromatic and isochronous to preserve the brightness and the emittance of the electron beam. In this paper we clarify the algebraic properties of the transfer matrices of the magnetic deflection system, which is a key component in the beam transport line. (author)

  19. The effect of intramolecular quantum modes on free energy relationships for electron transfer reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ulstrup, Jens; Jortner, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    A general quantum mechanical description of exothermic electron transfer reactions is formulated by treating such reactions as the nonradiative decay of a ''supermolecule'' consisting of the electron donor, the electron acceptor, and the polar solvent. In particular, the role of the high-frequency intramolecular degrees of feedom on the free energy relationship for series of closely related reactions was investigated for various model systems involving displacement of potential energy surface...

  20. Single-molecule Mapping of Long-range Electron Transfer for a Cytochrome b562 Variant

    OpenAIRE

    Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio; Chi, Qijin; Jones, D. Dafydd; Macdonald, J. Emyr; Ulstrup, Jens; Elliott, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome b562 was engineered to introduce a cysteine residue at a surface-exposed position to facilitate direct self-assembly on a Au(111) surface. The confined protein exhibited reversible and fast electron exchange with a gold substrate over a distance of 20 Å between the heme redox center and the gold surface, a clear indication that a long-range electron-transfer pathway is established. Electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy was used to map electron transport features of the pro...

  1. ELECTRON TRANSFER IN Hg1-xCdxTe-CdTe HETEROSTRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Boebinger, G.; Vieren, J.; Guldner, Y.; Voos, M.; Faurie, J.

    1987-01-01

    Far infrared magneto-absorption experiments performed at 1.6K in HgCdTe-CdTe heterojunctions show that a two-dimensional electron gas is formed in the HgCdTe layer at the HgCdTe-CdTe interface. The electron effective masses of the two populated subbands is obtained and compared to previous theoretical calculations. The electron transfer across the interface involves deep traps in the CdTe layers.

  2. Ultrafast Dynamics of Nonequilibrium Electron Transfer in Photoinduced Redox Cycle: Solvent Mediation and Conformation Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Ya-ting; Guo, Xunmin; Yang, Yi; Liu, Zheyun; Hassanali, Ali; Song, Qin-hua; Wang, Lijuan; Zhong, Dongping

    2012-01-01

    We report here our systematic characterization of a photoinduced electron-transfer (ET) redox cycle in a covalently linked donor-spacer-acceptor flexible system, consisting of N-acetyl-tryptophan methylester as electron donor and thymine as electron acceptor in three distinct solvents of water, acetonitrile and dioxane. With femtosecond resolution, we determined all the ET time scales, forward and backward, by following the complete reaction evolution from reactants, to intermediates and fina...

  3. Electron Transfer Between Colloidal ZnO Nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Hayoun, Rebecca; Whitaker, Kelly M.; Gamelin, Daniel R.; Mayer, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal ZnO nanocrystals, capped with dodecylamine and dissolved in toluene, can be charged photochemically to give stable solutions in which electrons are present in the conduction bands of the nanocrystals. These conduction band electrons are readily monitored by EPR spectroscopy, with g* values that correlate with the nanocrystal sizes. Mixing a solution of charged small nanocrystals with a solution of uncharged large nanocrystals, e-CB:ZnO–S + ZnO–L, causes changes in the EPR spectr...

  4. Polynomial identities for ternary intermolecular recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, Murray R.

    2010-01-01

    The operation of binary intermolecular recombination, originating in the theory of DNA computing, permits a natural generalization to n-ary operations which perform simultaneous recombination of n molecules. In the case n = 3, we use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities of degree

  5. The transfer between electron bulk kinetic energy and thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By performing two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the transfer between electron bulk kinetic and electron thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection. In the vicinity of the X line, the electron bulk kinetic energy density is much larger than the electron thermal energy density. The evolution of the electron bulk kinetic energy is mainly determined by the work done by the electric field force and electron pressure gradient force. The work done by the electron gradient pressure force in the vicinity of the X line is changed to the electron enthalpy flux. In the magnetic island, the electron enthalpy flux is transferred to the electron thermal energy due to the compressibility of the plasma in the magnetic island. The compression of the plasma in the magnetic island is the consequence of the electromagnetic force acting on the plasma as the magnetic field lines release their tension after being reconnected. Therefore, we can observe that in the magnetic island the electron thermal energy density is much larger than the electron bulk kinetic energy density

  6. Electron capture and transfer ionization in collisions of H+ and He2+ ions with Fe atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crossed beam technique incorporating time-of-flight spectroscopy and coincidence counting of fast ion (atom)-slow ion collision products has been used to obtain for the first time separate cross sections for simple electron capture (charge transfer) and for transfer ionization in collisions involving Fe atoms. We have studied processes involving Fen+ formation in one-electron capture by 70-500 keV amu-1 H+ ions for n between 1 and 4 and both one and two electron capture by 37.5-360 keV amu-1 He2+ ions for n between 1 and 6. It is shown that, for the most part, total electron capture cross sections are dominated by contributions from transfer ionization processes rather than from simple charge transfer. The energy dependence of some of the measured cross sections exhibits interesting structure and the formation of the observed multicharged Fen+ ions is considered in terms of a model involving electron capture of either 4s, 3d or 3p target electrons together with electron removal through binary collisions at high velocities. (Author)

  7. Simulations of fluorescence quenching using theoretical models of energy and electron transfer in random arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulu, Laurent G.; Kozak, John J.

    A master equation is solved numerically for investigating energy transfer and trapping in two-dimensional disordered systems of chlorophylls and quinones. Quenching of the excitation occurs both by electron transfer from a chlorophyll to a neighbouring quinone and by energy transfer to self-quenching traps consisting of statistical pairs of chlorophyll molecules closer than a critical distance. The quinone concentration dependence of the average lifetime of the calculated fluorescence decay is determined for different values of the Förster transfer radius 0 and A, the microscopic electron transfer rate at 'zero distance'. Quasi-Stern-Volmer behaviour is obtained. The half-quenching concentration and the quenching rate kQ depend strongly on A; they increase little with faster energy transfer because of competing self-quenching and slow electron transfer. Our results are compared to recent fluorescence quenching data that Chauvet and Patterson obtained from real-time measurements in monolayers of chlorophyll a and vitamin K1 diluted in dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOL). Our convoluted decays fit the experimental data if A = 50-100 ns-1 and tMPH0193_images = 60-70 Å. Accordingly, kQ = 3-5 × 10-5 cm2/molecules·s. These values are in close agreement with those reported in the literature.

  8. Experimental evidence of beam-foil convoy electrons being produced by an electron transfer to the continuum mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of beam-foil convoy electrons has been a subject of many controversial interpretations and discussions. In this work, velocity distributions of electrons ejected into the forward direction from a carbon-foil target have been measured with incident proton beams of energies between 60 and 300 keV, and under the same experimental conditions as equivalent measurements recently performed in this laboratory with a He-gas target. Cusp widths are discussed as a function of projectile velocity and instrumental angular acceptance by taking fractional peak heights from the base line as well as by previously subtracting a background obtained by joining peak tails. It is concluded that neither of these procedures is valid. On the other hand, measured electron spectra can be well fitted in terms of a general parametric expression of the scattering amplitude for an electron transfer to the continuum process. The absence of a strong negative cusp skewness, as was observed with the gas target, hints in the direction of an electron loss rather than an electron capture to the continuum process. A significant background contribution that is absent for a single-collision electron transfer to the continuum process is interpreted as due to the emission of secondary electrons that are not correlated to the emerging projectiles

  9. Experimental evidence of beam-foil convoy electrons being produced by an electron transfer to the continuum mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, P.; Meckbach, W.; Garibotti, C.R.; Nemirovsky, I.B.

    1983-08-01

    The origin of beam-foil convoy electrons has been a subject of many controversial interpretations and discussions. In this work, velocity distributions of electrons ejected into the forward direction from a carbon-foil target have been measured with incident proton beams of energies between 60 and 300 keV, and under the same experimental conditions as equivalent measurements recently performed in this laboratory with a He-gas target. Cusp widths are discussed as a function of projectile velocity and instrumental angular acceptance by taking fractional peak heights from the base line as well as by previously subtracting a background obtained by joining peak tails. It is concluded that neither of these procedures is valid. On the other hand, measured electron spectra can be well fitted in terms of a general parametric expression of the scattering amplitude for an electron transfer to the continuum process. The absence of a strong negative cusp skewness, as was observed with the gas target, hints in the direction of an electron loss rather than an electron capture to the continuum process. A significant background contribution that is absent for a single-collision electron transfer to the continuum process is interpreted as due to the emission of secondary electrons that are not correlated to the emerging projectiles.

  10. Fast electron transfer through a single molecule natively structured redox protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio; Chi, Qijin

    2012-01-01

    The electron transfer properties of proteins are normally measured as molecularly averaged ensembles. Through these and related measurements, proteins are widely regarded as macroscopically insulating materials. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), we present new measurements of the conductance through single-molecules of the electron transfer protein cytochrome b562 in its native conformation, under pseudo-physiological conditions. This is achieved by thiol (SH) linker pairs at opposite ends of the molecule through protein engineering, resulting in defined covalent contact between a gold surface and a platinum–iridium STM tip. Two different orientations of the linkers were examined: a long-axis configuration (SH-LA) and a short-axis configuration (SH-SA). In each case, the molecular conductance could be ‘gated’ through electrochemical control of the heme redox state. Reproducible and remarkably high conductance was observed in this relatively complex electron transfer system, with single-molecule conductance values peaking around 18 nS and 12 nS for the SH-SA and SH-LA cytochrome b562 molecules near zero electrochemical overpotential. This strongly points to the important role of the heme co-factor bound to the natively structured protein. We suggest that the two-step model of protein electron transfer in the STM geometry requires a multi-electron transfer to explain such a high conductance. The model also yields a low value for the reorganisation energy, implying that solvent reorganisation is largely absent.

  11. Noise breaking the twofold symmetry of photosynthetic reaction centers: electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincák, R; Pudlak, M

    2001-09-01

    In this work we present a stochastic model to elucidate the unidirectionality of the primary charge separation process in the bacterial reaction centers where two symmetric ways of electron transfer (ET), starting from the common electron donor, are possible. We have used a model of three sites/molecules with ET beginning at site 1 with the option to proceed to site 2 or site 3. If the direct ET between sites 2 and 3 is not allowed and electron cannot escape from the system then it is shown that the different stochastic fluctuations in the energy of sites and the interaction between sites on these two ways are sufficient to cause the transient asymmetric electron distribution at site 2 and 3 during relaxation to the steady state. This means that overall asymmetric ET can be caused by the transient asymmetric electron distribution if there is a possibility for an electron to escape from the three-site system. To explore this possibility we have introduced a sink into the model at the end of each of the sites 2 and 3. The dependence of the asymmetry in electron transfer on the value of the sink parameter, introduced through an additional imaginary diagonal matrix element of the Hamiltonian, was investigated. Results show indeed that the unidirectionality of the electron transfer generated in the system of three molecules depends strongly on the sink parameter value. PMID:11580366

  12. A redox beginning: Which came first phosphoryl, acyl, or electron transfer ?. [Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic information available on the synthesis of prebiotic monomers and polymers will be examined in order to illuminate the prebiotic plausibility of polymer syntheses based on (a) phosphoryl transfer that yields phosphodiester polymers, (b) acyl transfer that gives polyamides, and (c) electron transfer that produces polydisulfide or poly(thio)ester polymers. New experimental results on the oxidative polymerization of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol by ferric ions on the surface of ferric hydroxide oxide will be discussed as a chemical model of polymerization by electron transfer. This redox polymerization that yields polymers with a polydisulfide backbone was found to give oligomers up to the 15-mer from 1 mM of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol after one day at 25 C. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the oligomers was carried out on an Alltech OH-100 column eluted with acetonitrile-water.

  13. Use of laser transfer processing for producing Al-Bi doped silicon electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Pablo; Otero, Nerea; Leira, Cristina; Coto, Ivette

    2013-03-01

    This work explores the combination of laser transfer and laser doping in a single process, as a way to produce highly defined, heavily doped volumes on semiconductors, to produce electronic devices. The process has been realized on mono and multicrystalline silicon by means of nanosecond laser pulses. The paper studies the mechanism of the process and the requirements in terms of beam shaping, energy levels and specific constrains of the setup to get proper dopant transfer and diffusion, as well as high compositional gradient. Bismuth is selected as n-dopant, and aluminum is used as an already well known solution for laser driven heavy p-doping on silicon. The suitability of laser transfer doping for direct writing of electronic devices is assessed in terms of transfer, melting and doping capability, and compared with other State-of-the-Art laser doping processes.

  14. Driving force dependent, photoinduced electron transfer at degenerately doped, optically transparent semiconductor nanoparticle interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Byron H; Morseth, Zachary A; Brennaman, M Kyle; Papanikolas, John M; Meyer, Thomas J

    2014-11-12

    Photoinduced, interfacial electron injection and back electron transfer between surface-bound [Ru(II)(bpy)2(4,4'-(PO3H2)2-bpy)](2+) and degenerately doped In2O3:Sn nanoparticles, present in mesoporous thin films (nanoITO), have been studied as a function of applied external bias. Due to the metallic behavior of the nanoITO films, application of an external bias was used to vary the Fermi level in the oxide and, with it, the driving force for electron transfer (?G(o)'). By controlling the external bias, ?G(o)' was varied from 0 to -1.8 eV for electron injection and from -0.3 to -1.3 eV for back electron transfer. Analysis of the back electron-transfer data, obtained from transient absorption measurements, using Marcus-Gerischer theory gave an experimental estimate of ? = 0.56 eV for the reorganization energy of the surface-bound Ru(III/II) couple in acetonitrile with 0.1 M LiClO4 electrolyte. PMID:25330285

  15. Vibrational coherence transfer in an electronically decoupled molecular dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighöfer, Felix; Dworak, Lars; Braun, Markus; Zastrow, Marc; Wahl, Jan; Burghardt, Irene; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The ring opening of a dithienylethene photoswitch incorporated in a bridged boron-dipyrromethene - dithienylethene molecular dyad was investigated with ultrafast spectroscopy. Coherent vibrations in the electronic ground state of the boron-dipyrromethene are triggered after selective photoexcitation of the closed dithienylethene indicating vibrational coupling although the two moieties are electronically isolated. A distribution of short-lived modes and a long-lived mode at 143 cm(-1) are observed. Analysis of the theoretical frequency spectrum indicates two modes at 97 cm(-1) and 147 cm(-1) which strongly modulate the electronic transition energy. Both modes exhibit a characteristic displacement of the bridge suggesting that the mechanical momentum of the initial geometry change after photoexcitation of the dithienylethene is transduced to the boron-dipyrromethene. The relaxation to the dithienylethene electronic ground state is accompanied by significant heat dissipation into the surrounding medium. In the investigated dyad, the boron-dipyrromethene acts as probe for the ultrafast photophysical processes in the dithienylethene. PMID:25797419

  16. Electronic promotion effect of double proton transfer on conduction of DNA through improvement of transverse electronic communication of base pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiying; Li, Genqin; Zhang, Laibin; Li, Jilai; Wang, Meishan; Bu, Yuxiang

    2011-10-01

    The effect of double proton transfer (DPT) on charge migration of DNA was investigated by the nonequilibrium Green's function method combined with density functional theory. The results revealed that DPT not only lowers ionization potentials, but also improves the delocalization of the localized ?-orbitals at each base moiety through adjusting energy levels and spatial distributions of their molecular orbitals. Furthermore, DPT leads to both the strengthening of the second-order interactions of the Watson-Crick H-bond zones, and the promotion of the charge transfer transitions between two pairing bases in the UV absorption spectra. Electronic transport calculations indicated that DPT can improve the charge migration along the DNA duplex for specific sequences through enhancing transverse base-to-base electronic communication. This work will provide a new insight into the understanding of DNA charge conduction which can be electronically promoted or regulated by DPT.

  17. Electronic system for the automatic transfer of data from multichannel analyzer memory to computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electronic system has been build for the automatic transfer of data from Intertechnique Multichannel analyzer Memory to HP 2116 C computer. By using a balanced twisted-pair transmission line, transfer can be made from devices separated up to 300 meters. A logic interface is associated to each apparatus. Computer manages the transmission process and indicates the errors that could happen. 4096 channels are transmitted into 17 sec

  18. Femtosecond laser field induced modifications of electron-transfer processes in Ne+-He collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the presence of femtosecond laser induced charge transfer in Ne+-He collisions. Electron transfer in ion-atom collisions is considerably modified when the collision is embedded in a strong laser field with the laser intensity of ?1015 W/cm2. The observed anisotropy of the He+ angular distribution confirms the prediction of early work that the capture probability varies significantly with the laser polarization angle.

  19. Nobel Prize 1992: Rudolph A. Marcus: theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the theory developed by Rudolph A. Marcus is presented, who for his rating to the theory of electron transfer in chemical systems was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1992. Marcus theory has constituted not only a good extension of the use of a spectroscopic principle, but also has provided an energy balance and the application of energy conservation for electron transfer reactions. A better understanding of the reaction coordinate is exposed in terms energetic and establishing the principles that govern the transfer of electrons, protons and some labile small molecular groups as studied at present. Also, the postulates and equations described have established predictive models of reaction time, very useful for industrial environments, biological, metabolic, and others that involve redox processes. Marcus theory itself has also constituted a large contribution to the theory of complex transition

  20. Incisive probing of intermolecular interactions in molecular crystals: core level spectroscopy combined with density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Joanna S; Seabourne, Che R; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A; Scott, Andrew J; Schroeder, Sven L M

    2014-10-23

    The ?-form of crystalline para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) has been examined as a model system for demonstrating how the core level spectroscopies X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) can be combined with CASTEP density functional theory (DFT) to provide reliable modeling of intermolecular bonding in organic molecular crystals. Through its dependence on unoccupied valence states NEXAFS is an extremely sensitive probe of variations in intermolecular bonding. Prediction of NEXAFS spectra by CASTEP, in combination with core level shifts predicted by WIEN2K, reproduced experimentally observed data very well when all significant intermolecular interactions were correctly taken into account. CASTEP-predicted NEXAFS spectra for the crystalline state were compared with those for an isolated PABA monomer to examine the impact of intermolecular interactions and local environment in the solid state. The effects of the loss of hydrogen-bonding in carboxylic acid dimers and intermolecular hydrogen bonding between amino and carboxylic acid moieties are evident, with energy shifts and intensity variations of NEXAFS features arising from the associated differences in electronic structure and bonding. PMID:25248405

  1. Synthesis of nickel oxides nanoparticles on glassy carbon as an electron transfer facilitator for horseradish peroxidase: Direct electron transfer and H2O2 determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, horseradish peroxidase/nickel oxides nanoparticles/glassy carbon (HRP/NiO NPs/GC) electrode was prepared by first applying nickel oxides nanoparticles on glassy carbon surface and then horseradish peroxidase immobilized on the NiO NPs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used as a diagnostic tools to identify the synthesized NiO NPs. Immobilized HRP showed an electrochemical redox behavior pertained to HRP(Fe(III)-Fe(II)) by direct electron transfer between protein and nanoparticles with a formal potential (E0') of - 55.5 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl and 141.5 mV vs. NHE) in 50 mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The anodic charge transfer coefficient (?) and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) were 0.42 and 0.75 s-1, respectively. Biocatalytic activity of HRP/NiO NPs/GC electrode for reduction of hydrogen peroxide and application to hydrogen peroxide determination was exemplified.

