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1

Frontier orbital symmetry control of intermolecular electron transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains sections describing the selection of electron donor-acceptor systems, the synthesis and photophysical properties of linked electron-donor-acceptor systems, the estimation of photoinduced charge-separation rate constants from fluorescence quenching data, and radical ion-pair recombination by picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. 9 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

Stevens, B.

1991-09-01

2

Mechanism of back electron transfer in an intermolecular photoinduced electron transfer reaction: solvent as a charge mediator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Back electron transfer (BET) is one of the important processes that govern the decay of generated ion pairs in intermolecular photoinduced electron transfer reactions. Unfortunately, a detailed mechanism of BET reactions remains largely unknown in spite of their importance for the development of molecular photovoltaic structures. Here, we examine the BET reaction of pyrene (Py) and 1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCB) in acetonitrile (ACN) by using time-resolved near- and mid-IR spectroscopy. The Py dimer radical cation (Py2(·+)) and DCB radical anion (DCB(·-)) generated after photoexcitation of Py show asynchronous decay kinetics. To account for this observation, we propose a reaction mechanism that involves electron transfer from DCB(·-) to the solvent and charge recombination between the resulting ACN dimer anion and Py2(·+). The unique role of ACN as a charge mediator revealed herein could have implications for strategies that retard charge recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:25044892

Narra, Sudhakar; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Witek, Henryk A; Shigeto, Shinsuke

2014-10-01

3

Electrochemical study of the intermolecular electron transfer to Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetics of electron transfer reaction between cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase (NiR) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and various physiological/non physiological redox partners was investigated using cyclic voltammetry at the pyrolytic graphite electrode. While NiR did not exchange electron with the electrode, cytochrome c551 and azurin, both from Ps. aeruginosa, behaved as fast electrochemical systems. The intermolecular electron transfers between NiR and cytochrome c551 or azurin as electron shuttles, in the presence of nitrite, were studied. Second order rate constants of 2x106 and 1.4x105 M-1 s-1 are calculated for cytochrome c551 and azurin, respectively. The dependence of the second-order rate constant on ionic strength and pH is discussed. Finally, the effect of the global charge of the electron shuttles was explored using differently charged species (proteins or small ions). The experimental results suggest involvement of polar interactions as well as of hydrophobic contacts in the protein recognition prior to the intermolecular electron transfer. As the cross-reaction between Ps. nautica cytochrome c552 and Ps. aeruginosa NiR was shown to be as efficient as the catalytic reaction involving the physiological partners, it is concluded to a 'pseudo-specificity' in the recognition between NiR and the electron donor

4

Metal-Promoted Intermolecular Electron Transfer in Tetrathiafulvalene-Thiacalix[4]arene Conjugates and Tetrachlorobenzoquinone.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, two series of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and thiacalix[4]arene (TCA) conjugates (TTF-TCA) were designed by CuAAC click reactions. The results obtained from NMR and (1)H NMR NOE indicated that their conformations of thiacalix[4]arene framework may prefer to 1,3-alternate. The cyclic voltammograms of four TTF-TCA compounds containing electroactive TTF units were provided. Meanwhile, their intermolecular electron-transfer (ET) behaviors with tetrachlorobenzoquinone (Q) mediated by different metal ions, Sc(3+), Pb(2+), Ag(+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+), in CH3CN-CH2Cl2 (V/V = 1:1) solution were studied and analyzed via UV-vis spectroscopy. It was determined that intermolecular ET between each TTF-TCA and Q ensemble was not observed without introduction of the metal ions mentioned above. The added specified metal ions most likely induced the intermolecular ET between TTF-TCA and Q ensemble, and the effects of Sc(3+) functions were the most imperative. The intermolecular ET also proved to be reliant on the structure of TTF-TCA, where TTF-TCA 7a and 7b were more effective than TTF-TCA 6a and 6b. The difference may be credited to TTF-TCA 7a or 7b possessing two independent TTF pendants and providing a more synergic coordination among the TTF radical cation and Q radical anion with a metal ion. PMID:25517424

Zhao, Bang-Tun; Peng, Qi-Ming; Zhu, Xiao-Min; Yan, Zhen-Ning; Zhu, Wei-Min

2015-01-16

5

Intermolecular and Intramolecular Electron Transfer Processes from Excited Naphthalene Diimide Radical Anions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excited radical ions are interesting reactive intermediates owing to powerful redox reactivities, which are applicable to various reactions. Although their reactivities have been examined for many years, their dynamics are not well-defined. In this study, we examined intermolecular and intramolecular electron transfer (ET) processes from excited radical anions of naphthalene-1,4,5,8-tetracarboxydiimide (NDI(•-)*). Intermolecular ET processes between NDI(•-)* and various electron acceptors were confirmed by transient absorption measurements during laser flash photolysis of NDI(•-) generated by pulse radiolysis. Although three different imide compounds were employed as acceptors for NDI(•-)*, the bimolecular ET rate constants were similar in each acceptor, indicating that ET is not the rate-determining step. Intramolecular ET processes were examined by applying femtosecond laser flash photolysis to two series of dyad compounds, where NDI was selectively reduced chemically. The distance dependence of the ET rate constants was described by a ? value of 0.3 Å(-1), which is similar or slightly smaller than the reported values for donor-acceptor dyads with phenylene spacers. Furthermore, by applying the Marcus theory to the driving force dependence of the ET rate constants, the electronic coupling for the present ET processes was determined. PMID:25397719

Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Kim, Sung Sik; Lu, Chao; Tojo, Sachiko; Majima, Tetsuro

2014-11-25

6

Electron dynamics and intermolecular energy transfer in aqueous solutions studied by X-ray electron spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements from a vacuum liquid microjet are performed to investigate the electronic structure of aqueous solutions. Here, focus is on the excited-state dynamics of chloride and hydroxide anions in water, following core-level excitation. A series of Cl^-(aq) charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) states, and their ultrafast relaxation, on the time scale of the core hole, is identified from the occurrence of spectator Auger decay. Resonant oxygen 1s excitation of aqueous hydroxide, in contrast, leads to non-local decay, involving energy transfer into a neighboring water molecule. This channel is argued to arise from the weak hydrogen donor bond of OH^-(aq), and thus identifies a special transient hydration configuration, which can explain hydroxide's unusual and fast transport in water. Analogous measurements from pure water point to a similar relaxation channel, which is concluded from a strong isotope effect. The characteristic resonance spectral features are considerably stronger for H2O(aq) than for D2O(aq). As for OH^-(aq) the results can be understood in terms of energy transfer from the excited water molecule to a neighbor water molecule.

Winter, Bernd

2009-03-01

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Photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer and off-resonance Raman characteristics of Rhodamine 101/N,N-diethylaniline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Mechanism of PIET reaction process for the Rh101+/DEA system is investigated. • The significant geometrical changes of the charge–transfer complex are explained. • Forward Electron transfer from DEA to Rh101+? occurs with lifetime of 425–560 fs. • Backward electron transfer occurs with a time constant of 46.16–51.40 ps. • Intramolecular vibrational relaxation occurs with lifetime of 2.77–5.39 ps. - Abstract: The ultrafast photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer (PIET) reaction of Rhodamine 101 (Rh101+) in N,N-diethylaniline (DEA) was investigated using off-resonance Raman, femtosecond time-resolved multiplex transient grating (TG) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopies. The Raman spectra indicate that the C=C stretching vibration of the chromophore aromatic ring is more sensitive to ET compared with the C-C stretching mode. The ultrafast photoinduced intermolecular forward ET (FET) from DEA to Rh101+? occurs on a time scale of ?FET = 425–560 fs. The backward ET (BET) occurs in the inverted region with a time constant of ?BET = 46.16–51.40 ps. The intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) process occurs on the excited state potential energy surface with the time constant of ?IVR = 2.77–5.39 ps

8

Photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer and off-resonance Raman characteristics of Rhodamine 101/N,N-diethylaniline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Mechanism of PIET reaction process for the Rh101{sup +}/DEA system is investigated. • The significant geometrical changes of the charge–transfer complex are explained. • Forward Electron transfer from DEA to Rh101{sup +?} occurs with lifetime of 425–560 fs. • Backward electron transfer occurs with a time constant of 46.16–51.40 ps. • Intramolecular vibrational relaxation occurs with lifetime of 2.77–5.39 ps. - Abstract: The ultrafast photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer (PIET) reaction of Rhodamine 101 (Rh101{sup +}) in N,N-diethylaniline (DEA) was investigated using off-resonance Raman, femtosecond time-resolved multiplex transient grating (TG) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopies. The Raman spectra indicate that the C=C stretching vibration of the chromophore aromatic ring is more sensitive to ET compared with the C-C stretching mode. The ultrafast photoinduced intermolecular forward ET (FET) from DEA to Rh101{sup +?} occurs on a time scale of ?{sub FET} = 425–560 fs. The backward ET (BET) occurs in the inverted region with a time constant of ?{sub BET} = 46.16–51.40 ps. The intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) process occurs on the excited state potential energy surface with the time constant of ?{sub IVR} = 2.77–5.39 ps.

Jiang, Li-lin [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Hezhou University, Hezhou 542800 (China); Liu, Wei-long; Song, Yun-fei; He, Xing; Wang, Yang; Wang, Chang; Wu, Hong-lin [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yang, Fang [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Tunable Laser, Department of Optoelectronics Information Science Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yang, Yan-qiang, E-mail: yqyang@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, Sichuan (China)

2014-01-31

9

Studies on intra-supramolecular and intermolecular electron-transfer processes between zinc naphthalocyanine and imidazole-appended fullerene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spectroscopic, computational, redox, and photochemical behavior of a self-assembled donor-acceptor dyad formed by axial coordination of zinc naphthalocyanine, ZnNc, and fulleropyrrolidine bearing an imidazole coordinating ligand (2-(4'-imidazolylphenyl)-fulleropyrrolidine, C60Im) was investigated in noncoordinating solvents, toluene and o-dichlorobenzene, and the results were compared to the intermolecular electron transfer processes in a coordinating solvent, benzonitrile. The optical absorption and ab initio B3 LYP/3-21G(*) computational studies revealed self-assembled supramolecular 1:1 dyad formation between the ZnNc and C60Im entities. In the optimized structure, the HOMO was found to be entirely located on the ZnNc entity while the LUMO was found to be entirely on the fullerene entity. Cyclic voltammetry studies of the dyad exhibited a total of seven one-electron redox processes in o-dichlorobenzene, with 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium perchlorate. The excited-state electron-transfer processes were monitored by both optical-emission and transient-absorption techniques. Direct evidence for the radical-ion-pair (C60Im.-:ZnNC.+) formation was obtained from picosecond transient-absorption spectral studies, which indicated charge separation from the singlet-excited ZnNc to the C60Im moiety. The calculated rates of charge separation and charge recombination were 1.4 x 10(10) s-1 and 5.3 x 10(7) s-1 in toluene and 8.9 x 10(9) s-1 and 9.2 x 10(7) s-1 in o-dichlorobenzene, respectively. In benzonitrile, intermolecular electron transfer from the excited triplet state of ZnNc to C60Im occurs and the second-order rate constant (kqtriplet) for this quenching process was 5.3 x 10(8)M-1s-1. PMID:12785261

el-Khouly, Mohamed E; Rogers, Lisa M; Zandler, Melvin E; Suresh, Gadde; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Ito, Osamu; D'Souza, Francis

2003-04-14

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Anion of the Formic Acid Dimer as a Model for Intermolecular Proton Transfer Induced by a [pi]* Excess Electron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The neutral and anionic formic acid dimers have been studied at the second order Moeller-Plesset and coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations with augmented, correlation consistent basis sets of double- and triple-zeta quality. Scans of the potential energy surface for the anion were performed at the density functional level of theory with a hybrid B3LYP functional and a high quality basis set. Our main finding is that the formic acid dimer is susceptible to intermolecular proton transfer upon an excess electron attachment. The unpaired electron occupies a ?* orbital, the molecular moiety that accommodates an excess electron ''buckles'', and a proton is transferred to the unit where the excess electron is localized. In consequence of these geometrical transformations the electron vertical detachment energy becomes substantial, 2.35 eV. The anion is barely adiabatically unstable with respect to the neutral at 0 K. However, at standard conditions and in terms of Gibbs free energy, the anion is more stable than the neutral by 0.04 eV. The neutral and anionic dimers display different IR characteristics. In summary, the formic acid dimer can exist in two quasidegenerate states (neutral and anionic), which can be viewed as ''zero'' and ''one'' in the binary system. These two states are switchable and distinguishable

11

Intermolecular photoinduced electron-transfer processes between C60 and aniline derivatives in benzonitrile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quenching behavior of the triplets of C60 by various aniline derivatives (1a-d and 2a-e) was investigated by means of laser flash photolysis in benzonitrile at 293K. Electron transfer process was proposed to be the main mechanism because of the direct detection of radical ions of aniline derivatives and C60 in time-resolved transient absorption spectra. The quenching rate constants (kq) of 3C60* by different substrates determined at 740nm approach or reach the diffusion-controlled limit. DFT method was employed to calculate the unknown oxidation potentials of substrates in solution. With these Eox values, free energy changes (?G) were obtained through Rehm-Weller equation. Dependence of observed quenching rate constants on the free energy changes further indicates the photoinduced reactions between 3C60* and substrates proceed through an electron transfer mechanism. Obtained kq values for the aniline derivatives are impacted obviously by ground-state configurations and the kinds substituents quantified by Hammett ? constant. Good correlation between logkq and ? values conforms to the empirical Hammett equation. A more negative ? value (-3.356) was gained for anilines (2a-e) than that of N,N-dimethylanilines (1a-d) (-1.382), which suggests a more susceptible reactivity for the former substrates. Charge density distribution of reaction center ''N'' origiibution of reaction center ''N'' originated from quantum calculation supports this suggestion. In addition, a relationship between quenching rate constants and solvent viscosity was gained from C60/dimethyl-p-toluidine system in altered mixtures of acetonitrile and toluene

12

Intermolecular effect in molecular electronics.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the effects of lateral interactions on the conductance of two molecules connected in parallel to semi-infinite leads. The method we use combines a Green function approach to quantum transport with density functional theory for the electronic properties. The system, modeled after a self-assembled monolayer, consists of benzylmercaptane molecules sandwiched between gold electrodes. We find that the conductance increases when intermolecular interaction comes into play. The source of this increase is the indirect interaction through the gold substrate rather than direct molecule-molecule interaction. A striking resonance is produced only 0.3 eV above the Fermi energy. PMID:15740279

Liu, Rui; Ke, San-Huang; Baranger, Harold U; Yang, Weitao

2005-01-22

13

Intermolecular Effect in Molecular Electronics  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the effects of lateral interactions on the conductance of two molecules connected in parallel to semi-infinite leads. The method we use combines a Green function approach to quantum transport with density functional theory for the electronic properties. The system, modeled after a self-assembled monolayer, consists of benzylmercaptane molecules sandwiched between gold electrodes. We find that the conductance increases when intermolecular interaction comes into play. The source of this increase is the indirect interaction through the gold substrate rather than direct molecule-molecule interaction. A striking resonance is produced only 0.3 eV above the Fermi energy.

Liu, R; Baranger, H U; Yang, W; Liu, Rui; Ke, San-Huang; Baranger, Harold U.; Yang, Weitao

2005-01-01

14

Control of emission by intermolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer and intermolecular charge transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Control of emission by intermolecular fluorescence resonant energy transfer (IFRET) and intermolecular charge transfer (ICT) is investigated with the quantum-chemistry method using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) real space analysis methods. The work is based on the experiment of tunable emission from doped 1,3,5-triphenyl-2-pyrazoline (TPP) organic nanoparticles (Peng, A. D.; et al. Adv. Mater. 2005, 17, 2070). First, the excited-state properties of the molecules, which are studied (TPP and DCM) in that experiment, are investigated theoretically. The results of the 2D site representation reveal the electron-hole coherence and delocalization size on the excitation. The results of 3D cube representation analysis reveal the orientation and strength of the transition dipole moments and intramolecular or intermolecular charge transfer. Second, the photochemical quenching mechanism via IFRET is studied (here "resonance" means that the absorption spectrum of TPP overlaps with the fluorescence emission spectrum of DCM in the doping system) by comparing the orbital energies of the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and the LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) of DCM and TPP in absorption and fluorescence. Third, for the DCM-TPP complex, the nonphotochemical quenching mechanism via ICT is investigated. The theoretical results show that the energetically lowest ICT state corresponds to a pure HOMO-LUMO transition, where the densities of the HOMO and LUMO are strictly located on the DCM and TPP moieties, respectively. Thus, the lowest ICT state corresponds to an excitation of an electron from the HOMO of DCM to the LUMO of TPP. PMID:16686468

Sun, Mengtao; Pullerits, Tõnu; Kjellberg, Pär; Beenken, Wichard J D; Han, Keli

2006-05-18

15

Competition and interplay of various intermolecular interactions in ultrafast excited-state proton and electron transfer reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main features of the photoinduced kinetics of both ultrafast excited-state proton and electron transfer reactions that occur in the picosecond (ps) and femtosecond (fs) time domains are compared. Proton transfer (PT) reaction kinetics can be described in terms of several discrete values of rate coefficients in the form of polyexponential functions where each value of the rate coefficient can be attributed to a definite physical behavior of the reaction mechanism. In contrast, electron transfer (ET) reaction kinetics requires a consideration of a continuous distribution of rate coefficients. This difference can be related to structure of the ground-state reactant pairs for each reaction. Excited-state ET can occur at various configurations of reactant molecules and its rate reflects the fluctuations of the distances and orientations of these molecules. In contrast, excited-state PT requires preliminary formation of a ground-state H-bonded complex with definite structure where the reaction occurs after photoexcitation. PMID:25208189

Kuzmin, Michael G; Soboleva, Irina V; Ivanov, Vladimir L; Gould, Elizabeth-Ann; Huppert, Dan; Solntsev, Kyril M

2015-02-12

16

The study of intermolecular energy transfers in electronic energy quenching for molecular collisions N2-N2, N2-O2, O2-O2  

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Full Text Available Contributions of intermolecular electron energy transfers in the electronic quenching are calculated for molecular collisions N2(A3?u+, W3?u+N2(X1?g+, v=0, N2(A3?u++N2(X1?g+, v?0, N2(A3?u++O2(X3?g?, v=0–2, O2(a1?g, b1?g++O2(X3?g?, v=0–2. The calculation has allowed one to estimate the product branching ratios. It is shown that there is a dependence of the calculated rate coefficients on the vibrational excitation of N2(X1?g+ and O2(X3?g? molecules. In many cases, the calculated rate coefficients have a good agreement with available experimental data.

A. S. Kirillov

2008-05-01

17

Determination of intermolecular transfer integrals from DFT calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Theoretical studies of charge transport in organic conducting systems pose a unique challenge since they require multiscale schemes that combine quantum-chemical, molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte-Carlo calculations. The description of the mobility of electrons and holes in the hopping regime relies on the determination of intermolecular hopping rates in large scale morphologies. Using Marcus theory these rates can be calculated from intermolecular transfer integrals and on-site energies. Here we present a detailed computational study on the accuracy and efficiency of density-functional theory based approaches to the determination of intermolecular transfer integrals. First, it is demonstrated how these can be obtained from quantum-chemistry calculations by forming the expectation value of a dimer Fock operator with frontier orbitals of two neighboring monomers based on a projective approach. We then consider the prototypical example of one pair out of a larger morphology of Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium (Alq3) and study the influence of computational parameters, e.g. the choice of basis sets, exchange-correlation functional, and convergence criteria, on the calculated transfer integrals. The respective accuracies and efficiencies are compared in order to derive an optimal strategy for future simulations based on the full morphology.

Baumeier, Bjoern; Andrienko, Denis [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany)

2010-07-01

18

Theoretical study of intermolecular energy transfer involving electronically excited molecules: He(1S) + H2(B 1?/sub u/+)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To further understanding of gas phase collision dynamics involving electronically-excited molecules, a fully quantum mechanical study of He + H2(B 1?/sub u/+) was undertaken. Iterative natural orbital configuration interaction (CI) calculations were performed to obtain the interaction potential between He and H2(B 1?/sub u/+). The potential energy surface (PES) is highly anisotropic and has a van der Waals well of about 0.03 eV for C/sub 2v/ approach. Avoided PES crossings occur with He + H2(E,F 1?/sub g/+) and with He + H2(X 1?/sub g/+) and cause a local maximum and a deep minimum in the He + H2(B 1?/sub u/+) PES, respectively. The crossing with He + H2(X 1?/sub g/+) provides a mechanism for fluorescence quenching. The computed CI energies were combined with previous multi-reference double excitation CI calculations and fit with analytic functions for convenience in scattering calculations. Accurate dipole polarizabilities and quadrupole moment of H2(B 1?/sub u/+) were computed for use in the multipole expansion, which is the analytic form of the long-range PES. 129 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs

19

Effects of competition for charge capture from the matrix on intermolecular electron-tunneling reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A general method is presented for correcting for the direct capture of matrix charges by the acceptor in an intermolecular electron-transfer reaction in a rigid medium. The method is based on a two-step electron-tunneling model that takes into account the correlation between matrix charge capture and intermolecular electron transfer. As an experimental test of the method, electron transfer from the anion of cinnamaldehyde to neutral pryomellitic dianhydride was studied in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran glass at 77/sup 0/K. Good agreement between the model and the experimental kinetic results was obtained.

Huddleston, R.K.; Miller, J.R.

1982-04-15

20

Intermolecular Hydrogen Transfer in Isobutane Hydrate  

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Full Text Available Electron spin resonance (ESR spectra of butyl radicals induced with ?-ray irradiation in the simple isobutane (2-methylpropane hydrate (prepared with deuterated water were investigated. Isothermal annealing results of the ?-ray-irradiated isobutane hydrate reveal that the isobutyl radical in a large cage withdraws a hydrogen atom from the isobutane molecule through shared hexagonal-faces of adjacent large cages. During this “hydrogen picking” process, the isobutyl radical is apparently transformed into a tert-butyl radical, while the sum of isobutyl and tert-butyl radicals remains constant. The apparent transformation from isobutyl to tert-butyl radicals is an irreversible first-order reaction and the activation energy was estimated to be 35 ± 3 kJ/mol, which was in agreement with the activation energy (39 ± 5 kJ/mol of hydrogen picking in the ?-ray-irradiated propane hydrate with deuterated water.

Takeshi Sugahara

2012-05-01

21

Intermolecular proton transfer in anionic complexes of uracil with alcohols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of eighteen alcohols (ROH) has been designed with an enthalpy of deprotonation (HDP) in a range of 13.8-16.3 eV. The effects of excess electron attachment to the binary alcohol-uracil (ROH...U) complexes have been studied at the density functional level with a B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and at the second order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory level. The photoelectron spectra of anionic complexes of uracil with three alcohols (ethanol, 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoroethanol and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol) have been measured with 2.54 eV photons. For ROHs with deprotonation enthalpies larger than 14.8 eV only the ROH...U- minimum exists on the potential energy surface of the anionic complex. For alcohols with deprotonation enthalpies in a range of 14.3-14.8 eV two minima might exist on the anionic potential energy surface, which correspond to the RO-...HU. and ROH...U- structures. For ROHs with deprotonation enthalpies smaller than 14.3 eV, the excess electron attachment to the ROH...U complex always induces a barrier-free proton transfer from the hydroxyl group of ROH to the O8 atom of U, with the product being RO-...HU.. A driving force for the intermolecular proton transfer is to stabilize the excess negative charge localized on a orbital of uracil. Therefore, these complexes with proton transferred to the anionic uracil are characterized by larger values of electron vertcterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy (VDE). The values of VDE for anionic complexes span a range from 1.0 to 2.3 eV and roughly correlate with the acidity of alcohols. However, there is a gap of ?0.5 eV in the values of VDE, which separates the two families, ROH...U- and RO-...HU., of anionic complexes. The energy of stabilization for the anionic complexes spans a range from 0.6 to 1.7 eV and roughly correlates with the acidity of alcohols. The measured photoelectron spectra are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions

22

Fluorine-Substituted Phenols as Probes to Study Intermolecular Proton Transfer Induced by Excess Electron Attachment to Uracil-Phenol Complexes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiments suggest that low-energy electrons, possibly localized on nucleic acid bases, induce DNA damage. The results of our recent studies strongly suggest that the excess electron attachment to the complex of a nucleic acid base with an amino acid can induce a barrier-free proton transfer (BFPT from the amino acid to the O8 of uracil. The driving force for the proton transfer is to stabilize the excess electron localized on a ?* orbital. Our further studies also demonstrated that BFPT occurs in anionic complexes of uracil with alanine, formic acid, as well as H2Se and H2S. We briefly determined factors governing the occurrence of proton transfer in complexes between anionic nucleic acid bases (NABs and proton donors. We found that the occurrence of BFPT in the uracil complexes is an outcome of the interplay between the deprotonation energy of a proton donor and the protonation energy of the anion of uracil. The density functional theory (DFT was applied as our research method. The B3LYP and MPW1K exchange-correlation functionals with 6-31++G** (5d basis set were used. The substitution of five hydrogen atoms with fluorine atoms in phenol molecule decreases the energy of deprotonation from 15.3 eV to 14.4 eV. There are 5 groups of F-substituted phenol isomers and 19 structures in total. These 19 molecules provide fine grid on the scale of deprotonation energy and can be used as a probe to study the BFPT phenomenon. In the case of uracil-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenol and uracil-2,4,6-trifluorophenol complexes, the excess electron attachment can induce BFPT from the hydroxyl group to the O8 atom of U, with the products being a hydrogenated uracil and a deprotonated fluorophenol. No BFPT is predicted for the anions of other uracil-phenol complexes. The estimated critical value of deprotonation energy of a F-substituted phenol for which BFPT takes place is 14.86-15.38 eV. Further studies can be preformed to obtain a higher accuracy of this estimation.

Maciej Haranczyk

2004-07-01

23

Intermolecular electron transfer between coumarin dyes and aromatic amines in Triton-X-100 micellar solutions: Evidence for Marcus inverted region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) between coumarin dyes and aromatic amines has been investigated in Triton-X-100 micellar solutions and the results have been compared with those observed earlier in homogeneous medium. Significant static quenching of the coumarin fluorescence due to the presence of high concentration of amines around the coumarin fluorophore in the micelles has been observed in steady-state fluorescence studies. Time-resolved studies with nanosecond resolutions mostly show the dynamic part of the quenching for the excited coumarin dyes by the amine quenchers. A correlation of the quenching rate constants, estimated from the time-resolved measurements, with the free energy changes (?G0) of the ET reactions shows the typical bell shaped curve as predicted by Marcus outer-sphere ET theory. The inversion in the ET rates for the present systems occurs at an exergonicity (-?G0) of ?0.7-0.8 eV, which is unusually low considering the polarity of the Palisade layer of the micelles where the reactants reside. Present results have been rationalized on the basis of the two dimensional ET model assuming that the solvent relaxation in micellar media is much slower than the rate of the ET process. Detailed analysis of the experimental data shows that the diffusional model of the bimolecular quenching kinetics is not applicable for the ET reactions in the micellar solutions. In the present systems, the reactions can be better visualized as reactions can be better visualized as equivalent to intramolecular electron transfer processes, with statistical distribution of the donors and acceptors in the micelles. A low electron coupling (Vel) parameter is estimated from the correlation of the experimentally observed and the theoretically calculated ET rates, which indicates that the average donor-acceptor separation in the micellar ET reactions is substantially larger than for the donor-acceptor contact distance. Comparison of the Vel values in the micellar solution and in the donor-acceptor close contact suggests that there is an intervention of a surfactant chain between the interacting donor and acceptor in the micellar ET reaction

24

Photo-induced intermolecular charge transfer in porphyrin complexes  

CERN Document Server

Optical excitation of the sequential supermolecule H_2P-ZnP-Q induces an electron transfer from the free-base porphyrin (H_2P) to the quinone (Q) via the zinc porphyrin (ZnP). This process is modeled by equations of motion for the reduced density matrix which are solved numerically and approximately analytically. These two solutions agree very well in a great region of parameter space. It is shown that for the majority of solvents the electron transfer occurs with the superexchange mechanism.

Schreiber, M; Kleinekathöfer, U; Schreiber, Michael; Kilin, Dmitry; Kleinekathoefer, Ulrich

2000-01-01

25

Intermolecular resonance energy transfer in the presence of a dielectric cylinder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a Green's tensor method, we investigate the rate of resonance electronic energy transfer between two molecules near a dielectric cylinder. Both the case of a real and frequency-independent dielectric constant ? and the case of a Drude-Lorentz model for ?(?) are considered, the latter case including dispersion and absorption. If the donor is placed at a fixed position near the cylinder, we find that the energy transfer rate to the acceptor is enhanced compared to its vacuum value in a number of discrete hotspots, centered at the cylinder's surface. In the absence of dispersion and absorption the rate of energy transfer may be enhanced at most a few times. On the other hand, for the Drude-Lorentz model the enhancement may be huge (up to 106) and the hotspots are sharply localized at the surface. We show that these observations can be explained from the fact that in the resonance region of the Drude-Lorentz dielectric surface plasmons occur, which play the dominant role in transferring the electronic energy between the donor and the acceptor. The dependence of the energy transfer rate on the molecular transition frequency is investigated as well. For small intermolecular distances, the cylinder hardly affects the transfer rate, independent of frequency. For larger distances, the frequency dependence is quite strong, in particular in the stop-gap region. The role of the intermolecular distance in the frequency dependence may be explained qualitatively endence may be explained qualitatively using Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to calculate the spread in the frequencies of the intermediate photons.

26

Effects of intermolecular interaction on inelastic electron tunneling spectra  

Science.gov (United States)

We have examined the effects of intermolecular interactions on the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) of model systems: a pair of benzenethiol or a pair of benzenedithiol sandwiched between gold electrodes. The dependence of the IETS on the mutual position of and distance between the paired molecules has been predicted and discussed in detailed. It is shown that, although in most cases, there are clear spectral fingerprints present which allow identification of the actual structures of the molecules inside the junction. Caution must be exercised since some characteristic lines can disappear at certain symmetries. The importance of theoretical simulation is emphasized.

Kula, Mathias; Luo, Yi

2008-02-01

27

Intra- and intermolecular proton transfer in methyl-2-hydroxynicotinate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spectral characteristics of methyl 2-hydroxynicotinate (MEHNA) have been studied using absorption, fluorescence excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as, using single photon counting nanosecond spectrofluorimeter. MEHNA is present as enol in less polar solvents and keto in polar media. In non-polar solvents, large Stokes shifted fluorescence band is assigned to phototautomer, formed by excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT), whereas fluorescence is only observed from keto form in polar solvents. In aqueous and polar solvents monocation (MC) is formed by protonating the exo carbonyl oxygen atom in the ground state (S0) and in the first excited singlet state (S1), MC is obtained by protonating carbonyl oxygen atom of the ester. It is formed by ESIPT from exo carbonyl proton to carbonyl oxygen atom of the ester. Dication is formed by protonating both the oxygen atoms. Two kinds of monoanions formed by deprotonating phenolic proton or >N-H proton of keto suggest the presence of enol and keto in aqueous solution. In cyclohexane MC is formed by protonating carbonyl oxygen in both S0 and S1 states. The electronic structure calculations were performed on each species using semi-empirical quantum mechanical AM1 method and density functional theory B3LYP with 6-31G** basis set using Gaussian 98 program, along with potential energy mapping, to characterize the particular speciesar species

28

Experimental test of the competition correction for charge capture from the matrix in intermolecular electron tunneling reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Further experimental tests have been made of a previously presented method to correct for competition for charge capture from the matrix in intermolecular electron transfer (ET) reactions in rigid media. The method is based on a two-step tunneling model which takes into account the correlation between matrix charge capture and intermolecular electron transfer. The goal is to obtain reliable intermolecular ET rates as a function of distance from measurements on rigid solutions containing two randomly distributed solutes. The method should yield the same rate vs. distance function for different donor solute concentrations. Good agreement was obtained by applying the competition correction to pulse radioloysis data for the reaction of the biphenyl anion with 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF) at 77 K for donor:acceptor solute concentration ratios of 20:1 to 2:1. Worse agreement was obtained for the reaction of the biphenyl anion with phenanthrene in MTHF, in which case the reaction is slow, and its energetics are substantially influenced by solvation. For such slow reactions, accurate measurements of intermolecular ET rates require donor:acceptor solute concentration ratios so that the donor solute captures most of the matrix charges. Some biphenyl cations are produced by direct ionizations and are stable in frozen MTHF. 14 references, 4 figures, 1 table

29

Formation of an intermolecular charge-transfer compound in UHV codeposited tetramethoxypyrene and tetracyanoquinodimethane  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ultrahigh vacuum (UHV)-deposited films of the mixed phase of tetramethoxypyrene and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TMP -TCNQ ) on gold have been studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The formation of an intermolecular charge-transfer (CT) compound is evident from the appearance of new reflexes in XRD (d =0.894nm and d =0.677nm). A softening of the CN stretching vibration (redshift by 7 cm?-1) of TCNQ is visible in the IR spectra, being indicative of a CT on the order of 0.3e from TMP to TCNQ in the complex. Characteristic shifts in the electronic level positions occur in UPS and STS that are in reasonable agreement with the prediction of density-functional theory (DFT) calculations (GAUSSIAN03 with hybrid functional B3LYP). STS reveals a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap of the CT complex of about 1.25 eV being much smaller than the gaps (>3.0eV) of the pure moieties. The electron-injection and hole-injection barriers are 0.3 eV and 0.5 eV, respectively. Systematic differences in the positions of the HOMOs determined by UPS and STS are discussed in terms of the different information content of the two methods. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Medjanik, K.; Perkert, S.

