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1

Frontier orbital symmetry control of intermolecular electron transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research continued on the study of intermolecular electron transfer. This report discusses the following topics: fluorescence quenching by electron transfer and the modification of quenching dynamics by solvent properties and net free energy change; transient absorption measurements following selective excitation of 1:1 EDA complex isomers; selective quenching of dual fluorescence from linked EDA systems; electron-transfer sensitized cycloreversion of rubrene endoperoxide; and vibronic modification of adiabatic requirements for intermolecular electron transfer. (CBS)

Stevens, B.

1990-11-01

2

Intermolecular interactions in electron transfer through stretched helical peptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The helical peptide Cys-Ala-Lys-(Glu-Ala-Ala-Ala-Lys)(2)-Ala-NH-(CH(2))(2)-SH has been organized forming a self-assembled monolayer on gold (0.602 peptides per nm(2)), its conductance behavior under stretching conditions being studied using scanning tunnelling microscopy and current sensing atomic force microscopy. The helical conformation of the peptide has been found to play a fundamental role in the conductance. Moreover, variation of the current upon molecular stretching indicates that peptides can be significantly elongated before the conductance drops to zero, the critical elongation being 1.22 ± 0.47 nm. Molecular dynamics simulations of a single peptide in the free state and of a variable number of peptides tethered to a gold surface (i.e. densities ranging from 0.026 to 1.295 peptides per nm(2)) have indicated that the helical conformation is intrinsically favored in solvated environments while in desolvated environments it is retained because of the fundamental role played by peptide-peptide intermolecular interactions. The structure obtained for the system with 24 tethered peptides, with a density of 0.634 peptides per nm(2) closest to the experimental one, is in excellent agreement with experimental observations. On the other hand, simulations in which a single molecule is submitted to different compression and stretching processes while the rest remain in the equilibrium have been used to mimic the variation of the tip-substrate distance in experimental measures. Results allowed us to identify the existence, and in some cases coexistence, of intermolecular and intramolecular ionic ladders, suggesting that peptide-mediated electron transfer occurs through the hopping mechanism. Finally, quantum mechanical calculations have been used to investigate the variation of the electronic structure upon compression and stretching deformations. PMID:22735160

López-Pérez, Daniel E; Revilla-López, Guillermo; Jacquemin, Denis; Zanuy, David; Palys, Barbara; Sek, Slawomir; Alemán, Carlos

2012-08-01

3

Frontier orbital symmetry control of intermolecular electron transfer. Final report, September 15, 1988--December 31, 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the following topics: the recovery of intermolecular transfer parameters from fluorescence quenching in liquids; photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer in flexible donor/space/acceptor systems containing an extended unsaturated spacer; electron transfer sensitized reaction; the recovery of solute and fractal dimensions from electron transfer quenching data; and frontier orbital symmetry control of back electron transfer.

Stevens, B.

1997-07-01

4

Electrochemical study of the intermolecular electron transfer to Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetics of electron transfer reaction between cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase (NiR) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and various physiological/non physiological redox partners was investigated using cyclic voltammetry at the pyrolytic graphite electrode. While NiR did not exchange electron with the electrode, cytochrome c551 and azurin, both from Ps. aeruginosa, behaved as fast electrochemical systems. The intermolecular electron transfers between NiR and cytochrome c551 or azurin as electron shuttles, in the presence of nitrite, were studied. Second order rate constants of 2x106 and 1.4x105 M-1 s-1 are calculated for cytochrome c551 and azurin, respectively. The dependence of the second-order rate constant on ionic strength and pH is discussed. Finally, the effect of the global charge of the electron shuttles was explored using differently charged species (proteins or small ions). The experimental results suggest involvement of polar interactions as well as of hydrophobic contacts in the protein recognition prior to the intermolecular electron transfer. As the cross-reaction between Ps. nautica cytochrome c552 and Ps. aeruginosa NiR was shown to be as efficient as the catalytic reaction involving the physiological partners, it is concluded to a 'pseudo-specificity' in the recognition between NiR and the electron donor

2003-04-05

5

Intermolecular electron transfer promoted by directional donor-acceptor attractions in self-assembled diketopyrrolopyrrole-thiophene films.  

Science.gov (United States)

The photophysics of a symmetric triad consisting of two bithiophene (BT) units covalently linked to a central diketopyrrolopyrrole unit (DPP) has been investigated both in dichloromethane and in the thin film. The DPP-BT film exhibits a red-shifted low-energy absorption band compared to its solution, which is indicative of efficient ?-? interactions in the solid-state phase. The steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence results revealed that the photoluminescence was subjected to severe emission quenching when DPP-BT changes from its solution phase to its film form. Further femtosecond transient absorption studies clarified that rapid intermolecular electron transfer accounts for the considerable fluorescence quenching event. The structural characterization of DPP-BT nanobelts, based on GIXRD and SAED patterns, suggested that the composite may be self-assembled into a slipped face-to-face configuration in the film, providing compact interlayer D-A interactions. As a result, intermolecular electron transfer is promoted by the favorable donor-acceptor attractions between the adjacent molecules. Moreover, this packing configuration provides a moderate channel for charge transportation. The hole mobility, which was measured based on a single-belt field-effect transistor, was found to be around 0.07 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Our observation reveals the role of spatial orientation in photophysical processes and the consequential semiconductor performance, providing guidance for the development and self-assembly of new opto-electronic molecules. PMID:22951990

Liu, Huiying; Jia, Hui; Wang, Lanfen; Wu, Yishi; Zhan, Chuanlang; Fu, Hongbing; Yao, Jiannian

2012-11-01

6

Photochemistry on surfaces. 2. Intermolecular electron transfer on colloidal alumina-coated silica particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reductive quenching of two photoexcited ruthenium(II) complexes by an anionic electron donor, 2,2{prime}-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS{sup 2{minus}}), in aqueous solution was examined by laser flash photolysis before and after adding positively charged colloidal (250-{angstrom} diameter) alumina-coated silica particles. The kinetics and quantum yields of electron transfer with an anionic sensitizer, RuL{sub 3}{sup 4{minus}} (L = bathophenanthroline disulfonate), and a cationic one, Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} (bpy = 2,2{prime}-bipyridine), were compared. Coadsorption of ABTS{sup 2{minus}} and RuL{sub 3}{sup 4{minus}} by the particles greatly enhanced the rate of quenching such that only the reaction occurring on the surfaces of the particles was observed. Electron transfer from ABTS{sup 2{minus}} to RuL{sub 3}{sup 4-*} occurred by a static (nondiffusional) process, and the quenching efficiency was maximal when there was close to monolayer coverage of the reactants on the particles. Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} was not adsorbed by the particles and served as a luminescent probe for the determination of the binding capacity of the particles for ABTS{sup 2{minus}}.

Kamat, P.V.; Ford, W.E. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (USA))

1989-02-23

7

Mediated catalysis of Paracoccus pantotrophus cytochrome c peroxidase by P. pantotrophus pseudoazurin: kinetics of intermolecular electron transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports the direct electrochemistry of Paracoccus pantotrophus pseudoazurin and the mediated catalysis of cytochrome c peroxidase from the same organism. The voltammetric behaviour was examined at a gold membrane electrode, and the studies were performed in the presence of calcium to enable the peroxidase activation. A formal reduction potential, E (0)', of 230 +/- 5 mV was determined for pseudoazurin at pH 7.0. Its voltammetric signal presented a pH dependence, defined by pK values of 6.5 and 10.5 in the oxidised state and 7.2 in the reduced state, and was constant up to 1 M NaCl. This small copper protein was shown to be competent as an electron donor to cytochrome c peroxidase and the kinetics of intermolecular electron transfer was analysed. A second-order rate constant of 1.4 +/- 0.2 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) was determined at 0 M NaCl. This parameter has a maximum at 0.3 M NaCl and is pH-independent between pH 5 and 9. PMID:17361419

de Sousa, P M Paes; Pauleta, S R; Gonçalves, M L Simões; Pettigrew, G W; Moura, I; Dos Santos, M M Correia; Moura, J J G

2007-06-01

8

Structure-based engineering of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans copper-containing nitrite reductase enhances intermolecular electron transfer reaction with pseudoazurin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intermolecular electron transfer from Achromobacter cycloclastes pseudoazurin (AcPAZ) to wild-type and mutant Alcaligenes xylosoxidans nitrite reductases (AxNIRs) was investigated using steady-state kinetics and electrochemical methods. The affinity and the electron transfer reaction constant (k(ET)) are considerably lower between AcPAZ and AxNIR (K(m) = 1.34 mM and k(ET) = 0.87 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) than between AcPAZ and its cognate nitrite reductase (AcNIR) (K(m) = 20 microM and k(ET) = 7.3 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)). A negatively charged hydrophobic patch, comprising seven acidic residues around the type 1 copper site in AcNIR, is the site of protein-protein interaction with a positively charged hydrophobic patch on AcPAZ. In AxNIR, four of the negatively charged residues (Glu-112, Glu-133, Glu-195, and Asp-199) are conserved at the corresponding positions of AcNIR, whereas the other three residues are not acidic amino acids but neutral amino acids (Ala-83, Ala-191, and Gly-198). Seven mutant AxNIRs with additional negatively charged residues surrounding the hydrophobic patch of AxNIR (A83D, A191E, G198E, A83D/A191E, A93D/G198E, A191E/G198E, and A83D/A191E/G198E) were prepared to enhance the specificity of the electron transport reaction between AcPAZ and AxNIR. The k(ET) values of these mutants become progressively larger as the number of mutated residues increases. The K(m) and k(ET) values of A83D/A191E/G198E (K(m) = 88 microM and k(ET) = 4.1 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) are 15-fold smaller and 4.7-fold larger than those of wild-type AxNIR, respectively. These results suggest that the introduction of negatively charged residues into the docking surface of AxNIR facilitates both the formation of electron transport complex and the electron transfer reaction. PMID:15475344

Kataoka, Kunishige; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Mayuko; Mori, Tatsuya; Bokui, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Shinnichiro

2004-12-17

9

Determination of intermolecular transfer integrals from DFT calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Theoretical studies of charge transport in organic conducting systems pose a unique challenge since they require multiscale schemes that combine quantum-chemical, molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte-Carlo calculations. The description of the mobility of electrons and holes in the hopping regime relies on the determination of intermolecular hopping rates in large scale morphologies. Using Marcus theory these rates can be calculated from intermolecular transfer integrals and on-site energies. Here we present a detailed computational study on the accuracy and efficiency of density-functional theory based approaches to the determination of intermolecular transfer integrals. First, it is demonstrated how these can be obtained from quantum-chemistry calculations by forming the expectation value of a dimer Fock operator with frontier orbitals of two neighboring monomers based on a projective approach. We then consider the prototypical example of one pair out of a larger morphology of Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium (Alq3) and study the influence of computational parameters, e.g. the choice of basis sets, exchange-correlation functional, and convergence criteria, on the calculated transfer integrals. The respective accuracies and efficiencies are compared in order to derive an optimal strategy for future simulations based on the full morphology.

Baumeier, Bjoern; Andrienko, Denis [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany)

2010-07-01

10

Theoretical study of intermolecular energy transfer involving electronically excited molecules: He("1S) + H_2(B "1?/sub u/"+)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To further understanding of gas phase collision dynamics involving electronically-excited molecules, a fully quantum mechanical study of He + H_2(B "1?/sub u/"+) was undertaken. Iterative natural orbital configuration interaction (CI) calculations were performed to obtain the interaction potential between He and H_2(B "1?/sub u/"+). The potential energy surface (PES) is highly anisotropic and has a van der Waals well of about 0.03 eV for C/sub 2v/ approach. Avoided PES crossings occur with He + H_2(E,F "1?/sub g/"+) and with He + H_2(X "1?/sub g/"+) and cause a local maximum and a deep minimum in the He + H_2(B "1?/sub u/"+) PES, respectively. The crossing with He + H_2(X "1?/sub g/"+) provides a mechanism for fluorescence quenching. The computed CI energies were combined with previous multi-reference double excitation CI calculations and fit with analytic functions for convenience in scattering calculations. Accurate dipole polarizabilities and quadrupole moment of H_2(B "1?/sub u/"+) were computed for use in the multipole expansion, which is the analytic form of the long-range PES. 129 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs

1986-01-01

11

Intermolecular Hydrogen Transfer in Isobutane Hydrate  

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Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of butyl radicals induced with ?-ray irradiation in the simple isobutane (2-methylpropane) hydrate (prepared with deuterated water) were investigated. Isothermal annealing results of the ?-ray-irradiated isobutane hydrate reveal that the isobutyl radical in a large cage withdraws a hydrogen atom from the isobutane molecule through shared hexagonal-faces of adjacent large cages. During this “hydrogen picking” process, the isobutyl radical is apparent...

Naohiro Kobayashi; Takashi Minami; Atsushi Tani; Mikio Nakagoshi; Takeshi Sugahara; Kei Takeya; Kazunari Ohgaki

2012-01-01

12

Intermolecular Hydrogen Transfer in Isobutane Hydrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electron spin resonance (ESR spectra of butyl radicals induced with ?-ray irradiation in the simple isobutane (2-methylpropane hydrate (prepared with deuterated water were investigated. Isothermal annealing results of the ?-ray-irradiated isobutane hydrate reveal that the isobutyl radical in a large cage withdraws a hydrogen atom from the isobutane molecule through shared hexagonal-faces of adjacent large cages. During this “hydrogen picking” process, the isobutyl radical is apparently transformed into a tert-butyl radical, while the sum of isobutyl and tert-butyl radicals remains constant. The apparent transformation from isobutyl to tert-butyl radicals is an irreversible first-order reaction and the activation energy was estimated to be 35 ± 3 kJ/mol, which was in agreement with the activation energy (39 ± 5 kJ/mol of hydrogen picking in the ?-ray-irradiated propane hydrate with deuterated water.

Takeshi Sugahara

2012-05-01

13

Mulliken-Hush elucidation of the encounter (precursor) complex in intermolecular electron transfer via self-exchange of tetracyanoethylene anion-radical  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paramagnetic [1:1] encounter complex (TCNE)2-dot is established as the important precursor in the kinetics and mechanism of electron-transfer for the self-exchange between tetracyanoethylene acceptor (TCNE) and its radical-anion as the donor. Spectroscopic observation of the dimeric complex (TCNE)2-dot by its intervalence absorption band at the solvent-dependent wavelength of ?IV?1500nm facilitates the application of Mulliken-Hush theory which reveals the significant electronic interaction extant between the pair of cofacial TCNE moieties with the sizable coupling of HDA=1000cm-1. The transient existence of such an encounter complex provides the critical link in the electron-transfer kinetics by lowering the classical Marcus reorganization barrier by the amount of HDA in this strongly adiabatic system. Ab initio quantum-mechanical methods as applied to independent theoretical computations of both the reorganization energy (?) and the electronic coupling element (HDA) confirm the essential correctness of the Mulliken-Hush formalism for fast electron transfer via strongly coupled donor/acceptor encounter complexes

2006-05-09

14

Intermolecular proton transfer in anionic complexes of uracil with alcohols  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of eighteen alcohols (ROH) has been designed with an enthalpy of deprotonation (HDP) in a range of 13.8-16.3 eV. The effects of excess electron attachment to the binary alcohol-uracil (ROH…U) complexes have been studied at the density functional level with a B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and at the second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory level. The photoelectron spectra of anionic complexes of uracil with three alcohols (ethanol, 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoroethanol and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol) have been measured with 2.54 eV photons. For ROHs with deprotonation enthalpies larger than 14.8 eV only the ROH...U- minimum exists on the potential energy surface of the anionic complex. For alcohols with deprotonation enthalpies in a range of 14.3-14.8 eV two minima might exist on the anionic potential energy surface, which correspond to the RO-…HU. and ROH...U- structures. For ROHs with deprotonation enthalpies smaller than 14.3 eV, the excess electron attachment to the ROH…U complex always induces a barrier-free proton transfer from the hydroxyl group of ROH to the O8 atom of U, with the product being RO-…HU.. A driving force for the intermolecular proton transfer is to stabilize the excess negative charge localized on a ?* orbital of uracil. Therefore, these complexes with proton transferred to the anionic uracil are characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy (VDE). The values of VDE for anionic complexes span a range from 1.0 to 2.3 eV and roughly correlate with the acidity of alcohols. However, there is a gap of ~0.5 eV in the values of VDE, which separates the two families, ROH...U- and RO-…HU., of anionic complexes. The energy of stabilization for the anionic complexes spans a range from 0.6 to 1.7 eV and roughly correlates with the acidity of alcohols. The measured photoelectron spectra are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

Haranczyk, Maciej; Rak, Janusz; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Radisic, Dunja; Stokes, Sarah T.; Bowen, Kit H.

2005-07-14

15

Fluorine-Substituted Phenols as Probes to Study Intermolecular Proton Transfer Induced by Excess Electron Attachment to Uracil-Phenol Complexes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiments suggest that low-energy electrons, possibly localized on nucleic acid bases, induce DNA damage. The results of our recent studies strongly suggest that the excess electron attachment to the complex of a nucleic acid base with an amino acid can induce a barrier-free proton transfer (BFPT from the amino acid to the O8 of uracil. The driving force for the proton transfer is to stabilize the excess electron localized on a ?* orbital. Our further studies also demonstrated that BFPT occurs in anionic complexes of uracil with alanine, formic acid, as well as H2Se and H2S. We briefly determined factors governing the occurrence of proton transfer in complexes between anionic nucleic acid bases (NABs and proton donors. We found that the occurrence of BFPT in the uracil complexes is an outcome of the interplay between the deprotonation energy of a proton donor and the protonation energy of the anion of uracil. The density functional theory (DFT was applied as our research method. The B3LYP and MPW1K exchange-correlation functionals with 6-31++G** (5d basis set were used. The substitution of five hydrogen atoms with fluorine atoms in phenol molecule decreases the energy of deprotonation from 15.3 eV to 14.4 eV. There are 5 groups of F-substituted phenol isomers and 19 structures in total. These 19 molecules provide fine grid on the scale of deprotonation energy and can be used as a probe to study the BFPT phenomenon. In the case of uracil-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenol and uracil-2,4,6-trifluorophenol complexes, the excess electron attachment can induce BFPT from the hydroxyl group to the O8 atom of U, with the products being a hydrogenated uracil and a deprotonated fluorophenol. No BFPT is predicted for the anions of other uracil-phenol complexes. The estimated critical value of deprotonation energy of a F-substituted phenol for which BFPT takes place is 14.86-15.38 eV. Further studies can be preformed to obtain a higher accuracy of this estimation.

Maciej Haranczyk

2004-07-01

16

Mechanistic studies of photoinduced intramolecular and intermolecular electron transfer processes in RuPt-centred photo-hydrogen-evolving molecular devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

The photoinduced electron transfer properties of two photo-hydrogen-evolving molecular devices (PHEMDs) [(bpy)2Ru(II)(phen-NHCO-bpy-R)Pt(II)Cl2](2+) (i.e., condensation products of [Ru(bpy)2(5-amino-phen)](2+) and (4-carboxy-4?-R-bpy)PtCl2; bpy = 2,2?-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; RuPt-COOH for R = COOH and RuPt-CN for R = CN) were investigated. RuPt-CN demonstrates higher photocatalytic performance relative to RuPt-COOH arising from a larger driving force for the intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer (PET) associated with a stronger electron-withdrawing effect of R (?GPET = ?0.43 eV for RuPt-CN and ?0.16 eV for RuPt-COOH). This is the first study on PET events using ultrafast spectroscopy. Dramatic enhancement is achieved in the rate of PET in RuPt-CN (1.78 × 1010 s(?1)) relative to RuPt-COOH (3.1 × 109 s(?1)). For each system, the presence of three different conformers giving rise to three different PET rates is evidenced, which are also discussed with the DFT results. Formation of a charge-separated (CS) state [(bpy)2Ru(III)(phen-NHCO-bpy(??)-R)Pt(II)Cl2](2+) in the sub-picosecond time regime and recombination in the picosecond time regime are characterized spectrophotometrically. The CS-state formation was found to compete with reductive quenching of the triplet excited state by EDTA whose dianionic form ion-pairs with dicationic RuPt-COOH. Thus, a key intermediate [(bpy)2Ru(II)(phen-NHCO-bpy(??)-R)Pt(II)Cl2](+) (i.e., the one-electron-reduced species) prior to the H2 formation was found to be formed either via reduction of the CS state by EDTA or via formation of [(bpy)2Ru(II)(phen(??)-NHCO-bpy-R)Pt(II)Cl2](+) by reductive quenching of the triplet excited state. More importantly, it is also shown that some of the conformers in solution possess a CS lifetime sufficiently long to drive hydrogen evolution from water. PMID:24316670

Suneesh, Chettiyam Veettil; Balan, Bijitha; Ozawa, Hironobu; Nakamura, Yuki; Katayama, Tetsuro; Muramatsu, Masayasu; Nagasawa, Yutaka; Miyasaka, Hiroshi; Sakai, Ken

2014-01-28

17

Intermolecular proton transfer induced by excess electron attachment to adenine(formic acid)n (n = 2, 3) hydrogen-bonded complexes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The propensity of the neutral complexes between both adenine and 9-methyladenine (A/MA) with formic acid (FA) in 1:2 and 1:3 stoichiometries to bind an excess electron was studied using photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemistry computational methods. Although an isolated canonical adenine does not support bound valence anions, solvation by one formic acid molecule stabilizes the excess electron on adenine. The adiabatic electron affinities of the A/MA(FA)2,3 complexes span a range of 0.8-1.23 eV indicating that the anions of 1:2 and 1:3 stoichiometries are substantially more stable than the anionic A-FA dimer (EA = 0.67 eV), which we studied previously and an attachment of electron triggers double-BFPT, confirmed at the MPW1K level of theory, in all the considered systems. Hence, the simultaneous involvement of several molecules capable of forming cyclic hydrogen bonds with adenine remarkably increases its ability to bind an excess electron. The calculated vertical detachment energies for the most stable anions correspond well with those obtained using photoelectron spectroscopy. The possible biological significance of our findings is briefly discussed

2007-12-06

18

Dynamics of the Intermolecular Transfer Integral in Crystalline Organic Semiconductors  

CERN Multimedia

In organic crystalline semiconductor molecular components are held together by very weak interactions and the transfer integrals between neighboring molecular orbitals are extremely sensitive to small nuclear displacements. We used a mixed quantum chemical and molecular dynamic methodology to assess the effect of nuclear dynamics on the modulation of the transfer integrals between close molecules. We have found that the fluctuations of the transfer integrals are of the same order of magnitude of their average value for pentacene and anthracene. Under these conditions the usual perturbative treatment of the electron phonon coupling is invalid, the band description of the crystal breaks down and the charge carriers become localized. Organic crystals of pentacene and anthracene, even in the absence of defects, can be regarded as disordered media with respect to their charge transport properties. These results suggest that the dynamic electronic disorder can be the factor limiting the charge mobility in crystalli...

Troisi, A; Troisi, Alessandro; Orlandi, Giorgio

2005-01-01

19

Electronic band structure and intermolecular interaction in substituted thiophene polymorphs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total energy calculations based on a density-functional tight-binding scheme have been performed on polymorphic modifications of various thiophene crystals. The electronic band structures exhibit a quasi-one-dimensional interaction in the triclinic crystals, while the monoclinic modifications show no dispersion over the whole Brillouin zone. The main interaction mechanism can be described as a d-? wave function overlap between sulfur and carbon. The strong intermolecular interaction may induce an interchain excitation, responsible for the different optical properties of the polymorphs

2001-06-15

20

Molecular Basis for Directional Electron Transfer*  

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Biological macromolecules involved in electron transfer reactions display chains of closely packed redox cofactors when long distances must be bridged. This is a consequence of the need to maintain a rate of transfer compatible with metabolic activity in the framework of the exponential decay of electron tunneling with distance. In this work intermolecular electron transfer was studied in kinetic experiments performed with the small tetraheme cytochrome from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and fro...

Paquete, Catarina M.; Saraiva, Ivo H.; Calc?ada, Eduardo; Louro, Ricardo O.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Intra- and intermolecular proton transfer in methyl-2-hydroxynicotinate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spectral characteristics of methyl 2-hydroxynicotinate (MEHNA) have been studied using absorption, fluorescence excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as, using single photon counting nanosecond spectrofluorimeter. MEHNA is present as enol in less polar solvents and keto in polar media. In non-polar solvents, large Stokes shifted fluorescence band is assigned to phototautomer, formed by excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT), whereas fluorescence is only observed from keto form in polar solvents. In aqueous and polar solvents monocation (MC) is formed by protonating the exo carbonyl oxygen atom in the ground state (S0) and in the first excited singlet state (S1), MC is obtained by protonating carbonyl oxygen atom of the ester. It is formed by ESIPT from exo carbonyl proton to carbonyl oxygen atom of the ester. Dication is formed by protonating both the oxygen atoms. Two kinds of monoanions formed by deprotonating phenolic proton or >N-H proton of keto suggest the presence of enol and keto in aqueous solution. In cyclohexane MC is formed by protonating carbonyl oxygen in both S0 and S1 states. The electronic structure calculations were performed on each species using semi-empirical quantum mechanical AM1 method and density functional theory B3LYP with 6-31G** basis set using Gaussian 98 program, along with potential energy mapping, to characterize the particular species

2004-11-01

22

Intra- and intermolecular proton transfer in methyl-2-hydroxynicotinate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spectral characteristics of methyl 2-hydroxynicotinate (MEHNA) have been studied using absorption, fluorescence excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as, using single photon counting nanosecond spectrofluorimeter. MEHNA is present as enol in less polar solvents and keto in polar media. In non-polar solvents, large Stokes shifted fluorescence band is assigned to phototautomer, formed by excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT), whereas fluorescence is only observed from keto form in polar solvents. In aqueous and polar solvents monocation (MC) is formed by protonating the exo carbonyl oxygen atom in the ground state (S{sub 0}) and in the first excited singlet state (S{sub 1}), MC is obtained by protonating carbonyl oxygen atom of the ester. It is formed by ESIPT from exo carbonyl proton to carbonyl oxygen atom of the ester. Dication is formed by protonating both the oxygen atoms. Two kinds of monoanions formed by deprotonating phenolic proton or >N-H proton of keto suggest the presence of enol and keto in aqueous solution. In cyclohexane MC is formed by protonating carbonyl oxygen in both S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} states. The electronic structure calculations were performed on each species using semi-empirical quantum mechanical AM1 method and density functional theory B3LYP with 6-31G** basis set using Gaussian 98 program, along with potential energy mapping, to characterize the particular species.

Balamurali, M.M.; Dogra, S.K. E-mail: skdogra@iitk.ac.in

2004-11-01

23

Ultrafast electron transfer, recombination and spin dynamics  

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The quenching of excited singlet methylene blue (1MB+*) by N,N-dimethylaminomethylferrocene (FcN) in acetonitrile at room temperature has been studied using femtosecond pump-probe absorption spectroscopy. At high FcN concentration static quenching via an intermolecular electron transfer mechanism constitutes the predominating decay channel for 1MB+*. The time constants of the large amplitude components for the forward electron transfer from FcN donor to 1MB+* and the subsequent recombination ...

Gilch, Peter; Po?llinger-dammer, Florian; Steiner, Ulrich; Michel-beyerle, Maria Elisabeth

1997-01-01

24

Experimental test of the competition correction for charge capture from the matrix in intermolecular electron tunneling reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Further experimental tests have been made of a previously presented method to correct for competition for charge capture from the matrix in intermolecular electron transfer (ET) reactions in rigid media. The method is based on a two-step tunneling model which takes into account the correlation between matrix charge capture and intermolecular electron transfer. The goal is to obtain reliable intermolecular ET rates as a function of distance from measurements on rigid solutions containing two randomly distributed solutes. The method should yield the same rate vs. distance function for different donor solute concentrations. Good agreement was obtained by applying the competition correction to pulse radioloysis data for the reaction of the biphenyl anion with 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF) at 77 K for donor:acceptor solute concentration ratios of 20:1 to 2:1. Worse agreement was obtained for the reaction of the biphenyl anion with phenanthrene in MTHF, in which case the reaction is slow, and its energetics are substantially influenced by solvation. For such slow reactions, accurate measurements of intermolecular ET rates require donor:acceptor solute concentration ratios so that the donor solute captures most of the matrix charges. Some biphenyl cations are produced by direct ionizations and are stable in frozen MTHF. 14 references, 4 figures, 1 table

1983-01-01

25

Enantioselective Imidation of Sulfides via Enzyme-Catalyzed Intermolecular Nitrogen-Atom Transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Engineering enzymes with novel reaction modes promises to expand the applications of biocatalysis in chemical synthesis and will enhance our understanding of how enzymes acquire new functions. The insertion of nitrogen-containing functional groups into unactivated C-H bonds is not catalyzed by known enzymes but was recently demonstrated using engineered variants of cytochrome P450BM3 (CYP102A1) from Bacillus megaterium. Here, we extend this novel P450-catalyzed reaction to include intermolecular insertion of nitrogen into thioethers to form sulfimides. An examination of the reactivity of different P450BM3 variants toward a range of substrates demonstrates that electronic properties of the substrates are important in this novel enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Moreover, amino acid substitutions have a large effect on the rate and stereoselectivity of sulfimidation, demonstrating that the protein plays a key role in determining reactivity and selectivity. These results provide a stepping stone for engineering more complex nitrogen-atom-transfer reactions in P450 enzymes and developing a more comprehensive biocatalytic repertoire. PMID:24901646

Farwell, Christopher C; McIntosh, John A; Hyster, Todd K; Wang, Z Jane; Arnold, Frances H

2014-06-18

26

Ruthenium-catalyzed oxidation of allyl alcohols with intermolecular hydrogen transfer: synthesis of ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ruthenium-catalyzed oxidation of multisubstituted allyl alcohols in the presence of benzaldehyde gives enals or enones in good yields. Unlike the commonly reported ruthenium-catalyzed isomerization reaction of allyl alcohols to give saturated ketones, an intermolecular rather than intramolecular hydrogen transfer is involved in this transformation. This reaction offers an efficient, mild, and high-yielding method for the preparation of substituted ?,?-unsaturated compounds. PMID:24571413

Ren, Kai; Hu, Bei; Zhao, Mengmeng; Tu, Yahui; Xie, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhaoguo

2014-03-01

27

Studies in intermolecular energy transfer between certain aromatic bases and 2, 3-Dichloronaphthoquinone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spectrophotometric studies of intermolecular energy transfer leading to charge transfer complexation between certain aromatic amines, such as N, N-dimethylamine, N-methylamine, p-toluidine, and diphenylamine and 2,3-dichloronaphthoquinone, have been carried out in chloroform medium. All the complexes show charge-transfer bands in the visible region, and they form 1:1 complexes of n-II type. The relevant spectral parameters for the charge-transfer complexes such as association constant, Gibb's free energy, and molar extinction coefficient are presented. A comparative study on the evaluation of association constant and molar extinction is investigated by modified B-H, Scott, and F-H-W equations. (author)

2002-01-01

28

Intra- and intermolecular transfers of protein radicals in the reactions of sperm whale myoglobin with hydrogen peroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reaction of sperm whale metmyoglobin (SwMb) with H2O2 produces a ferryl (MbFeIV=O) species and a protein radical and leads to the formation of oligomeric products. The ferryl species is maximally formed with one equivalent of H2O2, and the maximum yields of the dimer (28%) and trimer (17%) with 1 or 2 eq. Co-incubation of the SwMb Y151F mutant with native apoSwMb and H2O2 produced dimeric products, which requires radical transfer from the nondimerizing Y151F mutant to apoSwMb. Autoreduction of ferryl SwMb to the ferric state is biphasic with t = 3.4 and 25.9 min. An intramolecular autoreduction process is implicated at low protein concentrations, but oligomerization decreases the lifetime of the ferryl species at high protein concentrations. A fraction of the protein remained monomeric. This dimerization-resistant protein was in the ferryl state, but after autoreduction it underwent normal dimerization with H2O2. Proteolytic digestion established the presence of both dityrosine and isodityrosine cross-links in the oligomeric proteins, with the isodityrosine links primarily forged by Tyr151-Tyr151 coupling. The tyrosine content decreased by 47% in the dimer and 14% in the recovered monomer, but the yields of isodityrosine and dityrosine in the dimer were only 15.2 and 6.8% of the original tyrosine content. Approximately 23% of the lost tyrosines therefore have an alternative but unknown fate. The results clearly demonstrate the concurrence of intra- and intermolecular electron transfer processes involving Mb protein radicals. Intermolecular electron transfers that generate protein radicals on bystander proteins are likely to propagate the cellular damage initiated by the reaction of metalloproteins with H2O2. PMID:12855712

Lardinois, Olivier M; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

2003-09-19

29

Intermolecular relaxation has little effect on intra-peptide exchange-transferred NOE intensities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exchange-transferred nuclear Overhauser enhancement (etNOE) provides a useful method for determining the 3-dimensional structure of a ligand bound to a high-molecular-weight complex. Some concern about the accuracy of such structures has arisen because indirect relaxation can occur between the ligand and macromolecule. Such indirect relaxation, or spin diffusion, would lead to errors in interproton distances used as restraints in structure determination. We address this concern by assessing the extent of intermolecular spin diffusion in nineteen peptide-protein complexes of known structure. Transferred NOE intensities were simulated with the program CORONA (Calculated OR Observed NOESY Analysis) using the rate-matrix approach to include contributions from indirect relaxation between protein-ligand and intraligand proton pairs. Intermolecular spin diffusion contributions were determined by comparing intensities calculated with protonated protein to those calculated with fully deuterated protein. The differences were found to be insignificant overall, and to diminish at short mixing times and high mole ratios of peptide to protein. Spin diffusion between the peptide ligand and the protein contributes less to the etNOE intensities and alters fewer cross peaks than the well-studied intramolecular spin diffusion effects. Errors in intraligand interproton distances due to intermolecular relaxation effects were small on average and can be accounted for with the restraint functions commonly used in NMR structure determination methods. In addition, a rate-matrix approach to calculate distances from etNOESY intensities using a volume matrix comprising only intraligand intensities was found to give accurate values. Based on these results, we conclude that structures determined from etNOESY data are no less accurate due to spin diffusion than structures determined from conventional NOE intensities

2002-04-01

30

Molecular tips for scanning tunneling microscopy: intermolecular electron tunneling for single-molecule recognition and electronics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the development of molecular tips for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Molecular tips offer many advantages: first is their ability to perform chemically selective imaging because of chemical interactions between the sample and the molecular tip, thus improving a major drawback of conventional STM. Rational design of the molecular tip allows sophisticated chemical recognition; e.g., chiral recognition and selective visualization of atomic defects in carbon nanotubes. Another advantage is that they provide a unique method to quantify electron transfer between single molecules. Understanding such electron transfer is mandatory for the realization of molecular electronics. PMID:24420248

Nishino, Tomoaki

2014-01-01

31

Ground state of ?-conjugated polymer chains forming an intermolecular charge-transfer complex as probed by Raman spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intermolecular charge-transfer complex (CTC) between the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV and the low-molecular organic acceptor trinitrofluorenone (TNF) has been studied by Raman and optical absorption spectroscopy. On mixing MEH-PPV with TNF, an absorption band due to the CTC appeared in the optical gap of the polymer, whereas, in the Raman spectra, characteristic bands of the polymer are shifted and their widths and intensities change. The low-frequency shift of the strongest band at 1580 cm-1 in the Raman spectrum of the polymer, assigned to the symmetric stretching vibration of the phenyl group, is shown to be due to electron density transfer from the ?-conjugated system of the polymer to the acceptor and is as large as 5 cm-1, which corresponds to a charge transfer on the order of 0.1e-1. Even at a low acceptor concentration (one TNF molecule per 10 monomer units of the polymer), most Raman-active conjugated chains are involved in the CTC. It is suggested that conjugated segments of the polymer can form a CTC of variable composition MEH-PPV: TNF = 1: X, where 0.1 ? X ? 0.5 (for each monomer unit of the polymer), and one TNF molecule can thereby interact with two conjugated segments of MEH-PPV. The conjugated polymer chains involved in the CTC can become more planar, and their interaction with the local environment can noticeably change; however, their conjugation length, most likely, remains unaltered

2007-10-01

32

Electron paramagnetic resonance of photocatalytic reaction which involve electron transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transient radicals generated under photocatalytic reactions in a polar solvent and their electronically spinned polarization were discussed under UV irradiation by using EPR and N2 gas pulse laser time-divided EPR. The reaction is a reaction of electron transfer from such amines as DABCO or electron donor molecules of SO3{sup -} to such electron accepting compounds as 1,4-benzoquinone and maleic anhydride under the presence of photocatalysts (triple photosensitizers) such as benzophenone and xanthone (XT). Spin polarized cation radicals of DABCO and radical anions of XT were detected in association with one electron transfer. A triple mechanism lies in the spinned polarization of both radicals, and transient XT in the triple state begin the electron transfer reaction. Photo-excited XT acts as a photocatalyst in one electron transfer reaction, the triple XT turns into an electron accepting body, and the transient anion radicals of XT become the electron donor. The XT(S) acts as a photocatalyst in the inter-molecular electron transfer from amine (D) to quinone (A). Its reaction is expressed by the following formula: D + S{sup *} + A{yields}D{sup dot +}+S+A{sup dot -} (where S{sup *} denotes a photo-excited state). 53 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

Kaise, M. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

1995-10-13

33

Theoretical study of intermolecular energy transfer involving electronically excited molecules: He(/sup 1/S) + H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/. sigma. /sub u//sup +/). [Solution for coupled channel equations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To further understanding of gas phase collision dynamics involving electronically-excited molecules, a fully quantum mechanical study of He + H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/) was undertaken. Iterative natural orbital configuration interaction (CI) calculations were performed to obtain the interaction potential between He and H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/). The potential energy surface (PES) is highly anisotropic and has a van der Waals well of about 0.03 eV for C/sub 2v/ approach. Avoided PES crossings occur with He + H/sub 2/(E,F /sup 1/..sigma../sub g//sup +/) and with He + H/sub 2/(X /sup 1/..sigma../sub g//sup +/) and cause a local maximum and a deep minimum in the He + H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/) PES, respectively. The crossing with He + H/sub 2/(X /sup 1/..sigma../sub g//sup +/) provides a mechanism for fluorescence quenching. The computed CI energies were combined with previous multi-reference double excitation CI calculations and fit with analytic functions for convenience in scattering calculations. Accurate dipole polarizabilities and quadrupole moment of H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/) were computed for use in the multipole expansion, which is the analytic form of the long-range PES. 129 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs.

Grimes, R.M.

1986-11-01

34

Electron-phonon coupling in A3C60: Contributions from intermolecular modes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An accurate tight-binding fit to the full valence-conduction band region in K3C60 is used to generate deformation potentials for several phonon modes, including the optic intermolecular vibrations and librations that have not been investigated previously. The resulting electron-phonon coupling constants indicate coupling that is likely to be crucial in understanding electronic transport in the fullerides, and will provide contributions to superconducting pairing. Results for the intramolecular Ag(2) open-quotes pentagonal pinchclose quotes mode suggests nonadiabatic behavior for this (and possibly other) very high frequency modes. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

1994-06-01

35

Interplay between molecular conformation and intermolecular interactions in conformational polymorphism: a molecular perspective from electronic calculations of tolfenamic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tolfenamic acid exhibits conformational polymorphism. The molecules in its two commonly occurred crystal structures form similar hydrogen-bonded dimers but differ in conformation. The conformational variance was analyzed by electronic calculation methods with the aim to unravel intrinsic connection between the conformational flexibility and intermolecular interactions in the polymorphs. The study was conducted mainly by conceptual density functional theory (DFT) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. It is found that the conformational polymorphism is resulted from the energy competition between intramolecular ?-conjugation and intermolecular hydrogen bonding. By adapting conformation that departs from being the most energetically stable, tolfenamic acid molecules can strengthen the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions in the crystals. The study illustrates how the molecule's electronic properties are influenced by conformational variation and, inherently, how the intermolecular interactions become regulated. Moreover, understanding molecular interaction and crystal packing necessitates electronic structure calculation and analysis, which can be further facilitated by utilizing DFT and NBO concepts. PMID:21570454

Mattei, Alessandra; Li, Tonglei

2011-10-14

36

On the accurate estimation of intermolecular interactions and charge transfer: the case of TTF-CA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High-resolution X-ray diffraction experiments and state-of-the-art density functional theory calculations have been performed. The validity of the atoms-in-molecules approach is tested for the neutral-ionic transition of TTF-CA which involves a transfer of less than one electron between the donor and acceptor molecules. Foremost, crystallographical data have been reassessed along the temperature-induced neutral-ionic phase transition undergone by this charge transfer complex. Based on accurat...

Garcia, Pilar; Dahaoui, Slimane; Katan, Claudine; Souhassou, Mohamed; Lecomte, Claude

2007-01-01

37

Sensitivity analysis of rotational energy transfer processes to the intermolecular potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper considers the sensitivity of rotational energy transfer processes to the variation of parameters within an assumed model intermolecular potential. The following cross sections are considered here: integral state to state, pressure broadening, effective diffusion and viscosity, and final state summed integral cross sections. In order to simplify the calculation of cross sections, attention is restricted to the scattering of an atom and linear rigid rotor. Furthermore, the collision dynamics are approximated by using the infinite order sudden (IOS) method. It is shown that use of the IOS method allows for the very simple generation of first order sensitivity coefficients (i.e., the partial derivative of cross sections with respect to potential parameters). Particular attention is focused upon the sensitivities of different cross sections and combinations of cross sections to the various parameters. The first order sensitivities are also used to derive new coefficients which describe how the potential parameters correlate given a limited set of cross section measurements. These coefficients are shown to be particularly important in determining the degree to which a set of measurements is able to define various parameters of the assumed potential

1980-02-15

38

Sensitivity analysis of rotational energy transfer processes to the intermolecular potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper considers the sensitivity of rotational energy transfer processes to the variation of parameters within an assumed model intermolecular potential. The following cross sections are considered here: integral state to state, pressure broadening, effective diffusion and viscosity, and final state summed integral cross sections. In order to simplify the calculation of cross sections, attention is restricted to the scattering of an atom and linear rigid rotor. Furthermore, the collision dynamics are approximated by using the infinite order sudden (IOS) method. It is shown that use of the IOS method allows for the very simple generation of first order sensitivity coefficients (i.e., the partial derivative of cross sections with respect to potential parameters). Particular attention is focused upon the sensitivities of different cross sections and combinations of cross sections to the various parameters. The first order sensitivities are also used to derive new coefficients which describe how the potential parameters correlate given a limited set of cross section measurements. These coefficients are shown to be particularly important in determining the degree to which a set of measurements is able to define various parameters of the assumed potential.

Eno, L.; Rabitz, H.

1980-02-15

39

Chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI using intermolecular double-quantum coherences with multiple refocusing pulses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) provides a new type of image contrast in MRI. Due to the intrinsically low CEST effect, new and improved experimental techniques are required to achieve reliable and quantitative CEST images. In the present work, we proposed a novel and more sensitive CEST acquisition approach, based on the intermolecular double-quantum coherence with a module of multiple refocusing pulses (iDQC-MRP). Experiments were performed on creatine and egg white phantoms using a Varian 7T animal MRI scanner. The iDQC-MRP CEST technique showed a substantial enhancement in CEST and nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) signal intensities, compared to the standard single-quantum coherence approach. In addition, the iDQC-MRP approach increased the signal-to-noise ratio of acquired saturation images, compared to the conventional iDQC approach. The new iDQC-MRP CEST sequence provides a promising way for exploiting in vivo CEST and NOE imaging applications. PMID:24685983

Lu, Jianhua; Cai, Congbo; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong; Zhou, Jinyuan

2014-07-01

40

Intermolecular diatomic energies of a hydrogen dimer with non-Born-Oppenheimer nuclear and electron wave packets  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed an efficient theoretical framework of a non-Born-Oppenheimer (non-BO) nuclear and electron wave packet (NWP and EWP) method and applied it to intra- and intermolecular energies of a hydrogen dimer. The energy surface functions were derived at low computational cost. In contrast with the ordinary BO nuclear quantization on a given energy surface that reduces the effective barrier, non-trivial non-BO interactions between the EWPs and NWPs resulted in increases of intermolecular rotational and translational barriers. A direct comparison demonstrated that the non-BO effect on the intermolecular energy is significant.

Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Ando, Koji

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

The electronic structure and the ferromagnetic intermolecular interactions in the crystal of TEMPO radicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the generalized gradient approximation, full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) calculations have been performed to study the electronic band structure and the intermolecular ferromagnetic (FM) interactions for the two TEMPO radicals 4-Benzylideneamino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (1) and 4-(2-naphtylmethyleneamino)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (2). The total and the partial density of states and the atomic spin magnetic moments are calculated and discussed. The calculation revealed that the two TEMPO radicals have the intermolecular FM interactions, and the spontaneous magnetic moment is 1.0 {mu} {sub B} per molecule of each crystal, which is in good agreement with the experimental value. It is found that the unpaired electrons in these compounds are localized in a molecular orbital constituted primarily of {pi}* (NO) orbital, and the main contribution of the spin magnetic moment comes from the NO-free radical. The origin of FM is also studied in detail.

Zhu, L. [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)]. E-mail: wl-zl41@163.com; Yao, K.L. [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) and International Center of Materials Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shengyang 110015 (China)]. E-mail: klyao@hust.edu.cn; Liu, Z.L. [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2006-06-15

42

Relação entre transferência de carga e as interações intermoleculares em complexos de hidrogênio heterocíclicos Relationship between charge transfer and intermolecular interactions in heterocyclic hydrogen-bonded complexes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrogen-bonded complexes formed by the interaction of the heterocyclic molecules C2H4O and C2H5N with HF, HCN, HNC and C2H2 have been studied using density functional theory. The hydrogen bond strength has been analyzed through electron density charge transfer from the proton acceptor to the proton donor. The density charge transfer has been estimated using different methods such as Mulliken population analysis, CHELPG, GAPT and AIM. It has been shown that AIM-estimated charge transfer correlates very well with the hydrogen bond energy and the infrared bathochromic effect of the proton donor stretching frequencies.