  2. Recent Advances in Photoinduced Electron Transfer Processes of Fullerene-Based Molecular Assemblies and Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Ito

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitized electron-transfer processes of fullerenes hybridized with electron donating or other electron accepting molecules have been surveyed in this review on the basis of the recent results reported mainly from our laboratories. Fullerenes act as photo-sensitizing electron acceptors with respect to a wide variety of electron donors; in addition, fullerenes in the ground state also act as good electron acceptors in the presence of light-absorbing electron donors such as porphyrins. With single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, the photoexcited fullerenes act as electron acceptor. In the case of triple fullerene/porphyrin/SWCNT architectures, the photoexcited porphyrins act as electron donors toward the fullerene and SWCNT. These mechanisms are rationalized with the molecular orbital considerations performed for these huge supramolecules. For the confirmation of the electron transfer processes, transient absorption methods have been used, in addition to time-resolved fluorescence spectral measurements. The kinetic data obtained in solution are found to be quite useful to predict the efficiencies of photovoltaic cells.

  3. Multiple electron transfer processes in collisions of N6+ and O7+ with methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, N. L.; Teixeira, E.; Hall, B.; Deumens, E.; Öhrn, Y.; Sabin, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Recent experiments on collision processes of O7+ and N6+ ions colliding with methane at the same velocity show unexpected differences in the fragmentation cross sections of the methane. Despite the expected similarity of these two processes, as both projectiles are hydrogenic, the mechanisms of electron transfer are different and lead to different fragmentation cross sections. In the present work, the collisions between N6+ and O7+ ions and methane are investigated theoretically at equal velocities corresponding to projectile energies of 30 and 35 keV, respectively. Electron-nuclear dynamics is used to study multiple electron transfer processes occurring in these collisions. Several multiple charge transfer probabilities are calculated and results, averaged over various orientations of the methane molecule, are reported. The collisions proceed in two stages: a fast stage of electron transfer from methane to the ion, and a much slower stage of breakup of the methane. We find and explain the intuitively unexpected result that the total charge transfer cross section for N6+ is slightly larger, but that the O7+ leaves the methane in a higher charged state with higher probability, leading to more fragmentation in the collisions with O7+ .

  4. Electron transfer across anodic films formed on tin in carbonate-bicarbonate buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impedance and steady-state data were recorded in order to study the kinetics of electron transfer between passive tin electrodes and an electrolytic solution containing the K3Fe(CN)6-K4Fe(CN)6 redox couple. Film thickness plays a key role in determining the type of electronic conduction of these oxide covered electrodes. Electron exchange with the oxide takes place with participation of the conduction band in the semiconducting film. A mechanism involving direct electron tunneling through the space charge barrier is the most suitable to interpret the experimental evidence

  5. Temperature Dependence of Electron to Lattice Energy-Transfer in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Moos, G.; Fasel, R.; Hertel, T.

    2002-01-01

    The electron-phonon coupling strength in single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles has been studied directly in the time-domain by femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. We have measured the dependence of H(T_e,T_l), the rate of energy-transfer between the electronic system and the lattice as a function of electron and lattice temperatures T_e and T_l. The experiments are consistent with a T^5 dependence of H on the electron- and lattice-temperatures, respect...

  6. Controllable Quantum State Transfer Between a Josephson Charge Qubit and an Electronic Spin Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Run-Ying; Wang, Hong-Ling; Feng, Zhi-Bo

    2015-05-01

    We propose a theoretical scheme to implement controllable quantum state transfer between a superconducting charge qubit and an electronic spin ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centers. By an electro-mechanical resonator acting as a quantum data bus, an effective interaction between the charge qubit and the spin ensemble can be achieved in the dispersive regime, by which state transfers are switchable due to the adjustable electrical coupling. With the accessible experimental parameters, we further numerically analyze the feasibility and robustness. The present scheme could provide a potential approach for transferring quantum states controllably with the hybrid system.

  7. Alternating electron and proton transfer steps in photosynthetic water oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Klauss, Andre?; Haumann, Michael; Dau, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Water oxidation by cyanobacteria, algae, and plants is pivotal in oxygenic photosynthesis, the process that powers life on Earth, and is the paradigm for engineering solar fuel–production systems. Each complete reaction cycle of photosynthetic water oxidation requires the removal of four electrons and four protons from the catalytic site, a manganese–calcium complex and its protein environment in photosystem II. In time-resolved photothermal beam deflection experiments, we monitored appar...

  8. Polarisation effects in electron transfer reactions with laser excited Na(3P) at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report new experimental data for the investigation of the role of electronic orbital alignment and orientation in charge transfer processes, in the medium energy range where the collision velocity vc and the velocity of the active electron ve are of the same order of magnitude. The results obtained for the H2+-Na(3p) and He+-Na(3p) collisions are discussed in comparison with the experimental and theoretical findings obtained for the H+-Na(3p) system. Recent time-of-flight measurements for charge transfer in Li+-Na (3s and 3p) collisions are also presented. (orig.)

  9. Concerted Proton-Electron Transfer in the Oxidation of Hydrogen-Bonded Phenols

    OpenAIRE

    Rhile, Ian J.; Markle, Todd F.; Nagao, Hirotaka; DiPasquale, Antonio G.; Lam, Oahn P.; Lockwood, Mark A.; Rotter, Katrina; Mayer, James M.

    2006-01-01

    Three phenols with pendant, hydrogen-bonded bases (HOAr-B) have been oxidized in MeCN with various one-electron oxidants. The bases are a primary amine (–CPh2NH2), an imidazole, and a pyridine. The product of chemical and quasi-reversible electrochemical oxidations in each case is the phenoxyl radical in which the phenolic proton has transferred to the base, •OAr-BH+, a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) process. The redox potentials for these oxidations are lower than other phenols,...

  10. Intermolecular interaction from biorthogonal orbitals: new developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, Gaétan; Kochanski, Elise; Gouyet, Jean-François

    New developments to compute the intermolecular interaction between two subsystems are proposed. They are based on biorthogonal orbitals and second quantization techniques. Test calculations have been performed on some geometrical configurations of a water dimer and on the strongly H-bonded OH-(H2O) system. All second-order intermolecular and mixed (inter-intra) terms are included. The results are compared with previously published SAPT calculations and with MP2 supermolecule treatment. They are all generally in good agreement. However, the description of the repulsive wall is sensitive to the quality of the basis set. The choice of a suitable basis set for the strongly H-bonded system is especially delicate.

  11. DFT and time-resolved IR investigation of electron transfer between photogenerated 17- and 19-electron organometallic radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, James B.; Kling, Matthias F.; Sawyer, Karma R.; Andersen, Lars K.; Harris, Charles B.

    2008-04-30

    The photochemical disproportionation mechanism of [CpW(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} in the presence of Lewis bases PR{sub 3} was investigated on the nano- and microsecond time-scales with Step-Scan FTIR time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. 532 nm laser excitation was used to homolytically cleave the W-W bond, forming the 17-electron radicals CpW(CO){sub 3} and initiating the reaction. With the Lewis base PPh{sub 3}, disproportionation to form the ionic products CpW(CO){sub 3}PPh{sub 3}{sup +} and CpW(CO){sub 3}{sup -} was directly monitored on the microsecond time-scale. Detailed examination of the kinetics and concentration dependence of this reaction indicates that disproportionation proceeds by electron transfer from the 19-electron species CpW(CO){sub 3}PPh{sub 3} to the 17-electron species CpW(CO){sub 3}. This result is contrary to the currently accepted disproportionation mechanism which predicts electron transfer from the 19-electron species to the dimer [CpW(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2}. With the Lewis base P(OMe){sub 3} on the other hand, ligand substitution to form the product [CpW(CO){sub 2}P(OMe){sub 3}]{sub 2} is the primary reaction on the microsecond time-scale. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations support the experimental results and suggest that the differences in the reactivity between P(OMe){sub 3} and PPh{sub 3} are due to steric effects. The results indicate that radical-to-radical electron transfer is a previously unknown but important process for the formation of ionic products with the organometallic dimer [CpW(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} and may also be applicable to the entire class of organometallic dimers containing a single metal-metal bond.

  12. Self-regulation of photoinduced electron transfer by a molecular nonlinear transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Stephen D; Kodis, Gerdenis; Terazono, Yuichi; Hambourger, Michael; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L; Gust, Devens

    2008-05-01

    Organisms must adapt to survive, necessitating regulation of molecular and subcellular processes. Green plant photosynthesis responds to potentially damaging light levels by downregulating the fraction of excitation energy that drives electron transfer. Achieving adaptive, self-regulating behaviour in synthetic molecules is a critical challenge that must be met if the promises of nanotechnology are to be realized. Here we report a molecular pentad consisting of two light-gathering antennas, a porphyrin electron donor, a fullerene electron acceptor and a photochromic control moiety. At low white-light levels, the molecule undergoes photoinduced electron transfer with a quantum yield of 82%. As the light intensity increases, photoisomerization of the photochrome leads to quenching of the porphyrin excited state, reducing the quantum yield to as low as 27%. This self-regulating molecule modifies its function according to the level of environmental light, mimicking the non-photochemical quenching mechanism for photoprotection found in plants. PMID:18654524

  13. Role of 3,5-dimethyl anisole (DMA) as an electron donor in photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, S.; De, R.; Ganguly, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to reveal the nature of photoinduced bimolecular quenching reactions, e.g. electron transfer (ET) and energy transfer processes within the donor DMA and acceptor 2-nitrofluorene (2NF) molecules in polar acetonitrile (ACN) fluid solution at the ambient temperature. From the observed large negative values of ?G (the energy gap between the locally excited, LE and radical ion pair or RIP states) when one of the chromorphores was excited along with large R0 ( ˜27 Å), Förster critical transfer distance between the donor and acceptor measured from the considerable overlapping region of donor DMA emission with acceptor absorption and nearly 100% theoretical transfer efficiency ( T) value of the Förster type energy transfer the concurrent occurrences of the two processes, photoinduced ET and excitational energy transfer, were inferred. Moreover it was suggested that ET reaction within the present donor and acceptor systems is of outersphere type as evidenced from the large negative value of ?G (˜ -2.3 eV).

  14. Electron transfer kinetics in water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierk, John R.

    Water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical (WS-DSPECs) cells utilize molecular sensitizers absorbed on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes to harvest visible light, inject photoexcited electrons into the conduction band of TiO2, and finally transfer holes across the TiO2 surface to water oxidation catalysts, which in turn oxidize water to give molecular oxygen and four protons. Within the TiO2 layer photoinjected electrons are transported to a transparent conductor back contact and from there to a dark cathode to reduce protons to molecular hydrogen. WS-DSPECs offer several advantages for alternative solar fuels systems: the use of low-cost materials, tunable molecular sensitizers, and relaxed catalytic turnover requirements to name a few. Despite these advantageous features, power conversion efficiencies in WS-DSPECs are generally low. Broadly, this thesis explores the fundamental electron transfer processes that control the efficiency of these cells. Chapter 1 presents a survey of the previous literature and individually considers each component of a WS-DSPEC (water oxidation catalyst, sensitizers, electrode materials, redox mediators, and overall system design). Chapter 2 presents a novel method of preparing a WS-DSPEC that utilizes crystalline IrO2 nanoparticles directly sintered to TiO2 as a water oxidation catalyst and describes a previously unknown electron-scavenging pathway by IrO2. Chapter 3 explores how electron trapping by and proton intercalation into TiO2 controls the photoelectrochemical performance of WS-DSPECs. Chapter 4 characterizes how electron recombination with the oxidized sensitizer and electron scavenging by the IrO 2 catalyst combine to limit the concentration of conduction band electrons and by extension photocurrent in WS-DSPECs. Chapter 5 demonstrates the use of the first totally organic sensitizers for light driven water-splitting and explores how the molecular and electronic structure of a sensitizer affects the electron transfer steps of injection, recombination, and hole transfer among others. Finally, in Chapter 6 a model system that describes electron transfer between an oxidized sensitizer and water oxidation catalyst is demonstrated and provides insight into sensitizer regeneration in WS-DSPECs. Together the results in these chapters present a detailed picture of how electron scavenging, recombination, and transport combine to generate photocurrent in a fully characterized WS-DSPEC and serve as starting point for the further development of WS-DSPECs.

  15. Extracellular electron transfer mechanism in Shewanella loihica PV-4 biofilms formed at indium tin oxide and graphite electrodes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, A.; Connolly, J.O.; Woolley, R.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Marsili, E.

    2013-01-01

    Electroactive biofilms are capable of extracellular electron transfer to insoluble metal oxides and electrodes; such biofilms are relevant to biogeochemistry, bioremediation, and bioelectricity production. We investigated the extracellular electron...

  16. Negative electron transfer dissociation Fourier transform mass spectrometry of glycosaminoglycan carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Franklin E.; Wolff, Jeremy J.; Xiao, Zhongping; Ly, Mellisa; Laremore, Tatiana N.; Arungundram, Sailaja; Al-mafraji, Kanar; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-jan; Linhardt, Robert J.; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Electron transfer through gas-phase ion–ion reactions has led to the widespread application of electron-based techniques once only capable in ion trapping mass spectrometers. Although any mass analyzer can, in theory, be coupled to an ion–ion reaction device (typically a 3-D ion trap), some systems of interest exceed the capabilities of most mass spectrometers. This case is particularly true in the structural characterization of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) oligosaccharides. To adequately char...

  17. A supplemental activation method for high efficiency electron transfer dissociation of doubly protonated peptide precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Swaney, Danielle L.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Wirtala, Matthew; Schwartz, Jae C.; Syka, John E. P.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2007-01-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) delivers the unique attributes of electron capture dissociation (ECD) to mass spectrometers that utilize radio frequency (RF) trapping-type devices (e.g., quadrupole ion traps). The method has generated significant interest because of its compatibility with chromatography and its ability to: (1) preserve traditionally labile post-translational modifications (PTMs) and (2) randomly cleave the backbone bonds of highly charged peptide and protein precursor io...

  18. Controlling Photoinduced Electron Transfer Via Defects Self-Organization for Novel Functional Macromolecular Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Campi, Gaetano; Ciasca, Gabriele; Poccia, Nicola; Ricci, Alessandro; Fratini, Michela; Bianconi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The electrons transfer (ET) from an atom or a molecule, donor (D), to another, acceptor (A) is the basis of many fundamental chemical and physical processes. The ET mechanism is controlled by spatial arrangements of donor and acceptors: it’s the particular spatial arrangement and thus the particular distance and the orientation between the electron donors and acceptors that controls the efficiency in charge separation processes in nature. Here, we stress the importan...

  19. Photoinduced Reductive Electron Transfer in LNA:DNA Hybrids : A Compromise between Conformation and Base Stacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenge, Ulrike; Wengel, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Lock it, but not too much: LNA units (locked or bridging nucleic acids) in LNA:DNA hybrids lead to a negative effect on electron transfer (ET), but they also force the nucleic acid structure in the A-type double helix, which allows a better base stacking than the normal B-type and thus positively influences the ET. This result is significant for the design of nucleic acids of molecular electronics.

  20. One-electron transfer reactions of the couple NAD./NADH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-electron transfer reactions involving nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide in its oxidized and reducd forms (NAD./NADH) were studied by pulse radiolysis in aqueous solutions. One-electron oxidation of NADH by various phenoxyl radicals and phenothiazine cation radicals was found to take place with rate constants in the range of 105 to 108 M-1 s-1, depending on the redox potential of the oxidizing species. In all cases, NAD. is formed quantitatively with no indication for the existence of the protonated form (NADH+.). The spectrum of NAD., as well as the rates of oxidation of NADH by phenoxyl and by (chlorpromazine)+. were independent of pH between pH 4.5 and 13.5. Reaction of deuterated NADH indicated only a small kinetic isotope effect. All these findings point to an electron transfer mechanism. On the other hand, attempts to observe the reverse electron transfer, i.e., one-electron reduction of NAD. to NADH by radicals such as semiquinones, showed that k was less than 104 to 105 M-1 s-1, so that it was unobservable. Consequently, it was not possible to achieve equilibrium conditions which would have permitted the direct measurement of the redox potential for NAD./NADH. One-electron reduction of NAD. appears to be an unlikely process. 1 table

  1. Carrier-carrier inelastic scattering events for spatially separated electrons: magnetic asymmetry and turnstile electron transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Poniedzia?ek, M. R.; Szafran, B.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a single electron traveling along a strictly one-dimensional quantum wire interacting with another electron in a quantum ring capacitively coupled to the wire. We develop an exact numerical method for treating the scattering problem within the stationary two-electron wave function picture. The considered process conserves the total energy but the electron within the wire passes a part of its energy to the ring. We demonstrate that the inelastic scattering results...

  2. Modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency of electron bombarded charge coupled device detector for low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a thinned back-side illuminated charge coupled device chip as two-dimensional sensor working in direct electron bombarded mode at optimum energy of the incident signal electrons is demonstrated and the measurements of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are described. The MTF was measured for energy of electrons 4 keV using an edge projection method and a stripe projection method. The decrease of the MTF for a maximum spatial frequency of 20.8 cycles/mm, corresponding to the pixel size 24x24 ?m, is 0.75?-2.5 dB, and it is approximately the same for both horizontal and vertical directions. DQE was measured using an empty image and the mixing factor method. Empty images were acquired for energies of electrons from 2 to 5 keV and for various doses, ranging from nearly dark image to a nearly saturated one. DQE increases with increasing energy of bombarded electrons and reaches 0.92 for electron energy of 5 keV. For this energy the detector will be used for the angle- and energy-selective detection of signal electrons in the scanning low energy electron microscope

  3. QUANTUM CHEMICAL MODELING OF SPECTRAL PROPERTIES AND ELECTRON TRANSFER IN EXTENDED SYSTEMS.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záliš, Stanislav; Kvapilová, Hana; Kratochvílová, Irena; Šebera, Jakub; Vl?ek Jr., Antonín; Winter, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 2011, ?. 1 (2011), P1299. ISSN 1708-5284 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KAN100400702; GA MŠk LD11086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : quantum chemical modeling * electron transfer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  4. Electron transfer reaction in the Marcus inverted region: Role of high frequency vibrational modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study of the dynamics of photo-electron transfer reactions in the Marcus inverted regime is presented. This study is motivated partly by the recent proposal of Barbara et al. (J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3728, 1991) that a minimal model of an electron transfer reaction should consist of a polar solvent mode (X), a low frequency vibrational mode (Q) and one high frequency mode (q). Interplay between these modes may be responsible for the crossover observed in the dynamics from a solvent controlled to a vibrational controlled electron transfer. The following results have been obtained. (i) In the case of slowly relaxing solvents, the proximity of the point of excitation to an effective sink on the excited surface is critical in determining the decay of the reactant population. This is because the Franck-Condon overlap between the reactant ground and the product excited states decreases rapidly with increase in the quantum number of the product vibrational state. (ii) Non-exponential solvation dynamics has an important effect in determining the rates of electron transfer. Especially, a biphasic solvation and a large coupling between the reactant and the product states both may be needed to explain the experimental results

  5. Coupling of heterogeneous and homogeneous electron transfer: Transition from stability to chaotic behavior.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hromadová, Magdaléna; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Fanelli, N.; Gál, Miroslav; Kolivoška, Viliam; Valášek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 2012, - (2012), s. 72. ISSN 0872-1904. [Iberic Meeting of Electrochemistry /14./ and Meeting of the Portuguese Electrochemical Society /17./. 11.04.2012-14.04.2012, Madeira Island] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/0705; GA AV ?R IAA400400802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : electron transfer * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  6. o-Carborane as an electron-transfer mediator in electrocatalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Kohei; Inagi, Shinsuke; Kubo, Tatsuya; Fuchigami, Toshio

    2011-08-14

    Electron transfer behavior of 1,2-diphenyl-o-carborane was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). In the presence of 1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane, a significant catalytic current was observed. The macroscale electrocatalytic reduction of the dibromide using a catalytic amount (1 mol%) of the carborane mediator afforded the desired trans-stilbene in excellent yield. PMID:21720623

  7. Bibliography on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions (updated 1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following our previous compilations [IPPJ-AM-45 (1986), NIFS-DATA-7 (1990)], bibliographic information on experimental and theoretical studies on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions is up-dated. The references published through 1980-1992 are included. For easy finding references for particular combination of collision partners, a simple list is also provided. (author) 1542 refs

  8. The search for relay stations. Long-distance electron transfer in peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd, Giese,; Kracht, Sonja; Cordes, Meike

    2014-01-01

    Nature uses peptide aggregates as soft materials for electron transfer over long distances. These reactions occur in a multistep hopping reaction with various functional groups as relay stations that are located in the side chain and in the backbone of the peptides.