2010-01-01

30

Enantioselective imidation of sulfides via enzyme-catalyzed intermolecular nitrogen-atom transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Engineering enzymes with novel reaction modes promises to expand the applications of biocatalysis in chemical synthesis and will enhance our understanding of how enzymes acquire new functions. The insertion of nitrogen-containing functional groups into unactivated C-H bonds is not catalyzed by known enzymes but was recently demonstrated using engineered variants of cytochrome P450BM3 (CYP102A1) from Bacillus megaterium. Here, we extend this novel P450-catalyzed reaction to include intermolecular insertion of nitrogen into thioethers to form sulfimides. An examination of the reactivity of different P450BM3 variants toward a range of substrates demonstrates that electronic properties of the substrates are important in this novel enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Moreover, amino acid substitutions have a large effect on the rate and stereoselectivity of sulfimidation, demonstrating that the protein plays a key role in determining reactivity and selectivity. These results provide a stepping stone for engineering more complex nitrogen-atom-transfer reactions in P450 enzymes and developing a more comprehensive biocatalytic repertoire. PMID:24901646

Farwell, Christopher C; McIntosh, John A; Hyster, Todd K; Wang, Z Jane; Arnold, Frances H

2014-06-18

31

Keto-enol tautomerization and intermolecular proton transfer in photoionized cyclopentanone dimer in the gas phase  

Science.gov (United States)

Time-of-flight mass spectra of cyclopentanone and its clusters cooled in a supersonic jet expansion have been measured following 4-, 3-, and 2-photon ionizations by the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th harmonic wavelengths, respectively, of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The mass spectra reveal signatures of energetically favored keto to enol tautomerization of the molecular ion leading to intermolecular proton transfer, and this observation is found sharply dependent on the ionization wavelengths used. Electronic structure calculation predicts that in spite of the energetic preference, keto-enol conversion barrier of isolated molecular ion is high. However, the barrier is significantly reduced in a CH⋯O hydrogen-bonded dimer of the molecule. The transition states associated with tautomeric conversion of both cyclopentanone monomer and dimer cations have been identified by means of intrinsic reaction co-ordinate calculation. In a supersonic jet expansion, although a weakly bound dimer is readily generated, the corresponding cation and also the protonated counterpart are observed only for ionization by 532 nm. For other two ionization wavelengths, these species do not register in the mass spectra, where the competing reaction channels via ?-cleavage of the ring become dominant. In contrast to the report of a recent study, we notice that the intact molecular ion largely survives fragmentations when ionized from the 2-photon resonant 3p Rydberg state as intermediate using nanosecond laser pulses, and the corresponding resonant 3-photon ionization spectrum has been recorded probing the intact molecular ion.

Ghosh, Arup K.; Chatterjee, Piyali; Chakraborty, Tapas

2014-07-01

32

Size-extensive polarizabilities with intermolecular charge transfer in a fluctuating-charge model  

CERN Document Server

Fluctuating-charge models have been used to model polarization effects in molecular mechanics methods. However, they overestimate polarizabilities in large systems. Previous attempts to remedy this have been at the expense of forbidding intermolecular charge-transfer. Here, we investigate this lack of size-extensivity and show that the neglect of terms arising from charge conservation is partly responsible; these terms are also vital for maintaining the correct translational symmetries of the dipole moment and polarizability that classical electrostatic theory requires. Also, QTPIE demonstrates linear-scaling polarizabilities when coupling the external electric field in a manner that treats its potential as a perturbation of the atomic electronegativities. Thus for the first time, we have a fluctuating-charge model that predicts size-extensive dipole polarizabilities, yet allows intermolecular charge-transfer.

Chen, Jiahao

2008-01-01

33

Intermolecular energy transfer in the presence of dispersing and absorbing media  

CERN Document Server

By making use of the Green function concept of quantization of the electromagnetic field in Kramers--Kronig consistent media, a rigorous quantum mechanical derivation of the rate of intermolecular energy transfer in the presence of arbitrarily shaped, dispersing, and absorbing material bodies is given. Applications to bulk material, multi-slab planar structures, and microspheres are studied. It is shown that when the two molecules are near a planar interface, then surface-guided waves can strongly affect the energy transfer and essentially modify both the (F\\"{o}rster) short-range $R^{-6}$ dependence of the transfer rate and the long-range $R^{-2}$ dependence, which are typically observed in free space. In particular, enhancement (inhibition) of energy transfer can be accompanied by inhibition (enhancement) of donor decay. Results for four- and five-layered planar structures are given and compared with experimental results. Finally, the energy transfer between two molecules located at diametrically opposite p...

Dung, H T; Welsch, D G; Dung, Ho Trung; Kn\\"{o}ll, Ludwig; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar

2002-01-01

34

Photochemistry on surfaces. Intermolecular energy electron transfer processes between excited Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} and H-aggregates of cresyl violet on SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} colloids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cresyl violet, a cationic dye (CV{sup +}), forms H-aggregates on the negatively charged SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} colloids. These aggregates exhibit broad absorbance around 520 nm. By coadsorbing a sensitizer, Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, we are able to characterize the triplet excited state and reduced form of dye-aggregates on the colloidal SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} suspensions. On SiO{sub 2} surfaces, the excited state quenching of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} by dye-aggregates proceeds via an energy transfer mechanism. Picosecond laser flash photolysis experiments indicate that such a surface-promoted energy transfer is completed within 20 ps. On the other hand dye-aggregates adsorbed onto SnO{sub 2} colloids undergo photosensitized reduction since the excited sensitizer, Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+}, is efficiently quenched by the semiconductor support. The role of support material in promoting energy and electron transfer processes is described. 87 refs., 11 figs.

Liu, D.; Hug, G.L.; Kamat, P.V. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

1995-11-09

35

Intramolecular and lateral intermolecular hole transfer at the sensitized TiO2 interface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characterization of the redox properties of TiO2 interfaces sensitized to visible light by a series of cyclometalated ruthenium polypyridyl compounds containing both a terpyridyl ligand with three carboxylic acid/carboxylate or methyl ester groups for surface binding and a tridentate cyclometalated ligand with a conjugated triarylamine (NAr3) donor group is described. Spectroelectrochemical studies revealed non-Nernstian behavior with nonideality factors of 1.37 ± 0.08 for the Ru(III/II) couple and 1.15 ± 0.09 for the NAr3(•+/0) couple. Pulsed light excitation of the sensitized thin films resulted in rapid excited-state injection (k(inj) > 10(8) s(-1)) and in some cases hole transfer to NAr3 [TiO2(e(-))/Ru(III)-NAr3 ? TiO2(e(-))/Ru(II)-NAr3(•+)]. The rate constants for charge recombination [TiO2(e(-))/Ru(III)-NAr3 ? TiO2/Ru(II)-NAr3 or TiO2(e(-))/Ru(II)-NAr3(•+) ? TiO2/Ru(II)-NAr3] were insensitive to the identity of the cyclometalated compound, while the open-circuit photovoltage was significantly larger for the compound with the highest quantum yield for hole transfer, behavior attributed to a larger dipole moment change (?? = 7.7 D). Visible-light excitation under conditions where the Ru(III) centers were oxidized resulted in injection into TiO2 [TiO2/Ru(III)-NAr3 + h? ? TiO2(e(-))/Ru(III)-NAr3(•+)] followed by rapid back interfacial electron transfer to another oxidized compound that had not undergone excited-state injection [TiO2(e(-))/Ru(III)-NAr3 ? TiO2/Ru(II)-NAr3]. The net effect was the photogeneration of equal numbers of fully reduced and fully oxidized compounds. Lateral intermolecular hole hopping (TiO2/Ru(II)-NAr3 + TiO2/Ru(III)-NAr3(•+) ? 2TiO2/Ru(III)-NAr3) was observed spectroscopically and was modeled by Monte Carlo simulations that revealed an effective hole hopping rate of (130 ns)(-1). PMID:24367914

Hu, Ke; Robson, Kiyoshi C D; Beauvilliers, Evan E; Schott, Eduardo; Zarate, Ximena; Arratia-Perez, Ramiro; Berlinguette, Curtis P; Meyer, Gerald J

2014-01-22

36

Electron transfer in peptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review, we discuss the factors that influence electron transfer in peptides. We summarize experimental results from solution and surface studies and highlight the ongoing debate on the mechanistic aspects of this fundamental reaction. Here, we provide a balanced approach that remains unbiased and does not favor one mechanistic view over another. Support for a putative hopping mechanism in which an electron transfers in a stepwise manner is contrasted with experimental results that support electron tunneling or even some form of ballistic transfer or a pathway transfer for an electron between donor and acceptor sites. In some cases, experimental evidence suggests that a change in the electron transfer mechanism occurs as a result of donor-acceptor separation. However, this common understanding of the switch between tunneling and hopping as a function of chain length is not sufficient for explaining electron transfer in peptides. Apart from chain length, several other factors such as the extent of the secondary structure, backbone conformation, dipole orientation, the presence of special amino acids, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamic properties of a peptide also influence the rate and mode of electron transfer in peptides. Electron transfer plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems, so its control is a fundamental task in bioelectrochemical systems, the design of peptide based sensors and molecular junctions. Therefore, this topic is at the heart of a number of biological and technological processes and thus remains of vital interest. PMID:25619931

Shah, Afzal; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Martic, Sanela; Munir, Azeema; Shahzad, Suniya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

2015-02-10

37

Electron paramagnetic resonance of photocatalytic reaction which involve electron transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transient radicals generated under photocatalytic reactions in a polar solvent and their electronically spinned polarization were discussed under UV irradiation by using EPR and N2 gas pulse laser time-divided EPR. The reaction is a reaction of electron transfer from such amines as DABCO or electron donor molecules of SO3{sup -} to such electron accepting compounds as 1,4-benzoquinone and maleic anhydride under the presence of photocatalysts (triple photosensitizers) such as benzophenone and xanthone (XT). Spin polarized cation radicals of DABCO and radical anions of XT were detected in association with one electron transfer. A triple mechanism lies in the spinned polarization of both radicals, and transient XT in the triple state begin the electron transfer reaction. Photo-excited XT acts as a photocatalyst in one electron transfer reaction, the triple XT turns into an electron accepting body, and the transient anion radicals of XT become the electron donor. The XT(S) acts as a photocatalyst in the inter-molecular electron transfer from amine (D) to quinone (A). Its reaction is expressed by the following formula: D + S{sup *} + A{yields}D{sup dot +}+S+A{sup dot -} (where S{sup *} denotes a photo-excited state). 53 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

Kaise, M. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

1995-10-13

38

Intermolecular proton shuttling in excited state proton transfer reactions: insights from theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanism of base to base intermolecular proton shuttling occurring in the excited state proton transfer reaction between 7-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin (CouOH) and concentrated 1-methylimidazole base (1-MeId) in toluene solution is disclosed here by means of a computational approach based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time Dependent DFT (TD-DFT). These methods allow us to characterize both the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces along the proton shuttling coordinate, and to assess the nature of the emitting species in the presence of an excess of 1-MeId. As a result, the tautomerism of CouOH is found to be photo-activated and, from a mechanistic point of view, the calculations clearly show that the overall driving force of the entire shuttling is the coumarin photoacidity, which is responsible for both the first proton transfer event and the strengthening of the following chain mechanism of base to base proton hopping. PMID:24676232

Savarese, Marika; Netti, Paolo A; Rega, Nadia; Adamo, Carlo; Ciofini, Ilaria

2014-05-14

39

Theoretical study of intermolecular energy transfer involving electronically excited molecules: He(/sup 1/S) + H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/. sigma. /sub u//sup +/). [Solution for coupled channel equations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To further understanding of gas phase collision dynamics involving electronically-excited molecules, a fully quantum mechanical study of He + H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/) was undertaken. Iterative natural orbital configuration interaction (CI) calculations were performed to obtain the interaction potential between He and H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/). The potential energy surface (PES) is highly anisotropic and has a van der Waals well of about 0.03 eV for C/sub 2v/ approach. Avoided PES crossings occur with He + H/sub 2/(E,F /sup 1/..sigma../sub g//sup +/) and with He + H/sub 2/(X /sup 1/..sigma../sub g//sup +/) and cause a local maximum and a deep minimum in the He + H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/) PES, respectively. The crossing with He + H/sub 2/(X /sup 1/..sigma../sub g//sup +/) provides a mechanism for fluorescence quenching. The computed CI energies were combined with previous multi-reference double excitation CI calculations and fit with analytic functions for convenience in scattering calculations. Accurate dipole polarizabilities and quadrupole moment of H/sub 2/(B /sup 1/..sigma../sub u//sup +/) were computed for use in the multipole expansion, which is the analytic form of the long-range PES. 129 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs.

Grimes, R.M.

1986-11-01

40

Nonadiabatic anharmonic electron transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of an inner sphere, local mode vibration on an electron transfer is modeled using the nonadiabatic transition probability (rate) expression together with both the anharmonic Morse and the harmonic oscillator potential. For an anharmonic inner sphere mode, a variational analysis uses harmonic oscillator basis functions to overcome the difficulties evaluating Morse-model Franck-Condon overlap factors. Individual matrix elements are computed with the use of new, fast, robust, and flexible recurrence relations. The analysis therefore readily addresses changes in frequency and/or displacement of oscillator minimums in the different electron transfer states. Direct summation of the individual Boltzmann weighted Franck-Condon contributions avoids the limitations inherent in the use of the familiar high-temperature, Gaussian form of the rate constant. The effect of harmonic versus anharmonic inner sphere modes on the electron transfer is readily seen, especially in the exoergic, inverted region. The behavior of the transition probability can also be displayed as a surface for all temperatures and values of the driving force/exoergicity {Delta}=-{Delta}G. The temperature insensitivity of the transfer rate is clearly seen when the exoergicity equals the collective reorganization energy ({Delta}={Lambda}{sub s}) along a maximum ln (w) vs. {Delta} ridge of the surface. The surface also reveals additional regions for {Delta} where ln (w) appears to be insensitive to temperature, or effectively activationless, for some kinds of inner sphere contributions.

Schmidt, P. P. [Molecular Physics Research, 6547 Kristina Ursula Court, Falls Church, Virginia 22044 (United States)

2013-03-28

41

Intramolecular electron transfer in bipyridinium disulfides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reductive cleavage of disulfide bonds is an important step in many biological and chemical processes. Whether cleavage occurs stepwise or concertedly with electron transfer is of interest. Also of interest is whether the disulfide bond is reduced directly by intermolecular electron transfer from an external reducing agent or mediated intramolecularly by internal electron transfer from another redox-active moiety elsewhere within the molecule. The electrochemical reductions of 4,4'-bipyridyl-3,3'-disulfide (1) and the di-N-methylated derivative (2(2+)) have been studied in acetonitrile. Simulations of the cyclic voltammograms in combination with DFT (density functional theory) computations provide a consistent model of the reductive processes. Compound 1 undergoes reduction directly at the disulfide moiety with a substantially more negative potential for the first electron than for the second electron, resulting in an overall two-electron reduction and rapid cleavage of the S-S bond to form the dithiolate. In contrast, compound 2(2+) is reduced at less negative potential than 1 and at the dimethyl bipyridinium moiety rather than at the disulfide moiety. Most interesting, the second reduction of the bipyridinium moiety results in a fast and reversible intramolecular two-electron transfer to reduce the disulfide moiety and form the dithiolate. Thus, the redox-active bipyridinium moiety provides a low energy pathway for reductive cleavage of the S-S bond that avoids the highly negative potential for the first direct electron reduction. Following the intramolecular two-electron transfer and cleavage of the S-S bond the bipyridinium undergoes two additional reversible reductions at more negative potentials. PMID:24528295

Hall, Gabriel B; Kottani, Rudresha; Felton, Greg A N; Yamamoto, Takuhei; Evans, Dennis H; Glass, Richard S; Lichtenberger, Dennis L

2014-03-12

42

The inclusion of electron correlation in intermolecular potentials: Applications to the formamide dimer and liquid formamide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A test of the quality of the electrostatic properties and polarizabilities used in the nonempirical molecular orbital (NEMO) potential is carried out for formamide by calculating the molecular dipole moment and polarizability at the second-order Moller-Plesset (MP2) level of theory. The molecular dipole moment is 11% lower at the MP2 level than at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level, whereas the isotropic part of the polarizability is increased by 36% by adding electron correlation and using a considerably larger basis set. The atomic charges, dipole moments and polarizabilities obtained at the HF level are rescaled to get the correct molecular properties at the MP2 level. The potential minimum for the cyclic dimer of formamide is -17.50 kcal/mol with the MP2-scaled properties and is significantly lower than other potentials give. Two intermolecular potentials are constructed and used in subsequent molecular dynamics simulations: one with the regular NEMO potential and the other with the rescaled MP2 properties. A damping of the electrostatic field at short intermolecular distances is included in the present NEMO model. The average energies for liquid formamide are lower for the MP2-scaled model and are in good agreement with experimental results. The lowering of the simulation energy for the MP2-scaled potential indicates the strong dispersive interactions in liquid formamide.

Brdarski, S.; Åstrand, P.-O.

2000-01-01

43

Determination of stepsize parameters for intermolecular vibrational energy transfer: Progress report, May 1, 1987-April 30, 1988  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intermolecular vibrational energy transfer for highly excited polyatomic molecules is involved in any mechanism in which excitation energy is required (pyrolysis) or in which energy must be removed from a hot source (cooling). The average energy removed per collision, , is a useful quantity to compare efficiency for energy transfer. The objectives of this work are: to determine the dependence of on excitation energy and on the molecular complexity (number of vibrational modes) of substrate and deactivator; to assess the importance of intermolecular attractions (complex formation) on vibrational energy transfer; to obtain detailed information on the energy distribution after collision and to evaluate the importance of on high-temperature unimolecular reactions. This information will be obtained by monitoring the time dependence of the infrared emission, ultraviolet absorption, refractive index and pressure. The results from these complementary techniques will be benchmarked with values from previous studies on the relaxation of chemically activated alkyl and fluoroalkyl radicals. Trajectory calculations simulating energy transfer are being performed for ''generic'' substrate/deactivator pairs to provide additional details and insight on the important parameters. Model calculations are also being performed to determine the feasibility of obtaining information from experimental data for high-temperature unimolecular reactions

44

Reversible electron-induced cis-trans isomerization mediated by intermolecular interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reversible isomerization processes are rarely found when organic molecular switches are adsorbed on metal surfaces. One obstacle is the large energy difference of the isomeric forms, since usually the most planar conformer has the largest adsorption energy. In the example of an imine derivative, we show a strategy for also stabilizing the non-planar isomer by intermolecular bonding to its neighbors. Tunneling electrons from the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope can then be used to induce reversible switching between the trans and cis-like state. Supported by model force-field calculations, we illustrate that the most probable cause of the enhanced stability of the three-dimensional cis state at specific adsorption sites is the electrostatic interaction with N sites of the neighboring molecule.

45

Excited-state intermolecular proton transfer of firefly luciferin V. Direct proton transfer to fluoride and other mild bases.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the direct proton transfer (PT) from electronically excited D-luciferin to several mild bases. The fluorescence up-conversion technique is used to measure the rise and decay of the fluorescence signals of the protonated and deprotonated species of D-luciferin. From a base concentration of 0.25 M or higher the proton transfer rates to the fluoride, dihdyrogen phosphate or acetate bases are fast and comparable. The fluorescence signals are nonexponential and complex. We suggest that the fastest decay component arises from a direct proton transfer process from the hydroxyl group of D-luciferin to the mild base. The proton donor and acceptor molecules form an ion pair prior to photoexcitation. Upon photoexcitation solvent rearrangement occurs on a 1 ps time-scale. The PT reaction time constant is ?2 ps for all three bases. A second decay component of about 10 ps is attributed to the proton transfer in a contact pair bridged by one water molecule. The longest decay component is due to both the excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) to the solvent and the diffusion-assisted PT process between a photoacid and a base pair positioned remotely from each other prior to photoexcitation. PMID:21630647

Presiado, Itay; Gepshtein, Rinat; Erez, Yuval; Huppert, Dan

2011-07-01

46

Electron transfer: Lower tunnel barriers  

Science.gov (United States)

A better understanding of electron transfer through molecules could provide the basis for many technological breakthroughs. Now, the rate of electron transfer has been enhanced in a family of molecules by making them more rigid, and this phenomenon may be explained by the loss of electronic energy to vibrations.

Miller, John R.

2014-10-01

47

Intermolecular interactions and charge transfer transitions in aromatic hydrocarbon-tetracyanoethylene complexes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive theoretical study of the electronically excited states in complexes between tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and three aromatic electron donors, benzene, naphthalene and anthracene, was performed with a focus on charge transfer (CT) transitions. The results show that the algebraic diagrammatic construction method to second order (ADC(2)) provides excellent possibilities for reliable calculations of CT states. Significant improvements in the accuracy of the computed transition energies are obtained by using the scaled opposite-spin (SOS) variant of ADC(2). Solvent effects were examined on the basis of the conductor-like screening model (COSMO) which has been implemented recently in the ADC(2) method. The dielectric constant and the refractive index of dichloromethane have been chosen in the COSMO calculations to compare with experimental solvatochromic effects. The computation of optimized ground state geometries and enthalpies of formation has been performed at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) level. By comparison with experimental data and with high-level coupled-cluster methods including explicitly correlated (F12) wave functions, the importance of the SOS approach is demonstrated for the ground state as well. In the benzene-TCNE complex, the two lowest electronic excitations are of CT character whereas in the naphthalene and anthracene TCNE complexes three low-lying CT states are observed. As expected, they are strongly stabilized by the solvent. Geometry optimization in the lowest excited state allowed the calculation of fluorescence transitions. Solvent effects lead to a zero gap between S1 and S0 for the anthracene-TCNE complex. Therefore, in the series of benzene-TCNE to anthracene a change from a radiative to a nonradiative decay mechanism to the ground state is to be expected. PMID:25156236

Aquino, Adélia A J; Borges, Itamar; Nieman, Reed; Köhn, Andreas; Lischka, Hans

2014-10-14

48

Intermolecular hydrogen bond complexes by in situ charge transfer complexation of o-tolidine with picric and chloranilic acids  

Science.gov (United States)

A two new charge transfer complexes formed from the interactions between o-tolidine (o-TOL) and picric (PA) or chloranilic (CA) acids, with the compositions, [(o-TOL)(PA) 2] and [(o-TOL)(CA) 2] have been prepared. The 13C NMR, 1H NMR, 1H-Cosy, and IR show that the charge-transfer chelation occurs via the formation of chain structures O-H⋯N intermolecular hydrogen bond between 2NH 2 groups of o-TOL molecule and OH group in each PA or CA units. Photometric titration measurements concerning the two reactions in methanol were performed and the measurements show that the donor-acceptor molar ratio was found to be 1:2 using the modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The spectroscopic data were discussed in terms of formation constant, molar extinction coefficient, oscillator strength, dipole moment, standard free energy, and ionization potential. Thermal behavior of both charge transfer complexes showed that the complexes were more stable than their parents. The thermodynamic parameters were estimated from the differential thermogravimetric curves. The results indicated that the formation of molecular charge transfer complexes is spontaneous and endothermic.

Refat, Moamen S.; Saad, Hosam A.; Adam, Abdel Majid A.

2011-08-01

49

Direct observation of radical intermediates during electron transfer between DNA and a ternary copper complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The photoinduced electron transfer (PET) reaction within a ternary copper complex [Cu(phen)(Htrp)]+ (Htrp: L-tryptophanato; phen: 1,10-phenanthroline) (1) and in presence of DNA has been studied in homogeneous buffer medium and in reverse micelles. An intramolecular electron transfer occurs within the photoexcited complex (1) from tryptophan to phen. The copper complex can displace ethidium bromide from DNA backbone and on photoexcitation can oxidize DNA in a deoxygenated environment due to intermolecular electron transfer, although the intramolecular electron transfer is thermodynamically favorable. A prominent magnetic field effect (MFE) has been found even in homogeneous aqueous medium for the triplet born radicals both in case of intra and intermolecular electron transfer reactions. In case of intramolecular electron transfer the observation of MFE is similar to that of linked donor-acceptor system. However the observation of MFE for the intermolecular electron transfer between non-covalently bound complex-DNA systems is rather rare. Some non-covalent weak interaction, e.g. hydrophobic interaction between the phen ligand and DNA base pairs and electrostatic force of attraction between [Cu(phen)(Htrp)]+ complex and DNA may lead to partial intercalation of the copper complex within DNA that is responsible for such a rare observation. - Research Highlights: ? On photoexcitation intra-molecular electron transfer occurs from tryptophan (Htrp) toransfer occurs from tryptophan (Htrp) to phenanthroline (phen) within [Cu(phen)(Htrp)]ClO4. ? In presence of CT DNA a ground state complex is formed between CT DNA and ternary copper compound. ? On photoexcitation of the complex an intermolecular electron transfer occurs from DNA base to phen instead of Htrp. ? Magnetic field effect has been used to detect the triplet born radical ions in solution and in reverse micelles.

50

Direct observation of radical intermediates during electron transfer between DNA and a ternary copper complex  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The photoinduced electron transfer (PET) reaction within a ternary copper complex [Cu(phen)(Htrp)]{sup +} (Htrp: L-tryptophanato; phen: 1,10-phenanthroline) (1) and in presence of DNA has been studied in homogeneous buffer medium and in reverse micelles. An intramolecular electron transfer occurs within the photoexcited complex (1) from tryptophan to phen. The copper complex can displace ethidium bromide from DNA backbone and on photoexcitation can oxidize DNA in a deoxygenated environment due to intermolecular electron transfer, although the intramolecular electron transfer is thermodynamically favorable. A prominent magnetic field effect (MFE) has been found even in homogeneous aqueous medium for the triplet born radicals both in case of intra and intermolecular electron transfer reactions. In case of intramolecular electron transfer the observation of MFE is similar to that of linked donor-acceptor system. However the observation of MFE for the intermolecular electron transfer between non-covalently bound complex-DNA systems is rather rare. Some non-covalent weak interaction, e.g. hydrophobic interaction between the phen ligand and DNA base pairs and electrostatic force of attraction between [Cu(phen)(Htrp)]{sup +} complex and DNA may lead to partial intercalation of the copper complex within DNA that is responsible for such a rare observation. - Research Highlights: On photoexcitation intra-molecular electron transfer occurs from tryptophan (Htrp) to phenanthroline (phen) within [Cu(phen)(Htrp)]ClO{sub 4}. In presence of CT DNA a ground state complex is formed between CT DNA and ternary copper compound. On photoexcitation of the complex an intermolecular electron transfer occurs from DNA base to phen instead of Htrp. Magnetic field effect has been used to detect the triplet born radical ions in solution and in reverse micelles.

Dey, Debarati [Department of Chemistry and Environment, Heritage Institute of Technology, Chowbaga Road, Anandapur, P.O. East Kolkata Township, Kolkata-700107 (India); Basu, Samita, E-mail: samita.basu@saha.ac.i [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

2011-04-15

51

Intramolecular photo-switching and intermolecular energy transfer as primary photoevents in photoreceptive processes: The case of Euglena gracilis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we report the results of measurements performed by FLIM on the photoreceptor of Euglenagracilis. This organelle consists of optically bistable proteins, characterized by two thermally stable isomeric forms: A498, non fluorescent and B462, fluorescent. Our data indicate that the primary photoevent of Euglena photoreception upon photon absorption consists of two contemporaneous different phenomena: an intramolecular photo-switch (i.e., A498 becomes B462), and a intermolecular and unidirectional Forster-type energy transfer. During the FRET process, the fluorescent B462 form acts as donor for the non-fluorescent A498 form of the protein nearby, which acts as acceptor. We hypothesize that in nature these phenomena follow each other with a domino progression along the orderly organized and closely packed proteins in the photoreceptor layer(s), modulating the isomeric composition of the photoreceptive protein pool. This mechanism guarantees that few photons are sufficient to produce a signal detectable by the cell.

52

Intra- and intermolecular proton transfer in 2,6-diaminopyridinium 4-hydroxypyridin-1-ium-2,6-dicarboxylate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chelidamic acid (4-hydroxypyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and 2,6-diaminopyridine react to form the title salt, C5H8N3+·C7H4NO5?; there are two formula units in the asymmetric unit. The pyridine N atom of 2,6-diaminopyridine is protonated whereas chelidamic acid is deprotonated at both carboxylate groups but protonated at the N atom; the reaction involves intra- and intermolecular proton transfer. In the crystal, each 2,6-diaminopyridinium cation participates in five strong N—H...O hydrogen bonds (including one bifurcated hydrogen bond. The crystal structure also features strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the chelidamate anions, leading to chains along the a axis.

Quoc-Cuong Ton

2012-10-01

53

Intermolecular Attractions  

Science.gov (United States)

Intermolecular attractions are responsible for everything from the temperatures at which substances boil to the power of your immune system in recognizing pathogens and the climbing ability of geckos! Feel the strength of London dispersion and dipole-dipole attractions, explore how intermolecular attractions affect boiling point and solubility, and investigate the special role of hydrogen bonds in DNA. Finally, design your own antibody based on intermolecular attractions.

The Concord Consortium

2011-12-11

54

Rhodium-catalyzed acyl-transfer reaction between benzyl ketones and thioesters: synthesis of unsymmetric ketones by ketone CO-C bond cleavage and intermolecular rearrangement.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the presence of catalytic amounts of RhH(CO)(PPh3)3 and 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene (dppBz), acyl groups were transferred between benzyl ketones and thioesters/aryl esters. The rhodium complex catalyzed the cleavage of ketone CO-C bonds and intermolecular rearrangement giving unsymmetric ketones. The acyl-transfer reaction also occurred with 1-(p-chlorophenyl)-3-(p-cyanophenyl)propane-2-one giving unsymmetric ketones. PMID:22780710

Arisawa, Mieko; Kuwajima, Manabu; Toriyama, Fumihiko; Li, Guangzhe; Yamaguchi, Masahiko

2012-07-20

55

Probing the ultrafast electron transfer at the CuPc/Au(111) interface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Core-hole clock spectroscopy and near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure measurements have been used to investigate the ultrafast electron transfer dynamics at the Copper(II) phthalocyanine (CuPc)/Au(111) interface. It was found that the strong electronic coupling between the first layer of CuPc molecules and Au(111) substrate favors ultrafast electron transfer from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the CuPc molecules to the conduction band of Au(111) in the time scale of ?6 fs. In contrast, the intermolecular electron transfer within multilayers of CuPc molecules via the weak van der Waals interaction was much slower

56

Solvation study of the non-specific lipid transfer protein from wheat by intermolecular NOEs with water and small organic molecules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) were measured between the protons of various small solvent or gas molecules and the non-specific lipid transfer protein (ns-LTP) from wheat. Intermolecular NOEs were observed with the hydrophobic pocket in the interior of wheat ns-LTP, which grew in intensity in the order cyclopropane (saturated solution) < methane (140 bar) < ethane (40 bar) < acetonitrile (5% in water) < cyclohexane (saturated solution) < benzene (saturated solution). No intermolecular NOEs were observed with dioxane (5% in water). The intermolecular NOEs were negative for all of the organic molecules tested. Intermolecular NOEs between wheat ns-LTP and water were weak or could not be distinguished from exchange-relayed NOEs. As illustrated by the NOEs with cyclohexane versus dioxane, the hydrophobic pocket in wheat ns-LTP preferably binds non-polar molecules. Yet, polar molecules like acetonitrile can also be accommodated. The pressure dependence of the NOEs between methane and wheat ns-LTP indicated incomplete occupancy, even at 190 bar methane pressure. In general, NOE intensities increased with the size of the ligand molecule and its vapor pressure. NMR of the vapor phase showed excellent resolution between the signals from the gas phase and those from the liquid phase. The vapor concentration of cyclohexane was fivefold higher than that of the dioxane solution, supporting the binding of cyclohexane versus uptake of dioxane uptake of dioxane

57

Photo-induced electron transfer between dendritic zinc(II) phthalocyanine bearing carboxylic terminal groups and methyl viologen  

Science.gov (United States)

The intermolecular electron transfer between carboxylic dendritic zinc(II) phthalocyanine bearing carboxylic terminal groups(G1-ZnPc(COOH)8) and methyl viologens (MV2+) was studied by steady-state fluorescence and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The effect of different concentrations of MV2+ on intermolecular electron transfer was investigated. The results show that the fluorescence emission of this dendritic phthalocyanine could be greatly quenched with an increasing amount of MV2+ upon excitation at 610 nm. Our study suggests that this novel dendritic phthalocyanine is an effective new electron donor and transmission complex and could be used as a potential biosensor conjugated with suitable fluorescence quencher.

Wang, Yuhua; Chen, Jiangxu; Huang, Lishan; Xie, Shusen; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

2012-12-01

58

Intermolecular energy transfer from UO22+ to Eu3+ in solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quenching constants for the UO22+ ion fluorescence by the Eu3+ ion in H2O, D2O, potassium formate and acetic acid media were determined by measuring the decrease in intensity of the 5050 A fluorescence peak and the lifetime of the UO22+ ion fluorescence. The energy transferred to the Eu3+ ion was found to be a small fraction of the energy lost by the UO22+ ion by the non-radiative processes. The variations of the quenching constants of the UO22+ ion and the fluorescence lifetimes were determined for different concentrations of potassium formate and acetic acid. These results indicate that the UO22+ ion forms inner sphere complexes with the two ligands mentioned

59

Computational study of the intramolecular proton transfer between 6-hydroxypicolinic acid tautomeric forms and intermolecular hydrogen bonding in their dimers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a density functional theory (DFT calculation of intramolecular proton transfer (IPT in 6-hydroxypicolinic acid (6HPA, 6-hydroxypyridine-2-carboxylic acid tautomeric forms. The transition state for the enol-to-keto transition is reported in the gas phase and in four different solvents. The planar and non-planar dimer forms of 6HPA keto and enol, respectively, were also studied in the gas phase The IPT reactions and dimerization processes were studied at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d level of the theory. The influence of the solvent on the tautomerization reaction of 6HPA was examined using the conductor-polarizable continuum model (CPCM. The IPT reaction in the gas phase is almost the same as in solution. The calculated dimerization energies show that the stability of 6HPA tautomer dimer structures is directly affected by the distance of intermolecular hydrogen bonding and electrostatic potential (ESP value in the tautomer dimer.