Boaz G. Oliveira

2007-08-01

43

The inclusion of electron correlation in intermolecular potentials: Applications to the formamide dimer and liquid formamide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A test of the quality of the electrostatic properties and polarizabilities used in the nonempirical molecular orbital (NEMO) potential is carried out for formamide by calculating the molecular dipole moment and polarizability at the second-order Moller-Plesset (MP2) level of theory. The molecular dipole moment is 11% lower at the MP2 level than at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level, whereas the isotropic part of the polarizability is increased by 36% by adding electron correlation and using a considerably larger basis set. The atomic charges, dipole moments and polarizabilities obtained at the HF level are rescaled to get the correct molecular properties at the MP2 level. The potential minimum for the cyclic dimer of formamide is -17.50 kcal/mol with the MP2-scaled properties and is significantly lower than other potentials give. Two intermolecular potentials are constructed and used in subsequent molecular dynamics simulations: one with the regular NEMO potential and the other with the rescaled MP2 properties. A damping of the electrostatic field at short intermolecular distances is included in the present NEMO model. The average energies for liquid formamide are lower for the MP2-scaled model and are in good agreement with experimental results. The lowering of the simulation energy for the MP2-scaled potential indicates the strong dispersive interactions in liquid formamide.

Brdarski, S.; Ã?strand, P.-O.

2000-01-01

44

Single Molecule Electron Transfer Process of Ruthenium Complexes.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transition metal complexes such as ruthenium complexes, having metal-to-ligand charge transfer states, are extensively used in solar energy conversion and electron transfer in biological systems and at interfaces. The dynamics of metal-to-ligand charge transfer and subsequent intermolecular, intramolecular, and interfacial electron transfer processes can be highly complex and inhomogeneous, especially when molecules are involved in interactions and perturbations from heterogeneous local environments and gated by conformation fluctuations. We have employed the single-molecule spectroscopy, a powerful approach for inhomogeneous systems to study the electron transfer dynamics of ruthenium complexes. We have applied a range of statistical analysis methods to reveal nonclassical photon emission behavior of the single ruthenium complex, i.e., photon antibunching, and photophysical ground-state recovering dynamics on a microsecond time scale. The use of photon antibunching to measure phosphorescence lifetimes and single-molecule electron transfer dynamics at room temperature is demonstrated.

Hu, Dehong; Lu, H PETER.

2006-03-01

45

Determination of stepsize parameters for intermolecular vibrational energy transfer: Progress report, May 1, 1987-April 30, 1988  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intermolecular vibrational energy transfer for highly excited polyatomic molecules is involved in any mechanism in which excitation energy is required (pyrolysis) or in which energy must be removed from a hot source (cooling). The average energy removed per collision, , is a useful quantity to compare efficiency for energy transfer. The objectives of this work are: to determine the dependence of on excitation energy and on the molecular complexity (number of vibrational modes) of substrate and deactivator; to assess the importance of intermolecular attractions (complex formation) on vibrational energy transfer; to obtain detailed information on the energy distribution after collision and to evaluate the importance of on high-temperature unimolecular reactions. This information will be obtained by monitoring the time dependence of the infrared emission, ultraviolet absorption, refractive index and pressure. The results from these complementary techniques will be benchmarked with values from previous studies on the relaxation of chemically activated alkyl and fluoroalkyl radicals. Trajectory calculations simulating energy transfer are being performed for ''generic'' substrate/deactivator pairs to provide additional details and insight on the important parameters. Model calculations are also being performed to determine the feasibility of obtaining information from experimental data for high-temperature unimolecular reactions

1988-01-01

46

Intramolecular electron transfer rates  

Science.gov (United States)

The initial goals of this project were: (1) to construct pulsed-accelerated-flow and pulsed-laser (transient absorbance) instruments for intramolecular electron-transfer rate measurements, (2) to design and synthesize appropriate molecules and perform such measurements, (3) to develop further an electrochemical method for gauging site-to-site electronic coupling, and (4) to apply time-dependent Raman scattering theory to the problem of inner-shell reorganization in charge-transfer reactions. Although all four goals were met, we also found it necessary to pursue studies in some unforeseen directions. For example, early on we discovered that medium effects (aggregation and ion pairing) could play a very large, and previously unrecognized, role in some optical intervalence reactions. Given the importance of the effects to the areas above, we chose to map them in a fairly complete fashion. Also, in anticipation of possible renewal we initiated studies in a new area: bimolecular photoredox kinetics in supercritical media. Finally, in a small project carried out largely by undergraduates we examined solvent tuning effects upon lifetimes of photo-excited ruthenium am(m)ine bipyridine complexes. The key new findings and other highlights of these studies are outlined.

Hupp, Joseph T.

47

A unified model for simulating liquid and gas phase, intermolecular energy transfer: N2 + C6F6 collisions  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular dynamics simulations were used to study relaxation of a vibrationally excited C6F6* molecule in a N2 bath. Ab initio calculations were performed to develop N2-N2 and N2-C6F6 intermolecular potentials for the simulations. Energy transfer from "hot" C6F6 is studied versus the bath density (pressure) and number of bath molecules. For the large bath limit, there is no heating of the bath. As C6F6* is relaxed, the average energy of C6F6* is determined versus time, i.e., ?E(t)?, and for each bath density ?E(t)? is energy dependent and cannot be fit by a single exponential. In the long-time limit C6F6 is fully equilibrated with the bath. For a large bath and low pressures, the simulations are in the fixed temperature, independent collision regime and the simulation results may be compared with gas phase experiments of collisional energy transfer. The derivative d[?E(t)?]/dt divided by the collision frequency ? of the N2 bath gives the average energy transferred from C6F6* per collision ??Ec?, which is in excellent agreement with experiment. For the ˜100-300 ps simulations reported here, energy transfer from C6F6* is to N2 rotation and translation in accord with the equipartition model, with no energy transfer to N2 vibration. The energy transfer dynamics from C6F6* is not statistically sensitive to fine details of the N2-C6F6 intermolecular potential. Tests, with simulation ensembles of different sizes, show that a relatively modest ensemble of only 24 trajectories gives statistically meaningful results.

Paul, Amit K.; Kohale, Swapnil C.; Pratihar, Subha; Sun, Rui; North, Simon W.; Hase, William L.

2014-05-01

48

Intramolecular Electron Scattering and Electron Transfer Following Autoionization in Dissociating Molecules  

Science.gov (United States)

Resonant Auger decay of core-excited molecules during ultrafast dissociation leads to a Doppler shift of the emitted electrons depending on the direction of the electron emission relative to the dissociation axis. We have investigated this process by angle-resolved electron-fragment ion coincidence spectroscopy. Electron energy spectra for selected emission angles for the electron relative to the molecular axis reveal the occurrence of intermolecular electron scattering and electron transfer following the primary emission. These processes amount to approximately 25% of the resonant atomic Auger intensity emitted in the studied transition.

Kugeler, O.; Prümper, G.; Hentges, R.; Viefhaus, J.; Rolles, D.; Becker, U.; Marburger, S.; Hergenhahn, U.

2004-07-01

49

Calculation of electron transfer reorganization energies using the finite difference Poisson-Boltzmann model.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A description is given of a method to calculate the electron transfer reorganization energy (lambda) in proteins using the linear or nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation. Finite difference solutions to the linear PB equation are then used to calculate lambda for intramolecular electron transfer reactions in the photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodopseudomonas viridis and the ruthenated heme proteins cytochrome c, myoglobin, and cytochrome b and for intermolecular electron transfer be...

1998-01-01

50

Electron transfer at nickel electrode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is considerable contemporary interest in the electron transfer reaction. at active (transition) metal electrodes. this work reports the electrochemical behavior of potassium ferrocyanide at nickel electrode in aqueous potassium nitrate solution. Potassium ferrocyanide is frequently employed to probe one-electron transfer reactions at solid, electrodes. It was found that the voltammetric oxidation of ferrocyanide at nickel is a simple electron transfer reaction. Normal pulse voltammetry revealed similar behavior. (author)

2009-01-01

51

Singlet-singlet intermolecular optical energy transfer from naphthalene to benzophenone in the vapor phase  

Science.gov (United States)

By using the exothermic energy transfer as a function of pressure, the rate constant for diffusion was evaluated for benzophenone/naphthalene and naphthalene/benzophenone systems. In principle the optical energy absorbed by a complex molecule raises that molecule to one of its excited states, and afterwards this excitation energy decays through the different relaxation channels. Initially, electronically excited naphthalene "S 1" state emits photons in the fluorescence band of naphthalene and these emitted photons, as a stream of particles, are absorbed by the acceptor molecule benzophenone, then excited benzophenone fluoresces. In this investigation, sensitized fluorescence decay times in different conditions were measured for naphthalene-benzophenone system in the vapor phase, and found to be 12 ± 1 ns. The ultraviolet-visible spectra of the system in the vapor phase at room temperature conditions were broad and structureless.

Bayrakçeken, Fuat

2008-11-01

52

Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET) describes reactions in which there is a change in both electron and proton content between reactants and products. It originates from the influence of changes in electron content on acid?base properties and provides a molecular-level basis for energy transduction between proton transfer and electron transfer. Coupled electron?proton transfer or EPT is defined as an elementary step in which electrons and protons transfer from different orbitals on the donor to different orbitals on the acceptor. There is (usually) a clear distinction between EPT and H-atom transfer (HAT) or hydride transfer, in which the transferring electrons and proton come from the same bond. Hybrid mechanisms exist in which the elementary steps are different for the reaction partners. EPT pathways such as PhO•/PhOH exchange have much in common with HAT pathways in that electronic coupling is significant, comparable to the reorganization energy with H{sub DA} ~ ?. Multiple-Site Electron?Proton Transfer (MS-EPT) is an elementary step in which an electron?proton donor transfers electrons and protons to different acceptors, or an electron?proton acceptor accepts electrons and protons from different donors. It exploits the long-range nature of electron transfer while providing for the short-range nature of proton transfer. A variety of EPT pathways exist, creating a taxonomy based on what is transferred, e.g., 1e{sup -}/2H{sup +} MS-EPT. PCET achieves “redox potential leveling” between sequential couples and the buildup of multiple redox equivalents, which is of importance in multielectron catalysis. There are many examples of PCET and pH-dependent redox behavior in metal complexes, in organic and biological molecules, in excited states, and on surfaces. Changes in pH can be used to induce electron transfer through films and over long distances in molecules. Changes in pH, induced by local electron transfer, create pH gradients and a driving force for long-range proton transfer in Photosysem II and through other biological membranes. In EPT, simultaneous transfer of electrons and protons occurs on time scales short compared to the periods of coupled vibrations and solvent modes. A theory for EPT has been developed which rationalizes rate constants and activation barriers, includes temperature- and driving force (?G)-dependences implicitly, and explains kinetic isotope effects. The distance-dependence of EPT is dominated by the short-range nature of proton transfer, with electron transfer being far less demanding.Changes in external pH do not affect an EPT elementary step. Solvent molecules or buffer components can act as proton donor acceptors, but individual H2O molecules are neither good bases (pK{sub a}(H{sub 3}O{sup +}) = ?1.74) nor good acids (pK{sub a}(H{sub 2}O) = 15.7). There are many examples of mechanisms in chemistry, in biology, on surfaces, and in the gas phase which utilize EPT. PCET and EPT play critical roles in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of Photosystem II and other biological reactions by decreasing driving force and avoiding high-energy intermediates.

Weinberg, Dave; Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Hull, Jonathan F; Murphy, Christine Fecenko; Kent, Caleb A.; Westlake, Brittany C.; Paul, Amit; Ess, Daniel H; McCafferty, Dewey Granville; Meyer, Thomas J

2012-01-01

53

Intermolecular hydrogen bond complexes by in situ charge transfer complexation of o-tolidine with picric and chloranilic acids  

Science.gov (United States)

A two new charge transfer complexes formed from the interactions between o-tolidine (o-TOL) and picric (PA) or chloranilic (CA) acids, with the compositions, [(o-TOL)(PA) 2] and [(o-TOL)(CA) 2] have been prepared. The 13C NMR, 1H NMR, 1H-Cosy, and IR show that the charge-transfer chelation occurs via the formation of chain structures O-H⋯N intermolecular hydrogen bond between 2NH 2 groups of o-TOL molecule and OH group in each PA or CA units. Photometric titration measurements concerning the two reactions in methanol were performed and the measurements show that the donor-acceptor molar ratio was found to be 1:2 using the modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The spectroscopic data were discussed in terms of formation constant, molar extinction coefficient, oscillator strength, dipole moment, standard free energy, and ionization potential. Thermal behavior of both charge transfer complexes showed that the complexes were more stable than their parents. The thermodynamic parameters were estimated from the differential thermogravimetric curves. The results indicated that the formation of molecular charge transfer complexes is spontaneous and endothermic.

Refat, Moamen S.; Saad, Hosam A.; Adam, Abdel Majid A.

2011-08-01

54

Intramolecular photo-switching and intermolecular energy transfer as primary photoevents in photoreceptive processes: The case of Euglena gracilis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we report the results of measurements performed by FLIM on the photoreceptor of Euglenagracilis. This organelle consists of optically bistable proteins, characterized by two thermally stable isomeric forms: A498, non fluorescent and B462, fluorescent. Our data indicate that the primary photoevent of Euglena photoreception upon photon absorption consists of two contemporaneous different phenomena: an intramolecular photo-switch (i.e., A498 becomes B462), and a intermolecular and unidirectional Forster-type energy transfer. During the FRET process, the fluorescent B462 form acts as donor for the non-fluorescent A498 form of the protein nearby, which acts as acceptor. We hypothesize that in nature these phenomena follow each other with a domino progression along the orderly organized and closely packed proteins in the photoreceptor layer(s), modulating the isomeric composition of the photoreceptive protein pool. This mechanism guarantees that few photons are sufficient to produce a signal detectable by the cell.

2009-07-24

55

Evidence for alkali metal induced intermolecular acetylenic hydrogen atom transfer between hydrogen-bonded alkyne complexes in solid argon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Condensation of acetylene, propyne, and 2-butyne/acetylene mixtures with heavy alkali metal atoms (Na, K, Cs) in an argon matrix at 15 K has led to the appearance of infrared absorptions due to ethylene, propylene, and trans-2-butene, respectively. These results stand in sharp contrast with the products obtained with lithium. Isotopic studies have shown that ethylene formation involved three different acetylene molecules and evidenced a difference in the product yield with hydrogen vs. deuterium as well as a preference for trans- vs. cis-C_2H_2D_2 formation, which is discussed and rationalized by differences in the zero point energies for the different mixed deuterium isotopes of the intermediate vinyl radical. This trend is amplified by methyl substitution. Spectroscopic evidence was found in these experiments for cesium acetylide (Cs"+C_2H"-) and a cesium-acetylene ? complex, which are involved in the intermolecular acetylenic hydrogen atom transfer process. 26 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

1985-09-12

56

Coherent electron transfer in polyacetylene  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine, using mixed classical-quantum electron-ion dynamics, electron transfer in a donor-acceptor-like molecular junction system based on polyacetylene. We identify two qualitatively-different transfer regimes: hopping and tunnelling. We discuss the criteria for achieving each one and for minimising inelastic scattering and decoherence arising from the coupling to the ions, and we connect our main results to quantities derived from electron dynamics involving simpler, three-state model systems. We identify the requirements to have near-ballistic transfer.

Psiachos, D.

2014-06-01

57

Manifestations of sequential electron transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An essential feature of efficient photo-initiated charge separation is sequential electron transfer. Charge separation is initiated by photoexcitation of an electron donor followed by rapid electron transfer steps from the excited donor through a series of electron acceptors, so that, after one or two successive steps, charge separation is stabilized by the physical separation between the oxidized donor and reduced acceptor. The prime example of this process is the sequential electron transfer that takes place in the purple photosynthetic bacterial reaction center, resulting in the charge separation between P{sup +} and Q{sub A}{sup -} across a biological membrane. We have developed magnetic resonance tools to monitor sequential electron transfer. We are applying these techniques to study charge separation in natural photo-synthetic systems in order to gain insights into the features of the reaction center proteins that promote efficient charge separation. As we establish what some of these factors are, we are beginning to design artificial photosynthetic systems that undergo photoinduced sequential electron transfer steps.

Thurnauer, M.C.; Tang, J.

1996-05-01

58

MOLECULAR PACKING AND NPT-MOLECULAR DYNAMICS INVESTIGATION OF THE TRANSFERABILITY OF THE RDX INTERMOLECULAR POTENTIAL TO 2,4,6,8,1O,12- HEXANITROHEXAAZAISOWURTZITANE (HNIW)  

Science.gov (United States)

We have explored the degree to which an intermolecular potential for the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX) is transferable for predictions of crystal structures (within the approximation of rigid molecules) of a similar chemical system,in this case, polymo...

59

Dynamical aspects of intermolecular proton transfer in liquid water and low-density amorphous ices  

Science.gov (United States)

The microscopic dynamics of an excess proton in water and in low-density amorphous ices has been studied by means of a series of molecular dynamics simulations. Interaction of water with the proton species was modelled using a multistate empirical valence bond Hamiltonian model. The analysis of the effects of low temperatures on proton diffusion and transfer rates has been considered for a temperature range between 100 and 298 K at the constant density of 1 g cm-3. We observed a marked slowdown of proton transfer rates at low temperatures, but some episodes are still seen at 100 K. In a similar fashion, mobility of the lone proton gets significantly reduced when temperature decreases below 273 K. The proton transfer in low-density amorphous ice is an activated process with energy barriers between 1-10 kJ/mol depending of the temperature range considered and eventually showing Arrhenius-like behavior. Spectroscopic data indicated the survival of both Zundel and Eigen structures along the whole temperature range, revealed by significant spectral frequency shifts.

Tahat, Amani; Martí, Jordi

2014-05-01

60

Theoretical study of intermolecular proton transfer reaction in isolated 5-hydroxyisoxazole-water complexes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A systematic investigation in isolated 5-hydroxyisoxazole-water complexes (5-HIO . (H2O) n n = 1-3) is performed at the DFT level, employing B3LYP/6-31G(d, p) basis set. Single-point energy calculations are also performed at the MP2 level using B3LYP/6-31G(d, p) optimized geometries and the 6-311++G(d, p) basis set. The computational results show that the keto tautomer K2 is the most stable isomer in the gas phase, and the tautomer K1 to be the next most stable tautomer. Hydrogen bonding between HIO and the water molecule(s) will dramatically lower the barrier by a concerted multiple proton transfer mechanism. The proton transfer process of 3WE cis ? 3WK1 and 2WE trans ? 2WK2 is found to be more efficient in two tautomerization, and the barrier heights are 7.03 and 14.15 kcal/mol at B3LYP/6-31G(d, p) level, respectively. However, the proton transfer reaction between E cis and K1 cannot happen without solvent-assisted

2006-03-20

 
 
 
 
61

Theoretical study of intermolecular proton transfer reaction in isolated 5-hydroxyisoxazole water complexes  

Science.gov (United States)

A systematic investigation in isolated 5-hydroxyisoxazole-water complexes (5-HIO · (H 2O) nn = 1-3) is performed at the DFT level, employing B3LYP/6-31G(d, p) basis set. Single-point energy calculations are also performed at the MP2 level using B3LYP/6-31G(d, p) optimized geometries and the 6-311++G(d, p) basis set. The computational results show that the keto tautomer K 2 is the most stable isomer in the gas phase, and the tautomer K 1 to be the next most stable tautomer. Hydrogen bonding between HIO and the water molecule(s) will dramatically lower the barrier by a concerted multiple proton transfer mechanism. The proton transfer process of 3WE cis ? 3WK 1 and 2WE trans ? 2WK 2 is found to be more efficient in two tautomerization, and the barrier heights are 7.03 and 14.15 kcal/mol at B3LYP/6-31G(d, p) level, respectively. However, the proton transfer reaction between E cis and K 1 cannot happen without solvent-assisted.

Yi, Ping G.; Liang, Yong H.; Tang, Zhen Q.

2006-03-01

62

[Electrochemical measurement of intraprorein and interprotein electron transfer].  

Science.gov (United States)

Intramolecular and intermolecular direct (unmediated) electron transfer was studied by means of electrochemical techniques in flavohemoprotein cytochrome P450 BM3 (CYP102A1 from Bacillius megaterium) and between cytochrome b5 and cytochrome c. Flavohemoprotein cytochrome P450 BM3 was immobilized on a screen printed graphite electrode, modified with a biocompatible nanocomposite material based on the didodecyldimethylammonium bromide DDAB and gold nanoparticles. Analytical characterictics of DDAB/Au/P450 BM3 electrodes were studied with cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. It was shown that intramolecular electron transfer was realized between diflavin (FAD/FMN) and heme domain of CYP102A1. An electron transport chain of flavohemoprotein P450 BM3 immobilized at nanostructued electrode is realized as: electrode --> FAD --> FMN --> heme. Electron transfer occurs inside the protein, and it is an evidence of functional interaction between diflavin and heme domains. The effect of a substrate (lauric acid) or inhibitors (metyrapone or imidazole) binding on the electrochemical parameters of flavohemoprotein P450 BM3 was also studied. Interprotein electron transfer was analyzed between cytochrome b5 and cytochrome c. Electrochemical analysis revealed that electron transfer takes place in protein-protein complexes with participants possessing different redox potentials. PMID:24159813

Shumiantseva, V V; Bulko, T V; Lisitsina, V B; Urlakher, V B; Kuzikov, A B; Suprun, E V; Archakov, A I

2013-01-01

63

Probing the ultrafast electron transfer at the CuPc/Au(111) interface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Core-hole clock spectroscopy and near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure measurements have been used to investigate the ultrafast electron transfer dynamics at the Copper(II) phthalocyanine (CuPc)/Au(111) interface. It was found that the strong electronic coupling between the first layer of CuPc molecules and Au(111) substrate favors ultrafast electron transfer from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the CuPc molecules to the conduction band of Au(111) in the time scale of ?6 fs. In contrast, the intermolecular electron transfer within multilayers of CuPc molecules via the weak van der Waals interaction was much slower

2006-05-01

64

Intramolecular photo-switching and intermolecular energy transfer as primary photoevents in photoreceptive processes: The case of Euglena gracilis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we report the results of measurements performed by FLIM on the photoreceptor of Euglenagracilis. This organelle consists of optically bistable proteins, characterized by two thermally stable isomeric forms: A{sub 498,} non fluorescent and B{sub 462}, fluorescent. Our data indicate that the primary photoevent of Euglena photoreception upon photon absorption consists of two contemporaneous different phenomena: an intramolecular photo-switch (i.e., A{sub 498} becomes B{sub 462}), and a intermolecular and unidirectional Forster-type energy transfer. During the FRET process, the fluorescent B{sub 462} form acts as donor for the non-fluorescent A{sub 498} form of the protein nearby, which acts as acceptor. We hypothesize that in nature these phenomena follow each other with a domino progression along the orderly organized and closely packed proteins in the photoreceptor layer(s), modulating the isomeric composition of the photoreceptive protein pool. This mechanism guarantees that few photons are sufficient to produce a signal detectable by the cell.

Mercatelli, Raffaella; Quercioli, Franco [Istituto Sistemi Complessi, CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Barsanti, Laura; Evangelista, Valter [Istituto di Biofisica, CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Coltelli, Primo [ISTI, CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Passarelli, Vincenzo; Frassanito, Anna Maria [Istituto di Biofisica, CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gualtieri, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.gualtieri@pi.ibf.cnr.it [Istituto di Biofisica, CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

2009-07-24

65

Photo-induced electron transfer between dendritic zinc(II) phthalocyanine bearing carboxylic terminal groups and methyl viologen  

Science.gov (United States)

The intermolecular electron transfer between carboxylic dendritic zinc(II) phthalocyanine bearing carboxylic terminal groups(G1-ZnPc(COOH)8) and methyl viologens (MV2+) was studied by steady-state fluorescence and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The effect of different concentrations of MV2+ on intermolecular electron transfer was investigated. The results show that the fluorescence emission of this dendritic phthalocyanine could be greatly quenched with an increasing amount of MV2+ upon excitation at 610 nm. Our study suggests that this novel dendritic phthalocyanine is an effective new electron donor and transmission complex and could be used as a potential biosensor conjugated with suitable fluorescence quencher.

Wang, Yuhua; Chen, Jiangxu; Huang, Lishan; Xie, Shusen; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

2012-12-01

66

The kinetic peculiarities of intermolecular proton transfer from NH groups of octa( m-trifluoromethylphenyl)tetraazaporphin in the nitrogen base-benzene system  

Science.gov (United States)

The acid-base interaction of octa( m-trifluoromethylphenyl)tetraazaporphin with nitrogen bases in benzene was studied. The rates of intermolecular transfer of sterically screened NH group protons from octa( m-trifluoromethylphenyl)tetraazaporphin to n-butylamine and tert-butylamine were found to be low. A scheme of the process was suggested. The influence of the nature of bases on the kinetic parameters of acid-base interactions was studied.

Petrov, O. A.; Khelevina, O. G.; Kuzmina, E. L.

2010-09-01

67

Electron Transfer to Vinylaromatic Polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aromatic polymers accept electrons from alkali metals to form polyradicalanions. These undergo chain scission as a result of electronic interaction between aromatic rings. Spectrophotometric and chemical evidence led to the conclusion that during the chain-breaking process polymeric fragments were formed which had the properties of ''living polymers'', i.e. the characteristic visible spectra and the capability of initiating the polymerization of a number of vinyl monomers. It was possible to follow the rate of chain scission in the case of poly (4-vinyl biphenyl) and poly(?-vinyl naphthalene) by means of viscosity and spectrophotometric measurements. The postulated mechanism was found to be consistent with the slow decrease in free spin concentration measured by means of the electron spin resonance technique. Chain scission in polyacenaphthalene takes place at a much faster rate than in poly (4-vinyl biphenyl) and this fact is in good agreement with simple LCAO MO calculations. Preliminary experiments indicate that electron transfer to poly-N-vinyl carbazole produces little if any degradation. These investigations led to the examination of the temperature effect on the electron-transfer reaction from sodium to some substituted aromatic hydrocarbons. The details of this effect are discussed. (author)

1965-10-01

68

Intermolecular vibrations of fluorobenzene-Ar up to 130 cm-1 in the ground electronic state  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixteen intermolecular vibrational levels of the S0 state of the fluorobenzene-Ar van der Waals complex have been observed using dispersed fluorescence. The levels range up to ~130 cm-1 in vibrational energy. The vibrational energies have been modelled using a complete set of harmonic and quartic anharmonic constants and a cubic anharmonic coupling between the stretch and long axis bend overtone that becomes near ubiquitous at higher energies. The constants predict the observed band positions with a root mean square deviation of 0.04 cm-1. The set of vibrational levels predicted by the constants, which includes unobserved bands, has been compared with the predictions of ab initio calculations, which include all vibrational levels up to 70-75 cm-1. There are small differences in energy, particularly above 60 cm-1, however, the main differences are in the assignments and are largely due to the limitations of assigning the ab initio wavefunctions to a simple stretch, bend, or combination when the states are mixed by the cubic anharmonic coupling. The availability of these experimental data presents an opportunity to extend ab initio calculations to higher vibrational energies to provide an assessment of the accuracy of the calculated potential surface away from the minimum. The intermolecular modes of the fluorobenzene-Ar2 trimer complex have also been investigated by dispersed fluorescence. The dominant structure is a pair of bands with a ~35 cm-1 displacement from the origin band. Based on the set of vibrational modes calculated from the fluorobenzene-Ar frequencies, they are assigned to a Fermi resonance between the symmetric stretch and symmetric short axis bend overtone. The analysis of this resonance provides a measurement of the coupling strength between the stretch and short axis bend overtone in the dimer, an interaction that is not directly observed. The coupling matrix elements determined for the fluorobenzene-Ar stretch-long axis bend overtone and stretch-short axis bend overtone couplings are remarkably similar (3.8 cm-1 cf. 3.2 cm-1). Several weak features seen in the fluorobenzene-Ar2 spectrum have also been assigned.

Gascooke, Jason R.; Alexander, Ula N.; Lawrance, Warren D.

2012-08-01

69

Spectroscopic study on the intermolecular double proton transfer in 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine with acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine as starting material, a functionalized triazine derivative, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (NOTA) was synthesized in 14% yield through three steps: Kumada cross-coupling, Suzuki coupling and amination. Intermolecular double proton transfer of NOTA with acetic acid (HOAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in chloroform was investigated by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission. It is found that both NOTA/HOAc and NOTA/TFA undergo excited state double proton transfer, resulting in amino-imino tautomerization emission in excited state. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A functionalized triazine derivative, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (NOTA) was synthesized in 14% yield through three steps: Kumada cross-coupling, Suzuki coupling and amination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermolecular double proton transfer of NOTA with acetic acid (HOAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in chloroform was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both NOTA/HOAc and NOTA/TFA undergo excited state double proton transfer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amino-imino tautomerization emission in excited state are proposed.

Li Zongyao [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Research Institute of Henan Coal and Chemical Industry Group, Zhengzhou 450046 (China); Li Chunli [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhao Chunmei [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Wu Wei [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wang Hua, E-mail: hwang@henu.edu.cn [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

2012-10-15

70

Spectroscopic study on the intermolecular double proton transfer in 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine with acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine as starting material, a functionalized triazine derivative, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (NOTA) was synthesized in 14% yield through three steps: Kumada cross-coupling, Suzuki coupling and amination. Intermolecular double proton transfer of NOTA with acetic acid (HOAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in chloroform was investigated by UV–vis absorption and fluorescence emission. It is found that both NOTA/HOAc and NOTA/TFA undergo excited state double proton transfer, resulting in amino–imino tautomerization emission in excited state. - Highlights: ? A functionalized triazine derivative, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (NOTA) was synthesized in 14% yield through three steps: Kumada cross-coupling, Suzuki coupling and amination. ? Intermolecular double proton transfer of NOTA with acetic acid (HOAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in chloroform was investigated. ? Both NOTA/HOAc and NOTA/TFA undergo excited state double proton transfer. ? Amino–imino tautomerization emission in excited state are proposed.

2012-10-01

71

Mode-specific vibrational energy relaxation of amide I' and II' modes in N-methylacetamide/water clusters: intra- and intermolecular energy transfer mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mode-specific vibrational energy relaxation of the amide I' and amide II' modes in NMA-d(1)/(D(2)O)(n) (n = 0-3) clusters were studied using the time-dependent perturbation theory at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pvdz level. The amide modes were identified for each cluster based on the potential energy distribution of each mode. The vibrational population relaxation time constants were derived for the amide I' and II' modes. Results for the amide I' mode relaxation of NMA-d(1)/(D(2)O)(3) agree well with previous experimental results. The energy relaxation pathways were identified, and both intra- and intermolecular mechanisms were found to be important. The amide II' mode was identified in the energy transfer pathways from the excited amide I' mode of NMA-d(1)/(D(2)O)(n) (n = 1-3) clusters. The modes associated with methyl group deformation were found to play a role in the mechanism of energy transfer from both excited amide I' and II' modes. The kinetics of energy flow in the cluster were examined by solving a master equation describing the vibrational energy relaxation process from excited system mode as a multistep reaction with the third order Fermi resonance parameters as the reaction rate constants. The intramolecular energy transfer mechanism was found to dominate the short time energy flow dynamics, whereas the intermolecular mechanism was found to be dominant at longer times. PMID:19320512

Zhang, Yong; Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Straub, John E

2009-04-01

72

Study on the oxidation and electron transfer of N-phosphoamino acids and their peptide derivatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The induced oxidation of N-phosphomethionine (NDM) in aqueous solution initiated by ·OH and Br_2 ·"-bar radicals etc., intermolecular electron transfer involving NDM and tryptophan(TrpH) and intramolecular electron transfer within N-phosphodipeptide derivatives (NDM-TrpOMe and NDT-MetOMe) have been investigated by using the technique of pulse radiolysis. A series of kinetic parameters have been determined and the related mechanisms have been deduced. Structurally, the effect of N-phosphoryl group on the oxidation and ET has been discussed. (author)

2000-03-01

73

Isomeric structures, large amplitude intermolecular motions and electronic relaxation of the propynal-Ar complex  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluorescence excitation spectra near the 0{sub 0}{sup 0} and 9{sub 0}{sup 1} Arelata of a relationX bands of propynal are observed in a supersonic expansion of a mixture of propynal and Ar in He. Propynal and Ar concentration dependence studies are used to assign several observed features to propynal-Ar and propynal-Ar{sub 2}. The combined results of holeburning spectroscopy and rotational band contour analysis of the propynal-Ar features enables one X state and two A state complex structures to be characterized. The vector R connecting the center carbon of propynal and Ar is perpendicular to the C-C-C axis for all three structures. The angle {chi} that R makes with respect to the oxygen side of the plane of propynal equals 68 and R=3.6 A for the X state and one of the two A state geometries. For the other A state geometry, {chi}=23 and R=3.8 A. It is most likely that there is a large amplitude motion by Ar around the C-C-C axis associated with the zero point level of the X state complex. A pair-wise atom potential calculation for propynal-Ar yields two local minima quantitatively corresponding to the experimentally observed geometries with reasonable binding energies. It is also found that Ar induces rapid intersystem crossing (ISC) from the propynal S{sub 1} to T{sub 1} electronic states and the ISC lifetimes (<8 ns) depend upon the orientation of the propynal-Ar interaction. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

DeRose, P.; Cheng, P.-Y.; Xue, B.; Ju, S.-S.; Dai, H.-L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104-6323 (United States)

1998-12-15

74

Isomeric structures, large amplitude intermolecular motions and electronic relaxation of the propynal-Ar complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fluorescence excitation spectra near the 000 and 901 Arelata of a relationX bands of propynal are observed in a supersonic expansion of a mixture of propynal and Ar in He. Propynal and Ar concentration dependence studies are used to assign several observed features to propynal-Ar and propynal-Ar2. The combined results of holeburning spectroscopy and rotational band contour analysis of the propynal-Ar features enables one X state and two A state complex structures to be characterized. The vector R connecting the center carbon of propynal and Ar is perpendicular to the C-C-C axis for all three structures. The angle ? that R makes with respect to the oxygen side of the plane of propynal equals 68 and R=3.6 A for the X state and one of the two A state geometries. For the other A state geometry, ?=23 and R=3.8 A. It is most likely that there is a large amplitude motion by Ar around the C-C-C axis associated with the zero point level of the X state complex. A pair-wise atom potential calculation for propynal-Ar yields two local minima quantitatively corresponding to the experimentally observed geometries with reasonable binding energies. It is also found that Ar induces rapid intersystem crossing (ISC) from the propynal S1 to T1 electronic states and the ISC lifetimes (<8 ns) depend upon the orientation of the propynal-Ar interaction. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

1998-12-15

75

Quinone methide generation via photoinduced electron transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photochemical activation of water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives (NIs) as alkylating agents has been achieved by irradiation at 310 and 355 nm in aqueous acetonitrile. Reactivity in aqueous and neat acetonitrile has been extensively investigated by laser flash photolysis (LFP) at 355 nm, as well as by steady-state preparative irradiation at 310 nm in the presence of water, amines, thiols, and ethyl vinyl ether. Product distribution analysis revealed fairly efficient benzylation of the amines, hydration reaction, and 2-ethoxychromane generation, in the presence of ethyl vinyl ether, resulting from a [4 + 2] cycloaddition onto a transient quinone methide. Remarkably, we found that the reactivity was dramatically suppressed under the presence of oxygen and radical scavengers, such as thiols, which was usually associated with side product formation. In order to unravel the mechanism responsible for the photoreactivity of these NI-based molecules, a detailed LFP study has been carried out with the aim to characterize the transient species involved. LFP data suggest a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) involving the NI triplet excited state (?(max) 470 nm) of the NI core and the tethered quinone methide precursor (QMP) generating a radical ions pair NI(•-) (?(max) 410 nm) and QMP(•+). The latter underwent fast deprotonation to generate a detectable phenoxyl radical (?(max) 390 and 700 nm), which was efficiently reduced by the radical anion NI(•-), generating detectable QM. The mechanism proposed has been validated through a LFP investigation at 355 nm exploiting an intermolecular reaction between the photo-oxidant N-pentylnaphthalimide (NI-P) and a quaternary ammonium salt of a Mannich base as QMP (2a), in both neat and aqueous acetonitrile. Remarkably, these experiments revealed the generation of the model o-QM (?(max) 400 nm) as a long living transient mediated by the same reactivity pathway. Negligible QM generation has been observed under the very same conditions by irradiation of the QMP in the absence of the NI. Owing to the NIs redox and recognition properties, these results represent the first step toward new molecular devices capable of both biological target recognition and photoreleasing of QMs as alkylating species, under physiological conditions. PMID:21425810

Percivalle, Claudia; La Rosa, Andrea; Verga, Daniela; Doria, Filippo; Mella, Mariella; Palumbo, Manlio; Di Antonio, Marco; Freccero, Mauro

2011-05-01

76

Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory syntrophic consortia of proton-reducing acetogenic bacteria and hydrogen-consuming methanogenic archaea. Anaerobic microorganisms that use insoluble electron acceptors for growth, such as iron- an...

Stams, A. J. M.; Bok, F. A. M.; Plugge, C. M.; Eekert, M. H. A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

2006-01-01

77

Two-Dimensional Free Energy Surfaces for Electron Transfer Reactions in Solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Change in intermolecular distance between electron donor (D and acceptor (A can induce intermolecular electron transfer (ET even in nonpolar solvent, where solvent orientational polarization is absent. This was shown by making simple calculations of the energies of the initial and final states of ET. In the case of polar solvent, the free energies are functions of both D-A distance and solvent orientational polarization. On the basis of 2-dimensional free energy surfaces, the relation of Marcus ET and exciplex formation is discussed. The transient effect in fluorescence quenching was measured for several D-A pairs in a nonpolar solvent. The results were analyzed by assuming a distance dependence of the ET rate that is consistent with the above model.

M. Tachiya

2008-10-01

78

Electron transfer across ?-helical peptide monolayers: importance of interchain coupling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four helical peptides with the general formula (Boc)-Cys-(S-Acm)-(Ala-Leu)(n)-NH-(CH(2))(2)-SH (n = 4-7) were synthesized and further used for the preparation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrates. The electron-transfer behavior of these systems was probed using current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM). It was found that the electron transmission through SAMs of helical peptides trapped between an AFM conductive tip and a gold substrate occurs very efficiently and that the distance dependence obeys the exponential trend with a decay constant of 4.6 nm(-1). This result indicates that the tunneling mechanism is operative in this case. Conductance measurements under mechanical stress show that peptide-mediated electron transmission occurs with the possible contribution of intermolecular electron tunneling between adjacent helices. It was also demonstrated that an external electric field applied between metallic contacts can affect the structure of the peptide SAM by changing its thickness. This explains the asymmetry of the current-voltage response of metal-monolayer-metal junction. PMID:23181704

Pawlowski, Jan; Juhaniewicz, Joanna; Tymecka, Dagmara; Sek, Slawomir

2012-12-18

79

Photoinduced electron-transfer chemistry of the bielectrophoric N-phthaloyl derivatives of the amino acids tyrosine, histidine and tryptophan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The photochemistry of phthalimide derivatives of the electron-rich amino acids tyrosine, histidine and tryptophan 8–10 was studied with respect to photoinduced electron-transfer (PET induced decarboxylation and Norrish II bond cleavage. Whereas exclusive photodecarboxylation of the tyrosine substrate 8 was observed, the histidine compound 9 resulted in a mixture of histamine and preferential Norrish cleavage. The tryptophan derivative 10 is photochemically inert and shows preferential decarboxylation only when induced by intermolecular PET.

Alan de Kiff

2011-04-01

80

Dynamics of electron transfer in amine photooxidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies were initiated utilizing picosecond (ps) absorption spectroscopy, to directly monitor the dynamics of electron transfer from 1,4-diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane (Dabco) to the excited states of benzophenone and fluorenone. These two systems were chosen because of their contrasting photochemistry. The quantum yield for photoreduction of benzophenone in polar solvents is generally greater than 0.1, while that of fluorenone is zero. In polar solvents, the proposed mechanism dictates that an electron is transferred to the excited singlet state fluorenone, which then back-transfers the electron, regenerating ground-state fluorenone and amine. Photolysis of benzophenone in the presence of an amine transfers an electron to an excited triplet state, forming an ion pair that is stable relative to diffusional separation. The results of this study verify this proposal.

Peters, K.S.; Freilich, S.C.; Schaeffer, C.G.

1980-08-13

 
 
 
 
81

Electronic Funds Transfer and Monetary Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive analysis of the institutions, the instruments, and the channels of influence of monetary policy in the national economy is presented. It includes an examination of major points of impact of electronic funds transfer on monetary policy base...

1976-01-01

82

Nuclear reorganization barriers to electron transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear barrier to electron transfer arises from the need for reorganization of intramolecular and solvent internuclear distances prior to electron transfer. For reactions with relatively small driving force (''normal'' free-energy region) the nuclear factors and rates increase as intrinsic inner-shell and outer-shell barriers decrease; this is illustrated by data for transition metal complexes in their ground electronic states. By contrast, in the inverted free-energy region, rates and nuclear factors decrease with decreasing ''intrinsic'' barriers; this is illustrated by data for the decay of charge-transfer excited states. Several approaches to the evaluation of the outer-shell barrier are explored in an investigation of the distance dependence of the nuclear factor in intramolecular electron-transfer processes. 39 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

1988-08-15

83

Nuclear reorganization barriers to electron transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nuclear barrier to electron transfer arises from the need for reorganization of intramolecular and solvent internuclear distances prior to electron transfer. For reactions with relatively small driving force (''normal'' free-energy region) the nuclear factors and rates increase as intrinsic inner-shell and outer-shell barriers decrease; this is illustrated by data for transition metal complexes in their ground electronic states. By contrast, in the inverted free-energy region, rates and nuclear factors decrease with decreasing ''intrinsic'' barriers; this is illustrated by data for the decay of charge-transfer excited states. Several approaches to the evaluation of the outer-shell barrier are explored in an investigation of the distance dependence of the nuclear factor in intramolecular electron-transfer processes. 39 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Sutin, N.; Brunschwig, B.S.; Creutz, C.; Winkler, J.R.

1988-01-01

84

Electron Transfer for Large Molecules through Delocalization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electron transfer for large molecules lies in between a Marcus-Theory two-state transfer and a Landauer description. We discuss a delocalization formalism which,through the introduction of artificial electric fields which emulate bulk dipole fields, allows calculation between a pair of identical molecules (A+A- (R)A-+A) with several open states. Dynamical electron polarization effects can be inserted with TDDFT and are crucial for large separations.

Neuhauser, D.; Reslan, R.; Hernandez, S.; Arnsen, C.; Lopata, K.; Govind, N.; Gao, Y.; Tolbert, S.; Schwartz, B.; Rubin, Y.; Nardes, A.; Kopidakis, N.

2012-01-01

85

Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex  

CERN Multimedia

Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics within the CT complex, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the groundstate of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10-2 electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and NMR measurements, implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visi...

Haverkate, Lucas; Johnson, Mark; Carter, Elisabeth; Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, Stephen; Mulder, Fokko; Kearley, Gordon

2013-01-01

86

Electron transfer to continuum states  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gene Rudd`s analysis of doubly differential cross sections for the ionization of He atoms by proton impact suggested that electrons were being carried along by the proton for a short period of time after being ejected from the target region. Normally, this would represent an electron capture event in which an excited state of atomic hydrogen is formed. Because the electron ends up ionized it was recognized that these states of the proton must be continuum states. This insight was confirmed by observations of the continuum electron capture (CEC) cusp when the electron velocity equals the proton velocity in the final state. The impact of this idea upon the theory of ionization at high energies is reviewed.

Macek, J.H. [Univ. of Tenenssee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-12-31

87

Heat Transfer Augmentation for Electronic Cooling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The performance of electronic devices has been improving along with the rapid technology development. Cooling of electronic systems is consequently essential in controlling the component temperature and avoiding any hot spot. The study aims to review the present electronic cooling methods which are widely used in electronic devices. Approach: There are several methods to cool down the electronics components such as the pin-fin heat sink, confined jet impingement, heat pipe, micro heat sink and so on. Results: The cooling techniques can obviously increase heat transfer rate. Nonetheless, for active and passive cooling methods the pressure drop could extremely rise, when the heat transfer rate is increased. Conclusion: When the cooling techniques are used, it is clearly seen that the heat transfer increases with pressure drop. To avoid excessive expense due to high pressure drop, optimization method is required to obtain optimum cost and cooling rate.

Suabsakul Gururatana

2012-01-01

88

Medium effects in photoinduced electron transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transfer of an electron between two molecules is a fundamental chemical process of great significance in biochemistry as well as in general chemistry. Electron transfer reactions can be induced by the absorption of light - as in photosynthesis - so that one of the molecules reacts through an electronically excited state; a net storage of chemical energy may then take place. When electron transfer involves molecules in condensed phase, the role of the liquid or solid medium must be considered. In the first place, a polar solvent may promote electron transfer through the stabilization of ion pairs and the separation of ions; but if the polar solvent must reorganize prior to the reaction, then an activation barrier will exist against electron transfer in polar solvents. This article gives a citical review of this field, with some novel ideas concerning the role of the medium (liquid solvent or solid matrix) in the overall energy balance of electron transfer, in the kinetics of the reaction, and in the further process of charge separation. It is suggested in particular that no dielectric screening by a polar solvent can exist when ions are formed in direct contact; and that the extensive reorganization of the solvent prior to electron transfer is so unlikely as to be discounted. In these respects the model presented in this article diverges from the commonly accepted model of Weller and of Marcus and Hush. In the Conclusion section some areas of particular importance for further research in this field are outlined. (author) 28 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs

1988-01-01

89

Electron transfer processes in disordered media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reviews a broad range of approaches to the chemical dynamics in condensed phase systems. We analyze the problem of thermal electron transfer in disordered media (proteins) and discuss the interplay of quantum tunneling effects, electronic non-adiabaticity, friction and conformational changes on kinetic rate of the process. (author). 113 refs, 8 figs.

Gudowska-Nowak, E. [Dept. of Statistical Physics, Inst. of Physics, Jagiellonian Univ., Cracow (Poland)

1995-09-01

90

Electron transfer induced fragmentation of acetic acid  

Science.gov (United States)

We present negative ion formation driven by electron transfer in atom (K) molecule (acetic acid) collisions. Acetic acid has been found in the interstellar medium, is also considered a biological related compound and as such studying low energy electron interactions will bring new insights as far as induced chemistry is concerned.

Ferreira da Silva, F.; Meneses, G.; Almeida, D.; Limão-Vieira, P.