  9. Single-electron transfer living radical copolymerization of SWCNT-g-PMMA via graft from approach.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaisankar, S. N.; Haridharan, N.; Murali, A.; Ponyrko, Sergii; Špírková, Milena; Mandal, A. B.; Mat?jka, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 55, ?. 13 (2014), s. 2959-2966. ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP108/12/1459 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : single electron transfer * single-walled carbon nanotubes * controlled radical polymerization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.766, year: 2013

  10. Marcus Theory: Thermodynamics CAN Control the Kinetics of Electron Transfer Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd P.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is generally true that thermodynamics do not influence kinetics, this is NOT the case for electron transfer reactions in solution. Marcus Theory explains why this is so, using straightforward physical chemical principles such as transition state theory, Arrhenius' Law, and the Franck-Condon Principle. Here the background and…

  11. The impact of driving force on electron transfer rates in photovoltaic donor-acceptor blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alexander J; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Kareem, Mohanad Mousa; Ebenhoch, Bernd; Serrano, Luis A; Al-Eid, Manal; Fitzpatrick, Brian; Rotello, Vincent M; Cooke, Graeme; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2015-04-01

    The effect of acceptor energy level on electron transfer rate in blends of the polymer solar-cell material poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  12. Concerted electron/proton transfer mechanism in the oxidation of phenols by laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Carlo; Madzak, Catherine; Vadalà, Raffaella; Jolivalt, Claude; Gentili, Patrizia

    2013-12-16

    This study aimed to assess structural requirements in the enzyme/substrate interactions that are responsible for tuning the enzymatic reactivity. To better assess the role of the aspartic residue in the substrate-binding pocket of basidiomycete-type laccases, we compared the catalytic efficiency of wild-type enzymes to that of a mutant in which carboxylic acid residue Asp206 was changed to alanine. Oxidation efficiency towards phenolic substrates by laccases of Trametes villosa, Trametes versicolor and a T. versicolor D206A mutant was studied at two pH values. By the Hammett approach and Marcus analysis, we obtained unambiguous evidence that the oxidation takes place by a concerted electron/proton transfer (EPT) mechanism, and that at pH 5 (optimum pH for enzyme activity) the phenolic proton is transferred to Asp206 during the concerted electron/proton transfer process. PMID:24151197

  13. A structural basis for electron transfer in bacterial photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplet data for the primary donor in single crystals of bacterial reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas viridis are interpreted in terms of the corresponding x-ray structures. The analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance data from single crystals (triplet zero field splitting and cation and triplet linewidth of the primary special pair donor of bacterial reaction centers) is extended to systems of a non-crystalline nature. A unified interpretation based on frontier molecular orbitals concludes that the special pair behaves like a supermolecule in all wild-type bacteria investigated here. However, in heterodimers of Rb. capsulatus (HisM200 changed to Leu or Phe with the result that the M-half of the special pair is converted to bacteriopheophytin) the special pair possesses the EPR properties more appropriately described in terms of a monomer. In all cases the triplet state and cation EPR properties appear to be dominated by the highest occupied molecular orbitals. These conclusions derived from EPR experiments are supplemented by data from Stark spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rb. capsulatus. 41 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Heat transfer enhancement using Al2O3-water nanofluid for an electronic liquid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have experimentally investigated the behaviour and heat transfer enhancement of a particular nanofluid, Al2O3 nanoparticle-water mixture, flowing inside a closed system that is destined for cooling of microprocessors or other electronic components. Experimental data, obtained for turbulent flow regime, have clearly shown that the inclusion of nanoparticles into distilled water has produced a considerable enhancement of the cooling block convective heat transfer coefficient. For a particular nanofluid with 6.8% particle volume concentration, heat transfer coefficient has been found to increase as much as 40% compared to that of the base fluid. It has also been found that an increase of particle concentration has produced a clear decrease of the heated component temperature. Experimental data have clearly shown that nanofluid with 36 nm particle diameter provides higher heat transfer coefficients than the ones of nanofluid with 47 nm particle size

  15. Enhancement of excess electron transfer efficiency in DNA containing a phenothiazine donor and multiple stable phenanthrenyl base pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roethlisberger, Pascal; Wojciechowski, Filip; Leumann, Christian J

    2013-08-26

    EET grown ohm: Excess electron transfer (EET) was observed within a DNA duplex containing ?-stacked phenothiazine as an electron donor, phenanthrenes as electron carriers and 5-bromouracil as an electron trap. Increasing the number of phenanthrenyl base pairs increased EET efficiency. PMID:23873788

  16. Study of photo-activated electron transfer reactions in the first excited singlet state by picosecond and nanosecond laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picosecond laser spectroscopy has been used to study two photo-activated electron transfer reactions: - a bimolecular electron transfer reaction between a sensitizer, DODCI, and an electron acceptor, methylviologen. The two radical ions created with an electron transfer efficiency ? ? 0.07 have been identified in picosecond and nanosecond laser absorption spectroscopy by adding selective solutes such as para-benzoquinone (an electron acceptor) or L(+) ascorbic acid (an electron donor). - an intramolecular electron transfer reaction in a triad molecule consisting of a tetra-aryl-porphyrin covalently linked to both a carotenoid and a quinone. The photoinduced charge separation occurs within 30 ps and leads, with a yield of 25 pc, to the formation of a zwitterion whose half-life is 2.5 ?s. The experimental results obtained in these two studies show an effective decrease in the recombination rate of the two radical ions created in the encounter pair. (author)

  17. Ultrafast electron and energy transfer in dye-sensitized iron oxide and oxyhydroxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Katz, Jordan E.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging area in chemical science is the study of solid-phase redox reactions using ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy. We have used molecules of the photoactive dye 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) anchored to the surface of iron(iii) oxide nanoparticles to create iron(ii) surface atoms via photo-initiated interfacial electron transfer. This approach enables time-resolved study of the fate and mobility of electrons within the solid phase. However, complete analysis of the ultrafast processes following dye photoexcitation of the sensitized iron(iii) oxide nanoparticles has not been reported. We addressed this topic by performing femtosecond transient absorption (TA) measurements of aqueous suspensions of uncoated and DCF-sensitized iron oxide and oxyhydroxide nanoparticles, and an aqueous iron(iii)–dye complex. Following light absorption, excited state relaxation times of the dye of 115–310 fs were found for all samples. Comparison between TA dynamics on uncoated and dye-sensitized hematite nanoparticles revealed the dye de-excitation pathway to consist of a competition between electron and energy transfer to the nanoparticles. We analyzed the TA data for hematite nanoparticles using a four-state model of the dye-sensitized system, finding electron and energy transfer to occur on the same ultrafast timescale. The interfacial electron transfer rates for iron oxides are very close to those previously reported for DCF-sensitized titanium dioxide (for which dye–oxide energy transfer is energetically forbidden) even though the acceptor states are different. Comparison of the alignment of the excited states of the dye and the unoccupied states of these oxides showed that the dye injects into acceptor states of different symmetry (Ti t2g vs. Fe eg).

  18. Ab initio and Gordon-Kim intermolecular potentials for two nitrogen molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, Francis H.; Winter, Nicholas W.

    1980-07-01

    Both ab initio MO-LCAO-SCF and the electron-gas (or Gordon-Kim) methods have been used to compute the intermolecular potential (?) of N2 molecules for seven different N2-N2 orientations. The ab initio calculations were carried out using a [4s3p] contracted Gaussian basis set with and without 3d polarization functions. The larger basis set provides adequate results for ??0.002 hartree or intermolecular separations less than 6.5-7 bohr. We use a convenient analytic expression to represent the ab initio data in terms of the intermolecular distance and three angles defining the orientations of the two N2 molecules. The Gordon-Kim method with Rae's self-exchange correction yields ?, which agrees reasonably well over a large repulsive range. However, a detailed comparison of the electron kinetic energy contributions shows a large difference between the ab initio and the Gordon-Kim calculations. Using the ab initio data we derive an atom-atom potential of the two N2 molecules. Although this expression does not accurately fit the data at some orientations, its spherical average agrees with the corresponding average of the ab initio ? remarkably well. The spherically averaged ab initio ? is also compared with the corresponding quantities derived from experimental considerations. The approach of the ab initio ? to the classical quadrupole-quadrupole interaction at large intermolecular separation is also discussed.

  19. Intermolecular interactions of trifluorohalomethanes with Lewis bases in the gas phase: an ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Siang; Yin, Chih-Chien; Chao, Sheng D

    2014-10-01

    We perform an ab initio computational study of molecular complexes with the general formula CF3X-B that involve one trifluorohalomethane CF3X (X = Cl or Br) and one of a series of Lewis bases B in the gas phase. The Lewis bases are so chosen that they provide a range of electron-donating abilities for comparison. Based on the characteristics of their electron pairs, we consider the Lewis bases with a single n-pair (NH3 and PH3), two n-pairs (H2O and H2S), two n-pairs with an unsaturated bond (H2CO and H2CS), and a single ?-pair (C2H4) and two ?-pairs (C2H2). The aim is to systematically investigate the influence of the electron pair characteristics and the central atom substitution effects on the geometries and energetics of the formed complexes. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecule MP2 and coupled-cluster single double with perturbative triple [CCSD(T)] levels of theory have been employed, together with a series of basis sets up to aug-cc-pVTZ. The angular and radial configurations, the binding energies, and the electrostatic potentials of the stable complexes have been compared and discussed as the Lewis base varies. For those complexes where halogen bonding plays a significant role, the calculated geometries and energetics are consistent with the ?-hole model. Upon formation of stable complexes, the C-X bond lengths shorten, while the C-X vibrational frequencies increase, thus rendering blueshifting halogen bonds. The central atom substitution usually enlarges the intermolecular bond distances while it reduces the net charge transfers, thus weakening the bond strengths. The analysis based on the ?-hole model is grossly reliable but requires suitable modifications incorporating the central atom substitution effects, in particular, when interaction components other than electrostatic contributions are involved. PMID:25296807

  20. Electron Transport, Energy Transfer, and Optical Response in Single Molecule Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The field of molecular electronics has grown significantly since the first measurements of single molecule conductance. The single molecule junction, a device in which two conducting leads are spanned by a single molecule, has become a powerful tool for studying charge transfer at the molecular level. While early experiments were focused on elastic electron conductance, today measurements of vibronic effects, molecular optical response, spintronics, thermal conductance, and quantum interference and decoherence effects are prominent areas of research. These new experimental advancements demand improved theoretical treatments which properly account for the interactions between different degrees of freedom: charge, electronic, vibrational, spin, etc.; all in physically relevant parameter ranges. This talk focuses on using a many-body states based approach to investigate the regime of strong interaction between these degrees of freedom, with relatively weak coupling between the molecule and the electric reservoirs created by the conducting leads. We focused on three related processes, electron transfer, electronic energy transfer and molecular excitation. In collaboraton with Boris Fainberg, Faculty of Sciences, Holon Institute of Technology; Sergei Tretiak, Theoretical Division, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory; and Michael Galperin, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego.

  1. Distance, stereoelectronic effects, and the Marcus inverted region in intramolecular electron transfer in organic radical anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of molecules with the general structure A1-Sp-A2 have been synthesized. Pulse radiolysis was used to convert them into negative ions, and the rates of intramolecular electron transfer were measured. In the first series studied Sp is the androstane skeleton with the acceptors attached to the 3- and 16-positions. The series consisted of eight molecules with A2 = 4-biphenyl and eight different A1 groups differing in electron affinity by 2.4 eV. The electron transfer rates differ by more than 3 orders of magnitude throughout the series and depend in a very nonlinear fashion on the free energy of the reaction. The second series of molecules was designed to study the effect of the spacer which was varied from the steroid to decalins (eight compounds) and cyclohexanes (four compounds). No comprehensive distance dependence exists. Instead, the rates are strongly influenced by the donor-acceptor attachment geometry which influences the electronic coupling. For the type of spacers studied it was found that the electron transfer rates are slowed down by 1 order of magnitude for each 2.0 bonds for a constant reorganization energy

  2. Theory of ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer from a bulk semiconductor to a quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes analytical and numerical results from a model Hamiltonian method applied to electron transfer (ET) from a quasicontinuum (QC) of states to a set of discrete states, with and without a mediating bridge. Analysis of the factors that determine ET dynamics yields guidelines for achieving high-yield electron transfer in these systems, desired for instance for applications in heterogeneous catalysis. These include the choice of parameters of the laser pulse that excites the initial state into a continuum electronic wavepacket and the design of the coupling between the bridge molecule and the donor and acceptor. The vibrational mode on a bridging molecule between donor and acceptor has an influence on the yield of electron transfer via Franck-Condon factors, even in cases where excited vibrational states are only transiently populated. Laser-induced coherence of the initial state as well as energetic overlap is crucial in determining the ET yield from a QC to a discrete state, whereas the ET time is influenced by competing factors from the coupling strength and the coherence properties of the electronic wavepacket

  3. Theory of ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer from a bulk semiconductor to a quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Andrew M., E-mail: andyras@gmail.com; Ramakrishna, S.; Weiss, Emily A.; Seideman, Tamar, E-mail: t-seideman@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)

    2014-04-14

    This paper describes analytical and numerical results from a model Hamiltonian method applied to electron transfer (ET) from a quasicontinuum (QC) of states to a set of discrete states, with and without a mediating bridge. Analysis of the factors that determine ET dynamics yields guidelines for achieving high-yield electron transfer in these systems, desired for instance for applications in heterogeneous catalysis. These include the choice of parameters of the laser pulse that excites the initial state into a continuum electronic wavepacket and the design of the coupling between the bridge molecule and the donor and acceptor. The vibrational mode on a bridging molecule between donor and acceptor has an influence on the yield of electron transfer via Franck-Condon factors, even in cases where excited vibrational states are only transiently populated. Laser-induced coherence of the initial state as well as energetic overlap is crucial in determining the ET yield from a QC to a discrete state, whereas the ET time is influenced by competing factors from the coupling strength and the coherence properties of the electronic wavepacket.

  4. Influence of chemical and structural evolution of dissolved organic matter on electron transfer capacity during composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electron transfer capability (ETC) of compost-derived DOM was investigated. • Composting treatment increased the ETC of DOM from municipal solid wastes. • The ETC increase related to humic matter, and molecule weight, and N and S content. - Abstract: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can mediate electron transfer and change chemical speciation of heavy metals. In this study, the electron transfer capability (ETC) of compost-derived DOM was investigated through electrochemical approaches, and the factors influencing the ETC were studied using spectral and elemental analysis. The results showed that the electron accepting capacity (EAC) and electron donating capacity (EDC) of compost-derived DOM were 3.29–40.14 ?mole? (g C)?1 and 57.1– 346.07 ?mole? (g C)?1, respectively. Composting treatment increased the fulvic- and humic-like substance content, oxygenated aliphatic carbon content, lignin-derived aromatic carbon content, molecule weight, and N and S content of DOM, but decreased the aliphatic carbon content and the C and H content. This conversion increased the EDC and EAC of the DOM during composting

  5. Influence of chemical and structural evolution of dissolved organic matter on electron transfer capacity during composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiao-Song [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Innovation base of Ground Water and Environmental System Engineering, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Xi, Bei-Dou, E-mail: hexs82@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Innovation base of Ground Water and Environmental System Engineering, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Cui, Dong-Yu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Innovation base of Ground Water and Environmental System Engineering, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Yong [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agro-Environmental Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Tan, Wen-Bin; Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Dan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Innovation base of Ground Water and Environmental System Engineering, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Electron transfer capability (ETC) of compost-derived DOM was investigated. • Composting treatment increased the ETC of DOM from municipal solid wastes. • The ETC increase related to humic matter, and molecule weight, and N and S content. - Abstract: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can mediate electron transfer and change chemical speciation of heavy metals. In this study, the electron transfer capability (ETC) of compost-derived DOM was investigated through electrochemical approaches, and the factors influencing the ETC were studied using spectral and elemental analysis. The results showed that the electron accepting capacity (EAC) and electron donating capacity (EDC) of compost-derived DOM were 3.29–40.14 ?mol{sub e?} (g C){sup ?1} and 57.1– 346.07 ?mol{sub e?} (g C){sup ?1}, respectively. Composting treatment increased the fulvic- and humic-like substance content, oxygenated aliphatic carbon content, lignin-derived aromatic carbon content, molecule weight, and N and S content of DOM, but decreased the aliphatic carbon content and the C and H content. This conversion increased the EDC and EAC of the DOM during composting.

  6. Probing and Exploiting the Interplay between Nuclear and Electronic Motion in Charge Transfer Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delor, Milan; Sazanovich, Igor V; Towrie, Michael; Weinstein, Julia A

    2015-04-21

    The Born-Oppenheimer approximation refers to the assumption that the nuclear and electronic wave functions describing a molecular system evolve and can be determined independently. It is now well-known that this approximation often breaks down and that nuclear-electronic (vibronic) coupling contributes greatly to the ultrafast photophysics and photochemistry observed in many systems ranging from simple molecules to biological organisms. In order to probe vibronic coupling in a time-dependent manner, one must use spectroscopic tools capable of correlating the motions of electrons and nuclei on an ultrafast time scale. Recent developments in nonlinear multidimensional electronic and vibrational spectroscopies allow monitoring both electronic and structural factors with unprecedented time and spatial resolution. In this Account, we present recent studies from our group that make use of different variants of frequency-domain transient two-dimensional infrared (T-2DIR) spectroscopy, a pulse sequence combining electronic and vibrational excitations in the form of a UV-visible pump, a narrowband (12 cm(-1)) IR pump, and a broadband (400 cm(-1)) IR probe. In the first example, T-2DIR is used to directly compare vibrational dynamics in the ground and relaxed electronic excited states of Re(Cl)(CO)3(4,4'-diethylester-2,2'-bipyridine) and Ru(4,4'-diethylester-2,2'-bipyridine)2(NCS)2, prototypical charge transfer complexes used in photocatalytic CO2 reduction and electron injection in dye-sensitized solar cells. The experiments show that intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) and vibrational energy transfer (VET) are up to an order of magnitude faster in the triplet charge transfer excited state than in the ground state. These results show the influence of electronic arrangement on vibrational coupling patterns, with direct implications for vibronic coupling mechanisms in charge transfer excited states. In the second example, we show unambiguously that electronic and vibrational movement are coupled in a donor-bridge-acceptor complex based on a Pt(II) trans-acetylide design motif. Time-resolved IR (TRIR) spectroscopy reveals that the rate of electron transfer (ET) is highly dependent on the amount of excess energy localized on the bridge following electronic excitation. Using an adaptation of T-2DIR, we are able to selectively perturb bridge-localized vibrational modes during charge separation, resulting in the donor-acceptor charge separation pathway being completely switched off, with all excess energy redirected toward the formation of a long-lived intraligand triplet state. A series of control experiments reveal that this effect is mode specific: it is only when the high-frequency bridging C?C stretching mode is pumped that radical changes in photoproduct yields are observed. These experiments therefore suggest that one may perturb electronic movement by stimulating structural motion along the reaction coordinate using IR light. These studies add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that controlling the pathways and efficiency of charge transfer may be achieved through synthetic and perturbative approaches aiming to modulate vibronic coupling. Achieving such control would represent a breakthrough for charge transfer-based applications such as solar energy conversion and molecular electronics. PMID:25789559

  7. Characterization and modelling of interspecies electron transfer mechanisms and microbial community dynamics of a syntrophic association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagarajan, Harish; Embree, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Syntrophic associations are central to microbial communities and thus have a fundamental role in the global carbon cycle. Despite biochemical approaches describing the physiological activity of these communities, there has been a lack of a mechanistic understanding of the relationship between complex nutritional and energetic dependencies and their functioning. Here we apply a multi-omic modelling workflow that combines genomic, transcriptomic and physiological data with genome-scale models to investigate dynamics and electron flow mechanisms in the syntrophic association of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens. Genome-scale modelling of direct interspecies electron transfer reveals insights into the energetics of electron transfer mechanisms. While G. sulfurreducens adapts to rapid syntrophic growth by changes at the genomic and transcriptomic level, G. metallireducens responds only at the transcriptomic level. This multi-omic approach enhances our understanding of adaptive responses and factors that shape the evolution of syntrophic communities.