Seyed Hasan Kazemi

2013-12-01

60

Intramolecular photo-switching and intermolecular energy transfer as primary photoevents in photoreceptive processes: The case of Euglena gracilis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we report the results of measurements performed by FLIM on the photoreceptor of Euglenagracilis. This organelle consists of optically bistable proteins, characterized by two thermally stable isomeric forms: A{sub 498,} non fluorescent and B{sub 462}, fluorescent. Our data indicate that the primary photoevent of Euglena photoreception upon photon absorption consists of two contemporaneous different phenomena: an intramolecular photo-switch (i.e., A{sub 498} becomes B{sub 462}), and a intermolecular and unidirectional Forster-type energy transfer. During the FRET process, the fluorescent B{sub 462} form acts as donor for the non-fluorescent A{sub 498} form of the protein nearby, which acts as acceptor. We hypothesize that in nature these phenomena follow each other with a domino progression along the orderly organized and closely packed proteins in the photoreceptor layer(s), modulating the isomeric composition of the photoreceptive protein pool. This mechanism guarantees that few photons are sufficient to produce a signal detectable by the cell.

Mercatelli, Raffaella; Quercioli, Franco [Istituto Sistemi Complessi, CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Barsanti, Laura; Evangelista, Valter [Istituto di Biofisica, CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Coltelli, Primo [ISTI, CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Passarelli, Vincenzo; Frassanito, Anna Maria [Istituto di Biofisica, CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gualtieri, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.gualtieri@pi.ibf.cnr.it [Istituto di Biofisica, CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

2009-07-24

61

75 FR 31665 - Electronic Fund Transfers  

Science.gov (United States)

...implements the Electronic Fund Transfer...that overdraw a consumer's account...implements the Electronic Fund Transfer...without the consumer's affirmative...CFR Part 205 Consumer protection, Electronic fund...

2010-06-04

62

75 FR 9120 - Electronic Fund Transfers  

Science.gov (United States)

...implements the Electronic Fund Transfer...that overdraw a consumer's account...implements the Electronic Fund Transfer...without the consumer's affirmative...CFR Part 205 Consumer protection, Electronic fund...

2010-03-01

63

Probing intermolecular protein-protein interactions in the calcium-sensing receptor homodimer using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) belongs to family C of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. The receptor is believed to exist as a homodimer due to covalent and non-covalent interactions between the two amino terminal domains (ATDs). It is well established that agonist binding to family C receptors takes place at the ATD and that this causes the ATD dimer to twist. However, very little is known about the translation of the ATD dimer twist into G-protein coupling to the 7 transmembrane moieties (7TMs) of these receptor dimers. In this study we have attempted to delineate the agonist-induced intermolecular movements in the CaR homodimer using the new bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique, BRET2, which is based on the transference of energy from Renilla luciferase (Rluc) to the green fluorescent protein mutant GFP2. We tagged CaR with Rluc and GFP2 at different intracellular locations. Stable and highly receptor-specific BRET signals were obtained in tsA cells transfected with Rluc- and GFP2-tagged CaRs under basal conditions, indicating that CaR is constitutively dimerized. However, the signals were not enhanced by the presence of agonist. These results could indicate that at least parts of the two 7TMs of the CaR homodimer are in close proximity in the inactivated state of the receptor and do not move much relative to one another upon agonist activation. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the BRET technology is unable to register putative conformational changes in the CaR homodimer induced by agonist binding because of the bulk sizes of the Rluc and GFP2 molecules.

Jensen, Anders A.; Hansen, Jakob L

2002-01-01

64

Contra-thermodynamic behavior in intermolecular hydrogen transfer of alkylperoxy radicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantum chemical investigation of bimolecular hydrogen transfer involving alkylperoxy radicals, a key reaction family in the free-radical oxidation of hydrocarbons, was performed to establish structure-reactivity relationships. Eight different reactions were investigated featuring four different alkane substrates (methane, ethane, propane and isobutane) and two different alkylperoxy radicals (methylperoxy and iso-propylperoxy). Including forward and reverse pairs, sixteen different activation energies and enthalpies of reaction were used to formulate structure-reactivity relationships to describe this chemistry. We observed that the enthalpy of formation of loosely bound intermediate states has a strong inverse correlation with the overall heat of reaction and that this results in unique contra-thermodynamic behavior such that more exothermic reactions have higher activation barriers. A new structure-reactivity relationship was proposed that fits the calculated data extremely well: E(A)=E(o)+alphaDeltaH(rxn) where alpha=-0.10 for DeltaH(rxn)0 and E(o)=3.05 kcal mol(-1). PMID:17680581

Pfaendtner, Jim; Broadbelt, Linda J

2007-09-17

65

Explosives sensing by using electron-rich supramolecular polymers: role of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in significant enhancement of sensitivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate here that supramolecular interactions enhance the sensitivity towards detection of electron-deficient nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) over discrete analogues. NACs are the most commonly used explosive ingredients and are common constituents of many unexploded landmines used during World War II. In this study, we have synthesised a series of pyrene-based polycarboxylic acids along with their corresponding discrete esters. Due to the electron richness and the fluorescent behaviour of the pyrene moiety, all the compounds act as sensors for electron-deficient NACs through a fluorescence quenching mechanism. A Stern-Volmer quenching constant determination revealed that the carboxylic acids are more sensitive than the corresponding esters towards NACs in solution. The high sensitivity of the acids was attributed to supramolecular polymer formation through hydrogen bonding in the case of the acids, and the enhancement mechanism is based on an exciton energy migration upon excitation along the hydrogen-bond backbone. The presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the acids in solution was established by solvent-dependent fluorescence studies and dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments. In addition, the importance of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in solid-state sensing was further explored by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) experiments at the liquid-solid interface, in which structures of self-assembled monolayer of the acids and the corresponding esters were compared. The sensitivity tests revealed that these supramolecular sensors can even detect picric acid and trinitrotoluene in solution at levels as low as parts per trillion (ppt), which is much below the recommended permissible level of these constituents in drinking water. PMID:25187022

Gole, Bappaditya; Song, Wentao; Lackinger, Markus; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

2014-10-13

66

75 FR 66644 - Electronic Fund Transfers  

Science.gov (United States)

...exceptions for any class of electronic fund transfers that in the...responsibilities of participants in electronic fund transfer systems...final rule, the Board found good cause under 5 U.S.C...205 Consumer protection, Electronic fund transfers, Federal...

2010-10-29

67

Spectroscopic study on the intermolecular double proton transfer in 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine with acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine as starting material, a functionalized triazine derivative, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (NOTA) was synthesized in 14% yield through three steps: Kumada cross-coupling, Suzuki coupling and amination. Intermolecular double proton transfer of NOTA with acetic acid (HOAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in chloroform was investigated by UV–vis absorption and fluorescence emission. It is found that both NOTA/HOAc and NOTA/TFA undergo excited state double proton transfer, resulting in amino–imino tautomerization emission in excited state. - Highlights: ? A functionalized triazine derivative, 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-octyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (NOTA) was synthesized in 14% yield through three steps: Kumada cross-coupling, Suzuki coupling and amination. ? Intermolecular double proton transfer of NOTA with acetic acid (HOAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in chloroform was investigated. ? Both NOTA/HOAc and NOTA/TFA undergo excited state double proton transfer. ? Amino–imino tautomerization emission in excited state are proposed.

68

Quantum Plasmonics: Electron transfer processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmon energies can be tuned across the spectrum by simply changing the geometrical shape of a nanostructure. Plasmons can efficiently capture incident light and focus it to nanometer sized hotspots which can enhance electronic and vibrational excitations in nearby structures.[1] Another important but still relatively unexplored property of plasmons, is that they can be efficient sources of hot energetic electrons which can transfer into nearby structures and induce a variety of processes. This process is a quantum mechanical effect: the decay of plasmon quanta into electron-hole pairs. I will discuss how plasmon induced hot electrons can be used in various applications: such as to induce chemical reactions in molecules physisorbed on a nanoparticle surface;[2] to inject electrons directly into the conduction band of a nearby substrate;[3] and to induce local doping of a nearby graphene sheet.[4] References [1] N.J. Halas et al., Adv. Mat. 24(2012)4842 [2] R. Huschka et al., JACS 133(2011)12247; S. Mukherjee et al. TBP 2012 [3] M. W. Knight et al., Science 332(2011)702, Z.Y. Fang et al., NL 12(2012)3808 [4] Z.Y. Fang et al., ACS Nano 6(2012)10.1021/nn304028b

Nordlander, Peter

2013-03-01

69

Study on the oxidation and electron transfer of N-phosphoamino acids and their peptide derivatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The induced oxidation of N-phosphomethionine (NDM) in aqueous solution initiated by ·OH and Br2 ·-bar radicals etc., intermolecular electron transfer involving NDM and tryptophan(TrpH) and intramolecular electron transfer within N-phosphodipeptide derivatives (NDM-TrpOMe and NDT-MetOMe) have been investigated by using the technique of pulse radiolysis. A series of kinetic parameters have been determined and the related mechanisms have been deduced. Structurally, the effect of N-phosphoryl group on the oxidation and ET has been discussed. (author)

70

Spectral analysis of electron transfer kinetics II  

OpenAIRE

Electron transfer processes in Debye solvents are studied using a spectral analysis method recently proposed. Spectral structure of a nonadiabatic two-state diffusion equation is investigated to reveal various kinetic regimes characterized by a broad range of physical parameters; electronic coupling, energy bias, reorganization energy, and solvent relaxation rate. Within this unified framework, several kinetic behaviors of the electron transfer kinetics, including adiabatic ...

Jung, Younjoon; Cao, Jianshu

2002-01-01

71

Electron Transfer Dissociation of Oligonucleotide Cations  

OpenAIRE

Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of multi-protonated 6 - 20-mer oligonucleotides and 12- and 14-mer duplexes is compared to collision activated dissociation (CAD). ETD causes efficient charge reduction of the multi-protonated oligonucleotides in addition to limited backbone cleavages to yield sequence ions of low abundance. Subsequent CAD of the charge-reduced oligonucleotides formed upon electron transfer, in a net process termed electron transfer collision activated dissociation (ETcaD)...

Smith, Suncerae I.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

2009-01-01

72

Dynamic NMR studies of base-catalyzed intramolecular single vs. intermolecular double proton transfer of 1,3-bis(4-fluorophenyl)triazene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we explore the mechanisms of degenerate base-catalyzed intra- and intermolecular proton transfer using dynamic liquid state NMR. For this purpose, the model compound 1,3-bis(4-fluorophenyl)[1,3-15N2]triazene (1) was studied with and without the presence of dimethylamine (2), trimethylamine (3) and water, using tetrahydrofuran-d 8 and methylethylether-d 8 as solvents, down to 130 K. Compound 1 represents an analog of carboxylic acids and of diarylamidines forming cyclic dimers in which a fast double proton transfer takes place. By contrast, the structure of 1 was chosen in such a way that this double proton transfer is suppressed, thus revealing the base catalyzed transfer by dynamic 1H and 19F NMR. Surprisingly, both 2 and 3 can pick up the mobile proton of 1 at one nitrogen atom and carry it to the other nitrogen atom of 1, resulting in an intramolecular transfer process catalyzed each time by a different base molecule. Even more surprising is that the intramolecular transfer catalyzed by 2 is faster than the superimposed intermolecular double proton transfer. In the absence of added bases, a 1 is subject to a slow proton exchange with 2-amino-5,4'-difluoro-diphenyl-diazene (4) which is formed in small quantities from 1 in the presence of acid impurities. This process can be minimized by a proper sample preparation technique. The kinetic H/D isotope effects are small, especially in the cope effects are small, especially in the catalysis by 2, indicating a major heavy atom rearrangement and absence of tunneling. Semi-empirical PM3 and ab initio DFT calculations indicate a reaction pathway via a hydrogen bond switch of the protonated amine representing the transition state. The Arrhenius curves of all processes exhibit strong convex curvatures. This phenomenon is explained in terms of the hydrogen bond association of 1 with the added bases, preceding the proton transfer. At low temperatures, all catalysts are in a hydrogen bonded reactive complex with 1, and the rate constants observed equal to those of the reacting complex. However, at high temperatures, dissociation of the complex occurs, and the temperature dependence of the observed rate constants is affected also by the enthalpy of the hydrogen bond association. Finally, implications of this study for the mechanisms of enzyme proton transfers are discussed

73

Ground and excited state electron transfer dynamics  

OpenAIRE

The focus of this work is the investigation of the factors controlling electron transfer in molecular electronic systems, in particular those affecting electron transfer to and from electronically excited states. To achieve this, a number of mono- and trimetallic osmium and ruthenium complexes were synthesised and characterised. Monolayers of an osmium polypyridyl complex bound to a platinum microelectrode via a ¿rara-l,2-bis-(4-pyridyl)ethylene bridge were formed to probe ground state elect...

Brennan, Jennifer L.

2002-01-01

74

Quinone methide generation via photoinduced electron transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photochemical activation of water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives (NIs) as alkylating agents has been achieved by irradiation at 310 and 355 nm in aqueous acetonitrile. Reactivity in aqueous and neat acetonitrile has been extensively investigated by laser flash photolysis (LFP) at 355 nm, as well as by steady-state preparative irradiation at 310 nm in the presence of water, amines, thiols, and ethyl vinyl ether. Product distribution analysis revealed fairly efficient benzylation of the amines, hydration reaction, and 2-ethoxychromane generation, in the presence of ethyl vinyl ether, resulting from a [4 + 2] cycloaddition onto a transient quinone methide. Remarkably, we found that the reactivity was dramatically suppressed under the presence of oxygen and radical scavengers, such as thiols, which was usually associated with side product formation. In order to unravel the mechanism responsible for the photoreactivity of these NI-based molecules, a detailed LFP study has been carried out with the aim to characterize the transient species involved. LFP data suggest a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) involving the NI triplet excited state (?(max) 470 nm) of the NI core and the tethered quinone methide precursor (QMP) generating a radical ions pair NI(•-) (?(max) 410 nm) and QMP(•+). The latter underwent fast deprotonation to generate a detectable phenoxyl radical (?(max) 390 and 700 nm), which was efficiently reduced by the radical anion NI(•-), generating detectable QM. The mechanism proposed has been validated through a LFP investigation at 355 nm exploiting an intermolecular reaction between the photo-oxidant N-pentylnaphthalimide (NI-P) and a quaternary ammonium salt of a Mannich base as QMP (2a), in both neat and aqueous acetonitrile. Remarkably, these experiments revealed the generation of the model o-QM (?(max) 400 nm) as a long living transient mediated by the same reactivity pathway. Negligible QM generation has been observed under the very same conditions by irradiation of the QMP in the absence of the NI. Owing to the NIs redox and recognition properties, these results represent the first step toward new molecular devices capable of both biological target recognition and photoreleasing of QMs as alkylating species, under physiological conditions. PMID:21425810

Percivalle, Claudia; La Rosa, Andrea; Verga, Daniela; Doria, Filippo; Mella, Mariella; Palumbo, Manlio; Di Antonio, Marco; Freccero, Mauro

2011-05-01

75

Electron transfer kinetics at single nanoparticles  

OpenAIRE

The understanding and control of charge transfer at the very smallest scale is fundamental to nanoscience for applications such as catalysis and energy storage. However, the quantitative measurement of the kinetics of electron transfer at the nanoscale at individual free nanoparticles has not hitherto been possible. Here we describe experiments to unambiguously determine the electron transfer kinetics for the reduction of protons at single gold and silver nanoparticles of radii 7-15 nm. We sh...

Kahk, Jm; Rees, Nv; Pillay, J.; Tshikhudo, R.; Vilakazi, S.; Compton, Rg

2012-01-01

76

Two-Dimensional Free Energy Surfaces for Electron Transfer Reactions in Solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Change in intermolecular distance between electron donor (D and acceptor (A can induce intermolecular electron transfer (ET even in nonpolar solvent, where solvent orientational polarization is absent. This was shown by making simple calculations of the energies of the initial and final states of ET. In the case of polar solvent, the free energies are functions of both D-A distance and solvent orientational polarization. On the basis of 2-dimensional free energy surfaces, the relation of Marcus ET and exciplex formation is discussed. The transient effect in fluorescence quenching was measured for several D-A pairs in a nonpolar solvent. The results were analyzed by assuming a distance dependence of the ET rate that is consistent with the above model.

M. Tachiya

2008-10-01

77

Effects of Interdomain-Tether Length and Flexibility on the Kinetics of Intramolecular Electron Transfer in Human Sulfite Oxidas†  

OpenAIRE

Sulfite oxidase (SO) is a vitally important molybdenum enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of toxic sulfite to sulfate. The proposed catalytic mechanism of vertebrate SO involves two intramolecular one-electron transfer (IET) steps from the molybdenum cofactor to the iron of the integral b-type heme and two intermolecular one-electron steps to exogenous cytochrome c. In the crystal structure of chicken SO (Kisker et al., Cell, 1997, 91, 973–983), which is highly homologous to human SO (HSO)...

Johnson-winters, Kayunta; Nordstrom, Anna R.; Emesh, Safia; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Rajapakshe, Asha; Berry, Robert; Tollin, Gordon; Enemark, John H.

2010-01-01

78

Effects of inter-molecular charge-transfer excitons on the external quantum efficiency of zinc-porphyrin/C60 heterojunction photovoltaic cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have examined the structural effects of zinc-octaethylporphyrin [Zn(OEP)] films used as a donor on the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of organic heterojunction photovoltaic (OPV) cells [ITO/Zn(OEP)/C60/Al], and investigated what exactly causes the improvement of EQE. When the structure of the Zn(OEP) films changed from amorphous to crystalline, the maximum EQE increased from 36% to 42%, which is greater than that of around 35% for previously reported OPV cells using buffer materials (Peumans and Forrest 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 126). The crystallization of Zn(OEP) films is found to increase the number of inter-molecular charge-transfer (IMCT) excitons and to enlarge the mobility of carriers and IMCT excitons, thus significantly improving the EQE of the photoabsorption band under illumination due to the IMCT excitons.

79

Intra- and inter­molecular proton transfer in 2,6-diamino­pyridinium 4-hy­droxy­pyridin-1-ium-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate  

Science.gov (United States)

Chelidamic acid (4-hy­droxy­pyridine-2,6-dicarb­oxy­lic acid) and 2,6-diamino­pyridine react to form the title salt, C5H8N3 +·C7H4NO5 ?; there are two formula units in the asymmetric unit. The pyridine N atom of 2,6-diamino­pyridine is protonated whereas chelidamic acid is deprotonated at both carboxyl­ate groups but protonated at the N atom; the reaction involves intra- and inter­molecular proton transfer. In the crystal, each 2,6-diamino­pyridinium cation participates in five strong N—H?O hydrogen bonds (including one bifurcated hydrogen bond). The crystal structure also features strong O—H?O hydrogen bonds between the chelidamate anions, leading to chains along the a axis. PMID:23125662

Ton, Quoc-Cuong; Bolte, Michael

2012-01-01

80

Photoinduced energy and electron transfer in oligo(p-phenylene vinylene)-fullerene dyads  

Science.gov (United States)

The intramolecular photoinduced charge separation within an oligo(p-phenylene vinylene)-fulleropyrrolidine dyad with four phenyl rings (OPV4-C60) has been investigated with femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy in solvents of different polarity and in the solid state. In solution, photoexcitation of the OPV4 moiety of OPV4-C60 results in an ultrafast (<190 fs) singlet energy transfer reaction, creating the fullerene singlet excited state. In polar solvents, the ultrafast energy transfer is followed in the picosecond time domain by an intramolecular electron transfer. In accordance with Marcus theory, the rates for forward and backward intramolecular electron transfer in OPV4-C60 are influenced by the polarity of the solvent. In the solid state the photophysics of OPV4-C60 is dramatically different. In thin films, the forward electron transfer proceeds within 500 fs, irrespective of which chromophore is photoexcited. The increased rate for charge separation in the solid state is attributed to a more favorable orientation of the donor and acceptor that results in an intermolecular electron transfer. In the films, energy and electron transfer processes compete at the earliest moments after photoexcitation. In the solid state, the photogenerated electrons and holes have long lifetimes as a result of migration of these charges to thermodynamically more favorable sites in the film.

van Hal, P. A.; Meskers, S. C. J.; Janssen, R. A. J.

81

Photoinduced energy and electron transfer in oligo(p-phenylene vinylene)-fullerene dyads  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The intramolecular photoinduced charge separation within an oligo(p-phenylene vinylene)-fulleropyrrolidine dyad with four phenyl rings (OPV4-C{sub 60}) has been investigated with femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy in solvents of different polarity and in the solid state. In solution, photoexcitation of the OPV4 moiety of OPV4-C{sub 60} results in an ultrafast (<190 fs) singlet energy transfer reaction, creating the fullerene singlet excited state. In polar solvents, the ultrafast energy transfer is followed in the picosecond time domain by an intramolecular electron transfer. In accordance with Marcus theory, the rates for forward and backward intramolecular electron transfer in OPV4-C{sub 60} are influenced by the polarity of the solvent. In the solid state the photophysics of OPV4-C{sub 60} is dramatically different. In thin films, the forward electron transfer proceeds within 500 fs, irrespective of which chromophore is photoexcited. The increased rate for charge separation in the solid state is attributed to a more favorable orientation of the donor and acceptor that results in an intermolecular electron transfer. In the films, energy and electron transfer processes compete at the earliest moments after photoexcitation. In the solid state, the photogenerated electrons and holes have long lifetimes as a result of migration of these charges to thermodynamically more favorable sites in the film. (orig.)

Hal, P.A. van; Meskers, S.C.J.; Janssen, R.A.J. [Molecular Materials and Nanosystems, Laboratory for Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2004-06-01

82

Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex  

CERN Document Server

Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics within the CT complex, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the groundstate of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10-2 electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and NMR measurements, implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visi...

Haverkate, Lucas; Johnson, Mark; Carter, Elisabeth; Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, Stephen; Mulder, Fokko; Kearley, Gordon

2013-01-01

83

Nuclear reorganization barriers to electron transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear barrier to electron transfer arises from the need for reorganization of intramolecular and solvent internuclear distances prior to electron transfer. For reactions with relatively small driving force (''normal'' free-energy region) the nuclear factors and rates increase as intrinsic inner-shell and outer-shell barriers decrease; this is illustrated by data for transition metal complexes in their ground electronic states. By contrast, in the inverted free-energy region, rates and nuclear factors decrease with decreasing ''intrinsic'' barriers; this is illustrated by data for the decay of charge-transfer excited states. Several approaches to the evaluation of the outer-shell barrier are explored in an investigation of the distance dependence of the nuclear factor in intramolecular electron-transfer processes. 39 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

84

Nuclear reorganization barriers to electron transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nuclear barrier to electron transfer arises from the need for reorganization of intramolecular and solvent internuclear distances prior to electron transfer. For reactions with relatively small driving force (''normal'' free-energy region) the nuclear factors and rates increase as intrinsic inner-shell and outer-shell barriers decrease; this is illustrated by data for transition metal complexes in their ground electronic states. By contrast, in the inverted free-energy region, rates and nuclear factors decrease with decreasing ''intrinsic'' barriers; this is illustrated by data for the decay of charge-transfer excited states. Several approaches to the evaluation of the outer-shell barrier are explored in an investigation of the distance dependence of the nuclear factor in intramolecular electron-transfer processes. 39 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Sutin, N.; Brunschwig, B.S.; Creutz, C.; Winkler, J.R.

1988-01-01

85

Hierarchical control of electron-transfer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this chapter the role of electron transfer in determining the behaviour of the ATP synthesising enzyme in E. coli is analysed. It is concluded that the latter enzyme lacks control because of special properties of the electron transfer components. These properties range from absence of a strong back pressure by the protonmotive force on the rate of electron transfer to hierarchical regulation of the expression of the gens that encode the electron transfer proteins as a response to changes in the bioenergetic properties of the cell.The discussion uses Hierarchical Control Analysis as a paradigm. This allows one to analyse a complex system of regulatory interactions in terms of the importance of the contributing factors.

Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

1997-01-01

86

Advances in electron transfer chemistry, v.6  

CERN Document Server

It is clear that electron transfer chemisty is now one of the most active areas of chemical study. Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry has been designed to allow scientists who are developing new knowledge in this rapidly expanding area to describe their most recent research findings. This volume will serve those interested in learning about current breakthroughs in this rapidly expanding area of chemical research.

Mariano, PS

1999-01-01

87

Coupled electron transfers in artificial photosynthesis  

OpenAIRE

Light-induced charge separation in molecular assemblies has been widely investigated in the context of artificial photosynthesis. Important progress has been made in the fundamental understanding of electron and energy transfer and in stabilizing charge separation by multi-step electron transfer. In the Swedish Consortium for Artificial Photosynthesis, we build on principles from the natural enzyme photosystem II and Fe-hydrogenases. An important theme in this biomimetic effort is that of cou...

Hammarstro?m, Leif; Styring, Stenbjörn

2008-01-01

88

Heat Transfer Augmentation for Electronic Cooling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The performance of electronic devices has been improving along with the rapid technology development. Cooling of electronic systems is consequently essential in controlling the component temperature and avoiding any hot spot. The study aims to review the present electronic cooling methods which are widely used in electronic devices. Approach: There are several methods to cool down the electronics components such as the pin-fin heat sink, confined jet impingement, heat pipe, micro heat sink and so on. Results: The cooling techniques can obviously increase heat transfer rate. Nonetheless, for active and passive cooling methods the pressure drop could extremely rise, when the heat transfer rate is increased. Conclusion: When the cooling techniques are used, it is clearly seen that the heat transfer increases with pressure drop. To avoid excessive expense due to high pressure drop, optimization method is required to obtain optimum cost and cooling rate.

Suabsakul Gururatana

2012-01-01

89

Medium effects in photoinduced electron transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transfer of an electron between two molecules is a fundamental chemical process of great significance in biochemistry as well as in general chemistry. Electron transfer reactions can be induced by the absorption of light - as in photosynthesis - so that one of the molecules reacts through an electronically excited state; a net storage of chemical energy may then take place. When electron transfer involves molecules in condensed phase, the role of the liquid or solid medium must be considered. In the first place, a polar solvent may promote electron transfer through the stabilization of ion pairs and the separation of ions; but if the polar solvent must reorganize prior to the reaction, then an activation barrier will exist against electron transfer in polar solvents. This article gives a citical review of this field, with some novel ideas concerning the role of the medium (liquid solvent or solid matrix) in the overall energy balance of electron transfer, in the kinetics of the reaction, and in the further process of charge separation. It is suggested in particular that no dielectric screening by a polar solvent can exist when ions are formed in direct contact; and that the extensive reorganization of the solvent prior to electron transfer is so unlikely as to be discounted. In these respects the model presented in this article diverges from the commonly accepted model of Weller and of Marcus and Hush. In the Conclusion section some areas of particular importance ction some areas of particular importance for further research in this field are outlined. (author) 28 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs

90

Convection heat transfer in electronic equipment cooling  

Science.gov (United States)

To maintain the best possible thermal environment in electronic packages, the engineer must establish the most efficient path for heat transfer from the electronic devices to an external cooling agent. The path is typically subdivided into internal and external components, representing, respectively, heat transfer by conduction through different materials and interfaces separating the devices from the package surface and heat transfer by convection from the surface to the coolant. Depending on the scale and speed of the electronic circuits, as well as on constraints imposed by nonthermal considerations, the coolant may be a gas or a liquid and heat transfer may be by natural, forced, or mixed convection or, in the case of a liquid, by pool or forced convection boiling. In this paper a comprehensive review of convection cooling options is provided.

Incropera, F. P.

1988-11-01

91

Spectral analysis of electron transfer kinetics II  

CERN Document Server

Electron transfer processes in Debye solvents are studied using a spectral analysis method recently proposed. Spectral structure of a nonadiabatic two-state diffusion equation is investigated to reveal various kinetic regimes characterized by a broad range of physical parameters; electronic coupling, energy bias, reorganization energy, and solvent relaxation rate. Within this unified framework, several kinetic behaviors of the electron transfer kinetics, including adiabatic Rabi oscillation, crossover from the nonadiabatic to adiabatic limits, transition from the incoherent to coherent kinetic limits, and dynamic bath effect, are demonstrated and compared with results from previous theoretical models. Dynamics of the electron transfer system is also calculated with the spectral analysis method. It is pointed out that in the large reorganization energy case the nonadiabatic diffusion equation exhibits a non-physical behavior, yielding a negative eigenvalue.

Jung, Y J; Jung, YounJoon; Cao, Jianshu

2002-01-01

92

Conformational Dynamics and Temperature Dependence of Photoinduced Electron Transfer within Self-Assembled Coproporphyrin:Cytochrome c Complexes  

OpenAIRE

The focus of the present study is to better understand the complex factors influencing intermolecular electron transfer (ET) in biological molecules using a model system involving free-base coproporphyrin (COP) complexed with horse heart cytochrome c (Cc). Coproporphyrin exhibits bathochromic shifts in both the Soret and visible absorption bands in the presence of Cc and an absorption difference titration reveals a 1:1 complex with an association constant of 2.63 ± 0.05 × 105 M?1. At 20°...

Croney, John C.; Helms, Michael K.; Jameson, David M.; Larsen, Randy W.

2003-01-01

93

Bioinspired electron-transfer systems and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioinspired electron-transfer systems including artificial photosynthesis and respiration are presented herein together with some of their applications. First, multi-step electron-transfer systems composed of electron donor-acceptor ensembles have been developed, mimicking functions of the photosynthetic reaction center. However, a significant amount of energy is lost during the multi-step electron-transfer processes. Then, as an alternative to conventional charge-separation functional molecular models based on multi-step long-range electron transfer within redox cascades, simple donor-acceptor dyads have been developed to attain along-lived and high energy charge-separated state without significant loss of excitation energy, by fine control of the redox potentials and of the geometry of donor-acceptor dyads that have small reorganization energies of electron transfer. Such simple molecular dyads, capable of fast charge separation but extremely slow charge recombination, have significant advantages with regard to synthetic feasibility, providing a variety of applications including construction of organic solar cells and development of efficient photo-catalytic systems for the solar energy conversion. An efficient four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by one-electron reductants such as ferrocene derivatives as well as by an NADH analog has also been achieved as a respiration model by using a cofacial dicobalt porphyrin that can form the ?-peroxo Co(III)-O2hat can form the ?-peroxo Co(III)-O2Co(III) complex. The catalytic mechanism of the four-electron reduction of dioxygen has been clarified based on the detailed kinetic study and the detection of the intermediate. (author)

94

Protein electron transfer: Dynamics and statistics  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron transfer between redox proteins participating in energy chains of biology is required to proceed with high energetic efficiency, minimizing losses of redox energy to heat. Within the standard models of electron transfer, this requirement, combined with the need for unidirectional (preferably activationless) transitions, is translated into the need to minimize the reorganization energy of electron transfer. This design program is, however, unrealistic for proteins whose active sites are typically positioned close to the polar and flexible protein-water interface to allow inter-protein electron tunneling. The high flexibility of the interfacial region makes both the hydration water and the surface protein layer act as highly polar solvents. The reorganization energy, as measured by fluctuations, is not minimized, but rather maximized in this region. Natural systems in fact utilize the broad breadth of interfacial electrostatic fluctuations, but in the ways not anticipated by the standard models based on equilibrium thermodynamics. The combination of the broad spectrum of static fluctuations with their dispersive dynamics offers the mechanism of dynamical freezing (ergodicity breaking) of subsets of nuclear modes on the time of reaction/residence of the electron at a redox cofactor. The separation of time-scales of nuclear modes coupled to electron transfer allows dynamical freezing. In particular, the separation between the relaxation time of electro-elastic fluctuations of the interface and the time of conformational transitions of the protein caused by changing redox state results in dynamical freezing of the latter for sufficiently fast electron transfer. The observable consequence of this dynamical freezing is significantly different reorganization energies describing the curvature at the bottom of electron-transfer free energy surfaces (large) and the distance between their minima (Stokes shift, small). The ratio of the two reorganization energies establishes the parameter by which the energetic efficiency of protein electron transfer is increased relative to the standard expectations, thus minimizing losses of energy to heat. Energetically efficient electron transfer occurs in a chain of conformationally quenched cofactors and is characterized by flattened free energy surfaces, reminiscent of the flat and rugged landscape at the stability basin of a folded protein.

Matyushov, Dmitry V.