2014-04-01

91

Integral encounter theory of strong electron transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The integral encounter theory (IET) has been extended to the reactions limited by diffusion along the reaction coordinate to the level crossing points where either thermal or hot electron transfer occurs. IET describes the bimolecular ionization of the instantaneously excited electron donor D* followed by the hot geminate backward transfer which precedes the ion pair equilibration and its subsequent thermal recombination. We demonstrate that the fraction of ion pairs which avoids the hot recombination is much smaller than their initial number when the electron tunneling is strong

2005-03-22

92

Fluorescence quenching of carbazole by 2-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzotrifluoride-ethylamines intermolecular charge-transfer complex  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between carbazole and 2-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzotrifluoride-ethylamines, (mono-, di-, and triethylamine) charge-transfer complex in DMSO was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy. The positive deviation from linearity has been observed in the Stern-Volmer plots. The experimental results showed that the fluorescence of carbazole was quenched by 2-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzotrifluoride-ethylamines charge-transfer complex through a combined quenching procedure. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants, KSV, have been determined and found to be greater quenching efficiency of ethylamine. Carbazole/2-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzotrifluoride loaded PMMA film was exposed to ethylamine vapor, where the resulting absorption and emission changing properties were clearly monitored.

Lee, Eun-Mi; Gwon, Seon-Yeong; Son, Young-A.; Kim, Sung-Hoon

2013-02-01

93

Protein electron transfer: Dynamics and statistics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron transfer between redox proteins participating in energy chains of biology is required to proceed with high energetic efficiency, minimizing losses of redox energy to heat. Within the standard models of electron transfer, this requirement, combined with the need for unidirectional (preferably activationless) transitions, is translated into the need to minimize the reorganization energy of electron transfer. This design program is, however, unrealistic for proteins whose active sites are typically positioned close to the polar and flexible protein-water interface to allow inter-protein electron tunneling. The high flexibility of the interfacial region makes both the hydration water and the surface protein layer act as highly polar solvents. The reorganization energy, as measured by fluctuations, is not minimized, but rather maximized in this region. Natural systems in fact utilize the broad breadth of interfacial electrostatic fluctuations, but in the ways not anticipated by the standard models based on equilibrium thermodynamics. The combination of the broad spectrum of static fluctuations with their dispersive dynamics offers the mechanism of dynamical freezing (ergodicity breaking) of subsets of nuclear modes on the time of reaction/residence of the electron at a redox cofactor. The separation of time-scales of nuclear modes coupled to electron transfer allows dynamical freezing. In particular, the separation between the relaxation time of electro-elastic fluctuations of the interface and the time of conformational transitions of the protein caused by changing redox state results in dynamical freezing of the latter for sufficiently fast electron transfer. The observable consequence of this dynamical freezing is significantly different reorganization energies describing the curvature at the bottom of electron-transfer free energy surfaces (large) and the distance between their minima (Stokes shift, small). The ratio of the two reorganization energies establishes the parameter by which the energetic efficiency of protein electron transfer is increased relative to the standard expectations, thus minimizing losses of energy to heat. Energetically efficient electron transfer occurs in a chain of conformationally quenched cofactors and is characterized by flattened free energy surfaces, reminiscent of the flat and rugged landscape at the stability basin of a folded protein. PMID:23862967

Matyushov, Dmitry V

2013-07-14

94

Protein electron transfer: Dynamics and statistics  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron transfer between redox proteins participating in energy chains of biology is required to proceed with high energetic efficiency, minimizing losses of redox energy to heat. Within the standard models of electron transfer, this requirement, combined with the need for unidirectional (preferably activationless) transitions, is translated into the need to minimize the reorganization energy of electron transfer. This design program is, however, unrealistic for proteins whose active sites are typically positioned close to the polar and flexible protein-water interface to allow inter-protein electron tunneling. The high flexibility of the interfacial region makes both the hydration water and the surface protein layer act as highly polar solvents. The reorganization energy, as measured by fluctuations, is not minimized, but rather maximized in this region. Natural systems in fact utilize the broad breadth of interfacial electrostatic fluctuations, but in the ways not anticipated by the standard models based on equilibrium thermodynamics. The combination of the broad spectrum of static fluctuations with their dispersive dynamics offers the mechanism of dynamical freezing (ergodicity breaking) of subsets of nuclear modes on the time of reaction/residence of the electron at a redox cofactor. The separation of time-scales of nuclear modes coupled to electron transfer allows dynamical freezing. In particular, the separation between the relaxation time of electro-elastic fluctuations of the interface and the time of conformational transitions of the protein caused by changing redox state results in dynamical freezing of the latter for sufficiently fast electron transfer. The observable consequence of this dynamical freezing is significantly different reorganization energies describing the curvature at the bottom of electron-transfer free energy surfaces (large) and the distance between their minima (Stokes shift, small). The ratio of the two reorganization energies establishes the parameter by which the energetic efficiency of protein electron transfer is increased relative to the standard expectations, thus minimizing losses of energy to heat. Energetically efficient electron transfer occurs in a chain of conformationally quenched cofactors and is characterized by flattened free energy surfaces, reminiscent of the flat and rugged landscape at the stability basin of a folded protein.

Matyushov, Dmitry V.

2013-07-01

95

Superexchange coupling mechanisms for electron transfer processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron transfer matrix elements for electron exchange between various pairs of transition metal complexes in close contact have been calculated and analyzed for a variety of approach geometries for the two reactants. The coupling between the nominal metal ion donor/acceptor sites is achieved by superexchange of the hole type arising from ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT), the dominant ligand-field interaction for the electron-donor ligands considered (H sub 2 O, NH sub 3, the cyclopentadienide anion). The pronounced variations of H sub if with geometry are not correlated with the separation distance of the metal ions (between which the direct overlap is negligible) and span the range from non-adiabatic to strongly adiabatic electronic coupling. The values for metallocene/metallocinium redox pairs bracket recently reported experimental values. Analysis of the results using the method of corresponding orbitals demonstrates the validity of an effective 1-electron model for the electron transfer process to within about 10 percent for the class of systems considered. A higher-order superexchange mechanism was encountered for the Co(NH sub 3) sub 6 (2+/3+) exchange process, in which the LMCT-driven hole-transport mechanism couples excited local states of the metal ions, which in turn are connected to the corresponding ground states by spin-orbit mixing. This mechanism yields on electronic transmission factor within two orders of magnitude of unity.

Newton, M. D.

96

Electron transfer in weakly interacting systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recently proposed semiclassical model, in which an electronic transmission coefficient and a nuclear tunneling factor are introduced as corrections to the classical activated-complex expression, is described. The nuclear tunneling corrections are shown to be important only at low temperatures or when the electron transfer is very exothermic. By contrast, corrections for nonadiabaticity may be significant for most outer-sphere reactions of metal complexes. The rate constants for the Fe(H2O)62+-Fe(H2O)63+, Ru(NH3)62+-Ru(NH3)63+ and Ru(bpy)32+-Ru(bpy)33+ electron exchange reactions predicted by the semiclassical model are in very good agreement with the observed values. The implications of the model for optically-induced electron transfer in mixed-valence systems are noted

1981-06-12

97

Effects of intermolecular interaction on the energy distribution of valance electronic states of a carbazole-based material in amorphous thin films  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of intermolecular interactions on the occupied electronic structure of amorphous solid of a carbazole-based material were investigated under an assumption that the organic solid consists of randomly oriented assemblies of dimers. The electronic energy states were calculated on the ensemble of large number of random dimers, of which geometries are relaxed using semiempirical van der Waals density functional theory. Intermolecular interactions result in splitting of energy level, and further disorders occur by aggregation of randomly orientated molecules. As a result, frontier occupied energy states can be represented by a superposition of Gaussian distributions, including (i) a main distribution with full width at half maximum of 80-110 meV, depending on the methods of relaxation and (ii) shoulders separated from the center of the main distribution with a value as large as 150 meV. A possible origin for the appearance of these shoulders was ascribed to the presence of molecular assemblies consisting of more tightly bound dimers compared with the others.

Kwon, Soonnam; Wee, Kyung-Ryang; Kim, Jeong Won; Pac, Chyongjin; Kang, Sang Ook

2012-05-01

98

Intermolecular hydrogen transfer between guest species in small and large cages of methane + propane mixed gas hydrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the molecular interaction between guest species inside of the small and large cages of methane + propane mixed gas hydrates, thermal stabilities of the methyl radical (possibly induced in small cages) and the normal propyl and isopropyl radicals (induced in large cages) were investigated by means of electron spin resonance measurements. The increase of the total amount of the normal propyl and isopropyl radicals reveals that the methyl radical in the small cage withdraws one hydrogen atom from the propane molecule enclathrated in the adjacent large cage of the structure-II hydrate. A guest species in a hydrate cage has the ability to interact closely with the other one in the adjacent cages. The clathrate hydrate may be utilized as a possible nanoscale reaction field. PMID:22352402

Sugahara, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Tani, Atsushi; Inoue, Tatsuya; Ohgaki, Kazunari

2012-03-15

99

Electron transfer in dinucleoside phosphate anions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron transfer reaction within various dinucleoside phosphate radical anions has been investigated by ESR spectroscopy and pulse radiolysis. In the ESR work electrons are produced by photolysis of K4Fe(CN)6 in a 12 M LiCl glass at 770K. Upon photobleaching the electrons react with the dinucleoside phosphate to form the anion radical. The anions of the four DNA nucleosides were also produced and their ESR spectra were appropriately weighted and summed by computer to simulate the spectra found for the dinucleoside phosphate anions. From the analysis the relative amounts of each of the nucleoside anions in the dinucleoside phosphate anion were determined. Evidence suggests the electron affinity of the pyrimidine bases are greater than the purine bases; however, the results are not sufficient to distinguish between the individual purine or pyrimidine. When dinucleoside phosphate anions containing thymidine are warmed, protonation occurs only on thymine to produce the well known ''thymyl'' spectrum. Pulse radiolysis experiments on individual nucleotides (TMP, dAMP), mixtures of these nucleotides and the dinucleoside phosphate, TdA, in aqueous solution at room temperature show that in the TdA anion electron transfer occurs from adenine to thymine, whereas no electron transfer is found for mixtures of individual nucleotides. Protonation is found to occur only on thymine in the TdA anion in agreement with the ESR results

1976-02-12

100

Electron Transfer at Sensitized Semiconductor Electrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron transfer from the excited state of sensitizing dyes to the conduction band of semiconductors has been studied through photoelectrochemical techniques. Two systems were analyzed in detail: rhodamine B on ZnO and rose bengal on TiO sub 2 . Prior to...

M. T. Spitler

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Photoinduced electron transfer in ordered polymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photochemical studies on organic polymers or biopolymers (particularly synthetic peptides) that have been modified by covalent attachment (or other means of binding) of organic chromophores and electron transfer agents are described. Specific projects involve are: peptide conjugates bearing electroactive residues such as tryptophan and specifically labeled at the N- or C-terminus of peptide chains; the electrostatic binding of organic dyes to poly-electrolytes (polyacrylates) for which the formation of dimeric aggregates of bound dye that display unusual photophysical and electron transfer properties is important; a study of the binding of dyes and electron transfer agents to the protein mimic,'' polyvinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (PVP), in hydrophobic domains that depend on specific H-bond interaction; and completion of an earlier study having to do with the triplet state properties of charge-transfer (CT) complexes of a high potential quinone and various electron donors (investigation of the properties of triplet (contact) radical-ion pairs). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Jones, G. II.

1990-10-20

102

Semiconducting polymers (as donors) and buckminsterfullerene (as acceptor): photoinduced electron transfer and heterojunction devices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experimental results on the metastable, reversible, photoinduced electron transfer between semiconducting polymers and buckminsterfullerene are reviewed. Photoinduced absorption (photoexcitation spectroscopy), steady state and picosecond time-resolved photoluminescence and light-induced electron spin resonance measurements are summarized as experimental evidence for photoinduced electron transfer. Comparative studies with different semiconducting polymers as donors demonstrate that in the degenerate ground state the polymer's soliton excitations form before the electron transfer can occur, thereby inhibiting charge separation. In non-degenerate ground state systems, photoinduced electron transfer occurs in less than 10[sup -12] s, quenching the photoluminescence as well as the intersystem crossing. The importance of electron-phonon coupling in these low-dimensional semiconductor polymers, resulting in structural relaxation upon photoexcitation, is proposed to contribute to the stabilization of the charge-separated state. Utilizing thin films of the semiconducting polymer (donor) and buckminsterfullerene (acceptor) to form a heterojunction interface, we fabricated diode bilayers which functioned as photodiodes and as photovoltaic cells. The results are discussed in terms of opportunities for solar energy conversion, for photodiode detector devices and for a variety of other applications which use photoinduced intermolecular charge separation. (orig.)

Sariciftci, N.S. (Inst. for Polymers and Organic Solids, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)); Smilowitz, L. (Inst. for Polymers and Organic Solids, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)); Heeger, A.J. (Inst. for Polymers and Organic Solids, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)); Wudl, F. (Inst. for Polymers and Organic Solids, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States))

1993-08-01

103

Nuclear, electronic, and frequency factors in electron-transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The crux of the problem is the fact that the equilibrium configuration of a species changes when it loses an electron. Configuration changes of organometallic metal complexes involve the metal-ligand and intra-ligand bond lengths and angles as well as changes in vibrations and rotation of surrounding solvent dipoles. Discussion indicates that rate constants can be expressed as a product of a nuclear, an electronic, and a frequency factor. Good agreement with measured rate constants is obtained in the normal free-energy region. Understanding of electron transfer rates in highly exothermic regions remains uncertain. 75 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

1982-01-01

104

Reaction coordinates for electron transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The polarization fluctuation and energy gap formulations of the reaction coordinate for outer sphere electron transfer are linearly related to the constant energy constraint Lagrangian multiplier m in Marcus' theory of electron transfer. The quadratic dependence of the free energies of the reactant and product intermediates on m and m+1, respectively, leads to similar dependence of the free energies on the reaction coordinates and to the same dependence of the activation energy on the reorganization energy and the standard reaction free energy. Within the approximations of a continuum model of the solvent and linear response of the longitudinal polarization to the electric field in Marcus' theory, both formulations of the reaction coordinate are expected to lead to the same results.

2008-12-07

105

Electron transfer in silver telluride melt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electron transfer in silver telluride melt was studied experimentally at different temperatures. The method used to study electron transfer and thermodiffusion is based on Onsager's theory and consists of measuring the electrodiffusion potential which varies as a function of time in the system formed by the liquid semiconductor and the neutral metallic electrodes. The effective charges and the average coefficients of diffusion of silver ions were calculated and the ionic component of the total electrical conductivity of Ag/sub 2/Te melt was evaluated. It was observed that the indicated characteristics vary systematically in the series of silver chalcogenides with anionic substitution. The negative temperature coefficient of electrical conductivity in silver sulfide and silver selenide melts was explained.

Glazov, V.M.; Burkhanov, A.S.

1987-06-01

106

Custody transfer enhanced by electronic billing system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line (TGPL) Corp. engineers have developed an electronic billing system for custody transfer that can reduce the cost of doing business and improve the accuracy of transfer measurements. The system accurately measures gas flow and quality, transmits gas data to a central facility, provides a capability to review the collected data, prepares bills based upon these data, and reduces staffing associated with the data collection and billing process. On-line flow computers are keys to this electronic billing system. These computers, referred to as remote terminal units (RTU's), are currently in service at TGPL at more than 30 locations with 30 more locations due to be on-line within 6 months and an additional 40 locations due within 15 months. These RTU's will be obtaining gas data from metering stations located in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.

Knox, R.M.

1986-10-20

107

Activation entropy of electron transfer reactions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report microscopic calculations of free energies and entropies for intramolecular electron transfer reactions. The calculation algorithm combines the atomistic geometry and charge distribution of a molecular solute obtained from quantum calculations with the microscopic polarization response of a polar solvent expressed in terms of its polarization structure factors. The procedure is tested on a donor-acceptor complex in which ruthenium donor and cobalt acceptor sites are...

Milischuk, Anatoli A.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.; Newton, Marshall D.

2005-01-01

108

75 FR 51707 - Electronic Funds Transfer of Depository Taxes  

Science.gov (United States)

...Electronic Funds Transfer of Depository Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...proposed regulations relating to Federal tax deposits (FTDs) by Electronic Funds Transfer...contains proposed amendments to the Income Tax Regulations (26 CFR part 1), the...

2010-08-23

109

76 FR 709 - Electronic Funds Transfer of Depository Taxes; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...Electronic Funds Transfer of Depository Taxes; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue...providing guidance relating to Federal tax deposits (FTDs) by Electronic Funds Transfer...List of Subjects 26 CFR Part 40 Excise taxes, Reporting and recordkeeping...

2011-01-06

110

Model for the charge-transfer probability in helium nanodroplets following electron-impact ionization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A theoretical model has been developed to describe the probability of charge transfer from helium cations to dopant molecules inside helium nanodroplets following electron-impact ionization. The location of the initial charge site inside helium nanodroplets subject to electron impact has been investigated and is found to play an important role in understanding the ionization of dopants inside helium droplets. The model is consistent with a charge migration process in small helium droplets that is strongly directed by intermolecular forces originating from the dopant, whereas for large droplets (tens of thousands of helium atoms and larger) the charge migration increasingly takes on the character of a random walk. This suggests a clear droplet size limit for the use of electron-impact mass spectrometry for detecting molecules in helium droplets

2007-09-01

111

Promoting interspecies electron transfer with biochar  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar to that previously reported for granular activated carbon (GAC). Although the biochars investigated were 1000 times less conductive than GAC, they stimulated DIET in co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens with Geobacter sulfurreducens or Methanosarcina barkeri in which ethanol was the electron donor. Cells were attached to the biochar, yet not in close contact, suggesting that electrons were likely conducted through the biochar, rather than biological electrical connections. The finding that biochar can stimulate DIET may be an important consideration when amending soils with biochar and can help explain why biochar may enhance methane production from organic wastes under anaerobic conditions.

Chen, Shanshan; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

2014-01-01

112

Promoting interspecies electron transfer with biochar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar to that previously reported for granular activated carbon (GAC). Although the biochars investigated were 1000 times less conductive than GAC, they stimulated DIET in co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens with Geobacter sulfurreducens or Methanosarcina barkeri in which ethanol was the electron donor. Cells were attached to the biochar, yet not in close contact, suggesting that electrons were likely conducted through the biochar, rather than biological electrical connections. The finding that biochar can stimulate DIET may be an important consideration when amending soils with biochar and can help explain why biochar may enhance methane production from organic wastes under anaerobic conditions. PMID:24846283

Chen, Shanshan; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Liu, Fanghua; Fan, Wei; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R

2014-01-01

113

Photon-to-electron quantum information transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

Spin is a fundamental property of electrons and plays an important role in information storage. For spin-based quantum information technology, preparation and read-out of the electron spin state must be spin coherent, but both the traditional preparation and read-out of the spin state are projective to up/down spin states, which do not have spin coherence. We have recently demonstrated that the polarization coherence of light can be coherently transferred to the spin coherence of electrons in a semiconductor. We have also developed a new scheme named tomographic Kerr rotation (TKR) by generalizing the traditional KR to directly readout the spin coherence of optically prepared electrons without the need for the spin dynamics, which allows the spin projection measurement in an arbitrary set of basis states. These demonstrations were performed using g-factor-controlled semiconductor quantum wells with precessing and nonprecessing electrons. The developed scheme offers a tool for performing basis-independent preparation and read-out of a spin quantum state in a solid. These results encourage us to make a quantum media converter between flying photon qubits and stationary electron spin qubits in semiconductors.

Kosaka, Hideo

2011-05-01

114

Marcus' contributions to electron-transfer theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contributions of R.A. Marcus to the development of electron-transfer theory are reviewed. Marcus was one of the first to postulate that electron transfer depended upon nuclear configuration changes. He later developed a parallel formalism for electron-transfer and redox reactions at an electrode.

Sutin, N.

1986-07-31

115

Normal-Mode Analysis for Intra- and Intermolecular Electron--Phonon Coupled Systems with Charge-Ordered and Dimer--Mott Ground States  

Science.gov (United States)

We have theoretically studied the ground-state properties of the molecular compound, Et2Me2Sb[Pd(dmit)2]2, which shows a dimer--Mott character in Pd(dmit)2 layers at high temperature and a charge order mainly stabilized by an electron--phonon interaction at low temperature. An effective extended Peierls--Hubbard model is constructed with intra- and intermolecular electronic and phonon degrees of freedom. Using mean-field approximation, the energies and optimized structures are calculated for isolated neutral, monovalent, divalent Pd(dmit)2 dimers and their two-dimensional crystallized states. The optical conductivities of the crystallized states are calculated by a single-configuration interaction method. For intramolecular vibrations, normal-mode analysis is performed, which is useful to explain the recent experimental results. Molecular vibrations with different symmetries are coupled to different combinations of electrons and holes within a molecule, so that their frequencies depend on the molecular charge in different manners. This information will be useful to analyze photoinduced transient states, where the relation between their frequencies and the molecular charge is modified from the equilibrium counterpart.

Nishioka, Keita; Yonemitsu, Kenji

2013-02-01

116

Remote interfacial electron transfer from supramolecular sensitizers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There has been intense research in light-to-electrical energy conversion with ruthenium(II) polypyridyl charge transfer sensitizers anchored to wide bandgap semiconductors such as TiO{sub 2}. In an effort to achieve improved molecular control of sensitizer orientation the authors turned to bimetallic coordination compounds based on rhenium and ruthenium where the facial geometry of the Re center holds a Ru sensitizer proximate to the TiO{sub 2} surface. In this communication, the authors report the photophysical and photoelectrochemical properties of two Re-Ru linkage isomers in solution and the same isomers anchored to nanostructured TiO{sub 2} films. The results demonstrate rapid efficient interfacial electron transfer and a remarkably high light-to-electrical energy conversion even though the sensitizer is remote to the semiconductor-bound ligand.

Argazzi, R.; Bignozzi, C.A. [Dipartimento di Chimica dell`Universita, Ferrara (Italy); Heimer, T.A.; Meyer, G.J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1997-01-01

117

Studies on the electronic structure and intermolecular interactions of diacetyl-, and methylglyoxal- bis(thiosemicarbazone)copper(II) complexes  

Science.gov (United States)

The electronic structure of the title complexes are studied by e.p.r. and electronic spectra in DMF solution (300 and 100 K) as well as in magnetically diluted powder sample. It is found that the electronic structure is determined mainly by the unit CuN 2S 2 of the complex. The interaction of the complexes with some Lewis acids is also studied. The formation of D-A complex with relatively weak acids is observed. The strong Lewis acids destroy the complexes.

Yordanov, N. D.; Batchvarova, M. T.

1984-03-01

118

A time-resolved study of electron transfer mechanisms: Beyond outer-sphere electron transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Of the primary objectives of our research has been to understand some of the fundamental mechanistic issues underlying electron transfer reactions. We have designed molecular systems to provide information on several aspects of charge transfer reactions, including the role of protons in long-distance electron transfer, bimolecular donor-acceptor pair reactivity at high driving forces, and excited state multielectron transformations. In our systems a photon can initiate the reaction by placing the molecules in an excited electronic state, which permits the reactant and product concentrations to be monitored as a function of time. These dynamic measurements are conducted by exciting the molecules with a short light pulse, and following the progress of the reaction by optical methods, such as transient absorption spectroscopy and emission lifetime. Electron transfer reactions through a proton interface have been conducted by the design of hydrogen-bonded donor-acceptor pairs, where the donor, a carboxylic acid derivative of a Zn-substituted porphyrin, transfer an electron to several aromatic acceptors from its excited state. The charge separation and subsequent charge recombination rates have been determined utilizing picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, for protiated and deuterated donors and acceptors. A slight attenuation in the rates is observed. The transient absorption technique has also been utilized to characterize the excited states that lead to two-electron reactivity in quadrupoly-bonded inorganic complexes of the type M{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}(L){sub n}, where M = molybdenum or tungsten and L = monodentate or bidentate phosphine ligands. It was observed that the reactions do not proceed directly from an excited electronic state, but from a conformationally-distorted intermediate formed following light excitation. The distorted intermediate is believed to possess favorable characteristics that permit the observed two-electron oxidative-addition reactions.

Turro, C.

1992-12-31

119

Experimental and theoretical electron-density study of three isoindole derivatives: topological and Hirshfeld surface analysis of weak intermolecular interactions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A combined experimental and theoretical study of three isoindole derivatives was made on the basis of a topological analysis of their electron-density distributions. Experimental electron densities were determined from high-resolution X-ray diffraction data sets measured with synchrotron radiation at 100 K, whereas theoretical calculations were performed using DFT methods at the B3LYP\\6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of approximation. Both experimental and theoretical models are in good agreement with...

Checinska, L.; Desy, Forschung Mit Photonen; Grabowsky, S.; Malecka, M.; Rybarczyk Pirek, A. J.; Jozwiak, A.; Paulmann, C.; Luger, P.

2011-01-01

120

Kinetics and mechanism of elementary act of electron transfer in alcohol radicals oxidation by hydrated trivalent iron ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of competing reactions has been employed to measure the velocity constants of one-electron oxidation of oxyalkyl radicals by Fe(3) ions upon ?-radiolysis of aqueous methanol, ethanol and isopropanol in the presence of Fe(3) ions and tetranitromethane. It is shown that if such factors as non-adiabaticity, reorganization of intermolecular degrees of freedom, core tunnelling effects and spin effects are taken into account, the quantum theory of outerspheric electron transfer in polar media provides for quantitative agreement of the measured velocity constants with experimental results

1977-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Photoinduced electron transfer in model systems of photosynthesis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Thesis describes Investigations on photoinduced electron transfer (ET) for several compounds, serving as model systems of the natural photosynthesis. In addition, the properties of the systems, e.g. the conformation in solution and the electronic properties of the photoexcited states are treated.Chapter 2 discusses present theories of photoinduced electron transfer. The following factors appear to effect the electron transfer rate constants:- donor-acceptor distance- nature of the linkin...

Hofstra, U.

1988-01-01

122

Devices which transfer electrons one-by-one  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An introduction is given to the field of single-electron devices, which are electronic circuits across which electrons may be transferred one by one. Experiments are described on the single-junction box and the four-junction box, devices in which electrons were transferred to a metallic island and their presence detected using a single-electron electrometer. The single-junction box, the simpler of the two devices, allows one to control the thermally-averaged number of excess electrons on the metallic island, whereas with the four-junction box one can actually control the transfer of individual electrons. (author) 11 refs.; 5 figs

1992-02-01

123

Electron transfer in gas surface collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis electron transfer between atoms and metal surfaces in general is discussed and the negative ionization of hydrogen by scattering protons at a cesiated crystalline tungsten (110) surface in particular. Experimental results and a novel theoretical analysis are presented. In Chapter I a theoretical overview of resonant electron transitions between atoms and metals is given. In the first part of chapter II atom-metal electron transitions at a fixed atom-metal distance are described on the basis of a model developed by Gadzuk. In the second part the influence of the motion of the atom on the atomic charge state is incorporated. Measurements presented in chapter III show a strong dependence of the fraction of negatively charged H atoms scattered at cesiated tungsten, on the normal as well as the parallel velocity component. In chapter IV the proposed mechanism for the parallel velocity effect is incorporated in the amplitude method. The scattering process of protons incident under grazing angles on a cesium covered surface is studied in chapter V. (Auth.)

1983-01-01

124

Electron transfer at sensitized semiconductor electrodes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electron transfer from the excited state of sensitizing dyes to the conduction band of semiconductors has been studied through photoelectrochemical techniques. Two systems were analyzed in detail: rhodamine B on ZnO and rose bengal on TiO/sub 2/. Prior to electrochemical experimentation, the adsorption characteristics of these dyes were investigated using ZnO, ZnS, and TiO/sub 2/ single crystals as substrates. Absorbance measurements of the adsorbed dye were taken as a function of the solution concentration of the dye. Adsorption isotherms heats of adsorption were also established; they were similar to literature data reported for adsorption of these dyes on powdered substrates. Using the absorbance data, the quantum efficiency for photoinjection of electrons from rhodamine B into a ZnO electrode was determined to be 2.7 x 10/sup -2/. This value was independent of the dye surface concentration down to 50% coverage of the electrode. With the assumption that not all of the rhodamine B adsorbed on the electrode has the same rate of electron injection, a kinetic model for the time decay of the photocurrent was developed; data were analyzed according to this theory. A rate constant for photoreduction of the adsorbed dye was determined for the reducing agents. 86 references.

Spitler, M.T.

1977-03-01

125

Short range photoinduced electron transfer in proteins: QM-MM simulations of tryptophan and flavin fluorescence quenching in proteins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hybrid quantum mechanical-molecular mechanics (dynamics) were performed on flavin reductase (Fre) and flavodoxin reductase (Fdr), both from Escherichia coli. Each was complexed with riboflavin (Rbf) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN). During 50 ps trajectories, the relative energies of the fluorescing state (S1) of the isoalloxazine ring and the lowest charge transfer state (CT) were assessed to aid prediction of fluorescence lifetimes that are shortened due to quenching by electron transfer from tyrosine. The simulations for the four cases display a wide range in CT-S1 energy gap caused by the presence of phosphate, other charged and polar residues, water, and by intermolecular separation between donor and acceptor. This suggests that the Gibbs energy change (?G 0) and reorganization energy (?) for the electron transfer may differ in different flavoproteins

2006-07-11

126

Activation entropy of electron transfer reactions  

CERN Multimedia

We report microscopic calculations of free energies and entropies for intramolecular electron transfer reactions. The calculation algorithm combines the atomistic geometry and charge distribution of a molecular solute obtained from quantum calculations with the microscopic polarization response of a polar solvent expressed in terms of its polarization structure factors. The procedure is tested on a donor-acceptor complex in which ruthenium donor and cobalt acceptor sites are linked by a four-proline polypeptide. The reorganization energies and reaction energy gaps are calculated as a function of temperature by using structure factors obtained from our analytical procedure and from computer simulations. Good agreement between two procedures and with direct computer simulations of the reorganization energy is achieved. The microscopic algorithm is compared to the dielectric continuum calculations. We found that the strong dependence of the reorganization energy on the solvent refractive index predicted by conti...

Milischuk, A A; Newton, M D; Milischuk, Anatoli A.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.; Newton, Marshall D.

2005-01-01

127

Electron transfer reactions of organometallic compounds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mixed valence states of the twelve ligand bridged hexaruthenium clusters $\\rm Ru\\sb3(\\mu\\sb3$-O)($\\mu$-$\\rm CH\\sb3CO\\sb2)\\sb6(CO)(L\\sp\\prime)(\\mu$-L)$\\rm Ru\\sb3(\\mu\\sb3$-O)($\\mu$-$\\rm CH\\sb3CO\\sb2)\\sb6(CO)(L\\sp{\\prime\\prime})$ (L = 1,4-pyrazine or 4,4$\\sp\\prime$-bipyridine; L$\\sp\\prime$ (or L$\\sp{\\prime\\prime})$ = 4-dimethyl-aminopyridine, pyridine, 4-cyanopyridine, undergo rapid intramolecular electron transfer. The splitting of the reduction waves in cyclic voltammetry depends on the el...

1998-01-01

128

Electron-gas plus damped-dispersion model for intermolecular forces: the rare-gas and H2-He, H2-Ne, and H2-Ar potentials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modified Gordon-Kim (MGK) electron-gas model for the calculation of the short-range repulsive interactions between closed-shell atoms and molecules is used with a damped-dispersion term of a form suggested by Hepburn et al. to calculate the intermolecular potentials between the rare-gas atoms and H2-He, H2-Ne, and H2-Ar. The damping function for the dispersion energies is found by comparison with the experimental Ar-Ar potential and is then used without change for all other interactions. Except for interactions involving Ne atoms, the results for the atom-atom interactions are uniformly quite good, with an average deviation from experiment in the position of the minimum (neglecting those involving Ne atoms) of only 0.7%. Both the radical V0(r) and anisotropic V2(r) terms of the atom-molecule results are compared with experiment. The calculated V0(r) potentials for He-H2 and Ar-H2 show close agreement with experiment, though the V2 terms are less well determined. All interactions involving Ne atoms are too repulsive. The errors in the potentials involving Ne atoms are attributed to errors in the treatment of the exchange energy in the MGK model. 29 references, 11 figures, 5 tables

1984-09-13

129

Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Charge and Excitation Transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the and/or state of several subprojects of our DOE sponsored research on Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Electron and Excitation Transfer: (1) Construction of an ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifier. (2) Mediation of electronic interactions in host-guest molecules. (3) Theoretical models of electrolytes in weakly polar media. (4) Symmetry effects in intramolecular excitation transfer.

Piotr Piotrowiak

2004-09-28

130

Single and Accumulative Electron Transfer – Prerequisites for Artificial Photosynthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Photoinduced electron transfer is involved in a number of photochemical and photobiological processes. One example of this is photosynthesis, where the absorption of sunlight leads to the formation of charge-separated states by electron transfer. The redox equivalents built up by successive photoabsorption and electron transfer is further used for the oxidation of water and reduction of carbon dioxide to sugars. The work presented in this thesis is part of an interdisciplinary effort aiming a...

2010-01-01

131

Hemicryptophane-assisted electron transfer: a structural and electronic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three copper(II)@hemicryptophane complexes with various cavity sizes and shapes, Cu(II)@1, Cu(II)@2 and Cu(II)@3, were synthesized and characterized by near-IR/vis and EPR spectroscopies. The spectroscopic data are consistent with the presence of a trigonal-bipyramidal geometry of the N(4)Cu·H(2)O core, in accord with the energy-minimized structures obtained from DFT calculations. Cyclic voltammetry studies in CH(2)Cl(2) showed irreversible redox processes, whereas electrolysis coulometry indicated that Cu(II)/Cu(I) complexes could be interconverted. Electrochemistry data of the complexes stress the crucial role of the cage structure of the hemicryptophane in the thermodynamics of the electron transfer. PMID:23138197

Perraud, Olivier; Tommasino, Jean-Bernard; Robert, Vincent; Albela, Belén; Khrouz, Lhoussain; Bonneviot, Laurent; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre; Martinez, Alexandre

2013-02-01

132

Oxide/Electrolyte interface: Electron transfer phenomena  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electron transfer on a titanium dioxide/electrolyte solution interface has been studied. As observed by other researchers on similar interfaces (TiO2- and ZnO- electrolyte solution, slow consumption of OH- ions was found. A theoretical model has been developed for calculating the change in Fermi energy levels of both electrolyte solution and semiconductor, showing that ion consumption from the solution is favoured by a decreased difference in their Fermi energies. A kinetic constant (? is found to characterise the consumption process, its value increasing with electrolyte and semiconductor mass concentrations. Furthermore, this process may be used to estimate the point of zero charge of a titanium dioxide colloidal dispersion.

En este trabajo se ha estudiado un proceso de transferencia de electrones en la interfase dióxido de titanio/electrolito acuoso. Tal y como han observado otros investigadores en interfases similares (TiO2- y ZnO- electrolito, se ha detectado un consumo lento de iones OH-. Para dar explicación a este proceso, se ha desarrollado un modelo teórico basado en el cálculo de las energías de Fermi en el semiconductor y en el electrolito. De este modo, se demuestra que dicho consumo de iones está favorecido por una disminución de la diferencia entre ambos niveles de Fermi. Para caracterizar el proceso de consumo lento de OH- se define una constante cinética (?, cuyo valor aumenta a medida que crece la concentración másica de semiconductor y de electrolito en la suspensión. Adicionalmente, este fenómeno proporciona una herramienta para determinar experimentalmente el punto de carga nula de la suspensión de dióxido de titanio en el medio acuoso.

Fernández-Ibáñez, P.

2000-08-01

133

Activation entropy of electron transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report microscopic calculations of free energies and entropies for intramolecular electron transfer reactions. The calculation algorithm combines the atomistic geometry and charge distribution of a molecular solute obtained from quantum calculations with the microscopic polarization response of a polar solvent expressed in terms of its polarization structure factors. The procedure is tested on a donor-acceptor complex in which ruthenium donor and cobalt acceptor sites are linked by a four-proline polypeptide. The reorganization energies and reaction energy gaps are calculated as a function of temperature by using structure factors obtained from our analytical procedure and from computer simulations. Good agreement between two procedures and with direct computer simulations of the reorganization energy is achieved. The microscopic algorithm is compared to the dielectric continuum calculations. We found that the strong dependence of the reorganization energy on the solvent refractive index predicted by continuum models is not supported by the microscopic theory. Also, the reorganization and overall solvation entropies are substantially larger in the microscopic theory compared to continuum models

2006-05-09

134

Photoinduced Electron-transfer Reaction of Pentafluoroiodobenzene with Alkenes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Irradiation of pentafluoroiodobenzene and alkenes gave the corresponding adducts. The presence of single electron-transfer scavengers, (p-dinitrobenzene and t-Bu2NO) and the free radical inhibitor (hydroquinone) suppressed the reaction. A photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism is proposed.

Ping Cao; Zheng-Yu Long; Qing-Yun Chen

1997-01-01

135

Photoinduced Electron-transfer Reaction of Pentafluoroiodobenzene with Alkenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Irradiation of pentafluoroiodobenzene and alkenes gave the corresponding adducts. The presence of single electron-transfer scavengers, (p-dinitrobenzene and t-Bu2NO and the free radical inhibitor (hydroquinone suppressed the reaction. A photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism is proposed.

Qing-Yun Chen

1997-01-01

136

Long-distance electron transfer from a triplet excited state  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron transfer from the triplet excited state of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylphenylene diamine to phthalic anhydride has been monitored by phosphorescence emission decay. The kinetics of the transfer process were observed directly and the rate constant depends exponentially on the reacting distance, k(r) = 1 × 10 4 exp(-0.58 r) s -1. The electron transfer rate has been found to be invariant over the temperature interval 77-143 K.

Murtagh, James; Thomas, J. Kerry

137

Computational Approach to Electron Charge Transfer Reactions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The step from ab initio atomic and molecular properties to thermodynamic - or macroscopic - properties requires the combination of several theoretical tools. This dissertation presents constant temperature molecular dynamics with bond length constraints, a hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics scheme, and tools to analyse statistical data and generate relative free energies and free energy surfaces. The methodology is applied to several charge transfer species and reactions in chemical environments - chemical in the sense that solvent, counter ions and substrate surfaces are taken in to account - which directly influence the reactants and resulting reaction through both physical and chemical interactions. All methods are though general and can be applied to different types of chemistry. First, the basis of the various theoretical tools is presented and applied to several test systems to show general (or expected) properties. Properties such as in the physical and (semi-)chemical interface between classical and quantum systems and the effects of molecular bond length constraints on the temperature during simulations. As a second step the methodology is applied to the symmetric and asymmetric charge transfer reactions between several first-row transition metals in water. The results are compared to experiments and rationalised with classical analytic expressions. Shortcomings of the methods are accounted for with clear steps towards improved accuracy. Later the analysis is extended to more complex systems composed of a larger osmium complex in solution and at the solute-substrate interfaces, where in particular the redox state of the complex is controlled through chemical means. The efficiency of the hybrid-classical and quantum mechanics method is used to generate adequate statistics and a simple post-sampling scheme used to generate free energy surfaces - which compare to full ab initio calculations. In the last part both the molecular dynamics and hybrid classical and quantum mechanics method are used to generate a vast data set for the accurate analysis of dynamical structure modes. This is for a large iridium-iridium dimer complex which shows a dramatic structural (and vibrational) change upon electronic excitation.

Jónsson, Elvar �rn

2013-01-01

138

Electron transfer reactions between excited atoms and molecules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron transfer reactions have been extensively studied for atoms in ground state colliding with molecules. On the contrary, few experiments have been performed for atoms excited above the first resonance states and it has been supposed by some authors that above a given degree of excitation, electron transfer becomes negligeable. By using a simple Landau-Zener model and a LCAO calculation of the coupling matrix element between ionic and covalent states for excited atoms and molecules with small electron affinities, we conclude that there is no limit to the electron transfer, in agreement with the experimental observation of ion pair formation for Rydberg atoms colliding with given molecules such as SF6

1984-01-01

139

The distance and temperature dependence of electron-transfer rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron transfer occurs over relatively long distances in a variety of systems. In interpreting the measured electron-transfer rates it is usually assumed that the rate constants depend exponentially on the distance separating the two redox sites and that this distance dependence arises from the decrease in the electronic coupling of the redox sites with increasing separation. Although the electronic coupling is an important factor determining the distance dependence of the rate, theoretical considerations suggest that the nuclear factors are also important. The various factors determining long-range electron-transfer rates are discussed and it is shown that very different distance dependences are predicted for reactions in the normal and inverted free-energy regions. The effect of the enthalpy change on the electron-transfer rate is also considered; three enthalpy regions are identified depending on the overall free energy and entropy changes for the reaction

1987-04-05

140

Harvesting singlet fission for solar energy conversion: one versus two-electron transfer electron transfer from the quantum superposition state  

Science.gov (United States)

Singlet fission (SF) is being explored to increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaics. A key question is how to effectively extract multiple electron-hole pairs from multiple excitons with the presence of other competing channels such as electron transfer from the singlet state. Recent experiments on the pentacene and tetracene show that a quantum superposition of the singlet (S1) and multiexciton (ME) state is formed during SF. However, little is known about the kinetics of electron transfer from this quantum superposition. Here, we apply time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to the tetracene/C60 interface to probe one and two electron transfer from S1 and ME states, respectively. Because of the relatively slow ( 7 ps) SF in tetracene, both one- and two-electron transfer are allowed. We show evidence for the formation of two distinct charge transfer states due to electron transfer from photo-excited tetracene to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and the LUMO+1 levels in C60. Kinetic analysis shows that 60% of the quantum superposition transfers one electron through the S1 state to C60 while 40% undergoes two-electron transfer through the ME state.

Chan, Wai-Lun; Tritsch, John; Zhu, Xiaoyang

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Electron Transfer Dissociation of iTRAQ Labeled Peptide Ions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Triply and doubly charged iTRAQ (isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation) labeled peptide cations from a tryptic peptide mixture of bovine carbonic anhydrase II were subjected to electron transfer ion/ion reactions to investigate the effect of charge bearing modifications associated with iTRAQ on the fragmentation pattern. It was noted that electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of triply charged or activated ETD (ETD + supplemental collisional activation of intact electron tran...

Han, Hongling; Pappin, Darryl J.; Ross, Philip L.; Mcluckey, Scott A.

2008-01-01

142

Heat Transfer Augmentation for Electronic Cooling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The performance of electronic devices has been improving along with the rapid technology development. Cooling of electronic systems is consequently essential in controlling the component temperature and avoiding any hot spot. The study aims to review the present electronic cooling methods which are widely used in electronic devices. Approach: There are several methods to cool down the electronics components such as the pin-fin heat sink, confined jet impingeme...

Suabsakul Gururatana

2012-01-01

143

Photocatalytic monofluorination of benzene by fluoride via photoinduced electron transfer with 3-cyano-1-methylquinolinium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The photocatalytic fluorination of benzene occurs under photoirradiation of an oxygen-saturated acetonitrile (MeCN) of the 3-cyano-1-methylquinolinium ion (QuCN(+)) containing benzene and tetraethylammonium fluoride tetrahydrofluoride (TEAF·4HF) with a xenon lamp (500 W) attached to a colored-glass filter (? TEAF·4HF. The observed rate constant increased with increasing concentration of TEAF·4HF. The rate constant of the electrophilic addition of fluoride to the benzene radical cation was determined to be 9.4 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). Thus, the photocatalytic reaction is initiated by intermolecular photoinduced electron transfer from benzene to the single excited state of QuCN(+). The benzene radical cation formed by photoinduced electron transfer reacts with the fluoride anion to yield the F-adducted radical. However, QuCN(•) can reduce O2 to O2(•-), and this is followed by the protonation of O2(•-) to afford HO2(•). The hydrogen abstraction of HO2(•) from the F-adduct radical affords fluorobenzene and H2O2 as the final products. PMID:24050618

Ohkubo, Kei; Fujimoto, Atsushi; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

2013-10-17

144

Electron transfer reactivity of the Arabidopsis thaliana sulfhydryl oxidase AtErv1  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The redox reactivity of the three disulfide bridges and the flavin present in each protomer of the wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial sulfhydryl oxidase (AtErv1) homodimer has been investigated. Pulse radiolytically produced CO2- radical ions were found to reduce the disulfide bridges to yield disulfide radicals, RSS*R-. Rates and absorption changes due to formation or decay of RSS*R- and the flavin quinone, semiquinone, and hydroquinone were measured and analyzed. During the first 100 micros following the pulse, the flavin was reduced to the semiquinone by intramolecular electron transfer from the active site disulfide radical. The semiquinone and the remaining disulfide radicals then reacted by much slower, 40 ms to 40 s, inter-homodimer electron transfer reactions, culminating in reduced flavin and dithiols. The dithiols were then subject to oxidation by enzyme molecules via their intrinsic enzymatic activity, at a rate comparable to the slower intermolecular processes in the 10-s time regime. Mutants of AtErv1 lacking each of the three individual cysteine pairs were studied to determine the involvement of the respective disulfide groups in these reactions. Elimination of the active site disulfide bridge increased the stability of the flavin semiquinone making it a long-lived product. Relevance of these observations to the design and function of the sulfhydryl oxidases is discussed.

Farver, Ole; Vitu, Elvira

2009-01-01

145

Theory of electron transfer and ionization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main effort reported is directed toward charge transfer and ionization in high energy atomic collisions. The research may be divided into classical trajectory calculations, quantum - mechanical collision theory, and phenomenological treatments of quantal interference effects in heavy ion collisions

1979-04-07

146

Golden rule kinetics of transfer reactions in condensed phase: The microscopic model of electron transfer reactions in disordered solid matrices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The algorithm for a theoretical calculation of transfer reaction rates for light quantum particles (i.e., the electron and H-atom transfers) in non-polar solid matrices is formulated and justified. The mechanism postulated involves a local mode (an either intra- or inter-molecular one) serving as a mediator which accomplishes the energy exchange between the reacting high-frequency quantum mode and the phonon modes belonging to the environment. This approach uses as a background the Fermi golden rule beyond the usually applied spin-boson approximation. The dynamical treatment rests on the one-dimensional version of the standard quantum relaxation equation for the reduced density matrix, which describes the frequency fluctuation spectrum for the local mode under consideration. The temperature dependence of a reaction rate is controlled by the dimensionless parameter ?{sub 0}=??{sub 0}/k{sub B}T where ?{sub 0} is the frequency of the local mode and T is the temperature. The realization of the computational scheme is different for the high/intermediate (?{sub 0} < 1 ? 3) and for low (?{sub 0}? 1) temperature ranges. For the first (quasi-classical) kinetic regime, the Redfield approximation to the solution of the relaxation equation proved to be sufficient and efficient in practical applications. The study of the essentially quantum-mechanical low-temperature kinetic regime in its asymptotic limit requires the implementation of the exact relaxation equation. The coherent mechanism providing a non-vanishing reaction rate has been revealed when T? 0. An accurate computational methodology for the cross-over kinetic regime needs a further elaboration. The original model of the hopping mechanism for electronic conduction in photosensitive organic materials is considered, based on the above techniques. The electron transfer (ET) in active centers of such systems proceeds via local intra- and intermolecular modes. The active modes, as a rule, operate beyond the kinetic regimes, which are usually postulated in the existing theories of the ET. Our alternative dynamic ET model for local modes immersed in the continuum harmonic medium is formulated for both classical and quantum regimes, and accounts explicitly for the mode/medium interaction. The kinetics of the energy exchange between the local ET subsystem and the surrounding environment essentially determine the total ET rate. The efficient computer code for rate computations is elaborated on. The computations are available for a wide range of system parameters, such as the temperature, external field, local mode frequency, and characteristics of mode/medium interaction. The relation of the present approach to the Marcus ET theory and to the quantum-statistical reaction rate theory [V. G. Levich and R. R. Dogonadze, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. Khim. 124, 213 (1959); J. Ulstrup, Charge Transfer in Condensed Media (Springer, Berlin, 1979); M. Bixon and J. Jortner, Adv. Chem. Phys. 106, 35 (1999)] underlying it is discussed and illustrated by the results of computations for practically important target systems.