  8. On the theory of electron transfer reactions at semiconductor electrode/liquid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi Qin; Georgievskii, Yuri; Marcus, R. A.

    2000-02-01

    Electron transfer reaction rate constants at semiconductor/liquid interfaces are calculated using the Fermi Golden Rule and a tight-binding model for the semiconductors. The slab method and a z-transform method are employed in obtaining the electronic structures of semiconductors with surfaces and are compared. The maximum electron transfer rate constants at Si/viologen2+/+ and InP/Me2Fc+/0 interfaces are computed using the tight-binding type calculations for the solid and the extended-Hückel for the coupling to the redox agent at the interface. These results for the bulk states are compared with the experimentally measured values of Lewis and co-workers, and are in reasonable agreement, without adjusting parameters. In the case of InP/liquid interface, the unusual current vs applied potential behavior is additionally interpreted, in part, by the presence of surface states.

  9. Nitrogen doped carbon nanoparticles enhanced extracellular electron transfer for high-performance microbial fuel cells anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Chun Xian; Yong, Yang-Chun; Li, Chang Ming; Song, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen doped carbon nanoparticles (NDCN) were applied to modify the carbon cloth anodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) inoculated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, one of the most well-studied exoelectrogens. Experimental results demonstrated that the use of NDCN increased anodic absorption of flavins (i.e., the soluble electron mediator secreted by S. oneidensis MR-1), facilitating shuttle-mediated extracellular electron transfer. In addition, we also found that NDCN enabled enhanced contact-based direct electron transfer via outer-membrane c-type cytochromes. Taken together, the performance of MFCs with the NDCN-modified anode was enormously enhanced, delivering a maximum power density 3.5 times' higher than that of the MFCs without the modification of carbon cloth anodes. PMID:25439129

  10. Efficient Plasmon-Induced Hot Electron Transfer and Photochemistry in Semiconductor-Au Nanorod Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Tianquan

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that excitation of plasmons in metal nanostructures can lead to the injection of hot electrons into semiconductors and enhanced photochemistry. This novel plasmon-exciton interaction mechanism suggests that plasmonic nanostructures can potentially function as a new class of widely tunable and robust light harvesting materials for photo-detection or solar energy conversion. However, plasmon-induced hot electron injections from metal to semiconductor or molecules are still inefficient because of the competing ultrafast hot electron relaxation (via ultrafast electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering) processes within the metallic domain. In this paper we discuss a recent study on the plasmon-exciton interaction mechanisms in colloidal quantum-confined epitaxially-grown semiconductor-gold plexcitonic nanorod heterostructures. Using transient absorption spectroscopy, we show that optical excitation of plasmons in the Au tip leads to efficient hot electron injection into the semiconductor nanorod. In the presence of sacrificial electron donors, this plasmon induced hot electron transfer process can be utilized to drive photoreduction reactions under continuous illumination. Ongoing studies are examining how to further improve the plasmon induced hot electron injection efficiency through controlling the size and shape of the plasmonic and excitonic domains.

  11. Trans-membrane electron transfer in red blood cells immobilized in a chitosan film on a glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the trans-membrane electron transfer in human red blood cells (RBCs) immobilized in a chitosan film on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Electron transfer results from the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) in the RBCs. The electron transfer rate (ks) of Hb in RBCs is 0.42 s?1, and <1.13 s?1 for Hb directly immobilized in the chitosan film. Only Hb molecules in RBCs that are closest to the plasma membrane and the surface of the electrode can undergo electron transfer to the electrode. The immobilized RBCs displayed sensitive electrocatalytic response to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. It is believed that this cellular biosensor is of potential significance in studies on the physiological status of RBCs based on observing their electron transfer on the modified electrode. (author)

  12. New electron energy transfer and cooling rates by excitation of O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    Full Text Available In this work I present the results of a study of the electron cooling rate, the production rates of vibrationally excited O2, and the production frequency of the O2 vibrational quanta arising from the collisions of electrons with O2 molecules as functions of the electron temperature. The electron energy transfer and cooling rates by vibrational excitation of O2 have been calculated and fitted to analytical expressions by use of the revised vibrationally excited O2 cross sections. These new analytical expressions are available to the researcher for quick reference and accurate computer modeling with a minimum of calculations. It is also shown that the currently accepted rate of electron energy loss associated with rotational transitions in O2 must be decreased by a factor of 13.

  13. Potential for direct interspecies electron transfer in methanogenic wastewater digester aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morita, Masahiko; Malvankar, Nikhil S

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms for electron transfer within microbial aggregates derived from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor converting brewery waste to methane were investigated in order to better understand the function of methanogenic consortia. The aggregates were electrically conductive, with conductivities 3-fold higher than the conductivities previously reported for dual-species aggregates of Geobacter species in which the two species appeared to exchange electrons via interspecies electron transfer. The temperature dependence response of the aggregate conductance was characteristic of the organic metallic-like conductance previously described for the conductive pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens and was inconsistent with electron conduction through minerals. Studies in which aggregates were incubated with high concentrations of potential electron donors demonstrated that the aggregates had no significant capacity for conversion of hydrogen to methane. The aggregates converted formate to methane but at rates toolow to account for the rates at which that the aggregates syntrophically metabolized ethanol, an important component of the reactor influent. Geobacter species comprised 25% of 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from the aggregates, suggesting that Geobacter species may have contributed to some but probably not all of the aggregate conductivity. Microorganisms most closely related to the acetate-utilizing Methanosaeta concilii accounted for more than 90% of the sequences that could be assigned to methane producers, consistent with the poor capacity for hydrogen and formate utilization. These results demonstrate for the first time that methanogenic wastewater aggregates can be electrically conductive and suggest that direct interspecies electron transfer could be an important mechanism for electron exchange in some methanogenic systems.

  14. Electron transfer behavior of monolayer protected nanoclusters and nanowires of silver and gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jadab; Vivek, J P; Vijayamohanan, Kunjukrishna P

    2006-11-01

    Understanding the electron transfer behavior of nanometer sized, both metallic and semiconducting particles and wires is important due to the fundamental interest in size and shape dependent electronic properties and also because of its applications in nano-electronic devices like single electron transistors and molecular switches. Monolayer protected nanoclusters enable one simple and elegant method of synthesis of these types of metallic and semiconducting materials using interfacial chemistry as has been successfully used in several applications ranging from catalysis to molecular electronics. The success of this type of nanostructured materials is due in part to the well known protecting/stabilizing action of the ligands (also known as surface passivating/capping agents), which facilitate the synthesis and processing of these hydrophobic colloids in solution form. The present article discusses the electron transfer behavior of silver nanowires and nanoparticles with varied sizes. In particular, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of silver nanowires (diameter 70 nm, length several micrometers) and compared with the behavior of similar relatively larger sized nanoparticles (size 40 nm). A critical analysis of the redox behavior of silver nanowires and nanoparticles is presented in aqueous medium under various electrolytic conditions along with a comparison of analogous properties of smaller sized (2-7 nm) silver and gold nanoclusters. PMID:17252790

  15. Sandwiched confinement of quantum dots in graphene matrix for efficient electron transfer and photocurrent production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nan; Zheng, Kaibo; Karki, Khadga J; Abdellah, Mohamed; Zhu, Qiushi; Carlson, Stefan; Haase, Dörthe; Žídek, Karel; Ulstrup, Jens; Canton, Sophie E; Pullerits, Tõnu; Chi, Qijin

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and graphene are both promising materials for the development of new-generation optoelectronic devices. Towards this end, synergic assembly of these two building blocks is a key step but remains a challenge. Here, we show a one-step strategy for organizing QDs in a graphene matrix via interfacial self-assembly, leading to the formation of sandwiched hybrid QD-graphene nanofilms. We have explored structural features, electron transfer kinetics and photocurrent generation capacity of such hybrid nanofilms using a wide variety of advanced techniques. Graphene nanosheets interlink QDs and significantly improve electronic coupling, resulting in fast electron transfer from photoexcited QDs to graphene with a rate constant of 1.3?×?10(9) s(-1). Efficient electron transfer dramatically enhances photocurrent generation in a liquid-junction QD-sensitized solar cell where the hybrid nanofilm acts as a photoanode. We thereby demonstrate a cost-effective method to construct large-area QD-graphene hybrid nanofilms with straightforward scale-up potential for optoelectronic applications. PMID:25996307

  16. Evidence of short-range electron transfer of a redox enzyme on graphene oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marccus V A; Pereira, Andressa R; Luz, Roberto A S; Iost, Rodrigo M; Crespilho, Frank N

    2014-09-01

    Direct electron transfer (DET) between redox enzymes and electrode surfaces is of growing interest and an important strategy in the development of biofuel cells and biosensors. Among the nanomaterials utilized at electrode/enzyme interfaces to enhance the electronic communication, graphene oxide (GO) has been identified as a highly promising candidate. It is postulated that GO layers decrease the distance between the flavin cofactor (FAD/FADH2) of the glucose oxidase enzyme (GOx) and the electrode surface, though experimental evidence concerning the distance dependence of the rate constant for heterogeneous electron-transfer (k(het)) has not yet been observed. In this work, we report the experimentally observed DET of the GOx enzyme adsorbed on flexible carbon fiber (FCF) electrodes modified with GO (FCF-GO), where the k(het) between GO and electroactive GOx has been measured at a structurally well-defined interface. The curves obtained from the Marcus theory were used to obtain k(het), by using the model proposed by Chidsey. In agreement with experimental data, this model proved to be useful to systematically probe the dependence of electron transfer rates on distance, in order to provide an empirical basis to understand the origin of interfacial DET between GO and GOx. We also demonstrate that the presence of GO at the enzyme/electrode interface diminishes the activation energy by decreasing the distance between the electrode surface and FAD/FADH2. PMID:24676540

  17. NI (II AND PB (II INHIBIT THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF DNA IN AN ELECTRON TRANSFER REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B FARZAMI

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ni and Pb are metals with several suggested mechanisms for their toxicity on the biological systems. We have recently investigated involvement of DNA in an electron transfer reaction as an enzyme. In this reaction non- fluorescent dichlorofluorescin (LDCF is converted to the dichlorofluorescein (DCF in the presence of peroxides and hematin. Methods. The fluorometric technique was used in this study. The pH effect on the reaction rate was investigated. The results showed that DCF has the maximum emission on tris buffer 0.05 Mat pH 8.4. Results. DNA and carnosine catalyze the reaction, which proceeds by the electron transfer mechanism. The presence of carnosine is necessary for the catalytic action of DNA as a cofactor. Ni (II and Pb (11 are the potent inhibitors of the reaction. The kinetic parameters and determined in the presence and absence of the above ligands. Discussion. DNA, which has the electrical properties only in the double helical forms, acts as a catalyst in the conversion of LDCF to DCF. The existence of the carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide with antioxidant and free radical scavenging roles, is an important factor for the progress of the reaction. Both Ni (11 and Pb (II inhibit the reaction. These metals could act as the electron pool to cause inhibition in such electron transfer reaction. This phenomenon could be related to the carcinogenic effect of these metals.

  18. Sandwiched confinement of quantum dots in graphene matrix for efficient electron transfer and photocurrent production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Zheng, Kaibo

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and graphene are both promising materials for the development of new-generation optoelectronic devices. Towards this end, synergic assembly of these two building blocks is a key step but remains a challenge. Here, we show a one-step strategy for organizing QDs in a graphene matrix via interfacial self-assembly, leading to the formation of sandwiched hybrid QD-graphene nanofilms. We have explored structural features, electron transfer kinetics and photocurrent generation capacity of such hybrid nanofilms using a wide variety of advanced techniques. Graphene nanosheets interlink QDs and significantly improve electronic coupling, resulting in fast electron transfer from photoexcited QDs to graphene with a rate constant of 1.3?×?109 s?1. Efficient electron transfer dramatically enhances photocurrent generation in a liquid-junction QD-sensitized solar cell where the hybrid nanofilm acts as a photoanode. We thereby demonstrate a cost-effective method to construct large-area QD-graphene hybrid nanofilms with straightforward scale-up potential for optoelectronic applications.

  19. Genome-wide expression links the electron transfer pathway of Shewanella oneidensis to chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shinsheng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By coupling the oxidation of organic substrates to a broad range of terminal electron acceptors (such as nitrate, metals and radionuclides, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has the ability to produce current in microbial fuel cells (MFCs. omcA, mtrA, omcB (also known as mtrC, mtrB, and gspF are some known genes of S. oneidensis MR-1 that participate in the process of electron transfer. How does the cell coordinate the expression of these genes? To shed light on this problem, we obtain the gene expression datasets of MR-1 that are recently public-accessible in Gene Expression Omnibus. We utilize the novel statistical method, liquid association (LA, to investigate the complex pattern of gene regulation. Results Through a web of information obtained by our data analysis, a network of transcriptional regulatory relationship between chemotaxis and electron transfer pathways is revealed, highlighting the important roles of the chemotaxis gene cheA-1, the magnesium transporter gene mgtE-1, and a triheme c-type cytochrome gene SO4572. Conclusion We found previously unknown relationship between chemotaxis and electron transfer using LA system. The study has the potential of helping researchers to overcome the intrinsic metabolic limitation of the microorganisms for improving power density output of an MFC.

  20. Specific intermolecular interactions of element-organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Baev, Alexei K

    2014-01-01

    This book extends the development of the thermodynamic theory of specific intermolecular interactions to element-organic and specific organometallic compounds. The fundamentals of an unconventional approach to the theory of H-bonding and specific interactions are formulated, based on a concept of pentacoordinate carbon atoms. Prof. Baev has introduced the theory already in his successful books ""Specific Intermolecular Interactions of Organic Compounds"" and ""Specific Intermolecular Interactions of Nitrogenated and Bioorganic Compounds"". In this book he also demonstrates it for element organ

  1. Mechanistic studies of photoinduced spin crossover and electron transfer in inorganic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenkai; Gaffney, Kelly J

    2015-04-21

    Electronic excited-state phenomena provide a compelling intersection of fundamental and applied research interests in the chemical sciences. This holds true for coordination chemistry, where harnessing the strong optical absorption and photocatalytic activity of compounds depends on our ability to control fundamental physical and chemical phenomena associated with the nonadiabatic dynamics of electronic excited states. The central events of excited-state chemistry can critically influence the dynamics of electronic excited states, including internal conversion (transitions between distinct electronic states) and intersystem crossing (transitions between electronic states with different spin multiplicities), events governed by nonadiabatic interactions between electronic states in close proximity to conical intersections, as well as solvation and electron transfer. The diversity of electronic and nuclear dynamics also makes the robust interpretation of experimental measurements challenging. Developments in theory, simulation, and experiment can all help address the interpretation and understanding of chemical dynamics in organometallic and coordination chemistry. Synthesis presents the opportunity to chemically engineer the strength and symmetry of the metal-ligand interactions. This chemical control can be exploited to understand the influence of electronic ground state properties on electronic excited-state dynamics. New time-resolved experimental methods and the insightful exploitation of established methods have an important role in understanding, and ideally controlling, the photophysics and photochemistry of transition metal complexes. Techniques that can disentangle the coupled motion of electrons and nuclear dynamics warrant emphasis. We present a review of electron localization dynamics in charge transfer excited states and the dynamics of photoinitiated spin crossover dynamics. Both electron localization and spin crossover have been investigated by numerous research groups with femtosecond resolution spectroscopy, but challenges in experimental interpretation have left significant uncertainty about the molecular properties that control these phenomena. Our Account will emphasize how tailoring the experimental probe, femtosecond resolution vibrational anisotropy for electron localization, and femtosecond resolution hard X-ray fluorescence for spin crossover can make a significant impact on the interpretability of experimental measurements. The emphasis on thorough and robust interpretation has also led to an emphasis on simpler molecular systems. This enables iteration between experiment and theory, a requirement for the development of a more predictive understanding of electronic excited-state phenomena and an essential step to the development of design rules for solar materials. PMID:25789406

  2. Atom-transfer cyclization with CuSO4/KBH4: a formal "activators generated by electron transfer" process also applicable to atom-transfer polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew J; Collis, Alana E C; Fox, David J; Halliwell, Lauren L; James, Natalie; O'Reilly, Rachel K; Parekh, Hemal; Ross, Andrew; Sellars, Andrew B; Willcock, Helen; Wilson, Paul

    2012-08-17

    The 4-exo and 5-exo-trig atom-transfer cyclizations of 1, 8a-e, 9, 12, and 13 can be mediated with as little as 0.05 mol % of Cu(TPMA)SO(4)·5H(2)O in the presence of 2.5 mol % of borohydride salts in 10 min at room temperature in air. This formal "activators generated by electron transfer" (AGET) procedure utilizes a cheap and oxidatively stable copper source (CuSO(4)·5H(2)O) and can be carried out in environmentally benign solvents (EtOH). It is possible to alter the product distribution in the 5-endo radical-polar crossover reactions of 10a,b and 11 by tailoring the amount of borohydride. Cyclization onto alkynes 14 and 15 is also possible in only 20 min. Controlled radical polymerization of styrene, with increased rates over conventional atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), can be carried out in a controlled fashion (Mn, PDI) using either CuBr or CuSO(4)·5H(2)O and Bu(4)NBH(4). PMID:22860762

  3. Effects of nano-Ag on the combustion process of Al–CuO metastable intermolecular composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of nano-Ag with high thermal conductivity on the combustion wave behavior of Al–CuO MIC (metastable intermolecular composite) are studied in this paper by incorporating Al–CuO MIC with nano-Ag particles in different weight proportions. The physical and chemical characteristics of Al–CuO MIC are determined using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The combustion wave behavior is identified by high-speed video recording (HSVR). The experimental observations confirm that the presence of nano-Ag particles improves the heat transfer efficiency. With nano-Ag increasing from 1 wt% to 10 wt%, the first exothermic peak temperature decreases from 607.8 °C to 567.6 °C, and average combustion speed (ACS) increases at first and then reduces. The most suitable amount of nano-Ag is 2 wt% with the ACS and instantaneous combustion velocity on the order of 954.0 m/s, 1562.5 m/s. Moreover, heat transfer mechanisms in the combustion process of Al–CuO MIC are better understood, especially by distinguishing conduction from convection during the combustion propagation. Furthermore, three stages (ignition, acceleration and steady combustion) of reactive propagation are observed in the combustion process. And the corresponding dominative heat transfer mechanisms in the three stages are conduction, conduction to convection transition, and convection, respectively. -- Highlights: • This work focuses on the fundamental understanding of heat transfer mechanisms. • The presence of nano-Ag particles improves the heat transfer efficiency. • A new approach distinguishes conduction from convection in the combustion process. • Three stages (ignition, acceleration and steady combustion) are observed

  4. Selective 4e-/4H+ O2 reduction by an iron(tetraferrocenyl)porphyrin complex: from proton transfer followed by electron transfer in organic solvent to proton coupled electron transfer in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, Kaustuv; Chatterjee, Sudipta; Samanta, Subhra; Dey, Abhishek