2013-07-01

95

Photoinduced electron transfer in ordered polymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long range photoinduced electron transfer between electron donor and acceptor groups is of considerable current interest in terms of strategies for artificial photosynthesis and studies regarding the redox properties of proteins. As part of an extensive study of long range electron transfer involving biopolymers, we have carried out this year investigations of the assembly of electron transfer agents in a system of model short peptides. Also studied is a polyelectrolyte that can adopt a helical conformation when electrostatically complexed with organic dye counter-ions. The principal interest in these systems has to do with the well ordered secondary structures adopted by peptide polymers, and the capabilities for synthetic modification of peptide side chains and end groups with chromophores or electroactive substituents. The present report gives a brief account of the following elements of work related to photochemical electron transfer themes: (1) the synthesis and photochemical characterization of chromophore-bound peptides and amino acid model compounds based on the amino acids, tryptophan and the spacer residue, alanine (Ala); (2) the study of binding of the cationic organic dye to a peptide electrolyte, for which cooperative dye loading and helix formation is important; and (3) completion of the synthesis of a new series of acridinium chromophores that have rod-like'' arrangements of inked aryl rings for assembly of electron donor-acceptor systems that will exhibit especially long lived charge separation.

Jones, G. II.

1991-12-01

96

Hot-electron transfer from semiconductor nanocrystals.  

Science.gov (United States)

In typical semiconductor solar cells, photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generate hot charge carriers that quickly cool before all of their energy can be captured, a process that limits device efficiency. Although fabricating the semiconductor in a nanocrystalline morphology can slow this cooling, the transfer of hot carriers to electron and hole acceptors has not yet been thoroughly demonstrated. We used time-resolved optical second harmonic generation to observe hot-electron transfer from colloidal lead selenide (PbSe) nanocrystals to a titanium dioxide (TiO2) electron acceptor. With appropriate chemical treatment of the nanocrystal surface, this transfer occurred much faster than expected. Moreover, the electric field resulting from sub-50-femtosecond charge separation across the PbSe-TiO2 interface excited coherent vibrations of the TiO2 surface atoms, whose motions could be followed in real time. PMID:20558714

Tisdale, William A; Williams, Kenrick J; Timp, Brooke A; Norris, David J; Aydil, Eray S; Zhu, X-Y

2010-06-18

97

Electron transfer dissociation of oligonucleotide cations  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of multi-protonated 6-20-mer oligonucleotides and 12- and 14-mer duplexes is compared to collision activated dissociation (CAD). ETD causes efficient charge reduction of the multi-protonated oligonucleotides in addition to limited backbone cleavages to yield sequence ions of low abundance. Subsequent CAD of the charge-reduced oligonucleotides formed upon electron transfer, in a net process termed electron transfer collision activated dissociation (ETcaD), results in rich fragmentation in terms of w, a, z, and d products, with a marked decrease in the abundance of base loss ions and internal fragments. Complete sequencing was possible for nearly all oligonucleotides studied. ETcaD of an oligonucleotide duplex resulted in specific backbone cleavages, with conservation of weaker non-covalent bonds.

Smith, Suncerae I.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

2009-06-01

98

H2 and (H2)2 molecules with an ab initio optimization of wave functions in correlated state: electron–proton couplings and intermolecular microscopic parameters  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrogen molecules H2 and {{?ft( {{H}2} \\right)}2} are analyzed with electronic correlations taken into account between the 1s electrons in an exact manner. The optimal single-particle Slater orbitals are evaluated in the correlated state of H2 by combining their variational determination with the diagonalization of the full Hamiltonian in the second-quantization language. All electron–ion coupling constants are determined explicitly and their relative importance is discussed. Sizable zero-point motion amplitude and the corresponding energy are then evaluated by taking into account the anharmonic contributions up to the ninth order in the relative displacement of the ions from their static equilibrium value. The applicability of the model to solid molecular hydrogen is briefly analyzed by calculating intermolecular microscopic parameters for the 2× {{H}2} rectangular configuration, as well its ground state energy.

K?dzielawa, Andrzej P.; Bielas, Agata; Acquarone, Marcello; Biborski, Andrzej; Ma?ka, Maciej M.; Spa?ek, Józef

2014-12-01

99

Ultra-fast charge transfer in organic electronic materials and at hybrid interfaces studied using the core-hole clock technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? The use of resonant photoemission in its 'core-hole clock' expression for the study of the dynamical charge transfer across hybrid organic-inorganic interfaces and for the intermolecular charge transfer in the bulk of organic thin films is reviewed. ? The electronic coupling to the substrate and the efficiency of charge transport across hybrid interfaces is different for individual electronic subsystems of the molecular adsorbate. ? The intermolecular charge transfer in the bulk of discotic liquid crystals occurs on the order of a few femtoseconds and is faster than expected from the macroscopic charge transport characteristics of the material. -- Abstract: The focus of this brief review is the use of resonant photoemission in its 'core-hole clock' expression for the study of two important problems relevant for the field of organic electronics: the dynamical charge transfer across hybrid organic-inorganic interfaces, and the intermolecular charge transfer in the bulk of organic thin films. Following an outline of the technique, a discussion of its applicability and a short overview of experimental results obtained thus far, two examples are used to illustrate particular results relevant for the understanding of the charge transport in organic electronic devices. First, for Fe(II)-tetraphenylporphyrin molecules on semi-metallic molybdenum disulfide substrates, the electronic coupling to the substrate and the efficiency of charge transport athe efficiency of charge transport across the interface different for the individual molecular electronic subsystems is discussed. And second, a discotic liquid crystalline material forming columnar assemblies is used to illustrate ultra-fast intermolecular charge transfer on the order of a few femtoseconds indicating an electronic coupling between the phthalocyanine units stronger than expected from the macroscopic charge transport characteristics of the material.

100

Facile Interfacial Electron Transfer of Hemoglobin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: We herein describe a method of depositing hemoglobin (Hb and sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN on GC electrodes that facilitate interfacial protein electron transfer. Well-defined, reproducible, chemically reversible peaks of Hb and SPAN can be obtained in our experiments. We also observed enhanced peroxidase activity of Hb in SPAN films. These results clearly showed that SPAN worked as molecular wires and effectively exchanged electrons between Hb and electrodes.Mediated by Conjugated Polymers

Chunhai Fan

2005-12-01

101

Cycloreversion of ?-lactams via photoinduced electron transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The radical anions of ?-lactams, photogenerated in the presence of DABCO as an electron donor, undergo cycloreversion via N-C4 bond cleavage, back electron transfer and final C2-C3 bond cleavage, leading to olefins. The involved intermediates are 1,4-radical anions and 1,4-biradicals. The experimental observations are consistent with the results of DFT calculations. PMID:25223340

Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Sáez, Jose A; Jiménez, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A

2014-11-14

102

New Type of Dual Solid-State Thermochromism: Modulation of Intramolecular Charge Transfer by Intermolecular ?-? Interactions, Kinetic Trapping of the Aci-Nitro Group, and Reversible Molecular Locking  

Science.gov (United States)

When heated above room temperature, some crystalline polymorphs of the 1,3-bis(hydroxyalkylamino)-4,6-dinitrobenzenes (BDBn, n = 2-5), bis(hydroxyalkyl) analogues of the intramolecular charge-transfer molecule 1,3-diamino-4,6-dinitrobenzene, exhibit "dual" thermochromism: gradual color change from yellow to orange at lower temperatures, and sharp color change from orange to red at higher temperatures. These two thermochromic changes are related to different solid-state processes. When allowed to cool to room temperature, the yellow color of the thermochromic molecules with different alkyl length (n) is recovered with unexpectedly different kinetics, the order of the respective rate constants ranging from 10-7-10-6 s-1 for BDB2 to about 0.1 s-1 in the case of BDB3. The thermochromic mechanism and the reasons behind the different kinetics were clarified on the basis of detailed crystallographic characterization, kinetic thermoanalysis, and spectroscopic study of eight crystalline forms (seven polymorphs and one solvate). It was found that the polymorphism is due to the possibility of "locking" and "unlocking" of the alkyl arms by formation of a strong intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl groups at their hydroxyl termini. The locking of BDB2, with shortest alkyl arms, is reversible and it can be controlled thermally; either of the two conformations can be obtained in the solid state by proper thermal treatment. By use of high temperature in situ single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of BDB3, direct evidence was obtained that the gradual thermochromic change is related to increased distance and weakened ?-? interactions between the stacked benzene rings: the lattice expands preferably in the stacking direction, causing enhanced oscillator strength and red shift of the absorption edge of the intramolecular charge transfer transition. The second, sharp thermochromic change had been assigned previously to solid-solid phase transition triggered by intramolecular proton transfer of one amino proton to the nitro group, whereupon an aci-nitro form is thermally populated. Contrary to the numerous examples of solid thermochromic molecules based on either pericyclic reactions or keto-enol tautomerism, this system appears to be the first organic thermochromic family where the thermochromic change appears as an effect of intermolecular ?-? interactions and thermal intramolecular proton transfer to aromatic nitro group.

Naumov, Pan?e; Lee, Sang Cheol; Ishizawa, Nobuo; Jeong, Young Gyu; Chung, Ihn Hee; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

2009-09-01

103

Experimental and database-transferred electron-density analysis and evaluation of electrostatic forces in coumarin-102 dye.  

Science.gov (United States)

The electron-density distribution of a new crystal form of coumarin-102, a laser dye, has been investigated using the Hansen-Coppens multipolar atom model. The charge density was refined versus high-resolution X-ray diffraction data collected at 100?K and was also constructed by transferring the charge density from the Experimental Library of Multipolar Atom Model (ELMAM2). The topology of the refined charge density has been analysed within the Bader `Atoms In Molecules' theory framework. Deformation electron-density peak heights and topological features indicate that the chromen-2-one ring system has a delocalized ?-electron cloud in resonance with the N (amino) atom. The molecular electrostatic potential was estimated from both experimental and transferred multipolar models; it reveals an asymmetric character of the charge distribution across the molecule. This polarization effect is due to a substantial charge delocalization within the molecule. The molecular dipole moments derived from the experimental and transferred multipolar models are also compared with the liquid and gas-phase dipole moments. The substantial molecular dipole moment enhancements observed in the crystal environment originate from the crystal field and from intermolecular charge transfer induced and controlled by C-H···O and C-H···N intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The atomic forces were integrated over the atomic basins and compared for the two electron-density models. PMID:23165601

Bibila Mayaya Bisseyou, Yvon; Bouhmaida, Nouhza; Guillot, Benoit; Lecomte, Claude; Lugan, Noel; Ghermani, Noureddine; Jelsch, Christian

2012-12-01

104

Reaction coordinates for electron transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The polarization fluctuation and energy gap formulations of the reaction coordinate for outer sphere electron transfer are linearly related to the constant energy constraint Lagrangian multiplier m in Marcus' theory of electron transfer. The quadratic dependence of the free energies of the reactant and product intermediates on m and m+1, respectively, leads to similar dependence of the free energies on the reaction coordinates and to the same dependence of the activation energy on the reorganization energy and the standard reaction free energy. Within the approximations of a continuum model of the solvent and linear response of the longitudinal polarization to the electric field in Marcus' theory, both formulations of the reaction coordinate are expected to lead to the same results.

105

Resonant electron transfer between quantum dots  

OpenAIRE

An interaction of electromagnetic field with a nanostructure composed of two quantum dots is studied theoretically. An effect of a resonant electron transfer between the localized low-lying states of quantum dots is predicted. A necessary condition for such an effect is the existence of an excited bound state whose energy lies close to the top of the barrier separating the quantum dots. This effect may be used to realize the reversible quantum logic gate NOT if the superposi...

Openov, Leonid A.

1999-01-01

106

Promoting Interspecies Electron Transfer with Biochar  

OpenAIRE

Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar to that previously reported for granular activated carbon (GAC). Although the biochars investigated were 1000 times less conductive than GAC, they stimulated DIET in co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens with...

Chen, Shanshan; Rotaru, Amelia-elena; Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Liu, Fanghua; Fan, Wei; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

2014-01-01

107

Electron transfer theory revisit: Quantum solvation effect  

CERN Document Server

The effect of solvation on the electron transfer (ET) rate processes is investigated on the basis of the exact theory constructed in J. Phys. Chem. B Vol. 110, (2006); quant-ph/0604071. The nature of solvation is studied in a close relation with the mechanism of ET processes. The resulting Kramers' turnover and Marcus' inversion characteristics are analyzed accordingly. The classical picture of solvation is found to be invalid when the solvent longitudinal relaxation time is short compared with the inverse temperature.

Han, P; Cui, P; Mo, Y; He, G; Yan, Y J; Han, Ping; Xu, Rui-Xue; Cui, Ping; Mo, Yan; He, Guozhong; Yan, YiJing

2006-01-01

108

Quantum coherent contributions in biological electron transfer  

OpenAIRE

Many biological electron transfer (ET) reactions are mediated by metal centres in proteins. NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) contains an intramolecular chain of seven iron-sulphur (FeS) clusters, one of the longest chains of metal centres in biology and a test case for physical models of intramolecular ET. In biology, intramolecular ET is commonly described as a diffusive hopping process, according to the semi-classical theories of Marcus and Hopfield. However, rec...

Dorner, Ross; Goold, John; Heaney, Libby; Farrow, Tristan; Roberts, Philippa G.; Hirst, Judy; Vedral, Vlatko

2011-01-01

109

Electron transfer and reaction mechanism of laccases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laccases are part of the family of multicopper oxidases (MCOs), which couple the oxidation of substrates to the four electron reduction of O2 to H2O. MCOs contain a minimum of four Cu's divided into Type 1 (T1), Type 2 (T2), and binuclear Type 3 (T3) Cu sites that are distinguished based on unique spectroscopic features. Substrate oxidation occurs near the T1, and electrons are transferred approximately 13 Å through the protein via the Cys-His pathway to the T2/T3 trinuclear copper cluster (TNC), where dioxygen reduction occurs. This review outlines the electron transfer (ET) process in laccases, and the mechanism of O2 reduction as elucidated through spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational data. Marcus theory is used to describe the relevant factors which impact ET rates including the driving force, reorganization energy, and electronic coupling matrix element. Then, the mechanism of O2 reaction is detailed with particular focus on the intermediates formed during the two 2e(-) reduction steps. The first 2e(-) step forms the peroxide intermediate, followed by the second 2e(-) step to form the native intermediate, which has been shown to be the catalytically relevant fully oxidized form of the enzyme. PMID:25572295

Jones, Stephen M; Solomon, Edward I

2015-03-01

110

77 FR 40459 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E); Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...Documents. Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL...CFPB-2011-0009] RIN 3170-AA15 Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation...6194), which implements the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, and the...in the interim final rule, Electronic Fund Transfers...

2012-07-10

111

Promoting Interspecies Electron Transfer with Biochar  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar to that previously reported for granular activated carbon (GAC). Although the biochars investigated were 1000 times less conductive than GAC, they stimulated DIET in co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens with Geobacter sulfurreducens or Methanosarcina barkeri in which ethanol was the electron donor. Cells were attached to the biochar, yet not in close contact, suggesting that electrons were likely conducted through the biochar, rather than biological electrical connections. The finding that biochar can stimulate DIET may be an important consideration when amending soils with biochar and can help explain why biochar may enhance methane production from organic wastes under anaerobic conditions. PMID:24846283

Chen, Shanshan; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Liu, Fanghua; Fan, Wei; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

2014-01-01

112

Promoting interspecies electron transfer with biochar  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar to that previously reported for granular activated carbon (GAC). Although the biochars investigated were 1000 times less conductive than GAC, they stimulated DIET in co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens with Geobacter sulfurreducens or Methanosarcina barkeri in which ethanol was the electron donor. Cells were attached to the biochar, yet not in close contact, suggesting that electrons were likely conducted through the biochar, rather than biological electrical connections. The finding that biochar can stimulate DIET may be an important consideration when amending soils with biochar and can help explain why biochar may enhance methane production from organic wastes under anaerobic conditions.

Chen, Shanshan; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

2014-01-01

113

Golden rule kinetics of transfer reactions in condensed phase: The microscopic model of electron transfer reactions in disordered solid matrices  

Science.gov (United States)

The algorithm for a theoretical calculation of transfer reaction rates for light quantum particles (i.e., the electron and H-atom transfers) in non-polar solid matrices is formulated and justified. The mechanism postulated involves a local mode (an either intra- or inter-molecular one) serving as a mediator which accomplishes the energy exchange between the reacting high-frequency quantum mode and the phonon modes belonging to the environment. This approach uses as a background the Fermi golden rule beyond the usually applied spin-boson approximation. The dynamical treatment rests on the one-dimensional version of the standard quantum relaxation equation for the reduced density matrix, which describes the frequency fluctuation spectrum for the local mode under consideration. The temperature dependence of a reaction rate is controlled by the dimensionless parameter ?0 = ??0/kBT where ?0 is the frequency of the local mode and T is the temperature. The realization of the computational scheme is different for the high/intermediate (?0 quantum-mechanical low-temperature kinetic regime in its asymptotic limit requires the implementation of the exact relaxation equation. The coherent mechanism providing a non-vanishing reaction rate has been revealed when T ? 0. An accurate computational methodology for the cross-over kinetic regime needs a further elaboration. The original model of the hopping mechanism for electronic conduction in photosensitive organic materials is considered, based on the above techniques. The electron transfer (ET) in active centers of such systems proceeds via local intra- and intermolecular modes. The active modes, as a rule, operate beyond the kinetic regimes, which are usually postulated in the existing theories of the ET. Our alternative dynamic ET model for local modes immersed in the continuum harmonic medium is formulated for both classical and quantum regimes, and accounts explicitly for the mode/medium interaction. The kinetics of the energy exchange between the local ET subsystem and the surrounding environment essentially determine the total ET rate. The efficient computer code for rate computations is elaborated on. The computations are available for a wide range of system parameters, such as the temperature, external field, local mode frequency, and characteristics of mode/medium interaction. The relation of the present approach to the Marcus ET theory and to the quantum-statistical reaction rate theory [V. G. Levich and R. R. Dogonadze, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. Khim. 124, 213 (1959); J. Ulstrup, Charge Transfer in Condensed Media (Springer, Berlin, 1979); M. Bixon and J. Jortner, Adv. Chem. Phys. 106, 35 (1999)] underlying it is discussed and illustrated by the results of computations for practically important target systems.

Basilevsky, M. V.; Odinokov, A. V.; Titov, S. V.; Mitina, E. A.

2013-12-01

114

Long-Range Electron Transfer and Electronic Transport Through Macromolecules  

CERN Document Server

A theory of electrical transport through molecular wires is used to estimate the electronic factor in the intramolecular electron transfer (ET) in porphyrin-nitrobenzene supermolecules, and to analyze its structure. The chosen molecules have complex donor and acceptor configurations, and relatively simple structure of the bridge, which enables us to concentrate our studies on the donor/acceptor coupling to the bridge. We present analytical and numerical results concerning the effect of donor/acceptor coupling to the bridge on the ET process in molecules with complex donor/acceptor subsystems. PACS 05.60.Gg, 36.20.-r

Zimbovskaya, N A; Zimbovskaya, Natalya; Gumbs, Godfrey

2002-01-01

115

Switching of the triplet-triplet-annihilation upconversion with photoresponsive triplet energy acceptor: photocontrollable singlet/triplet energy transfer and electron transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

A photoswitchable fluorescent triad based on two 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) and one dithienylethene (DTE) moiety is prepared for photoswitching of triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion. The DPA and DTE moieties in the triad were connected via Click reaction. The DPA unit in the triad was used as the triplet energy acceptor and upconverted fluorescence emitter. The fluorescence of the triad is switched ON with the DTE moiety in open form [DTE-(o)] (upconversion quantum yield ?UC = 1.2%). Upon UV irradiation, photocyclization of the DTE-(o) moiety produces the closed form [DTE-(c)], as a result the fluorescence of DPA moiety was switched off (?UC is negligible). Three different mechanisms are responsible for the upconverted fluorescence photoswitching effect (i.e., the photoactivated fluorescence resonance energy transfer, the intramolecular electron transfer, as well as the photoactivated intermolecular triplet energy transfer between the photosensitizer and DTE-(c) moiety). Previously, the photoswitching of TTA upconversion was accomplished with only one mechanism (i.e., the triplet state quenching of the photosensitizer by DTE-(c) via either the intermolecular or intramolecular energy transfer). The photophysical processes involved in the photochromism and photoswitching of TTA upconversion were studied with steady-state UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopies, nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical characterization, and DFT/TDDFT calculations. PMID:25514195

Xu, Kejing; Zhao, Jianzhang; Cui, Xiaoneng; Ma, Jie

2015-01-22

116

Theory of intermolecular forces  

CERN Document Server

Theory of Intermolecular Forces deals with the exposition of the principles and techniques of the theory of intermolecular forces. The text focuses on the basic theory and surveys other aspects, with particular attention to relevant experiments. The initial chapters introduce the reader to the history of intermolecular forces. Succeeding chapters present topics on short, intermediate, and long range atomic interactions; properties of Coulomb interactions; shape-dependent forces between molecules; and physical adsorption. The book will be of good use to experts and students of quantum mechanics

Margenau, H; Ter Haar, D

1971-01-01

117

Photoinduced electron transfer within a zinc porphyrin-cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) donor-acceptor dyad.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the mechanism of efficient photoinduced electron-transfer processes is essential for developing molecular systems for artificial photosynthesis. Towards this goal, we describe the synthesis of a donor-acceptor dyad comprising a zinc porphyrin donor and a tetracationic cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+) ) acceptor. The X-ray crystal structure of the dyad reveals the formation of a dimeric motif through the intermolecular coordination between the triazole nitrogen and the central Zn metal of two adjacent units of the dyad. Photoinduced electron transfer within the dyad in MeCN was investigated by femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, as well as by transient EPR spectroscopy. Photoexcitation of the dyad produced a weakly coupled ZnP(+.) -CBPQT(3+.) spin-correlated radical-ion pair having a ?=146?ns lifetime and a spin-spin exchange interaction of only 0.23?mT. The long radical-ion-pair lifetime results from weak donor-acceptor electronic coupling as a consequence of having nine bonds between the donor and the acceptor, and the reduction in reorganization energy for electron transfer caused by charge dispersal over both paraquat units within CBPQT(3+.) . PMID:25258209

Fathalla, Maher; Barnes, Jonathan C; Young, Ryan M; Hartlieb, Karel J; Dyar, Scott M; Eaton, Samuel W; Sarjeant, Amy A; Co, Dick T; Wasielewski, Michael R; Stoddart, J Fraser

2014-11-01

118

Photoinduced electron transfer in ordered polymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report gives a brief account of the following elements of work related to photochemical electron transfer themes: (1) the synthesis and Photochemical characterization of chromophore-bound peptides and amino acid model compounds based on the amino acids, tryptophan and the spacer residue, alanine (Ala); (2) the study of binding of cationic organic dyes to a peptide electrolyte, for which cooperative dye loading and helix formation is important; (3) the completion of work on a new series of acridinium chromophores that have rod-like'' arrangements of linked aryl rings for assembly of electron donor-acceptor systems that exhibit long lived charge separation; and (4) use of the modified form of the peptide, poly-L-histidine, as a template for sulfide oxidation.

Jones, G. II.

1993-01-01

119

Short range photoinduced electron transfer in proteins: QM-MM simulations of tryptophan and flavin fluorescence quenching in proteins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hybrid quantum mechanical-molecular mechanics (dynamics) were performed on flavin reductase (Fre) and flavodoxin reductase (Fdr), both from Escherichia coli. Each was complexed with riboflavin (Rbf) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN). During 50 ps trajectories, the relative energies of the fluorescing state (S1) of the isoalloxazine ring and the lowest charge transfer state (CT) were assessed to aid prediction of fluorescence lifetimes that are shortened due to quenching by electron transfer from tyrosine. The simulations for the four cases display a wide range in CT-S1 energy gap caused by the presence of phosphate, other charged and polar residues, water, and by intermolecular separation between donor and acceptor. This suggests that the Gibbs energy change (?G 0) and reorganization energy (?) for the electron transfer may differ in different flavoproteins

120

Electron transfer pathways in microbial oxygen biocathodes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability of some bacteria to enhance the rate of cathodic oxygen reduction to water has been recently discovered, opening the way to an entirely renewable and environmentally friendly concept of biocathode. In this study we reveal that several mechanisms may induce catalytic effects by bacteria. These comprise mechanisms that are putatively beneficial to the bacteria as well as mechanisms which are merely side effects, including quinone autoxidation and direct O2 reduction by heme compounds. Here we showed that 1 ?M of ACNQ is able to generate a significant catalytic wave for oxygen reduction, with onset at approximately 0 V vs. SHE. Similarly, adsorption of hemin on a carbon surface catalyses O2 reduction to H2O2 with an onset of +0.2 V vs. SHE. To evaluate the catalytic pathways of live cells on cathodic oxygen reduction, two species of electrochemically active bacteria were selected as pure cultures, namely Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Shewanella putrefaciens. The former appears to exploit a self-excreted redox compound with redox characteristics matching those of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) for extracellular electron transfer. The latter appears to utilise outer membrane-bound redox compounds. Interaction of quinones and cytochromes with the membrane-bound electron transfer chain is yet to be proven.

121

Mediated Electron Transfer at Redox Active Monolayers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A theoretical model describing the transport and kinetic processes involved in heterogeneous redox catalysis of solution phase reactants at electrode surfaces coated with redox active monolayers is presented. Although the analysis presented has quite general applicability, a specific focus of the paper is concerned with the idea that redox active monolayers can be used to model an ensemble of individual molecular nanoelectrodes. Three possible rate determining steps are considered: heterogeneous electron transfer between immobilized mediator and support electrode ; bimolecular chemical reaction between redox mediator and reactant species in the solution phase, and diffusional mass transport of reactant in solution. A general expression for the steady state reaction flux is derived which is valid for any degree of reversibility of both the heterogeneous electron transfer reaction involving immobilized mediator species and of the bimolecular cross exchange reaction between immobilized mediator and solution phase reactant. The influence of reactant transport in solution is also specifically considered. Simplified analytical expressions for the net reaction flux are derived for experimentally reasonable situations and a kinetic case diagram is constructed outlining the relationships between the various approximate solutions. The theory enables simple diagnostic plots to be constructed which can be used to analyse experimental data.

Michael E.G. Lyons

2001-12-01

122

Quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process in Lorentzian plasmas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process between a positive ion and a neutral atom collision is investigated in nonthermal generalized Lorentzian plasmas. The result shows that the nonthermal effect enhances the resonant electron transfer cross section in Lorentzian plasmas. It is found that the nonthermal effect on the classical resonant electron transfer cross section is more significant than that on the quantum tunneling resonant charge transfer cross section. It is shown that the nonthermal effect on the resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with an increase of the Debye length. In addition, the nonthermal effect on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with increasing collision energy. The variation of nonthermal and plasma shielding effects on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process is also discussed.

Hong, Woo-Pyo [Department of Electronics Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-08-15

123

Transfer line TT70 (electrons from PS to SPS)  

CERN Multimedia

As injectors for LEP, PS and SPS had to be converted to the acceleration of electrons and positrons. So far, only positively charged particles had been transferred from the PS to the SPS, for the negatively charged electrons a new transfer line, TT70, had to be built. Due to the difference in level of the two machines, the transfer line slopes and tilts.

1981-01-01

124

An electronic structure theory investigation of the physical chemistry of the intermolecular complexes of cyclopropenylidene with hydrogen halides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proton accepting and donating abilities of cyclopropenylidene (c-C(3)H(2)) on its complexation with hydrogen halides H-X (X = F, Cl, Br) are analyzed using density-functional theory with three functionals (PBE0, B3LYP, and B3LYP-D) and benchmarked against second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) theory. Standard signatures including, inter alia, dipole moment enhancement, charge transfer from the carbenic lone pair to the antibonding ?*(H-X) orbital, and H-X bond elongation are examined to ascertain the presence of hydrogen bonding in these complexes. The latter property is found to be accompanied with a pronounced red shift in the bond stretching frequency and with a substantial increase in the infrared intensity of the band on complex formation. The MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ c-C(3)H(2)···H-F complex potential energy surface turns out to be an asymmetric deep single well, while asymmetric double wells are found for the c-C(3)H(2)···H-Cl and c-C(3)H(2)···H-Br complexes, with an energy barrier of 4.1 kcal mol(-1) for proton transfer along the hydrogen bond in the latter complex. Hydrogen-bond energy decomposition, with the reduced variational space self-consistent field approach, indicates that there are large polarization and charge-transfer interactions between the interacting partners in c-C(3)H(2)···H-Br compared to the other two complexes. The C···H bonds are found to be predominantly ionic with partial covalent character, unveiled by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The present results reveal that the c-C(3)H(2) carbene divalent carbon can act as a proton acceptor and is responsible for the formation of hydrogen bonds in the complexes investigated. PMID:22696309

Varadwaj, Pradeep R; Varadwaj, Arpita; Peslherbe, Gilles H

2012-10-01

125

Electronic excitation transfer in concentrated micelle solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electronic excitation transport among interacting clusters of chromophores is investigated as a function of chromophores is investigated as a function of chromophore and cluster concentration. The technique of time-correlated single photon counting is employed to obtain time-resolved fluorescence depolarization data on aqueous octadecylrhodamine B/triton X-100 micelle solutions. The time-dependent fluorescence anisotropy, the energy transport observable, is directly compared to a theory developed to model this system. The theory is based on a first-order cumulant approximation to the solution of the transport master equation. The model depicts the micelles as monodisperse hard spheres with chromophores (octadecylrhodamine B) distributed about their surfaces. At low micelle concentration, the dynamics of excitation transfer depend only on internal micelle structure. At high micelle concentration excitation transfer occurs among chromophores on different micelles in addition to intramicelle transfer. The theoretical treatment provides nearly quantitative descriptions of the time and concentration dependence of the excitation transport. It correctly predicts the concentration at which intermicelle transfer becomes significant. In the low micelle concentration limit (energy transport confined to isolated micelles) the model having a Poisson distribution of chromophores works well for small ? ([chromophores]/[micelle]), but progressively worse as ? is increased. Followinsively worse as ? is increased. Following the literature, a chromophere interaction parameter (in the form of a two dimensional second virial coefficient) is used to skew the probe distribution. This enables the transport theory to reproduce the data for all the values of ? investigated and provides a determination of the second virial coefficient. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

126

Reaction of electron-transfer flavoprotein with electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oxidative half-reaction of electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF), electron transfer from ETF to electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO), is dependent on complementary surface charges on the two proteins. ETF is the positively charged member of the redox pair. The evidence is based on the pH and ionic strength dependencies of the comproportionation of oxidized ETF and ETF hydroquinone catalyzed by ETF-QO and on the effects of chemical modification of ETF on the comproportionation reaction. Acetylation of one and five epsilon-amino groups of lysyl residues results in 3- and 13-fold increases, respectively, in the K/sub m/ of ETF-QO for ETF but no change in V/sub max/. Amidination, which maintains positive charge at modified loci, has no effect on steady-state kinetic constants. These chemical modifications have no effect on the equilibrium constant for equilibration of ETF redox states. The K/sub m/ of ETF-QO for ETF is pH dependent above pH 8.5, suggesting titration of lysyl residues. The ionic strength dependence of TN/KmETF for the reaction follows the limiting Bronsted equation. The ETF-QO-catalyzed comproportionation reaction exhibits a primary deuterium isotope effect in D2O, perhaps indicating the participation of solvent water in the electron-transfer reaction

127

Electron transfer in gas surface collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis electron transfer between atoms and metal surfaces in general is discussed and the negative ionization of hydrogen by scattering protons at a cesiated crystalline tungsten (110) surface in particular. Experimental results and a novel theoretical analysis are presented. In Chapter I a theoretical overview of resonant electron transitions between atoms and metals is given. In the first part of chapter II atom-metal electron transitions at a fixed atom-metal distance are described on the basis of a model developed by Gadzuk. In the second part the influence of the motion of the atom on the atomic charge state is incorporated. Measurements presented in chapter III show a strong dependence of the fraction of negatively charged H atoms scattered at cesiated tungsten, on the normal as well as the parallel velocity component. In chapter IV the proposed mechanism for the parallel velocity effect is incorporated in the amplitude method. The scattering process of protons incident under grazing angles on a cesium covered surface is studied in chapter V. (Auth.)

128

Charge transfer: An electronic bath approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A charge transfer theory is developed for systems in which an atom, molecule, or ion interacts for a period of time with a substrate. The Hamiltonian of the system is taken to be one-electron and the nuclear motion of the substrate is ignored. The theory is structured so as to mimic generalized Langevin theory; namely, the equations of motion for annihilation operators of spin orbitals localized at the interaction site are developed such that a primary zone is defined with the remainder of the substrate being included through a memory kernel and a driving term. An electronic bath approximation is presented which leads to equations of motion for the occupation numbers of spin orbitals in the primary zone. These equations have the property that primary-zone occupation numbers damp to an equilibrium state at long time independent of their initial values. Specific application to a substrate modeled as a semi-infinite, Huckel chain is presented and numerical results are obtained. The electronic bath approximation is found to produce results in agreement with numerically exact data

129

Nanoparticles: toxicity, radicals, electron transfer, and antioxidants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, nanoparticles have received increasing attention in research and technology, including a variety of practical applications. The bioactivity appears to be related to the small particle size, in addition to inherent chemical activity as electron transfer (ET) agents, generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with subsequent oxidative stress (OS), and as antioxidants (AOs). The mechanism of toxicity, therapeutic action, and AO property is addressed based on the ET-ROS-OS approach. There are several main classes of ET functionalities, namely, quinones (or phenolic precursors), metal compounds, aromatic nitro compounds (or reduction products), and imine or iminium species. Most of the nanospecies fall within the metal category. Cell signaling is also discussed. This review discusses recent developments based on ET-ROS-OS-AO framework. PMID:23740111

Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

2013-01-01

130

Direct electron transfer based enzymatic fuel cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this mini-review we briefly describe some historical developments made in the field of enzymatic fuel cells (FCs), discussing important design considerations taken when constructing mediator-, cofactor-, and membrane-less biological FCs (BFCs). Since the topic is rather extensive, only BFCs utilizing direct electron transfer (DET) reactions on both the anodic and cathodic sides are considered. Moreover, the performance of mostly glucose/oxygen biodevices is analyzed and compared. We also present some unpublished results on mediator-, cofactor-, and membrane-less glucose/oxygen BFCs recently designed in our group and tested in different human physiological fluids, such as blood, plasma, saliva, and tears. Finally, further perspectives for BFC applications are highlighted.