Basilevsky, M. V.; Mitina, E. A. [Photochemistry Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, Novatorov ul., Moscow (Russian Federation); Odinokov, A. V. [Photochemistry Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, Novatorov ul., Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” 31, Kashirskoye shosse, Moscow (Russian Federation); Titov, S. V. [Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, 3-1/12, Building 6, Obuha pereulok, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-12-21

147

Golden rule kinetics of transfer reactions in condensed phase: The microscopic model of electron transfer reactions in disordered solid matrices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The algorithm for a theoretical calculation of transfer reaction rates for light quantum particles (i.e., the electron and H-atom transfers) in non-polar solid matrices is formulated and justified. The mechanism postulated involves a local mode (an either intra- or inter-molecular one) serving as a mediator which accomplishes the energy exchange between the reacting high-frequency quantum mode and the phonon modes belonging to the environment. This approach uses as a background the Fermi golden rule beyond the usually applied spin-boson approximation. The dynamical treatment rests on the one-dimensional version of the standard quantum relaxation equation for the reduced density matrix, which describes the frequency fluctuation spectrum for the local mode under consideration. The temperature dependence of a reaction rate is controlled by the dimensionless parameter ?0=??0/kBT where ?0 is the frequency of the local mode and T is the temperature. The realization of the computational scheme is different for the high/intermediate (?0 0? 1) temperature ranges. For the first (quasi-classical) kinetic regime, the Redfield approximation to the solution of the relaxation equation proved to be sufficient and efficient in practical applications. The study of the essentially quantum-mechanical low-temperature kinetic regime in its asymptotic limit requires the implementation of the exact relaxation equation. The coherent mechanism providing a non-vanishing reaction rate has been revealed when T? 0. An accurate computational methodology for the cross-over kinetic regime needs a further elaboration. The original model of the hopping mechanism for electronic conduction in photosensitive organic materials is considered, based on the above techniques. The electron transfer (ET) in active centers of such systems proceeds via local intra- and intermolecular modes. The active modes, as a rule, operate beyond the kinetic regimes, which are usually postulated in the existing theories of the ET. Our alternative dynamic ET model for local modes immersed in the continuum harmonic medium is formulated for both classical and quantum regimes, and accounts explicitly for the mode/medium interaction. The kinetics of the energy exchange between the local ET subsystem and the surrounding environment essentially determine the total ET rate. The efficient computer code for rate computations is elaborated on. The computations are available for a wide range of system parameters, such as the temperature, external field, local mode frequency, and characteristics of mode/medium interaction. The relation of the present approach to the Marcus ET theory and to the quantum-statistical reaction rate theory [V. G. Levich and R. R. Dogonadze, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. Khim. 124, 213 (1959); J. Ulstrup, Charge Transfer in Condensed Media (Springer, Berlin, 1979); M. Bixon and J. Jortner, Adv. Chem. Phys. 106, 35 (1999)] underlying it is discussed and illustrated by the results of computations for practically important target systems

2013-12-21

148

REFLECTIONS ON THE TWO-STATE ELECTRON TRANSFER MODEL.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is general agreement that the two most important factors determining electron transfer rates in solution are the degree of electronic interaction between the donor and acceptor sites, and the changes in the nuclear configurations of the donor, acceptor, and surrounding medium that occur upon the gain or loss of an electron Ll-51. The electronic interaction of the sites will be very weak, and the electron transfer slow, when the sites are far apart or their interaction is symmetry or spin forbidden. Since electron motion is much faster than nuclear motion, energy conservation requires that, prior to the actual electron transfer, the nuclear configurations of the reactants and the surrounding medium adjust from their equilibrium values to a configuration (generally) intermediate between that of the reactants and products. In the case of electron transfer between , two metal complexes in a polar solvent, the nuclear configuration changes involve adjustments in the metal-ligand and intraligand bond lengths and angles, and changes in the orientations of the surrounding solvent molecules. In common with ordinary chemical reactions, an electron transfer reaction can then be described in terms of the motion of the system on an energy surface from the reactant equilibrium configuration (initial state) to the product equilibrium configuration (final state) via the activated complex (transition state) configuration.

Brunschwig, B.S.

2000-01-12

149

Mediated catalysis of Paracoccus pantotrophus cytochrome c peroxidase by P. pantotrophus pseudoazurin: kinetics of intermolecular electron transfer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work reports the direct electrochemistry of Paracoccus pantotrophus pseudoazurin and the mediated catalysis of cytochrome c peroxidase from the same organism. The voltammetric behaviour was examined at a gold membrane electrode, and the studies were performed in the presence of calcium to enable the peroxidase activation. A formal reduction potential, E (0)', of 230 +/- 5 mV was determined for pseudoazurin at pH 7.0. Its voltammetric signal presented a pH dependence, defined by pK values...

Sousa, P. M. Paes; Pauleta, Sofia R.; Gonc?alves, M. L. Simo?es; Pettigrew, Graham W.; Moura, Isabel; Moura, Jose? J. G.; Santos, Margarida M. Correia Dos

2007-01-01

150

Chirped pulse control of long range electron transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied the capabilities of intense ultrashort chirped pulses for controlling the long range electron transfer in systems strongly coupled to a polar medium. We considered a two state electronic donor/acceptor system, possessing a large difference of permanent dipole moments between donor and acceptor states, with relaxation treated as a diffusion on electronic potential energy surfaces. This relaxation model has enabled us to trace continuously the transition from a coherent population transfer to incoherent one. In addition to the field controlled electron transfer, we take into account a possibility of the direct optical transition between electronic states under study as well. We have introduced the generalized Rabi frequency that enabled us to extend the concepts and ideas of population transfer, developed for optical transitions, to the electron transfer (radiationless process) controlled with strong electromagnetic field. We have shown that it is possible to realize the 'radiationless' analogies to ?-pulse excitation, adiabatic rapid passage and pump-dump process. We have obtained a physically clear picture of the analogy to the adiabatic rapid passage for the chirped controlled long-range electron transfer by studying vibrationally non-equilibrium populations behavior and careful examination of all the conditions needed for adiabatic rapid passage

2004-12-06

151

Chirped pulse control of long range electron transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have studied the capabilities of intense ultrashort chirped pulses for controlling the long range electron transfer in systems strongly coupled to a polar medium. We considered a two state electronic donor/acceptor system, possessing a large difference of permanent dipole moments between donor and acceptor states, with relaxation treated as a diffusion on electronic potential energy surfaces. This relaxation model has enabled us to trace continuously the transition from a coherent population transfer to incoherent one. In addition to the field controlled electron transfer, we take into account a possibility of the direct optical transition between electronic states under study as well. We have introduced the generalized Rabi frequency that enabled us to extend the concepts and ideas of population transfer, developed for optical transitions, to the electron transfer (radiationless process) controlled with strong electromagnetic field. We have shown that it is possible to realize the 'radiationless' analogies to {pi}-pulse excitation, adiabatic rapid passage and pump-dump process. We have obtained a physically clear picture of the analogy to the adiabatic rapid passage for the chirped controlled long-range electron transfer by studying vibrationally non-equilibrium populations behavior and careful examination of all the conditions needed for adiabatic rapid passage.

Fainberg, B.D. [Department of Exact Sciences, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel) and Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Chemistry, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)]. E-mail: fainberg@hait.ac.il; Gorbunov, V.A. [Department of Exact Sciences, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel); Lin, S.H. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Science, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-166, Taipei 106, Taiwan ROC (China)

2004-12-06

152

Photoinduced electron transfer from DABCO to trans-nitrostilbenes  

Science.gov (United States)

The anion radical of the trans isomers of 4-nitro-, 4,4'-dinitro-, and 4-nitro-4'-methoxystilbene was generated by triplet quenching with 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) in polar solvents at room temperature using laser flash photolysis. Electron transfer and trans ? cis photoisomerization are competing processes. The radical ions decay by electron back-transfer yielding the initial ground states.

Görner, Helmut; Schulte-Frohlinde, Dietrich

153

Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10(-2) electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems. PMID:24410238

Haverkate, Lucas A; Zbiri, Mohamed; Johnson, Mark R; Carter, Elizabeth; Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, S; Mulder, Fokko M; Kearley, Gordon J

2014-01-01

154

Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10-2 electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems.

Haverkate, Lucas A.; Zbiri, Mohamed; Johnson, Mark R.; Carter, Elizabeth; Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, S.; Mulder, Fokko M.; Kearley, Gordon J.

2014-01-01

155

Ultrafast proton-coupled electron transfer in heterogenous photocatalysis  

Science.gov (United States)

At metal-oxide/protic-solvent interfaces, partially hydrated or "wet electron" states represent the lowest energy pathway for electron transfer. Here we study the photoinduced charge transfer at the H IIO/TiO II(110) interface by means of timeresolved two-photon photoemission spectroscopy and electronic structure theory. At ~1 monolayer coverage of H IIO on partially hydroxylated TiO II surfaces we find an unoccupied electronic state 2.4+/-0.1 eV above the Fermi level. Density functional theory shows this to be a two-dimensional "wet electron" state, which is distinct from hydrated electrons observed on water-covered metal surfaces. The decay of electrons from the wet electron state by the resonant charge transfer to the conduction band of TiO II occurs in 100 fs range above 1 ML CH 3OH coverage. Significantly, a pronounced deuterium isotope effect (CH 3OD) indicates a strong correlation between the interfacial electron transfer and the motion of protons in the molecular overlayer.

Zhao, Jin; Onda, Ken; Li, Bin; Petek, Hrvoje

2006-09-01

156

Distorted wave calculations for double electron transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The resonant double electron capture by alpha particles in helium targets is studied, at intermediate and high collision energies, using the Continuum Distorted Wave - Eikonal Initial State (CDW-EIS) model. Differential and total cross sections for capture into the He (1 s2) final state are calculated in the framework of an Independent Electron Approximation (IEA). Theoretical results are compared with the experimental data available at present for capture into any final state of helium. (author)

1991-08-04

157

Electron and proton transfer in chemistry and biology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book constitutes the proceedings of an international meeting held in September 19-21, 1990, at Zentrum fuer Interdisziplinaere Forschung, Universitaet Bielefeld, Germany. It describes various aspects of electron and proton transfer in chemistry and biology. The book starts with a survey of physiochemical principles of electron transfer in the gas and the solid phase, with thermodynamic and photochemical driving force. Inner and outer sphere mechanisms and the coupling of electron transfer to nuclear rearrangements are reviewed. These principles are applied to construct artificial photosynthesis. This leads to biological electron transfer involving proteins with transition metal and/or organic redox centres. The tuning of the free energy profile on the reaction trajectory through the protein by single amino acids or by the larger ensemble that determines the electrostatic properties of the reaction path is one major issue. Another one is the transformation of one-electron to paired-electron steps with protection against hazardous radical intermediates. The diversity of electron transport systems is represented in some chapters with emphasis on photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogenases. In photosynthesis of green plants light driven vectorial electron transfer is coupled to protolytic reactions, with about one quarter of the useful work derived from light quanta utilized for proton pumping across a coupling membrane. That is where the interchange of electrochemical (Dm) and chemical (ATP) forms of free energy storage and transfer in cellular energetics starts. The proton is distinguished from other reactants by an extremely small diameter and the ability of tunneling at reasonable rates. This is the basis for particular polarization, solvent and isotope effects as well as for hydrogen-bonded networks that are suited to long-range proton-transfer. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

1990-09-19

158

Nuclear interlevel transfer driven by electronic transitions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show how a gamma-ray laser might be made by optically exciting a transfer of population from a long-lived isomer to an energetically adjacent short-lived state of the same nucleus. We compare the advantages of using transitions of high multipolarity versus transitions of low multi-polarity. Preliminary numerical investigations of the mechanism show it to be somewhat favorable. 35 refs., 4 figs

1985-05-21

159

Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evidence for photoinduced electron transfer form the excited state of a conducting polymer onto buckminsterfullerene, C{sub 60}, is reported. After photo-excitation of the conjugated polymer with light of energy greater than the {pi}-{pi} gap, an electron transfer to the C{sub 60} molecule is initiated. Photoinduced optical absorption studies demonstrate a different excitation spectrum for the composite as compared to the separate components, consistent with photo-excited charge transfer. A photoinduced electron spin resonance signal exhibits signatures of both the conducting polymer cation and the C{sub 60} anion. Because the photoluminescence in the conducting polymer is quenched by interaction with C{sub 60}, the data imply that charge transfer form the excited state occurs on a picosecond time scale. The charge-separated state in composite films is metastable at low temperatures. 34 refs., 4 figs.

Sarciftci, N.S.; Smilowitz, L.; Heeger, A.J. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)] [and others

1992-11-27

160

Small reorganization energies of photoinduced electron transfer between spherical fullerenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rate constants of photoinduced electron transfer between spherical fullerenes were determined using triscandium nitride encapsulated C80 fullerene (Sc3N@C80) as an electron donor and the triplet excited state of lithium ion-encapsulated C60 fullerene (Li(+)@C60) as an electron acceptor in polar and less polar solvents by laser flash photolysis measurements. Upon nanosecond laser excitation at 355 nm of a benzonitrile (PhCN) solution of Li(+)@C60 and Sc3N@C80, electron transfer from Sc3N@C80 to the triplet excited state [(3)(Li(+)@C60)*] occurred to produce Sc3N@C80(•+) and Li(+)@C60(•-) (?(max) = 1035 nm). The rates of the photoinduced electron transfer were monitored by the decay of absorption at ?(max) = 750 nm due to (3)(Li(+)@C60)*. The second-order rate constant of electron transfer from Sc3N@C80 to (3)(Li(+)@C60)* was determined to be k(et) = 1.5 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) from dependence of decay rate constant of (3)(Li(+)@C60)* on the Sc3N@C80 concentration. The rate constant of back electron transfer from Li(+)@C60(•-) to Sc3N@C80(•+) was also determined to be k(bet) = 1.9 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), which is close to be the diffusion limited value in PhCN. Similarly, the rate constants of photoinduced electron transfer from C60 to (3)(Li(+)@C60)* and from Sc3N@C80 to (3)C60* were determined together with the back electron-transfer reactions. The driving force dependence of log k(et) and log k(bet) was well fitted by using the Marcus theory of outer-sphere electron transfer, in which the internal (bond) reorganization energy (?i) was estimated by DFT calculations and the solvent reorganization energy (?s) was calculated by the Marcus equation. When PhCN was replaced by o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB), the ? value was decreased because of the smaller solvation changes of highly spherical fullerenes upon electron transfer in a less polar solvent. PMID:23862971

Kawashima, Yuki; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
161

Mechanistic study of direct electron transfer in bilirubin oxidase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanism of direct electron transfer in multicopper oxidases is not well understood. In this work, the mechanism of oxygen reduction in Bilirubin oxidase (BOD) is analyzed using a rotating ring-disc electrode (RRDE). The glassy carbon disc potential was swept from 0.8 V to 0 V while the platinum ring potential was held at 0.8 V, resulting currents were measured. Minimal hydrogen peroxide evolution from BOD is detected on the Pt ring, independent of rotation rate. The electron transfer rate constant, ket, is calculated to be 1.14 × 10?3 cm/s. The number of electrons transferred per molecule of oxygen is calculated to be 3.92 electrons using Koutecky–Levich equation and 3.7 ± 0.2 electrons using mass/charge balance which corresponds to 7.5 ± 5% of oxygen reduction via the 2 electron pathway with a hydrogen peroxide intermediate. The 4 electron transfer mechanism is preferred because it is more efficient than the two electron mechanism.

2012-02-01

162

Ultrafast spectroscopy of electron transfer dynamics in liquids; excitation transfer studies of phase transitions  

Science.gov (United States)

The transfer of an electron from a donor to an acceptor is the fundamental step in a wide range of chemical and biological processes. As a result, electron-transfer reactions have been the focus of numerous theoretical and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the kinetics and mechanism of the transfer event. Liquid solvents are an important medium for electron-transfer processes. The influences of the distance dependence, diffusion, the radial distribution function, and the hydrodynamic effect have been incorporated into the theory of electron transfer in solution, as well as into the theory of electron transfer between donors and acceptors in the head group regions of micelles. The development of new laser system with a pulse duration of tens of femtoseconds, with tunable wavelength allowed us to study these processes on a considerably shorter time scale than previous studies. This allowed us to observe not only the diffusion controlled but also the kinetics of electron transfer for donor/acceptor pairs that are in close proximity. In one set of experiments we have studied the kinetics of electron transfer in electron accepting molecule (rhodamine 3B) dissolved in electron donating solvent (N,N-dimethylaniline). The data for the forward electron transfer and geminate recombination are approximated by the statistical theory of the electron transfer. Optical anisotropy observed in the experiment demonstrates the orientation dependence of the electron transfer rate. In further experiments we investigated the electron transfer in non-hydrogen bonding liquids of increasing viscosity. The effective value of the donor/acceptor electronic coupling was found to decrease with viscosity. Electron transfer experiments were also carried out on the surface of micelles. The systems studied are the hole donor octadecyl-rhodamine B (ODRB) and the hole acceptor N,N-dimethyl-aniline (DMA) in micelles made of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB). It was found that the effective coupling is reduced compared to donor/acceptor pairs dissolved in simple liquids. In the 2nd half of thesis we have addressed the question of the dynamics of phase transitions. We have demonstrated the ability to use the fluorescent excitation-transfer technique to study the demixing of liquids specifically, kinetics of demixing water and 2,6-dimethylpyridine. These two liquids possess a low critical temperature point, which allowed us to use a temperature jump from a laser pulse to initiate the process of phase separation. It was found that Coumarin480 laser dye and HPTS (8-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid) fluorescent dye have significantly different solubilities in the components of the mixture. These dyes undergo excitation transfer from Coumarin480 to HPTS in the uniform state, but not in the phase-separated state. A system with a temperature jump pump and an excitation transfer probe measured the time scale of the initial step of the phase separation.

Goun, Alexei A.

163

Intramolecular electron transfer and dehalogenation of nitroaromatic anion radicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of nitroaromatic compounds, containing Cl, Br, or tosyl groups at various positions, were synthesized and studied by pulse radiolysis in aqueous alcohol solutions. One-electron reduction of the compounds produces the anion radicals which then undergo an intramolecular electron transfer and eliminate X- (Cl-, Br-, or TsO-). The rates of X- elimination vary over six orders of magnitude and are affected by the C-X bond dissociation energies, the size and nature of the group bridging the X with the ? system, and the relative positions of these groups. Intramolecular electron transfer through space is also demonstrated

1983-02-09

164

Electron transfer reactions in microporous solids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Basic thrust the research program involves use of microporous solids (zeolites, clays, layered and tunnel structure oxide semiconductors) as organizing media for artificial photosynthetic systems. Purpose of the microporous solid is twofold. First, it induces spatial organization of photoactive and electroactive components (sensitizers, semiconductor particles, electron relays, and catalysts) at the solid-solution interface, enhancing the quantum efficiency of charge separation and separating physically the ultimate electron donor and acceptor in the electron transport chain. Second, since the microcrystalline solid admits only molecules of a certain charge and size, it is possible to achieve permanent charge separation by sieving chemical photoproducts (e.g., H[sub 2] and I[sub 3][sup [minus

Mallouk, T.E.

1993-01-01

165

Electron transfer reactions between excited atoms and molecules  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electron transfer reactions have been extensively studied for atoms in ground state colliding with molecules. On the contrary, few experiments have been performed for atoms excited above the first resonance states and it has been supposed by some authors that above a given degree of excitation, electron transfer becomes negligeable. By using a simple Landau-Zener model and a LCAO calculation of the coupling matrix element between ionic and covalent states for excited atoms and molecules with small electron affinities, we conclude that there is no limit to the electron transfer, in agreement with the experimental observation of ion pair formation for Rydberg atoms colliding with given molecules such as SF/sub 6/.

Astruc, J.P.; Barbe, R.; Schermann, J.P. (Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, 93 - Villetaneuse (France))

1984-01-01

166

Electronic energy transfer in actinyl crystals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Time-resolved luminescence and excitation spectra of single crystals of caesium uranyl chloride containing a wide range of concentrations of bromide ion impurity have been studied between 4.2 K and room temperature. There is no evidence that the trapping process is diffusion controlled even in crystals containing one trap centre in 104. It follows that a lower limit on the resonant transfer rate at 4.2 K is 1010 s-1. The observation of distinct spectroscopic features characterizing sites adjacent to the trap site enables the anisotropy of the trapping rate to be demonstrated. (author)

1982-10-10

167

Electron transfer from nucleobase electron adducts to 5-bromouracil: a radiation chemical study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron transfer to 5-bromouracil from their nucleobase electron adducts and their protonated forms has been studied by product analysis. When an electron is transferred to 5-bromouracil, the ensuing 5-bromouracil radical anion rapidly loses a bromide ion. The uracilyl radical thus formed reacts with added t-butanol, yielding uracil. From the uracil yields measured as a function of (N)/(5-BrU) after ?-radiolysis of Ar-saturated solutions it is concluded that the hetero atom protonated forms transfer electron quantitatively to 5-bromouracil. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig

1996-01-01

168

Effect of proton transfer on the electronic coupling in DNA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of single and double proton transfer within Watson-Crick base pairs on donor-acceptor electronic couplings, V da, in DNA are studied on the bases of quantum chemical calculations. Four dimers [AT,AT], [GC,GC], [GC,AT] and [GC,TA)] are considered. Three techniques - the generalized Mulliken-Hush scheme, the fragment charge method and the diabatic states method - are employed to estimate V da for hole transfer between base pairs. We show that both single- and double proton transfer (PT) reactions may substantially affect the electronic coupling in DNA. The electronic coupling in [AT,AT] is predicted to be most sensitive to PT. Single PT within the first base pair in the dimer leads to increase in the hole transfer efficiency by a factor of 4, while proton transfer within the second pair should substantially, by 2.7 times, decrease the rate of charge transfer. Thus, directional asymmetry of the PT effects on the electronic coupling is predicted. The changes in the V da matrix elements correlate with the topological properties of orbitals of donor and acceptor and can be qualitatively rationalized in terms of resonance structures of donor and acceptor. Atomic pair contributions to the V da matrix elements are also analyzed

2006-06-20

169

Measuring electron and hole transfer in core/shell nanoheterostructures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using femtosecond transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, we studied the electron versus hole dynamics in photoexcited quasi-type-II heterostructured nanocrystals with fixed CdTe core radii and varying CdSe shell coverage. By choosing the pump wavelength in resonance with the core or the shell states, respectively, we were able to measure the excited electron and hole dynamics selectively. Both, the core- and the shell-excited CdTe/CdSe nanocrystals showed the same spectral emission and photoluminescence lifetimes, indicating that ultrafast electron and hole transfer across the core/shell interface resulted in the identical long-lived charge transfer state. Both charge carriers have subpicosecond transfer rates through the interface, but the subsequent relaxation rates of the hole (?(dec) ? 800 ps) and electron (?(avg) ? 8 ps) are extremely different. On the basis of the presented transient absorption measurements and fitting of the steady-state spectra, we find that the electron transfer occurs in the Marcus inverted region and mixing between the CdTe exciton and charge transfer states takes place and therefore needs to be considered in the analysis. PMID:21671650

Chuang, Chi-Hung; Doane, Tennyson L; Lo, Shun S; Scholes, Gregory D; Burda, Clemens

2011-07-26

170

Plugging in or Going Wireless: Strategies for Interspecies Electron Transfer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interspecies exchange of electrons enables a diversity of microbial communities to gain energy from reactions that no one microbe can catalyze. The first recognized strategies for interspecies electron transfer were those that relied on chemical intermediates that are recycled through oxidized and reduced forms. Well-studied examples are interspecies H2 transfer and the cycling of sulfur intermediates in anaerobic photosynthetic communities. Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in which two species establish electrical contact is an alternative. Electrical contacts documented to date include electrically conductive pili, as well as conductive iron minerals and conductive carbon moieties such as activated carbon and biochar. Interspecies electron transfer is central to the functioning of methane-producing microbial communities. The importance of interspecies H2 transfer in many methanogenic communities is clear, but under some circumstances DIET predominates. It is expected that further mechanistic studies and broadening investigations to a wider range of environments will help elucidate the factors that favor specific forms of interspecies electron exchange under different environmental conditions.

Shrestha, Pravin; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

2014-01-01

171

Plugging in or Going Wireless : Strategies for Interspecies Electron Transfer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interspecies exchange of electrons enables a diversity of microbial communities to gain energy from reactions that no one microbe can catalyze. The first recognized strategies for interspecies electron transfer were those that relied on chemical intermediates that are recycled through oxidized and reduced forms. Well-studied examples are interspecies H2 transfer and the cycling of sulfur intermediates in anaerobic photosynthetic communities. Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in which two species establish electrical contact is an alternative. Electrical contacts documented to date include electrically conductive pili, as well as conductive iron minerals and conductive carbon moieties such as activated carbon and biochar. Interspecies electron transfer is central to the functioning of methane-producing microbial communities. The importance of interspecies H2 transfer in many methanogenic communities is clear, but under some circumstances DIET predominates. It is expected that further mechanistic studies and broadening investigations to a wider range of environments will help elucidate the factors that favor specific forms of interspecies electron exchange under different environmental conditions.

Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

2014-01-01

172

Plugging in or Going Wireless: Strategies for Interspecies Electron Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interspecies exchange of electrons enables a diversity of microbial communities to gain energy from reactions that no one microbe can catalyze. The first recognized strategies for interspecies electron transfer were those that relied on chemical intermediates that are recycled through oxidized and reduced forms. Well-studied examples are interspecies H2 transfer and the cycling of sulfur intermediates in anaerobic photosynthetic communities. Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET in which two species establish electrical contacts is an alternative. Electrical contacts documented to date include electrically conductive pili, as well as conductive iron minerals and conductive carbon moieties such as activated carbon and biochar. It seems likely that there are additional alternative strategies for interspecies electrical connections that have yet to be discovered. Interspecies electron transfer is central to the functioning of methane-producing microbial communities. The importance of interspecies H2 transfer in many methanogenic communities is clear, but under some circumstances DIET predominates. It is expected that further mechanistic studies and broadening investigations to a wider range of environments will help elucidate the factors that favor specific forms of interspecies electron exchange under different environmental conditions.

PravinMallaShrestha

2014-05-01

173

[Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in atomic collisions]. Progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fundamental processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in ion-atom and ion-ion collisions are studied. Attention is focussed on one- and two-electron systems and, more recently, quasi-one-electron systems whose electron-target-ion core can be accurately modeled by one-electron potentials. The basic computational approaches can then be taken with few, if any, approximations, and the underlying collisional mechanisms can be more clearly revealed. At intermediate collision energies (e.g., proton energies for p-He{sup +} collisions on the order of 100 kilo-electron volts), many electronic states are strongly coupled during the collision, a coupled-state approach, such as a coupled-Sturmian-pseudostate approach, is appropriate. At higher collision energies (million electron-volt energies) the coupling is weaker with, however, many more states being coupled together, so that high-order perturbation theory is essential.

1992-12-31

174

[Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in atomic collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fundamental processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in ion-atom and ion-ion collisions are studied. Attention is focussed on one- and two-electron systems and, more recently, quasi-one-electron systems whose electron-target-ion core can be accurately modeled by one-electron potentials. The basic computational approaches can then be taken with few, if any, approximations, and the underlying collisional mechanisms can be more clearly revealed. At intermediate collision energies (e.g., proton energies for p-He"+ collisions on the order of 100 kilo-electron volts), many electronic states are strongly coupled during the collision, a coupled-state approach, such as a coupled-Sturmian-pseudostate approach, is appropriate. At higher collision energies (million electron-volt energies) the coupling is weaker with, however, many more states being coupled together, so that high-order perturbation theory is essential

1992-01-01

175

Desensitization of metastable intermolecular composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

Busse, James R. (South Fork, CO); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Foley, Timothy J. (Los Alamos, NM); Higa, Kelvin T. (Ridgecrest, CA); Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Sanders, Victor E. (White Rock, NM); Son, Steven F. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-04-26

176

Sub-Thermal Electron Transfer in Semiconductor Quantum Structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate non-equilibrium charge transfer processes by performing high-resolution transport spectroscopy. Unprecedented spectral resolution is obtained by using electrostatically defined quantum dots for energy-selective emission and detection which furthermore offers a high degree of tunability of relevant experimental parameters. Strikingly, we observe that the spectral width of elastically transferred electrons can be substantially smaller than the thermal energy $k_...

Ro?ssler, Clemens; Burkhard, Simon; Kra?henmann, Tobias; Ro?o?sli, Marc; Ma?rki, Peter; Basset, Julien; Ihn, Thomas; Ensslin, Klaus; Reichl, Christian; Wegscheider, Werner

2014-01-01

177

Heavy particle interference and diffraction in fast electron transfer collisions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis presents experimental results from the synchrotron cooler and storage ring CRYRING on charge transfer processes in fast electron transfer collisions using high-resolution cold target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy. The main focus of these studies was to investigate a key concept of quantum mechanics: the wave-particle duality. One series of experiments has been dedicated to the study of heavy particle de Broglie wave interference due to scattering on a molecular ’double slit?...

2011-01-01

178

Gaussian fluctuations and linear response in an electron transfer protein  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In response to charge separation or transfer, polar liquids respond in a simple linear fashion. A similar linear response for proteins might be expected from the central limit theorem and is postulated in widely used theories of protein electrostatics, including the Marcus electron transfer theory and dielectric continuum theories. Although these theories are supported by a variety of experimental data, the exact validity of a linear protein dielectric response has been difficult to determine...

2002-01-01

179

Theoretical aspects of electron transfer reactions of complex molecules  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Features of electron transfer involving complex molecules are discussed. This notion presently refers to molecular reactants where charge transfer is accompanied by large molecular reorganization, and commonly used displaced harmonic oscillator models do not apply. It is shown that comprehensive theory of charge transfer in polar media offers convenient tools for the treatment of experimental data for such systems, with due account of large-amplitude strongly anharmonic intramolecular reorganization. Equations for the activation barrier and free energy relationships are provided, incorporating vibrational frequency changes, local mode anharmonicity, and rotational reorganization, in both diabatic and adiabatic limits. Systems for which this formalism is appropriate are discussed.

Ulstrup, Jens

2001-01-01

180

Conformational dependence of electron transfer across de novo designed metalloproteins.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis measurements demonstrate a conformational dependence of electron transfer rates across a 16-mer helical bundle (three-helix metalloprotein) modified with a capping CoIII(bipyridine)3 electron acceptor at the N terminus and a 1-ethyl-1'-ethyl-4,4'- bipyridinium donor at the C terminus. For the CoIII(peptide)3-1-ethyl-1'-ethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium maquettes, the observed transfer is a first order, intramolecular process, independent of peptide concentration or...

Mutz, M. W.; Mclendon, G. L.; Wishart, J. F.; Gaillard, E. R.; Corin, A. F.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

High-pressure effects on intramolecular electron transfer compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We explore the effect of pressure on the fluorescence spectra of the intramolecular electron transfer compound N-(1-pyrenylmethyl), N-methyl-4-methoxyaniline (Py-Am) and its model version, with poly(methyl methacrylate) blended in, at high pressure up to 7 GPa. The emission properties of Py-Am and pyrene show distinct difference with the increase of pressure. This difference indicates the strength of the charge transfer interaction resulting from the adjusting of the conformation of Py-Am with increase of pressure. The relationship between the electronic state of the molecule and pressure is discussed

2002-11-11

182

High-pressure effects on intramolecular electron transfer compounds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We explore the effect of pressure on the fluorescence spectra of the intramolecular electron transfer compound N-(1-pyrenylmethyl), N-methyl-4-methoxyaniline (Py-Am) and its model version, with poly(methyl methacrylate) blended in, at high pressure up to 7 GPa. The emission properties of Py-Am and pyrene show distinct difference with the increase of pressure. This difference indicates the strength of the charge transfer interaction resulting from the adjusting of the conformation of Py-Am with increase of pressure. The relationship between the electronic state of the molecule and pressure is discussed.

He Liming [Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhong Bo [Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Li Hong [Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhang Baowen [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Li Yi [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yang Guoqiang [Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

2002-11-11

183

A role for excreted quinones in extracellular electron transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

Respiratory processes in bacteria are remarkable because of their ability to use a variety of compounds, including insoluble minerals, as terminal electron acceptors. Although much is known about microbial electron transport to soluble electron acceptors, little is understood about electron transport to insoluble compounds such as ferric oxides. In anaerobic environments, humic substances can serve as electron acceptors and also as electron shuttles to ferric oxides. To explore this process, we identified mutants in Shewanella putrefaciens that are unable to respire on humic substances. Here we show that these mutants contain disruptions in a gene that is involved in the biosynthesis of menaquinone. During growth, the wild type releases a menaquinone-related redox-active small molecule into the medium that complements the mutants. This finding raises the possibility that electron transfer to a variety of oxidants, including poorly soluble minerals, may be mediated by microbially excreted quinones that have yet to be identified.

Newman, Dianne K.; Kolter, Roberto

2000-05-01

184

Intramolecular electron transfer in nitrite reductase studied by pulse radiolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the evidence for the electron-transfer reaction between two copper sites in nitrite reductase from Achromobacter cycloclastes IAM 1013 by pulse radiolysis. Type 1 Cu sites in native (type 1 Cu : type 2 Cu = 1 : 0.5) and type 2 Cu-depleted (T2D) nitrite reductase are reduced with N-methylnicotinamide radical generated by the hydrated electron. The reductions of the coppers in the both enzymes give second-order rate constants of (3.4 - 3.5) x 108 M-1s-1. In the case of the native enzyme, moreover, the recovery of the absorbance of reduced type 1 Cu is observed (about 35 %). This finding suggests the intramolecular electron transfer from type 1 Cu to type 2 Cu, because T2D nitrite reductase does not show the recovery of the absorption band at all. The electron-transfer occurs with an observed first order rate constant of 1400 s-1. The incomplete electron transfer from type 1 Cu to type 2 Cu are due to the difference between the redox potential of two Cu sites. (author)

1995-03-01

185

Energy and electron transfer processes in polymethine dyes  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymethine dyes and its derivatives are attractive for their interesting optical and photo-electric properties. They are used as very efficient spectral sensitizers and laser dyes. Due to the high rate constant of deactivation channels of such dyes the primary processes of bimolecular processes as energy or electron transfer proceed within not more than some picoseconds or even shorter. In the case of a polymethine which does not isomerize we were able to show by means of time-resolved absorption spectroscopy that the singlet state photoelectron transfer to methyl- and benzylviologen had an efficiency of 0.15 with rate constants of 6.7.109 and 4.6.109 l/mole.s, respectively, yielding the polymethine dication radical. The photoreduction with tetraphenylborate and potassium rhodanide is also very efficient with an efficiency of about 0.10 with rate constants of 2.4.1010 and 1.6.1010 l/mole.s, respectively, yielding the polymethine neutral radical. The spectral differences of the observed radical spectra are small. The investigation of the temperature dependence of the photo induced electron transfer of the investigated polymethine to methylviologen results in an activation energy ?G*=24 kJ/mole and a value of the frequency factor of A=4.7.1014 l/mole.s. Strong deviation from a linear Arrhenius plot was observed at low temperatures which can be explained by solvent-solute interaction decreasing the electron transfer rate constant at lower temperatures. The calculated electron transfer rate constants agree with the assumption of the investigated process as a diffusion-controlled one. Energy transfer occurs as a efficient competitive deactivation channel from photo excited polymethine dyes to other chromophore systems with a strong overlapping of the fluorescence and the absorption bands of the donor and the acceptor, respectively. We have investigated the time and spectral evolution of the energy transfer process from a polymethine dye to different energy acceptor dyes in solution. The general question within this respect was the involvement of an intermediate electron transfer as competitive process in the energy transfer process. Whereas the Förster energy transfer radius calculated from the time-resolved data exceeds the value received from the overlap integral by 15%, indicating deviation from a normal Förster decay type the semilogarithmic plot of the ground state recovery kinetics vs. square root of time results in an ideal straight line dependence. No intermediate spectra as well as intermediate time behaviour was found in these complexes.

Feller, Karl-Heinz; Gadonas, Roaldas

1996-04-01

186

Electron-transfer processes in fast ion-atom collisions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The subject of this thesis is experimental studies of electron-transfer processes in ion-atom collisions at velocities significantly higher than typical orbital velocities of electrons in bound states of atoms or molecules. The experimental technique applied combines the high beam intensity of heavy-ion storage rings with a supersonic gas-jet target equipped with a recoil-ion-momentum spectrometer. In singleelectron capture to fast protons from helium atoms, we have for the first time achieve...

Støchkel, Kristian

2005-01-01

187

Role of direct microbial electron transfer in corrosion of steels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has recently been discovered that many microbial species have the capacity to connect their metabolism to solid electrodes, directly exchanging electrons with them through membrane-bound redox compounds,nevertheless such a direct electron transfer pathway has been evoked rarely in the domain of microbial corrosion. Here was evidenced for the first time that the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens is able to increase the free potential of 304 L stainless steel up to 443 mV in only a few hour...

2009-01-01

188

Resonant optical electron transfer in one-dimensional multiwell structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider coherent single-electron dynamics in the one-dimensional nanostructure under resonant electromagnetic pulse. The structure is composed of two deep quantum wells positioned at the edges of structure and separated by a sequence of shallow internal wells. We show that complete electron transfer between the states localized in the edge wells through one of excited delocalized states can take place at discrete set of times provided that the pulse frequency matches one...

Tsukanov, A. V.

2008-01-01

189

Magnetic resonance studies of photo-induced electron transfer reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fourier Transform Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (FT EPR) is useful in study of photochemical reactions: a microwave pulse rotates the electron spin magnetization vector from z (magnetic field) into xy plane ([pi]/2 pulse); the time evolution of magnetization in xy plane, the free induction decay (FID), is sampled. Fourier transform of FID gives the frequency domain EPR spectrum of the free radicals, and the method is ideal for time-resolved studies of free radicals produced by pulsed-laser excitation. Investigations of electron transfer reactions focused on porphyrin (donor) - quinone (acceptor) systems. First, two hydrogen abstraction reactions were studied with FT EPR: photoreduction of acetone with 2-propanol, yielding the acetone ketyl radical, and the reaction of 2-propanol with t-butoxy radicals. Then, the FT EPR study of benzoquinone or duroquinone anion radicals generated by pulsed-laser induced electron transfer from zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) or tetrasulfonated Zn(TPP), was carried out in homogeneous solution, micellar solutions, and silica gel. Finally, FT EPR was used to study electron transfer quenching of triplet C[sub 60] by electron donors.

van Willigen, H.

1992-11-01

190

Ultrafast proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) dynamics in 9-anthranol-aliphatic amine system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Femtosecond infrared absorption studies strongly suggest that photoexcited 9-anthranol takes part in an ultrafast electron transfer (ET) reaction in electron-donating triethylamine solvent, but that ultrafast proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) occurs in diethylamine solvent.

2013-01-01

191

Ultrafast proton coupled electron transfer (PCET dynamics in 9-anthranol-aliphatic amine system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Femtosecond infrared absorption studies strongly suggest that photoexcited 9-anthranol takes part in an ultrafast electron transfer (ET reaction in electron-donating triethylamine solvent, but that ultrafast proton coupled electron transfer (PCET occurs in diethylamine solvent.

Nibbering Erik T. J.

2013-03-01

192

Electronic structure charge transfer excitations, and high temperature superconductivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high precision local density electronic band structure results (for YBa2Cu3O7, YBa2Cu3O6, and GdBa2Cu3O7) lead to the possibly important role of charge transfer excitations as the mechanism of high Tc superconductivity. They explain the coexistence of magnetism and superconductivity in the high Tc rare-earth superconductors

1988-01-01

193

Electronic Structure, Charge Transfer Excitations and High Temperature Superconductivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

High precision local density electronic band structure results (for YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 , YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 6 and GdBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 ) lead to the possibly important role of charge transfer excitations as the mechanism of high T/sub...

A. J. Freeman J. Yu S. Massidda D. D. Koelling

1987-01-01

194

77 FR 30923 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E)  

Science.gov (United States)

...3170-AA22 Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection...issue a proposal to extend the Regulation E protections to GPR cards. Your comments...cards'' such as payroll cards, Regulation E generally does not apply to GPR cards....

2012-05-24

195

D Simulation for Maximizing Electron Transfer Efficiency in Thick GEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Thick GEM for UV detector applications must provide high detection efficiency for a single photoelectron produced by UV light. Electron Transfer Efficiency (ETE) of GEM detector determines the detection efficiency. We have used GARFIELD simulation for estimation of ETE at various operating parameters, which are to be optimized for high detection efficiency.

Garai, Baishali; Rajanna, K.; Radhakrishna, V.

2012-08-01

196

Reduced density matrix hybrid approach: Application to electronic energy transfer  

CERN Document Server

Electronic energy transfer in the condensed phase, such as that occurring in photosynthetic complexes, frequently occurs in regimes where the energy scales of the system and environment are similar. This situation provides a challenge to theoretical investigation since most approaches are accurate only when a certain energetic parameter is small compared to others in the problem. Here we show that in these difficult regimes, the Ehrenfest approach provides a good starting point for a dynamical description of the energy transfer process due to its ability to accurately treat coupling to slow environmental modes. To further improve on the accuracy of the Ehrenfest approach, we use our reduced density matrix hybrid framework to treat the faster environmental modes quantum mechanically, at the level of a perturbative master equation. This combined approach is shown to provide an efficient and quantitative description of electronic energy transfer in a model dimer and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and is used t...

Berkelbach, Timothy C; Reichman, David R

2011-01-01

197

Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long-term goal of the proposed research is to understand electron transfer dynamics in nanoparticle/liquid interface. This knowledge is essential to many semiconductor nanoparticle based devices, including photocatalytic waste degradation and dye sensitized solar cells.

Lian, Tianquan

2014-04-22

198

Photoinitiated electron transfer in multi-chromophoric species: Synthetic tetrads and pentads  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research project involves the design, synthesis and study of the molecules which mimic many of the important aspects of photosynthetic electron and energy transfer. Specifically, the molecules are designed to mimic the following aspects of natural photosynthetic multistep electron transfer: electron donation from a tetrapyrrole excited singlet state, electron transfer between tetrapyrroles, electron transfer from tetrapyrroles to quinones, and electron transfer between quinones with different redox properties. In addition, they model carotenoid antenna function in photosynthesis (singlet-singlet energy transfer from carotenoid polyenes to chlorophyll) and carotenoid photoprotection from singlet oxygen damage (triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophyll to carotenoids).

1990-02-14

199

Kinetics and mechanisms of photoinduced electron-transfer reaction of zinc myoglobin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) between zinc myoglobin (ZnPPMb) and a variety of quenchers, such as hexacyanoferrate(III)([Fe(CN)6]3-) and hexaammineruthenium(III)(Ru(NH3)6]3+ ions, cationic viologens, copper(II) protein (stellacyanin), and metmyoglobins, has been studied in aqueous degassed solutions. The excited triplet state of ZnPPMb(*ZnPPMb) was quenched by [Fe(CN)6]3- in a self-associated complex. Both quenching rate constant and formation constant of the self-associated complex decrease with increasing ionic strengths. The thermal backward ET reaction for this system was not observed; it is most likely that the backward ET step is much faster than the quenching reaction. All of the cationic quenchers examined in this work did not form a self-associated complex with *ZnPPMb, and the intermolecular quenching occurred. The thermal backward ET reaction was observed for these cationic quenchers. Not only photoinduced ET but also thermal backward ET reactions were insensitive to the driving force of the reactions, suggesting that the reactions are controlled by conformational changes in ZnPPMb. The quenching rate constants increase with increasing ionic strength for the cationic quenchers. The effects of poly-L-lysine hydrochloride, sodium poly-L-glutamate, and sodium cyclo-hexaphosphate were also examined. The active site of the *ZnPPMb toward both anionic and cationic quenchers is assumed to be the positively charged site near the heme pocket. (author)

1994-02-01

200

Multicopper oxidases : intramolecular electron transfer and O2 reduction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The multicopper oxidases are an intriguing, widespread family of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of O2 to water by a variety of single-electron and multiple-electron reducing agents. The structure and properties of the copper binding sites responsible for the latter chemical transformations have been studied for over 40 years and a detailed picture is emerging. This review focuses particularly on the kinetics of internal electron transfer between the type 1 (blue) copper site and the trinuclear center, as well as on the nature of the intermediates formed in the oxygen reduction process.

Wherland, Scot; Farver, Ole

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Electron solvation in water clusters following charge transfer from iodide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamics following charge transfer to solvent from iodide to a water cluster are studied using time-resolved photoelectron imaging of I-(H2O)n and I-(D2O)n clusters with n?28. The results show spontaneous conversion, on a time scale of ?1 ps, from water cluster anions with surface-bound electrons to structures in which the excess electron is more strongly bound and possibly more internalized within the solvent network. The resulting dynamics provide valuable insight into the electron solvation dynamics in water clusters and the relative stabilities between recently observed isomers of water cluster anions

2005-12-15

202

Electron solvation in water clusters following charge transfer from iodide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamics following charge transfer to solvent from iodide to a water cluster are studied using time-resolved photoelectron imaging of I-(H2O)n and I-(D2O)n clusters with n< or =28. The results show spontaneous conversion, on a time scale of approximately 1 ps, from water cluster anions with surface-bound electrons to structures in which the excess electron is more strongly bound and possibly more internalized within the solvent network. The resulting dynamics provide valuable insight into the electron solvation dynamics in water clusters and the relative stabilities between recently observed isomers of water cluster anions. PMID:16392904

Verlet, Jan R R; Kammrath, Aster; Griffin, Graham B; Neumark, Daniel M

2005-12-15

203

Inclusive electron - nucleus scattering at large momentum transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inclusive electron scattering is measured with 4.045 GeV incident beam energy from C, Fe, and Au targets. The measured energy transfers and angles correspond to a kinematic range for Bjorken x>1 and momentum transfers from Q2 = 1-7 (GeV/c)2. When analyzed in terms of the y-scaling function the data show for the first time an approach to scaling for values of the initial nucleon momenta significantly greater than the nuclear matter Fermi momentum (i.e., >0.3 GeV/c).