    2013-12-16

    An iron porphyrin catalyst bearing four ferrocenes and a hydrogen bonding distal pocket is found to catalyze 4e(-)/4H(+) oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in organic solvent under homogeneous conditions in the presence of 2-3 equiv of Trifluoromethanesulphonic acid. Absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and resonance Raman data along with H2O2 assay indicate that one out of the four electrons necessary to reduce O2 to H2O is donated by the ferrous porphyrin while three are donated by the distal ferrocene residues. The same catalyst shows 4e(-)/4H(+) reduction of O2 in an aqueous medium, under heterogeneous conditions, over a wide range of pH. Both the selectivity and the rate of ORR are found to be pH independent in an aqueous medium. The ORR proceeds via a proton transfer followed by electron transfer (PET) step in an organic medium and while a 2e(-)/1H(+) proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) step determines the electrochemical potential of ORR in an aqueous medium. PMID:24304224

  5. Structural modeling and intermolecular correlation of liquid chlorine dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is water-soluble yellow gas at room temperature. It has long been used as a disinfectant of tap water and various commodities owing to its strong oxidizing activity against various microbial proteins. The oxidizing activity is believed to be due to the presence of unpaired electron in its molecular orbital. Despite wealth of physicochemical studies of gaseous ClO2, little is known about liquid ClO2, especially about fine molecular structure and intermolecular interactions of liquid ClO2. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the fine structure and intermolecular orientations of ClO2 molecules in its liquid state using a high-energy X-ray diffraction technique. The measurements of liquid ClO2 were carried out at -50 to 0 degree Celsius using a two-axis diffractometer installed at the BL04B2 beamline in the third-generation synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan). The incident X-ray beamline was 113.4 keV in energy and 0.1093 Armstrong in wavelength from a Si(111) monochromator with the third harmonic reflection. Liquid ClO2 held in a quartz capillary tube was placed in a temperature-controlled vacuum chamber. We obtained a structure factor S(Q) to a range of Q = 0.3-30 Amstrong-1 and a pair distribution function g(r) upon Fourier transform of the S(Q). The total g(r) showed peaks at 1.46, 2.08, 2.48, 3.16 and 4.24 Armstrong. From intramolec, 3.16 and 4.24 Armstrong. From intramolecular bond lengths of 1.46 Armstrong for Cl-O and 2.48 Armstrong for O-O, O-Cl-O bond angle was estimated to be 116.1 degrees. Peaks at 3.16 and 4.24 Armstrong in the total g(r) strongly indicate presence of specific intermolecular orientations of ClO2 molecules that are distinct from those observed as a dimer in the solid phase ClO2. This view was further supported by molecular simulation using a reverse Monte Carlo method (RMC). (author)

  6. Photo- and radiation chemical studies of intermediates involved in excited-state electron-transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excited-state inter- and intramolecular electron-transfer reactions lie at the heart of the most photochemical solar energy conversion schemes. The authors research, which has utilized the techniques of continuous and pulsed photolysis and radiolysis, has focused on three general aspects of these reactions involving transition metal coordination complexes and electron donor-acceptor complexes: i) the effect of solution medium on the properties and quenching of the excited states; ii) the control of the quantum yields of formation of redox products; iii) the mechanism by which reduced species interact with water to yield H2 homogeneously and heterogeneously. EDTA is among the most popular sacrificial electron donors used in model systems. Its role is to scavenge the oxidized form of the photosensitizer in order to prevent its rapid reaction with the reduced form of the electron relay species that results from the electron-transfer quenching of the excited photosensitizer. In systems involving MV2+, the radicals resulting from the oxidation of EDTA can eventually lead to the generation of a second equivalent of MV+; the reducing agent is believed to be a radical localized on the carbon atom alpha to the carboxylate group. The reaction of radiolytically-generated OH/H with EDTA produces this radical directly via H-abstraction or indirectly via deprotonation of the carbon atom adjacent to the nitrogen radical site in the oxidized amine moiety; it reduces MV2+ with rate constants of 2.8 x 109, 7.6 x 109, and 8.5 x 106M-1s-1 at pH 12.5, 8.3, and 4.7, respectively. Degradative decarboxylation of EDTA-radicals and their back electron-transfer reactions are enhanced in acidic solution causing the yield of MV+ to be severely diminished

  7. Communication: Predictive partial linearized path integral simulation of condensed phase electron transfer dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partial linearized path integral approach is used to calculate the condensed phase electron transfer (ET) rate by directly evaluating the flux-flux/flux-side quantum time correlation functions. We demonstrate for a simple ET model that this approach can reliably capture the transition between non-adiabatic and adiabatic regimes as the electronic coupling is varied, while other commonly used semi-classical methods are less accurate over the broad range of electronic couplings considered. Further, we show that the approach reliably recovers the Marcus turnover as a function of thermodynamic driving force, giving highly accurate rates over four orders of magnitude from the normal to the inverted regimes. We also demonstrate that the approach yields accurate rate estimates over five orders of magnitude of inverse temperature. Finally, the approach outlined here accurately captures the electronic coherence in the flux-flux correlation function that is responsible for the decreased rate in the inverted regime

  8. Temperature Dependence of Electron to Lattice Energy-Transfer in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Moos, G; Hertel, T

    2002-01-01

    The electron-phonon coupling strength in single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles has been studied directly in the time-domain by femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. We have measured the dependence of H(T_e,T_l), the rate of energy-transfer between the electronic system and the lattice as a function of electron and lattice temperatures T_e and T_l. The experiments are consistent with a T^5 dependence of H on the electron- and lattice-temperatures, respectively. The results can be related to the e-ph mass enhancement parameter lambda. The experimentally obtained value for lambda/theta_D^2, where theta_D is the Debye temperature, suggests that e-ph scattering times at the Fermi level of SWNT bundles can be exceptionally long, exceeding 1.5 ps at room temperature.

  9. Electron transfer within charge-localized arylhydrazine-centered mixed valence radical cations having larger bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Stephen F; Schultz, Kevin P

    2009-05-14

    Kinetics for intramolecular charge transfer between two diarylhydrazine units, measured by ESR, are reported for six charge-localized mixed valence compounds having 9, 11, 13, and 16 bonds between the nitrogen atoms. A 17-bond bridged compound had too slow electron transfer to measure the rate constant by ESR. The optical spectra of these radical cations are compared with tert-butyl,aryl-substituted hydrazines, and rate constants calculated using parameters derived from the optical spectra are compared with the experimental values where possible. The charge-transfer band overlapped too badly with bridge-centered absorption for the 16-bond bridged compound to allow the comparison to be made. The 13-bond bridged compound gave worse agreement than the other compounds. Its optical rate constant was about 5.4 times the ESR rate constant at a temperature between the ranges in which the data were collected. PMID:19374409

  10. Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in atomic collisions. Progress report, June 15, 1992--June 14, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, T.G.; Alston, S.G.

    1995-08-01

    The research program of Winter and Alston addresses the fundamental processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in ion-atom, ion-ion, and ion-molecule collisions. Attention is focussed on one- and two-electron systems and, more recently, quasi-one-electron systems whose electron-target-core interaction can be accurately modeled by one-electron potentials. The basic computational approaches can then be taken with few, if any, approximations, and the underlying collisional mechanisms can be more clearly revealed. Winter has focussed on intermediate collision energies (e.g., proton energies for p-He{sup +} collisions on the order of 100 kilo-electron volts), in which many electron states are strongly coupled during the collision and a coupled-state approach, such as a coupled-Sturmian-pseudostate approach, is appropriate. Alston has concentrated on higher collision energies (million electron-volt energies), or asymmetric collision systems, for which the coupling of the projectile is weaker with, however, many more target states being coupled together so that high-order perturbation theory is essential. Several calculations by Winter and Alston are described, as set forth in the original proposal.

  11. Photoinduced electron transfer and persistent spectral hole-burning in natural emerald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesen, Hans

    2011-06-01

    Wavelength-selective excited-state lifetime measurements and absorption, luminescence, and hole-burning spectra of a natural African emerald crystal are reported. The (2)E excited-state lifetime displays an extreme wavelength dependence, varying from 190 to 37 ?s within 1.8 nm of the R(1)-line. Overall, the excited state is strongly quenched, in comparison to laboratory-created emerald (?=1.3 ms), with an average quenching rate of ?6 × 10(3) s(-1) at 2.5 K. This quenching is attributed to photoinduced electron transfer caused by a relatively high concentration of Fe(2+) ions. The forward electron-transfer rate, k(f), from the nearest possible Fe(2+) sites at around 5 Å is estimated to be ?20 × 10(3) s(-1) at 2.5 K. The photoreductive quenching of the excited Cr(3+) ions by Fe(2+) is followed by rapid electron back-transfer in the ground state upon deactivation. The exchange interaction based quenching can be modeled by assuming a random quencher distribution within the possible Fe(2+) sites with the forward electron-transfer rate, k(f), given as a function of acceptor-donor separation R by exp[(R(f)-R)/a(f)]; R(f) and a(f) values of 13.5 and 2.7 Å are obtained at 2.5 K. The electron transfer/back-transfer reorganizes the local crystal lattice, occasionally leading to a minor variation of the short-range structure around the Cr(3+) ions. This provides a mechanism for spectral hole-burning for which a moderately high quantum efficiency of about ?0.005% is observed. Spectral holes are subject to spontaneous hole-filling and spectral diffusion, and both effects can be quantified within the standard two-level systems for non-photochemical hole-burning. Importantly, the absorbance increases on both sides of broad spectral holes, and isosbestic points are observed, in accord with the expected distribution of the "photoproduct" in a non-photochemical hole-burning process. PMID:21548614

  12. Peptide Sequence Analysis by Electron Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry: A Web-Based Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Donald F.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Bai, Dina L.

    2015-03-01

    We created a web-based tutorial designed to teach manual interpretation and identification of spectra acquired using electron transfer dissociation (ETD). The tutorial provides an explanation of the ETD fragmentation process with the goal of identifying all of the significant peaks in a spectrum. We discuss determination of the precursor mass and charge state, neutral losses, electron transfer without dissociation (ETnoD), and the mechanisms by which fragment ions are created. Our hope is to provide a tool that presents the information already taught in D.F.H.'s short courses in a way that is easy for any student or researcher in the mass spectrometry community to access. The tutorial may be found at http://www.huntlab.org.

  13. The Alternative complex III: properties and possible mechanisms for electron transfer and energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refojo, Patrícia N; Teixeira, Miguel; Pereira, Manuela M

    2012-10-01

    Alternative complexes III (ACIII) are recently identified membrane-bound enzymes that replace functionally the cytochrome bc(1/)b(6)f complexes. In general, ACIII are composed of four transmembrane proteins and three peripheral subunits that contain iron-sulfur centers and C-type hemes. ACIII are built by a combination of modules present in different enzyme families, namely the complex iron-sulfur molybdenum containing enzymes. In this article a historical perspective on the investigation of ACIII is presented, followed by an overview of the present knowledge on these enzymes. Electron transfer pathways within the protein are discussed taking into account possible different locations (cytoplasmatic or periplasmatic) of the iron-sulfur containing protein and their contribution to energy conservation. In this way several hypotheses for energy conservation modes are raised including linear and bifurcating electron transfer pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). PMID:22609325

  14. Photoinduced electron transfer in arylacridinium conjugates in a solid glass matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Guilford; Yan, Dingxue; Hu, Jingqiu; Wan, Jiandi; Xia, Bing; Vullev, Valentine I

    2007-06-21

    The photophysical properties of a series of 9-arylacridinium conjugates in solid glass matrices composed of sucrose octaacetate have been determined. The fluorescence of the charge-shift states is significantly enhanced because of the retardation of nonradiative pathways for back-electron transfer. Changes of more than 3 orders of magnitude in back-electron-transfer rates (sucrose octaacetate glass vs conventional solvents at room temperature) were observed. Transient spectra displayed long-lived charge-shift species in the microsecond time regime for thianthrene acridinium conjugates. The rate retardation is associated with slow solvation times for surrounding solvent layers in the solid matrix. The red-edge effect (excitation wavelength-dependent fluorescence) for the arylacridinium ions in solid glass confirms the microheterogeneity of the sucrose octaacetate medium. PMID:17539680

  15. Charge transfer in gas surface scattering: the three electronic state system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Daren; Yi, Xizhang; Ding, Shiliang; Gu, Lichuan; Olson, John A.

    1998-07-01

    A general theoretical treatment for near-resonant charge exchange in gas-surface scattering is presented for a coupled three electronic state system. Specifically, the quadratic form method in linear algebra is used to solve a coupled set of differential equations within the framework of Micha's common eikonal formalism to determine evolution of nuclear transition amplitudes. The electron transfer probability was thus given analytically. It is also found that if the diabatic potentials Vd for the system satisfy the condition that D>0, where D is the discriminant of characteristic polynomial of eigenvalue equation of the matrix Vd, the charge transfer will be forbidden due to the hermicity of Vd. Comparison with a previous calculation of the ionization probability for a sodium atom scattering from a W(110) surface shows quite good agreement. The results demonstrate that the method appears to have a wide range of validity for the description of a variety of nonadiabatic phenomena in gas-surface scattering.

  16. Electron-transfer processes in dendrimers and their implication in biology, catalysis, sensing and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astruc, Didier

    2012-04-01

    The extraordinary development of the design and synthesis of dendrimers has allowed scientists to locate redox sites at precise positions (core, focal points, branching points, termini, cavities) of these perfectly defined macromolecules, which have generation-controlled sizes and topologies matching those of biomolecules. Redox-dendrimer engineering has led to fine modelling studies of electron-transfer metalloproteins, in which the branches of the dendrimers hinder access to the active site in a manner reminiscent of that of the protein. It has also enabled the construction of remarkable catalysts, sensors and printboards, including by sophisticated design of the interface between redox dendrimers and solid-state devices -- for example by functionalizing electrodes and other surfaces. Electron-transfer processes between dendrimers and a variety of other molecules hold promising applications in diverse areas that range from bio-engineering to sensing, catalysis and energy materials.

  17. Potassium-uracil/thymine ring cleavage enhancement as studied in electron transfer experiments and theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, D; Bacchus-Montabonel, M-C; da Silva, F Ferreira; García, G; Limão-Vieira, P

    2014-08-21

    We report experimental and theoretical studies on ring cleavage enhancement in collisions of potassium atoms with uracil/thymine to further increase the understanding of the complex mechanisms yielding such fragmentation pathways. In these electron transfer processes time-of-flight (TOF) negative ion mass spectra were obtained in the collision energy range 13.5-23.0 eV. We note that CNO(-) is the major ring breaking anion formed and its threshold formation is discussed within the collision energy range studied. Such a decomposition process is supported by the first theoretical calculations to clarify how DNA/RNA pyrimidine base fragmentation is enhanced in electron transfer processes yielding ion-pair formation. PMID:24818533

  18. The creation, destruction and transfer of multipole moments in electron–ion three-body recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the wave-packet propagation scheme of Goldberger and Watson to define multipole moment creation, destruction, and transfer rates for the three-body recombination (TBR) of electrons with ions. We first assume short-range interaction potentials and then consider Coulomb interactions, for which we use Dollard's theory of multichannel scattering. We present the multipole moment rate coefficients in terms of the TBR amplitudes. Finally, we discuss time-reversal invariance and the reciprocity relations, both for the short-range case and for the Coulomb-interaction case, and show that the multipole moment rate coefficients can be expressed in terms of electron-impact ionization amplitudes. (paper)

  19. Vectorial electron transfer in spatially ordered arrays. Progress report, January 1991--January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Objective was to find methods for rapid, controlled placement of light absorbers, relays, and multi-electron catalysts at defined sites with respect to a semiconductor or metal surface and thus to develop methods for preparing chemically modified photoactive surfaces as artificial photosynthetic units. Progress has been made in four areas: synthesis of new materials for directional electron transfer, preparation and characterization of anisotropic composites containing organic and inorganic components, elaboration of mechanisms of electrocatalysis, and development of new methods for surface modification of metals and semiconductors.

  20. Doubly differential electron emission for transfer ionization in 100-keV H+ on Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured doubly differential electron emission for transfer ionization produced by 100-keV H+ impact on an Ar target. Data were obtained by measuring coincidences between electrons of selected energy and angle of emission with outgoing H0 projectiles. The measurements covered emission angles in the range of ?=0 degree to 160 degree and energies starting from 10 eV. We present a detailed discussion on the experimental conditions used and give a tentative interpretation of the main features observed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Measurement of Tensor Polarization in Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering at Large Momentum Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tensor polarization observables (t20, t21 and t22) have been measured in elastic electron-deuteron scattering for six values of momentum transfer between 0.66 and 1.7 (GeV/c)2. The experiment was performed at the Jefferson Laboratory in Hall C using the electron HMS Spectrometer, a specially designed deuteron magnetic channel and the recoil deuteron polarimeter POLDER. The new data determine to much larger Q2 the deuteron charge form factors GC and GQ. They are in good agreement with relativistic calculations and disagree with pQCD predictions

  2. Prospect for observation of polarization in electron-deuteron elastic scattering at high momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of the charge and quadrupole form factors of the deuteron would address the most fundamental questions in nuclear physics: validity of perturbative QCD at relatively low momentum transfer, effect of isoscalar meson-exchange currents, and the deuteron structure at short range. Polarization methods will be required in order to provide the separation of these form factors. We propose that the high current of electrons in a storage ring be employed in order to scatter electrons from a gaseous, tensor-polarized, deuterium target. (orig.)

  3. Photoinduced electron transfer from tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium to cytochrome c oxidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, T

    1992-01-01

    Flash photolysis has been used to effect electron transfer from tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) to cytochrome c oxidase in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor, aniline. The observation that photoreduction occurs only at low ionic strength and high pH indicates that an electrostatic complex between the ruthenium compound and the enzyme is the reactive species. The reaction was followed at 830, 605, and 445 nm. The initial absorbance changes observed suggest that the copper ion CuA i...

  4. Ultrafast Excited State Dynamics of the Perylene Radical Cation Generated upon Bimolecular Photoinduced Electron Transfer Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Pages, Ste?phane; Lang, Bernhard Felix; Vauthey, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The ultrafast ground state recovery (GSR) dynamics of the radical cation of perylene, Pe•+, generated upon bimolecular photoinduced electron transfer in acetonitrile, has been investigated using pump?pump?probe spectroscopy. With 1,4-dicyanobenzene as electron acceptor, the free ion yield is substantial and the GSR dynamics of Pe•+ was found to depend on the time delay between the first and second pump pulses, ?t12, i.e., on the "age" of the ion. At short ?t12, the GSR dynamics is b...

  5. Study of the Ne(^3P_2) + CH_3F Electron Transfer Reaction below 1 Kelvin

    OpenAIRE

    Jankunas, Justin; Bertsche, Benjamin; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the dynamics of electron transfer reactions at low collision energy. We present a study of Penning ionization of ground state methyl fluoride molecules by electronically excited neon atoms in the 13 $\\mu$eV--4.8 meV (150 mK--56 K) collision energy range, using a neutral-neutral merged beam setup. Relative cross sections have been measured for three Ne($^3P_2$)+ CH$_3$F reaction channels by counting the number of CH$_3$F$^+$, CH$_2$F$^+$, and ...

  6. Dielectric losses and charge transfer in electron-irradiated TIGaS2 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This study presents the results of studying the frequency dependence of real and imaginary componenets of the complex dielectric permittivity, loss tangent, conductivity across the layers of high-resistive of TIGaS2 single crystals at frequencies from 50 kHz up to 35 MHz and the effect of electron-irradiation on themSample from TiGaS2 were made inn sandwich form with electrodes of silver plate. The investigation of the frequency dependences af ac-conductivity of the electron-irradiated TiGaS2 single crystal made it possible to elucidate the hopping charge-transfer mechanism

  7. In situ regeneration of NADH via lipoamide dehydrogenase-catalyzed electron transfer reaction evidenced by spectroelectrochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Tsz Kin; Chen, Baowei; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    NAD/NADH is a coenzyme found in all living cells, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. We report on characterizations of in situ regeneration of NADH via lipoamide dehydrogenase (LD)-catalyzed electron transfer reaction to regenerate NADH using UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vmax) of NADH regeneration were measured as 0.80 ± 0.15 mM and 1.91 ± 0.09 ?M s-1 in a 1-mm thin-layer spectroelectrochemical cell using gold gauze as ...