131

Electron transfer patterns of the di-heme protein cytochrome c(4) from Pseudomonas stutzeri  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We report kinetic data for the two-step electron transfer (ET) oxidation and reduction of the two-domain di-heme redox protein Pseudomonas stutzeri cytochrome (cyt) c(4) by [Co(bipy)(3)](2- 3-) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine). Following earlier reports, the data accord with both bi- and tri-exponential kinetics. A complete kinetic scheme includes both "cooperative" intermolecular ET between each heme group and the external reaction partner, and intramolecular ET between the two heme groups. A now data analysis scheme shows unequivocally that two-ET oxidation and reduction of P. stutzeri cyt c(4) is entirely dominated by intermolecular ET between the heme groups and the external reaction partner in the ms time range, with virtually no contribution from intramolecular interheme ET in this time range. This is in striking contrast to two-ET electrochemical oxidation or reduction of P. stutzeri cyt c(4) for which fast, ms to sub-ms intramolecular interheme ET is a crucial step. The rate constant dependence on the solventviscosity has disclosed strong coupling to both a (set of) frictionally damped solvent/protein nuclear modes and intramolecular friction-less "ballistic" modes, indicative of notable protein structural mobility in the overall two-ET process. We suggest that conformational protein mobility blocks intramolecular interheme ET in bulk homogeneous solution but triggers opening of this gated ET channel in the electrochemical environment or in the membrane environment of natural respiratory cyt c(4) function.

Raffalt, Anders Christer; Schmidt, L.

2009-01-01

132

Dynamics of Electron Transfer Pathways in Cytochrome c Oxidase  

OpenAIRE

Cytochrome c oxidase mediates the final step of electron transfer reactions in the respiratory chain, catalyzing the transfer between cytochrome c and the molecular oxygen and concomitantly pumping protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. We investigate the electron transfer reactions in cytochrome c oxidase, particularly the control of the effective electronic coupling by the nuclear thermal motion. The effective coupling is calculated using the Green's function technique with an ext...

Tan, Ming-liang; Balabin, Ilya; Onuchic, Jose? Nelson

2004-01-01

133

Single and Accumulative Electron Transfer – Prerequisites for Artificial Photosynthesis  

OpenAIRE

Photoinduced electron transfer is involved in a number of photochemical and photobiological processes. One example of this is photosynthesis, where the absorption of sunlight leads to the formation of charge-separated states by electron transfer. The redox equivalents built up by successive photoabsorption and electron transfer is further used for the oxidation of water and reduction of carbon dioxide to sugars. The work presented in this thesis is part of an interdisciplinary effort aiming a...

Karlsson, Susanne

2010-01-01

134

Intermolecular hydrogen bond energies in crystals evaluated using electron density properties: DFT computations with periodic boundary conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrogen bond (H-bond) energies are evaluated for 18 molecular crystals with 28 moderate and strong O-H···O bonds using the approaches based on the electron density properties, which are derived from the B3LYP/6-311G** calculations with periodic boundary conditions. The approaches considered explore linear relationships between the local electronic kinetic G(b) and potential V(b) densities at the H···O bond critical point and the H-bond energy E(HB). Comparison of the computed E(HB) values with the experimental data and enthalpies evaluated using the empirical correlation of spectral and thermodynamic parameters (Iogansen, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 1999, 55, 1585) enables to estimate the accuracy and applicability limits of the approaches used. The V(b)-E(HB) approach overestimates the energy of moderate H-bonds (E(HB) < 60 kJ/mol) by ~20% and gives unreliably high energies for crystals with strong H-bonds. On the other hand, the G(b)-E(HB) approach affords reliable results for the crystals under consideration. The linear relationship between G(b) and E(HB) is basis set superposition error (BSSE) free and allows to estimate the H-bond energy without computing it by means of the supramolecular approach. Therefore, for the evaluation of H-bond energies in molecular crystals, the G(b) value can be recommended to be obtained from both density functional theory (DFT) computations with periodic boundary conditions and precise X-ray diffraction experiments. PMID:22786749

Vener, M V; Egorova, A N; Churakov, A V; Tsirelson, V G

2012-11-01

135

Electron transfer reactions of metal complexes in solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A few representative electron-transfer reactions are selected and their kinetic parameters compared with the predictions of activated complex models. Since Taube has presented an elegant treatment of intramolecular electron-transfer reactions, emphasis is on bimolecular reactions. The latter electron-transfer reactions are more complicated to treat theoretically since the geometries of their activated complexes are not as well known as for the intramolecular case. In addition in biomolecular reactions, the work required to bring the two reactants together needs to be calculated. Since both reactants generally carry charges this presents a non-trivial problem at the ionic strengths usually used to study bimolecular electron transfer

136

Reactions involving electron transfer at semiconductor surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rapid isotopic equilibration was observed upon contacting an equimolar mixture of (16O2 + 18O2) at 295 or 77 K with oxygen-deficient surfaces of pure and doped zinc oxides from which light was excluded at all stages. Kinetic expressions for opposing second-order reactions accurately described variations in mole fraction of 16O2, 16O18O and 18O2 in the gas phase during the approach to full isotopic equilibration at 295 or 77 K. Rate constants thereby derived for this R0-type exchange did not correlate with reported concentrations of conduction-band electrons for the zinc oxides, indicating that the rate-determining process for exchange was not collective-electron type charge transfer at the oxygen-deficient surfaces in the absence of illumination. Surfaces could be rendered inactive by extensive preoxidation in 16O2 at 650 K in the dark, but heating for 2 h periods in the dark under continuous evacuation restored activity to a progressively increasing extent at temperatures of 400 to 650 K. Preadsorption of H2O, H2 or (CH3)2CHOH at 295 K strongly inhibited activity. An explanation of the observed results is developed. (author)

137

Intermolecular and Surface Forces  

CERN Document Server

This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

Israelachvili, Jacob N

2010-01-01

138

Intermolecular and surface forces  

CERN Document Server

This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

Israelachvili, Jacob N

2011-01-01

139

Excited state electron transfer processes in solution and at solid surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of resonance Raman spectroscopy for the detection of the transient intermolecular electron transfer product generated in a reductive quenching of excited tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium (II) (Ru(bpy)[sub 3][sup 2+]) process is demonstrated. N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) is used as the electron donor. The leading edge of an 10 ns 532 nm pulse from a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser excitation source is used to generate Ru(bpy)[sub 3][sup 2+*], and the trailing edge of the pulse is used to detect the electron transfer product, TMPD[sup +]. Pulsed laser excitation of a covalently-linked chromophore-electron acceptor compound, pyridyltritolyporphyrin linked to dibenzylviologen, B[sub z2]V[sup 2+], (porphyrin-viologen, P-V[sup 2+]), in CH[sub 3]CN leads to intramolecular electron transfer quenching of the porphyrin singlet excited state within the laser pulsewidth. Quenching occurs by the reduction of the linked Bz[sub 2]V[sup 2+] to Bz[sub 2]V[sup 1+]. The direct detection of transient Bz[sub 2]V[sup 1+] was accomplished by resonance Raman spectroscopy. The same transient features were obtained from pulsed laser excitation of a mixture of the separate constituents of porphyrin (P) an dibenzylviologen in CH[sub 3]CN. Confirmation of the assignment of transient Bz[sub 2]V[sup 1+] comes from comparison of the spectra with the resonance Raman spectrum of an authentic sample of Bz[sub 2]V[sup 1+], and of electrochemically reduced P-V[sup 2+]. Fluorescence lifetime determinations for P-V[sup 2+] and P yield a rate constant for intramolecular electron transfer consistent with the ability to observe electron transfer within the laser pulsewidth. The results demonstrate that anchoring a molecular assembly on a SiO[sub 2] surface causes little perturbation of their photophysical properties and their excited state electron transfer process.

Yu, J.

1993-01-01

140

Electron transfer processes in photosynthetics biological systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This seminar presents a conceptual model of the sequence of primary light induced electron transfer (ET) steps in photosynthetic bacteria. The temperature dependence of some of these redox reactions, like ET process between cytochrome and bacteriochlorophyll in Chromatium, is characterized by a temperature-independent rate at low temperatures and exhibits the Arrhenius-type dependence at high temperatures. The other primary ET processes, like an ET reaction between bacteriopheophytin and Fe-quinone complex in Rps. spheroides, are temperature-independent in the broad range of 4-300K. The third type of ET processes, exemplified by back ET reactions between Fe-quinone and bacteriochlorophyll in Rhs. rubrum, exhibits negative activation energy at high temperatures. The theoretical approach, describing the primary ET processes in photosynthesis, is based on the non-adiabatic multiphonon ET theory, which incorporates both a continuous distribution of optical phonons in a polar solvent and discrete intramolecular vibrational modes. The last two types of the redox reactions are attributed to activationless ET processes which play an essential role in highly efficient charge separation in primary photosynthetic processes. The transition temperature, separating the tunneling region from the activated region indicates the range of phonon frequencies involved in the ET process. Comparing the low-temperature rates with calculated Franck-Condon factors one can determine the value ondon factors one can determine the value of the electron-exchange matrix element, which in turn provides a rough estimate of the distance scale between a donor and an acceptor in the primary ET events

141

Electron and hole transfer from indium phosphide quantum dots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron- and hole-transfer reactions are studied in colloidal InP quantum dots (QDs). Photoluminescence quenching and time-resolved transient absorption (TA) measurements are utilized to examine hole transfer from photoexcited InP QDs to the hole acceptor N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) and electron transfer to nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) films. Core-confined holes are effectively quenched by TMPD, resulting in a new approximately 4-ps component in the TA decay. It is found that electron transfer to TiO2 is primarily mediated through surface-localized states on the InP QDs. PMID:16851267

Blackburn, J L; Selmarten, D C; Ellingson, R J; Jones, M; Micic, O; Nozik, A J

2005-02-24

142

Photoinduced Electron-transfer Reaction of Pentafluoroiodobenzene with Alkenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Irradiation of pentafluoroiodobenzene and alkenes gave the corresponding adducts. The presence of single electron-transfer scavengers, (p-dinitrobenzene and t-Bu2NO and the free radical inhibitor (hydroquinone suppressed the reaction. A photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism is proposed.

Qing-Yun Chen

1997-01-01

143

76 FR 29901 - Electronic Fund Transfers  

Science.gov (United States)

...often the consumer's country of origin. Traditional...transfers varies widely, in part because of the difficulty...subject population, and in part because of differences...transfers worldwide to developing countries reached $325...

2011-05-23

144

Activation entropy of electron transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report microscopic calculations of free energies and entropies for intramolecular electron transfer reactions. The calculation algorithm combines the atomistic geometry and charge distribution of a molecular solute obtained from quantum calculations with the microscopic polarization response of a polar solvent expressed in terms of its polarization structure factors. The procedure is tested on a donor-acceptor complex in which ruthenium donor and cobalt acceptor sites are linked by a four-proline polypeptide. The reorganization energies and reaction energy gaps are calculated as a function of temperature by using structure factors obtained from our analytical procedure and from computer simulations. Good agreement between two procedures and with direct computer simulations of the reorganization energy is achieved. The microscopic algorithm is compared to the dielectric continuum calculations. We found that the strong dependence of the reorganization energy on the solvent refractive index predicted by continuum models is not supported by the microscopic theory. Also, the reorganization and overall solvation entropies are substantially larger in the microscopic theory compared to continuum models

145

Electron transfer from cytochrome c to cupredoxins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron transfer (ET) through and between proteins is a fundamental biological process. The activation energy for an ET reaction depends upon the Gibbs energy change upon ET (DeltaG(0)) and the reorganization energy. Here, we characterized ET from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome c(551) (PA) and its designed mutants to cupredoxins, Silene pratensis plastocyanin (PC) and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans rusticyanin (RC), through measurement of pseudo-first-order ET rate constants (k(obs)). The influence of the DeltaG (0) value for ET from PA to PC or RC on the k(obs) value was examined using a series of designed PA proteins exhibiting a variety of E (m) values, which afford the DeltaG (0) variation range of 58-399 meV. The plots of the k(obs) values obtained against the DeltaG(0) values for both PA-PC and PA-RC redox pairs could be fitted well with a single Marcus equation. We have shown that the ET activity of cytochrome c can be controlled by tuning the E(m) value of the protein through the substitution of amino acid residues located in hydrophobic-core regions relatively far from the redox center. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular design of cytochrome c, which could be utilized for controlling its ET activity by means of protein engineering. PMID:19294434

Takayama, Shin-ichi J; Irie, Kiyofumi; Tai, Hulin; Kawahara, Takumi; Hirota, Shun; Takabe, Teruhiro; Alcaraz, Luis A; Donaire, Antonio; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

2009-08-01

146

Kinetics of electron transfer between semiquinones and stable radicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interaction of semiquinone and stable nitroxyl radicals has been studied in modeling radiosensitization processes. Bimolecular radical reactions which proceed through one-electron transfer are of interest for the information which they furnish concerning radical reactions, in general, and charge-transfer processes, in particular. The present work used flash photolysis to study the kinetics of electron transfer between semiquinone (Q-/sup ./, QH/sup ./), nitroxyl, and triphenylverdazyl radicals in aqueous and aqueous organic solution

147

Electron Transfer in Porphyrin Complexes in Different Solvents  

CERN Document Server

The electron transfer in different solvents is investigated for systems consisting of donor, bridge and acceptor. It is assumed that vibrational relaxation is much faster than the electron transfer. Electron transfer rates and final populations of the acceptor state are calculated numerically and in an approximate fashion analytically. In wide parameter regimes these solutions are in very good agreement. The theory is applied to the electron transfer in ${\\rm H_2P-ZnP-Q}$ with free-base porphyrin (${\\rm H_2P}$) being the donor, zinc porphyrin (${\\rm ZnP}$) the bridge, and quinone (${\\rm Q}$) the acceptor. It is shown that the electron transfer rates can be controlled efficiently by changing the energy of the bridging level which can be done by changing the solvent. The effect of the solvent is determined for different models.

Kilin, D S; Schreiber, M

2000-01-01

148

Correlated ab initio investigations on the intermolecular and intramolecular potential energy surfaces in the ground electronic state of the O2-(X2?g)-HF(X1?+) complex  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports the first highly correlated ab initio study of the intermolecular and intramolecular potential energy surfaces in the ground electronic state of the O_2^ - (X{}^2? _g) - HF(X{}^1?^+) complex. Accurate electronic structure calculations were performed using the coupled cluster method including single and double excitations with addition of the perturbative triples correction [CCSD(T)] with the Dunning's correlation consistent basis sets aug-cc-pVnZ, n = 2-5. Also, the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12a level of theory was employed with the AVnZ basis as well as the Peterson and co-workers VnZ-F12 basis sets with n = 2 and 3. Results of all levels of calculations predicted two equivalent minimum energy structures of planar geometry and Cs symmetry along the A? surface of the complex, whereas the A' surface is repulsive. Values of the geometrical parameters and the counterpoise corrected dissociation energies (Cp-De) that were calculated using the CCSD(T)-F12a/VnZ-F12 level of theory are in excellent agreement with those obtained from the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z calculations. The minimum energy structure is characterized by a very short hydrogen bond of length of 1.328 Å, with elongation of the HF bond distance in the complex by 0.133 Å, and De value of 32.313 Kcal/mol. Mulliken atomic charges showed that 65% of the negative charge is localized on the hydrogen bonded end of the superoxide radical and the HF unit becomes considerably polarized in the complex. These results suggest that the hydrogen bond is an incipient ionic bond. Exploration of the potential energy surface confirmed the identified minimum and provided support for vibrationally induced intramolecular proton transfer within the complex. The T-shaped geometry that possesses C2v symmetry presents a saddle point on the top of the barrier to the in-plane bending of the hydrogen above and below the axis that connects centers of masses of the monomers. The height of this barrier is 7.257 Kcal/mol, which is higher in energy than the hydrogen bending frequency by 909.2 cm-1. The calculated harmonic oscillator vibrational frequencies showed that the H-F stretch vibrational transition in the complex is redshifted by 2564 cm-1 and gained significant intensity (by at least a factor of 30) with respect to the transition in the HF monomer. These results make the O_2^ - - HF complex an excellent prototype for infrared spectroscopic investigations on open-shell complexes with vibrationally induced proton transfer.

Fawzy, Wafaa M.; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Zhang, Yuchen

2013-01-01

149

Electron transfer in organic glass. Distance and energy dependence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have investigated the distance and energy dependence of electron transfer in rigid organic glasses containing randomly dispersed electron donor and electron acceptor molecules. Pulsed radiolysis by an electron beam from a linear accelerator was used for ionization resulting in charge deposition on donor molecules. The disappearance kinetics of donor radical anions due to electron transfer to acceptor was monitored spectroscopically by the change in optical density at the wavelength corresponding to that of donor radical anion absorbance. It was found that the rate of the electron transfer observed experimentally was higher than that computed using the Marcus-Levich theory assuming that the electron-transfer activation barrier is equal to the binding energy of electron on the donor molecule. This discrepancy between the experimental and computed results suggests that the open-quotes inertclose quotes media in which electron-transfer reaction takes place may be participating in the process, resulting in experimentally observed higher electron-transfer rates. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

150

Electron transfer in proteins : in search of preferential pathways  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition to the distance and nature of the microenvironment separating the reactants) thermodynamic driving force and the configurational changes required upon reaction. Several of these aspects are addressed in this review, which is based primarily on recent work performed by the authors on model systems of blue copper-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function.

Farver, O; Pecht, I

1991-01-01

151

Photoinduced electron transfer from a fundamental understanding to potential applications  

OpenAIRE

Although the transfer of an electron from a donor to an acceptor after one of them has been electronically excited by the absorption of light appears to be a very simple reaction, there are still many open questions concerning the detailed mechanism of photoinduced electron transfer. It is nevertheless a fascinating and very important reaction, given its key importance in photosynthesis and many modern approaches to solar energy conversion. The objective of this PhD thesis was thus to use ult...

Banerji, Nathalie Renuka

2009-01-01

152

Shewanella secretes flavins that mediate extracellular electron transfer  

OpenAIRE

Bacteria able to transfer electrons to metals are key agents in biogeochemical metal cycling, subsurface bioremediation, and corrosion processes. More recently, these bacteria have gained attention as the transfer of electrons from the cell surface to conductive materials can be used in multiple applications. In this work, we adapted electrochemical techniques to probe intact biofilms of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Shewanella sp. MR-4 grown by using a poised electrode as an electron acc...

Marsili, Enrico; Baron, Daniel B.; Shikare, Indraneel D.; Coursolle, Dan; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; Bond, Daniel R.

2008-01-01

153

A Simple Marcus-Theory Type Model for Hydrogen Atom Transfer/Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer  

OpenAIRE

Hydrogen atom transfer reactions are the simplest class of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes. These reactions involve transfer of one electron and one proton from one reagent to another, in the same kinetic step: XH + Y ? X + HY. A predictive model for these reactions based on the Marcus cross relation is described. The model predicts rate constants within one or two orders of magnitude in most cases, over a very wide range of reactants and solvents. This remarkable result i...

Mayer, James M.

2011-01-01

154

Golden rule kinetics of transfer reactions in condensed phase: The microscopic model of electron transfer reactions in disordered solid matrices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The algorithm for a theoretical calculation of transfer reaction rates for light quantum particles (i.e., the electron and H-atom transfers) in non-polar solid matrices is formulated and justified. The mechanism postulated involves a local mode (an either intra- or inter-molecular one) serving as a mediator which accomplishes the energy exchange between the reacting high-frequency quantum mode and the phonon modes belonging to the environment. This approach uses as a background the Fermi golden rule beyond the usually applied spin-boson approximation. The dynamical treatment rests on the one-dimensional version of the standard quantum relaxation equation for the reduced density matrix, which describes the frequency fluctuation spectrum for the local mode under consideration. The temperature dependence of a reaction rate is controlled by the dimensionless parameter ?0=??0/kBT where ?0 is the frequency of the local mode and T is the temperature. The realization of the computational scheme is different for the high/intermediate (?0 0? 1) temperature ranges. For the first (quasi-classical) kinetic regime, the Redfield approximation to the solution of the relaxation equation proved to be sufficient and efficient in practical applications. The study of the essentially quantum-mechanical low-temperature kinetic regime in its asymptotic limit requires the implementation of the exact relaxation equation. The coherent mechanism providing a non-vanishing reaction rate has been revealed when T? 0. An accurate computational methodology for the cross-over kinetic regime needs a further elaboration. The original model of the hopping mechanism for electronic conduction in photosensitive organic materials is considered, based on the above techniques. The electron transfer (ET) in active centers of such systems proceeds via local intra- and intermolecular modes. The active modes, as a rule, operate beyond the kinetic regimes, which are usually postulated in the existing theories of the ET. Our alternative dynamic ET model for local modes immersed in the continuum harmonic medium is formulated for both classical and quantum regimes, and accounts explicitly for the mode/medium interaction. The kinetics of the energy exchange between the local ET subsystem and the surrounding environment essentially determine the total ET rate. The efficient computer code for rate computations is elaborated on. The computations are available for a wide range of system parameters, such as the temperature, external field, local mode frequency, and characteristics of mode/medium interaction. The relation of the present approach to the Marcus ET theory and to the quantum-statistical reaction rate theory [V. G. Levich and R. R. Dogonadze, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. Khim. 124, 213 (1959); J. Ulstrup, Charge Transfer in Condensed Media (Springer, Berlin, 1979); M. Bixon and J. Jortner, Adv. Chem. Phys. 106, 35 (1999)] underlying it is discussed and illustrated by the results of computations for practically important target systems

155

Heat Transfer Augmentation for Electronic Cooling  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: The performance of electronic devices has been improving along with the rapid technology development. Cooling of electronic systems is consequently essential in controlling the component temperature and avoiding any hot spot. The study aims to review the present electronic cooling methods which are widely used in electronic devices. Approach: There are several methods to cool down the electronics components such as the pin-fin heat sink, confined jet impingeme...

Suabsakul Gururatana

2012-01-01

156

Single-molecule kinetics of interfacial electron transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of single-molecule chemical reaction kinetics are demonstrated for interfacial electron transfer from excited cresyl violet molecules to the conduction band of indium tin oxide (ITO) or energetically accessible surface electronic states under ambient conditions by using a far-field fluorescence microscope. In this system, each single molecule exhibits a single-exponential electron transfer kinetics. A wide distribution of site-specific electron transfer rates is observed for many single cresyl violet molecules examined. This work reveals that the physical origin of multiexponential kinetics of electron transfer in this system is the inhomogeneity of molecular interactions on the semiconductor surface of ITO. We illustrate that the single-molecule experiments provide detailed information not obtainable from experiments conducted on large ensembles of molecules. Single-molecule kinetics is particularly useful in understanding multiexponential behavior of chemical reactions in heterogeneous systems. 42 refs., 4 figs.

Lu, H.P.; Xie, X.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1997-04-10

157

Electronic Publishing and the Information Transfer Process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses new information forms that promise to force changes in the information transfer process which is based on the organization, storage, and distribution of edition printed products. Roles of authors, publishers, jobbers, librarians, and users in the information transfer process are highlighted. (EJS)

Aveney, Brian

1983-01-01

158

Dissociative electron attachment and charge transfer in condensed matter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments using energy-selected beams of electrons incident from vacuum upon thin vapour deposited solids show that, as in the gas-phase, scattering cross sections at low energies are dominated by the formation of temporary negative ions (or resonances) and that molecular damage may be effected via dissociative electron attachment (DEA). Recent results also show that charge transfer between anionic states of target molecules and their environment is often crucial in determining cross sections for electron driven processes. Here, we review recent work from our laboratory, in which charge transfer is observed. For rare gas solids, electron exchange between the electron-exciton complex and either a metal substrate or co-adsorbed molecule enhances the desorption of metastable atoms and/or molecular dissociation. We discuss how transient electron capture by surface electron states of a substrate and subsequent electron transfer to a molecular adsorbate enhances the effective cross sections for DEA. We also consider the case of DEA to CF2Cl2 condensed on water and ammonia ices, where electron exchange between pre-solvated electron states of ice and transient molecular anions can also increase DEA cross sections. Electron transfer from molecular resonances into pre-solvated electron states of ice is also discussed

159

High-pressure pulse radiolysis study of intramolecular and intermolecular reduction of cytochrome c by ruthenium(II) ammine complexes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volumes of activation for intra- and intermolecular electron transfer from ruthenium(II) ammine complexes to two types of cytochrome c were measured by pulse radiolysis using a portable, high-pressure optical cell. Electron transfer rates were measured as a function of pressure from 1 to 1500 atmospheres. The ?V values for intramolecular electron transfer in (NH3)5RuII-His33 horse-heart ferricytochrome c and (NH3)5RuII-His39 Candida krusei ferricytochrome c are -17.7 ± 0.9 and -18.3 ± 0.7 cm3 mol-1, respectively. For the intermolecular reaction between [Ru(NH3)6]2+ and horse heart ferricytochrome c, ?V is -15.6 ± 0.6 cm3 mol-1. The results indicate that the electron transfer transition state is significantly more compact than the reactant state in both the intramolecular and intermolecular cases. Mechanistic interpretations for the observed volume changes are discussed

160

Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10?2 electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems

161

Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10{sup ?2} electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems.

Haverkate, Lucas A.; Mulder, Fokko M. [Reactor Institute Delft, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands); Zbiri, Mohamed, E-mail: zbiri@ill.fr; Johnson, Mark R. [Institut Laue Langevin, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Carter, Elizabeth [Vibrational Spectroscopy Facility, School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, NSW 2008 (Australia); Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, S. [ChemE-NSM, Faculty of Chemistry, Delft University of Technology, 2628BL/136 Delft (Netherlands); Kearley, Gordon J. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

2014-01-07

162

Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10-2 electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems.

Haverkate, Lucas A.; Zbiri, Mohamed; Johnson, Mark R.; Carter, Elizabeth; Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, S.; Mulder, Fokko M.; Kearley, Gordon J.

2014-01-01

163

Electron transfer dynamics using projected modes  

OpenAIRE

For electron-phonon Hamiltonians with the couplings linear in the phonon operators we construct a class of unitary transformations that separate the normal modes into two groups. The modes in the first group interact with the electronic degrees of freedom directly. The modes in the second group interact directly only with the modes in the first group but not with the electronic system. We show that for the $n$-level electronic system the minimum number of modes in the first ...

Pereverzev, Andrey; Bittner, Eric R.

2008-01-01

164

Theory of electron transfer and ionization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main effort reported is directed toward charge transfer and ionization in high energy atomic collisions. The research may be divided into classical trajectory calculations, quantum - mechanical collision theory, and phenomenological treatments of quantal interference effects in heavy ion collisions

165

27 CFR 25.165 - Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer. 25.165...ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE...165 Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer. (a) Eligible...bank in making payment by electronic fund transfer...

2010-04-01

166

27 CFR 19.524 - Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer. 19.524...ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE...524 Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer. (a) General...bank in making payment by electronic fund transfer...

2010-04-01

167

27 CFR 53.158 - Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer. 53.158...ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE...158 Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer. (a) In...the taxes (taxpayments) by electronic fund transfer...

2010-04-01

168

12 CFR 205.15 - Electronic fund transfer of government benefits.  

Science.gov (United States)

...device to a consumer for use in initiating an electronic fund transfer...means of an electronic fund transfer...identity of the consumer receiving the...time of an electronic fund transfer...history of the consumer's...

2010-01-01

169

12 CFR 205.14 - Electronic fund transfer service provider not holding consumer's account.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Electronic fund transfer...not holding consumer's account...provides an electronic fund transfer service to a consumer but that does...describes each electronic fund transfer initiated by the consumer with...

2010-01-01

170

Electron attachment step in electron capture dissociation (ECD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD).  

Science.gov (United States)

We have made use of classical dynamics trajectory simultions and ab initio electronic structure calculations to estimate the cross sections with which electrons are attached (in electron capture dissociation (ECD)) or transferred (in electron transfer dissociation (ETD)) to a model system that contained both an S-S bond that is cleaved and a -NH(3)(+) positively charged site. We used a Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg curve-crossing approximation to estimate the ETD rates for electron transfer from a CH(3)(-) anion to the -NH(3)(+) Rydberg orbital or the S-S sigma* orbital. We draw conclusions about ECD from our ETD results and from known experimental electron-attachment cross sections for cations and sigma-bonds. We predict the cross section for ETD at the positive site of our model compound to be an order of magnitude larger than that for transfer to the Coulomb-stabilized S-S bond site. We also predict that, in ECD, the cross section for electron capture at the positive site will be up to 3 orders of magnitude larger than that for capture at the S-S bond site. These results seem to suggest that attachment to such positive sites should dominate in producing S-S bond cleavage in our compound. However, we also note that cleavage induced by capture at the positive site will be diminished by an amount that is related to the distance from the positive site to the S-S bond. This dimunition can render cleavage through Coulomb-assisted S-S sigma* attachment competitive for our model compound. Implications for ECD and ETD of peptides and proteins in which SS or N-C(alpha) bonds are cleaved are also discussed, and we explain that such events are most likely susceptible to Coulomb-assisted attachment, because the S-S sigma* and C=O pi* orbitals are the lowest-lying antibonding orbitals in most peptides and proteins. PMID:16833914

Anusiewicz, Iwona; Berdys-Kochanska, Joanna; Simons, Jack

2005-07-01

171

Theory of interrelated electron and proton transfer processes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A simple theory of elementary act of interrelated reactions of electron and proton transfer is developed. Mechanisms of synchronous and multistage transfer and coherent transitions via a dynamically populated intermediate state are discussed. Formulas for rate constants of adiabatic and nonadiabatic reactions are derived.

Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens

2003-01-01

172

Mediated catalysis of Paracoccus pantotrophus cytochrome c peroxidase by P. pantotrophus pseudoazurin: kinetics of intermolecular electron transfer  

OpenAIRE

This work reports the direct electrochemistry of Paracoccus pantotrophus pseudoazurin and the mediated catalysis of cytochrome c peroxidase from the same organism. The voltammetric behaviour was examined at a gold membrane electrode, and the studies were performed in the presence of calcium to enable the peroxidase activation. A formal reduction potential, E (0)', of 230 +/- 5 mV was determined for pseudoazurin at pH 7.0. Its voltammetric signal presented a pH dependence, defined by pK values...

Sousa, P. M. Paes; Pauleta, Sofia R.; Gonc?alves, M. L. Simo?es; Pettigrew, Graham W.; Moura, Isabel; Moura, Jose? J. G.; Santos, Margarida M. Correia Dos

2007-01-01

173

Interfacial Electron Transfer into Functionalized Crystalline Polyoxotitanate Nanoclusters  

OpenAIRE

Interfacial electron transfer (IET) between a chromophore and a semi-conductor nanoparticle is one of the key processes in a dye sensitized solar cell. Theoretical simulations of the electron transfer in polyoxotitanate nanoclusters Ti17O24(OPri)20 (Ti17) functionalized with four para-nitrophenyl acetylacetone (NPA-H) adsorbates, of which the atomic structure has been fully established by X-ray diffraction measurements, are presented. Complementary experimental information showing IET has bee...

Snoeberger, Robert C.; Young, Karin J.; Tang, Jiji; Allen, Laura J.; Crabtree, Robert H.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Coppens, Philip; Batista, Victor S.; Benedict, Jason B.

2012-01-01

174

Thermodynamics of electron transfer in Escherichia coli cytochrome bo3  

OpenAIRE

The proton translocation mechanism of the Escherichia coli cytochrome bo3 complex is intimately tied to the electron transfers within the enzyme. Herein we evaluate two models of proton translocation in this enzyme, a cytochrome c oxidase-type ion-pump and a Q-cycle mechanism, on the basis of the thermodynamics of electron transfer. We conclude that from a thermodynamic standpoint, a Q-cycle is the more favorable mechanism for proton translocation and is likely occ...

Schultz, Brian E.; Chan, Sunney I.

1998-01-01

175

Single-molecule electron transfer reactions in nanomaterials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Here we report the study of single molecule electron transfer dynamics by coupling fluorescence microscopy at a conventional electrochemical cell. The single-molecule fluorescence spectroelectrochemistry of cresyl violet in aqueous solution and on nanoparticle surface were studied. We observed that the single-molecule fluorescence intensity of cresyl violet is modulated synchronously with the cyclic voltammetric potential scanning. We attribute the fluorescence intensity change of single cresyl violet molecules to the electron transfer reaction driven by the electrochemical potential.

Hu, Dehong; Lei, Chenghong; Ackerman, Eric J.

2009-07-26

176

Photoinduced electron transfer from DABCO to trans-nitrostilbenes  

Science.gov (United States)

The anion radical of the trans isomers of 4-nitro-, 4,4'-dinitro-, and 4-nitro-4'-methoxystilbene was generated by triplet quenching with 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) in polar solvents at room temperature using laser flash photolysis. Electron transfer and trans ? cis photoisomerization are competing processes. The radical ions decay by electron back-transfer yielding the initial ground states.