J. Arrington; C. S. Armstrong; T. Averett; O. K. Baker; L. de Bever; C. W. Bochna; W. Boeglin; B. Bray; R. D. Carlini; G. Collins; C. Cothran; D. Crabb; D. Day; J. A. Dunne; D. Dutta; R. Ent; B. W. Filippone; A. Honegger; E. W. Hughes; J. Jensen; J. Jourdan; C. E. Keppel; D. M. Koltenuk; R. Lindgren; A. Lung; D. J. Mack; J. McCarthy; R. D. McKeown; D. Meekins; J. H. Mitchell; H. G. Mkrtchyan; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; T. Petitjean; O. Rondon; I. Sick; C. Smith; B. Terburg; W. F. Vulcan; S. A. Wood; C. Yan; J. Zhao; and B. Zihlmann

1999-03-01

204

Evaluation of the influence of intermolecular electron-nucleus couplings and intrinsic metal binding sites on the measurement of 15N longitudinal paramagnetic relaxation enhancements in proteins by solid-state NMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR measurements of 15N longitudinal paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PREs) in 13C,15N-labeled proteins modified with Cu2+-chelating tags can yield multiple long-range electron-nucleus distance restraints up to ?20 Å (Nadaud et al. in J Am Chem Soc 131:8108–8120, 2009). Using the EDTA-Cu2+ K28C mutant of B1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1) as a model, we investigate the effects on such measurements of intermolecular electron-nucleus couplings and intrinsic metal binding sites, both of which may potentially complicate the interpretation of PRE data in terms of the intramolecular protein fold. To quantitatively assess the influence of intermolecular 15N-Cu2+ interactions we have determined a nearly complete set of longitudinal 15N PREs for a series of microcrystalline samples containing ?10, 15 and 25 mol percent of the 13C,15N-labeled EDTA-Cu2+-tagged protein diluted in a matrix of diamagnetic natural abundance GB1. The residual intermolecular interactions were found to be minor on the whole and account for only a fraction of the relatively small but systematic deviations observed between the experimental 15N PREs and corresponding values calculated using protein structural models for residues furthest removed from the EDTA-Cu2+ tag. This suggests that these deviations are also caused in part by other factors not related to the protein structure, such as the presence in the protein of intrinsic secondary sites capable of binding Cu2+ ions. To probe this issue we performed a Cu2+ titration study for K28C-EDTA GB1 monitored by 2D 15N-1H solution-state NMR, which revealed that while for Cu2+:protein molar ratios of ? 1.0 Cu2+ binds primarily to the high-affinity EDTA tag, as anticipated, at even slightly super-stoichiometric ratios the Cu2+ ions can also associate with side-chains of aspartate and glutamate residues. This in turn is expected to lead to enhanced PREs for residues located in the vicinity of the secondary Cu2+ binding sites, and indeed many of these residues were ones found to display the elevated longitudinal 15N PREs in the solid phase.

2011-11-01

205

Evaluation of the influence of intermolecular electron-nucleus couplings and intrinsic metal binding sites on the measurement of {sup 15}N longitudinal paramagnetic relaxation enhancements in proteins by solid-state NMR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR measurements of {sup 15}N longitudinal paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PREs) in {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled proteins modified with Cu{sup 2+}-chelating tags can yield multiple long-range electron-nucleus distance restraints up to {approx}20 A (Nadaud et al. in J Am Chem Soc 131:8108-8120, 2009). Using the EDTA-Cu{sup 2+} K28C mutant of B1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1) as a model, we investigate the effects on such measurements of intermolecular electron-nucleus couplings and intrinsic metal binding sites, both of which may potentially complicate the interpretation of PRE data in terms of the intramolecular protein fold. To quantitatively assess the influence of intermolecular {sup 15}N-Cu{sup 2+} interactions we have determined a nearly complete set of longitudinal {sup 15}N PREs for a series of microcrystalline samples containing {approx}10, 15 and 25 mol percent of the {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled EDTA-Cu{sup 2+}-tagged protein diluted in a matrix of diamagnetic natural abundance GB1. The residual intermolecular interactions were found to be minor on the whole and account for only a fraction of the relatively small but systematic deviations observed between the experimental {sup 15}N PREs and corresponding values calculated using protein structural models for residues furthest removed from the EDTA-Cu{sup 2+} tag. This suggests that these deviations are also caused in part by other factors not related to the protein structure, such as the presence in the protein of intrinsic secondary sites capable of binding Cu{sup 2+} ions. To probe this issue we performed a Cu{sup 2+} titration study for K28C-EDTA GB1 monitored by 2D {sup 15}N-{sup 1}H solution-state NMR, which revealed that while for Cu{sup 2+}:protein molar ratios of {<=} 1.0 Cu{sup 2+} binds primarily to the high-affinity EDTA tag, as anticipated, at even slightly super-stoichiometric ratios the Cu{sup 2+} ions can also associate with side-chains of aspartate and glutamate residues. This in turn is expected to lead to enhanced PREs for residues located in the vicinity of the secondary Cu{sup 2+} binding sites, and indeed many of these residues were ones found to display the elevated longitudinal {sup 15}N PREs in the solid phase.

Nadaud, Philippe S.; Sengupta, Ishita; Helmus, Jonathan J.; Jaroniec, Christopher P., E-mail: jaroniec@chemistry.ohio-state.edu [Ohio State University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

2011-11-15

206

pH-Dependent Reduction Potentials and Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Mechanisms in Hydrogen-Producing Nickel Molecular Electrocatalysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nickel-based Ph Bz 2 2 P N electrocatalysts, which are comprised of a nickel atom and two 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane ligands, have been shown to effectively catalyze H2 production in acetonitrile. Recent electrochemical experiments revealed a linear dependence of the NiII/I reduction potential on pH, suggesting a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction. In the proposed mechanism, the catalytic cycle begins with a PCET process involving electrochemical electron transfer to the nickel center and intermolecular proton transfer from an acid to the pendant amine ligand. This paper presents quantum mechanical calculations of this PCET process to examine the thermodynamics of the sequential mechanisms, in which either the electron or the proton transfers first (ET–PT and PT–ET, respectively), and the concerted mechanism (EPT). The favored mechanism depends on a balance among many factors, including the acid strength, association free energy for the acid–catalyst complex, PT free energy barrier, and ET reduction potential. The ET reduction potential is less negative after PT, favoring the PT–ET mechanism, and the association free energy is less positive after reduction, favoring the ET–PT mechanism. The calculations, along with analysis of the experimental data, indicate that the sequential ET–PT mechanism is favored for weak acids because of the substantial decrease in the association free energy after reduction. For strong acids, however, the PT–ET mechanism may be favored because the association free energy is somewhat smaller and PT is more thermodynamically favorable. The concerted mechanism could also occur, particularly for intermediate acid strengths. In the context of the entire catalytic cycle for H2 production, the initial PCET process involving intermolecular PT has a more negative reduction potential than the subsequent PCET process involving intramolecular PT. As a result, the second PCET should occur spontaneously, which is consistent with cyclic voltammogram experiments. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

Horvath, Samantha; Fernandez, Laura; Appel, Aaron M.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

2013-04-01

207

The ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase/ferredoxin electron transfer system of Plasmodium falciparum.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the apicoplast of apicomplexan parasites, plastidic-type ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) form a short electron transport chain that provides reducing power for the synthesis of isoprenoid precursors. These proteins are attractive targets for the development of novel drugs against diseases such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, and coccidiosis. We have obtained ferredoxin and FNR of both Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum in recombinant form, and recently we solved the crystal structure of the P. falciparum reductase. Here we report on the functional properties of the latter enzyme, which differ markedly from those of homologous FNRs. In the physiological reaction, P. falciparum FNR displays a k(cat) five-fold lower than those usually determined for plastidic-type FNRs. By rapid kinetics, we found that hydride transfer between NADPH and protein-bound FAD is slower in the P. falciparum enzyme. The redox properties of the enzyme were determined, and showed that the FAD semiquinone species is highly destabilized. We propose that these two features, i.e. slow hydride transfer and unstable FAD semiquinone, are responsible for the poor catalytic efficiency of the P. falciparum enzyme. Another unprecedented feature of the malarial parasite FNR is its ability to yield, under oxidizing conditions, an inactive dimeric form stabilized by an intermolecular disulfide bond. Here we show that the monomerdimer interconversion can be controlled by oxidizing and reducing agents that are possibly present within the apicoplast, such as H(2)O(2), glutathione, and lipoate. This finding suggests that modulation of the quaternary structure of P. falciparum FNR might represent a regulatory mechanism, although this needs to be verified in vivo. PMID:19523113

Balconi, Emanuela; Pennati, Andrea; Crobu, Danila; Pandini, Vittorio; Cerutti, Raffaele; Zanetti, Giuliana; Aliverti, Alessandro

2009-07-01

208

Resonant Auger decay driving intermolecular Coulombic decay in molecular dimers  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1997, it was predicted that an electronically excited atom or molecule placed in a loosely bound chemical system (such as a hydrogen-bonded or van-der-Waals-bonded cluster) could efficiently decay by transferring its excess energy to a neighbouring species that would then emit a low-energy electron. This intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) process has since been shown to be a common phenomenon, raising questions about its role in DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation, in which low-energy electrons are known to play an important part. It was recently suggested that ICD can be triggered efficiently and site-selectively by resonantly core-exciting a target atom, which then transforms through Auger decay into an ionic species with sufficiently high excitation energy to permit ICD to occur. Here we show experimentally that resonant Auger decay can indeed trigger ICD in dimers of both molecular nitrogen and carbon monoxide. By using ion and electron momentum spectroscopy to measure simultaneously the charged species created in the resonant-Auger-driven ICD cascade, we find that ICD occurs in less time than the 20femtoseconds it would take for individual molecules to undergo dissociation. Our experimental confirmation of this process and its efficiency may trigger renewed efforts to develop resonant X-ray excitation schemes for more localized and targeted cancer radiation therapy.

Trinter, F.; Schöffler, M. S.; Kim, H.-K.; Sturm, F. P.; Cole, K.; Neumann, N.; Vredenborg, A.; Williams, J.; Bocharova, I.; Guillemin, R.; Simon, M.; Belkacem, A.; Landers, A. L.; Weber, Th.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Dörner, R.; Jahnke, T.

2014-01-01

209

Intermolecular nitrile oxide transfer in fullerene isoxazolines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mass spectrometric analysis of fullerene derivatives often requires very different conditions and produces very different results than are expected when examining underivatized fullerenes. Frequently, mass spectra of derivatives have relatively small molecular ion peaks and are dominated by fullerene ion peak at high masses. The need for reliable mass spectrometric methods is increasing as new classes of fullerene derivatives are introduced. One such class of derivatives, the fullerene isoxazolines, is examined in this presentation.

Pogue, R.T.; Meier, M.S.; Thomas, C.; Majidi, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-12-31

210

Electron Transfer in DNA through magnetic bound states  

CERN Document Server

Electron transfer (ET) via quantum mechanical tunneling between well separated donor (D) and acceptor (A) complexes is part of such biological processes as respiration, photosynthesis, and possibly DNA repair or damage. Data and theory for ET in proteins give a typical tunneling length of 0.1 nm. In contrast, fluorescence quenching in DNA at D/A distances of 4 nm or more suggests ET with tunneling lengths of order 1 nm. We show how such long ranged ET can be mediated by rapidly forming magnetic Kondo bound states (KS) arising from: (1) strong electron interactions and magnetic moments on D and/or A complexes satisfying suitable energy requirements, and (2) "quantum deconfinement" of electrons through extended bridge molecular orbitals. Realistic long range Coulomb interaction strengths between bridge electrons and localized D/A charges modestly enhance these ET rates.

Cox, D L; Pati, S K

2000-01-01

211

Radiative electron transfer in planar donor acceptor quinoxaline derivatives  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthetic and spectral studies have been performed for a family of electron donor-acceptor (D-A) quinoxaline derivatives possessing an aromatic amine as an electron donor. A photophysical behaviour of the compounds with an internal degree of freedom for internal D-A rotation and their rigid analogues with a fixed planar conformation appears to be very similar. Electronic transition dipole moments related to the charge-transfer (CT) absorption and fluorescence are determined by both the direct interactions between the 1CT and ground states and by the contributions from the locally excited configurations. The radiative properties of the D-A systems under study can be explained in terms of the simple model which assumes that the electronic coupling elements are mainly determined by the interactions between the atoms forming the A-D bond.

Czerwieniec, Rafa?; Herbich, Jerzy; Kapturkiewicz, Andrzej; Nowacki, Jacek

2000-08-01

212

Intramolecular Electron Transfer in Phenoxylate and Catecholate based Molecular Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La Tesi "Intramolecular Electron Transfer in Phenoxylate and Catecholate Based Molecular Systems" es situa entre el camp de la química inorgànica i la química física. L'objectiu principal és l'estudi dels diversos mecanismes de transferència electrònica intramolecular (TEI), degut al seu interès en camps emergents com l'electrònica molecular. Els complexes de valència-mixte (VM) formats per un lligand orgànic electro-actiu i un ió metàl·lic amb almenys dos estats d'oxida...

2008-01-01

213

Intramolecular electron transfer in phenoxylate and catecholate based molecular systems/  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La Tesi "Intramolecular Electron Transfer in Phenoxylate and Catecholate Based Molecular Systems" es situa entre el camp de la química inorgànica i la química física. L'objectiu principal és l'estudi dels diversos mecanismes de transferència electrònica intramolecular (TEI), degut al seu interès en camps emergents com l'electrònica molecular. Els complexes de valència-mixte (VM) formats per un lligand orgànic electro-actiu i un ió metàl·lic amb almenys dos estats d'oxida...

2009-01-01

214

Electrochemical studies on small electron transfer proteins using membrane electrodes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Membrane electrodes (ME) were constructed using gold, glassy carbon and pyrolytic graphite supports and a dialysis membrane, and used to study the electrochemical behavior of small size electron transfer proteins: monohemic cytochrome c522 from Pseudomonas nautica and cytochrome c533 as well as rubredoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris . Different electrochemical techniques were used including cyclic voltammetry (CV), square wave voltammetry (SW) and differential pulse voltammetry (DP). A ...

Moura, Jose? J. G.; Santos, M. M. Correia Dos; Sousa, P. M. Paes; Gonc?alves, M. L. Simo?es; Krippahl, L.; Lojou, E?; Bianco, P.

2003-01-01

215

Dimers of Azurin as model systems for electron transfer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes the investigation of crosslinked complexes of the blue copper protein azurin by means of spectroscopic techniques such as Uv-Vis and NMR as well as by X-ray crystallography. These non-physiological dimers serve as model systems for interprotein electron transfer (ET) and allow the investigation of various parameters that can influence the ET dynamics. By site-directed mutagenesis several mutant complexes have been created with tunable properties and/or high rates of elec...

Jongh, Thyra Estrid

2006-01-01

216

Marcus wins nobel prize in chemistry for electron transfer theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes the work of Rudolf Marcus of Caltech leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry [open quotes]for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems.[close quotes] Applications of Marcus' theory include such diverse phenomena as photosynthesis, electrically conducting polymers, chemiluminescence, and corrosion. Historical aspects of his career are given. 10 refs., 1 fig.

Levi, B.G.

1993-01-01

217

Photoinduced Electron Transfer Based Ion Sensing within an Optical Fiber  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We combine suspended-core microstructured optical fibers with the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) effect to demonstrate a new type of fluorescent optical fiber-dip sensing platform for small volume ion detection. A sensor design based on a simple model PET-fluoroionophore system and small core microstructured optical fiber capable of detecting sodium ions is demonstrated. The performance of the dip sensor operating in a high sodium concentration regime (925 ppm Na+) and for lower sodium ...

Englich, Florian V.; Tze Cheung Foo; Richardson, Andrew C.; Heike Ebendorff-Heidepriem; Sumby, Christopher J.; Monro, Tanya M.

2011-01-01

218

Marcus wins nobel prize in chemistry for electron transfer theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article describes the work of Rudolf Marcus of Caltech leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry open-quotes for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems.close quotes Applications of Marcus' theory include such diverse phenomena as photosynthesis, electrically conducting polymers, chemiluminescence, and corrosion. Historical aspects of his career are given. 10 refs., 1 fig

1993-01-01

219

Reorganization Energy for Internal Electron Transfer in Multicopper Oxidases.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have calculated the reorganization energy for the intramolecular electron transfer between the reduced type 1 copper site and the peroxy intermediate of the trinuclear cluster in the multicopper oxidase CueO. The calculations are performed at the combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) level, based on molecular dynamics simulations with tailored potentials for the two copper sites. We obtain a reorganization energy of 91-133 kJ/mol, depending on the theoretical treatment...

2011-01-01

220

Intramolecular electron transfer in single-site-mutated azurins  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Single-site mutants of the blue, single-copper protein, azurin, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were reduced by CO2- radicals in pulse radiolysis experiments. The single disulfide group was reduced directly by CO2- with rates similar to those of the native protein [Farver, O., & Pecht, I. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 6968-6972]. The RSSR- radical produced in the above reaction was reoxidized in a slower intramolecular electron-transfer process (30-70 s-1 at 298 K) concomitant with a further reduction of the Cu(II) ion. The temperature dependence of the latter rates was determined and used to derive information on the possible effects of the mutations. The substitution of residue Phe114, situated on the opposite side of Cu relative to the disulfide, by Ala resulted in a rate increase by a factor of almost 2. By assuming that this effect is only due to an increase in driving force, lambda = 135 kJ mol-1 for the reorganization energy was derived. When Trp48, situated midway between the donor and the acceptor, was replaced by Leu or Met, only a small change in the rate of intramolecular electron transfer was observed, indicating that the aromatic residue in this position is apparently only marginally involved in electron transfer in wild-type azurin. Pathway calculations also suggest that a longer, through-backbone path is more efficient than the shorter one involving Trp48. The former pathway yields an exponential decay factor, beta, of 6.6 nm-1. Another mutation, raising the electron-transfer driving force, was produced by changing the Cu ligand Met121 to Leu, which increases the reduction potential by 100 mV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Farver, O; Skov, L K

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Mitochondrial copper(I) transfer from Cox17 to Sco1 is coupled to electron transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human protein Cox17 contains three pairs of cysteines. In the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) it exists in a partially oxidized form with two S-S bonds and two reduced cysteines (HCox17(2S-S)). HCox17(2S-S) is involved in copper transfer to the human cochaperones Sco1 and Cox11, which are implicated in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase. We show here that Cu(I)HCox17(2S-S), i.e., the copper-loaded form of the protein, can transfer simultaneously copper(I) and two electrons to the human cochaperone Sco1 (HSco1) in the oxidized state, i.e., with its metal-binding cysteines forming a disulfide bond. The result is Cu(I)HSco1 and the fully oxidized apoHCox17(3S-S), which can be then reduced by glutathione to apoHCox17(2S-S). The HSco1/HCox17(2S-S) redox reaction is thermodynamically driven by copper transfer. These reactions may occur in vivo because HSco1 can be found in the partially oxidized state within the IMS, consistent with the variable redox properties of the latter compartment. The electron transfer-coupled metallation of HSco1 can be a mechanism within the IMS for an efficient specific transfer of the metal to proteins, where metal-binding thiols are oxidized. The same reaction of copper-electron-coupled transfer does not occur with the human homolog of Sco1, HSco2, for kinetic reasons that may be ascribed to the lack of a specific metal-bridged protein-protein complex, which is instead observed in the Cu(I)HCox17(2S-S)/HSco1 interaction. PMID:18458339

Banci, Lucia; Bertini, Ivano; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Hadjiloi, Theodoros; Martinelli, Manuele; Palumaa, Peep

2008-05-13

222

Low activation barriers characterize intramolecular electron transfer in ascorbate oxidase  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic reduction kinetics of the zucchini squash ascorbate oxidase (AO; L-ascorbate:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.3) by pulse radiolytically produced CO2- radical ions were investigated. Changes in the absorption bands of type 1 [Cu(II)] (610 nm) and type 3 [Cu(II)] (330 nm) were monitored over a range of reactant concentrations, pH, and temperature. The direct bimolecular reduction of type 1 [Cu(II)] [(1.2 +/- 0.2) x 10(9) M-1.s-1] was followed by its subsequent reoxidation in three distinct phases, all found to be unimolecular processes with the respective specific rates of 201 +/- 8, 20 +/- 4, and 2.3 +/- 0.2 s-1 at pH 5.5 and 298 K. While at this pH no direct bimolecular reduction was resolved in the 330-nm band, at pH 7.0 such a direct process was observed [(6.5 +/- 1.2) x 10(8) M-1.s-1]. In the same slower time domains where type 1 [Cu(I)] reoxidation was monitored, reduction of type 3 [Cu(II)] was observed, which was also concentration independent and with identical rate constants and amplitudes commensurate with those of type 1 [Cu(II)] reoxidation. These results show that after electron uptake by type 1 [Cu(II)], its reoxidation takes place by intramolecular electron transfer to type 3 [Cu(II)]. The observed specific rates are similar to values reported for the limiting-rate constants of AO reduction by excess substrate, suggesting that internal electron transfer is the rate-determining step of AO activity. The temperature dependence of the intramolecular electron transfer rate constants was measured from 275 to 308 K at pH 5.5 and, from the Eyring plots, low activation enthalpies were calculated--namely, 9.1 +/- 1.1 and 6.8 +/- 1.0 kJ.mol-1 for the fastest and slowest phases, respectively. The activation entropies observed for these respective phases were -170 +/- 9 and -215 +/- 16 J.K-1.mol-1. The exceptionally low enthalpy barriers imply the involvement of highly optimized electron transfer pathways for internal electron transfer.

Farver, O; Pecht, I

1992-01-01

223

Electron transfer to covalently immobilized Keggin polyoxotungstates on gold.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneously adsorbed monolayers have been formed on gold electrodes using a Keggin polyoxotungstate with covalently attached alkanethiol linkers of two different lengths. Films of both polyoxotungstates show two well-defined reduction processes associated with the polyoxotungstate centers where the ionic liquid, [BMIM][BF4], acts as supporting electrolyte. The surface coverages are both less than that expected for a close-packed monolayer. For the short and long linkers, the voltammetric response can be described in terms of the Butler-Volmer response involving a surface confined species using standard heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants of 170 and 140 s(-1) for the first reduction and 150 and 100 s(-1) for the second reduction processes, respectively. The rate of electron transfer to a solution phase redox probe, ferrocyanide, is significantly more sensitive to the length of the linker than the rate of electron transfer to the tungstate centers. This behavior probably arises due to potential-induced changes in the film structure. PMID:24670101

Yaqub, Mustansara; Walsh, James J; Keyes, Tia E; Proust, Anna; Rinfray, Corentin; Izzet, Guillaume; McCormac, Timothy; Forster, Robert J

2014-04-22

224

Excess Electron Attachment Induces Barrier-Free Proton Transfer in Anionic Complexes of Thymine and Uracil with Formic Acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The anionic complexes of formic acid with uracil and thymine reveal broad features in photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments with maxima at 1.7 and 1.1 eV, respectively. The results of quantum chemical calculations suggest that electron vertical detachment energies (VDE) of 1.6-1.9 eV correspond to anionic structures in which a proton has been transferred from the carboxylic group of the formic acid to the O8 atom of uracil or thymine. Smaller values of VDE (0.8 to 1.3 eV) correspond to chemically untransformed complexes, in which anionic uracil or thymine interacts through two hydrogen bonds with the carboxylic group of the intact formic acid. The recorded spectra and the results of quantum chemical calculations suggest that both nucleic acid bases undergo barrier-free proton transfer in anionic complexes with formic acid. The difference in experimental spectra of UF- and TF- provides an indication that the methyl group of thymine could make a difference in the intermolecular proton transfer.

Haranczyk, Maciej; Dabkowska, Iwona; Rak, Janusz; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Nilles, J.M.; Stokes, Sarah; Radisic, Dunja; Bowen, Kit H.

2004-06-03

225

Interspecies Electron Transfer during Propionate and Butyrate Degradation in Mesophilic, Granular Sludge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Granules from a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor were disintegrated, and bacteria utilizing only hydrogen or formate or both hydrogen and formate were added to investigate the role of interspecies electron transfer during degradation of propionate and butyrate. The data indicate that the major electron transfer occurred via interspecies hydrogen transfer, while interspecies formate transfer may not be essential for interspecies electron transfer in this system during degrada...

Schmidt, J. E.; Ahring, B. K.

1995-01-01

226

Effects of molecular orientation on electron-transfer collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

K+ ions have been detected from the intersection of a beam of K atoms (5-30 eV) with beams of various simple molecules, such as CH3Br and CF3Br, which had been oriented prior to the collision. Production of ions in the collision is found to be highly dependent on orientation. The effect is most pronounced near threshold (?5 eV) and almost disappears at higher (30 eV) energies. Attack at the reactive halogen end produces the most ions, regardless of the polarity of that end. For each molecule, the reactive end seems to have the lower threshold energy. These observations may be a result of the electron being transferred to a specific end of the molecule, but the experiments measure only the net result of an electron transfer followed by the separation of the ions. Whether or not electron jump per se depends on orientation is still an open question, but the authors are able to qualitatively interpret the experimental results as being due to interactions between the ions as they separate in the exit channel. Most of the negative molecular ions dissociate, ejecting a halogen X- in the direction of the (oriented) molecular axis. If the X end is oriented away from the incoming K atom, the ejected X- will travel in the same direction as the K+, making the electron more likely to return to the K+ ion and reducing the K+ signal in this unfavorable orientation

1991-10-17

227

Electron transfer. 88. Cobalt(III)-bound phosphite and hypophosphite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphite and hypophosphite coordinate to cobalt(III) in (NH3)5Co/sup III/ through oxygen, rather than through phosphorus. The resulting complexes undergo electron-transfer reactions with Ru(NH3)62+ much more slowly than with Eu2+ or V2+, indicating that the latter two reactants preferentially utilize ligand bridging. Reductions with Cr2+ are shown to accompanied by transfer of the phosphorus-containing ligands, and reaction of the protonated phosphito (biphosphito) derivative (pK/sub A/ = 3.06 at 230C) proceeds through a combination of acid-independent and inverse-acid paths, both routes yielding the same phosphito-bound Cr(III) product. The hypophosphito, but not the biphosphito, complex reacts with Ce(IV), producing Co2+ in an induced electron-transfer process. The yield of Co2+ falls off progressively as [Ce/sup IV/] is increased, pointing to a sequence in which a Co(III)-bound P(II) radical is formed in initial attack by Ce(IV) but subsequently undergoes partition between competing reaction paths, i.e. internal electron transfer to Co(III) vs external oxidation by a second Ce(IV) center. The hypophosphito complex, but not the biphosphito complex, smoothly decomposes in basic media via an internal redox reaction, yielding Co(II) quantitatively, along with a 1:1 mixture of phosphite, and hypophosphite. This transformation, which fails with mixtures of (NH3)5Co(H2O)3+ and H2PO2- appears to be catalyzed specifically by OH-. Deuterium-labeling experiments disclose a solvent isotope effect. Reaction mechanisms are suggested for all the observed results. 54 references, 5 tables

1987-10-21

228

Electron transfer. 88. Cobalt(III)-bound phosphite and hypophosphite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phosphite and hypophosphite coordinate to cobalt(III) in (NH/sub 3/)/sub 5/Co/sup III/ through oxygen, rather than through phosphorus. The resulting complexes undergo electron-transfer reactions with Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6//sup 2 +/ much more slowly than with Eu/sup 2 +/ or V/sup 2 +/, indicating that the latter two reactants preferentially utilize ligand bridging. Reductions with Cr/sup 2 +/ are shown to accompanied by transfer of the phosphorus-containing ligands, and reaction of the protonated phosphito (biphosphito) derivative (pK/sub A/ = 3.06 at 23/sup 0/C) proceeds through a combination of acid-independent and inverse-acid paths, both routes yielding the same phosphito-bound Cr(III) product. The hypophosphito, but not the biphosphito, complex reacts with Ce(IV), producing Co/sup 2 +/ in an induced electron-transfer process. The yield of Co/sup 2 +/ falls off progressively as (Ce/sup IV/) is increased, pointing to a sequence in which a Co(III)-bound P(II) radical is formed in initial attack by Ce(IV) but subsequently undergoes partition between competing reaction paths, i.e. internal electron transfer to Co(III) vs external oxidation by a second Ce(IV) center. The hypophosphito complex, but not the biphosphito complex, smoothly decomposes in basic media via an internal redox reaction, yielding Co(II) quantitatively, along with a 1:1 mixture of phosphite, and hypophosphite. This transformation, which fails with mixtures of (NH/sub 3/)/sub 5/Co(H/sub 2/O)/sup 3 +/ and H/sub 2/PO/sub 2//sup -/ appears to be catalyzed specifically by OH/sup -/. Deuterium-labeling experiments disclose a solvent isotope effect. Reaction mechanisms are suggested for all the observed results. 54 references, 5 tables.

Linn, D.E. Jr.; Gould, E.S.

1987-10-21

229

Electron Transfer Reactions in Colloidal Quantum Dot-Ligand Complexes  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis describes a quantitative analysis of the chemical composition of colloidal II-VI quantum dot (QD)-ligand complexes and transient absorption experiments analyzing the rates of electron transfer reactions in these complexes functionalized with redox active ligands. Chemical analysis reveals that phosphonate impurities in the surfactants used to synthesize CdSe QDs are the dominant ligands on the surface of the QDs, and these phosphonate impurities cause size-dependent Cd-enrichment of the QD surface. A study of the adsorption equilibrium of solution-phase CdS quantum dots and acid-derivatized viologen ligands (V2+) reveals that the structure of the surfaces of the QDs depends on the concentration of the QDs. A new model based on the Langmuir isotherm that treats both the number of adsorbed ligands per QD and the number of available binding sites per QD as binomially-distributed quantities is described. Transient absorption spectroscopy of solution-phase mixtures of colloidal CdS QDs and V2+ indicates electron transfer occurs from the conduction band of the QD to the LUMO of V2+. The rate constant for photoinduced electron transfer (PET) is independent of the number of methylene groups in the alkyl chain on the acid-derivatized viologen. The insensitivity of the electron transfer rate constant to the length of the functional groups on the viologen suggests a van der Waals (vdW) pathway for PET, where the electron bypasses the alkylcarboxylate and tunnels through the orbitals of the QD and of the bipyridinium core. The rate of PET from colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to oxo-centered triruthenium clusters (Ru 3O) depends on the structure of the chemical headgroup by which the Ru3O clusters adsorb to the QDs. Complexes comprising QDs and Ru 3O clusters adsorbed through a pyridine-4-carboxylic acid ligand have a PET rate constant of (4.9 ± 0.9)×109 s -1 whereas complexes comprising QDs and Ru3O clusters adsorbed through a 4-mercaptopyridine ligand have an intrinsic PET rate constant of (36 ± 7)×109 s-1. The difference in the observed rates of PET for the two complexes is attributed to a difference in donor-acceptor electronic coupling.

Morris-Cohen, Adam Joshua

230

Electron transfer mechanism and photochemistry of ferrioxalate induced by excitation in the charge transfer band.  

Science.gov (United States)

The photoredox reaction of ferrioxalate after 266/267 nm excitation in the charge transfer band has been studied by means of ultrafast extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, optical transient spectroscopy, and quantum chemistry calculations. The Fe-O bond length changes combined with the transient spectra and kinetics have been measured and in combination with ultrahigh frequency density functional theory (UHF/DFT) calculations are used to determine the photochemical mechanism for the Fe(III) to Fe(II) redox reaction. The present data and the results obtained with 266/267 nm excitations strongly suggest that the primary reaction is the dissociation of the Fe-O bond before intramolecular electron transfer occurs. Low quantum yield electron photodetachment from ferrioxalate has also been observed. PMID:18284192

Chen, Jie; Zhang, Hua; Tomov, Ivan V; Rentzepis, Peter M

2008-03-17

231

Electrochemical study of a reconstituted photosynthetic electron-transfer chain.  

Science.gov (United States)

A multi-enzyme electron-transfer chain involving solubilized photosystem I (PSI) as photocatalytic unit, cytochrome c6 and ferredoxin as electron carriers and ferredoxin/NADPH oxidoreductase (FNR) as electron acceptor was reconstituted in an electrochemical cell and studied by cyclic voltammetry. The working gold electrodes were modified to react selectively with cytochrome c6. Quantitative analysis of the photocatalytic current under continuous illumination allowed the determination of the values kon and koff for the ferredoxin/PSI interaction. An efficient recycling system for NADPH was established, and the dissociation constant of the oxidized ferredoxin/semiquinone FNR complex was extracted by modeling the catalytic efficiency of the chain as a function of ferredoxin concentration. The value determined hereby is consistent with a shift of -50 to -100 mV of the reduction potential of ferredoxin when complexed with FNR. PMID:17602558

Fourmond, Vincent; Lagoutte, Bernard; Sétif, Pierre; Leibl, Winfried; Demaille, Christophe

2007-07-25

232

Effects of electrostatic interactions on electron transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fast reactions of electron transfer are studied by pulse radiolysis. This technique allows the creation in about 10-8 second radicals and radical ions with high redox potentials. For solvated electrons electrostatic interaction on the kinetics of reactions limited by diffusion is described by Debye's equation when ion mobility is known. Deviation from theory can occur in ion pairs formation. This is evidenced experimentally for anions by cation complexation with a cryptate. Relatively slow reactions are more sensitive to electrostatic interactions than limited by diffusion. If ion pairs are not formed kinetics constant depends on dielectric constant of solvent and reaction radius. Experimentally is studied the effect of electrostatic interaction on the rate constants of solvated electrons with anions and cations in water-ethanol mixtures where the dielectric constant change from 80 to 25 at room temperature. 17 refs

1987-09-07

233

Concerted proton-electron transfers: electrochemical and related approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proton-coupled electron transfers (PCETs) are omnipresent in natural and artificial chemical processes. Given the contemporary challenges associated with energy conversion, pollution abatement, and the development of high-performance sensors, a greater understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the practical efficiency of PCETs is a timely research topic. In contrast to hydrogen-atom transfers, proton and electron transfers involve different centers in PCET reactions. The reaction may go through an electron- or proton-transfer intermediate, giving rise to the electron-proton transfer (EPT) and the proton-electron transfer (PET) pathways. When the proton and electron transfers are concerted (the CPET pathway), the high-energy intermediates of the stepwise pathways are bypassed, although this thermodynamic benefit may have a kinetic cost. The primary task of kinetics-based mechanism analysis is therefore to distinguish the three pathways, quantifying the factors that govern the competition between them, which requires modeling of CPET reactivity. CPET models of varying sophistication have appeared, but the large number of parameters involved and the uncertainty of the quantum chemical calculations they may have to resort to make experimental confrontation and inspiration a necessary component of model testing and refinement. Electrochemical PCETs are worthy of particular attention, if only because most applications in which PCET mechanisms are operative involve collection or injection of electricity through electrodes. More fundamentally, changing the electrode potential is an easy and continuous means of varying the driving force of the reaction, whereas the current flowing through the electrode is a straightforward measure of its rate. Consequently, the current-potential response in nondestructive techniques (such as cyclic voltammetry) can be read as an activation-driving force relationship, provided the contribution of diffusion has been taken into account. Intrinsic properties (properties at zero driving force) are consequently a natural outcome of the electrochemical approach. In this Account, we begin by examining the modeling of CPET reactions and then describe illustrating experimental examples inspired by two biological systems, photosystem II and superoxide dismutase. One series of studies examined the oxidation of phenols with, as proton acceptor, either an attached nitrogen base or water (in water as solvent). Another addressed interconversion of aquo-hydroxo-oxo couples of transition metal complexes, using osmium complexes as prototypes. Finally, the reduction of superoxide ion, which is closely related to its dismutation, allowed the observation and rationalization of the remarkable properties of water as a proton donor. Water is also an exceptional proton acceptor in the oxidation of phenols, requiring very small reorganization energies, both in the electrochemical and homogeneous cases. These varied examples reveal general features of PCET reactions that may serve as guidelines for future studies, suggesting that research emphasis might be profitably directed toward new biological systems on the one hand and on the role of hydrogen bonding and hydrogen-bonded environments (such as water or proteins) on the other. PMID:20232879

Costentin, Cyrille; Robert, Marc; Savéant, Jean-Michel

2010-07-20

234

Electron and hydrogen transfer in small hydrogen fluoride anion clusters.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new stable structure has been found for the anion clusters of hydrogen fluoride. The ab initio method was used to optimize the structures of the (HF)(3)(-), (HF)(4)(-), (HF)(5)(-), and (HF)(6)(-) anion clusters with an excess "solvated" electron. Instead of the well-known "zig-zag" (HF)(n)(-) structure, a new form, (HF)(n-1)F(-)···H, was found with lower energy. In this new form, the terminal hydrogen atom in the (HF)(n)(-) chain is separated from the other part of the cluster and the inner hydrogens transfer along the hydrogen bonds toward the outside fluoride. The negative charge also transfers from the terminal HF molecule of the chain to the center fluoride atoms. The (HF)(n)(-) clusters for n = 4, 5, and 6 have not yet been observed experimentally. These results should assist in the search for these systems and also provide a possible way to study the proton and electron transfer in some large hydrogen bonding systems. PMID:21854014

Bai, Xin; Ning, Ming; Brown, Richard E

2011-09-29

235

Reduced density matrix hybrid approach: Application to electronic energy transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic energy transfer in the condensed phase, such as that occurring in photosynthetic complexes, frequently occurs in regimes where the energy scales of the system and environment are similar. This situation provides a challenge to theoretical investigation since most approaches are accurate only when a certain energetic parameter is small compared to others in the problem. Here we show that in these difficult regimes, the Ehrenfest approach provides a good starting point for a dynamical description of the energy transfer process due to its ability to accurately treat coupling to slow environmental modes. To further improve on the accuracy of the Ehrenfest approach, we use our reduced density matrix hybrid framework to treat the faster environmental modes quantum mechanically, at the level of a perturbative master equation. This combined approach is shown to provide an efficient and quantitative description of electronic energy transfer in a model dimer and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and is used to investigate the effect of environmental preparation on the resulting dynamics.

Berkelbach, Timothy C.; Markland, Thomas E.; Reichman, David R.

2012-02-01

236

Hetero-cycloreversions mediated by photoinduced electron transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discovered more than eight decades ago, the Diels-Alder (DA) cycloaddition (CA) remains one of the most versatile tools in synthetic organic chemistry. Hetero-DA processes are powerful methods for the synthesis of densely functionalized six-membered heterocycles, ubiquitous substructures found in natural products and bioactive compounds. These reactions frequently employ azadienes and oxadienes, but only a few groups have reported DA processes with thiadienes. The electron transfer (ET) version of the DA reaction, though less investigated, has emerged as a subject of increasing interest. In the last two decades, researchers have paid closer attention to radical ionic hetero-cycloreversions, mainly in connection with their possible involvement in the repair of pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photolesions in DNA by photolyases. In biological systems, these reactions likely occur through a reductive photosensitization mechanism. In addition, photooxidation can lead to cycloreversion (CR) reactions, and researchers can exploit this strategy for DNA repair therapies. In this Account, we discuss electron-transfer (ET) mediated hetero-CR reactions. We focus on the oxidative and reductive ET splitting of oxetanes, azetidines, and thietanes. Photoinduced electron transfer facilitates the splitting of a variety of four-membered heterocycles. In this context, researchers have commonly examined oxetanes, both experimentally and theoretically. Although a few studies have reported the cycloreversion of azetidines and thietanes carried out under electron transfer conditions, the number of examples remains limited. In general, the cleavage of the ionized four-membered rings appears to occur via a nonconcerted two-step mechanism. The trapping of the intermediate 1,4-radical ions and transient absorption spectroscopy data support this hypothesis, and it explains the observed loss of stereochemistry in the products. In the initial step, either C-C or C-X bond breaking may occur, and the preferred route depends on the substitution pattern of the ring, the type of heteroatom, and various experimental conditions. To better accommodate spin and charge, C-X cleavage happens more frequently, especially in the radical anionic version of the reaction. The addition or withdrawal of a single electron provides a new complementary synthetic strategy to activate hetero-cycloreversions. Despite its potential, this strategy remains largely unexplored. However, it offers a useful method to achieve C?X/olefin metathesis or, upon ring expansion, to construct six-membered heterocyclic rings. PMID:24702062

Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Jiménez, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A

2014-04-15

237

Substituent-Induced Intermolecular Interaction in Organic Crystals Revealed by Precise Band-Dispersion Measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

We reveal quite small but different intermolecular valence band dispersions of sub-100-meV scale in crystalline films of Zn and Mn phthalocyanine (ZnPc and MnPc) and fluorinated ZnPc (F16ZnPc). The intermolecular transfer integrals are found to be reasonably dependent on the intermolecular distance with the 75±5meV/Å relation. Furthermore, the angle-resolved photoemission spectra show anomalous dispersive behaviors such as phase flips and local-dimerization-derived periodicities, which originate from the site-specific intermolecular interaction induced by substituents.

Yamane, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Nobuhiro

2013-08-01

238

Photoinduced electron transfer from dialkyl nitroxides to halogenated solvents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laser flash photolysis (LFP) at wavelengths within the charge-transfer absorption present in CCl{sub 4} solutions of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) yields the oxoammonium chloride of TEMPO, 1 ({lambda}{sub max} = 460 nm), and the trichloromethyl radical in an essentially instantaneous ({le}18 ps) process. The primary photochemical event is an electron transfer from TEMPO to CCl{sub 4}, and this is followed by immediate decomposition of the CCl{sub 4}{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} radical anion to Cl{sup {minus}} and Cl{sub 3}C{sup {sm bullet}}. An independent synthesis of 1 confirmed that the absorption attributed to this species has been correctly assigned. The formation of Cl{sub 3}C{sup {sm bullet}} was inferred by its trapping by molecular oxygen. LFP of TEMPO in other halogenated solvents and of other nitroxides in halogenated solvents has confirmed the generality of these photoreactions.

Chateauneuf, J. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Lusztyk, J.; Ingold, K.U. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States))

1990-02-02

239

Advances in Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer From Electronic Components  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews recent advances in enhancing boiling heat transfer from electronic components immersed in dielectric liquids by use of surface microstructures. The microstructures developed include rough surfaces produced by sanding, vapor blasting hard particles, sputtering of SiO2 followed by wet etching of the surface, chemical vapor deposition of SiO2 film etc., laser-drilled cavities, a brush-like structure (dendritic structure), reentrant and micro-reentrant cavities, microfins, and porous structures fabricated by alumina particle spraying and painting of silver flakes, diamond particles, aluminum particles and copper particles. Heat sink studs with drilled holes, microfins, multi-layered micro-channels and pores, and pin fins with and without microporous coating have also been developed. The height of microstructure ranges from 0 to 12mm. The primary issues discussed are the mitigation of temperature overshoot at boiling incipience, enhancement of nucleate boiling heat transfer and increasing the critical heat flux.

Honda, Hiroshi; Wei, Jinjia

240

A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer  

CERN Document Server

The fluctuations of optical gap induced by the environment play crucial roles in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as a white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to take the thermal fluctuation of excitation energies into account. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equ...

Fujita, Takatoshi; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Modeling biofilms with dual extracellular electron transfer mechanisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrochemically active biofilms have a unique form of respiration in which they utilize solid external materials as their terminal electron acceptor for metabolism. Currently, two primary mechanisms have been identified for long-range extracellular electron transfer (EET): a diffusion- and a conduction-based mechanism. Evidence in the literature suggests that some biofilms, particularly Shewanella oneidensis, produce components requisite for both mechanisms. In this study, a generic model is presented that incorporates both diffusion- and conduction-based mechanisms and allows electrochemically active biofilms to utilize both simultaneously. The model was applied to Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms using experimentally generated data found the literature. Our simulation results showed that 1) biofilms having both mechanisms available, especially if they can interact, may have metabolic advantage over biofilms that can use only a single mechanism; 2) the thickness of Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms is likely not limited by conductivity; 3) accurate intrabiofilm diffusion coefficient values are critical for current generation predictions; and 4) the local biofilm potential and redox potential are two distinct measurements and cannot be assumed to have identical values. Finally, we determined that cyclic and squarewave voltammetry are currently not good tools to determine the specific percentage of extracellular electron transfer mechanisms used by biofilms. The developed model will be a critical tool in designing experiments to explain EET mechanisms.

Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Schenk, Jim; Ivory, Cornelius; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beyenal, Haluk

2013-11-28

242

Transcriptomic and genetic analysis of direct interspecies electron transfer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The possibility that metatranscriptomic analysis could distinguish between direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) and H2 interspecies transfer (HIT) in anaerobic communities was investigated by comparing gene transcript abundance in cocultures in which Geobacter sulfurreducens was the electron-accepting partner for either Geobacter metallireducens, which performs DIET, or Pelobacter carbinolicus, which relies on HIT. Transcript abundance for G. sulfurreducens uptake hydrogenase genes was 7-fold lower in cocultures with G. metallireducens than in cocultures with P. carbinolicus, consistent with DIET and HIT, respectively, in the two cocultures. Transcript abundance for the pilus-associated cytochrome OmcS, which is essential for DIET but not for HIT, was 240-fold higher in the cocultures with G. metallireducens than in cocultures with P. carbinolicus. The pilin gene pilA was moderately expressed despite a mutation that might be expected to repress pilA expression. Lower transcript abundance for G. sulfurreducens genes associated with acetate metabolism in the cocultures with P. carbinolicus was consistent with the repression of these genes by H2 during HIT. Genes for the biogenesis of pili and flagella and several c-type cytochrome genes were among the most highly expressed in G. metallireducens. Mutant strains that lacked the ability to produce pili, flagella, or the outer surface c-type cytochrome encoded by Gmet_2896 were not able to form cocultures with G. sulfurreducens. These results demonstrate that there are unique gene expression patterns that distinguish DIET from HIT and suggest that metatranscriptomics may be a promising route to investigate interspecies electron transfer pathways in more-complex environments.

Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

2013-01-01

243

Local operator partitioning of electronic energy for electronic energy transfer: An efficient algorithm  

CERN Document Server

An efficient computational algorithm to implement a local operator approach to partitioning electronic energy in general molecular systems is presented. This approach, which rigorously defines the electronic energy on any subsystem within a molecule, gives a precise meaning to the subsystem ground and excited electronic energies, which is crucial for investigating electronic energy transfer from first principles. We apply the technique to the $9-$(($1-$naphthyl)$-$methyl)-anthracene (A1N) molecule by partitioning A1N into anthracenyl and CH$_2-$naphthyl groups as subsystems, and examine their electronic energies and populations for several excited states using Configuration Interaction Singles method. The implemented approach shows a wide variety of different behaviors amongst these excited electronic states.

Nagesh, Jayashree; Brumer, Paul

2013-01-01

244

Quantum simulation of nuclear rearrangement in electron transfer reactions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A quantum simulation scheme based on the path integral molecular dynamics technique has been used to calculate the effective activation energies associated with nuclear rearrangement in the electron transfer reactions Co(NH3)62+ + Co(NH3)63+ ? Co(NH3)63+ + Co(NH3)62+ and Ru(NH3)62+ + Ru(NH3)63+ ? Ru(NH3)63+ + Ru(NH3)62+. Even with a simple Hamiltonian and short time dynamic simulations, the results are in satisfactory agreement with other theoretical calculations. This simulation approach...

1989-01-01

245

Light induced electron transfer reactions of metal complexes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Properties of the excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), ruthenium(II), osmium(II), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) are described. The electron transfer reactions of the ground and excited states are discussed and interpreted in terms of the driving force for the reaction and the distortions of the excited states relative to the corresponding ground states. General considerations relevant to the conversion of light into chemical energy are presented and progress in the use of polypyridine complexes to effect the light decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen is reviewed.

Sutin, N; Creutz, C

1980-01-01

246

Electron transfer and protein dynamics in the photosynthetic reaction center.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have measured the kinetics of electron transfer (ET) from the primary quinone (Q(A)) to the special pair (P) of the reaction center (RC) complex from Rhodobacter sphaeroides as a function of temperature (5-300 K), illumination protocol (cooled in the dark and under illumination from 110, 160, 180, and 280 K), and warming rate (1.3 and 13 mK/s). The nonexponential kinetics are interpreted with a quantum-mechanical ET model (Fermi's golden rule and the spin-boson model), in which heterogenei...

Mcmahon, B. H.; Mu?ller, J. D.; Wraight, C. A.; Nienhaus, G. U.

1998-01-01

247

Large momentum transfer electron scattering from few-nucleon systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is given of the experimental results from a series of measurements at SLAC of large momentum transfer (Q"2 > 20 fm"-"2) electron scattering at forward angles from nuclei with A less than or equal to 4. Theoretical interpretations of these data in terms of traditional nuclear physics models and in terms of quark constituent models are described. Some physics questions for future experiments are explored, and a preview of possible future measurements of magnetic structure functions of light nuclei at large Q"2 is given

1979-01-01

248

Photoinduced electron transfer based ion sensing within an optical fiber.  

Science.gov (United States)

We combine suspended-core microstructured optical fibers with the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) effect to demonstrate a new type of fluorescent optical fiber-dip sensing platform for small volume ion detection. A sensor design based on a simple model PET-fluoroionophore system and small core microstructured optical fiber capable of detecting sodium ions is demonstrated. The performance of the dip sensor operating in a high sodium concentration regime (925 ppm Na(+)) and for lower sodium concentration environments (18.4 ppm Na(+)) is explored and future approaches to improving the sensor's signal stability, sensitivity and selectivity are discussed. PMID:22163712

Englich, Florian V; Foo, Tze Cheung; Richardson, Andrew C; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Sumby, Christopher J; Monro, Tanya M

2011-01-01

249

Artificial photosynthesis: from nanosecond electron transfer to catalytic water oxidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human society faces a fundamental challenge as energy consumption is projected to increase due to population and economic growth as fossil fuel resources decrease. Therefore the transition to alternative and sustainable energy sources is of the utmost importance. The conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, by splitting H2O to generate molecular O2 and H2, could contribute to solving the global energy problem. Developing such a system will require the combination of several complicated processes, such as light-harvesting, charge separation, electron transfer, H2O oxidation, and reduction of the generated protons. The primary processes of charge separation and catalysis, which occur in the natural photosynthetic machinery, provide us with an excellent blueprint for the design of such systems. This Account describes our efforts to construct supramolecular assemblies capable of carrying out photoinduced electron transfer and to develop artificial water oxidation catalysts (WOCs). Early work in our group focused on linking a ruthenium chromophore to a manganese-based oxidation catalyst. When we incorporated a tyrosine unit into these supramolecular assemblies, we could observe fast intramolecular electron transfer from the manganese centers, via the tyrosine moiety, to the photooxidized ruthenium center, which clearly resembles the processes occurring in the natural system. Although we demonstrated multi-electron transfer in our artificial systems, the bottleneck proved to be the stability of the WOCs. Researchers have developed a number of WOCs, but the majority can only catalyze H2O oxidation in the presence of strong oxidants such as Ce(IV), which is difficult to generate photochemically. By contrast, illumination of ruthenium(II) photosensitizers in the presence of a sacrificial acceptor generates [Ru(bpy)3](3+)-type oxidants. Their oxidation potentials are significantly lower than that of Ce(IV), but our group recently showed that incorporating negatively charged groups into the ligand backbone could decrease the oxidation potential of the catalysts and, at the same time, decrease the potential for H2O oxidation. This permitted us to develop both ruthenium- and manganese-based WOCs that can operate under neutral conditions, driven by the mild oxidant [Ru(bpy)3](3+). Many hurdles to the development of viable systems for the production of solar fuels remain. However, the combination of important features from the natural photosynthetic machinery and novel artificial components adds insights into the complicated catalytic processes that are involved in splitting H2O. PMID:23957573

Kärkäs, Markus D; Johnston, Eric V; Verho, Oscar; Akermark, Björn

2014-01-21

250

Preliminary estimate of heavy ion electron-transfer cross sections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary estimates of cross sections for the electron transfer process Ba"+ + Ba"+ ? Ba + Ba"+"+ are reported for the energy range 100 to 300 keV. The relative motion of the heavy ions' nuclei can be treated as a classical motion along straight line trajectories. The molecular states of Ba_2"+"+ are first obtained as functions of internuclear separation, treating the nuclei as stationary point charges. Then, the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is solved for the moving nuclei, using these molecular states as a basis

1978-09-26

251

Effect of electron transfer on contact fusion kinetics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of electric current on the kinetics of contact fusion (CF) is investigated. It is revealed that electric current can not only retard or accelerate CF in the diffusion regime at constant temperature T, but it can result in the process of ''contact crysllization''. CF may be used to study electron transfer in liquid solutions of eutectic systems. The results obtained may be applied in problems of the so-called contact-reactive soldering. In-Bi, Pb-Bi and Cd-Bi systems were used for investigations

1983-01-01

252

Light induced electron transfer reactions of metal complexes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Properties of the excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), ruthenium(II), osmium(II), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) are described. The electron transfer reactions of the ground and excited states are discussed and interpreted in terms of the driving force for the reaction and the distortions of the excited states relative to the corresponding ground states. General considerations relevant to the conversion of light into chemical energy are presented and progress in the use of polypyridine complexes to effect the light decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen is reviewed

1980-07-19

253

Determination of the electronics transfer function for current transient measurements  

CERN Document Server

We describe a straight-forward method for determining the transfer function of the readout of a sensor for the situation in which the current transient of the sensor can be precisely simulated. The method relies on the convolution theorem of Fourier transforms. The specific example is a planar silicon pad diode connected with a 50 $\\Omega $ cable to an amplifier followed by a 5 GS/s sampling oscilloscope. The charge carriers in the sensor were produced by picosecond lasers with light of wavelengths of 675 and 1060 nm. The transfer function is determined from the 1060 nm data with the pad diode biased at 1000 V. It is shown that the simulated sensor response convoluted with this transfer function provides an excellent description of the measured transients for the laser light of both wavelengths, at voltages 50 V above the depletion voltage of about 90 V up to the maximum applied voltage of 1000 V. The method has been developed for the precise measurement of the dependence of the drift velocity of electrons an...

Scharf, Christian

2014-01-01

254

Multiple electron transfer in slow Ne9+-Ne collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multielectron transfer probabilities in 90-keV Ne9+-Ne collisions have been measured with respect to the projectile scattering angle ? in a range between ?=12 and 75 mrad. The projectile final charge state was determined in coincidence with the target-ion final charge state using a time-of-flight technique. For ?>45 mrad, projectile and target undergo a complete equilibration of their atomic shells (including the K shell) leading to the excitation of both collision partners and the autoionization of three electrons on average. A comparison of the measured final charge-state distributions of projectile and target with those obtained in a former experiment with the system 90-keV Ne7+-Ne [H. Schmidt-Boecking et al., Phys. Rev. A 37, 4640 (1989)] leads to the conclusion that L- and K-shell charge transfer can be treated as independent processes. Interference structure in the K-K vacancy-transfer probabilities has been observed in the final charge-state probabilities of the ''heavy-ion''--atom system

1992-11-01

255

ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER: EXPLORING THE DIFFICULTIES OF SECURITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generally the banking laws, regulations and supervision were designed primarily to address the fundamental principle relating to safe and sound business practices by financial institutions. In order to maintain safe and sound business practice it is of outmost importance that customers are protected against losses resulting from inadequate remedies available to them. Banking by its very nature is a high risk business. However, the major risks associated with banking are legal risks, credit interest rates and liquidity. Internet banking has increased some of these risks by creating new ones. Electronic funds transfers are based on technology which by its nature is designed to extend the geographical reach of banks and customers. This kind of a market expansion extend beyond borders, therefore there will be problems which banks will try to avoid like regulation and supervision. Other regulatory and legal risks include, the uncertainty about legal requirements in some countries and jurisdiction ambiguities regarding the responsibilities of different national authorities. Customers and banks may be exposed to legal risks associated with non-compliance with different national laws and regulations including consumer protection laws, record keeping and report requirements. Due to insecurity created by electronic funds transfer, it of importance to analyse measures under South African Law and whether these measures can effectively prevent insecurity and what lessons can be learned from abroad.

MPAKWANA ANNASTACIA MTHEMBU

2010-10-01

256

Charge transfer and electronic relaxation in ion-surface scattering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this work is to investigate theoretically a widely studied process at the gas-surface interface, namely the transfer of one electron from a surface to an impinging ion and the subsequent electronic relaxation of the possibly excited neutralized atom. The theoretical techniques used are reviewed in Chapter 1, where the concepts of density matrix theory and field theory strictly related to the rest of the work are presented. The necessity of using a density matrix to describe the quantum state of a system that interacts with another unobserved system, is stressed in Chapter 1.A. In Chapter 1.B., after reviewing how the quantization procedure is performed for both a classical particle and a classical field, second quantization is presented as the quantum theory that correctly describes a system of many particles whose total number is not conserved. In Chapter 2, second quantization techniques are applied to ion-neutralization at surfaces. The experimental and theoretical state of the art is reviewed in Chapter 2.A., while in Chapter 2.B. is presented a perturbative treatment of the Fano-Anderson effective potential to model the charge transfer process. The theory is applied to proton neutralization at alkali-halide surfaces, which are systems for which the perturbative expansion converges quickly. The qualitative behavior of the calculated dependence of the neutralization probability on the ion collision velocity is found to be in agreement with experimental measurements

1985-01-01

257

Promoting direct interspecies electron transfer with activated carbon  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Granular activated carbon (GAC) is added to methanogenic digesters to enhance conversion of wastes to methane, but the mechanism(s) for GACâ??s stimulatory effect are poorly understood. GAC has high electrical conductivity and thus it was hypothesized that one mechanism for GAC stimulation of methanogenesis might be to facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between bacteria and methanogens. Metabolism was substantially accelerated when GAC was added to co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens grown under conditions previously shown to require DIET. Cells were attached to GAC, but did not aggregate as they do when making biological electrical connections between cells. Studies with a series of gene deletion mutants eliminated the possibility that GAC promoted electron exchange via interspecies hydrogen or formate transfer and demonstrated that DIET in the presence of GAC did not require the electrically conductive pili and associated c-type cytochrome involved in biological interspecies electrical connections. GAC also greatly stimulated ethanol metabolism and methane production in co-cultures of G. metallireducens and Methanosarcina barkeri. Cells were attached to GAC, but not closely aggregated, suggesting little opportunity for biological electrical contacts between the species. GAC also enhanced methane production in samples from a methanogenic digester in which Methanosaeta were the predominant methanogens. The results demonstrate that GAC can promote DIET and suggest that stimulation of metabolism in methanogenic digesters can be attributed, at least in part, to the high conductivity of GAC providing better interspecies electrical connections than those that can be forged biologically.

Liu, Fanghua; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

2012-01-01

258

Low temperature free energy relations for electron transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the multiphonon theory of electron transfer reactions we present calculations and simple expressions for the rate of electron transfer between molecules in a medium as a function of the free energy changes, especially in the exothermic region. We include effects of the medium modes as well as higher frequency modes which are allowed to change during the reaction. We find that there are activated as well as nonactivated regions depending on the free energy change and the temperature. The rate in the so called ''anomalous'' (or nonactivated) region decreases much more slowly with free energy than it does in the activated region. In fact, the logorithm of the rate depends roughly linearly on the free energy change in that region. Fortunately the rate is most dependent on the frequency of the high energy modes and less on the coupling strength about which we know the least. In addition we have studied uses of frequency averaging to reproduce the results of a multimode case

1982-09-01

259

Photoinduced electron transfer modeling to simulate flavoprotein fluorescence decay.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of analysis is described on the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from aromatic amino acids as tryptophans (Trp) and tyrosines (Tyr) to the excited isoalloxazine (Iso*) in FMN-binding proteins (FBP) from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (strain, Miyazaki F). Time-dependent geometrical factors as the donor-acceptor distances are determined by means of a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) of the proteins. Fluorescence decays of the single mutated isoforms of FBP are used as experimental data. The electrostatic (ES) energy between the photoproducts and ionic groups in the proteins is introduced into the Kakitani and Mataga (KM) model, which is modeled for an electron transfer process in solution. The PET parameters contained in the KM rate are determined by means of a nonlinear least square method, according to the Marquardt algorithm. The agreement between the observed and calculated decays is quite good, but not optimal. Characteristics on PET in flavoproteins, obtained by the present method, are described. Possible improvements of the method are discussed. PMID:24108633

Nunthaboot, Nadtanet; Lugsanangarm, Kiattisak; Nueangaudom, Arthit; Pianwanit, Somsak; Kokpol, Sirirat; Tanaka, Fumio

2014-01-01

260

Topological characterisation of intermolecular lithium bonding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bader's atoms in molecules topological theory was employed to analyse the B3LYP/6-311++G(3d2f,3p2d) electron distributions of several adducts that contain LiF. The results indicate significant differences between lithium bonding (LB) and hydrogen bonding (HB): (i) in spite of their larger stability, the charge density at the intermolecular critical points of LB complexes is about half of its value in the corresponding HB complexes, suggesting a dominant role of electrostatic interactions in the former; (ii) the Li atom in LB compounds is more shared between the base atom and the attached fluorine than hydrogen in HB complexes; and (iii) the Li atom gains electron charge from the hydrogens in all the complexes here studied, undergoing energetic stabilisation

2006-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Topological characterisation of intermolecular lithium bonding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bader's atoms in molecules topological theory was employed to analyse the B3LYP/6-311++G(3d2f,3p2d) electron distributions of several adducts that contain LiF. The results indicate significant differences between lithium bonding (LB) and hydrogen bonding (HB): (i) in spite of their larger stability, the charge density at the intermolecular critical points of LB complexes is about half of its value in the corresponding HB complexes, suggesting a dominant role of electrostatic interactions in the former; (ii) the Li atom in LB compounds is more shared between the base atom and the attached fluorine than hydrogen in HB complexes; and (iii) the Li atom gains electron charge from the hydrogens in all the complexes here studied, undergoing energetic stabilisation.

Vila, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidade de Vigo, Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310-Vigo, Galicia (Spain); Vila, Esther [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidade de Vigo, Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310-Vigo, Galicia (Spain); Mosquera, Ricardo A. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidade de Vigo, Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310-Vigo, Galicia (Spain)], E-mail: mosquera@uvigo.es

2006-08-01

262

Collisional electron transfer to photoexcited acceptor radical anions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this article, we show that photoexcitation of radical anions facilitates electron transfer from sodium atoms in femtosecond encounters. Thus, excitation of 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TCNQ) and fluorinated TCNQ (TCNQ-F(4)) anions to the second optically active state at 478 nm led to increases in the yields of dianions of about 20% and 10%, respectively. Photoexcitation with a nanosecond-long laser pulse was done a few microseconds before the ions entered the sodium collision cell so that none of the ions would be in any of the initially reached doublet-excited states. We suggest an explanation for the higher electron capture cross section based on the formation of long-lived quartet state anions. Excitation of TCNQ anions within the lowest-energy absorption band, where there are no accessible quartet states, led instead to a lower yield of dianions. There are at least three explanations for the lower dianion yields: (1) Depletion of the monoanion beam due to photodetachment after the absorption ofminimum two photons; (2) Formation of short-lived vibrationally excited dianions that decay by electron autodetachment prior to identification; and (3) Lower electron capture cross sections of vibrationally excited monoanions. Similar losses in dianion signal can occur at 478 nm so the actual yield of dianions at this wavelength due to the population of quartet states is therefore greater than that observed. Our methodology devises a more efficient route for the production of molecular dianions, and at the same time it may provide information on long-lived electronic states.

Wyer, Jean Ann; Støchkel, Kristian

2012-01-01

263

Cluster PEACE observations of electrons during magnetospheric flux transfer events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the first quarter of 2001 the apogees of the Cluster spacecraft quartet precessed through midday local times. This provides the first opportunity for 4 spacecraft studies of the bow shock, magnetosheath and the dayside magnetopause current layer and boundary layers. In this paper, we present observations of electrons in the energy range ~ 10 eV–26 keV made by the Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE located just inside the magnetopause boundary, together with supporting observations by the Flux Gate Magnetometer (FGM. During these observations, the spacecraft have separations of ~ 600 km. This scale size is of the order or less than the typical size of flux transfer events (FTEs, which are expected to be observed following bursts of reconnection on the dayside magnetopause. We study, in detail, the 3-D configuration of electron populations observed around a series of enhancements of magnetosheath-like electrons which were observed within the magnetosphere on 2 February 2001. We find that individual spacecraft observe magnetic field and electron signatures that are consistent with previous observations of magnetospheric FTEs. However, the differences in the signatures between spacecraft indicate that these FTEs have substructure on the scale of the spacecraft separation. We use these differences and the timings of the 4 spacecraft observations to infer the motions of the electron populations and thus the configuration of these substructures. We find that these FTEs are moving from noon towards dusk. The inferred size and speed of motion across the magnetopause, in one example, is ~ 0.8 RE and ~ 70 km s-1 respectively. In addition, we observe a delay in and an extended duration of the signature at the spacecraft furthest from the magnetopause. We discuss the implications of these 4 spacecraft observations for the structure of these FTEs. We suggest that these may include a compression of the closed flux tubes ahead of the FTE, which causes density and field strength enhancements; a circulation of open flux tubes within the FTE itself, which accounts for the delay in the arrival of the magnetosheath electron populations at locations deepest within the magnetosphere; and a possible trapping of magnetospheric electrons on the most recently opened flux tubes within the FTE.

Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; solar wind - magnetosphere interactions

C. J. Owen

264

Electron transfer rates and equilibrium within cytochrome c oxidase  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intramolecular electron transfer (ET) between the CuA center and heme a in bovine cytochrome c oxidase was investigated by pulse radiolysis. CuA, the initial electron acceptor, was reduced by 1-methyl nicotinamide radicals in a diffusion-controlled reaction, as monitored by absorption changes at 830 nm. After the initial reduction phase, the 830 nm absorption was partially restored, corresponding to reoxidation of the CuA center. Concomitantly, the absorption at 445 nm and 605 nm increased, indicating reduction of heme a. The rate constants for heme a reduction and CuA reoxidation were identical within experimental error and independent of the enzyme concentration. This demonstrates that a fast intramolecular electron equilibration is taking place between CuA and heme a. The rate constants for CuA --> heme a ET and the reverse (heme a --> CuA) process were found to be 13 000 s-1 and 3700 s-1, respectively, at 25 degrees C and pH 7.4. This corresponds to an equilibrium constant of 3.4 under these conditions. Thermodynamic and activation parameters of the ET reactions were determined. The significance of these results, particularly the observed low activation barriers, are discussed within the framework of the known three-dimensional structure, ET pathways and reorganization energies.

Farver, O; Einarsdóttir, O

2000-01-01

265

Intermolecular Diels-Alder reactions of brominated masked o-benzoquinones with electron-deficient dienophiles. A detour method to synthesize bicyclo[2.2.2]octenones from 2-methoxyphenols.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intermolecular Diels-Alder reactions of masked o-benzoquinones, i.e., 6,6-dimethoxy-2,4-cyclohexadienones 5-7 and 21-24 generated from 2-methoxyphenols 1-3 and 17-20, respectively, with electron-deficient dienophiles leading to highly functionalized bicyclo[2.2.2]octenones are described. The masked o-benzoquinones (MOBs) 5-7 underwent Diels-Alder cycloadditions with methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, and methyl vinyl ketone to provide bicyclo[2.2.2]octenones 13a-c to 15a-c (direct method) in low to moderate yields with the concomitant formation of considerable amounts of dimers 9-11. To retard dimerization and to improve the yields of the requisite bicyclo[2.2.2]octenones, a detour method comprised of sequential bromination of 2-methoxyphenols 1-4, oxidation and Diels-Alder reaction, and debromination has been developed. The oxidation of bromophenols 17-20 produced MOBs 21-24 which are stable enough to be isolated. The MOBs 21-24 underwent cycloaddition with electron-deficient dienophiles in a very efficient manner to afford the corresponding cycloadducts 25a-c to 28a-c in good to high yields without self-dimerization. When the cycloadducts 25a-c to 28a-c were treated with either Bu(3)SnH/AIBN or tributylammonium formate-palladium reagent, the corresponding debrominated products 13a-cto 16a-c were obtained in high to excellent yields. In general, the cycloadducts 13a-c to 15a-c were obtained in 20-40% higher yields via the detour method than those via the direct method. In both routes, the Diels-Alder reactions proceeded in a highly regio- and stereoselective manner to furnish a single cycloadduct in each case. PMID:12201772

Lai, Chien-Hsun; Shen, Yi-Ling; Wang, Min-Nen; Kameswara Rao, N S; Liao, Chun-Chen

2002-09-01

266

Radiolytic and electron-transfer reactions in supercritical CO2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using supercritical fluids as solvents is useful for both practical and theoretical reasons. It has been proposed to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for synthesis because it eliminates the air pollution arising from other solvents. The properties of supercritical fluids can be easily varied with only modest changes in temperature and density, so they provide a way of testing theories of chemical reactions. It has also been proposed to use supercritical fluids for the treatment of hazardous mixed waste. For these reasons the authors have studied the production of radiolytic species in supercritical CO2 and have measured their reactivity as a function of density. They have shown that the C2O4+ is formed. They also have shown that the electron transfer reactions of dimethylaniline to C2O4+ and CO2(e-) to benzoquinone are diffusion controlled over a considerable density range

1999-03-13

267

Reorganization energy of electron transfer at the solvent glass transition  

CERN Document Server

We present a molecular-dynamics study of the solvent reorganization energy of electron transfer in supercooled water. We observe a sharp decrease of the reorganization energy at a temperature identified as the temperature of structural arrest due to cage effect as discussed by the mode coupling theory. Both the heat capacity and dielectric susceptibility of the pure water show sharp drops at about the same temperature. This temperature also marks the onset of the enhancement of translational diffusion relative to rotational relaxation signaling the break-down of the Stokes-Einstein relation. The change in the reorganization energy at the transition temperature reflects the dynamical arrest of the slow, collective relaxation of the solvent related to Debye relaxation of the solvent dipolar polarization.

Ghorai, P K; Ghorai, Pradip K.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

2005-01-01

268

Electron transfer flavoprotein deficiency: Functional and molecular aspects.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder that can be due to a deficiency of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or its dehydrogenase (ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). ETF is a mitochondrial matrix protein consisting of alpha- (30kDa) and beta- (28kDa) subunits encoded by the ETFA and ETFB genes, respectively. In the present study, we have analysed tissue samples from 16 unrelated patients with ETF deficiency, and we report the results of ETF activity, Western blot analysis and mutation analysis. The ETF assay provides a reliable diagnostic tool to confirm ETF deficiency in patients suspected to suffer from MADD. Activity ranged from less than 1 to 16% of controls with the most severely affected patients disclosing the lowest activity values. The majority of patients had mutations in the ETFA gene while only two of them harboured mutations in the ETFB gene. Nine novel disease-causing ETF mutations are reported.

Schiff, M; Froissart, R

2006-01-01

269

Facile direct electron transfer in glucose oxidase modified electrodes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glucose oxidase (GOx) is widely used in the glucose biosensor industry. However, mediatorless direct electron transfer (DET) from GOx to electrode surfaces is very slow. Recently, mediatorless DET has been reported via the incorporation of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles in the modification of electrodes. Here we report GOx electrodes showing DET without the need for any nanomaterials. The enzyme after immobilization with poly-L-lysine (PLL) and Nafion retains the biocatalytic activities and oxidizes glucose efficiently. The amperometric response of Nafion-PLL-GOx modified electrode is linearly proportional to the concentration of glucose up to 10 mM with a sensitivity of 0.75 ?A/mM at a low detection potential (-0.460 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The methodology developed in this study will have impact on glucose biosensors and biofuel cells and may potentially simplify enzyme immobilization in other biosensing systems.

2009-07-15

270

Facile direct electron transfer in glucose oxidase modified electrodes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Glucose oxidase (GOx) is widely used in the glucose biosensor industry. However, mediatorless direct electron transfer (DET) from GOx to electrode surfaces is very slow. Recently, mediatorless DET has been reported via the incorporation of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles in the modification of electrodes. Here we report GOx electrodes showing DET without the need for any nanomaterials. The enzyme after immobilization with poly-L-lysine (PLL) and Nafion retains the biocatalytic activities and oxidizes glucose efficiently. The amperometric response of Nafion-PLL-GOx modified electrode is linearly proportional to the concentration of glucose up to 10 mM with a sensitivity of 0.75 {mu}A/mM at a low detection potential (-0.460 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The methodology developed in this study will have impact on glucose biosensors and biofuel cells and may potentially simplify enzyme immobilization in other biosensing systems.

Wang Dan [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Chen Liwei [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Suzhou Institute of Nano Tech and Nano Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 398 Ruoshui Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215125 (China)], E-mail: lwchen2008@sinano.ac.cn

2009-07-15

271

A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmentally induced fluctuations of the optical gap play a crucial role in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to account for excitation energies' thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, since the original work of HSR, many groups have employed stochastic models to simulate the same transfer dynamics. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equations via the generalized Langevin approach. Based on this connection, we propose a novel scheme to take account of reorganization effects within the framework of stochastic models. The proposed scheme provides a better description of the population dynamics especially in the regime of strong exciton-phonon coupling. Finally, we discuss the effect of the bath reorganization in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of ideal J-aggregates in terms of the Stokes shifts. We find a simple expression that relates the reorganization contribution to the Stokes shifts - the reorganization shift - to the ideal or non-ideal exciton delocalization in a J-aggregate. The reorganization shift can be described by three parameters: the monomer reorganization energy, the relaxation time of the optical gap, and the exciton delocalization length. This simple relationship allows one to understand the physical origin of the Stokes shifts in molecular aggregates. PMID:24985614

Fujita, Takatoshi; Huh, Joonsuk; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2014-06-28

272

The Golden Rule. Application for fun and profit in electron transfer, energy transfer, and excited-state decay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Time-dependent perturbation theory and application of the Golden Rule have been shown to be quantitatively applicable to electron transfer in the inverted region, energy transfer, and excited-state decay based on spectroscopic measurements on d?(6) polypyridyl complexes of Ru(II), Os(II), and Re(I). PMID:22842806

Ito, Akitaka; Meyer, Thomas J

2012-10-28

273

Analyses of donor-acceptor distance-dependent rates of photo-induced electron transfer in flavoproteins with three kinds of electron transfer theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reported donor-acceptor distance-dependent rates of photo-induced electron transfer from tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr), and benzoate (Bz) to the excited isoalloxazine in ten flavoprotein systems were analyzed with three kinds of electron transfer theories by Marcus, by Bixon and Jortner, and also by Kakitani, Yoshimori, and Mataga. Average donor-acceptor distances that were obtained from X-ray structures of flavoproteins were used for the analysis, rather than the edge-to-edge distance. The observed photo-induced electron transfer rates were best reproduced by the Kakitani, Yoshimori, and Mataga theory

2008-06-02

274

Analyses of donor-acceptor distance-dependent rates of photo-induced electron transfer in flavoproteins with three kinds of electron transfer theories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reported donor-acceptor distance-dependent rates of photo-induced electron transfer from tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr), and benzoate (Bz) to the excited isoalloxazine in ten flavoprotein systems were analyzed with three kinds of electron transfer theories by Marcus, by Bixon and Jortner, and also by Kakitani, Yoshimori, and Mataga. Average donor-acceptor distances that were obtained from X-ray structures of flavoproteins were used for the analysis, rather than the edge-to-edge distance. The observed photo-induced electron transfer rates were best reproduced by the Kakitani, Yoshimori, and Mataga theory.

Tanaka, Fumio [SC1-413, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150 (Thailand)], E-mail: fukoh2003@yahoo.com; Rujkorakarn, Rong [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Chosrowjan, Haik; Taniguchi, Seiji; Mataga, Noboru [Institute for Laser Technology, Utsubo-Hommachi 1-8-4, Nishiku, Osaka 550-0004 (Japan)

2008-06-02

275

Modulating electron transfer properties of gold nanoparticles for efficient biosensing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Present study concerns modulating the electron transfer properties of gold nanoparticles through amino acid induced coupling among them. In addition to conductivity, the amino functionalization of the nanoparticles results in enhanced activity and operational stability of the biosensor fabricated using the same. Nanoparticles synthesized using amino acid as reducing agent (average diameter-20 nm), incorporate the natural coupling property of amino acids and are seen to align in a chain-like arrangement. The coupling of the individual nanoparticles to form chain like structure was confirmed by both absorption spectroscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy. The glucose biosensor developed by adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme onto these coupled gold nanoparticles showed enhanced efficiency as compared to the one with glucose oxidase immobilized onto gold nanoparticles synthesized using the conventional method (trisodium citrate as reducing agent). The fabricated biosensor demonstrated a wide linear concentration range from 1 ?M-5mM and a high sensitivity of 47.2 ?A mM(-1) cm(-2). Also, an enhanced selectivity to glucose was observed with negligible interference in the physiological range, from easily oxidizable biospecies, e.g. uric acid and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the electrochemical biosensor has excellent long term stability- retaining greater than 85% of the biosensor activity up to 60 days. PMID:22608576

Sharma, Shikha; Gupta, Nidhi; Srivastava, Sudha

2012-01-01

276

Ions interacting with planar aromatic molecules: Modeling electron transfer reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

We present theoretical absolute charge exchange cross sections for multiply charged cations interacting with the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules pyrene C14H10, coronene C24H12, or circumcoronene C54H18. These planar, nearly circular, PAHs are modelled as conducting, infinitely thin, and perfectly circular discs, which are randomly oriented with respect to straight line ion trajectories. We present the analytical solution for the potential energy surface experienced by an electron in the field of such a charged disc and a point-charge at an arbitrary position. The location and height of the corresponding potential energy barrier from this simple model are in close agreement with those from much more computationally demanding Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in a number of test cases. The model results compare favourably with available experimental data on single- and multiple electron transfer reactions and we demonstrate that it is important to include the orientation dependent polarizabilities of the molecules (model discs) in particular for the larger PAHs. PAH ionization energy sequences from DFT are tabulated and used as model inputs. Absolute cross sections for the ionization of PAH molecules, and PAH ionization energies such as the ones presented here may be useful when considering the roles of PAHs and their ions in, e.g., interstellar chemistry, stellar atmospheres, and in related photoabsorption and photoemission spectroscopies.

Forsberg, B. O.; Alexander, J. D.; Chen, T.; Pettersson, A. T.; Gatchell, M.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.

2013-02-01

277

Ions interacting with planar aromatic molecules: Modeling electron transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present theoretical absolute charge exchange cross sections for multiply charged cations interacting with the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules pyrene C14H10, coronene C24H12, or circumcoronene C54H18. These planar, nearly circular, PAHs are modelled as conducting, infinitely thin, and perfectly circular discs, which are randomly oriented with respect to straight line ion trajectories. We present the analytical solution for the potential energy surface experienced by an electron in the field of such a charged disc and a point-charge at an arbitrary position. The location and height of the corresponding potential energy barrier from this simple model are in close agreement with those from much more computationally demanding Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in a number of test cases. The model results compare favourably with available experimental data on single- and multiple electron transfer reactions and we demonstrate that it is important to include the orientation dependent polarizabilities of the molecules (model discs) in particular for the larger PAHs. PAH ionization energy sequences from DFT are tabulated and used as model inputs. Absolute cross sections for the ionization of PAH molecules, and PAH ionization energies such as the ones presented here may be useful when considering the roles of PAHs and their ions in, e.g., interstellar chemistry, stellar atmospheres, and in related photoabsorption and photoemission spectroscopies.

2013-02-07

278

Ions interacting with planar aromatic molecules: Modeling electron transfer reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present theoretical absolute charge exchange cross sections for multiply charged cations interacting with the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules pyrene C{sub 14}H{sub 10}, coronene C{sub 24}H{sub 12}, or circumcoronene C{sub 54}H{sub 18}. These planar, nearly circular, PAHs are modelled as conducting, infinitely thin, and perfectly circular discs, which are randomly oriented with respect to straight line ion trajectories. We present the analytical solution for the potential energy surface experienced by an electron in the field of such a charged disc and a point-charge at an arbitrary position. The location and height of the corresponding potential energy barrier from this simple model are in close agreement with those from much more computationally demanding Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in a number of test cases. The model results compare favourably with available experimental data on single- and multiple electron transfer reactions and we demonstrate that it is important to include the orientation dependent polarizabilities of the molecules (model discs) in particular for the larger PAHs. PAH ionization energy sequences from DFT are tabulated and used as model inputs. Absolute cross sections for the ionization of PAH molecules, and PAH ionization energies such as the ones presented here may be useful when considering the roles of PAHs and their ions in, e.g., interstellar chemistry, stellar atmospheres, and in related photoabsorption and photoemission spectroscopies.

Forsberg, B. O.; Alexander, J. D.; Chen, T.; Pettersson, A. T.; Gatchell, M.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2013-02-07

279

Theory of Electron-Transfer Reactions and of Related Phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on electronexchange reactions have provided insight into factors influencing rates of electron-transfer reactions in solution. The present paper has the twofold purpose of discussing some of these factors and of describing applications of these exchange data and theory to other phenomena. The reaction rate depends upon the extent of reorganization of bond lengths (angles) in the reactants and of solvent reorientation outside them. The reorganization is facilitated or hindered in a comparatively simple way by a favorable or unfavorable standard free energy of reaction. The rate depends, too, on coulombic and other interactions, as evidenced perhaps by certain salt effects, though probably only by a few orders of magni - tude typically. The observed variation of rates of some 15 orders of magnitude is best attributed primarily to differences in the vibrational reorganization term, a factor calculable from bond lengths and force constants when known. A remaining factor, non-adiabaticity, is at present of uncertain importance. Arrhenius frequency factors in chemical and electrochemical exchange rate constants would provide the most direct information, but can be complicated or even dwarfed by solvent reordering effects in the coulombic interaction. Available data are few. They provide examples where a non-adiabatic effect is minor. There appear to be no known examples where it is major (Fe2+ - Fe3+, could be a candidate but its mechanism is apparently uncertain). Reorganization in reactants and in solvent occurs in a variety of related phenomena, and related concepts will be applied to treat them. In turn, chemical exchange data have useful applications to the latter. These areas include electrochemical exchange reactions, chemiluminescent electron-transfer reactions (between positive and negative aromatic ions, for example), and redox reactions of the solvated electron. An explanation for the chemiluminescent reactions will be based on the possible ''inverse ?F°'' effect, discussed several years ago by the author. A related phenomenon involving solvent 'orientation strain' occurs in light absorption or emission by polar solutes in polar solvents, and the theoretical approach used by the author for treating it is closely related to that used for the exchange reactions. (author)

1965-10-01

280

"Sticky electrons" transport and interfacial transfer of electrons in the dye-sensitized solar cell.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, also known as Gratzel cells) mimic the photosynthetic process by using a sensitizer dye to harvest light energy to generate electrical power. Several functional features of these photochemical devices are unusual, and DSC research offers a rewarding arena in which to test new ideas, new materials, and new methodologies. Indeed, one of the most attractive chemical features of the DSC is that the basic concept can be used to construct a range of devices, replacing individual components with alternative materials. Despite two decades of increasing research activity, however, many aspects of the behavior of electrons in the DSC remain puzzling. In this Account, we highlight current understanding of the processes involved in the functioning of the DSC, with particular emphasis on what happens to the electrons in the mesoporous film following the injection step. The collection of photoinjected electrons appears to involve a random walk process in which electrons move through the network of interconnected titanium dioxide nanoparticles while undergoing frequent trapping and detrapping. During their passage to the cell contact, electrons may be lost by transfer to tri-iodide species in the redox electrolyte that permeates the mesoporous film. Competition between electron collection and back electron transfer determines the performance of a DSC: ideally, all injected electrons should be collected without loss. This Account then goes on to survey recent experimental and theoretical progress in the field, placing particular emphasis on issues that need to be resolved before we can gain a clear picture of how the DSC works. Several important questions about the behavior of "sticky" electrons, those that undergo multiple trapping and detrapping, in the DSC remain unanswered. The most fundamental of these concerns is the nature of the electron traps that appear to dominate the time-dependent photocurrent and photovoltage response of DSCs. The origin of the nonideality factor in the relationship between the intensity and the DSC photovoltage is also unclear, as is the discrepancy in electron diffusion length values determined by steady-state and non-steady-state methods. With these unanswered questions, DSC research is likely to remain an active and fruitful area for some years to come. PMID:19637905

Peter, Laurence

2009-11-17

 
 
 
 
281

Electron Transfer within Self-Assembling Cyclic Tetramers Using Chlorophyll-Based Donor?Acceptor Building Blocks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis and photoinduced charge transfer properties of a series of Chl-based donor-acceptor triad building blocks that self-assemble into cyclic tetramers are reported. Chlorophyll a was converted into zinc methyl 3-ethylpyrochlorophyllide a (Chl) and then further modified at its 20-position to covalently attach a pyromellitimide (PI) acceptor bearing a pyridine ligand and one or two naphthalene-1,8:4,5-bis(dicarboximide) (NDI) secondary electron acceptors to give Chl-PI-NDI and Chl-PI-NDI2. The pyridine ligand within each ambident triad enables intermolecular Chl metal-ligand coordination in dry toluene, which results in the formation of cyclic tetramers in solution, as determined using small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering at a synchrotron source. Femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of the monomers in toluene-1% pyridine and the cyclic tetramers in toluene shows that the selective photoexcitation of Chl results in intramolecular electron transfer from 1*Chl to PI to form Chl+{lg_bullet}-PI-{lg_bullet}-NDI and Chl+{lg_bullet}-PI-{lg_bullet}-NDI2. This initial charge separation is followed by a rapid charge shift from PI-{lg_bullet} to NDI and subsequent charge recombination of Chl+{lg_bullet}-PI-NDI-{lg_bullet} and Chl+{lg_bullet}-PI-(NDI)NDI-{lg_bullet} on a 5-30 ns time scale. Charge recombination in the Chl-PI-NDI2 cyclic tetramer ({tau}CR = 30 {+-} 1 ns in toluene) is slower by a factor of 3 relative to the monomeric building blocks ({tau}CR = 10 {+-} 1 ns in toluene-1% pyridine). This indicates that the self-assembly of these building blocks into the cyclic tetramers alters their structures in a way that lengthens their charge separation lifetimes, which is an advantageous strategy for artificial photosynthetic systems.

Gunderson, Victoria L.; Smeigh, Amanda L.; Kim, Chul Hoon; Co, Dick T.; Wasielewski, Michael R. (NWU)

2012-05-09

282

Structural factors influencing the intramolecular charge transfer and photoinduced electron transfer in tetrapyrazinoporphyrazines.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of unsymmetrical tetrapyrazinoporphyrazines (TPyzPzs) from the group of azaphthalocyanines with one peripherally attached amino substituent (donor) were synthesized, and their photophysical properties (fluorescence quantum yield and singlet oxygen quantum yield) were determined. The synthesized TPyzPzs were expected to undergo intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) as the main pathway for deactivating their excited states. Several structural factors were found to play a critical role in ICT efficiency. The substituent in the ortho position to the donor center significantly influences the ICT, with tert-butylsulfanyl and butoxy substituents inducing the strongest ICTs, whereas chloro, methyl, phenyl, and hydrogen substituents in this position reduce the efficiency. The strength of the donor positively influences the ICT efficiency and correlates well with the oxidation potential of the amines used as the substituents on the TPyzPz as follows: n-butylamine < N,N-diethylamine < aniline < phenothiazine. The ICT (with conjugated donors and acceptors) in the TPyzPz also proved to be much stronger than a photoinduced electron transfer in which the donor and the acceptor are connected through an aliphatic linker. PMID:24509513

Novakova, Veronika; Hladík, Petr; Filandrová, Tereza; Zajícová, Ivana; Krepsová, Veronika; Miletin, Miroslav; Len?o, Juraj; Zimcik, Petr

2014-03-21

283

Theoretical study on the electronic structure of triphenyl sulfonium salts: Electronic excitation and electron transfer processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Density functional theory (DFT) and Time Dependent DFT calculations on triphenyl sulfonium cation (TPS) and the salts of TPS with triflate, nonaflate, perfluoro-1-octanesulfonate and hexafluoro antimonate anions are presented. These systems are widely used as cationic photoinitiators and as electron ejection layer for polymer light-emitting diodes. While some differences exist in the electronic structure of the different salts, their lowest energy intense absorption maxima are calculated at nearly the same energy for all systems. The first excited state of TPS and of the TPS salts is dissociating. Electron addition to the TPS salts lowers their energy by 1.0-1.33 eV.

Petsalakis, Ioannis D.; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N.; Georgiadou, Dimitra G.; Vasilopoulou, Maria; Argitis, Panagiotis

2014-05-01

284

Direct electron transfer from glucose oxidase immobilized on a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A direct electron transfer reaction of glucose oxidase was observed on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode. ? A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed at the formal potential of approximately -0.439 V. ? The apparent electron transfer rate constant was measured to be 5.27 s-1. ? A mechanism for the observed direct electron transfer reaction was proposed, which consists of a two-electron and a two-proton transfer. - Abstract: A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed for the direct electron transfer (DET) reaction of an immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode at the formal potential (Eo') of -0.439 V versus Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl. The electron transfer rate constant (ks) was calculated to be 5.27 s-1. The dependence of Eo' on pH indicated that the direct electron transfer of the GOx was a two-electron transfer process, coupled with two-proton transfer. The results clearly demonstrate that the nano-porous glassy carbon electrode is a cost-effective and ready-to-use scaffold for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor.

2011-11-30

285

Direct electron transfer from glucose oxidase immobilized on a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: > A direct electron transfer reaction of glucose oxidase was observed on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode. > A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed at the formal potential of approximately -0.439 V. > The apparent electron transfer rate constant was measured to be 5.27 s{sup -1}. > A mechanism for the observed direct electron transfer reaction was proposed, which consists of a two-electron and a two-proton transfer. - Abstract: A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed for the direct electron transfer (DET) reaction of an immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode at the formal potential (E{sup o}') of -0.439 V versus Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl. The electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) was calculated to be 5.27 s{sup -1}. The dependence of E{sup o}' on pH indicated that the direct electron transfer of the GOx was a two-electron transfer process, coupled with two-proton transfer. The results clearly demonstrate that the nano-porous glassy carbon electrode is a cost-effective and ready-to-use scaffold for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor.

Haghighi, Behzad, E-mail: haghighi@iasbs.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabrizi, Mahmoud Amouzadeh [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-11-30

286

[Mechanisms of electron transfer to insoluble terminal acceptors in chemoorganotrophic bacteria].  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms of electron transfer of association of chemoorganotrophic bacteria to the anode in microbial fuel cells are summarized in the survey. These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and are divided into the mechanisms of mediator electron transfer, mechanisms of electron transfer with intermediate products of bacterial metabolism and mechanism of direct transfer of electrons from the cell surface. Thus, electron transfer mediators are artificial or synthesized by bacteria riboflavins and phenazine derivatives, which also determine the ability of bacteria to antagonism. The microorganisms with hydrolytic and exoelectrogenic activity are involved in electron transfer mechanisms that are mediated by intermediate metabolic products, which are low molecular carboxylic acids, alcohols, hydrogen etc. The direct transfer of electrons to insoluble anode is possible due to membrane structures (cytochromes, pili, etc.). Association of microorganisms, and thus the biochemical mechanisms of electron transfer depend on the origin of the inoculum, substrate composition, mass transfer, conditions of aeration, potentials and location of electrodes and others, that are defined by technological and design parameters. PMID:24868908

Samarukha, I A

2014-01-01

287

Electron transfer reactions of macrocyclic compounds of cobalt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The kinetics and mechanisms of reduction of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Br/sub 2/, and I/sub 2/ by various macrocyclic tetraaza complexes of cobalt(II), including Vitamin B/sub 12r/, were studied. The synthetic macrocycles studied were all 14-membered rings which varied in the degree of unsaturation,substitution of methyl groups on the periphery of the ring, and substitution within the ring itself. Scavenging experiments demonstrated that the reductions of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ produce free hydroxyl radicals only in the case of Co((14)ane)/sup 2 +/ but with none of the others. In the latter instances apparently H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ simultaneously oxidizes the metal center and the ligand. The reductions of Br/sub 2/ and I/sub 2/ produce an aquohalocobalt(III) product for all reductants (except B/sub 12r/ + Br/sub 2/, which was complicated by bromination of the corrin ring). The mechanism of halogen reduction was found to involve rate-limiting inner-sphere electron transfer from cobalt to halogen to produce a dihalide anion coordinated to the cobalt center. This intermediate subsequently decomposes in rapid reactions to halocobalt(III) and halogen atom species or reacts with another cobalt(II) center to give two molecules of halocobalt(III). The reductions of halomethylcobaloximes and related compounds and diamminecobaloxime by Cr/sup 2 +/ were also studied. The reaction was found to be biphasic in all cases with the reaction products being halomethane (for the halomethylcobaloximes), Co/sup 2 +/ (in less than 100 percent yield), a Cr(III)-dimethylglyoxime species, a small amount of free dmgH/sub 2/, and a highly-charged species containing both cobalt and chromium. The first-stage reaction occurs with a stoichiometry of 1:1 producing an intermediate with an absorption maximum at 460 nm for all starting reagents. The results were interpreted in terms of inner-sphere coordination of the cobaloxime to the Cr(II) and electron transfer through the oxime N-O bond.