  8. Intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer of fluorescent probes based on 1,8-naphthalimide and aniline derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrova, Natalia A.; Mushtakova, Svetlana P.; Zilberg, Rufina A.; Vakulin, Ivan V.; Duerkop, Axel

    2015-03-01

    The effect of conformation and electronic structure of fluorescent probes based on 1,8-naphthalimide and aniline derivatives (4-methoxyaniline and N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine) on the intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer (PET) was investigated by density functional theory calculations (B3LYP/6-31G (d, p)). We established restricted rotation around spacer bonds of the model compounds and their protonated and oxidized forms do not block the convergence of the nitrogen atoms involved in the electron transfer at a distance of ~3Å, which is adequately for PET. Computed values of protonation free energy for the gas-phase (?G298 r) show that the investigated fluorescent probes are predominantly protonated on the nitrogen atoms of the donor moiety. Electron population and localization of the frontier orbitals (LUMO, HOMO, HOMO-1) on the donor and acceptor moieties are transformed under protonation and one-electron oxidation of fluorescent probes. The results show that appearance or disappearance of the PET can be predicted by the energy difference between the frontier orbitals and the nature of their location of donor and acceptor moieties, which is in agreement with the PET theory and observed experimental data.

  9. Electron correlation effects in the adiabatic charge transfer reactions at the metal/polar liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New simple expressions for average number of electrons in the valence orbital of a reacting ion and the charge susceptibility are obtained that allow one to calculate adiabatic free energy surfaces (AFES) and corresponding kinetic regime diagrams (KRD) for adiabatic processes of electron transfer from the ion, located in a polar liquid, to a metal within the framework of the exactly solvable (in the limit T?0) model of the metal with the infinitely wide conduction band. This model represents one of limiting cases of the Anderson model that may be applied to s-p metals. Unlike previous studies of the adiabatic reactions in the model of the metal with the infinitely wide conduction band, the present work takes into account the electron-electron correlation effects in an exact manner. General results are illustrated with KRD which determine the regions of the physical parameters of the system corresponding to various types of electron transfer processes. AFES are calculated for some typical parameters sets. The exact AFES are compared with those calculated within the Hartree-Fock approximation. It is shown that the correlation effects are of importance and results not only in a considerable decrease of the activation free energy but also to qualitatively different shapes of AFES in some regions of the system parameters

  10. Theory of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in Energy Conversion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hammes-schiffer, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions play an essential role in a broad range of energy conversion processes, including photosynthesis and respiration. These reactions also form the basis of many types of solar fuel cells and electrochemical devices. Recent advances in the theory of PCET enable the prediction of the impact of system properties on the reaction rates. These predictions may guide the design of more efficient catalysts for energy production, including those based on a...

  11. Characterizing O-linked glycopeptides by electron transfer dissociation: fragmentation rules and applications in data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhikai; Su, Xiaomeng; Clark, Daniel F.; Go, Eden P.; Desaire, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Studying protein O-glycosylation remains an analytical challenge. Different from N-linked glycans, the O-glycosylation site is not within a known consensus sequence. Additionally, O-glycans are heterogeneous with numerous potential modification sites. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is the method of choice in analyzing these glycopeptides since the glycan side chain is intact in ETD, and the glycosylation site can be localized on the basis of the c and z fragment ions. Nonetheless, new s...

  12. Electron Transfer Reagent Anion Formation via Electrospray Ionization and Collision-induced Dissociation

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Teng-yi; Emory, Joshua F; O’Hair, Richard A.J.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    A strategy is described and demonstrated for the formation of reagent anions via electrospray ionization (ESI) for electron transfer dissociation (ETD). To circumvent difficulties associated with formation of high mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) reagent anions, it is desirable to form ETD reagents via means other than those that require reagent molecule vaporization. ESI is a candidate method but anions that are generally generated efficiently by ESI tend to react with multiply protonated polypept...

  13. Global proteomic profiling of phosphopeptides using electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Henrik; Horn, David M.; Tang, Ning; Mathivanan, Suresh; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2007-01-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is a recently introduced mass spectrometric technique that provides a more comprehensive coverage of peptide sequences and posttranslational modifications. Here, we evaluated the use of ETD for a global phosphoproteome analysis. In all, we identified a total of 1,435 phosphorylation sites from human embryonic kidney 293T cells, of which 1,141 (?80%) were not previously described. A detailed comparison of ETD and collision-induced dissociation (CID) modes s...

  14. Trans-Proteomic Pipeline supports and improves analysis of electron transfer dissociation datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Deutsch, Eric W.; Shteynberg, David; Lam, Henry; Sun, Zhi; Eng, Jimmy K.; Carapito, Christine; von Haller, Priska D; Tasman, Natalie; Mendoza, Luis; Farrah, Terry; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2010-01-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is an alternative fragmentation technique to collision induced dissociation (CID) that has recently become commercially available. ETD has several advantages over CID. It is less prone to fragmenting amino acid side chains, especially those that are modified, thus yielding fragment ion spectra with more uniform peak intensities. Further, precursor ions of longer peptides and higher charge states can be fragmented and identified. However, analysis of ETD sp...

  15. Peptide and protein quantification using iTRAQ with electron transfer dissociation

    OpenAIRE

    Phanstiel, Doug; Zhang, Yi; Marto, Jarrod A.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2008-01-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has become increasingly used in proteomic analyses due to its complementarity to collision-activated dissociation (CAD) and its ability to sequence peptides with post-translation modifications (PTMs). It was previously unknown, however, whether ETD would be compatible with a commonly employed quantification technique, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), since the fragmentation mechanisms and pathways of ETD differ significantly ...

  16. Optimization of Electron Transfer Dissociation via Informed Selection of Reagents and Operating Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Compton, Philip D.; Strukl, Joseph V.; Bai, Dina L; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.

    2012-01-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has improved the mass spectrometric analysis of proteins and peptides with labile post-translational modifications and larger intact masses. Here, the parameters governing the reaction rate of ETD are examined experimentally. Currently, due to reagent injection and isolation events as well as longer reaction times, ETD spectra require significantly more time to acquire than collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra (>100 ms), resulting in a trade-off in...

  17. Electronic Transfer of Clinical Nursing Minimum Data Set Facilitates Nursing Diagnoses Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Delaney, Connie W.; Mehmert, Peg

    1990-01-01

    Computerized information systems may offer the most efficient, cost effective approach for maximizing the use of the Nursing Minimum Data Set to meet the data access and comparability demands for validation of nursing diagnoses. This report addressed Phases I and II of a larger study testing the research utility of the NMDS. The utility of the NMDS for retrospective validation of four nursing diagnoses as well as electronic retrieval and transfer of the NMDS from a computerized clinical infor...

  18. Magnetic-field-enhanced radical yield from triplet electron-transfer reaction in reversed micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenker, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Thomas; Steiner, Ulrich

    1983-01-01

    The radical yield in the electron-transfer reaction between thionine triplet and aniline in reversed micelles is increased by an external magnetic field. The saturation value of the effect amounts to 85% (18 kG) and the B1/2 value is 300 G. The magnetic-field effect is discussed on the basis of the radical-pair mechanism with a quantitative consideration of the hyperfine-induced spin motion.

  19. Electron transfer into the n = 3 states of hydrogen by proton impact on gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute cross sections for electron transfer into the 3p and 3d states of hydrogen have been measured for 2.2- to 8.2-keV proton impact on He, Ar, Kr, O2, H2, and N2. An apparent maximum occurs in the 3d cross section for both Ar and H2. Balmer-alpha cross sections are synthesized from these results and previously reported 3s cross sections

  20. Photoinduced electron transfer between doubly charged pyrene and alkali metals. Fourier transform EPR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilber, Gil; Rozenshtein, Vladimir; Rabinovitz, Mordecai; Levanon, Haim

    1992-08-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reactions in pyrene/alkali-metal/THF solutions were studied by Fourier transform EPR. Different spin polarization effects are associated with the ET reactions, i.e. ST 0, ST -, F-pair and correlated radical-pair mechanisms. It is demonstrated how the spin dynamics are controlled by the specific alkali-metal ion, its solvation in neat THF and the presence of a chelating agent (cryptand). Experiments were carried out using Li, Na, and K.

  1. Electron transfer processes of atomic and molecular doubly charged ions: information from beam experiments.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herman, Zden?k

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 111, 12-13 (2013), s. 1697-1710. ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/00/0632; GA AV ?R IAA400400702 Grant ostatní: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA440410 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : doubly charged ions * electron transfer processes * beam experiments Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2013

  2. Diffusion-Controlled Electron Transfer Processes and Power-Law Statistics of Fluorescence Intermittency of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jau; Marcus, R. A.

    2005-08-01

    A mechanism involving diffusion-controlled electron transfer processes in Debye and non-Debye dielectric media is proposed to elucidate the power-law distribution for the lifetime of a blinking quantum dot. This model leads to two complementary regimes of power law with a sum of the exponents equal to 2, and to a specific value for the exponent in terms of a distribution of the diffusion correlation times. It also links the exponential bending tail with energetic and kinetic parameters.

  3. Actualization of the training documents and transfer to electronic memories; example KKP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The training documents of the NPP Philippsburg-2 (KKP-2) are based on documents dating from 1981/1982. Actualization of the documents and transfer to electronic memories has been performed. The target groups are shift supervisors and reactor operators. The German AREVA training center in Offenbach is responsible for the training for all German nuclear power plants. The training documents were revised with respect to plant retrofitting and upgrading measures. Preliminary experiences with the revised training documents are summarized.

  4. Dimer/monomer switching of pyridinium and quinolinium cations by electron transfer.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Lubomír; Teplý, Filip; Hromadová, Magdaléna; ?ížková, Martina; Kolivoška, Viliam; Slaví?ek, P.; Tarábek, Ján

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 2012, - (2012), s. 75. ISSN 0872-1904. [Iberic Meeting of Electrochemistry /14./ and Meeting of the Portuguese Electrochemical Society /17./. 11.04.2012-14.04.2012, Madeira Island] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/0705; GA AV ?R IAA400400802; GA ?R GA203/09/1614 Source of funding: I - inštitucionálna podpora na rozvoj VO Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electron transfer * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  5. Analysis of phosphorylation sites on proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, An; Huttenhower, Curtis; Geer, Lewis Y.; Coon, Joshua J; Syka, John E. P.; Bai, Dina L.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Burke, Daniel J; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Hunt, Donald F

    2007-01-01

    We present a strategy for the analysis of the yeast phosphoproteome that uses endo-Lys C as the proteolytic enzyme, immobilized metal affinity chromatography for phosphopeptide enrichment, a 90-min nanoflow-HPLC/electrospray-ionization MS/MS experiment for phosphopeptide fractionation and detection, gas phase ion/ion chemistry, electron transfer dissociation for peptide fragmentation, and the Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm for phosphoprotein identification and assignment of phosphory...

  6. Study of the dynamics of the solvatochromism and of the electron intramolecular transfer in polar liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microscopic model concerning the relaxation of the polarization phenomena in liquids is presented. The model is applied to the time dependent fluorescence solvatochromism phenomena observed in polar solutions by ultra-fast techniques. The measurement of time scale variations of the fluorescence solvatochromism is performed for two compounds issued from the (?- naphtyl)- 1 - phenyl - 1 - ethylene in solution in n-propanol. The existence of an intramolecular electron transfer reaction is observed

  7. Magneto-controlled Quantized Electron Transfer to Surface-confined Redox Units and Metal Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Itamar Willner; Eugenii Katz

    2006-01-01

    Hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of undecanoate-capped magnetite (Fe3O4, average diameter ca. 5 nm) are used to control quantized electron transfer to surface-confined redox units and metal NPs. A two-phase system consisting of an aqueous electrolyte solution and a toluene phase that includes the suspended undecanoate-capped magnetic NPs is used to control the interfacial properties of the electrode surface. The attracted magnetic NPs form a hydrophobic layer on the electro...

  8. Threshold inelastic electron scattering from the proton at high momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for threshold electron scattering from the proton have been measured in the missing mass squared region M222 and the four-momentum transfer squared region 622. Scaling of the extracted values of the structure function F2=?W2 is examined in the variables x, ?, and W2. The best scaling is found for the quantity Q6F2, which is found to be linearly proportional to (W2-Wth2), where Wth=M+M?

  9. A Bioelectrochemical Approach to Characterize Extracellular Electron Transfer by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    OpenAIRE

    Cereda, Angelo; Hitchcock, Andrew; Symes, Mark D.; Cronin, Leroy; Bibby, Thomas S.; Jones, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    Biophotovoltaic devices employ photosynthetic organisms at the anode of a microbial fuel cell to generate electrical power. Although a range of cyanobacteria and algae have been shown to generate photocurrent in devices of a multitude of architectures, mechanistic understanding of extracellular electron transfer by phototrophs remains minimal. Here we describe a mediatorless bioelectrochemical device to measure the electrogenic output of a planktonically grown cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp...

  10. Incorporating Electron-Transfer Functionality into Synthetic Metalloproteins from the Bottom-up

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jing; Kharenko, Olesya A.; Ogawa, Michael Y.

    2006-01-01

    The ?-helical coiled-coil motif serves as a robust scaffold for incorporating electron-transfer functionality into synthetic metalloproteins. These structures consist of a right-handed supercoiling of two or more ?-helices that are formed by the self-assembly of individual polypeptide chains whose sequences contain a repeating pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues. Early work from our group attached abiotic ruthenium-based redox sites to the most surface-exposed positions of two s...

  11. Electronic energy transfer between coumarin 460 and Eu3+ in thorium phosphate xerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical spectroscopy experiments performed on thorium phosphate xerogels, doped with both a laser dye (coumarin 460) and europium, have pointed out the existence of an electronic energy transfer from coumarin 460 to the 5D3 level of Eu3+. Indeed, the excitation spectrum of the red fluorescence of Eu3+ in thorium phosphate xerogel doped simultaneously with coumarin 460 exhibits a broad band corresponding to the absorption of coumarin 460 in this optical region

  12. Chaos Appearance during Domain Wall Motion under Electronic Transfer in Nanomagnets

    OpenAIRE

    Donfack Gildas Hermann; Jean-Pierre Nguenang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the likelihood of chaos appearance during domain wall motion induced by electronic transfer. Considering a time-varying current density theory, we proceed to a numerical investigation of the dynamics. Using the dissipation parameter, amplitude and frequency of current density as control parameters; we show how periodic regime as well as chaotic regime can be exhibited in nanomagnetic systems. Numerical results allow setting up the periodicity and quasi-periodicity of ...

  13. Bibliography on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions. Updated 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following our previous compilations (IPPJ-AM-45 (1986), NIFS-DATA-7 (1990), NIFS-DATA-20 (1993)), bibliographic information on experimental and theoretical studies on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions is up-dated. The references published through 1954-1996 are listed in the order of the publication year. For easy finding of the references for a combination of collision partners, a simple list is provided. (author)

  14. On the Equivalence of Quantum and Classical Coherence in Electronic Energy Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Briggs, J S

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of quantum coherence on electronic energy transfer, which is the subject of current interest in photosynthesis, we solve the problem of transport for the simplest model of an aggregate of monomers interacting through dipole-dipole forces using both quantum and classical dynamics. We conclude that for realistic coupling strengths quantum and classical coherent transport are identical. This is demonstrated by numerical calculations for a linear chain and for the photosynthetic Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex

  15. Bibliography of electron transfer in heavy particle collisions, 1950--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annotated bibliography lists published work on electron transfer in heavy particle collisions for the period 1950 to 1975. Sources include scientific journals, abstract compilations, conference proceedings, books, and reports. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically by author. Each entry indicates whether the work was experimental or theoretical, what energy range was covered, and what reactants were investigated. Following the bibliographical listing are indexes of reactants and authors

  16. Bibliography on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions. Updated 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawara, H.

    1997-04-01

    Following our previous compilations (IPPJ-AM-45 (1986), NIFS-DATA-7 (1990), NIFS-DATA-20 (1993)), bibliographic information on experimental and theoretical studies on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions is up-dated. The references published through 1954-1996 are listed in the order of the publication year. For easy finding of the references for a combination of collision partners, a simple list is provided. (author)

  17. Bibliography on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions, updated 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a previous compilation, new bibliographic information on experimental and theoretical studies on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions is up-dated. The references published through 1989 are surveyed. For easy finding references for particular combination of collision partners, a simple list is also provided. Furthermore, for convenience, a copy of the previous compilation (IPPJ-AM-45 (1986)) is included. (author) 1363 refs

  18. A one-compartment fructose/air biological fuel cell based on direct electron transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, X.; Zhao, F.; Varcoe, Jr; Thumser, Ae; Avignone-rossa, C.; Slade, Rct

    2009-01-01

    The construction and characterization of a one-compartment fructose/air biological fuel cell (BFC) based on direct electron transfer is reported. The BFC employs bilirubin oxidase and d-fructose dehydrogenase adsorbed on a cellulose–multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) matrix, reconstituted with an ionic liquid, as the biocathode and the bioanode for oxygen reduction and fructose oxidation reactions, respectively. The performance of the bioelectrode was investigated by chronoamperometric and c...

  19. Bibliography of electron transfer in heavy particle collisions, 1950--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, S.W.; Barnett, C.F.; Crandall, D.H.; Gilbody, H.B.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; McDaniel, E.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Thomas, E.W. (eds.)

    1979-02-01

    This annotated bibliography lists published work on electron transfer in heavy particle collisions for the period 1950 to 1975. Sources include scientific journals, abstract compilations, conference proceedings, books, and reports. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically by author. Each entry indicates whether the work was experimental or theoretical, what energy range was covered, and what reactants were investigated. Following the bibliographical listing are indexes of reactants and authors.

  20. Electrocatalysis and electron transfer mechanisms in the reduction of organic halides at Ag

    OpenAIRE

    Mussini, Patrizia Romana; FALCIOLA, LUIGI; ROSSI, MANUELA

    2009-01-01

    The reductive cleavage of a series of organic halides, including both aromatic and aliphatic compounds, has been investigated in acetonitrile at glassy carbon and silver electrodes. Ag exhibits extraordinary electrocatalytic activities for the reduction of most of the investigated halides. During the reductive cleavage of a carbon-halogen bond, electron transfer (ET) and bond breaking may occur either in a single step or in two distinct steps. The compounds examined in this study are represen...

  1. Less Cash, Less Crime: Evidence from the Electronic Benefit Transfer Program

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Richard; Tekin, Erdal; Topalli, Volkan; Mcclellan, Chandler; Dickinson, Timothy; Rosenfeld, Richard

    2014-01-01

    It has been long recognized that cash plays a critical role in fueling street crime due to its liquidity and transactional anonymity. In poor neighborhoods where street offenses are concentrated, a significant source of circulating cash stems from public assistance or welfare payments. In the 1990s, the Federal government mandated individual states to convert the delivery of their welfare program benefits from paper checks to an Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) system, whereby recipients rec...

  2. Unimolecular dissociation of doubly ionized toluene and electron transfer between neutral toluene and its dication.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaffer, Christopher; Schröder, Detlef; Zins, E. L.; Alcaraz, Ch.; Žabka, Ján; Roithová, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 534, 1 May (2012), s. 8-12. ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/09/1223; GA ?R GAP208/11/0446 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : dications * electron transfer * photoionization * toluene * synchrotron radiation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2012

  3. Use of Ruthenium Photoreduction Techniques to Study Electron Transfer in Cytochrome Oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Geren, Lois; Durham, Bill; Millett, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Ruthenium photoreduction methods are described to study electron transfer from cytochrome c to cytochrome c oxidase, and within cytochrome oxidase. Methods are described to prepare a ruthenium cytochrome c derivative, Ru-39-Cc, by labeling the single sufhydryl group on horse K39C with (4-bromomethyl-4?methylbipyridine) (bis-bipyridine)ruthenium(II). The ruthenium complex attached to Cys-39 on the opposite side of the heme crevice does not interfere with the interaction with cytochrome oxida...