Görner, Helmut; Schulte-Frohlinde, Dietrich

177

Laser pulse control of bridge mediated heterogeneous electron transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer from surface attached dye molecules into semiconductor band states is analyzed. The focus is on systems where the dye is separated from the surface by different bridge anchor groups. To simulate the full quantum dynamics of the transfer process a model of reduced dimensionality is used. It comprises the electronic levels of the dye, the bridge anchor group electronic levels and the continuum of semiconductor band states, all defined versus a single intramolecular vibrational coordinate. The effect of the bridge states is demonstrated, firstly, in studying the injection dynamics following an impulsive excitation of the dye. Then, by discussing different control tasks it is demonstrate in which way the charge injection process can be influenced by tailored laser pulses. To highlight the importance of electron wave function interference emphasis is put on asymmetric two-bridge molecule systems which are also characterized by different and complex valued electronic transfer matrix elements.

178

Laser pulse control of bridge mediated heterogeneous electron transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer from surface attached dye molecules into semiconductor band states is analyzed. The focus is on systems where the dye is separated from the surface by different bridge anchor groups. To simulate the full quantum dynamics of the transfer process a model of reduced dimensionality is used. It comprises the electronic levels of the dye, the bridge anchor group electronic levels and the continuum of semiconductor band states, all defined versus a single intramolecular vibrational coordinate. The effect of the bridge states is demonstrated, firstly, in studying the injection dynamics following an impulsive excitation of the dye. Then, by discussing different control tasks it is demonstrate in which way the charge injection process can be influenced by tailored laser pulses. To highlight the importance of electron wave function interference emphasis is put on asymmetric two-bridge molecule systems which are also characterized by different and complex valued electronic transfer matrix elements.

Wang, Luxia; May, Volkhard

2009-06-01

179

Electron Transfer in Ferritin as Probed by Muon Spin Relaxation  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron-transfer processes play a vital role in many biological phenomena, from energy storage to photosynthesis. Positive muons allow such transfer processes in macromolecules, such as proteins, to be probed on a microscopic level. We have used this probe via muon spin relaxation (?SR) to investigate electron-transfer processes in ferritin; the normal iron storage protein. Data collected at finite fields is well described using the Risch-Kehr model at all measured temperatures with inter and intra-chain diffusion rates of 109 and 1011 rad s-1 being determined respectively. The results are compared to similar measurements on other proteins.

Telling, Mark T. F.; Kilcoyne, Susan H.

180

Theoretical investigation on intramolecular electron transfer in polypeptides  

Science.gov (United States)

Theoretical investigations on the intramolecular electron transfer between the intermediate residues of different secondary structures of an oligopeptide have been carried out. Density functional theory calculations have been performed to calculate the charge transfer integral, spatial overlap integral and site-energies for the optimized secondary structures of the glycine oligopeptide by varying the dihedral angles ( ? and ?) along the ?-carbon atom of amino acid subgroups. The reorganization energy has been calculated in the presence of an excess negative charge. The electron transfer rates for the model peptide have been estimated and the dependence of the rate on secondary structures is discussed.

Santhanamoorthi, N.; Kolandaivel, P.; Senthilkumar, K.

2007-06-01

181

The deactivation of singlet excited all-trans-1,6-diphenylhexa-1,3,5-triene by intermolecular charge transfer processes. 1. Mechanisms of fluorescence quenching and of triplet and cation formation  

Science.gov (United States)

The photophysical and fluorescence quenching properties of all-trans-1,6-diphenulhexa-1,3,5-triene (DPH) were investigated in toluene and acetonitrile solution and the influences of the external heavy-atom effect (HAE) and of charge transfer (CT) processes on the fluorescence quenching mechanism were characterized. Particular emphasis was placed upon the elucidation of the electron transfer reactions in the quenching of DPH fluorescence by p-dicyanobenzene (p-DCB) in acetonitrile. It was shown that the combination of stationary and time-resolved fluorescence measurements, laser flash photolysis and CIDNP experiments allows a comprehensive description of the primary and secondary electron transfer reactions in the fluorescence quenching process. In particular, the characterization of the kinetics of genuine charge recombination (CR) reactions of the DPH/p-DCB singlet and triplet ion pairs, of the spin evolution process and of the degenerate electron transfer between neutral and cationic DPH was achieved.

Schael, F.; Löhmannsröben, H.-G.

1996-05-01

182

Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in atomic collisions: Progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fundamental processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in ion-atom collisions are being studied at Penn State by Winter. (The related work of Alston, who recently came to Penn State, is not described here since he is not at present funded by DOE.) These collision processes are treated in the context of simple one- or two-electron systems in order to provide unambiguous results and reveal more clearly the collisional mechanisms. Three coupled-state calculations are being carried out over the present three-year period and are discussed here: a Sturmian-pseudostate study of electron transfer in collisions between protons and the hydrogenic ions He+, Li2+, Be3+, ...; a triple-center, atomic-state study of ionization in collisions between ? particles and H(ls) atoms and between protons and He+(ls) ions; and a coupled-state study of electron transfer and excitation in collisions between protons and neutral He atoms

183

Improved heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics of fluorinated graphene derivatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Though graphitic carbons are commercially available for various electrochemical processes, their performance is limited in terms of various electrochemical activities. Recent experiments on layered carbon materials, such as graphene, demonstrated an augmented performance of these systems in all electrochemical activities due to their unique electronic properties, enhanced surface area, structure and chemical stabilities. Moreover, flexibility in controlling electronic, as well as electrochemical activities by heteroatom doping brings further leverage in their practical use. Here, we study the electron transfer kinetics of fluorinated graphene derivatives, known as fluorinated graphene oxide (FGO) and its reduced form, RFGO. Enhanced electron transfer kinetics (heterogeneous electron transfer (HET)) is observed from these fluorinated systems in comparison to their undoped systems such as graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO. A detailed study has been conducted using standard redox probes and biomolecules revealing the enhanced electro-catalytic activities of FGO and RFGO, and electron transfer rates are simulated theoretically. This study reveals that fluorine not only induces defects in graphitic lattice leading to an enhanced HET process but also can modify the electronic structure of graphene surface. PMID:25042554

Boopathi, Sidhureddy; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Senthil Kumar, Shanmugam

2014-09-01

184

Kinetics of the intermolecular exchange reaction Cp3U(III) - Cp3U(IV)Cl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intermolecular exchange of cyclopentadienyl groups in the system UCp3-UCp3Cl in THF solution between 170-300 K was investigated by 1H nmr. The kinetic results show a bimolecular mechanism and suggest an electron transfer via the chlorine atom. This first example of a symmetrical exchange in the U(III)-U(IV) system illustrates the liability of actinide organometallic compounds

185

Plugging in or Going Wireless: Strategies for Interspecies Electron Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interspecies exchange of electrons enables a diversity of microbial communities to gain energy from reactions that no one microbe can catalyze. The first recognized strategies for interspecies electron transfer were those that relied on chemical intermediates that are recycled through oxidized and reduced forms. Well-studied examples are interspecies H2 transfer and the cycling of sulfur intermediates in anaerobic photosynthetic communities. Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET in which two species establish electrical contacts is an alternative. Electrical contacts documented to date include electrically conductive pili, as well as conductive iron minerals and conductive carbon moieties such as activated carbon and biochar. It seems likely that there are additional alternative strategies for interspecies electrical connections that have yet to be discovered. Interspecies electron transfer is central to the functioning of methane-producing microbial communities. The importance of interspecies H2 transfer in many methanogenic communities is clear, but under some circumstances DIET predominates. It is expected that further mechanistic studies and broadening investigations to a wider range of environments will help elucidate the factors that favor specific forms of interspecies electron exchange under different environmental conditions.

PravinMallaShrestha

2014-05-01

186

Electrochemical proton-coupled electron transfer: Beyond the golden rule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrochemical proton-coupled electron transfer rate constant expressions that interpolate between the golden rule and solvent-controlled limits are derived. These expressions include the effects of solvent dynamics and thus are applicable for a wide range of vibronic couplings and solvent relaxation times. The golden rule limit is defined in terms of weak vibronic coupling and fast solvent relaxation, and the solvent-controlled limit is defined in terms of strong vibronic coupling and slow solvent relaxation. In the golden rule limit, the rate constant is proportional to the square of the vibronic coupling and is independent of the solvent relaxation time. In the solvent-controlled limit, the rate constant is independent of the vibronic coupling and increases as the solvent relaxation time decreases. The interconversion between the solvent-controlled and golden rule limits can be induced by altering the proton donor-acceptor mode frequency and the overlap between the reactant and product proton vibrational wave functions, as well as the electronic coupling, the solvent relaxation time, and the overpotential. The kinetic isotope effect behaves differently in the solvent-controlled and golden rule limits and thus provides a unique probe for characterizing electrochemical proton-coupled electron transfer processes. The analogous rate constant expressions for electrochemical electron transfer and homogeneous proton-coupled electron transfer are also presented. The impacron transfer are also presented. The impact of electrode overpotential, solvent relaxation time, and proton donor-acceptor mode frequency on the rate constants are analyzed for model systems.

187

Plugging in or Going Wireless : Strategies for Interspecies Electron Transfer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interspecies exchange of electrons enables a diversity of microbial communities to gain energy from reactions that no one microbe can catalyze. The first recognized strategies for interspecies electron transfer were those that relied on chemical intermediates that are recycled through oxidized and reduced forms. Well-studied examples are interspecies H2 transfer and the cycling of sulfur intermediates in anaerobic photosynthetic communities. Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in which two species establish electrical contact is an alternative. Electrical contacts documented to date include electrically conductive pili, as well as conductive iron minerals and conductive carbon moieties such as activated carbon and biochar. Interspecies electron transfer is central to the functioning of methane-producing microbial communities. The importance of interspecies H2 transfer in many methanogenic communities is clear, but under some circumstances DIET predominates. It is expected that further mechanistic studies and broadening investigations to a wider range of environments will help elucidate the factors that favor specific forms of interspecies electron exchange under different environmental conditions.

Shrestha, Pravin; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

2014-01-01

188

Desensitization of metastable intermolecular composites  

Science.gov (United States)

A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

Busse, James R. (South Fork, CO); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Foley, Timothy J. (Los Alamos, NM); Higa, Kelvin T. (Ridgecrest, CA); Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Sanders, Victor E. (White Rock, NM); Son, Steven F. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-04-26

189

Mathematics and electronics - the conceptual transfer problem  

Science.gov (United States)

The article deals with the gap between the technological-school student's mastery of pure mathematical principles and his/her competence in their implementation in electronics and suggests a means for narrowing this, using a case study. A cooperative effort by mathematics and electronics teachers, involving coordination of content, teaching strategies and timing, was implemented on two groups (treatment and control). The treatment group achieved significantly higher average scores in tests in those questions where the mathematical reinforcement provided in the treatment process could be used - and this in spite of the group's weaker standing in the electronics course. Moreover, it was establised that treatment students adopted a more analytical approach in their solution strategies, while control students tended to rely more on recall and 'ready-made' formulae. The main conclusion of our case study is that mastery of mathematical theory and principles is a prerequisite to efficient tackling of technological problems, but is not always enough. Cooperation between the maths and electronics teachers contributes to improvement of the teaching-learning process in a technological discipline.

Waks, S.

1988-07-01

190

Quantitative tomographic imaging of intermolecular FRET in small animals  

OpenAIRE

Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a nonradiative transfer of energy between two fluorescent molecules (a donor and an acceptor) in nanometer range proximity. FRET imaging methods have been applied to proteomic studies and drug discovery applications based on intermolecular FRET efficiency measurements and stoichiometric measurements of FRET interaction as quantitative parameters of interest. Importantly, FRET provides information about biomolecular interactions at a m...

Venugopal, Vivek; Chen, Jin; Barroso, Margarida; Intes, Xavier

2012-01-01

191

[Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in atomic collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fundamental processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in ion-atom and ion-ion collisions are studied. Attention is focussed on one- and two-electron systems and, more recently, quasi-one-electron systems whose electron-target-ion core can be accurately modeled by one-electron potentials. The basic computational approaches can then be taken with few, if any, approximations, and the underlying collisional mechanisms can be more clearly revealed. At intermediate collision energies (e.g., proton energies for p-He+ collisions on the order of 100 kilo-electron volts), many electronic states are strongly coupled during the collision, a coupled-state approach, such as a coupled-Sturmian-pseudostate approach, is appropriate. At higher collision energies (million electron-volt energies) the coupling is weaker with, however, many more states being coupled together, so that high-order perturbation theory is essential

192

Photoinduced electron transfer processes in homogeneous and microheterogeneous solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focus of the work described in this report is on single electron transfer reactions of excited states which culminate in the formation of stable or metastable even electron species. For the most part the studies have involved even electron organic substrates which are thus converted photochemically to odd electron species and then at some stage reconvert to even electron products. These reactions generally fall into two rather different categories. In one set of studies we have examined reactions in which the metastable reagents generated by single electron transfer quenching of an excited state undergo novel fragmentation reactions, chiefly involving C-C bond cleavage. These reactions often culminate in novel and potentially useful chemical reactions and frequently have the potential for leading to new chemical products otherwise unaffordable by conventional reaction paths. In a rather different investigation we have also studied reactions in which single electron transfer quenching of an excited state is followed by subsequent reactions which lead reversibly to metastable two electron products which, often stable in themselves, can nonetheless be reacted with each other or with other reagents to regenerate the starting materials with release of energy. 66 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Whitten, D.G.

1991-10-01

193

Direct interspecies electron transfer between Geobacter metallireducens and Methanosarcina barkeri.  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is potentially an effective form of syntrophy in methanogenic communities, but little is known about the diversity of methanogens capable of DIET. The ability of Methanosarcina barkeri to participate in DIET was evaluated in coculture with Geobacter metallireducens. Cocultures formed aggregates that shared electrons via DIET during the stoichiometric conversion of ethanol to methane. Cocultures could not be initiated with a pilin-deficient G. metallireducens strain, suggesting that long-range electron transfer along pili was important for DIET. Amendments of granular activated carbon permitted the pilin-deficient G. metallireducens isolates to share electrons with M. barkeri, demonstrating that this conductive material could substitute for pili in promoting DIET. When M. barkeri was grown in coculture with the H2-producing Pelobacter carbinolicus, incapable of DIET, M. barkeri utilized H2 as an electron donor but metabolized little of the acetate that P.carbinolicus produced. This suggested that H2, but not electrons derived from DIET, inhibited acetate metabolism. P. carbinolicus-M. barkeri cocultures did not aggregate, demonstrating that, unlike DIET, close physical contact was not necessary for interspecies H2 transfer. M. barkeri is the second methanogen found to accept electrons via DIET and the first methanogen known to be capable of using either H2 or electrons derived from DIET for CO2 reduction. Furthermore, M. barkeri is genetically tractable,making it a model organism for elucidating mechanisms by which methanogens make biological electrical connections with other cells. PMID:24837373

Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Liu, Fanghua; Markovaite, Beatrice; Chen, Shanshan; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R

2014-08-01

194

Correlated ab initio investigations on the intermolecular and intramolecular potential energy surfaces in the ground electronic state of the O2(-)(X2?g)-HF(X1?+) complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports the first highly correlated ab initio study of the intermolecular and intramolecular potential energy surfaces in the ground electronic state of the O(2)(-)(X(2)?(g))-HF(X(1)?(+)) complex. Accurate electronic structure calculations were performed using the coupled cluster method including single and double excitations with addition of the perturbative triples correction [CCSD(T)] with the Dunning's correlation consistent basis sets aug-cc-pVnZ, n = 2-5. Also, the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12a level of theory was employed with the AVnZ basis as well as the Peterson and co-workers VnZ-F12 basis sets with n = 2 and 3. Results of all levels of calculations predicted two equivalent minimum energy structures of planar geometry and C(s) symmetry along the A" surface of the complex, whereas the A' surface is repulsive. Values of the geometrical parameters and the counterpoise corrected dissociation energies (Cp-D(e)) that were calculated using the CCSD(T)-F12a/VnZ-F12 level of theory are in excellent agreement with those obtained from the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z calculations. The minimum energy structure is characterized by a very short hydrogen bond of length of 1.328 Å, with elongation of the HF bond distance in the complex by 0.133 Å, and D(e) value of 32.313 Kcal/mol. Mulliken atomic charges showed that 65% of the negative charge is localized on the hydrogen bonded end of the superoxide radical and the HF unit becomes considerably polarized in the complex. These results suggest that the hydrogen bond is an incipient ionic bond. Exploration of the potential energy surface confirmed the identified minimum and provided support for vibrationally induced intramolecular proton transfer within the complex. The T-shaped geometry that possesses C(2v) symmetry presents a saddle point on the top of the barrier to the in-plane bending of the hydrogen above and below the axis that connects centers of masses of the monomers. The height of this barrier is 7.257 Kcal/mol, which is higher in energy than the hydrogen bending frequency by 909.2 cm(-1). The calculated harmonic oscillator vibrational frequencies showed that the H-F stretch vibrational transition in the complex is redshifted by 2564 cm(-1) and gained significant intensity (by at least a factor of 30) with respect to the transition in the HF monomer. These results make the O(2)(-)-HF complex an excellent prototype for infrared spectroscopic investigations on open-shell complexes with vibrationally induced proton transfer. PMID:23298038

Fawzy, Wafaa M; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Zhang, Yuchen

2013-01-01

195

Electron transfer through rigid organic molecular wires enhanced by electronic and electron–vibration coupling  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron transfer (ET) is a fundamental process in a wide range of biological systems, photovoltaics and molecular electronics. Therefore to understand the relationship between molecular structure and ET properties is of prime importance. For this purpose, photoinduced ET has been studied extensively using donor–bridge–acceptor molecules, in which ?-conjugated molecular wires are employed as bridges. Here, we demonstrate that carbon-bridged oligo-p-phenylenevinylene (COPV), which is both rigid and flat, shows an 840-fold increase in the ET rate compared with the equivalent flexible molecular bridges. A 120-fold rate enhancement is explained in terms of enhanced electronic coupling between the electron donor and the electron acceptor because of effective conjugation through the COPVs. The remainder of the rate enhancement is explained by inelastic electron tunnelling through COPV caused by electron–vibration coupling, unprecedented for organic molecular wires in solution at room temperature. This type of nonlinear effect demonstrates the versatility and potential practical utility of COPVs in molecular device applications.

Sukegawa, Junpei; Schubert, Christina; Zhu, Xiaozhang; Tsuji, Hayato; Guldi, Dirk M.; Nakamura, Eiichi

2014-10-01

196

Dynamics of electron transfer pathways in cytochrome C oxidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytochrome c oxidase mediates the final step of electron transfer reactions in the respiratory chain, catalyzing the transfer between cytochrome c and the molecular oxygen and concomitantly pumping protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. We investigate the electron transfer reactions in cytochrome c oxidase, particularly the control of the effective electronic coupling by the nuclear thermal motion. The effective coupling is calculated using the Green's function technique with an extended Huckel level electronic Hamiltonian, combined with all-atom molecular dynamics of the protein in a native (membrane and solvent) environment. The effective coupling between Cu(A) and heme a is found to be dominated by the pathway that starts from His(B204). The coupling between heme a and heme a(3) is dominated by a through-space jump between the two heme rings rather than by covalent pathways. In the both steps, the effective electronic coupling is robust to the thermal nuclear vibrations, thereby providing fast and efficient electron transfer. PMID:14990507

Tan, Ming-Liang; Balabin, Ilya; Onuchic, José Nelson

2004-03-01

197

The role of excited Rydberg States in electron transfer dissociation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ab initio electronic structure methods are used to estimate the cross sections for electron transfer from donor anions having electron binding energies ranging from 0.001 to 0.6 eV to each of three sites in a model disulfide-linked molecular cation. The three sites are (1) the S-S sigma(*) orbital to which electron attachment is rendered exothermic by Coulomb stabilization from the nearby positive site, (2) the ground Rydberg orbital of the -NH(3)(+) site, and (3) excited Rydberg orbitals of the same -NH(3)(+) site. It is found that attachment to the ground Rydberg orbital has a somewhat higher cross section than attachment to either the sigma orbital or the excited Rydberg orbital. However, it is through attachment either to the sigma(*) orbital or to certain excited Rydberg orbitals that cleavage of the S-S bond is most likely to occur. Attachment to the sigma(*) orbital causes prompt cleavage because the sigma energy surface is repulsive (except at very long range). Attachment to the ground or excited Rydberg state causes the S-S bond to rupture only once a through-bond electron transfer from the Rydberg orbital to the S-S sigma(*) orbital takes place. For the ground Rydberg state, this transfer requires surmounting an approximately 0.4 eV barrier that renders the S-S bond cleavage rate slow. However, for the excited Rydberg state, the intramolecular electron transfer has a much smaller barrier and is prompt. PMID:16599533

Sobczyk, Monika; Simons, Jack

2006-04-13

198

Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation atomic collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic atomic-collision processes at intermediate and high energies are being studied theoretically at Penn State by Alston and Winter. In the high velocity regime, single-electron capture is treated using a high order multiple-scattering approach; extensive comparison with experiment and analysis of mechanisms have been made. Fitting the calculated amplitude with a simple analytic form, the asymptotic velocity dependence of the cross section is obtained. The effect on the capture amplitude of altering the inner part of the internuclear potential has also been explored. In the intermediate velocity regime, earlier work on collisions between protons and hydrogenic-ion targets using a coupled-state approach is being extended to the two-electron helium target. 29 refs

199

Front-End Electron Transfer Dissociation: A New Ionization Source  

OpenAIRE

Electron transfer dissociation (ETD), a technique that provides efficient fragmentation while depositing little energy into vibrational modes, has been widely integrated into proteomics workflows. Current implementations of this technique, as well as other ion–ion reactions like proton transfer, involve sophisticated hardware, lack robustness, and place severe design limitations on the instruments to which they are attached. Described herein is a novel, electrical discharge-based reagent io...

Earley, Lee; Anderson, Lissa C.; Bai, Dina L.; Mullen, Christopher; Syka, John E. P.; English, A. Michelle; Dunyach, Jean-jacques; Stafford, George C.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Compton, Philip D.

2013-01-01

200

Theoretical analysis of electron transfer cross reactions between complex ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cross redox-systems are considered which contain cobalt and ruthenium ethylene diamine (en) complexed as one of reactants and as another one - hexaaqua- and hexamine complexes of vanadium, chromium, iron and ruthenium. To obtain the kinetic parameters of the abovesaid complexes two symmetric redox-systems: Co(en)sub(3)sup(3+/2+) and Ru(en)sub(3)sup(3+/2+) are also considered. The calculated values of rate constants and activation enthalpies of electron transfer reactions are given. A comparison of transmission coefficients for electron transfer in the redox-systems of Co and Ru complexes is made which permits to draw a conclusion on the delocalization degree of the transferred electron in the compared complexes

201

Photoinduced electron transfer in a charge-transfer complex formed between corannulene and Li+@C60 by concave-convex ?-? interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A charge-transfer (CT) complex was formed between corannulene (C20H10) and lithium ion-encapsulated [60]fullerene (Li(+)@C60) with the binding constant KG = 1.9 × 10 M(-1) by concave-convex ?-? CT interactions in benzonitrile at 298 K, exhibiting a broad CT absorption extended to the NIR region. Femotosecond laser excitation of the C20H10/Li(+)@C60 CT complex resulted in the singlet charge-separated (CS) state, (1)(C20H10(•+)/Li(+)@C60(•-)), which decayed with the lifetime of 1.4 ns. Nanosecond laser excitation of Li(+)@C60 resulted in intermolecular electron transfer (ET) from C20H10 to the triplet excited state of Li(+)@C60 [(3)(Li(+)@C60)*] to produce the triplet CS state (3)(C20H10(•+)/Li(+)@C60(•-)). The distance between two electron spins in the triplet CS state was estimated to be 10 Å from the zero-field splitting pattern observed by EPR measurements at 4 K. The triplet CS state decayed to the ground state via intramolecular back electron transfer (BET). The CS lifetime was determined to be 240 ?s in benzonitrile at 298 K. The temperature dependence of the rate constant of BET afforded the reorganization energy (? = 1.04 eV) and the electronic coupling term (V = 0.0080 cm(-1)). The long lifetime of triplet CS state results from the spin-forbidden BET process and a small V value. PMID:25166343

Yamada, Mihoko; Ohkubo, Kei; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

2014-09-24

202

Auger-assisted electron transfer from photoexcited semiconductor quantum dots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although quantum confined nanomaterials, such as quantum dots (QDs) have emerged as a new class of light harvesting and charge separation materials for solar energy conversion, theoretical models for describing photoinduced charge transfer from these materials remain unclear. In this paper, we show that the rate of photoinduced electron transfer from QDs (CdS, CdSe, and CdTe) to molecular acceptors (anthraquinone, methylviologen, and methylene blue) increases at decreasing QD size (and increasing driving force), showing a lack of Marcus inverted regime behavior over an apparent driving force range of ?0-1.3 V. We account for this unusual driving force dependence by proposing an Auger-assisted electron transfer model in which the transfer of the electron can be coupled to the excitation of the hole, circumventing the unfavorable Franck-Condon overlap in the Marcus inverted regime. This model is supported by computational studies of electron transfer and trapping processes in model QD-acceptor complexes. PMID:24359156

Zhu, Haiming; Yang, Ye; Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Califano, Marco; Song, Nianhui; Wang, Youwei; Zhang, Wenqing; Prezhdo, Oleg V; Lian, Tianquan

2014-03-12

203

Theoretical aspects of electron transfer reactions of complex molecules  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Features of electron transfer involving complex molecules are discussed. This notion presently refers to molecular reactants where charge transfer is accompanied by large molecular reorganization, and commonly used displaced harmonic oscillator models do not apply. It is shown that comprehensive theory of charge transfer in polar media offers convenient tools for the treatment of experimental data for such systems, with due account of large-amplitude strongly anharmonic intramolecular reorganization. Equations for the activation barrier and free energy relationships are provided, incorporating vibrational frequency changes, local mode anharmonicity, and rotational reorganization, in both diabatic and adiabatic limits. Systems for which this formalism is appropriate are discussed.

Kuznetsov, A. M.; Ulstrup, Jens

2001-01-01

204

Reactant-Product Quantum Coherence in Electron Transfer Reactions  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the physical meaning of quantum superposition states between reactants and products in electron transfer reactions. We show that such superpositions are strongly suppressed and to leading orders of perturbation theory do not pertain in electron transfer reactions. This is because of the intermediate manifold of states separating the reactants from the products. We provide an intuitive description of these considerations with Feynman diagrams. We also discuss the relation of such quantum coherences to understanding the fundamental quantum dynamics of spin-selective radical-ion-pair reactions.

Kominis, I K

2012-01-01

205

A model proton-transfer system in the condensed phase: NH4(+)OOH(-), a crystal with short intermolecular H-bonds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystal structure of NH(4)(+)OOH(-) is determined from single-crystal x-ray data obtained at 150 K. The crystal belongs to the space group P2(1)/c and has four molecules in a unit cell. The structure consists of discrete NH(4)(+) and OOH(-) ions. The OOH(-) ions are linked by short hydrogen bonds (2.533 A?) to form parallel infinite chains. The ammonium ions form links between these chains (the N?O distances vary from 2.714 to 2.855 A?) giving a three-dimensional network. The harmonic IR spectrum and H-bond energies are computed at the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE)/6-31G(??) level with periodic boundary conditions. A detailed analysis of the shared (bridging) protons' dynamics is obtained from the CPMD simulations at different temperatures. PBE functional with plane-wave basis set (110 Ry) is used. At 10 K the shared proton sits near the oxygen atom, only a few proton jumps along the chain are detected at 70 K while at 270 K numerous proton jumps exist in the trajectory. The local-minimum structure of the space group Cc is localized. It appears as a result of proton transfer along a chain. This process is endothermic (?2?kJ/mol) and is described as P2(1)/c?2Cc. The computed IR spectrum at 10 K is close to the harmonic one, the numerous bands appear at 70 K while at 270 K it shows a very broad absorption band that covers frequencies from about 1000 to 3000?cm(-1). The advantages of the NH(4)(+)OOH(-) crystal as a promising model for the experimental and DFT based molecular dynamics simulation studies of proton transfer along the chain are discussed. PMID:21033804

Churakov, Andrei V; Prikhodchenko, Petr V; Lev, Ovadia; Medvedev, Alexander G; Tripol'skaya, Tatiana A; Vener, Mikhail V

2010-10-28

206

A role for excreted quinones in extracellular electron transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

Respiratory processes in bacteria are remarkable because of their ability to use a variety of compounds, including insoluble minerals, as terminal electron acceptors. Although much is known about microbial electron transport to soluble electron acceptors, little is understood about electron transport to insoluble compounds such as ferric oxides. In anaerobic environments, humic substances can serve as electron acceptors and also as electron shuttles to ferric oxides. To explore this process, we identified mutants in Shewanella putrefaciens that are unable to respire on humic substances. Here we show that these mutants contain disruptions in a gene that is involved in the biosynthesis of menaquinone. During growth, the wild type releases a menaquinone-related redox-active small molecule into the medium that complements the mutants. This finding raises the possibility that electron transfer to a variety of oxidants, including poorly soluble minerals, may be mediated by microbially excreted quinones that have yet to be identified.

Newman, Dianne K.; Kolter, Roberto

2000-05-01

207

Intramolecular electron transfer in nitrite reductase studied by pulse radiolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the evidence for the electron-transfer reaction between two copper sites in nitrite reductase from Achromobacter cycloclastes IAM 1013 by pulse radiolysis. Type 1 Cu sites in native (type 1 Cu : type 2 Cu = 1 : 0.5) and type 2 Cu-depleted (T2D) nitrite reductase are reduced with N-methylnicotinamide radical generated by the hydrated electron. The reductions of the coppers in the both enzymes give second-order rate constants of (3.4 - 3.5) x 108 M-1s-1. In the case of the native enzyme, moreover, the recovery of the absorbance of reduced type 1 Cu is observed (about 35 %). This finding suggests the intramolecular electron transfer from type 1 Cu to type 2 Cu, because T2D nitrite reductase does not show the recovery of the absorption band at all. The electron-transfer occurs with an observed first order rate constant of 1400 s-1. The incomplete electron transfer from type 1 Cu to type 2 Cu are due to the difference between the redox potential of two Cu sites. (author)

208

Carboxylate Shifts Steer Interquinone Electron Transfer in Photosynthesis*  

OpenAIRE

Understanding the mechanisms of electron transfer (ET) in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) may inspire novel catalysts for sunlight-driven fuel production. The electron exit pathway of type II RCs comprises two quinone molecules working in series and in between a non-heme iron atom with a carboxyl ligand (bicarbonate in photosystem II (PSII), glutamate in bacterial RCs). For decades, the functional role of the iron has remained enigmatic. We tracked the iron site using microsecond-resolu...

Chernev, Petko; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Dau, Holger; Haumann, Michael

2011-01-01

209

Inelastic electron photon scattering at moderate four momentum transfers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present new high statistics data on hadron production in photon photon reactions. The data are analyzed in terms of an electron photon scattering formalism. The dependence of the total cross section on Q2, the four momentum transfer squared of the scattered electron, and on the mass W of the hadronic system is investigated. The data are compared to predictions from Vector Dominance and the quark model. (orig.)

210

Density functional study of the proton transfer effect on vibrations of strong (short) intermolecular O-H...N/O-...H-N+ hydrogen bonds in aprotic solvents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure and spectroscopic properties of the 1:1 complexes of substituted pyridines with benzoic acid and phenol derivatives in aprotic solvents are studied using B3LYP functional combined with the polarizable continuum model approximation. Two extreme structures are investigated: the state without (HB) and with proton transfer (PT). In the presence of an external electric field the O...N distance is contracted and the PT state does appear. The PT state of both the pyridine-benzoic and the pyridine-phenol complexes displays the only IR-active band in the 2800-1800 frequency region, which is located around 2000 cm(-1). However, the nature of the band is different for these two complexes. In the pyridine-benzoic acid complex it is practically a pure stretching vibration of the HN(+) group, while in the pyridine-phenol complex it is the mixed vibration of the bridging proton. A specific feature of the PT state in the pyridine-phenol complex is an IR-intensive band near 600 cm(-1), associated with the asymmetric stretching vibrations of the O(-)...HN(+) fragment. Its intensity is reciprocally proportional to the O...N distance. The appearance of this band provides an efficient criterion to differentiate between the HB and PT states of the 1:1 complexes of phenols with pyridines in aprotic solvents. PMID:20104882

Kong, Shushu; Shenderovich, Ilja G; Vener, Mikhail V

2010-02-18

211

Photoinitiated electron transfer in multi-chromophoric species: Synthetic tetrads and pentads  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research project involves the design, synthesis and study of the molecules which mimic many of the important aspects of photosynthetic electron and energy transfer. Specifically, the molecules are designed to mimic the following aspects of natural photosynthetic multistep electron transfer: electron donation from a tetrapyrrole excited singlet state, electron transfer between tetrapyrroles, electron transfer from tetrapyrroles to quinones, and electron transfer between quinones with different redox properties. In addition, they model carotenoid antenna function in photosynthesis (singlet-singlet energy transfer from carotenoid polyenes to chlorophyll) and carotenoid photoprotection from singlet oxygen damage (triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophyll to carotenoids).