Heckman, R.A.

1978-08-01

288

Photoinitiated electron transfer in multi-chromophoric species: Synthetic tetrads and pentads. Technical progress report, 1987--1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research project involves the design, synthesis and study of the molecules which mimic many of the important aspects of photosynthetic electron and energy transfer. Specifically, the molecules are designed to mimic the following aspects of natural photosynthetic multistep electron transfer: electron donation from a tetrapyrrole excited singlet state, electron transfer between tetrapyrroles, electron transfer from tetrapyrroles to quinones, and electron transfer between quinones with different redox properties. In addition, they model carotenoid antenna function in photosynthesis (singlet-singlet energy transfer from carotenoid polyenes to chlorophyll) and carotenoid photoprotection from singlet oxygen damage (triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophyll to carotenoids).

1990-02-14

289

Type IV pili of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans can transfer electrons from extracellular electron donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans accepting electrons from Fe(II) have previously focused on cytochrome c. However, we have discovered that, besides cytochrome c, type IV pili (Tfp) can transfer electrons. Here, we report conduction by Tfp of A. ferrooxidans analyzed with a conducting-probe atomic force microscope (AFM). The results indicate that the Tfp of A. ferrooxidans are highly conductive. The genome sequence of A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 contains two genes, pilV and pilW, which code for pilin domain proteins with the conserved amino acids characteristic of Tfp. Multiple alignment analysis of the PilV and PilW (pilin) proteins indicated that pilV is the adhesin gene while pilW codes for the major protein element of Tfp. The likely function of Tfp is to complete the circuit between the cell surface and Fe(II) oxides. These results indicate that Tfp of A. ferrooxidans might serve as biological nanowires transferring electrons from the surface of Fe(II) oxides to the cell surface. PMID:23440740

Li, Yongquan; Li, Hongyu

2014-03-01

290

When electron transfer meets electron transport in redox-active molecular nanojunctions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) was used to arrange two microelectrodes face-to-face separated by a micrometric gap. Polyaniline (PANI) was deposited electrochemically from the SECM tip side until it bridged the two electrodes. The junctions obtained were characterized by following the current through the PANI as a function of its electrochemical potential measured versus a reference electrode acting as a gate electrode in a solid-state transistor. PANI nanojunctions showed conductances below 100 nS in the oxidized state, indicating control of the charge transport within the whole micrometric gap by a limited number of PANI wires. The SECM configuration makes it possible to observe in the same experiment and in the same current range the electron-transfer and electron-transport processes. These two phenomena are distinguished here and characterized by following the variation of the current with the bias voltage and the scan rate. The electron-transfer current changes with the scan rate, while the charge-transport current varies with the bias voltage. Finally, despite the initially micrometric gap, a junction where the conductance is controlled by a single oligoaniline strand is achieved. PMID:23331168

Janin, Marion; Ghilane, Jalal; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe

2013-02-13

291

Electron transfer across ?-helical peptides: Potential influence of molecular dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Three hydrophobic leucine-rich peptides Fc18L, Ac18L and 18LAc were prepared. These peptides are equipped with a cystein sulfhydryl group which enables the formation of thin films on gold surfaces. Using these peptides, two types of films of ?-helical peptides have been prepared, in which the redox-active peptide Fc18L is diluted by Ac18L ( SAM1) or by a mixture of Ac18L and 18LAc ( SAM2). In SAM1, the dipole moments of the peptides are aligned in the same direction, whereas in SAM2, they are opposite. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) revealed that the peptides are more vertically oriented in SAM2 compared to those in SAM1. The interaction among the macroscopic helix dipoles gives tighter packing of the peptides in SAM2. Importantly, the electron transfer properties in the two films are significantly different, which is rationalized by differences in the molecular dynamics of the two films.

Mandal, Himadri S.; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

2006-07-01

292

Electron transfer across ?-helical peptides: Potential influence of molecular dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three hydrophobic leucine-rich peptides Fc18L, Ac18L and 18LAc were prepared. These peptides are equipped with a cystein sulfhydryl group which enables the formation of thin films on gold surfaces. Using these peptides, two types of films of ?-helical peptides have been prepared, in which the redox-active peptide Fc18L is diluted by Ac18L (SAM1) or by a mixture of Ac18L and 18LAc (SAM2). In SAM1, the dipole moments of the peptides are aligned in the same direction, whereas in SAM2, they are opposite. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) revealed that the peptides are more vertically oriented in SAM2 compared to those in SAM1. The interaction among the macroscopic helix dipoles gives tighter packing of the peptides in SAM2. Importantly, the electron transfer properties in the two films are significantly different, which is rationalized by differences in the molecular dynamics of the two films

2006-07-11

293

Oxidation of ascorbate anion by electron transfer to phenoxyl radicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most phenoxyl radicals rapidly oxidize ascorbate anion (rate constants from 4 to 20 x 108 M-1 sec-1) by a simple electron transfer process. The product radical anion is relatively unreactive and has a well-characterized absorption at 360 nm where it has an extinction coefficient of 3300 M-1 cm-1. In the case of a phenoxyl radical produced by OH attack on phenol, oxidation appears to be quantitative. Ascorbate is oxidized only slowly or not at all by less reactive radicals, such as the alcohol radicals, para-semiquinones, or the phenyl radical. Ascorbate can, therefore, be used to selectively remove phenoxyl radicals from many mixed radical systems. Because ascorbate radical anion absorbs only weakly above 390 nm, where phenoxyl and para-semiquinone radicals absorb more strongly, ascorbate can be used to examine the oxidation of substrates in cases where phenoxyl and semiquinone radicals are produced simultaneously. This application is illustrated by a study of the attack of OH at the fluorine position of para-fluorophenol. A second illustrative example is provided by a study of the tertiary oxidation of ascorbate following reduction of the bromophenols by e/sub aq/-. It is shown, in agreement with previous optical and ESR studies, that phenoxyl radicals are produced by rapid protonation of the hydroxyphenyl radical anion in the case of the ortho- and para-isomers but not in the case of the meta-isomer

1977-01-01

294

Electron transfer of peroxidase assemblies at tailored nanocarbon electrodes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In bioelectrochemistry, the catalytic function of redox enzymes depends largely upon the nature of the working electrode material. One major example of this phenomenon is the improvement of biogenic analyte detection at graphitic carbon with increased edge plane character in the graphene lattice. In our laboratories, we have found that the edge plane character of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) prepared using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) can be tuned via selective doping with nitrogen, termed N-CNTs. In this report, we extend these studies to investigate the influence of N-doping of nanocarbons on the electron transfer of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) using spectrophotometric enzyme activity assays and electrochemical measurements. Our findings demonstrate that HRP adsorption at N-CNTs increases by a factor of two relative to that of nondoped CNTs, with surface coverages, ?m, of 75 ± 4 and 33 ± 5 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) U/mg, respectively. Surprisingly, however, only ?40% of the HRP adsorbed at N-CNTs is electroactive, as assessed by voltammetry of the HRP Fe2+/3+ redox response. By contrast, HRP adsorbed at nondoped CNTs is nearly 100% electroactive, suggesting that the nature of the HRP adsorption (e.g., electrostatic, van der Waals) and geometric factors of heme orientation affect the biocatalytic performance. We also describe studies that utilize the properties of both nondoped CNTs and N-CNTs with adsorbed HRP for unmediated, quantitative H2O2 sensing

2008-10-01

295

Intramolecular electron transfer across amino acid spacers in the picosecond time regime. Charge-transfer interaction through peptide bonds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For a series of alanine-based peptides having 1--3 amino acid residues as spacers, the chromophore, pyrenesulfonyl (Pyr), has been attached at the N-terminus and an electron donor, dimethyl-1,4-benzenediamine (DMPD), covalently bound at the C-terminus. Evidence for an intramolecular charge-transfer interaction involving the electron donor and acceptor groups has been obtained from absorption spectra. Intramolecular electron transfer involving the end groups, Pyr (electron acceptor) and DMPD (electron donor) has been confirmed by ultrafast pump-probe methods. The radical-ion pair states that are generated on Ti/sapphire laser excitation at 400 nm decay in the picosecond to nanosecond time domain and generally show multiexponential decay kinetics. These rates of charge recombination are among the fastest yet observed involving electron transfer between terminal groups for peptide oligomers. The falloff of rate constants for ion pair recombination is irregular in terms of the through-bond distance that separates Pyr and DMPD groups for the various peptide links; i.e., back electron transfer remains fast for the tripeptide, Pyr-Ala-Ala-Ala-DMPD, despite an average through-bond distance between photoactive groups that reaches 18 {angstrom}. Molecular modeling studies show that the peptides are free to adopt conformations in essentially random fashion, without showing evidence for long range ordering of the peptide chain.

Jones, G. II; Lu, L.N.; Fu, H.; Farahat, C.W.; Oh, C. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Greenfield, S.R.; Gosztola, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-01-21

296

Primary reactions in photosynthetic reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides - Time constants of the initial electron transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary dynamics of reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides at room temperature are studied at low excitation intensities and low excitation rates. Analysis based on singular value decomposition yields three time constants in the picosecond range (ca. 1.2 ps, 3.5 ps and 220 ps). The spectral and temporal signatures are fully consistent with the step-wise electron transfer model published previously, with a first electron transfer to the bacteriochlorophyll with a time constant of 3.5 ps and a second 1.2 ps transfer to the bacteriopheophytin. No indications for adiabatic electron transfer are found in the time range >0.5 ps.

Dominguez, Pablo Nahuel; Himmelstoss, Matthias; Michelmann, Jeff; Lehner, Florian Thomas; Gardiner, Alastair T.; Cogdell, Richard J.; Zinth, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

297

Theory for electron-transfer reactions involving two Marcus surfaces with a different force constant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Theory for electron-transfer reactions at high temperature involving two Marcus parabolic surfaces with a different force constant is presented. The dynamic solvent effects are also considered using the stochastic Liouville equation, assuming an overdamped Debye solvent. An analytical expression for the adiabatic/nonadiabatic electron-transfer rate constant is derived.

Tang, Jau

1994-02-01

298

Coherent phonons in CdSe quantum dots triggered by ultrafast electron transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The origin of coherent oscillations in CdSe quantum dots and in the CdSe/methylviologen electron transfer system is studied. In CdSe/methylviologen coherent phonons are triggered by the electron transfer from the quantum dot to methylviologen.

Wachtveitl J.

2013-03-01

299

Electron transfer-reactions on the surface of MgO nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The surface of MgO nanoparticles obtained by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) was subjected to combined EPR and IR studies. Surface colour centres (FS+) and superoxide anions (O2-) which are complexed by surface cations (Mg2+) were isolated and characterized on this material for the first time. The hydride groups emerging from the initial H2 chemisorption processes (heterolytic splitting) play an active role in consecutive surface reactions. They provide the electrons which are required for the UV induced formation of surface colour centres (FS+) and for the production of superoxide anions (redox reaction). Both the colour centres and the superoxide anions (O2-) are EPR active. The hydroxyl groups resulting from H2 chemisorption (OHC) do not actively participate in the consecutive reactions. Together with the OH groups formed in the course of colour centre formation (OHR) they rather play the role of an observer. They undergo specific electronic interactions with both the colour centre (FS+...HO) and the superoxide anion which are IR inactive surface species. They may, however, be observed by IR spectroscopy via the specifically influenced OH stretching vibrations (O2...HO). This proves the intimate interplay between IR and EPR spectroscopy applied to the surface processes under investigation. As a result two paths were found for the three consecutive surface reaction steps: H2 chemisorption, colour centre formation and superoxide anion formation. In the first one a single well defined surface area element is involved, namely, a low coordinated ion pair, the cation of which is a constituent of an anion vacancy. In the second path a diffusion controlled intermediate step has to be adopted in which the electron required for the colour centre is transported by an H atom travelling from a hydride group to a remote anion vacancy. In either case there is clear experimental evidence that the finally resulting superoxide anions are complexed by the colour centre cations. As a consequence the relative abundance of two O2-species, namely O2- [A] and O2- [B], depends sensitively on H2 pressure during UV irradiation in the course of colour centre formation. The mechanisms of intermolecular electron transfer reactions between surface hydride groups and O2 (coadsorption of H2 and O2 in the dark) were also studied using the respective OH groups a surface probes. At low H2 pressures (P(H2)=1 mbar) the reaction between the hydride groups of chemisorption complex I and O2 can take place and results in the formation of O2- [A]. This is monitored by the hydroxyl group OHC. With increasing H2 pressure during the coadsorption experiment the sites of chemisorption complex II are more and more involved in the course of formation of O2-[B]. In the last part a systematic investigation concerning the change of surface topology by thermal pretreatment was performed using O2- as cation selective surface probes. On raising the temperature a drastical decrease of the number of different cation types is observed. Finally, only three of them can be isolated on the surface of MgO (1073 K) via O2- probes. This indicates a remarkable reduction of the diversity of surface sites. The three cations, together with the two sites capable of heterolytic H2 splitting and two predominant types of anion vacancies survive thermal treatment above 1073 K and determine the surface reactivity of totally dehydroxylated MgO nanoparticles. (author)

1999-01-01

300

Electron-phonon energy transfer in hot-carrier solar cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hot-carrier solar cells may yield very high efficiency if the heat transfer from electrons to phonons is low enough. In this paper we calculate this heat transfer for the two inelastic mechanisms known to limit the electric conductivity: the multi-valley scattering in non-polar semiconductors and the coupling of electrons to longitudinal optical phonons in polar semiconductors. Heat transfer is ruled by matrix elements deduced from electric conductivity measurements. The cell power extracted ...

Luque Lo?pez, Antonio; Marti? Vega, Antonio

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Proton coupled electron transfer and redox active tyrosines in Photosystem II  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, progress in understanding proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) in photosystem II is reviewed. Changes in acidity/basicity may accompany oxidation/reduction reactions in biological catalysis. Alterations in the proton transfer pathway can then be used to alter the rates of the electron transfer reactions. Studies of the bioenergetic complexes have played a central role in advancing our understanding of PCET. Because oxidation of the tyrosine results in deprotonation of the ...

Barry, Bridgette A.

2011-01-01

302

Transfer of entanglement from electrons to photons by optical selection rules  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The entanglement transfer from electrons localized in a pair of quantum dots to circularly polarized photons is governed by optical selection rules, enforced by conservation of angular momentum. We point out that the transfer can not be achieved by means of unitary evolution unless the angular momentum of the two initial qubit states differs by 2 units. In particular, for spin-entangled electrons the difference in angular momentum is 1 unit -- so the transfer fails. Neverthe...

Titov, M.; Trauzettel, B.; Michaelis, B.; Beenakker, C. W. J.

2005-01-01

303

Selective electron transfer between the quantum dots under the resonant pulse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The coherent quantum dynamics of an electron in the quantum-dot ring structure under the resonant electromagnetic pulse is studied theoretically. A possibility of the selective electron transfer between any two dots is demonstrated. The transfer probability as a function of the pulse and dot parameters is calculated. It is shown that this probability can be close to unity. The factors lowering the transfer probability in real systems are discussed. The results obtained may b...

Tsukanov, A. V.; Openov, L. A.

2004-01-01

304

The microwave-look into the photo electrode: What can we learn about interfacial electron transfer?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By combining photo-electrochemical and photo-induced microwave conductivity measurements, information on potential dependent minority charge carrier accumulation, on interfacial minority carrier concentration and on interfacial charge transfer rates can be obtained. It suggests a correlation between electron transfer processes and accumulated charge carriers dominated by non-equilibrium conditions. This is inconsistent with the general assumptions leading to the classical Marcus-Gerischer electron transfer at electrodes, conceived for weak interaction, quasi-equilibrium and absence of polarisability effects. It is considered only to be applicable in special situations. A non-linear interfacial electron transfer theory, the properties of which are outlined, will on the other hand open the potential for new phenomena. They include faster (stimulated), and cooperative electron transfer. The latter, which is excluded by the classical theory, requires non linear dynamic feedback polarisability, which will have to be developed on the basis of structural-electronic considerations for semiconductor interfaces to become highly catalytic

2003-12-30

305

Photoinduced bimolecular electron transfer kinetics in small unilamellar vesicles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) from N,N-dimethylaniline to some coumarin derivatives has been studied in small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) of the phospholipid, DL-?-dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine, using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence quenching, both below and above the phase transition temperature of the vesicles. The primary interest was to examine whether Marcus inversion [H. Sumi and R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] could be observed for the present ET systems in these organized assemblies. The influence of the topology of SUVs on the photophysical properties of the reactants and consequently on their ET kinetics has also been investigated. Absorption and fluorescence spectral data of the coumarins in SUVs and the variation of their fluorescence decays with temperature indicate that the dyes are localized in the bilayer of the SUVs. Time-resolved area normalized emission spectra analysis, however, reveals that the dyes are distributed in two different microenvironments in the SUVs, which we attribute to the two leaflets of the bilayer, one toward bulk water and the other toward the inner water pool. The microenvironments in the two leaflets are, however, not indicated to be that significantly different. Time-resolved anisotropy decays were biexponential for all the dyes in SUVs, and this has been interpreted in terms of the compound motion model according to which the dye molecules can experience a fast wobbling-in-cone type of motion as well as a slow overall rotating motion of the cone containing the molecule. The expected bimolecular diffusion-controlled rates in SUVs, as estimated by comparing the microviscosities in SUVs (determined from rotational correlation times) and that in acetonitrile solution, are much slower than the observed fluorescence quenching rates, suggesting that reactant diffusion (translational) does not play any role in the quenching kinetics in the present systems. Accordingly, clear inversions are observed in the correlation of the fluorescence quenching rate constants kq with the free energy change, ?G0 of the reactions. However, the coumarin dyes, C152 and C481 (cf. Scheme 1), show unusually high kq values and high activation barriers, which is not expected from Marcus ET theory. This unusual behavior is explained on the basis of participation of the twisted intramolecular charge transfer states of these two dyes in the ET kinetics

2007-11-21

306

Heterogeneous electron transfer at nanoscopic electrodes: importance of electronic structures and electric double layers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heterogeneous electron-transfer (ET) processes at solid electrodes play key roles in molecular electronics and electrochemical energy conversion and sensing. Electrode nanosization and/or nanostructurization are among the major current strategies for performance promotion in these fields. Besides, nano-sized/structured electrodes offer great opportunities to characterize electrochemical structures and processes with high spatial and temporal resolution. This review presents recent insights into the nanoscopic size and structure effects of electrodes and electrode materials on heterogeneous ET kinetics, by emphasizing the importance of the electric double-layer (EDL) at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the electronic structure of electrode materials. It is shown, by general conceptual analysis and recent example demonstrations of representative electrode systems including electrodes of nanometer sizes and gaps and of nanomaterials such as sp(2) hybridized nanocarbons and semiconductor quantum dots, how the heterogeneous ET kinetics, the electronic structures of electrodes, the EDL structures at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the nanoscopic electrode sizes and structures may be related. PMID:24871071

Chen, Shengli; Liu, Yuwen; Chen, Junxiang

2014-07-01

307

Ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulation of electron transfer process: Fractional electron approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron transfer (ET) reactions are one of the most important processes in chemistry and biology. Because of the quantum nature of the processes and the complicated roles of the solvent, theoretical study of ET processes is challenging. To simulate ET processes at the electronic level, we have developed an efficient density functional theory (DFT) quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical (MM) approach that uses the fractional number of electrons as the order parameter to calculate the redox free energy of ET reactions in solution. We applied this method to study the ET reactions of the aqueous metal complexes Fe(H2O)62+/3+ and Ru(H2O)62+/3+. The calculated oxidation potentials, 5.82 eV for Fe(II/III) and 5.14 eV for Ru(II/III), agree well with the experimental data, 5.50 and 4.96 eV, for iron and ruthenium, respectively. Furthermore, we have constructed the diabatic free energy surfaces from histogram analysis based on the molecular dynamics trajectories. The resulting reorganization energy and the diabatic activation energy also show good agreement with experimental data. Our calculations show that using the fractional number of electrons (FNE) as the order parameter in the thermodynamic integration process leads to efficient sampling and validate the ab initio QM/MM approach in the calculation of redox free energies

2008-03-28

308

Spin radical enhanced magnetocapacitance effect in intermolecular excited states.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports the magnetocapacitance effect (MFC) based on both pristine polymer MEH-PPV and its composite system doped with spin radicals (6R-BDTSCSB). We observed that a photoexcitation leads to a significant positive MFC in the pristine MEH-PPV. Moreover, we found that a low doping of spin radicals in polymer MEH-PPV causes a significant change on the MFC signal: an amplitude increase and a line-shape narrowing under light illumination at room temperature. However, no MFC signal was observed under dark conditions in either the pristine MEH-PPV or the radical-doped MEH-PPV. Furthermore, the magnitude increase and line-shape narrowing caused by the doped spin radicals are very similar to the phenomena induced by increasing the photoexcitation intensity. Our studies suggest that the MFC is essentially originated from the intermolecular excited states, namely, intermolecular electron-hole pairs, generated by a photoexcitation in the MEH-PPV. More importantly, by comparing the effects of spin radicals and electrically polar molecules on the MFC magnitude and line shape, we concluded that the doped spin radicals can have the spin interaction with intermolecular excited states and consequently affect the internal spin-exchange interaction within intermolecular excited states in the development of MFC. Clearly, our experimental results indicate that dispersing spin radicals forms a convenient method to enhance the magnetocapacitance effect in organic semiconducting materials. PMID:24144347

Zang, Huidong; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Mingxing; He, Lei; Liu, Zitong; Zhang, Deqing; Hu, Bin

2013-11-14

309

Vibrational coherence in electron transfer: an exactly solvable model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exact solution for a transition probability in vibrationally modulated electron transfer is found by employing three independent methods based on: (a) a path integral technique, (b) direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian by a unitary transformation, and (c) Keldysh-Green's function techniques. We also consider a solution in the noninteracting blip approximation (NIBA). The comparative analysis reveals that the NIBA is valid at longer times, small reorganization energy, high temperatures, and for small transition matrix elements, {delta}{sub 0}, while at large {delta}{sub 0} the NIBA provides relaxation rates as much as twice greater. When {delta}{sub 0}=0, the NIBA transition probability difference oscillates in time with the frequency {approx}{radical}(E{sub r}kT/(h/2{pi})) exhibiting incorrect behavior. At low temperatures, the exact solution yields power-law evolution. The NIBA solution exhibits incorrect behavior at small values of {delta}{sub 0}. At larger transition matrix elements, the NIBA practically yields a correct description, i.e. the decay in accordance with the exact solution while the coherent oscillations reveal some phase shift at longer times. An important case of several mode modulation is also studied. The Fourier analysis of the transition probability provides useful information of the vibrational couplings and frequencies. In general, the Fourier spectrum of the transition probability is the sum of the contributions from the harmonics with the frequencies vertical bar {delta}{sub 0}+{sigma}{sub i=0}{sup n}({+-})k{sub i}{omega}{sub i} vertical bar (k{sub i}=0,1,2,3,...), where {omega}{sub i} is a modulating frequency. Thus, a generally used assumption about coincidence of coherence and vibrational frequencies appears to be incorrect.

Creechley, Jaremy; Dahnovsky, Yuri

2004-01-26

310

Desensitization and recovery of metastable intermolecular composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

Busse, James R. (South Fork, CO); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Foley, Timothy J. (Los Alamos, NM); Higa, Kelvin T. (Ridgecrest, CA); Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Sanders, Victor E. (White Rock, NM); Son, Steven F. (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-09-07

311

EZINE – a way of electronic transfer for specific information?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The transfer of information is essential to any society. The channels through which the information is transferred and the support used for memorize it represents essential elements which can determine the speed of transfer, the quality of information at the reception point and the cost also. This work paper presents a way that can be used in specialized information transfer: the "ezine" concept. This concept is presented together with its advantages, a few practical aspects and a case study about the effects and the costs that can be reached if we used it.

Daniela DANCIULESCU

2006-01-01

312

A Comparison of Electron-Transfer Dynamics inIonic Liquids and Neutral Solvents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of ionic liquids on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a donor-bridge-acceptor system is examined for two ionic liquid solvents, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide. The results are compared with those for the same system in methanol and acetonitrile solution. Electron-transfer rates were measured using time-resolved fluorescence quenching for the donor-bridge-acceptor system comprising a 1-N,1-N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine donor, a proline bridge, and a coumarin 343 acceptor. The photoinduced electron-transfer processes are in the inverted regime (-{Delta}G > {lambda}) in all four solvents, with driving forces of -1.6 to -1.9 eV and estimated reorganization energies of about 1.0 eV. The observed electron-transfer kinetics have broadly distributed rates that are generally slower in the ionic liquids compared to the neutral solvents, which also have narrower rate distributions. To describe the broad distributions of electron-transfer kinetics, we use two different models: a distribution of exponential lifetimes and a discrete sum of exponential lifetimes. Analysis of the donor-acceptor electronic coupling shows that for ionic liquids this intramolecular electron-transfer reaction should be treated using a solvent-controlled electron-transfer model.

Wishart J. F.; Lee, H.Y.; Issa, J.B.; Isied, S.S.; Castner, Jr., E.W.; Pan, Y.; Hussey, C.L.; Lee, K.S.

2012-03-01

313

Sensitization of ultra-long-range excited-state electron transfer by energy transfer in a polymerized film  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Distance-dependent energy transfer occurs from the Metal-to-Ligand Charge Transfer (MLCT) excited state to an anthracene-acrylate derivative (Acr-An) incorporated into the polymer network of a semirigid poly(ethyleneglycol)dimethacrylate monolith. Following excitation, to Acr-An triplet energy transfer occurs followed by long-range, Acr-3An—Acr-An ? Acr-An—Acr-3An, energy migration. With methyl viologen dication (MV2+) added as a trap, Acr-3An + MV2+ ? Acr-An+ + MV+ electron...

Ito, Akitaka; Stewart, David J.; Fang, Zhen; Brennaman, M. Kyle; Meyer, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

314

Elementary events of electron transfer in a voltage-driven quantum point contact  

CERN Document Server

We show that the statistics of electron transfer in a coherent quantum point contact driven by an arbitrary time-dependent voltage is composed of elementary events of two kinds: unidirectional one-electron transfers determining the average current and bidirectional two-electron processes contributing to the noise only. This result pertains at vanishing temperature while the extended Keldysh-Green's function formalism in use also enables the systematic calculation of the higher-order current correlators at finite temperatures.

Vanevic, M; Belzig, W; Vanevic, Mihajlo; Nazarov, Yuli V.; Belzig, Wolfgang

2007-01-01

315

Structural, dynamic, and energetic aspects of long-range electron transfer in photosynthetic reaction centers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intramolecular electron transfer within proteins plays an essential role in biological energy transduction. Electron donor and acceptor cofactors are bound in the protein matrix at specific locations, and protein–cofactor interactions as well as protein conformational changes can markedly influence the electron transfer rates. To assess these effects, we have investigated charge recombination from the primary quinone acceptor to the special pair bacteriochlorophyll dimer in wild-type reacti...

2004-01-01

316

Harvesting and Electron-Exchange Energy Transfer by d0 Metallocene-Based Organized Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present contribution will provide an up-to-date overview of novel experimental and theoretical (derived quantum-chemically knowledge on photonics of group IV metallocene-based systems, also with respect to their prominent use in catalysis and photoluminescent sensor activity. We have developed photophysical approach to study measurable properties of the frontier MOs of the complexes, estimate orbital nature of rare long-lived ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT excited states and also supramolecular interactions between basic components of catalytic systems for polymerization: d0-metal complexes and unsaturated hydrocarbon substrates in fluid systems. In the similar way, the photophysical approach is highlighted to enable studying fine intermolecular interactions in homogeneous systems with low (catalytic concentrations of metal complexes that cannot be achieved by other conventional methods.

Loukova G.V.

2013-09-01

317

Quantum Dynamical Approach to Electron Transfers in DNA-Molecular Nanowires  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We numerically investigate electron transfers in nanowires which consist of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules (up to five base pairs for double-strands and seven bases for single-strands) by quantum dynamical calculations. DNA molecules are applied to organic nanodevices and the performance depends on electronic transfer properties. Combining quantum chemical molecular-orbital calculations and stochastic mechanics, we provide an analyzing method of quantum dynamical electron motions. From one-electron wavefunctions or molecular orbitals, we calculate some dynamical properties, such as mean-square displacement and self-diffusion coefficients relating with electron mobility. Our calculation suggests that the electron transfers through the double-strands of GC base pairs while the electrons are localized in the double-strands of AT base pairs nor the single-strands of G bases

2007-04-01

318

Quantum Dynamical Approach to Electron Transfers in DNA-Molecular Nanowires  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We numerically investigate electron transfers in nanowires which consist of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules (up to five base pairs for double-strands and seven bases for single-strands) by quantum dynamical calculations. DNA molecules are applied to organic nanodevices and the performance depends on electronic transfer properties. Combining quantum chemical molecular-orbital calculations and stochastic mechanics, we provide an analyzing method of quantum dynamical electron motions. From one-electron wavefunctions or molecular orbitals, we calculate some dynamical properties, such as mean-square displacement and self-diffusion coefficients relating with electron mobility. Our calculation suggests that the electron transfers through the double-strands of GC base pairs while the electrons are localized in the double-strands of AT base pairs nor the single-strands of G bases.

Sakamoto, S; Ohmachi, Y; Tomiya, M [Department of Materials and Life Science, Seikei University, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan)

2007-04-15

319

Electron transfer flavoprotein domain II orientation monitored using double electron-electron resonance between an enzymatically reduced, native FAD cofactor, and spin labels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) is a soluble mitochondrial heterodimeric flavoprotein that links fatty acid ?-oxidation to the main respiratory chain. The crystal structure of human ETF bound to medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase indicates that the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain (?II) is mobile, which permits more rapid electron transfer with donors and acceptors by providing closer access to the flavin and allows ETF to accept electrons from at least 10 different flav...

2011-01-01

320

Vibrational predissociation of Van der Waals molecules and intermolecular potential energy surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spectroscopic experiments yield information about energy transfer processes in van der Waals molecules, for which we do not have reliable guides for geometries. Important properties of the molecules are included in the areas of intermolecular potential energy curves, structure, and energy transfer processes. Vibrational predissociation is more fully explored through experimental studies, a theoretical model, numerical results, momentum gap, and relaxation channels

1980-08-29

 
 
 
 
321

Ligand and Tetrathiometalate Effects in Induced Internal Electron Transfer Reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

New rhenium sulfide complexes, [Re(IV)(2)(&mgr;-S)(2)(&mgr;-S(2))(&mgr;-S(2)COR)(S(2)COR)(2)](-) and [Re(IV)(2)(&mgr;-S)(2)(S(2)COR)(4)], and a new tungsten sulfide complex, [WS(S(2))(S(2)CC(6)H(5))(2)], have been synthesized and isolated via induced internal redox reactions involving the appropriate tetrathiometalate and 1,1-dithiolate disulfide. The red complex [Re(IV)(2)(&mgr;-S)(2)(&mgr;-S(2))(&mgr;-S(2)COR)(S(2)COR)(2)](-), 1, was isolated from the reaction of dialkylxanthogen disulfide, [(ROCS(2))(2)], and tetraethylammonium tetrathioperrhenate, [Et(4)N][Re(VII)S(4)]. Crystal structure analysis of 1 reveals an edge-sharing (&mgr;-S)(2) bioctahedron containing both bridging disulfide and xanthate ligands. This reaction is compared to the known reaction between tetraalkylthiuram disulfide, [(R(2)NCS(2))(2)], and [Et(4)N][ReS(4)], which produces the green complex [Re(IV)(2)(&mgr;-S)(2)(S(2)CNR(2))(4)]. The corresponding green alkyl xanthate analogue, [Re(IV)(2)(&mgr;-S)(2)(S(2)COR)(4)], 2, was synthesized by a simple redox reaction between rhenium pentachloride, ReCl(5), and potassium alkyl xanthate, [K(S(2)COR)]. Comparing 1 with other known [ReS(4)](-)/1,1-dithiolate disulfide reaction products, such as [Re(IV)(2)(&mgr;-S)(2)(S(2)CNR(2))(4)] and [Re(III)(S(2)CC(6)H(5))(S(3)CC(6)H(5))(2)], shows a correlation between the electron-donating ability of the ligand and the nature of the reaction product. Reactions of [Et(4)N](2)[Mo(VI)S(4)], [Et(4)N][Re(VII)S(4)], or [Et(4)N](2)[W(VI)S(4)] with dithiobenzoate disulfide, [(S(2)CC(6)H(5))(2)], reveal a correlation between the ligand-to-metal charge transfer energy band (LMCT(1)) of the tetrathiometalate and the reaction product. The known purple complex [Mo(IV)(S(2)CC(6)H(5))(4)] and two new green complexes, [Re(III)(S(2)CC(6)H(5))(S(3)CC(6)H(5))(2)] (recently communicated) and [W(VI)S(S(2))(S(2)CC(6)H(5))(2)], were isolated from related reactions. PMID:11670869

McConnachie, C. A.; Stiefel, E. I.

1999-03-01

322

Transferable pseudoclassical electrons for aufbau of atomic ions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Generalizing the LEWIS reactive force field from electron pairs to single electrons, we present LEWIS• in which explicit valence electrons interact with each other and with nuclear cores via pairwise interactions. The valence electrons are independently mobile particles, following classical equations of motion according to potentials modified from Coulombic as required to capture quantum characteristics. As proof of principle, the aufbau of atomic ions is described for diverse main group elements from the first three rows of the periodic table, using a single potential for interactions between electrons of like spin and another for electrons of unlike spin. The electrons of each spin are found to distribute themselves in a fashion akin to the major lobes of the hybrid atomic orbitals, suggesting a pointillist description of the electron density. The broader validity of the LEWIS• force field is illustrated by predicting the vibrational frequencies of diatomic and triatomic hydrogen species. PMID:24752384

Ekesan, Solen; Kale, Seyit; Herzfeld, Judith

2014-06-01

323

Steric effects in photoinduced electron transfer reactions of ruthenium(II) complexes with aromatic amines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate constants (kq) of excited state electron transfer reactions of RuL32+ complexes (L is 4-alkyl-4'-methyl-2, 2'-bipyridyl) with several aromatic amines are sensitive to the size of the ligand and nature of the amine. The variation of kq with the size of the ligand is explained in terms of the change of electron transfer distance and steric effect. The importance of back electron transfer to form *RuL32+ in the endoergic and slightly exoergic regions has been realised. (author). 1 tab., 4 figs., 19 refs

1991-01-01

324

Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conventional and fast-kinetics techniques of photochemistry, photophysics, radiation chemistry, and electrochemistry were used to study the intermediates involved in transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. These intermediates were excited state of Ru(II) and Cr(III) photosensitizers, their reduced forms, and species formed in reactions of redox quenchers and electron-transfer agents. Of particular concern was the back electron-transfer reaction between the geminate pair formed in the redox quenching of the photosensitizers, and the dependence of its rate on solution medium and temperature in competition with transformation and cage escape processes. (DLC)

Hoffman, M.Z.

1992-07-31

325

Single-molecule interfacial electron transfer dynamics manipulated by external electric current  

CERN Document Server

Interfacial electron transfer (IET) dynamics in 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3, 3, 3', 3'-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine (DiD) dye molecules / indium tin oxide (ITO) film system have been probed at the ensemble and single-molecule level by recording the change of fluorescence emission intensity. By comparing the difference of the external electric current (EEC) dependence of lifetime and intensity for enambles and single molecules, it is shown that the single-molecule probe can effcienly demonstrate the IET dynamics. The backward electron transfer and electron transfer of ground state induce the single molecules fluorescence quenching when an EEC is applied to ITO film.

Zhang, Guofeng; Chen, Ruiyun; Gao, Yan; Wang, Xiaobo; Jia, Suotang

2011-01-01

326

Electron- and hydride-transfer reactivity of an isolable manganese(V)-oxo complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The electron-transfer and hydride-transfer properties of an isolated manganese(V)?oxo complex, (TBP8Cz)Mn(V)(O) (1) (TBP8Cz = octa-tert-butylphenylcorrolazinato) were determined by spectroscopic and kinetic methods. The manganese(V)?oxo complex 1 reacts rapidly with a series of ferrocene derivatives ([Fe(C5H4Me)2], [Fe(C5HMe4)2], and ([Fe(C5Me5)2] = Fc*) to give the direct formation of [(TBP8Cz)Mn(III)(OH)]? ([2-OH]?), a two-electron-reduced product. The stoichiometry of these electron-transfer reactions was found to be (Fc derivative)/1 = 2:1 by spectral titration. The rate constants of electron transfer from ferrocene derivatives to 1 at room temperature in benzonitrile were obtained, and the successful application of Marcus theory allowed for the determination of the reorganization energies (?) of electron transfer. The ? values of electron transfer from the ferrocene derivatives to 1 are lower than those reported for a manganese(IV)?oxo porphyrin. The presumed one-electron-reduced intermediate, a Mn(IV) complex, was not observed during the reduction of 1. However, a Mn(IV) complex was successfully generated via one-electron oxidation of the Mn(III) precursor complex 2 to give [(TBP8Cz)Mn(IV)]+ (3). Complex 3 exhibits a characteristic absorption band at ?(max) = 722 nm and an EPR spectrum at 15 K with g(max)? = 4.68, g(mid)? = 3.28, and g(min)? = 1.94, with well-resolved 55Mn hyperfine coupling, indicative of a d3 Mn(IV)S = 3/2 ground state. Although electron transfer from [Fe(C5H4Me)2] to 1 is endergonic (uphill), two-electron reduction of 1 is made possible in the presence of proton donors (e.g., CH3CO2H, CF3CH2OH, and CH3OH). In the case of CH3CO2H, saturation behavior for the rate constants of electron transfer (k(et)) versus acid concentration was observed, providing insight into the critical involvement of H+ in the mechanism of electron transfer. Complex 1 was also shown to be competent to oxidize a series of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) analogues via formal hydride transfer to produce the corresponding NAD+ analogues and [2-OH]?. The logarithms of the observed second-order rate constants of hydride transfer (k(H)) from NADH analogues to 1 are linearly correlated with those of hydride transfer from the same series of NADH analogues to p-chloranil. PMID:21218824

Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Kotani, Hiroaki; Prokop, Katharine A; Goldberg, David P

2011-02-16

327

76 FR 81019 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E)  

Science.gov (United States)

...or (iii) Held in book-entry form by a...language other than English, provided that the...transfers made on the books of correspondent banks...languages other than English, provided they are available in English upon request....

2011-12-27

328

77 FR 6310 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E)  

Science.gov (United States)

...just described, and the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the...this service, and the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the...these transfers, and the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of...

2012-02-07

329

Detection of single-electron heat transfer statistics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider a quantum dot system whose charge fluctuations are monitored by a quantum point contact allowing for the detection of both charge and transferred heat statistics. Our system consists of two nearby conductors that exchange energy via Coulomb interaction. In interfaces consisting of capacitively coupled quantum dots, energy transfer is discrete and can be measured by charge counting statistics. We investigate gate-dependent deviations away from a charge fluctuation theorem in the pr...

Sa?nchez, Rafael; Bu?ttiker, Markus

2012-01-01

330

Enhanced electron-transfer reactivity of nonheme manganese(IV)-oxo complexes by binding scandium ions.  

Science.gov (United States)

One and two scandium ions (Sc(3+)) are bound strongly to nonheme manganese(IV)-oxo complexes, [(N4Py)Mn(IV)(O)](2+) (N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine) and [(Bn-TPEN)Mn(IV)(O)](2+) (Bn-TPEN = N-benzyl-N,N',N'-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminoethane), to form Mn(IV)(O)-(Sc(3+))1 and Mn(IV)(O)-(Sc(3+))2 complexes, respectively. The binding of Sc(3+) ions to the Mn(IV)(O) complexes was examined by spectroscopic methods as well as by DFT calculations. The one-electron reduction potentials of the Mn(IV)(O) complexes were markedly shifted to a positive direction by binding of Sc(3+) ions. Accordingly, rates of the electron transfer reactions of the Mn(IV)(O) complexes were enhanced as much as 10(7)-fold by binding of two Sc(3+) ions. The driving force dependence of electron transfer from various electron donors to the Mn(IV)(O) and Mn(IV)(O)-(Sc(3+))2 complexes was examined and analyzed in light of the Marcus theory of electron transfer to determine the reorganization energies of electron transfer. The smaller reorganization energies and much more positive reduction potentials of the Mn(IV)(O)-(Sc(3+))2 complexes resulted in remarkable enhancement of the electron-transfer reactivity of the Mn(IV)(O) complexes. Such a dramatic enhancement of the electron-transfer reactivity of the Mn(IV)(O) complexes by binding of Sc(3+) ions resulted in the change of mechanism in the sulfoxidation of thioanisoles by Mn(IV)(O) complexes from a direct oxygen atom transfer pathway without metal ion binding to an electron-transfer pathway with binding of Sc(3+) ions. PMID:23742163

Yoon, Heejung; Lee, Yong-Min; Wu, Xiujuan; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Nam, Wonwoo; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Fuhkuzumi, Shunichi

2013-06-19

331

On the connection of semiclassical instanton theory with Marcus theory for electron transfer in solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a derivation of Marcus theory of electron transfer in solution starting from semiclassical instanton theory. The conventional semiclassical instanton theory provides an inadequate description of the electron transfer process in the inverted Marcus regime. This has been attributed to the lack of backscattering in the product region, which is represented as a semi-infinite continuum of states. For electron transfer processes in condensed phase, the electronic states in the acceptor well are bound, which violates the continuum assumption. We show by detailed analysis of the minimum action path of a model system for electron transfer that the proper tunneling coordinate is a delocalized, 'bead-count' mode. The tunneling mode is analytically continued in the complex plane as in the traditional derivation. Unlike the traditional analysis where the method of steepest descent is used, the tunneling coordinate is treated as a quasi-zero mode. This feature allows including the influence of backscattering in the acceptor well and leads to the recovery of the Marcus formula for the rate of electron transfer. The results have implications on the performance of ring polymer molecular dynamics for the study of electron transfer dynamics.

Shushkov, Philip [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

2013-06-14

332

On the connection of semiclassical instanton theory with Marcus theory for electron transfer in solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a derivation of Marcus theory of electron transfer in solution starting from semiclassical instanton theory. The conventional semiclassical instanton theory provides an inadequate description of the electron transfer process in the inverted Marcus regime. This has been attributed to the lack of backscattering in the product region, which is represented as a semi-infinite continuum of states. For electron transfer processes in condensed phase, the electronic states in the acceptor well are bound, which violates the continuum assumption. We show by detailed analysis of the minimum action path of a model system for electron transfer that the proper tunneling coordinate is a delocalized, “bead-count” mode. The tunneling mode is analytically continued in the complex plane as in the traditional derivation. Unlike the traditional analysis where the method of steepest descent is used, the tunneling coordinate is treated as a quasi-zero mode. This feature allows including the influence of backscattering in the acceptor well and leads to the recovery of the Marcus formula for the rate of electron transfer. The results have implications on the performance of ring polymer molecular dynamics for the study of electron transfer dynamics.

2013-06-14

333

Electron localization function study on intramolecular electron transfer in the QTTFQ and DBTTFI radical anions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The unsymmetrical distribution of the unpaired electron in the ground state of the DBTTFI(•-) radical anion (bi(6-n-butyl-5,7-dioxo-6,7-dihydro-5H-[1,3]dithiolo[4,5-f]isoindole-2-ylidene) is theoretically predicted using the M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) level of calculations. The results are additionally confirmed by single point calculations at B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ, LC-?PBE/aug-cc-pVTZ, and M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ levels. DBTTFI, containing the TTF (tetrathiafulvalene) fragment, may be used in the construction of organic microelectronic devices, similarly to the radical anion of QTTFQ. The unsymmetrical distribution of spin density in (QTTFQ)(•-) has been confirmed using M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations, with subsequent study using topological analysis of electron localization function (ELF). The reorganization of the chemical bonds during intramolecular electron transfer in (QTTFQ)(•-) and (DBTTFI)(•-) has been analyzed using bonding evolution theory (BET). The reaction path has been simulated by the IRC procedure, and the evolution of valence basins has been described using catastrophe theory. The simple mechanisms: (QTTFQ)(•-): ?-1-3-CC(+)-0: (-•)(QTTFQ) and (DBTTFI)(•-): ?-1-3-[F](4)[F(+)](4)-0: (-•)(DBTTFI), each consisting of three steps, have been observed. Two cusp or 4-fold catastrophes occur immediately after the TS. Our study shows that potential future microelectronic devices, constructed on the basis of the (QTTFQ)(•-) and (DBTTFI)(•-) systems, should exploit the properties of the C?C bond. PMID:22029410

Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Berski, Slawomir; Gordon, Agnieszka J

2011-11-24

334

ElectronTransfer Induced Ring Opening of α-Epoxyketones: Spirodioxolane Formation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stereospecific formation of spirodioxolanes has been observed on electron transfer induced ring opening of α-epoxyketones by 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate in the presence of cyclohexanone

2002-01-01

335

Electron Transfer Experiments and Atomic Magnetism Values. Progress Report, February 1, 1975--September 30, 1975.  

Science.gov (United States)

Progress in the first seven months of this new research is described. A new apparatus was constructed, tested and moved to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for studies using the Penning ion source test facility. Preliminary electron transfer cross section re...