  4. Electron Transfer from Cytochrome c2 to Reaction Center: A Transition State Model for Ionic Strength Effects due to Neutral Mutations†

    OpenAIRE

    Abresch, Edward C.; Gong, Xiao-Min; Paddock, Mark L.; Okamura, Melvin Y.

    2009-01-01

    Interprotein electron transfer plays an important role in biological energy conversion. In this work the electron transfer reaction between cytochrome c2 (cyt) and reaction center (RC) was studied to determine the mechanisms coupling association and electron transfer. Previous studies have shown that mutation of hydrophobic residues in the reaction interface, particularly Tyr L162, change the binding affinity and rates of electron transfer at low ionic strength. In this study the effect of io...

  5. Demonstrating Electron Transfer and Nanotechnology: A Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, Greg P.; Gratzel, Michael

    1998-06-01

    A unique solar cell fabrication procedure has been developed using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from berries. It can be reproduced with a minimum amount of resources in order to provide an interdisciplinary approach for lower-division undergraduate students learning the basic principles of biological extraction, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy as well as environmental science and electron transfer. Electron transfer is the basis of the energetics that drives the processes of life on Earth, occurring in both the mitochondrial membranes of living cells and in the thylakoid membranes of photosynthetic cells of green plants and algae (1). Although we depend on the petroleum and agricultural products of this electron and energy transfer, one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century is that we have yet to create devices that can be used to tap directly into the ultimate source of this energy on an economic scale. An experimental lab procedure was therefore created in order to illustrate the connections between natural and man-made solar conversion within a three-hour lab period.

  6. A molecular Debye-Hückel approach to the reorganization energy of electron transfer reactions in an electric cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tiejun; Song, Xueyu

    2014-10-01

    Electron transfer near an electrode immersed in ionic fluids is studied using the linear response approximation, namely, mean value of the vertical energy gap can be used to evaluate the reorganization energy, and hence any linear response model that can treat Coulomb interactions successfully can be used for the reorganization energy calculation. Specifically, a molecular Debye-Hückel theory is used to calculate the reorganization energy of electron transfer reactions in an electric cell. Applications to electron transfer near an electrode in molten salts show that the reorganization energies from our molecular Debye-Hückel theory agree well with the results from MD simulations.

  7. Ultrafast interfacial electron transfer from the excited state of anchored molecules into a semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, L.; Ernstorfer, R.; Willig, F.

    Ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer (HET) from the excited singlet state of the large organic chromophore perylene into the inorganic semiconductor rutile TiO 2 was investigated with femtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE). The strength of the electronic interaction between the chromophore and the semiconductor was varied by inserting different anchor/bridge groups that functioned either as electronic wire or electronic tunnelling barrier. Both anchor groups, i.e. carboxylic and phosphonic acid, formed strong chemical bonds at the TiO 2 surface. The perylene chromophore with the different anchor/bridge groups was adsorbed from solution in a dedicated ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) chamber. The adsorption geometry of the chromophore perylene was determined from angle and polarization dependent two-photon photoemission (2PPE) signals and was found to be very different for the two different anchor/bridge groups. The measured adsorption geometries are compatible with recent DFT (density functional theory) calculations by P. Persson and co-workers [M. Nilsing, S. Lunell, P. Persson, L. Ojamäe, Phosphonic acid adsorption at the TiO 2 anatase (1 0 1) surface investigated by periodic hybrid HF-DFT computations, Surf. Sci. 582 (2005) 49-60]. Two different processes contributed to the TR-2PPE transients, firstly electron transfer from the chromophore to the electronic acceptor states on the surface and secondly escape of the electrons from the surface into the bulk of the semiconductor. The latter escape process was measured separately by making the interfacial electron injection process instantaneous when the chromophore catechol was employed in place of the perylene compounds. The thus measured electron escape behavior was governed by the same time constants that have recently been predicted by Prezhdo and coworkers from time dependent DFT calculations [W.R. Duncan, W.M. Stier, O.V. Prezhdo, Ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics of the ultrafast electron injection across the Alizarin-TiO 2 interface, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (2005) 7941-7951]. The HET times derived from the 2PPE transients showed very good agreement with HET times measured via transient absorption (TA) on anatase TiO 2 layers. The measured energy distribution of the 2PPE signals for the injected electrons suggests that a high density of electronic acceptor states is operative in both systems and is spread over an at least 1 eV wide energy range. The acceptor states are tentatively identified with surface states created through the formation of chemical bonds between the anchor groups of the organic molecules and surface atoms of the semiconductor.

  8. Energy and electron transfer in alpha-zirconium phosphate/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, David M.

    The intercalation and exfoliation reactions of alpha-zirconium phosphate, Zr(HPO4)2.H2O (alpha-ZrP), were studied microscopically by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reaction of alpha-ZrP with tetra( n-butylammonium) hydroxide (TBA+OH-) initially produces intercalation compounds, which then separate into unilamellar colloids. A hydrolysis reaction of alpha-ZrP colloids proceeds from the edges inwards, forming ˜4 nm zirconia particles that decorate the edges of the sheets. The hydrolysis reaction is negligible at 0°C, which permits the synthesis of hydrolysis-free unilamellar colloids. These colloids form monolayer films on amine-derivatized silicon surfaces with a high density that suggests significant surface mobility during the adsorption process. Multilayer organic/inorganic thin films containing fluorescent probe molecules were assembled on planar glass substrates by sequentially adsorbing monolayers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) derivatized with fluorescein or rhodamine B, and exfoliated alpha-ZrP. Different donor-acceptor geometries were prepared by changing the placement and number of alpha-ZrP and PAH layers separating the fluorescein/PAH and rhodamineB/PAH layers. A Monte Carlo simulation of the Forster energy transfer process in each geometry was compared with the energy transfer efficiency determined from steady-state luminescence spectra. Near-field scanning optical microscopy was used to obtain localized measurements of the energy transfer from RhB-PAH to Texas Red derivatized PAH (TR-PAH). The construction of more complex systems, which perform multi-step energy/electron transfer reactions, is described. By using three complementary chromophores, excitation is collected from a substantial fraction of the visible spectrum and funneled to a trap molecule that forms a long-lived triplet excited state. This trap molecule then transfers an electron to an acceptor in the next layer. The charge separation quantum efficiency and lifetime can be significantly increased by replacing alpha-ZrP with the active spacer HTiNbO5, an oxide semiconductor. In this case, there is a five-component energy/electron transfer cascade in which there are no covalent bonds between any of the photo- or redox-active components.

  9. Electron Transfer Dissociation of Photolabeled Peptides. Backbone Cleavages Compete with Diazirine Ring Rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Aleš; Pepin, Robert; Peng, Bo; Laszlo, Kenneth J.; Bush, Matthew F.; Ture?ek, František

    2013-11-01

    Gas-phase conformations and electron transfer dissociations of pentapeptide ions containing the photo-Leu residue (L*) were studied. Exhaustive conformational search including molecular dynamics force-field, semi-empirical, ab initio, and density functional theory calculations established that the photo-Leu residue did not alter the gas-phase conformations of (GL*GGK + 2H)2+ and (GL*GGK-NH2 + H)+ ions, which showed the same conformer energy ranking as the unmodified Leu-containing ions. This finding is significant in that it simplifies conformational analysis of photo-labeled peptide ions. Electron transfer dissociation mass spectra of (GL*GGK + 2H)2+, (GL*GGK-NH2 + 2H)2+,(GL*GGKK + 2H)2+, (GL*GLK + 2H)2+, and (GL*LGK + 2H)2+ showed 16 %-21 % fragment ions originating by radical rearrangements and cleavages in the diazirine ring. These side-chain dissociations resulted in eliminations of N2H3, N2H4, [N2H5], and [NH4O] neutral fragments and were particularly abundant in long-lived charge-reduced cation-radicals. Deuterium labeling established that the neutral hydrazine molecules mainly contained two exchangeable and two nonexchangeable hydrogen atoms from the peptide and underwent further H/D exchange in an ion-molecule complex. Electron structure calculations on the charge-reduced ions indicated that the unpaired electron was delocalized between the diazirine and amide ?* electronic systems in the low electronic states of the cation-radicals. The diazirine moiety in GL*GGK-NH2was calculated to have an intrinsic electron affinity of 1.5 eV, which was further increased by the Coulomb effect of the peptide positive charge. Mechanisms are proposed for the unusual elimination of hydrazine from the photo-labeled peptide ions.

  10. Tungsten Trioxide/Zinc Tungstate Bilayers: Electrochromic Behaviors, Energy Storage and Electron Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Tungsten oxide and zinc tungstate bilayers have been prepared via a facile sol-gel method for integrated applications of electrochromic behaviors and energy storage;. • Electron transfer behaviors between the semiconductor bilayer films have been found dependent on the bilayer assembly sequence;. • Methylene blue (MB) has been employed for the first time as an indicator to study the electron transfer phenomenon in the bilayer films. - Abstract: Pair-sequentially spin-coated tungsten trioxide (WO3) and zinc tungstate (ZnWO4) bilayer films onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass slides have been prepared via sol-gel methods followed by annealing. The bilayers (ZnWO4/WO3 denoting the bilayer film with the inner layer of ZnWO4 and the outer layer of WO3 on the ITO while WO3/ZnWO4 standing for the bilayer film with the inner layer of WO3 and the outer layer of ZnWO4 on the ITO) exhibit integrated functions of electrochromic and energy storage behaviors as indicated by the in situ spectroelectrochemistry and cyclic voltammetry (CV) results. Accordingly, blue color was observed for the bilayer films at -1 V in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. An areal capacitance of 140 and 230 ?F/cm2 was obtained for the ZnWO4/WO3, and WO3/ZnWO4 film, respectively, at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s in the CV measurements. The CV results also unveiled the electron transfer behavior between the semiconductor films in the oxidation process, suggesting a sequence-dependent electrochemical response in the bilayer films. Meanwhile, methylene blue (MB) was used as an indicator to study the electron transfer phenomenon during the reduction process at negative potentials of -0.4 and -0.8 V, in 0.5 M Na2SO4. The results indicated that the electrons transfer across the bilayers was enhanced at more negative potentials

  11. Intermolecular interactions in rifabutin—2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin—water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshakova, A. V.; Yermolenko, Yu. V.; Konyukhov, V. Yu.; Polshakov, V. I.; Maksimenko, O. O.; Gelperina, S. E.

    2015-05-01

    The possibility of a intermolecular complex rifabutin (RB)-2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) formed as a result of the interaction of the piperidine fragment of the RB molecule and the hydrophobic cavity of the HP-?-CD molecule was found. The stability constant of the intermolecular complex was determined.

  12. An Intermolecular Vibration Model for Lattice Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn M. Brewster

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lattice ice with tetrahedral arrangement is studied using a modified Einstein’s model that incorporates the hindered translational and rotational vibration bands into a harmonic oscillation system. The fundamental frequencies for hindered translational and rotational vibrations are assigned based on the intermolecular vibration bands as well as thermodynamic properties from existing experimental data. Analytical forms for thermodynamic properties are available for the modified model, with three hindered translational bands at (65, 229, 229 cm-1 and three effective hindered rotational bands at 560 cm-1. The derived results are good for temperatures higher than 30 K. To improve the model below 30 K, Lorentzian broadening correction is added. This simple model helps unveil the physical picture of ice lattice vibration behavior.

  13. Interfacial electron transfer dynamics of ru(II)-polypy6ridine sensitized TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubikova, Elena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Snoeberger, Robert C [YALE UNIV.; Batista, Victor S [YALE UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dynamics simulations combined with density functional theory calculations are applied to study interfacial electron transfer (IET) from pyridine-4-phosphonic acid, [Ru(tpy)(tpy(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}))]{sup 2+} and [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(H{sub 2}O)-Ru(tpy)(tpy(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}))]{sup 4+} into the (101) surface of anatase TiO{sub 2}. IET rate from pyridine-4-phosphonic acid attached to the nanoparticle in bidentate mode ({tau} {approx} 100 fs) is an order of magnitude faster than the IET rate of the adsorbate attached in the monodentate mode ({tau} {approx} 1 ps). Upon excitation with visible light, [Ru(tpy)(tpy(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}))]{sup 2+} attached to TiO{sub 2} in bidentate binding mode will undergo IET with the rate of {approx} 1-10 ps, which is competitive with the excited state decay into the ground state. The probability of electron injection from [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(H{sub 2}O)-Ru(tpy)(tpy(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}))]{sup 4+} is rather low, as the excitation with visible light localizes the excited electron in the tpy-tpy bridge, which does not have favorable coupling with the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle. The results are relevant to better understanding of the adsorbate features important for promoting efficient interfacial electron transfer into the semiconductor.

  14. Some mathematical models of intermolecular autophosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Kevin; Meere, Martin; Piiroinen, Petri T

    2015-04-01

    Intermolecular autophosphorylation refers to the process whereby a molecule of an enzyme phosphorylates another molecule of the same enzyme. The enzyme thereby catalyses its own phosphorylation. In the present paper, we develop two generic models of intermolecular autophosphorylation that also include dephosphorylation by a phosphatase of constant concentration. The first of these, a solely time-dependent model, is written as one ordinary differential equation that relies upon mass-action and Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Beginning with the enzyme in its dephosphorylated state, it predicts a lag before the enzyme becomes significantly phosphorylated, for suitable parameter values. It also predicts that there exists a threshold concentration for the phosphorylation of enzyme and that for suitable parameter values, a continuous or discontinuous switch in the phosphorylation of enzyme are possible. The model developed here has the advantage that it is relatively easy to analyse compared with most existing models for autophosphorylation and can qualitatively describe many different systems. We also extend our time-dependent model of autophosphorylation to include a spatial dependence, as well as localised binding reactions. This spatio-temporal model consists of a system of partial differential equations that describe a soluble autophosphorylating enzyme in a spherical geometry. We use the spatio-temporal model to describe the phosphorylation of an enzyme throughout the cell due to an increase in local concentration by binding. Using physically realistic values for model parameters, our results provide a proof-of-concept of the process of activation by local concentration and suggest that, in the presence of a phosphatase, this activation can be irreversible. PMID:25636493

  15. Photoinduced electron and energy transfer in a new porphyrin-phthalocyanine triad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexes of porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and chlorophylls are well suited for modelling both the electron and energy transfer processes in photosynthetic reaction centers and natural chlorophyll complexes. In the present paper, we report the synthesis and photophysical characterization of a novel tetraphenylporphyrin-silicon(IV) phthalocyanine triad, where two porphyrins are linked to the central silicon atom of a phthalocyanine moiety. It has been found that the photophysical properties of the triad (Tr) are strongly affected by two different types of interactions between the porphyrin (P) and the phthalocyanine (Pc) parts of Tr, namely excitation energy transfer (EET) and photoinduced electron transfer (ET). The first one results in appearance of the Pc fluorescence when the P-part was initially excited and plays dominant role in fast depopulation of the first excited singlet state of the P moiety. Another competitive process in quenching of P-part fluorescence is electron transfer, but the probability of it is six times less compared to that of EET. If the first excited singlet state of the Pc-part is populated (directly or via EET), it undergoes fast depopulation via ET to the charge-separated state. As a result, the fluorescence quantum yield of the Pc-part of Tr is approximately three orders of magnitude less compared to that of silicon(IV) phthalocyanine with two axial poly(ethylene glycol) chains (SiPc) used as a reference. Analysis of transient absorption darence. Analysis of transient absorption data has shown that charge-recombination occurs with a decay time of 30 ps directly to the ground state

  16. Synthesis of poly(ethyl acrylate) by single electron transfer-degenerative chain transfer living radical polymerization in water catalyzed by Na2S2O4

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Jorge F. J.; Carvalho, Erica Y.; Marques, Dina S.; Popov, Anatoliy V.; Percec, Virgil; Gonçalves, Pedro M. F. O.; Gil, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Living radical polymerization of ethyl acrylate was achieved by single-electron-transfer/degenerative-chain transfer mediated living radical polymerization in water catalyzed by sodium dithionite. The plots of number-average molecular weight versus conversion and ln[M]0/[M] versus time are linear, indicating a controlled polymerization. This method leads to the preparation of alpha,omega-di(iodo)poly(ethyl acrylate) (alpha,omega-di(iodo)PEtA) macroinitiator that can be further functionalized....

  17. Kinetics and energetics of one-electron-transfer reactions involving tryptophan neutral and cation radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, S.V. (Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Beograd (Yugoslavia)), Steenken, S. (Max-Planck-Institute fuer Strahlenchemie, Ruhr (West Germany)); Simic, M.G. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

    1991-01-24

    Reversible one-electron-transfer reactions involving the tryptophan cation and neutral radicals were investigated by pulse radiolysis. The one-electron-reduction potential of the neutral tryptophan radical at pH 7 was determined to be E{sub 7} = 1.01 {plus minus} 0.03 V by using the bis(1,4,7-triazacyclononane)nickel(III/II) redox couple with E = 0.95 V as a standard. The value obtained with promethazine (E = 0.89 V) as a standard at pH 6 was E{sub 6} = 1.11 V. From these measurements, a mean value E{sub 7} = 1.03 V results, in agreement with some earlier determinations (1.05 and 1.08 V) obtained in experiments with inorganic redox standards. The kinetics and energetics of the reactions of the tryptophan neutral and cation radicals with selected electron donors were also investigated.

  18. Kinetics and energetics of one-electron-transfer reactions involving tryptophan neutral and cation radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reversible one-electron-transfer reactions involving the tryptophan cation and neutral radicals were investigated by pulse radiolysis. The one-electron-reduction potential of the neutral tryptophan radical at pH 7 was determined to be E7 = 1.01 ± 0.03 V by using the bis(1,4,7-triazacyclononane)nickel(III/II) redox couple with E = 0.95 V as a standard. The value obtained with promethazine (E = 0.89 V) as a standard at pH 6 was E6 = 1.11 V. From these measurements, a mean value E7 = 1.03 V results, in agreement with some earlier determinations (1.05 and 1.08 V) obtained in experiments with inorganic redox standards. The kinetics and energetics of the reactions of the tryptophan neutral and cation radicals with selected electron donors were also investigated

  19. Single-molecule Mapping of Long-range Electron Transfer for a Cytochrome b562 Variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio; Chi, Qijin

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome b562 was engineered to introduce a cysteine residue at a surface-exposed position to facilitate direct self-assembly on a Au(111) surface. The confined protein exhibited reversible and fast electron exchange with a gold substrate over a distance of 20 Å between the heme redox center and the gold surface, a clear indication that a long-range electron-transfer pathway is established. Electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy was used to map electron transport features of the protein at the single-molecule level. Tunneling resonance was directly imaged and apparent molecular conductance was measured, which both show strong redox-gated effects. This study has addressed the first case of heme proteins and offered new perspectives in single-molecule bioelectronics.

  20. Electron transfer reactions in some complexes of V+2, Co+3 and Eu+3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability constants ?1, ?2, ?3 for the mono-,bis-and tris-substituted complexes from vanadium (III) ions with the pyridine-2-carboxilate liquid are determined potentiometrically. The tris-substituted complex in aqueous solutions by electronic spectra and reversible cyclic voltammetry using gold electrodes is extensively characterized. In the investigation of electron tranfer kinetics involving mild oxidizing complexes, such as Co(NH3)3+6, Co(en)3+3, Co(en)2 gly2+, Co (histidinate)+2, Ru(NH3)3+6 and Eu3+ ions, the tris (picolinate) vanadate (III) complex is used. Electron transfer kinetics for the Eu3+/2+ couple in terms of a pseudo-first order process is analysed. The results, in terms of a tunneling mechanism, involving a set of similar, nuclear coordinates for the reactants and products, are explained. (M.J.C.)