1990-02-14

212

Electronic structure aspects of the complete O2 transfer reaction between Ni(ii) and Mn(ii) complexes with cyclam ligands.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work explores the electronic structure aspects involving the complete intermolecular O2 transfer between Ni(ii) and Mn(ii) complexes, both containing N-tetramethylated cyclams (TMC). The energy of the low-lying states of reactants, intermediates and products is established at the CASSCF level and also the DDCI level when possible. The orthogonal valence bond analysis of the wave functions obtained from CASSCF and DDCI calculations indicates the dominant superoxide nature of all the adducts participating in the reaction, and consequently that the whole reaction can be described as the transfer of the superoxide O2(-) between Ni(ii) and Mn(ii) complexes, without any additional change in the electronic structure of the fragments. PMID:25502350

Zapata-Rivera, Jhon; Caballol, Rosa; Calzado, Carmen J

2015-01-28

213

D Simulation for Maximizing Electron Transfer Efficiency in Thick GEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Thick GEM for UV detector applications must provide high detection efficiency for a single photoelectron produced by UV light. Electron Transfer Efficiency (ETE) of GEM detector determines the detection efficiency. We have used GARFIELD simulation for estimation of ETE at various operating parameters, which are to be optimized for high detection efficiency.

Garai, Baishali; Rajanna, K.; Radhakrishna, V.

2012-08-01

214

Electron transfer kinetics on mono- and multilayer graphene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding of the electrochemical properties of graphene, especially the electron transfer kinetics of a redox reaction between the graphene surface and a molecule, in comparison to graphite or other carbon-based materials, is essential for its potential in energy conversion and storage to be realized. Here we use voltammetric determination of the electron transfer rate for three redox mediators, ferricyanide, hexaammineruthenium, and hexachloroiridate (Fe(CN)(6)(3-), Ru(NH3)(6)(3+), and IrCl(6)(2-), respectively), to measure the reactivity of graphene samples prepared by mechanical exfoliation of natural graphite. Electron transfer rates are measured for varied number of graphene layers (1 to ca. 1000 layers) using microscopic droplets. The basal planes of mono- and multilayer graphene, supported on an insulating Si/SiO(2) substrate, exhibit significant electron transfer activity and changes in kinetics are observed for all three mediators. No significant trend in kinetics with flake thickness is discernible for each mediator; however, a large variation in kinetics is observed across the basal plane of the same flakes, indicating that local surface conditions affect the electrochemical performance. This is confirmed by in situ graphite exfoliation, which reveals significant deterioration of initially, near-reversible kinetics for Ru(NH3)(6)(3+) when comparing the atmosphere-aged and freshly exfoliated graphite surfaces. PMID:25290250

Velický, Mat?j; Bradley, Dan F; Cooper, Adam J; Hill, Ernie W; Kinloch, Ian A; Mishchenko, Artem; Novoselov, Konstantin S; Patten, Hollie V; Toth, Peter S; Valota, Anna T; Worrall, Stephen D; Dryfe, Robert A W

2014-10-28

215

Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long-term goal of the proposed research is to understand electron transfer dynamics in nanoparticle/liquid interface. This knowledge is essential to many semiconductor nanoparticle based devices, including photocatalytic waste degradation and dye sensitized solar cells.

Lian, Tianquan

2014-04-22

216

Electron-transfer reactions at the plasma-liquid interface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrochemical reactions are normally initiated in solution by metal electrodes such as Pt, which are expensive and limited in supply. In this Communication, we demonstrate that an atmospheric-pressure microplasma can act as a gaseous, metal-free electrode to mediate electron-transfer reactions in aqueous solutions. Ferricyanide is reduced to ferrocyanide by plasma electrons, and the reduction rate is found to depend on discharge current. The ability to initiate and control electrochemical reactions at the plasma-liquid interface opens a new direction for electrochemistry based on interactions between gas-phase electrons and ionic solutions. PMID:21985430

Richmonds, Carolyn; Witzke, Megan; Bartling, Brandon; Lee, Seung Whan; Wainright, Jesse; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Sankaran, R Mohan

2011-11-01

217

Spin selectivity in electron transfer in photosystem I.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photosystem I (PSI) is one of the most studied electron transfer (ET) systems in nature; it is found in plants, algae, and bacteria. The effect of the system structure and its electronic properties on the electron transfer rate and yield was investigated for years in details. In this work we show that not only those system properties affect the ET efficiency, but also the electrons' spin. Using a newly developed spintronic device and a technique which enables control over the orientation of the PSI monolayer relative to the device (silver) surface, it was possible to evaluate the degree and direction of the spin polarization in ET in PSI. We find high-spin selectivity throughout the entire ET path and establish that the spins of the electrons being transferred are aligned parallel to their momenta. The spin selectivity peaks at 300?K and vanishes at temperatures below about 150?K. A mechanism is suggested in which the chiral structure of the protein complex plays an important role in determining the high-spin selectivity and its temperature dependence. Our observation of high light induced spin dependent ET in PSI introduces the possibility that spin may play an important role in ET in biology. PMID:24989350

Carmeli, Itai; Senthil Kumar, Karuppannan; Heifler, Omri; Carmeli, Chanoch; Naaman, Ron

2014-08-18

218

Efficient electron transfer in a protein network lacking specific interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many biochemical processes, proteins need to bind partners amidst a sea of other molecules. Generally, partner selection is achieved by formation of a single-orientation complex with well-defined, short-range interactions. We describe a protein network that functions effectively in a metabolic electron transfer process but lacks such specific interactions. The soil bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans oxidizes a variety of compounds by channeling electrons into the main respiratory pathway. Upon conversion of methylamine by methylamine dehydrogenase, electrons are transported to the terminal oxidase to reduce molecular oxygen. Steady-state kinetic measurements and NMR experiments demonstrate a remarkable number of possibilities for the electron transfer, involving the cupredoxin amicyanin as well as four c-type cytochromes. The observed interactions appear to be governed exclusively by the electrostatic nature of each of the proteins. It is concluded that Paracoccus provides a pool of cytochromes for efficient electron transfer via weak, ill-defined interactions, in contrast with the view that functional biochemical interactions require well-defined molecular interactions. It is proposed that the lack of requirement for specificity in these interactions might facilitate the integration of new metabolic pathways. PMID:21916462

Meschi, Francesca; Wiertz, Frank; Klauss, Linda; Blok, Anneloes; Ludwig, Bernd; Merli, Angelo; Heering, Hendrik A; Rossi, Gian Luigi; Ubbink, Marcellus

2011-10-26

219

Temperature dependence of electron transfer in coupled quantum wells  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the temperature dependence of electron transfer between coupled quantum wells in a voltage tunable two-color quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP). The detection peak of this QWIP switches from 7.1 ?m under positive bias to 8.6 ?m under negative bias for temperatures T?40 K. For T?40 K, the 7.1 ?m peak is present under both bias polarities and increases significantly with T while the 8.6 ?m peak decreases correspondingly. We determine the temperature dependence of electron densities in the two QWs from the detector absorption spectra that are deduced using corrugated QWIPs and find that electron transfer is efficient only when thermionic emission is not significant.

Majumdar, Amlan; Choi, K. K.; Reno, J. L.; Rokhinson, L. P.; Tsui, D. C.

2003-02-01

220

Optimized intermolecular potential for nitriles based on Anisotropic United Atoms model  

OpenAIRE

An extension of the Anisotropic United Atoms intermolecular potential model is proposed for nitriles. The electrostatic part of the intermolecular potential is calculated using atomic charges obtained by a simple Mulliken population analysis. The repulsion-dispersion interaction parameters for methyl and methylene groups are taken from transferable AUA4 literature parameters [Ungerer et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2000, 112, 5499]. Non-bonding Lennard-Jones intermolecular potential parameters are re...

Hadj-kali, Mohamed; Gerbaud, Vincent; Joulia, Xavier; Lacaze-dufaure, Corinne; Mijoule, Claude; Ungerer, Philippe

2008-01-01

221

Resonant Auger decay driving intermolecular Coulombic decay in molecular dimers  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1997, it was predicted that an electronically excited atom or molecule placed in a loosely bound chemical system (such as a hydrogen-bonded or van-der-Waals-bonded cluster) could efficiently decay by transferring its excess energy to a neighbouring species that would then emit a low-energy electron. This intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) process has since been shown to be a common phenomenon, raising questions about its role in DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation, in which low-energy electrons are known to play an important part. It was recently suggested that ICD can be triggered efficiently and site-selectively by resonantly core-exciting a target atom, which then transforms through Auger decay into an ionic species with sufficiently high excitation energy to permit ICD to occur. Here we show experimentally that resonant Auger decay can indeed trigger ICD in dimers of both molecular nitrogen and carbon monoxide. By using ion and electron momentum spectroscopy to measure simultaneously the charged species created in the resonant-Auger-driven ICD cascade, we find that ICD occurs in less time than the 20femtoseconds it would take for individual molecules to undergo dissociation. Our experimental confirmation of this process and its efficiency may trigger renewed efforts to develop resonant X-ray excitation schemes for more localized and targeted cancer radiation therapy.

Trinter, F.; Schöffler, M. S.; Kim, H.-K.; Sturm, F. P.; Cole, K.; Neumann, N.; Vredenborg, A.; Williams, J.; Bocharova, I.; Guillemin, R.; Simon, M.; Belkacem, A.; Landers, A. L.; Weber, Th.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Dörner, R.; Jahnke, T.

2014-01-01

222

Evaluation of the influence of intermolecular electron-nucleus couplings and intrinsic metal binding sites on the measurement of 15N longitudinal paramagnetic relaxation enhancements in proteins by solid-state NMR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR measurements of (15)N longitudinal paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PREs) in (13)C,(15)N-labeled proteins modified with Cu(2+)-chelating tags can yield multiple long-range electron-nucleus distance restraints up to ~20 Å (Nadaud et al. in J Am Chem Soc 131:8108-8120, 2009). Using the EDTA-Cu(2+) K28C mutant of B1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1) as a model, we investigate the effects on such measurements of intermolecular electron-nucleus couplings and intrinsic metal binding sites, both of which may potentially complicate the interpretation of PRE data in terms of the intramolecular protein fold. To quantitatively assess the influence of intermolecular (15)N-Cu(2+) interactions we have determined a nearly complete set of longitudinal (15)N PREs for a series of microcrystalline samples containing ~10, 15 and 25 mol percent of the (13)C,(15)N-labeled EDTA-Cu(2+)-tagged protein diluted in a matrix of diamagnetic natural abundance GB1. The residual intermolecular interactions were found to be minor on the whole and account for only a fraction of the relatively small but systematic deviations observed between the experimental (15)N PREs and corresponding values calculated using protein structural models for residues furthest removed from the EDTA-Cu(2+) tag. This suggests that these deviations are also caused in part by other factors not related to the protein structure, such as the presence in the protein of intrinsic secondary sites capable of binding Cu(2+) ions. To probe this issue we performed a Cu(2+) titration study for K28C-EDTA GB1 monitored by 2D (15)N-(1)H solution-state NMR, which revealed that while for Cu(2+):protein molar ratios of ? 1.0 Cu(2+) binds primarily to the high-affinity EDTA tag, as anticipated, at even slightly super-stoichiometric ratios the Cu(2+) ions can also associate with side-chains of aspartate and glutamate residues. This in turn is expected to lead to enhanced PREs for residues located in the vicinity of the secondary Cu(2+) binding sites, and indeed many of these residues were ones found to display the elevated longitudinal (15)N PREs in the solid phase. PMID:21826518

Nadaud, Philippe S; Sengupta, Ishita; Helmus, Jonathan J; Jaroniec, Christopher P

2011-11-01

223

Evaluation of the influence of intermolecular electron-nucleus couplings and intrinsic metal binding sites on the measurement of 15N longitudinal paramagnetic relaxation enhancements in proteins by solid-state NMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR measurements of 15N longitudinal paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PREs) in 13C,15N-labeled proteins modified with Cu2+-chelating tags can yield multiple long-range electron-nucleus distance restraints up to ?20 Å (Nadaud et al. in J Am Chem Soc 131:8108–8120, 2009). Using the EDTA-Cu2+ K28C mutant of B1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1) as a model, we investigate the effects on such measurements of intermolecular electron-nucleus couplings and intrinsic metal binding sites, both of which may potentially complicate the interpretation of PRE data in terms of the intramolecular protein fold. To quantitatively assess the influence of intermolecular 15N-Cu2+ interactions we have determined a nearly complete set of longitudinal 15N PREs for a series of microcrystalline samples containing ?10, 15 and 25 mol percent of the 13C,15N-labeled EDTA-Cu2+-tagged protein diluted in a matrix of diamagnetic natural abundance GB1. The residual intermolecular interactions were found to be minor on the whole and account for only a fraction of the relatively small but systematic deviations observed between the experimental 15N PREs and corresponding values calculated using protein structural models for residues furthest removed from the EDTA-Cu2+ tag. This suggests that these deviationsThis suggests that these deviations are also caused in part by other factors not related to the protein structure, such as the presence in the protein of intrinsic secondary sites capable of binding Cu2+ ions. To probe this issue we performed a Cu2+ titration study for K28C-EDTA GB1 monitored by 2D 15N-1H solution-state NMR, which revealed that while for Cu2+:protein molar ratios of ? 1.0 Cu2+ binds primarily to the high-affinity EDTA tag, as anticipated, at even slightly super-stoichiometric ratios the Cu2+ ions can also associate with side-chains of aspartate and glutamate residues. This in turn is expected to lead to enhanced PREs for residues located in the vicinity of the secondary Cu2+ binding sites, and indeed many of these residues were ones found to display the elevated longitudinal 15N PREs in the solid phase.

224

Vibrationally Assisted Electron Transfer Mechanism of Olfaction: Myth or Reality?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Smell is a vital sense for animals. The mainstream explanation of smell is based on recognition of the odorant molecules through characteristics of their surface, e.g., shape, but certain experiments suggest that such recognition is complemented by recognition of vibrational modes. According to this suggestion an olfactory receptor is activated by electron transfer assisted through odorant vibrational excitation. The hundreds to thousands of different olfactory receptors in an animal recognize odorants over a discriminant landscape with surface properties and vibrational frequencies as the two major dimensions. In the present paper we introduce the vibrationally assisted mechanism of olfaction and demonstrate for several odorants that, indeed, a strong enhancement of an electron tunneling rate due to odorant vibrations can arise. We discuss in this regard the influence of odorant deuteration and explain, thereby, recent experiments performed on Drosophila melanogaster. Our demonstration is based on known physical properties of biological electron transfer and on ab initio calculations on odorants carried out for the purpose of the present study. We identify a range of physical characteristics which olfactory receptors and odorants must obey for the vibrationally assisted electron transfer mechanism to function. We argue that the stated characteristics are feasible for realistic olfactory receptors, noting, though, that the receptor structure presently is still unknown, but can be studied through homology modeling.

Solov'yov, Ilia; Chang, Po-Yao

2012-01-01

225

Structures of protein-protein complexes involved in electron transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron transfer reactions are essential for life because they underpin oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis, processes leading to the generation of ATP, and are involved in many reactions of intermediary metabolism. Key to these roles is the formation of transient inter-protein electron transfer complexes. The structural basis for the control of specificity between partner proteins is lacking because these weak transient complexes have remained largely intractable for crystallographic studies. Inter-protein electron transfer processes are central to all of the key steps of denitrification, an alternative form of respiration in which bacteria reduce nitrate or nitrite to N2 through the gaseous intermediates nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) when oxygen concentrations are limiting. The one-electron reduction of nitrite to NO, a precursor to N2O, is performed by either a haem- or copper-containing nitrite reductase (CuNiR) where they receive an electron from redox partner proteins a cupredoxin or a c-type cytochrome. Here we report the structures of the newly characterized three-domain haem-c-Cu nitrite reductase from Ralstonia pickettii (RpNiR) at 1.01?Å resolution and its M92A and P93A mutants. Very high resolution provides the first view of the atomic detail of the interface between the core trimeric cupredoxin structure of CuNiR and the tethered cytochrome c domain that allows the enzyme to function as an effective self-electron transfer system where the donor and acceptor proteins are fused together by genomic acquisition for functional advantage. Comparison of RpNiR with the binary complex of a CuNiR with a donor protein, AxNiR-cytc551 (ref. 6), and mutagenesis studies provide direct evidence for the importance of a hydrogen-bonded water at the interface in electron transfer. The structure also provides an explanation for the preferential binding of nitrite to the reduced copper ion at the active site in RpNiR, in contrast to other CuNiRs where reductive inactivation occurs, preventing substrate binding. PMID:23535590

Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Han, Cong; Eady, Robert R; Hasnain, S Samar

2013-04-01

226

Electron donor-acceptor quenching and photoinduced electron transfer for coumarin dyes  

Science.gov (United States)

The fluorescence of 7-aminocoumarins is quenched by a variety of organic electron donors or acceptors in acetonitrile. In general, donors with half-wave oxidation potentials less positive than 1.0 V vs SCE and acceptors with reduction potentials less negative than -1.5 V vs SCE are candidates for diffusion limited quenching of coumarin singlet states. Profiles of quenching rates are consistent with calculated free energies for electron transfer between excited coumarins and donors or acceptors. In flash photolysis experiments electron transfer for several dyes and quenchers (e.g., methyl viologen) is demonstrated. Relatively low yields of net electron transfer are consistently obtained due to inefficient ionic photodissociation via singlet quenching or a low yield of more photoactive coumarin triplets. Electrochemical properties of the coumarins have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry with the indications of reversible oxidation and irreversible reduction as important processes.

Jones, G., II; Griffin, S. F.; Choi, C. Y.; Bergmark, W. R.

1983-10-01

227

Electron Transfer in DNA through magnetic bound states  

CERN Document Server

Electron transfer (ET) via quantum mechanical tunneling between well separated donor (D) and acceptor (A) complexes is part of such biological processes as respiration, photosynthesis, and possibly DNA repair or damage. Data and theory for ET in proteins give a typical tunneling length of 0.1 nm. In contrast, fluorescence quenching in DNA at D/A distances of 4 nm or more suggests ET with tunneling lengths of order 1 nm. We show how such long ranged ET can be mediated by rapidly forming magnetic Kondo bound states (KS) arising from: (1) strong electron interactions and magnetic moments on D and/or A complexes satisfying suitable energy requirements, and (2) "quantum deconfinement" of electrons through extended bridge molecular orbitals. Realistic long range Coulomb interaction strengths between bridge electrons and localized D/A charges modestly enhance these ET rates.

Cox, D L; Pati, S K

2000-01-01

228

Large scale oil lease automation and electronic custody transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Typically, oil field production operations have only been automated at fields with long term production profiles and enhanced recovery. The automation generally consists of monitoring and control at the wellhead and centralized facilities. However, Union Pacific Resources Co. (UPRC) has successfully implemented a large scale automation program for rapid-decline primary recovery Austin Chalk wells where purchasers buy and transport oil from each individual wellsite. This project has resulted in two significant benefits. First, operators are using the system to re-engineer their work processes. Second, an inter-company team created a new electronic custody transfer method. This paper will describe: the progression of the company's automation objectives in the area; the field operator's interaction with the system, and the related benefits; the research and development of the new electronic custody transfer method

229

Analysis of charge transfer effects in molecular complexes based on absolutely localized molecular orbitals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new method based on absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs) is proposed to measure the degree of intermolecular electron density delocalization (charge transfer) in molecular complexes. ALMO charge transfer analysis (CTA) enables separation of the forward and backward charge transfer components for each pair of molecules in the system. The key feature of ALMO CTA is that all charge transfer terms have corresponding well defined energetic effects that measure the contribution of the given term to the overall energetic stabilization of the system. To simplify analysis of charge transfer effects, the concept of chemically significant complementary occupied-virtual orbital pairs (COVPs) is introduced. COVPs provide a simple description of intermolecular electron transfer effects in terms of just a few localized orbitals. ALMO CTA is applied to understand fundamental aspects of donor-acceptor interactions in borane adducts, synergic bonding in classical and nonclassical metal carbonyls, and multiple intermolecular hydrogen bonds in a complex of isocyanuric acid and melamine. These examples show that the ALMO CTA results are generally consistent with the existing conceptual description of intermolecular bonding. The results also show that charge transfer and the energy lowering due to charge transfer are not proportional to each other, and some interesting differences emerge which are discussed. Additionally, according to ALMO CTA, the amount of electron density tALMO CTA, the amount of electron density transferred between molecules is significantly smaller than charge transfer estimated from various population analysis methods

230

Laser decal transfer of electronic materials with thin film characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a novel technique, called laser decal transfer, for the laser forward transfer of electronic inks that allows the non-contact direct writing of thin film-like patterns and structures on glass and plastic substrates. This technique allows the direct printing of materials such as metallic nano-inks from a donor substrate to the receiving substrate while maintaining the size and shape of the area illuminated by the laser transfer pulse. That is, the area of the donor substrate or ribbon exposed to the laser pulse releases an identical area of nano-ink material which retains its shape while it travels across the gap between the ribbon and the receiving substrate forming a deposited pattern of the same dimensions. As a result, this technique does not exhibit the limited resolution, non-uniform thickness, irregular edge features and surrounding debris associated with earlier laser forward transfer techniques. Continuous and uniform metallic lines typically 5 micrometers or less in width, and a few hundred nanometers in thickness were fabricated by laser decal transfer. These lines are of similar scale as patterns generated by lithographic techniques. Once transferred, the lines are laser-cured in-situ using a CW laser beam, becoming electrically conductive with resistivities as low as 3.4 ?? cm. This novel laser direct-write technique is a significant improvement in terms of quality and fidelity for directwrite processes and offers great promise for electronic applications such as in the development, customization, modification, and/or repair of microelectronic circuits.

Piqué, Alberto; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Metkus, Kristin M.; Kim, Heungsoo; Mathews, Scott; Bailey, Thomas; Chen, Xianhai; Young, Lydia J.

2008-02-01

231

Electron transfer between cytochrome c and metalloporphyrins at high exothermicities  

Science.gov (United States)

The electron-transfer rates between cytochrome c and the anion radical of two metalloporphyrins ZnTPPS and ZnTPPC (? E for the reaction is 1.42eV) have been measured by laser flash spectroscopy. The anion radicals were produced by reaction of the porphyrins with hydrated electrons which resulted from the photoionization of ferrocyanide ions. Together with results obtained previously, a reorganization energy of ? 1.1 eV was deduced for the cytochrome c-porphyrin system.

Cho, K. C.; Ng, K. M.; Choy, C. L.; Che, C. M.

1986-09-01

232

Photophysical and electron transfer studies of a stable carbocation  

Science.gov (United States)

Photophysical and electron transfer properties of the stable trioxatriangulenium carbocation ( 1) are reported. Photophysical studies include absorption, fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra, singlet and triplet state quantum yields and lifetimes. Both the singlet and triplet excited states of 1 can accept an electron from donor molecules leading to the formation of the donor radical cation and the radical of 1. In aqueous solution, 1 can photo-oxidize DNA nucleosides such as guanosine and adenosine indicating that 1 may have potential use as a DNA cleaving agent.

Dileesh, S.; Gopidas, K. R.

2000-11-01

233

PROTON COUPLED ELECTRON TRANSFER AND BOND BREAKING IN ELECTROCATALYTIC PROCESSES  

OpenAIRE

Proton Coupled Electron Transfer are involved in a huge number of processes, especially in catalytic activation of small molecules such as H2O or CO2. The actual ecological background requires the use of alternative nonpolluting resources. The production of energy thanks to natural flow implies storage to permit a use on demand. Chemical bonds seem to be a solution through the activation of small molecules by using metal transition complexes as catalysts in electrocatalytic reactions. The mec...

Passard, Guillaume

2014-01-01

234

Intermittent Single-Molecule Interfacial Electron Transfer Dynamics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report on single molecule studies of photosensitized interfacial electron transfer (ET) processes in Coumarin 343 (C343)-TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) and Cresyl Violet (CV+)-TiO2 NP systems, using time-correlated single photon counting coupled with scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence intensity trajectories of individual dye molecules adsorbed on a semiconductor NP surface showed fluorescence fluctuations and blinking, with time constrants distributed from sub-milliseconds to several seconds.

Biju, Vasudevan P.; Micic, Miodrag; Hu, Dehong; Lu, H. Peter

2004-08-04

235

Intermittent Single-Molecule Interfacial Electron Transfer Dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on single molecule studies of photosensitized interfacial electron transfer (ET) processes in Coumarin 343 (C343)-TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) and Cresyl Violet (CV+)-TiO2 NP systems, using time-correlated single photon counting coupled with scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence intensity trajectories of individual dye molecules adsorbed on a semiconductor NP surface showed fluorescence fluctuations and blinking, with time constraints distributed from sub-milliseconds to several seconds

236

Direct and indirect electron transfer between electrodes and redox proteins.  

OpenAIRE

The direct electrochemistry of redox proteins has been achieved at a variety of electrodes, including modified gold, pyrolytic graphite and metal oxides. Careful design of electrode surfaces and electrolyte conditions are required for the attainment of rapid and reversible protein-electrode interaction. The electron transfer reactions of more complex systems, such as redox enzymes, are now being examined. The 'well-behaved' electrochemistry of redox proteins can be usefully exploited by coupl...

Frew, Je; Hill, Ha

1988-01-01

237

Structures of Protein-Protein Complexes involved in electron transfer  

OpenAIRE

Electron transfer (ET) reactions are essential for life since they underpin oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis, processes leading to the generation of ATP, and are involved in many reactions of intermediary metabolism1. Key to these roles is the formation of transient inter-protein ET complexes. The structural basis for the control of specificity between partner proteins is lacking since these weak transient complexes have remained largely intractable for crystallographic studies2,3...

Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Cong, Han; Eady, Robert R.; Hasnain, S. Samar

2013-01-01

238

Low activation barriers characterize intramolecular electron transfer in ascorbate oxidase  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic reduction kinetics of the zucchini squash ascorbate oxidase (AO; L-ascorbate:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.3) by pulse radiolytically produced CO2- radical ions were investigated. Changes in the absorption bands of type 1 [Cu(II)] (610 nm) and type 3 [Cu(II)] (330 nm) were monitored over a range of reactant concentrations, pH, and temperature. The direct bimolecular reduction of type 1 [Cu(II)] [(1.2 +/- 0.2) x 10(9) M-1.s-1] was followed by its subsequent reoxidation in three distinct phases, all found to be unimolecular processes with the respective specific rates of 201 +/- 8, 20 +/- 4, and 2.3 +/- 0.2 s-1 at pH 5.5 and 298 K. While at this pH no direct bimolecular reduction was resolved in the 330-nm band, at pH 7.0 such a direct process was observed [(6.5 +/- 1.2) x 10(8) M-1.s-1]. In the same slower time domains where type 1 [Cu(I)] reoxidation was monitored, reduction of type 3 [Cu(II)] was observed, which was also concentration independent and with identical rate constants and amplitudes commensurate with those of type 1 [Cu(II)] reoxidation. These results show that after electron uptake by type 1 [Cu(II)], its reoxidation takes place by intramolecular electron transfer to type 3 [Cu(II)]. The observed specific rates are similar to values reported for the limiting-rate constants of AO reduction by excess substrate, suggesting that internal electron transfer is the rate-determining step of AO activity. The temperature dependence of the intramolecular electron transfer rate constants was measured from 275 to 308 K at pH 5.5 and, from the Eyring plots, low activation enthalpies were calculated--namely, 9.1 +/- 1.1 and 6.8 +/- 1.0 kJ.mol-1 for the fastest and slowest phases, respectively. The activation entropies observed for these respective phases were -170 +/- 9 and -215 +/- 16 J.K-1.mol-1. The exceptionally low enthalpy barriers imply the involvement of highly optimized electron transfer pathways for internal electron transfer.

Farver, O; Pecht, I

1992-01-01

239

The electron transfer system of syntrophically grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

Walker, C.B.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.K.; Ringbauer, Jr., J.A.; He, Q.; Zhou, J.; Voordouw, G.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Hazen, T.C.; Stolyar, S.; Stahl, D.A.

2009-05-01

240

The Electron Transfer System of Syntrophically Grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

PBD; ENIGMA; GTL; VIMSS; Walker, Christopher B.; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin K.; Ringbauer Jr., Joseph A.; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Hazen, Terry C.; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David A.

2009-06-22

241

Nanoparticle facilitated extracellular electron transfer in microbial fuel cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been the focus of substantial research interest due to their potential for long-term, renewable electrical power generation via the metabolism of a broad spectrum of organic substrates, although the low power densities have limited their applications to date. Here, we demonstrate the potential to improve the power extraction by exploiting biogenic inorganic nanoparticles to facilitate extracellular electron transfer in MFCs. Simultaneous short-circuit current recording and optical imaging on a nanotechnology-enabled platform showed substantial current increase from Shewanella PV-4 after the formation of cell/iron sulfide nanoparticle aggregates. Detailed characterization of the structure and composition of the cell/nanoparticle interface revealed crystalline iron sulfide nanoparticles in intimate contact with and uniformly coating the cell membrane. In addition, studies designed to address the fundamental mechanisms of charge transport in this hybrid system showed that charge transport only occurred in the presence of live Shewanella, and moreover demonstrated that the enhanced current output can be attributed to improved electron transfer at cell/electrode interface and through the cellular-networks. Our approach of interconnecting and electrically contacting bacterial cells through biogenic nanoparticles represents a unique and promising direction in MFC research and has the potential to not only advance our fundamental knowledge about electron transfer processes in these biological systems but also overcome a key limitation in MFCs by constructing an electrically connected, three-dimensional cell network from the bottom-up. PMID:25310721

Jiang, Xiaocheng; Hu, Jinsong; Lieber, Alexander M; Jackan, Charles S; Biffinger, Justin C; Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Ringeisen, Bradley R; Lieber, Charles M

2014-11-12

242

27 CFR 40.357 - Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

...TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES...TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes ...Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer. ...in making payment by electronic fund transfer (EFT...tobacco products, cigarette papers, and...

2010-04-01

243

41 CFR 102-118.70 - Must my agency make all payments via electronic funds transfer?  

Science.gov (United States)

...agency make all payments via electronic funds transfer? 102-118...agency make all payments via electronic funds transfer? Yes...must make all payments for goods and services via EFT (this includes goods and services ordered...

2010-07-01

244

Long range electron transfer across $\\pi$-conjugated systems: role of electron correlations  

CERN Document Server

We consider a prototype polyene chain: donor-$\\pi$(bridge)-acceptor. The distance between the donor and the acceptor is varied by increasing the number of bridged atoms and rate of electron transfer, k$_{et}$ is studied for a series of different donors, D=NH$_2$, SH, OH, and a fixed acceptor, A=NO$_2$. We observe a large k$_{et}$ even at a very large D-A separation of $\\sim$ 45 $\\AA$, unexpected from the well-known and standard theories like the Forster theory. Such a long range electron transfer is due to the strong electron-electron interactions in the bridged orbitals that result in deconfinment of electrons in donor orbitals. Calculations at various levels: semi-empirical and many-body exact, have been performed to accurately account for such correlations.

Lakshmi, S; Pati, S K; Datta, Ayan; Pati, Swapan K.

2005-01-01

245

Electron Transfer Dissociation (ETD) of Peptides Containing Intrachain Disulfide Bonds  

Science.gov (United States)

The fragmentation chemistry of peptides containing intrachain disulfide bonds was investigated under electron transfer dissociation (ETD) conditions. Fragments within the cyclic region of the peptide backbone due to intrachain disulfide bond formation were observed, including: c (odd electron), z (even electron), c-33 Da, z + 33 Da, c + 32 Da, and z-32 Da types of ions. The presence of these ions indicated cleavages both at the disulfide bond and the N-C? backbone from a single electron transfer event. Mechanistic studies supported a mechanism whereby the N-C? bond was cleaved first, and radical-driven reactions caused cleavage at either an S-S bond or an S-C bond within cysteinyl residues. Direct ETD at the disulfide linkage was also observed, correlating with signature loss of 33 Da (SH) from the charge-reduced peptide ions. Initial ETD cleavage at the disulfide bond was found to be promoted amongst peptides ions of lower charge states, while backbone fragmentation was more abundant for higher charge states. The capability of inducing both backbone and disulfide bond cleavages from ETD could be particularly useful for sequencing peptides containing intact intrachain disulfide bonds. ETD of the 13 peptides studied herein all showed substantial sequence coverage, accounting for 75%-100% of possible backbone fragmentation.

Cole, Scott R.; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xinrong; Xia, Yu

2012-02-01

246

27 CFR 24.272 - Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer. 24.272...ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE...272 Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer. (a) General...institution in making payment by electronic fund transfer (EFT)...

2010-04-01

247

27 CFR 26.112a - Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer. 26.112a...ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE...112a Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer. (a) General...bank in making payment by electronic fund transfer...

2010-04-01

248

Noise-assisted quantum electron transfer in photosynthetic complexes  

CERN Document Server

Electron transfer (ET) between primary electron donors and acceptors is modeled in the photosystem II reaction center (RC). Our model includes (i) two discrete energy levels associated with donor and acceptor, interacting through a dipole-type matrix element and (ii) two continuum manifolds of electron energy levels ("sinks"), which interact directly with the donor and acceptor. Namely, two discrete energy levels of the donor and acceptor are embedded in their independent sinks through the corresponding interaction matrix elements. We also introduce classical (external) noise which acts simultaneously on the donor and acceptor (collective interaction). We derive a closed system of integro-differential equations which describes the non-Markovian quantum dynamics of the ET. A region of parameters is found in which the ET dynamics can be simplified, and described by coupled ordinary differential equations. Using these simplified equations, both sharp and flat redox potentials are analyzed. We analytically and nu...