J. E. Bayfield V. W. Hughes

1975-01-01

336

Photoinduced electron transfer reactions of ruthenium(II)-complexes containing amino acid with quinones.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aim of mimicking, at basic level the photoinduced electron transfer process in the reaction center of photosystem II, ruthenium(II)-polypyridyl complexes, carrying amino acids were synthesized and studied their photoinduced electron transfer reactions with quinones by steady state and time resolved measurements. The reaction of quinones with excited state of ruthenium(II)-complexes, I-V in acetonitrile has been studied by luminescence quenching technique and the rate constant, k(q), values are close to the diffusion controlled rate. The detection of the semiquinone anion radical in this system using time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy confirms the electron transfer nature of the reaction. The semiclassical theory of electron transfer has been successfully applied to the photoluminescence quenching of Ru(II)-complexes with quinones. PMID:24590578

Eswaran, Rajkumar; Kalayar, Swarnalatha; Paulpandian, Muthu Mareeswaran; Seenivasan, Rajagopal

2014-05-01

337

7 CFR 274.12 - Electronic Benefit Transfer issuance system approval standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...operation of Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) systems for the Food Stamp Program as...October 1, 2002, State agencies must have EBT systems implemented statewide, unless...faces unusual barriers to implementing an EBT system. In general, these rules...

2009-01-01

338

Synthesis of 3-Alkenyl-1-azaanthraquinones via Diels-Alder and Electron Transfer Reactions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A convenient route to 3-alkenyl-1-azaanthraquinones via a hetero Diels-Alder reaction between an azadiene and naphthoquinone, a free radical chlorination and an electron transfer reaction is reported.

Pascal Rathelot; Vincent Rémusat; Patrice Vanelle

2002-01-01

339

Model-free Investigation of Ultrafast Bimolecular Chemical Reactions: Bimolecular Photo Induced Electron Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using photoinduced bimolecular electron transfer reactions as example we demonstrate how diffusion controlled bimolecular chemical reactions can be studied in a model-free manner by quantitatively combining different ultrafast spectroscopical tools.

Rosspeintner Arnulf

2013-03-01

340

Radiation and photo induced electron transfer processes: Exciting possibilities for basic research and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation and/or photo induced electron transfer reaction results in retrievable storage of information, with extensive applications ranging from dosimetry, efficient light conversion molecular devices (LCMD), photo refraction, optical phase conjunction and holography. These areas gives ample new opportunities to conduct basic investigations to elucidate the mechanistic aspects of photo (radiation) induced electron transfer, and to translate the acquired knowledge into making a device. The talk will focus on the investigation by the author on photo induced electron transfer reaction in photorefractive systems and also on the radiation induced electron transfer processes in dosimetric materials. Furthermore, the recent trends in the light conversion molecular devices using rare earth complexes and the fluorescent molecular sensors for cation recognition will be discussed. (author)

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Synthesis of 3-Alkenyl-1-azaanthraquinones via Diels-Alder and Electron Transfer Reactions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A convenient route to 3-alkenyl-1-azaanthraquinones via a hetero Diels-Alder reaction between an azadiene and naphthoquinone, a free radical chlorination and an electron transfer reaction is reported.

Patrice Vanelle

2002-12-01

342

Double strand interaction is the predominant pathway for intermolecular recombination of adeno-associated viral genomes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intermolecular recombination is the foundation for dual vector mediated larger gene transfer by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV). To identify precursors for intermolecular recombination, we sequentially infected skeletal muscle with AAV LacZ trans-splicing viruses. At 1 month postinfection, nearly all inputting single-strand (ss) AAV genomes were cleared out in muscle. If ss-ss interaction is absolutely required for intermolecular recombination, LacZ expression from sequential infection will be negligible to that from coinfection. Interestingly, expression from sequential infection reached ?50% of that from coinfection at the 1-month time-point in BL6 mice. In immune deficient SCID mice, expression from sequential infection was comparable to that from coinfection at the 4- and 13-month time points. Our results suggest that ds interaction represents the predominant pathway for AAV intermolecular recombination

2003-08-15

343

Electron transfer from humic substances to biogenic and abiogenic Fe(III) oxyhydroxide minerals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial humic substance (HS) reduction and subsequent abiotic electron transfer from reduced HS to poorly soluble Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides, a process named electron shuttling, significantly increases microbial Fe(III) mineral reduction rates. However, the importance of electron shuttling in nature and notably the electron transfer from HS to biogenic Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides have thus far not been determined. In this study, we have quantified the rate and extent of electron transfer from reduced and nonreduced Pahokee Peat humic acids (PPHA) and fresh soil organic matter (SOM) extracts to both synthetic and environmentally relevant biogenic Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides. We found that biogenic Fe(III) minerals were reduced faster and to an equal or higher degree than their abiogenic counterparts. Differences were attributed to differences in crystallinity and the association of bacterial biomass with biogenic minerals. Compared to purified PPHA, SOM extract transferred fewer electrons per milligram of carbon and electron transfer was observed only to poorly crystalline ferrihydrite but not to more crystalline goethite. This indicates a difference in redox potential distribution of the redox-active functional groups in extracted SOM relative to the purified PPHA. Our results suggest that HS electron shuttling can also contribute to iron redox processes in environments where biogenic Fe(III) minerals are present. PMID:24400782

Piepenbrock, Annette; Schröder, Christian; Kappler, Andreas

2014-02-01

344

Direct electron transfer of Trametes hirsuta laccase adsorbed at unmodified nanoporous gold electrodes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The enzyme Trametes hirsuta laccase undergoes direct electron transfer at unmodified nanoporous gold electrodes, displaying a current density of 28 mu A/cm(2). The response indicates that ThLc was immobilised at the surface of the nanopores in a manner which promoted direct electron transfer, in contrast to the absence of a response at unmodified polycrystalline gold electrodes. The bioelectrocatalytic activity of ThLc modified nanoporous gold electrodes was strongly dependent on the presence...

Salaj-kosla, Urszula; Poeller, Sascha; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Shleev, Sergey; Magner, Edmond

2013-01-01

345

Rate of Interfacial Electron Transfer through the 1,2,3-Triazole Linkage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rate of electron transfer is measured to two ferrocene and one iron tetraphenylporphyrin redox species coupled through terminal acetylenes to azide-terminated thiol monolayers by the Cu(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (a Sharpless “click” reaction) to form the 1,2,3-triazole linkage. The high yield, chemoselectivity, convenience, and broad applicability of this triazole formation reaction make such a modular assembly strategy very attractive. Electron-transfer rate constants...

Devaraj, Neal K.; Decreau, Richard A.; Ebina, Wataru; Collman, James P.; Chidsey, Christopher E. D.

2006-01-01

346

Person-to-person electronic funds transfers: Recent developments and policy issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper investigates the reasons why person-to-person electronic funds transfers are still not very common in the United States compared with practices in many other countries. The paper also describes recent enhancements to online and mobile banking that provide account holders with low-cost interfaces to manage person-to-person electronic funds transfers via automated clearing house (ACH). On the theoretical side, the paper characterizes the critical mass levels needed for payment instrum...

Shy, Oz

2010-01-01

347

Microbial nanowires: a new paradigm for biological electron transfer and bioelectronics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery that Geobacter sulfurreducens can produce protein filaments with metallic-like conductivity, known as microbial nanowires, that facilitate long-range electron transport is a paradigm shift in biological electron transfer and has important implications for biogeochemistry, microbial ecology, and the emerging field of bioelectronics. Although filaments in a wide diversity of microorganisms have been called microbial nanowires, the type IV pili of G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens are the only filaments that have been shown to be required for extracellular electron transport to extracellular electron acceptors or for conduction of electrons through biofilms. Studies of G. sulfurreducens pili preparations and intact biofilms under physiologically relevant conditions have provided multiple lines of evidence for metallic-like conduction along the length of pili and for the possibility of pili networks to confer high conductivity within biofilms. This mechanism of electron conduction contrasts with the previously known mechanism for biological electron transfer via electron tunneling or hopping between closely associated molecules, a strategy unlikely to be well adapted for long-range electron transport outside the cell. In addition to promoting electron exchange with abiotic electron acceptors, microbial nanowires have recently been shown to be involved in direct interspecies electron transfer between syntrophic partners. An improved understanding of the mechanisms for metallic-like conductivity in microbial nanowires, as well as engineering microorganisms with desirable catalytic abilities with nanowires, could lead to new applications in microbial electrosynthesis and bioelectronics. PMID:22614997

Malvankar, Nikhil S; Lovley, Derek R

2012-06-01

348

A simplified approach for the coupling of excitation energy transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We propose a simple method to calculate the coupling of singlet-to-singlet and triplet-to-triplet energy transfer. ? Coulomb term are the major contribution to the coupling of singlet-to-singlet energy transfer. ? Effect from the intermolecular charge-transfer states dorminates in triplet-to-triplet energy transfer. ? This method can be expanded by including correlated wavefunctions. - Abstract: A simplified approach for computing the electronic coupling of nonradiative excitation-energy transfer is proposed by following Scholes et al.’s construction on the initial and final states [G.D. Scholes, R.D. Harcourt, K.P. Ghiggino, J. Chem. Phys. 102 (1995) 9574]. The simplification is realized through defining a set of orthogonalized localized MOs, which include the polarization effect of the charge densities. The method allows calculating the coupling of both the singlet-to-singlet and triplet-to-triplet energy transfer. Numerical tests are performed for a few of dimers with different intermolecular orientations, and the results demonstrate that Coulomb term are the major contribution to the coupling of singlet-to-singlet energy transfer whereas in the case of triplet-to-triplet energy transfer, the dominant effect is arisen from the intermolecular charge-transfer states. The present application is on the Hartree–Fock level. However, the correlated wavefunctions which are normally expanded in terms of the determinant wavefunctions can be employed in the similar way.

2012-02-06

349

Molecular Computational Investigation of Electron Transfer Kinetics across Cytochrome-Iron Oxide Interfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interface between electron transfer proteins such as cytochromes and solid phase mineral oxides is central to the activity of dissimilatory-metal reducing bacteria. A combination of potential-based molecular dynamics simulations and ab initio electronic structure calculations are used in the framework of Marcus' electron transfer theory to compute elementary electron transfer rates from a well-defined cytochrome model, namely the small tetraheme cytochrome (STC) from Shewanella oneidensis, to surfaces of the iron oxide mineral hematite (a-Fe2O3). Room temperature molecular dynamics simulations show that an isolated STC molecule favors surface attachment via direct contact of hemes I and IV at the poles of the elongated axis, with electron transfer distances as small as 9 Angstroms. The cytochrome remains attached to the mineral surface in the presence of water and shows limited surface diffusion at the interface. Ab initio electronic coupling matrix element (VAB) calculations of configurations excised from the molecular dynamics simulations reveal VAB values ranging from 1 to 20 cm-1, consistent with nonadiabaticity. Using these results, together with experimental data on the redox potential of hematite and hemes in relevant cytochromes and calculations of the reorganization energy from cluster models, we estimate the rate of electron transfer across this model interface to range from 1 to 1000 s-1 for the most exothermic driving force considered in this work, and from 0.01 to 20 s-1 for the most endothermic. This fairly large range of electron transfer rates highlights the sensitivity of the rate upon the electronic coupling matrix element, which is in turn dependent on the fluctuations of the heme configuration at the interface. We characterize this dependence using an idealized bis-imidazole heme to compute from first principles the VAB variation due to porphyrin ring orientation, electron transfer distance, and mineral surface termination. The electronic matrix element and consequently the rate of electron transfer are found to be sensitive to all parameters considered. This work indicates that biomolecularly similar solvent-exposed bis-histidine hemes in outer-membrane cytochromes such as MtrC or OmcA are likely to have an affinity for the oxide surface in water governing the approach and interfacial conformation and, if allowed sufficient conformational freedom, will achieve distances and configurations required for direct interfacial electron transfer.

2007-08-02

350

Elastic electron-deuteron scattering at high momentum transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that a careful conventional treatment of exchange currents in the calculation of the deuteron form factor 022 is not in contradiction with experiment. It rather shows an overall good agreement. We propose measurements of the deuteron form factor at momentum transfer much higher than q2approx. =100 fm-2 in order to obtain valuable information on the neutron form factor

1976-02-16

351

Transfer of single electrons and single cooper pairs in nanojunction circuits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrons can be made to pass through a circuit one by one, in nanoscale devices based on the combination of the Coulomb interaction between electrons and their passage by quantum tunnelling through an insulating barrier. Under appropriate conditions, when parts of the circuit are superconducting, it is possible to observe a direct manifestation of electron pairing: the transfer of electrons two by two. Single-electron devices provide a new way of measuring the charge quantum, and clarify how electronic signal processing at the molecular level might function. (authors). 59 refs., 10 figs

1994-01-01

352

Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer in coumarin 343 sensitized TiO2-colloidal solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Photoinduced electron transfer from organic dye molecules to semiconductor nanoparticles is the first and most important reaction step for the mechanism in the so called “wet solar cells” [1]. The time scale between the photoexcitation of the dye and the electron injection into the conduction band of the semiconductor colloid varies from a few tens of femtoseconds to nanoseconds, depending on the specific electron transfer parameters of the system, e.g., electronic coupling or free energy values of donor and acceptor molecules [2–10]. We show that visible pump/ white light probe is a very efficient tool to investigate the electron injection reaction allowing to observe simultaneously the relaxation of the excited dye, the injection process of the electron, the cooling of the injected electron and the charge recombination reaction.

Michael Grätzel

1999-01-01

353

Transetherification on Polyols by Intra- and Intermolecular Nucleophilic Substitutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Transetherification on polyols involving intra- and intermolecular nucleophilic substitutions is reported. Di- or trialkoxide formation of propane-1,3-diol or 2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol derivatives by NaH triggers the reaction via oxetanes formation, where the order to add NaH and a polyol significantly influences the yields of products. It was demonstrated that the protective group on the pentaerythritol skeleton is apparently transferred to the hydrophilic and hydrophobic chain molecules bearing a leaving group in one-step, and a protective group conversion from tosyl to benzyl was successful using a benzyl-appending triol to afford a desired product in 67% yield.

Muraoka, Takahiro; Adachi, Kota; Chowdhury, Rainy; Kinbara, Kazushi

2014-01-01

354

ARTICLES: Use of electron-excitation energy transfer in dye laser active media  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was made of the spectral luminescence and lasing characteristics of two-component dye mixtures, and of the use of electron-excitation energy transfer to improve the laser emission parameters. A considerable increase in the lasing efficiency was found on exciting Trypaflavine by energy transfer from coumarin dyes. The use of electron-excitation energy transfer enabled the laser emission spectrum to be broadened. It was found that by varying the energy donor and acceptor concentrations one could produce laser emission of constant intensity in the spectral range between the donor and acceptor lasing regions.

Rodchenkova, V. V.; Reva, M. G.; Akimov, A. I.; Uzhinov, Boris M.

1984-01-01

355

Cluster PEACE observations of electrons during magnetospheric flux transfer events  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the first quarter of 2001 the apogees of the Cluster spacecraft quartet precessed through midday local times. This provides the first opportunity for 4 spacecraft studies of the bow shock, magnetosheath and the dayside magnetopause current layer and boundary layers. In this paper, we present observations of electrons in the energy range similar to 10 eV-26 keV made by the Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE) located just inside the magnetopause boundary, together with support...

Owen, C. J.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Carter, P. J.; Coates, A. J.; Krauklis, I. C.; Szita, S.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Travnicek, P.; Watson, G.; Wilson, R. J.; Balogh, A.; Dunlop, M. W.

2001-01-01

356

Electron Transfer Between Colloidal ZnO Nanocrystals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Colloidal ZnO nanocrystals, capped with dodecylamine and dissolved in toluene, can be charged photochemically to give stable solutions in which electrons are present in the conduction bands of the nanocrystals. These conduction band electrons are readily monitored by EPR spectroscopy, with g* values that correlate with the nanocrystal sizes. Mixing a solution of charged small nanocrystals with a solution of uncharged large nanocrystals, e-CB:ZnO–S + ZnO–L, causes changes in the EPR spectr...

Hayoun, Rebecca; Whitaker, Kelly M.; Gamelin, Daniel R.; Mayer, James M.

2011-01-01

357

Average electron tunneling route of the electron transfer in protein media.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a new theoretical method to determine and visualize the average tunneling route of the electron transfer (ET) in protein media. In this, we properly took into account the fluctuation of the tunneling currents and the quantum-interference effect. The route was correlated with the electronic factor in the case of ET by the elastic tunneling mechanism. We expanded by the interatomic tunneling currents 's. Incorporating the quantum-interference effect into the mean-square interatomic tunneling currents, denoted as , we could express as a sum of variant Planck's over 2pi(2). Drawing the distribution of on the protein structure, we obtain the map which visually represents which parts of bonds and spaces most significantly contribute to . We applied this method to the ET from the bacteriopheophytin anion to the primary quinone in the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. We obtained 's by a combined method of molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations. In calculating , we found that much destructive interference works among the interatomic tunneling currents even after taking the average. We drew the map by a pipe model where atoms a and b are connected by a pipe with width proportional to the magnitude of . We found that two groups of 's, which are mutually coupled with high correlation in each group, have broad pipes and form the average tunneling routes, called Trp route and Met route. Each of the two average tunneling routes is composed of a few major pathways in the Pathways model which are fused at considerable part to each other. We also analyzed the average tunneling route for the ET by the inelastic tunneling mechanism. PMID:18630851

Nishioka, Hirotaka; Kakitani, Toshiaki

2008-08-14

358

Transfer printing of thermoreversible ion gels for flexible electronics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermally assisted transfer printing was employed to pattern thin films of high capacitance ion gels on polyimide, poly(ethylene terephthalate), and SiO2 substrates. The ion gels consisted of 20 wt?% block copolymer poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide-b-styrene and 80 wt?% ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)amide. Patterning resolution was on the order of 10 ?m. Importantly, ion gels containing the block polymer with short PS end blocks (3.4 kg/mol) could be transfer-printed because of thermoreversible gelation that enabled intimate gel-substrate contact at 100 °C, while gels with long PS blocks (11 kg/mol) were not printable at the same temperature due to poor wetting contact between the gel and substrates. By using printed ion gels as high-capacitance gate insulators, electrolyte-gated thin-film transistors were fabricated that operated at low voltages (film devices. PMID:24028461

Lee, Keun Hyung; Zhang, Sipei; Gu, Yuanyan; Lodge, Timothy P; Frisbie, C Daniel

2013-10-01

359

Photochemistry and electron-transfer mechanism of transition metal oxalato complexes excited in the charge transfer band.  

Science.gov (United States)

The photoredox reaction of trisoxalato cobaltate (III) has been studied by means of ultrafast extended x-ray absorption fine structure and optical transient spectroscopy after excitation in the charge-transfer band with 267-nm femtosecond pulses. The Co-O transient bond length changes and the optical spectra and kinetics have been measured and compared with those of ferrioxalate. Data presented here strongly suggest that both of these metal oxalato complexes operate under similar photoredox reaction mechanisms where the primary reaction involves the dissociation of a metal-oxygen bond. These results also indicate that excitation in the charge-transfer band is not a sufficient condition for the intramolecular electron transfer to be the dominant photochemistry reaction mechanism. PMID:18832175

Chen, Jie; Zhang, Hua; Tomov, Ivan V; Ding, Xunliang; Rentzepis, Peter M

2008-10-01

360

Photochemistry and electron-transfer mechanism of transition metal oxalato complexes excited in the charge transfer band  

Science.gov (United States)

The photoredox reaction of trisoxalato cobaltate (III) has been studied by means of ultrafast extended x-ray absorption fine structure and optical transient spectroscopy after excitation in the charge-transfer band with 267-nm femtosecond pulses. The Co–O transient bond length changes and the optical spectra and kinetics have been measured and compared with those of ferrioxalate. Data presented here strongly suggest that both of these metal oxalato complexes operate under similar photoredox reaction mechanisms where the primary reaction involves the dissociation of a metal–oxygen bond. These results also indicate that excitation in the charge-transfer band is not a sufficient condition for the intramolecular electron transfer to be the dominant photochemistry reaction mechanism.

Chen, Jie; Zhang, Hua; Tomov, Ivan V.; Ding, Xunliang; Rentzepis, Peter M.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Electron transfer properties of iodine-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes using field effect transistor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are known to have a p-type charge transfer character in the atmosphere. The energy state of SWNTs can be modulated by doping with either an electron donor or an acceptor. In this study, iodine molecules are chosen for intercalation to SWNTs to predict the charge transfer tendency between them. Field-effect transistors (FETs) using iodine intercalated SWNTs (I-SWNTs) are fabricated and their electronic properties are investigated to better understand the charge transfer between iodine and SWNTs by changing gate voltages. Under vacuum, I-SWNT FETs exhibit weak n-type character, indicating that electrons are transferred slightly from the iodine to the SWNTs. After exposure to O2 gas, n-type characters are reduced; however, they still retain their original type. PMID:22966660

Park, Taehee; Sim, Kijo; Lee, Jongtaek; Yi, Whikun

2012-07-01

362

Toward transferable interatomic van der Waals potentials: The role of multipole electrostatics and many-body dispersion without electrons  

CERN Document Server

We estimate polarizabilities of atoms in molecules without electron density, using a Voronoi partitioning approach instead. The resulting atomic dispersion coefficients are calculated, as well as many-body dispersion effects on intermolecular potential energies. We also estimate contributions from multipole electrostatics and compare them to dispersion. We assess the performance of the resulting intermolecular potential from dispersion and electrostatics for more than 1,300 neutral and charged, small organic molecular dimers. Applications to water clusters, the benzene crystal, the anti-cancer drug ellipticine---intercalated between two Watson-Crick DNA base pairs, as well as six macro-molecular host-guest complexes highlight the potential of this method and help to identify points of future improvement. Overall, the method achieves an accuracy well within sophisticated empirical force fields, such as OPLS and Amber FF03, while exhibiting a simple parametrization protocol without the need for experimental inp...

Bereau, Tristan

2014-01-01

363

Modeling time-coincident ultrafast electron transfer and solvation processes at molecule-semiconductor interfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Kinetic models based on Fermi's Golden Rule are commonly employed to understand photoinduced electron transfer dynamics at molecule-semiconductor interfaces. Implicit in such second-order perturbative descriptions is the assumption that nuclear relaxation of the photoexcited electron donor is fast compared to electron injection into the semiconductor. This approximation breaks down in systems where electron transfer transitions occur on 100-fs time scale. Here, we present a fourth-order perturbative model that captures the interplay between time-coincident electron transfer and nuclear relaxation processes initiated by light absorption. The model consists of a fairly small number of parameters, which can be derived from standard spectroscopic measurements (e.g., linear absorbance, fluorescence) and/or first-principles electronic structure calculations. Insights provided by the model are illustrated for a two-level donor molecule coupled to both (i) a single acceptor level and (ii) a density of states (DOS) calculated for TiO2 using a first-principles electronic structure theory. These numerical calculations show that second-order kinetic theories fail to capture basic physical effects when the DOS exhibits narrow maxima near the energy of the molecular excited state. Overall, we conclude that the present fourth-order rate formula constitutes a rigorous and intuitive framework for understanding photoinduced electron transfer dynamics that occur on the 100-fs time scale.

Li, Lesheng; Giokas, Paul G.; Kanai, Yosuke; Moran, Andrew M.

2014-06-01

364

Modeling time-coincident ultrafast electron transfer and solvation processes at molecule-semiconductor interfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kinetic models based on Fermi's Golden Rule are commonly employed to understand photoinduced electron transfer dynamics at molecule-semiconductor interfaces. Implicit in such second-order perturbative descriptions is the assumption that nuclear relaxation of the photoexcited electron donor is fast compared to electron injection into the semiconductor. This approximation breaks down in systems where electron transfer transitions occur on 100-fs time scale. Here, we present a fourth-order perturbative model that captures the interplay between time-coincident electron transfer and nuclear relaxation processes initiated by light absorption. The model consists of a fairly small number of parameters, which can be derived from standard spectroscopic measurements (e.g., linear absorbance, fluorescence) and/or first-principles electronic structure calculations. Insights provided by the model are illustrated for a two-level donor molecule coupled to both (i) a single acceptor level and (ii) a density of states (DOS) calculated for TiO2 using a first-principles electronic structure theory. These numerical calculations show that second-order kinetic theories fail to capture basic physical effects when the DOS exhibits narrow maxima near the energy of the molecular excited state. Overall, we conclude that the present fourth-order rate formula constitutes a rigorous and intuitive framework for understanding photoinduced electron transfer dynamics that occur on the 100-fs time scale. PMID:24952525

Li, Lesheng; Giokas, Paul G; Kanai, Yosuke; Moran, Andrew M

2014-06-21

365

Photoinduced electron transfer and enhanced fluorescence of C 60 pearl-necklace polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and enhancement of fluorescence were observed simultaneously for a series of donor-acceptor-type C 60 pearl-necklace polymers, contradicting the conventional notion that the formation of charge-separated state derived from electron transfer (ET) causes the quenching of fluorescence. The quantum yield ?f of the present polymers was one to two orders of magnitude larger than that of the pristine C 60. On the other hand, light-induced electron spin resonance (LESR) signals, exhibiting signatures of both the aromatic diamine component cation and the C 60 anion, implied the formation of an ion-radical pair caused by the PET.

Xiao, Lixin; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Dragoe, Nita; Sugita, Atsushi; Saigo, Kazuhiko; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kitazawa, Koichi

2003-01-01

366

Photoinduced electron transfer from semiconductor quantum dots to metal oxide nanoparticles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantum dot-metal oxide junctions are an integral part of next-generation solar cells, light emitting diodes, and nanostructured electronic arrays. Here we present a comprehensive examination of electron transfer at these junctions, using a series of CdSe quantum dot donors (sizes 2.8, 3.3, 4.0, and 4.2 nm in diameter) and metal oxide nanoparticle acceptors (SnO2, TiO2, and ZnO). Apparent electron transfer rate constants showed strong dependence on change in system free energy, exhibiting a ...

Tvrdy, Kevin; Frantsuzov, Pavel A.; Kamat, Prashant V.

2011-01-01

367

Intra-molecular electron transfer and electric conductance via sequential hopping: Unified theoretical description  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relation between intra-molecular electron transfer in the donor-bridge-acceptor system and zero-bias conductance of the same bridge in the metal-molecule-metal junction is analyzed for the sequential hopping regime of both processes. The electron transfer rate and molecular conductance are expressed in terms of rates characterizing each individual step of electron motion. Based on the results obtained, we derive the analytical expression that relates these two quantities in the general case of the energy landscape governing hopping transport

2005-01-01

368

Single-molecule transistors: Electron transfer in the solid state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Single-molecule transistors (SMTs) incorporating individual small molecules are unique tools for examining the fundamental physics and chemistry of electronic transport in molecular systems at the single nanometer scale. We describe the fabrication and characterization of such devices, and the synthesis and surface attachment chemistry of novel transition metal complexes that have been incorporated into such SMTs. We present gate-modulated inelastic electron tunneling vibrational spectroscopy of single molecules, strong Kondo physics (T K ? 75 K) as evidence of excellent molecule/electrode electronic coupling, and a demonstration that covalent attachment chemistry can produce SMTs that survive repeated thermal cycling to room temperature. We conclude with a look ahead at the prospects for these nanoscale systems

2006-05-09

369

Electron transfer within xanthine oxidase: A solvent kinetic isotope effect study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solvent kinetic isotope effect studies of electron transfer within xanthine oxidase have been performed, using a stopped-flow pH-jump technique to perturb the distribution of reducing equivalents within partially reduced enzyme and follow the kinetics of reequilibration spectrophotometrically. It is found that the rate constant for electron transfer between the flavin and one of the iron-sulfur centers of the enzyme observed when the pH is jumped from 10 to 6 decreases from 173 to 25 s{sup {minus}1} on going from HJ{sub 2}O to D{sub 2}O, giving an observed solvent kinetic isotope effect of 6.9. An effect of comparable magnitude is observed for the pH jump in the opposite direction, the rate constant decreasing form 395 to 56 s{sup {minus}1}. The solvent kinetic isotope effect on k{sub obs} is found to be directly proportional to the mole fraction of D{sub 2}O in the reaction mix for the pH jump in each direction, consistent with the effect arising from a single exchangeable proton. Calculations of the microscopic rate constants for electron transfer between the flavin and the iron-sulfur center indicate that the intrinsic solvent kinetic isotope effect for electron transfer from the neutral flavin semiquinone to the iron-sulfur center designated Fe/S I is substantially greater than for electron transfer in the opposite direction and that the observed solvent kinetic isotope effect is a weighted average of the intrinsic isotope effects for the forward and reverse microscopic electron-transfer steps. The results emphasize the importance of prototropic equilibria in the kinetic as well as thermodynamic behavior of xanthine oxidase and indicate that protonation/deprotonation of the isoalloxazine ring is concomitant with electron transfer in the xanthine oxidase system.

Hille, R. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

1991-09-03

370

Electron transfer within xanthine oxidase: A solvent kinetic isotope effect study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solvent kinetic isotope effect studies of electron transfer within xanthine oxidase have been performed, using a stopped-flow pH-jump technique to perturb the distribution of reducing equivalents within partially reduced enzyme and follow the kinetics of reequilibration spectrophotometrically. It is found that the rate constant for electron transfer between the flavin and one of the iron-sulfur centers of the enzyme observed when the pH is jumped from 10 to 6 decreases from 173 to 25 s-1 on going from HJ2O to D2O, giving an observed solvent kinetic isotope effect of 6.9. An effect of comparable magnitude is observed for the pH jump in the opposite direction, the rate constant decreasing form 395 to 56 s-1. The solvent kinetic isotope effect on kobs is found to be directly proportional to the mole fraction of D2O in the reaction mix for the pH jump in each direction, consistent with the effect arising from a single exchangeable proton. Calculations of the microscopic rate constants for electron transfer between the flavin and the iron-sulfur center indicate that the intrinsic solvent kinetic isotope effect for electron transfer from the neutral flavin semiquinone to the iron-sulfur center designated Fe/S I is substantially greater than for electron transfer in the opposite direction and that the observed solvent kinetic isotope effect is a weighted average of the intrinsic isotope effects for the forward and reverse microscopic electron-transfer steps. The results emphasize the importance of prototropic equilibria in the kinetic as well as thermodynamic behavior of xanthine oxidase and indicate that protonation/deprotonation of the isoalloxazine ring is concomitant with electron transfer in the xanthine oxidase system

1991-09-03

371

Role of tunnelling in reactions of electron transfer in initial stages of radiolysis of condensed media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the efficiency, of an acceptor in reducing the yield of esub(sol)sup(-) is proportional to tausub(s), the electron solvation time. This result suggests that the reactive precursor of esub(sol)sup(-) taking part in chemical reactions under conditions of picosecond pulse radiolysis is the electron with underformed solvation shell. The electron transfer from shallow trap to acceptor proceeds by tunnelling as in the case of fully solvated state. The similarity of decay kinetics of solvating electron and that trapped at low temperatures is due to this circumstance. The equations for decay kinetics of trapped electron including trap-to-trap diffusion is obtained. It has been shown that linear decrease of H-atom concentration at low temperatures with square root of time is related to uneffective electron transfer from donor to acceptor

1977-01-01

372

Energetic protons, alpha particles, and electrons in magnetic flux transfer events  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have analyzed energetic proton, alpha particle, and electron measurments during two magnetopause crossings of ISEE 1 which show mgnetic field signatures characteristic of flux transfer events. While the ions are streaming highly collimated along the magnetic field, the electrons show either isotropic distributions or distributions which are consistent with convected small-scale structures. Fluxes and relative abundances of ions in flux transfer events are similar to the trapped particle values. We have observed similar particle signatures when no change in the magnetic field normal component has been measured. During the occurrence of isotropic electron distributions, the absolute electron flux (above 75 keV) is greatly reduced when compared with the flux of the trapped electron population. Thus the electrons cannot be explained by simple leakage out of the magnetosphere.

Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F.M.; Gloeckler, G.

1982-04-01

373

Energetic protons, alpha particles, and electrons in magnetic flux transfer events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have analyzed energetic proton, alpha particle, and electron measurments during two magnetopause crossings of ISEE 1 which show mgnetic field signatures characteristic of flux transfer events. While the ions are streaming highly collimated along the magnetic field, the electrons show either isotropic distributions or distributions which are consistent with convected small-scale structures. Fluxes and relative abundances of ions in flux transfer events are similar to the trapped particle values. We have observed similar particle signatures when no change in the magnetic field normal component has been measured. During the occurrence of isotropic electron distributions, the absolute electron flux (above 75 keV) is greatly reduced when compared with the flux of the trapped electron population. Thus the electrons cannot be explained by simple leakage out of the magnetosphere

1982-04-01

374

Comparison of three methods for calculation of electron transfer probability in H+ + Ne  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a theoretical model of ion-atom collisions where we described electron dynamics by the time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) and the ion dynamics by classical mechanics through the Ehrenfest method. We have compared three methods to calculate the probability of electron transfer during H+ + Ne collision. By discussing these issues we shall be able to understand how these methods work, what their limitations are and whether they admit of any improvements. -- Highlights: ? We have developed a theoretical model of ion-atom collisions based on TDDFT. ? We have compared three methods to calculate the probability of electron transfer in H+ + Ne. ? Electron transfer cross sections showed a good agreement with available experimental data.

2012-01-09

375

Sensing nitrite through a pseudoazurin-nitrite reductase electron transfer relay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrite is converted to nitric oxide by haem or copper-containing enzymes in denitrifying bacteria during the process of denitrification. In designing an efficient biosensor, this enzymic turnover must be quantitatively assessed. The enzyme nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes faecalis contains a redox-active blue copper centre and a nonblue enzyme-active copper centre. It can be covalently tethered to modified gold-electrode surfaces in configurations in which direct electron transfer is possible. A surface cysteine mutant of the enzyme can be similarly immobilised on bare electroactive gold substrates. Under such circumstances, however, electron transfer cannot be effectively coupled with substrate catalytic turnover. In using either the natural redox partner, pseudoazurin, or ruthenium hexammine as an "electron-shuttle" or "conduit" between enzyme and a peptide-modified electrode surface, the coupling of electron transfer to catalysis can be utilised in the development of an amperometric nitrite sensor. PMID:15900523

Astier, Yann; Canters, Gerard W; Davis, Jason J; Hill, H Allen O; Verbeet, Martin P; Wijma, Hein J

2005-06-13

376

Exclusive electron scattering from deuterium at high momentum transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cross sections are presented for the reaction 2H(e,e'p)n for momentum transfers in the range 1.2?Q2?6.8(GeV/c)2 and for missing momenta from 0 to 250 MeV/c. The longitudinal-transverse interference structure function has been separated at Q2=1.2(GeV/c)2. The observables are compared to calculations performed in nonrelativistic and relativistic frameworks. The data are best described by a fully relativistic calculation

1995-06-12

377

DFT/B3LYP study of the substituent effect on the reaction enthalpies of the individual steps of single electron transfer-proton transfer and sequential proton loss electron transfer mechanisms of phenols antioxidant action.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reaction enthalpies related to the individual steps of two phenolic antioxidants action mechanisms, single electron transfer-proton transfer (SET-PT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET), for 30 meta and para-substituted phenols (ArOH) were calculated using DFT/B3LYP method. These mechanisms represent the alternative ways to the extensively studied hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism. Except the comparison of calculated reaction enthalpies with available experimental and/or theoretical values, obtained enthalpies were correlated with Hammett constants. We have found that electron-donating substituents induce the rise in the enthalpy of proton dissociation (PDE) from ArOH+* radical cation (second step in SET-PT) and in the proton affinities of phenoxide ions ArO- (reaction enthalpy of the first step in SPLET). Electron-withdrawing groups cause the increase in the reaction enthalpies of the processes where electron is abstracted, i.e., in the ionization potentials of ArOH (first step in SET-PT) and in the enthalpy of electron transfer from ArO- (second step in SPLET). Found results indicate that all dependences of reaction enthalpies on Hammett constants of the substituents are linear. The calculations of liquid-phase reaction enthalpies for several para-substituted phenols indicate that found trends hold also in water, although substituent effects are weaker. From the thermodynamic point of view, entering SPLET mechanism represents the most probable process in water. PMID:17078630

Klein, Erik; Lukes, Vladimír

2006-11-01

378

The effect of intramolecular quantum modes on free energy relationships for electron transfer reactions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A general quantum mechanical description of exothermic electron transfer reactions is formulated by treating such reactions as the nonradiative decay of a ''supermolecule'' consisting of the electron donor, the electron acceptor, and the polar solvent. In particular, the role of the high-frequency intramolecular degrees of feedom on the free energy relationship for series of closely related reactions was investigated for various model systems involving displacement of potential energy surface...

Ulstrup, Jens; Jortner, Joshua

2009-01-01

379

ELECTRON TRANSFER IN Hg1-xCdxTe-CdTe HETEROSTRUCTURES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Far infrared magneto-absorption experiments performed at 1.6K in HgCdTe-CdTe heterojunctions show that a two-dimensional electron gas is formed in the HgCdTe layer at the HgCdTe-CdTe interface. The electron effective masses of the two populated subbands is obtained and compared to previous theoretical calculations. The electron transfer across the interface involves deep traps in the CdTe layers.

Boebinger, G.; Vieren, J.; Guldner, Y.; Voos, M.; Faurie, J.

1987-01-01

380

Dynamics of Electron Transfer Processes at the Surface of Dye-Sensitized Mesoporous Semiconductor Films  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electron transfer reactions taking place at the surface of dye-sensitized semiconductors are key processes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). After light absorption, the excited state of a dye injects an electron into a wide-bandgap semiconductor, usually titanium dioxyde, TiO2. The formed oxidized dye can then be intercepted by a redox mediator, typically iodide, before charge recombination between the injected electron and the oxidized dye...

Teuscher, Joe?l

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Selection rules for electron transfer to the continuum in ion-atom collision  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We consider the process of electron transfer to the in first order Born approximation. We analyse the expansion of the double-differential cross section in series of electron velocity and ejection angle. We found that the coefficients obey precise selection rules. We discuss the relation of these rules, which predict an asymmetric shape for the electron loss to the continuum cusp, with the interpretation of recent experimental results.

Barrachina, R.O.; Bernardi, G.C.; Garibotti, C.R.

1985-10-01

382

Selection rules for electron transfer to the continuum in ion-atom collision  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider the process of electron transfer to the in first order Born approximation. We analyse the expansion of the double-differential cross section in series of electron velocity and ejection angle. We found that the coefficients obey precise selection rules. We discuss the relation of these rules, which predict an asymmetric shape for the electron loss to the continuum cusp, with the interpretation of recent experimental results

1985-01-01

383

Electron microscopy and diffraction study of phospholipid monolayers transferred from water to solid substrates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monomolecular films of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidicacids) and arachidonic-acid were transferred from air/water interface onto electron transparent hydrophilic substrates such as 1) carbon films, 2) crystalline graphite-oxide layers, 3) SiO2-covered Formvar foils and were studied by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), by scanning transmission STEM in the darkfield mode and by electron diffraction. Positive staining with uranylacetate and platinum shadow...

Fischer, A.; Sackmann, E.

1984-01-01

384

Cellular electron transfer and radical mechanisms for drug metabolism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aerobic and anaerobic reductions of various nitroaromatic compounds by mammalian cells result in the production of reactive intermediates. Drug reduction is dependent upon glucose, nonprotein thiols, endogenous enzyme levels, and drug electron affinity. Drugs with electron affinities approaching that of oxygen are reduced, in the presence of oxygen, beyond a one-electron radical anion. Nitroaromatic radical anion inactivation occurs by reaction with cellular ferricytochrome c, endogenous thiols, and with oxygen. In the latter case the reaction results in the production of peroxide. Drugs that are substrates for the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase remove endogeneous thiols and demonstrate peroxide production without prior thiol removal. Less electron affinic drugs such as misonidazole require thiol removal as well as the presence of cyanide or azide for maximal peroxide production. Under anaerobic conditions radical anion and nitroso intermediates are reactive with glutathione. Removal of endogenous thiols by hypoxic preincubation with misonidazole may be related to the enhanced radiation response and cytotoxicity of this drug. Reduction of nitro compounds in the presence of DNA and chemicals such as dithionite, zinc dust, or polarographic techniques causes binding to macromolecules and DNA breaks. Chemical-reduction of nitro compounds by ascorbate in the presence of cells enhances drug cytotoxic effects

1981-05-01

385

Nuclear interlevel transfer driven by collective outer shell electron oscillations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general problem of dynamic electron-nucleus coupling is discussed, and the possibility of using this mechanism to initiate gamma-ray lasing. Single-particle and collective mechanisms are considered. The problems associated with accurate calculation of these processes are discussed, and some numerical results are given. Work in process in described. 10 refs., 7 figs

1986-10-20

386

The transfer between electron bulk kinetic energy and thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By performing two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the transfer between electron bulk kinetic and electron thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection. In the vicinity of the X line, the electron bulk kinetic energy density is much larger than the electron thermal energy density. The evolution of the electron bulk kinetic energy is mainly determined by the work done by the electric field force and electron pressure gradient force. The work done by the electron gradient pressure force in the vicinity of the X line is changed to the electron enthalpy flux. In the magnetic island, the electron enthalpy flux is transferred to the electron thermal energy due to the compressibility of the plasma in the magnetic island. The compression of the plasma in the magnetic island is the consequence of the electromagnetic force acting on the plasma as the magnetic field lines release their tension after being reconnected. Therefore, we can observe that in the magnetic island the electron thermal energy density is much larger than the electron bulk kinetic energy density

2013-06-01

387

Electron-electron interactions in transfer and excitation in F/sup 8 +//r arrow/H/sub 2/ collisions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have measured projectile Auger electrons emitted after collisions ofH-like F with H/sub 2/. The cross sections for emission of /ital KLL/,/ital KLM/, /ital KLN/, and /ital KLO/ Auger electrons show maxima as a functionof the projectile energy. One maximum in the /ital KLL/ emission cross sectionis due to resonant transfer and excitation. A second maximum in the crosssection for /ital KLL/ emission as well as the maxima in the emission crosssection for the higher-/ital n/ Auger electrons are attributed to a new transferand excitation process. This involves excitation of a projectile electron byone target electron accompanied by the capture of a second target electron.

Schulz, M.; Giese, J. P.; Swenson, J. K.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P. F.; Krause, H. F.; Schone, H.; Vane, C. R.; Benhenni, M.; Shafroth, S. M.; and others

1989-04-10

388

Electron transfer dynamics of Rhodothermus marinus caa3 cytochrome c domains on biomimetic films.  

Science.gov (United States)

The subunit II of the caa(3) oxygen reductase from Rhodothermus marinus contains, in addition to the Cu(A) center, a c-type heme group in the cytochrome c domain (Cyt-D) that is the putative primary electron acceptor of the enzyme. In this work we have combined surface-enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) spectroelectrochemistry, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and electron pathway calculations to assess the most likely interaction domains and electron entry/exit points of the truncated Cyt-D of subunit II in the reactions with its electron donor, HiPIP and electron acceptor, Cu(A). The results indicate that the transient interaction between Cyt-D and HiPIP relies upon a delicate balance of hydrophobic and polar contacts for establishing an optimized electron transfer pathway that involves the exposed edge of the heme group and guaranties efficient inter-protein electron transfer on the nanosecond time scale. The reorganization energy of ca. 0.7 eV was determined by time-resolved SERR spectroelectrochemistry. The intramolecular electron transfer pathway in integral subunit II from Cyt-D to the Cu(A) redox center most likely involves the iron ligand histidine 20 as an electron exit point in Cyt-D. PMID:21922088

Molinas, Maria F; De Candia, Ariel; Szajnman, Sergio H; Rodríguez, Juan B; Martí, Marcelo; Pereira, Manuela; Teixeira, Miguel; Todorovic, Smilja; Murgida, Daniel H

2011-10-28

389

Femtosecond dynamics of electron transfer in a neutral organic mixed-valence compound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article we report a femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption study of a neutral organic mixed-valence (MV) compound with the aim to gain insight into its charge-transfer dynamics upon optical excitation. The back-electron transfer was investigated in five different solvents, toluene, dibutyl ether, methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzonitrile and n-hexane. In the pump step, the molecule was excited at 760 nm and 850 nm into the intervalence charge-transfer band. The resulting transients can be described by two time constant. We assign one time constant to the rearrangement of solvent molecules in the charge-transfer state and the second time constant to back-electron transfer to the electronic ground state. Back-electron transfer rates range from 1.5 x 1012 s-1 in benzonitrile through 8.3 x 1011 s-1 in MTBE, around 1.6 x 1011 s-1 in dibutylether and toluene and to 3.8 x 109 s-1 in n-hexane

2008-05-23

390

Fast electron transfer through a single molecule natively structured redox protein  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The electron transfer properties of proteins are normally measured as molecularly averaged ensembles. Through these and related measurements, proteins are widely regarded as macroscopically insulating materials. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), we present new measurements of the conductance through single-molecules of the electron transfer protein cytochrome b562 in its native conformation, under pseudo-physiological conditions. This is achieved by thiol (SH) linker pairs at opposite ends of the molecule through protein engineering, resulting in defined covalent contact between a gold surface and a platinumâ??iridium STM tip. Two different orientations of the linkers were examined: a long-axis configuration (SH-LA) and a short-axis configuration (SH-SA). In each case, the molecular conductance could be â??gatedâ?? through electrochemical control of the heme redox state. Reproducible and remarkably high conductance was observed in this relatively complex electron transfer system, with single-molecule conductance values peaking around 18 nS and 12 nS for the SH-SA and SH-LA cytochrome b562 molecules near zero electrochemical overpotential. This strongly points to the important role of the heme co-factor bound to the natively structured protein. We suggest that the two-step model of protein electron transfer in the STM geometry requires a multi-electron transfer to explain such a high conductance. The model also yields a low value for the reorganisation energy, implying that solvent reorganisation is largely absent.

Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio; Chi, Qijin

2012-01-01

391

Correlation between biological activity and electron transferring of bovine liver catalase: Osmolytes effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Proline increases ET in Bovine Liver Catalase (BLC) whereas histidine decreases it. • Proline also increased the biological activity, whereas histidine decreased it. • Electron transferring and biological activity for BLC are directly correlated. • Proline causes favorable ET for BLC shown by positive E1/2 (E°?) and negative ?G. • Histidine makes ET unfavorable for BLC, manifested by E1/2 (E°?) 0. -- Abstract: Catalase is a crucial antioxidant enzyme that protects life against detrimental effects of H2O2 by disproportionating it into water and molecular oxygen. Effect of proline as a compatible and histidine as a non compatible osmolyte on the electron transferring and midpoint potential of catalase has been investigated. Proline increases the