  1. Chemical reactivity imprint lithography on graphene: Controlling the substrate influence on electron transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing Hua; Jin, Zhong; Kim, Ki Kang; Hilmer, Andrew; Paulus, Geraldine; Shih, Chih-Jen; Ham, Moon-Ho; Sanchez-Yamagishi, Javier; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kong, Jing; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Strano, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The chemical functionalization of graphene enables control over electronic properties and interactions with other materials. Graphene's chemical reactivity is strongly influenced by the underlying substrate. In this paper, we show a stark difference in the rate of electron transfer chemistry with aryl diazonium salts on monolayer graphene supported on a broad range of substrates. Reactions proceed rapidly when graphene is on SiO2 and Al2O3 (sapphire), but negligibly on alkyl-terminated and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) surfaces. The effect cannot be explained by the overall graphene doping levels alone, and can instead be described using a reactivity model accounting for substrate-induced electron-hole puddles in graphene. Raman spectroscopic mapping is used to characterize the effect of the substrates on graphene. Reactivity imprint lithography (RIL) is demonstrated as a technique for spatially patterning chemical groups on graphene by patterning the underlying substrate, and is applied to the covalent tethering of proteins on graphene.

  2. Quantum mechanics of electronic-rotational energy transfer in F(2P) + H2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study is made of electronic-rotational energy transfer in F(2P) + H2 three-dimensional collisions, with electronic matrix elements from DIM theory. The quantum close-coupled equations are integrated via the R-matrix propagation method. Inelastic quenching probabilities are emphasized, with and without simulated open reaction channels. Interweaving patterns in the transition probability for even and odd nuclear parity vs. J (total angular momentum quantum number) are analyzed in terms of avoided crossing structure in the electrotational energy correlation diagrams. Localized regions where electronic quenching is dominant are identified in the correlation diagrams, and are confirmed in separate calculations which neglect interchannel mixing in local regions of the atom-molecule separation. Open reaction channels are found to have little influence on the quenching probabilities in these low energy calculations

  3. Noise-Assisted Quantum Electron Transfer in Multi-Level Donor-Acceptor System

    CERN Document Server

    Gurvitz, Shmuel; Berman, Gennady P

    2014-01-01

    We analytically and numerically study noise-assisted quantum electron transfer (ET) in bio-complexes consisting of a single-level electron donor and an acceptor which is modeled by many electron energy levels. Interactions are included between the donor and the acceptor energy levels and with the protein environment, which is modeled by a diagonal classical noise acting on all donor and acceptor energy levels. Different regions of parameters characterizing (i) the number of the acceptor levels, (ii) the acceptor "band-width", and (iii) the amplitude of noise and its correlation time are considered. Under some conditions, we derive analytical expressions for the ET rate and efficiency, which reveal the coarse-grain features. We obtain equal occupation of all levels at large times, independently of the structure of the acceptor band. We discuss the multi-scale regime of the acceptor population, and the accompanying effect of quantum coherent oscillations, which are analogous to those observed in experiments on ...

  4. Laser-assisted ionization-excitation of helium by electron impact at large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionization of a helium atom by electron impact in the presence of laser radiation is studied theoretically. The kinematic regime of high impact energy and large momentum transfer is considered. The S-matrix of the process is treated within the first Born and binary-encounter approximations. Triple differential cross sections are calculated for the cases when the residual He+ ion is left both in the ground (n=1) and in the first excited (n=2) states in the presence of a laser field with frequency ? = 1.55 eV and intensity I = 5*1011 W/cm2. The laser-assisted cross sections corresponding to n=2 are found to be more sensitive to the electron-electron correlations in helium than the field-free ones. (authors)

  5. A Bioelectrochemical Approach to Characterize Extracellular Electron Transfer by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, Angelo; Hitchcock, Andrew; Symes, Mark D.; Cronin, Leroy; Bibby, Thomas S.; Jones, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    Biophotovoltaic devices employ photosynthetic organisms at the anode of a microbial fuel cell to generate electrical power. Although a range of cyanobacteria and algae have been shown to generate photocurrent in devices of a multitude of architectures, mechanistic understanding of extracellular electron transfer by phototrophs remains minimal. Here we describe a mediatorless bioelectrochemical device to measure the electrogenic output of a planktonically grown cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Light dependent production of current is measured, and its magnitude is shown to scale with microbial cell concentration and light intensity. Bioelectrochemical characterization of a Synechocystis mutant lacking Photosystem II demonstrates conclusively that production of the majority of photocurrent requires a functional water splitting aparatus and electrons are likely ultimately derived from water. This shows the potential of the device to rapidly and quantitatively characterize photocurrent production by genetically modified strains, an approach that can be used in future studies to delineate the mechanisms of cyanobacterial extracellular electron transport. PMID:24637387

  6. New insights into the mechanism of electron transfer within flavohemoglobins: tunnelling pathways, packing density, thermodynamic and kinetic analyses.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    El Hammi, E.; Houée-Lévin, Ch.; ?ezá?, Jan; Lévy, B.; Demachy, I.; Baciou, L.; de la Lande, A.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 14, ?. 40 (2012), s. 13872-13880. ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : metalloenzymes * flavohemoglobin * electron transfer * monooxygenase Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.829, year: 2012

  7. Probing Nonadiabaticity in the Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reaction Catalyzed by Soybean Lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2014-09-18

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) plays a vital role in many biological and chemical processes. PCET rate constant expressions are available for various well-defined regimes, and determining which expression is appropriate for a given system is essential for reliable modeling. Quantitative diagnostics have been devised to characterize the vibronic nonadiabaticity between the electron-proton quantum subsystem and the classical nuclei, as well as the electron-proton nonadiabaticity between the electrons and proton(s) within the quantum subsystem. Herein these diagnostics are applied to a model of the active site of the enzyme soybean lipoxygenase, which catalyzes a PCET reaction that exhibits unusually high deuterium kinetic isotope effects at room temperature. Both semiclassical and electronic charge density diagnostics illustrate vibronic and electron-proton nonadiabaticity for this PCET reaction, supporting the use of the Golden rule nonadiabatic rate constant expression with a specific form of the vibronic coupling. This type of characterization will be useful for theoretical modeling of a broad range of PCET processes. PMID:25258676

  8. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in Molecular Electrocatalysis: Theoretical Methods and Design Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis, Brian H.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2014-07-07

    Molecular electrocatalysts play an essential role in a wide range of energy conversion processes. The objective of electrocatalyst design is to maximize the turnover frequency and minimize the overpotential for the overall catalytic cycle. Typically the catalytic cycle is dominated by key proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes comprised of sequential or concerted electron transfer and proton transfer steps. A variety of theoretical methods have been developed to investigate the mechanisms, thermodynamics, and kinetics of PCET processes in electrocatalytic cycles. Electronic structure methods can be used to calculate the reduction potentials and pKa’s and to generate thermodynamic schemes, free energy reaction pathways, and Pourbaix diagrams, which indicate the most stable species at each pH and potential. These types of calculations have assisted in identifying the thermodynamically favorable mechanisms under specified experimental conditions, such as acid strength and overpotential. Such calculations have also revealed linear correlations among the thermodynamic properties, which can be used to predict the impact of modifying the ligand, substituents, or metal center. The role of non-innocent ligands, namely ligand protonation or reduction, has also been examined theoretically. In addition, the rate constants for electron and proton transfer reactions, as well as concerted PCET reactions, have been calculated to investigate the kinetics of molecular electrocatalysts. The concerted PCET mechanism is thought to lower the overpotential required for catalysis by avoiding high-energy intermediates. Rate constant calculations have revealed that the concerted mechanism involving intramolecular proton transfer will be favored by designing more flexible ligands that facilitate the proton donor-acceptor motion while also maintaining a sufficiently short equilibrium proton donor-acceptor distance. Overall, theoretical methods have assisted in the interpretation of experimental data and the design of more effective molecular electrocatalysts. The research on the Ni(P2N2)2 catalysts was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  9. Electron transfer and aqua cation-cation complex formation in the excited state of the uranyl ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excited-state mechanistic aspects of electron transfer between two aqua-cationic species are investigated and discussed in the case of excites UO2+2sub(()sub(a)sub(q)sub()) as acceptor and Ag+sub(()sub(a)sub(q)sub()) as donor. It is shown that excited-state electron transfer leads to an inner-sphere non-radiative complex of appreciable binding energy. (orig.)

  10. A femtosecond study of photoinduced electron transfer from dimethylaniline to coumarin dyes in a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide micelle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from N,N-dimethylaniline to coumarin dyes in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micelle is studied using femtosecond upconversion spectroscopy. The rate of PET in a CTAB micelle is found to be highly nonexponential with components much faster (?10 ps) than the slow components of solvation dynamics. The ultrafast components of electron transfer exhibits a bell-shaped dependence on the free energy change which is similar to the Marcus inversion

  11. Electron Transport, Energy Transfer, and Optical Response in Single Molecule Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alexander James

    The last decade has seen incredible growth in the quality of experiments being done on single molecule junctions. Contemporary experimental measurements have expanded far beyond simple electron transport. Measurement of vibronic eects, quantum interference and decoherence eects, molecular optical response (Raman spectroscopy), and molecular spintronics are just some of the continuing areas of research in single molecule junctions. Experimental advancements demand advanced theoretical treatments, which can be used accurately within appropriate physical regimes, in order to understand measured phenomena and predict interesting directions for future study. In this dissertation we will study systems with strong intra-system interactions using a many-body states based approach. We will be focused on three related processes in molecular junctions: electron transport, electronic energy transfer, and molecular excitation. Inelastic electron transport in the regime of strong and nonlinear electron-vibration coupling within and outside of the Born-Oppenheimer regime will be investigated. To understand their appropriateness, we will compare simple semi-classical approximations in molecular redox junctions and electron-counting devices to fully quantum calculations based on many-body system states. The role of coherence and quantum interference in energy and electron transfer in molecular junctions is explored. Experiments that simultaneously measure surface enhanced Raman scattering and electron conduction have revealed a strong interaction between conducting electrons and molecular excitation. We investigate the role of the molecular response to a classical surface plasmon enhanced electric eld considering the back action of the oscillating molecular dipole. Raman scattering is quantum mechanical by nature and involves strong interaction between surface plasmons in the contacts and the molecular excitation. We develop a scheme for treating strong plasmon-molecular excitation interactions quantum mechanically within nonequilibrium molecular junctions. Finally we perform preliminary calculations of the Raman spectrum of a three-ring oligophenylene vinylene terminating in amine functional groups molecule in a molecular junction and compare our results to experimental measurements. This work is the rst steps towards full calculations of the optical response of current-carrying molecular junction, which should combine classical calculations of the plasmon enhanced electric field with quantum calculations for the plasmon-molecular exciton interaction and nonequilibrium Raman scattering.

  12. Intermolecular distances of carboxylated TEMPO derivatives on TiO2 evaluated by spin-probe ESR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yuta; Kushimoto, Kohei; Komaguchi, Kenji; Ooyama, Yousuke; Imae, Ichiro; Ohshita, Joji; Harima, Yutaka

    2012-12-14

    Nearest-neighbor intermolecular distances of molecules adsorbed on the surface of nanocrystalline TiO(2) particles were evaluated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique with molecules having a nitroxide radical and a carboxyl group as a spin probe to clarify their aggregation behaviors on TiO(2) and the influence of coadsorbates. PMID:23099428

  13. Density matrix treatment of non-adiabatic photoinduced electron transfer at a semiconductor surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micha, David A

    2012-12-14

    Photoinduced electron transfer at a nanostructured surface leads to localized transitions and involves three different types of non-adiabatic couplings: vertical electronic transitions induced by light absorption emission, coupling of electronic states by the momentum of atomic motions, and their coupling due to interactions with electronic density fluctuations and vibrational motions in the substrate. These phenomena are described in a unified way by a reduced density matrix (RDM) satisfying an equation of motion that contains dissipative rates. The RDM treatment is used here to distinguish non-adiabatic phenomena that are localized from those due to interaction with a medium. The fast decay of localized state populations due to electronic density fluctuations in the medium has been treated within the Lindblad formulation of rates. The formulation is developed introducing vibronic states constructed from electron orbitals available from density functional calculations, and from vibrational states describing local atomic displacements. Related ab initio molecular dynamics calculations have provided diabatic momentum couplings between excited electronic states. This has been done in detail for an indirect photoexcitation mechanism of the surface Ag(3)Si(111):H, which leads to long lasting electronic charge separation. The resulting coupled density matrix equations are solved numerically to obtain the population of the final charge-separated state as it changes over time, for several values of the diabatic momentum coupling. New insight and unexpected results are presented here which can be understood in terms of photoinduced non-adiabatic transitions involving many vibronic states. It is found that the population of long lasting charge separation states is larger for smaller momentum coupling, and that their population grows faster for smaller coupling. PMID:23249058

  14. Coupled quantum-classical method for long range charge transfer: relevance of the nuclear motion to the quantum electron dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robson; Hoff, Diego A.; Rego, Luis G. C.

    2015-04-01

    Charge and excitonic-energy transfer phenomena are fundamental for energy conversion in solar cells as well as artificial photosynthesis. Currently, much interest is being paid to light-harvesting and energy transduction processes in supramolecular structures, where nuclear dynamics has a major influence on electronic quantum dynamics. For this reason, the simulation of long range electron transfer in supramolecular structures, under environmental conditions described within an atomistic framework, has been a difficult problem to study. This work describes a coupled quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method that aims at describing long range charge transfer processes in supramolecular systems, taking into account the atomistic details of large molecular structures, the underlying nuclear motion, and environmental effects. The method is applied to investigate the relevance of electron–nuclei interaction on the mechanisms for photo-induced electron–hole pair separation in dye-sensitized interfaces as well as electronic dynamics in molecular structures.

  15. Coupled quantum-classical method for long range charge transfer: relevance of the nuclear motion to the quantum electron dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robson; Hoff, Diego A; Rego, Luis G C

    2015-04-10

    Charge and excitonic-energy transfer phenomena are fundamental for energy conversion in solar cells as well as artificial photosynthesis. Currently, much interest is being paid to light-harvesting and energy transduction processes in supramolecular structures, where nuclear dynamics has a major influence on electronic quantum dynamics. For this reason, the simulation of long range electron transfer in supramolecular structures, under environmental conditions described within an atomistic framework, has been a difficult problem to study. This work describes a coupled quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method that aims at describing long range charge transfer processes in supramolecular systems, taking into account the atomistic details of large molecular structures, the underlying nuclear motion, and environmental effects. The method is applied to investigate the relevance of electron-nuclei interaction on the mechanisms for photo-induced electron-hole pair separation in dye-sensitized interfaces as well as electronic dynamics in molecular structures. PMID:25767107

  16. Long range electron transfer between tyrosine and tryptophan in hen egg-white lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, M; Alfassi, Z B; DeFelippis, M R; Klapper, M H; Faraggi, M

    1991-01-29

    The azide, dibromide and dichloride radicals oxidize one or more tryptophan side chains in hen egg-white lysozyme. The indolyl radical produced in this second-order 1-electron oxidation subsequently oxidizes a tyrosine side chain to the phenoxy radical in an intramolecular reaction with a rate constant of 130 +/- 10 s-1 at pH 7, 25 degrees C. The final indolyl and phenoxy equilibrium mixture then decays with a t1/2 approximately 2 s. The faster intramolecular reaction exhibits a pH dependence; on decreasing the pH from 9 the first-order rate constant increases to a maximum near pH 5.4 and then declines as the pH is lowered further. In contrast, the first-order rate constant for the intramolecular electron transfer between the tyrosine and tryptophan of the peptide trpH-pro-tyrOH remains unchanged between approx. pH 11 and 6.5 and then increases as the pH is lowered further. This difference in the observed pH dependence suggests that changes in structure or ionization state influence the protein electron transfer rate. We also discuss the radiation inactivation of lysozyme in light of these observations. PMID:1998717

  17. Quantum correction for electron transfer rates. Comparison of polarizable versus nonpolarizable descriptions of solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueyu; Marcus, R. A.

    1993-11-01

    The electron transfer rate constant is treated using the spin-boson Hamiltonian model. The spectral density is related to the experimentally accessible data on the dielectric dispersion of the solvent, using a dielectric continuum approximation. On this basis the quantum correction for the ferrous-ferric electron transfer rate is found to be a factor 9.6. This value is smaller than the corresponding result (36) of Chandler and co-workers in their pioneering quantum simulation using a molecular model of the system [J. S. Bader, R. A. Kuharski, and D. Chandler, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 230 (1990)]. The likely reason for the difference lies in use of a rigid water molecular model in the simulation, since we find that other models for water in the literature which neglect the electronic and vibrational polarizability also give a large quantum effect. Such models are shown to overestimate the dielectric dispersion in one part of the quantum mechanically important region and to underestimate it in another part. It will be useful to explore a polarizable molecular model which reproduces the experimental dielectric response over the relevant part of the frequency spectrum.

  18. Diving into the redox properties of Geobacter sulfurreducens cytochromes: a model for extracellular electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Telma C; Silva, Marta A; Morgado, Leonor; Dantas, Joana M; Salgueiro, Carlos A

    2015-05-12

    Geobacter bacteria have a remarkable respiratory versatility that includes the dissimilatory reduction of insoluble metal oxides in natural habitats and electron transfer to electrode surfaces from which electricity can be harvested. In both cases, electrons need to be exported from the cell interior to the exterior via a mechanism designated as extracellular electron transfer (EET). Several c-type cytochromes from G. sulfurreducens (Gs) were identified as key players in this process. Biochemical and biophysical data have been obtained for ten Gs cytochromes, including inner-membrane associated (MacA), periplasmic (PpcA, PpcB, PpcC, PpcD, PpcE and GSU1996) and outer membrane-associated (OmcF, OmcS and OmcZ). The redox properties of these cytochromes have been determined, except for PpcC and GSU1996. In this perspective, the reduction potentials of these two cytochromes were determined by potentiometric redox titrations followed by visible spectroscopy. The data obtained are taken together with those available for other key cytochromes to present a thorough overview of the current knowledge of Gs EET mechanisms and provide a possible rationalization for the existence of several multiheme cytochromes involved in the same respiratory pathways. PMID:25906375

  19. Identification of an electron transfer locus in plastocyanin by chromium(II) affinity labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1981-01-01

    Cu(II)--plastocyanin from French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) is reduced quantitatively by Cr(II)aq ions to give a substitution-inert Cr(III) adduct of Cu(I)--plastocyanin. Enzymatic proteolysis of this derivative by thermolysin led to the identification of the Cr(III) binding peptide. This contains four potential ligands for the metal ion: aspartate-42 and -44 and glutamate-43 and -45. In the three-dimensional fold of plastocyanin, this stretch is very close to tyrosine-83. The emission intensity and its pH dependence observed for the tyrosines in this tryptophan-devoid protein differ markedly in the Cr(III) adduct. That difference is interpreted as reflecting proximity and interaction between the latter metal ion and tyrosine-83. The distance between the copper center and the suggested Cr(III) binding site is approximately 12 A. The intervening region contains an array of highly invariant aromatic residues. These are proposed to be involved in the electron transfer process. A mechanism for that process is presented that involves interaction between the d electrons of the metal ions with d pi-pi* delocalization through a weakly coupled pi* system. The rationale of this electron transfer pathway for the reactivity of plastocyanin with inorganic redox agents is discussed.

  20. Investigation of heat transfer phenomena and flow behavior around electronic chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar j. Habeeb

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational study of three-dimensional laminar and turbulent flows around electronic chip (heat source located on a printed circuit board are presented. Computational field involves the solution of elliptic partial differential equations for conservation of mass, momentum, energy, turbulent energy, and its dissipation rate in finite volume form. The k-? turbulent model was used with the wall function concept near the walls to treat of turbulence effects. The SIMPLE algorithm was selected in this work. The chip is cooled by an external flow of air. The goals of this investigation are to investigate the heat transfer phenomena of electronic chip located in enclosure and how we arrive to optimum level for cooling of this chip. These parameters, which will help enhance thermal performance of electronic chip and flow patterns, through the understanding of different factors on flow patterns. The results show the relation between the temperature rise, heat transfer parameters (Nu, Ra with (Ar, Q for two cases of laminar and turbulent flows.