Nesterov, Alexander I; Martínez, José Manuel Sánchez; Sayre, Richard T

2013-01-01

249

Mechanisms for control of biological electron transfer reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron transfer (ET) through and between proteins is a fundamental biological process. The rates and mechanisms of these ET reactions are controlled by the proteins in which the redox centers that donate and accept electrons reside. The protein influences the magnitudes of the ET parameters, the electronic coupling and reorganization energy that are associated with the ET reaction. The protein can regulate the rates of the ET reaction by requiring reaction steps to optimize the system for ET, leading to kinetic mechanisms of gated or coupled ET. Amino acid residues in the segment of the protein through which long range ET occurs can also modulate the ET rate by serving as staging points for hopping mechanisms of ET. Specific examples are presented to illustrate these mechanisms by which proteins control rates of ET reactions. PMID:25085775

Williamson, Heather R; Dow, Brian A; Davidson, Victor L

2014-12-01

250

Effects of electrostatic interactions on electron transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fast reactions of electron transfer are studied by pulse radiolysis. This technique allows the creation in about 10-8 second radicals and radical ions with high redox potentials. For solvated electrons electrostatic interaction on the kinetics of reactions limited by diffusion is described by Debye's equation when ion mobility is known. Deviation from theory can occur in ion pairs formation. This is evidenced experimentally for anions by cation complexation with a cryptate. Relatively slow reactions are more sensitive to electrostatic interactions than limited by diffusion. If ion pairs are not formed kinetics constant depends on dielectric constant of solvent and reaction radius. Experimentally is studied the effect of electrostatic interaction on the rate constants of solvated electrons with anions and cations in water-ethanol mixtures where the dielectric constant change from 80 to 25 at room temperature. 17 refs

251

Charge amplification and transfer processes in the gas electron multiplier  

CERN Document Server

We report the results of systematic investigations on the operating properties of detectors based on the gas electron multiplier (GEM). The dependence of gain and charge collection efficiency on the external fields has been studied in a range of values for the hole diameter and pitch. The collection efficiency of ionization electrons into the multiplier, after an initial increase, reaches a plateau extending to higher values of drift field the larger the GEM voltage and its optical transparency. The effective gain, fraction of electrons collected ba an electrode following the multiplier, increases almost linearly with the collection field, until entering a steeper parallel plate multiplication regime. The maximum effective gain attainable increases with the reduction in the hole diameter, stabilizing to a constant value at a diameter approximately corresponding to the foil thickness. Charge transfer properties appear to depend only on ratios of fields outside mad and the channels, with no interaction between ...

Bachmann, S; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A; Mörmann, D

1999-01-01

252

DNA Damage Induced by Low-Energy Electrons: Electron Transfer and Diffraction  

Science.gov (United States)

Thin films of the short single strand of DNA, GCAT, in which guanine (G) or adenine (A) have been removed, were bombarded under vacuum by 4 to 15 eV electrons. The fragments corresponding to base release and strand breaks (SB) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and their yields compared with those obtained from unmodified GCAT. From such a comparison, it is shown that, using GCAT as a model system, (1) most SB result from electron capture by DNA bases followed by electron transfer to the phosphate group and (2) the initial capture probability depends on the coherence of the electron wave within the tetramer.

Zheng, Yi; Wagner, J. Richard; Sanche, Léon

2006-05-01

253

Fixed distance photoinduced electron transfer between Fe and Zn porphyrins encapsulated within the Zn HKUST-1 metal organic framework.  

Science.gov (United States)

An attractive strategy for the development of photocatalytic metal organic framework (MOF) materials is to co-encapsulate a photoactive electron donor with a catalytic electron acceptor within the MOF. Here we report the co-encapsulation of both Zn(ii) tetrakis(tetra 4-sulphonatophenyl)porphyrin (Zn4SP) and Fe(iii) tetrakis(tetra 4-sulphonatophenyl)porphyrin (Fe4SP) into an HKUST-1 (Zn) MOF and demonstrate photoinduced electron transfer (ET) between the co-encapsulated guest. Photo-excitation of the Zn4SP results in fixed-distance inter-molecular ET between the encapsulated (3)Zn4SP and the Fe(iii)4SP as evident by the reduction in the encapsulated (3)Zn4SP lifetime from 890 ?s (kobs = 1.1 × 10(3) s(-1)) to 83 ?s (kobs = 1.2 × 10(4) s(-1)) in the presence of Fe4SP giving a kET ? 1.1 × 10(4) s(-1). The data are consistent with ET taking place between encapsulated porphyrins that are two cages apart in distance with a reorganizational energy of ?1.65 eV, ? = 1.25 and ?G° = -0.97 eV (within a semi-classical Marcus theory framework). PMID:25575300

Larsen, Randy W; Wojtas, Lukasz

2015-02-01

254

Kinetics of the intermolecular exchange reaction Cp/sub 3/U(III) - Cp/sub 3/U(IV)Cl. [Cp-cyclopentadienyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The intermolecular exchange of cyclopentadienyl groups in the system UCp/sub 3/-UCp/sub 3/Cl in THF solution between 170-300 K was investigated by /sup 1/H nmr. The kinetic results show a bimolecular mechanism and suggest an electron transfer via the chlorine atom. This first example of a symmetrical exchange in the U(III)-U(IV) system illustrates the liability of actinide organometallic compounds.

Burton, M.; Folcher, G.; Marquet-Ellis, H.; Rigny, P. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physico-Chimie); Giannotti, C. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Chimie des Substances Naturelles)

1982-10-01

255

Electron transfer reactions involving acridine and related compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acridine is rapidly reduced by e/sub sol/- (k = 3 x 1010 M-1 s-1) and by (CH3)2CO- (k = 3 x 109 M-1 s-1 in water and 1.4 x 109 M-1 s-1 in i-PrOH). Reduction by (CH3)2COH and CO2- is rapid and efficient only when the acridine is protonated (pK/sub a/ = 5.6). With neutral acridine, however, the slow reduction is accompanied by addition of these radicals to acridine. Both forms of acridine are reduced by pyridinyl radicals, although the acid more rapidly than the neutral form. In all these one-electron reductions the anion radical of acridine is produced, which in aqueous and alcoholic solutions undergoes rapid protonation on the nitrogen to form a neutral radical, with a pK/sub a/ apparently above 14. Related heterocyclic compounds, such as 1,10-phenanthroline and phenazine, behave in a similar fashion. The radicals produced by reduction of acridine and other heterocycles can transfer an electron to 9,10-anthraquinone in nonaqueous media or to anthraquinonesulfonate in aqueous solutions (k approx. 109 M-1 s-1). The spectra of the resulting semiquinone radicals were found, in all cases examined, to be identical with those obtained by direct reduction of the quinone under similar conditions without the intermediacy of the heterocycle. This is in contrast w of the heterocycle. This is in contrast with previous findings with a porphyrin-anthraqinone system. It is concluded that, despite the previous suggestion that an intermediate complex is formed upon electron transfer from tetraphenylporphyrin radical to anthraquinone, no such complex appears to be formed in the electron transfer reactions involving acridine and related heterocycles

256

Reduced density matrix hybrid approach: Application to electronic energy transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electronic energy transfer in the condensed phase, such as that occurring in photosynthetic complexes, frequently occurs in regimes where the energy scales of the system and environment are similar. This situation provides a challenge to theoretical investigation since most approaches are accurate only when a certain energetic parameter is small compared to others in the problem. Here we show that in these difficult regimes, the Ehrenfest approach provides a good starting point for a dynamical description of the energy transfer process due to its ability to accurately treat coupling to slow environmental modes. To further improve on the accuracy of the Ehrenfest approach, we use our reduced density matrix hybrid framework to treat the faster environmental modes quantum mechanically, at the level of a perturbative master equation. This combined approach is shown to provide an efficient and quantitative description of electronic energy transfer in a model dimer and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and is used to investigate the effect of environmental preparation on the resulting dynamics.

257

Hetero-cycloreversions mediated by photoinduced electron transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discovered more than eight decades ago, the Diels-Alder (DA) cycloaddition (CA) remains one of the most versatile tools in synthetic organic chemistry. Hetero-DA processes are powerful methods for the synthesis of densely functionalized six-membered heterocycles, ubiquitous substructures found in natural products and bioactive compounds. These reactions frequently employ azadienes and oxadienes, but only a few groups have reported DA processes with thiadienes. The electron transfer (ET) version of the DA reaction, though less investigated, has emerged as a subject of increasing interest. In the last two decades, researchers have paid closer attention to radical ionic hetero-cycloreversions, mainly in connection with their possible involvement in the repair of pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photolesions in DNA by photolyases. In biological systems, these reactions likely occur through a reductive photosensitization mechanism. In addition, photooxidation can lead to cycloreversion (CR) reactions, and researchers can exploit this strategy for DNA repair therapies. In this Account, we discuss electron-transfer (ET) mediated hetero-CR reactions. We focus on the oxidative and reductive ET splitting of oxetanes, azetidines, and thietanes. Photoinduced electron transfer facilitates the splitting of a variety of four-membered heterocycles. In this context, researchers have commonly examined oxetanes, both experimentally and theoretically. Although a few studies have reported the cycloreversion of azetidines and thietanes carried out under electron transfer conditions, the number of examples remains limited. In general, the cleavage of the ionized four-membered rings appears to occur via a nonconcerted two-step mechanism. The trapping of the intermediate 1,4-radical ions and transient absorption spectroscopy data support this hypothesis, and it explains the observed loss of stereochemistry in the products. In the initial step, either C-C or C-X bond breaking may occur, and the preferred route depends on the substitution pattern of the ring, the type of heteroatom, and various experimental conditions. To better accommodate spin and charge, C-X cleavage happens more frequently, especially in the radical anionic version of the reaction. The addition or withdrawal of a single electron provides a new complementary synthetic strategy to activate hetero-cycloreversions. Despite its potential, this strategy remains largely unexplored. However, it offers a useful method to achieve C?X/olefin metathesis or, upon ring expansion, to construct six-membered heterocyclic rings. PMID:24702062

Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Jiménez, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A

2014-04-15

258

Molecular Choreography of Isomerization and Electron Transfer Using One and Two Dimensional Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical reactions are defined by the change in the relative positions and bonding of nuclei in molecules. I have used femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) to probe these transformations with structural specificity and high time precision revealing the mechanisms of two important classes of reactions; isomerization about an N=N bond and interfacial/intermolecular electron transfer. Isomerization about a double bond is one of the simplest, yet most important, photochemical reactions. In contrast to carbon double bonds, nitrogen double bonds can react via two possible mechanisms; rotation or inversion. To determine which pathway is predominant, I studied an azobenzene derivative using both FSRS and impulsive stimulated Raman spectroscopy (ISRS). The FSRS experiments demonstrated that the photochemical reaction occurs concomitantly with the 700 fs non-radiative decay of the excited state; because no major change in N=N stretching frequency was measured, I surmised that the reaction proceeds through an inversion pathway. My subsequent ISRS experiments confirmed this hypothesis; I observed a highly displaced, low frequency, inversion-like mode, indicating that initial movement out of the Franck-Condon region proceeds along an inversion coordinate. To probe which nuclear motions facilitate electron transfer and charge recombination, I used FSRS and the newly developed 2D-FSRS techniques to study two model systems, triphenylamine dyes bound to TiO2 nanoparticles and a molecular charge transfer (CT) dimer. In the dye-nanoparticle system I discovered that charge separation persists much longer (> 100 ps) than previously thought by using the juxtaposition of the FSRS and transient absorption data to separate the dynamics of the dye from that of the injected electron. Additionally, I discovered that dye constructs with an added vinyl group were susceptible to quenching via isomerization. The CT dimer offered an opportunity to study a system in which charge recombination occurred on a shorter timescale (˜10 ps). Here I found that impulsively excited coherent nuclear motion in the excited state survived for more than 5 ps. These long lived coherences enabled the performance of 2D-FSRS to identify the coupling and tuning modes of the conical intersection that connects the charge transfer excited state with the neutral ground state and therefore the nuclear motions responsible for charge recombination. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that the photochemical reactivity is not mediated by phase-space randomization but rather by specific, coherent, nuclear trajectories. In this thesis I have demonstrated the power and utility of FSRS in probing condensed phase chemical reaction dynamics and provided a glimpse of the capabilities of 2D-FSRS. In general, 2D-FSRS provides a direct measure of the anharmonic coupling that controls reactivity. Looking forward, higher time resolution (broader band) 2D-FSRS will open up a whole new approach for characterizing transition states and energy transfer processes.

Hoffman, David Paul

259

Coherent wavepacket motion in an ultrafast electron transfer system monitored by femtosecond degenerate four-wave-mixing and pump-probe spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Coherent nuclear wavepacket motions were monitored by three types of femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy, namely, transient absorption measurement utilizing white-light supercontinuum (WC-TA), degenerate four-wave-mixing (DFWM), and pump-probe (PP) measurements, for an ultrafast intermolecular electron transfer (ET) system with a dye molecule, oxazine 1 (Ox1), dissolved in an electron donating solvent, N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA). Vibrational frequencies of the wavepacket motion in the excited and in the ground states were 560-562 and 567-569 cm-1, respectively, with only a few frequency difference of 5-9 cm-1, which were clearly distinguishable by the highly accurate measurements. In DMA, the excited state wavepacket motion declined with time constant of 160-240 fs which is somewhat longer than that of the ultrafast ET; 60-80 fs.

Nagasawa, Yutaka; Yoneda, Yusuke; Nambu, Shohei; Muramatsu, Masayasu; Takeuchi, Eisuke; Tsumori, Hiroki; Morikawa, Soichiro; Katayama, Tetsuro; Miyasaka, Hiroshi

2014-10-01

260

Electronic Energy Transfer: Localized Operator Partitioning of Electronic Energy in Composite Quantum Systems  

OpenAIRE

A Hamiltonian based approach using spatially localized projection operators is introduced to give precise meaning to the chemically intuitive idea of the electronic energy on a quantum subsystem. This definition facilitates the study of electronic energy transfer in arbitrarily coupled quantum systems. In particular, the decomposition scheme can be applied to molecular components that are strongly interacting (with significant orbital overlap) as well as to isolated fragment...

Khan, Yaser R.; Brumer, Paul

2012-01-01

261

Single Electron Transfer Living Radical Polymerization via a New Initiator  

Science.gov (United States)

Research and development of novel initiating system such as single electron transfer living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) is of high importance in polymer chemistry. A new SET-LRP initiator was synthesized and applied to prepare end-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in this study. ?-Trichloromethyl benzyl alcohol was firstly synthesized, followed by preparation of PMMA under SET-LRP conditions. Conversion of MMA was 81.9%, and the molecular weight of PMMA was about 2.5 kDa at 60 °C for 1 h. Consistency of the number-average molecular weight of PMMA from NMR, GPC and theoretical calculation indicated that the polymerization featured controllable property. Broad molecular weight distribution (MWD) may be ascribed to branched polymers formed by initiation and chain transfer.

Bai, Xiongxiong; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Xu; Ai, Lingling; Cheng, Chuanjie

2014-08-01

262

A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer  

CERN Document Server

The fluctuations of optical gap induced by the environment play crucial roles in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as a white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to take the thermal fluctuation of excitation energies into account. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equ...

Fujita, Takatoshi; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

2014-01-01

263

Modeling biofilms with dual extracellular electron transfer mechanisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrochemically active biofilms have a unique form of respiration in which they utilize solid external materials as their terminal electron acceptor for metabolism. Currently, two primary mechanisms have been identified for long-range extracellular electron transfer (EET): a diffusion- and a conduction-based mechanism. Evidence in the literature suggests that some biofilms, particularly Shewanella oneidensis, produce components requisite for both mechanisms. In this study, a generic model is presented that incorporates both diffusion- and conduction-based mechanisms and allows electrochemically active biofilms to utilize both simultaneously. The model was applied to Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms using experimentally generated data found the literature. Our simulation results showed that 1) biofilms having both mechanisms available, especially if they can interact, may have metabolic advantage over biofilms that can use only a single mechanism; 2) the thickness of Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms is likely not limited by conductivity; 3) accurate intrabiofilm diffusion coefficient values are critical for current generation predictions; and 4) the local biofilm potential and redox potential are two distinct measurements and cannot be assumed to have identical values. Finally, we determined that cyclic and squarewave voltammetry are currently not good tools to determine the specific percentage of extracellular electron transfer mechanisms used by biofilms. The developed model will be a critical tool in designing experiments to explain EET mechanisms.

Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Schenk, Jim; Ivory, Cornelius; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beyenal, Haluk

2013-11-28

264

Extracting electron transfer coupling elements from constrained density functional theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constrained density functional theory (DFT) is a useful tool for studying electron transfer (ET) reactions. It can straightforwardly construct the charge-localized diabatic states and give a direct measure of the inner-sphere reorganization energy. In this work, a method is presented for calculating the electronic coupling matrix element (Hab) based on constrained DFT. This method completely avoids the use of ground-state DFT energies because they are known to irrationally predict fractional electron transfer in many cases. Instead it makes use of the constrained DFT energies and the Kohn-Sham wave functions for the diabatic states in a careful way. Test calculations on the Zn2+ and the benzene-Cl atom systems show that the new prescription yields reasonable agreement with the standard generalized Mulliken-Hush method. We then proceed to produce the diabatic and adiabatic potential energy curves along the reaction pathway for intervalence ET in the tetrathiafulvalene-diquinone (Q-TTF-Q) anion. While the unconstrained DFT curve has no reaction barrier and gives Hab?17 kcal/mol, which qualitatively disagrees with experimental results, the Hab calculated from constrained DFT is about 3 kcal/mol and the generated ground state has a barrier height of 1.70 kcal/mol, successfully predicting (Q-TTF-Q)- to be a class II mixed-valence compound

265

Probing the role of a conserved salt bridge in the intramolecular electron transfer kinetics of human sulfite oxidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfite oxidase (SO) is a vital metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of toxic sulfite to sulfate. The proposed mechanism of this molybdenum cofactor dependent enzyme involves two one-electron intramolecular electron transfer (IET) steps from the molybdenum center to the iron of the b 5-type heme and two one-electron intermolecular electron transfer steps from the heme to cytochrome c. This work focuses on how the electrostatic interaction between two conserved amino acid residues, R472 and D342, in human SO (hSO) affects catalysis. The hSO variants R472M, R472Q, R472K, R472D, and D342K were created to probe the effect of the position of the salt bridge charges, along with the interaction between these two residues. With the exception of R472K, these variants all showed a significant decrease in their IET rate constants, k et, relative to wild-type hSO, indicating that the salt bridge between residues 472 and 342 is important for rapid IET. Surprisingly, however, except for R472K and R472D, all of the variants show k cat values higher than their corresponding k et values. The turnover number for R472D is about the same as k et, which suggests that the change in this variant is rate-limiting in catalysis. Direct spectroelectrochemical determination of the Fe(III/II) reduction potentials of the heme and calculation of the Mo(VI/V) potentials revealed that all of the variants affected the redox potentials of both metal centers, probably due to changes in their environments. Thus, the position of the positive charge of R472 and that of the negative charge of D342 are both important in hSO, and changing either the position or the nature of these charges perturbs IET and catalysis. PMID:23779234

Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Davis, Amanda C; Arnold, Anna R; Berry, Robert E; Tollin, Gordon; Enemark, John H

2013-08-01

266

Mechanisms of bridge-mediated electron transfer: A TDDFT electronic dynamics study  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a time-dependent density functional theory approach for probing the dynamics of electron transfer on a donor-bridge-acceptor polyene dye scaffold. Two kinds of mechanisms, namely, the superexchange mechanism and the sequential mechanism, may be involved in the electron transfer process. In this work, we have focused on the crossover between these two charge transfer mechanisms on a series of donor-bridge-acceptor polyene dye systems with varying lengths of conjugated bridges. A number of methods and quantities are used to assist in the analysis, including the phase relationship of charge evolution and frequency domain spectra of the time-dependent dipole. Our simulations show that the superexchange mechanism plays a dominant role in the electron transfer from donor to acceptor when the bridge length is small, and the sequential mechanism becomes more important as the polyene bridge is lengthened. Full Ehrenfest dynamics with nuclear motion show that molecular vibrations play a very small role in such ultrafast charge transfer processes.

Ding, Feizhi; Chapman, Craig T.; Liang, Wenkel; Li, Xiaosong

2012-12-01

267

Transcriptomic and genetic analysis of direct interspecies electron transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility that metatranscriptomic analysis could distinguish between direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) and H2 interspecies transfer (HIT) in anaerobic communities was investigated by comparing gene transcript abundance in cocultures in which Geobacter sulfurreducens was the electron-accepting partner for either Geobacter metallireducens, which performs DIET, or Pelobacter carbinolicus, which relies on HIT. Transcript abundance for G. sulfurreducens uptake hydrogenase genes was 7-fold lower in cocultures with G. metallireducens than in cocultures with P. carbinolicus, consistent with DIET and HIT, respectively, in the two cocultures. Transcript abundance for the pilus-associated cytochrome OmcS, which is essential for DIET but not for HIT, was 240-fold higher in the cocultures with G. metallireducens than in cocultures with P. carbinolicus. The pilin gene pilA was moderately expressed despite a mutation that might be expected to repress pilA expression. Lower transcript abundance for G. sulfurreducens genes associated with acetate metabolism in the cocultures with P. carbinolicus was consistent with the repression of these genes by H2 during HIT. Genes for the biogenesis of pili and flagella and several c-type cytochrome genes were among the most highly expressed in G. metallireducens. Mutant strains that lacked the ability to produce pili, flagella, or the outer surface c-type cytochrome encoded by Gmet_2896 were not able to form cocultures with G. sulfurreducens. These results demonstrate that there are unique gene expression patterns that distinguish DIET from HIT and suggest that metatranscriptomics may be a promising route to investigate interspecies electron transfer pathways in more-complex environments. PMID:23377933

Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Summers, Zarath M; Shrestha, Minita; Liu, Fanghua; Lovley, Derek R

2013-04-01

268

Artificial photosynthesis: from nanosecond electron transfer to catalytic water oxidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human society faces a fundamental challenge as energy consumption is projected to increase due to population and economic growth as fossil fuel resources decrease. Therefore the transition to alternative and sustainable energy sources is of the utmost importance. The conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, by splitting H2O to generate molecular O2 and H2, could contribute to solving the global energy problem. Developing such a system will require the combination of several complicated processes, such as light-harvesting, charge separation, electron transfer, H2O oxidation, and reduction of the generated protons. The primary processes of charge separation and catalysis, which occur in the natural photosynthetic machinery, provide us with an excellent blueprint for the design of such systems. This Account describes our efforts to construct supramolecular assemblies capable of carrying out photoinduced electron transfer and to develop artificial water oxidation catalysts (WOCs). Early work in our group focused on linking a ruthenium chromophore to a manganese-based oxidation catalyst. When we incorporated a tyrosine unit into these supramolecular assemblies, we could observe fast intramolecular electron transfer from the manganese centers, via the tyrosine moiety, to the photooxidized ruthenium center, which clearly resembles the processes occurring in the natural system. Although we demonstrated multi-electron transfer in our artificial systems, the bottleneck proved to be the stability of the WOCs. Researchers have developed a number of WOCs, but the majority can only catalyze H2O oxidation in the presence of strong oxidants such as Ce(IV), which is difficult to generate photochemically. By contrast, illumination of ruthenium(II) photosensitizers in the presence of a sacrificial acceptor generates [Ru(bpy)3](3+)-type oxidants. Their oxidation potentials are significantly lower than that of Ce(IV), but our group recently showed that incorporating negatively charged groups into the ligand backbone could decrease the oxidation potential of the catalysts and, at the same time, decrease the potential for H2O oxidation. This permitted us to develop both ruthenium- and manganese-based WOCs that can operate under neutral conditions, driven by the mild oxidant [Ru(bpy)3](3+). Many hurdles to the development of viable systems for the production of solar fuels remain. However, the combination of important features from the natural photosynthetic machinery and novel artificial components adds insights into the complicated catalytic processes that are involved in splitting H2O. PMID:23957573

Kärkäs, Markus D; Johnston, Eric V; Verho, Oscar; Akermark, Björn

2014-01-21

269

Effect of electron transfer on contact fusion kinetics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of electric current on the kinetics of contact fusion (CF) is investigated. It is revealed that electric current can not only retard or accelerate CF in the diffusion regime at constant temperature T, but it can result in the process of ''contact crysllization''. CF may be used to study electron transfer in liquid solutions of eutectic systems. The results obtained may be applied in problems of the so-called contact-reactive soldering. In-Bi, Pb-Bi and Cd-Bi systems were used for investigations

270

Long-range intramolecular electron transfer in azurins  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Cu(II) sites of azurins, the blue single copper proteins, isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes spp. (Iwasaki) are reduced by CO2- radicals, produced by pulse radiolysis, in two distinct reaction steps: (i) a fast bimolecular phase, at the rates (5.0 +/- 0.8) x 10(8) M-1.s-1 (P. aeruginosa) and (6.0 +/- 1.0) x 10(8) M-1.s-1 (Alcaligenes); (ii) a slow unimolecular phase with specific rates of 44 +/- 7 s-1 in the former and 8.5 +/- 1.5 s-1 for the latter (all at 298 K, 0.1 M ionic strength). Concomitant with the fast reduction of Cu(II), the single disulfide bridge linking cysteine-3 to -26 in these proteins is reduced to the RSSR- radical ion as evidenced by its characteristic absorption band centered at 410 nm. This radical ion decays in a unimolecular process with a rate identical to that of the slow Cu(II) reduction phase in the respective protein, thus clearly suggesting that a long-range intramolecular electron transfer occurs between the RSSR- radicals and the Cu(II) site. The temperature dependence of the internal electron transfer process in both proteins was measured over the 4 degrees C to 42 degrees C range. The activation parameters derived are delta H* = 47.5 +/- 4.0 and 16.7 +/- 1.5 kJ.mol-1; and delta S not equal to = -56.5 +/- 7.0 and -171 +/- 18 J.K-1.mol-1, respectively. Using the Marcus theory, we found that the intramolecular electron transfer rates and their activation parameters observed for the two azurins correlate well with the distances between the reactive sites, their redox potential, and the nature of the separating medium. Thus, azurins with distinct structural and reactivity characteristics isolated from different bacteria or modified by site-directed mutagenesis can be used in comparing long-range electron transfer process between their conserved disulfide bridge and the Cu(II) sites.

Farver, O; Pecht, I

1989-01-01

271

Light induced electron transfer reactions of metal complexes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Properties of the excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), ruthenium(II), osmium(II), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) are described. The electron transfer reactions of the ground and excited states are discussed and interpreted in terms of the driving force for the reaction and the distortions of the excited states relative to the corresponding ground states. General considerations relevant to the conversion of light into chemical energy are presented and progress in the use of polypyridine complexes to effect the light decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen is reviewed.

Sutin, N; Creutz, C

1980-01-01

272

Quantum simulation of nuclear rearrangement in electron transfer reactions  

OpenAIRE

A quantum simulation scheme based on the path integral molecular dynamics technique has been used to calculate the effective activation energies associated with nuclear rearrangement in the electron transfer reactions Co(NH3)62+ + Co(NH3)63+ ? Co(NH3)63+ + Co(NH3)62+ and Ru(NH3)62+ + Ru(NH3)63+ ? Ru(NH3)63+ + Ru(NH3)62+. Even with a simple Hamiltonian and short time dynamic simulations, the results are in satisfactory agreement with other theoretical calculations. This simulation approach...

Zheng, Chong; Mccammon, J. Andrew; Wolynes, Peter G.

1989-01-01

273

Light induced electron transfer reactions of metal complexes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Properties of the excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), ruthenium(II), osmium(II), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) are described. The electron transfer reactions of the ground and excited states are discussed and interpreted in terms of the driving force for the reaction and the distortions of the excited states relative to the corresponding ground states. General considerations relevant to the conversion of light into chemical energy are presented and progress in the use of polypyridine complexes to effect the light decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen is reviewed

274

Photoinduced dissociative electron transfer (DET) interactions in methoxycalixarene chloroalkane systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescence quenching of methoxycalixarenes (MOCX) by chloroalkanes (CA) has been investigated in acetonitrile solutions. Observed quenching is attributed to photoinduced dissociative electron transfer (DET) interaction, which is supported by the characterization of the Cl - ions and by the radical scavenging experiments. Comparing the Cl - yields with different DET systems, it is inferred that both concerted and stepwise DET mechanisms operate simultaneously in MOCX-CA systems. A correlation of the quenching constants with the free-energy changes following a suitable DET theory supports the above inference.

Mohanty, J.; Pal, H.; Nayak, S. K.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Sapre, A. V.

2003-03-01

275

Linear Energy Relationships in Ground State Proton Transfer and Excited State Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes are elementary chemical reaction involved in a broad range of radical and redox reactions. Elucidating fundamental PCET reaction mechanisms are thus of central importance for chemical and biochemical research. Here we use quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT), time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), and the algebraic diagrammatic-construction through second-order (ADC(2)) to study the mechanism, thermodynamic driving force effects and reaction barriers of both ground state proton transfer (pT) and photo-induced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) between nitrosylated phenyl-phenol compounds and hydrogen-bonded t-butylamine as an external base. We show that the obtained reaction barriers for the ground state pT reactions depend linearly on the thermodynamic driving force, with a Brønsted slope of 1 or 0. Photo-excitation leads to a PCET reaction, for which we find that the non-adiabatic excited state reaction barrier depend on the thermodynamic driving force with a Brønsted slope of ½. To support the mechanistic picture arising from the static potential energy surfaces, we perform additional molecular dynamics simulations on the excited state energy surface, in which we observe a spontaneous PCET between the donor and acceptor groups. Our findings suggest that a Brønsted analysis may distinguish the ground state pT and excited state PCET processes. PMID:25485993

Gámiz-Hernández, Ana-Patricia; Magomedov, Artiom; Hummer, Gerhard; Kaila, Ville R I

2014-12-01

276

Effect of electrostatic interactions on electron-transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fast reactions of electron transfer are studied by pulsed radiolysis. By this technique radicals and ionic radicals with high redox potentials are created homogeneously in the solution in about 10-8 second. For solvated electron effect of electrostatic interaction on kinetics of reactions limited by diffusion is obtained with a good approximation by the Debye equation when ion mobility is known. Deviation from the theory occurs in ion pair formation, which is evidenced experimentally in reactions between anions when cations are complexed by a cryptate. Slow reactions k 8 M-1 s-1 are more sensitive to electrostatic interactions than reactions limited by diffusion. When there is no ion pair formation the velocity constant depends upon dielectric constant of the solvent and reaction distance. 17 refs

277

Nanoscale and single-molecule interfacial electron transfer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Electrochemical science and technology in the 21st century have reached high levels of sophistication. A fundamental quantum mechanical theoretical frame for interfacial electrochemical electron transfer (ET) was introduced by Revaz Dogonadze. This frame has remained for four decades as a basis for comprehensive later theoretical work and data interpretation in many areas of chemistry, electrochemistry, and biology. We discuss here some new areas of theoretical electrochemical ET science, with focus on nanoscale electrochemical and bioelectrochemical sciences. Particular attention is given to in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and single-electron tunneling (SET, or Coulomb blockade) in electrochemical. systems directly in aqueous electrolyte solution and at room temperature. We illustrate the new theoretical formalism and its perspectives by recent cases of electrochemical SET, negative differential resistance patterns, and by ET dynamics of organized assemblies of biological macromolecules, such as redox metalloproteins and oligonucleotides on single-crystal Au(III)-electrode surfaces.

Hansen, Allan Glargaard; Wackerbarth, Hainer

2003-01-01

278

36 CFR 1235.44 - What general transfer requirements apply to electronic records?  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements apply to electronic records? 1235...Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION...the transfer of electronic records other than...with the National Archives and Records Administration, Electronic/Special...

2010-07-01

279

78 FR 6025 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E) Temporary Delay of Effective Date  

Science.gov (United States)

...3170-AA33 Electronic Fund Transfers...Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection...participants in electronic fund and remittance...individual consumer rights...Banking, banks, Consumer protection, Credit unions, Electronic fund...

2013-01-29

280

ATP-induced electron transfer by redox-selective partner recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermodynamically unfavourable electron transfers are enabled by coupling to an energy-supplying reaction. How the energy is transduced from the exergonic to the endergonic process is largely unknown. Here we provide the structural basis for an energy transduction process in the reductive activation of B12-dependent methyltransferases. The transfer of one electron from an activating enzyme to the cobalamin cofactor is energetically uphill and relies on coupling to an ATPase reaction. Our results demonstrate that the key to coupling is, besides the oxidation state-dependent complex formation, the conformational gating of the electron transfer. Complex formation induces a substitution of the ligand at the electron-accepting Co ion. Addition of ATP initiates electron transfer by provoking conformational changes that destabilize the complex. We show how remodelling of the electron-accepting Co(2+) promotes ATP-dependent electron transfer; an efficient strategy not seen in other electron-transferring ATPases. PMID:25109607

Hennig, Sandra E; Goetzl, Sebastian; Jeoung, Jae-Hun; Bommer, Martin; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Hildebrandt, Peter; Dobbek, Holger

2014-01-01

281

Determination of the electronics transfer function for current transient measurements  

CERN Document Server

We describe a straight-forward method for determining the transfer function of the readout of a sensor for the situation in which the current transient of the sensor can be precisely simulated. The method relies on the convolution theorem of Fourier transforms. The specific example is a planar silicon pad diode connected with a 50 $\\Omega $ cable to an amplifier followed by a 5 GS/s sampling oscilloscope. The charge carriers in the sensor were produced by picosecond lasers with light of wavelengths of 675 and 1060 nm. The transfer function is determined from the 1060 nm data with the pad diode biased at 1000 V. It is shown that the simulated sensor response convoluted with this transfer function provides an excellent description of the measured transients for the laser light of both wavelengths, at voltages 50 V above the depletion voltage of about 90 V up to the maximum applied voltage of 1000 V. The method has been developed for the precise measurement of the dependence of the drift velocity of electrons an...

Scharf, Christian

2014-01-01

282

Solvent-controlled electron transfer in crystal violet lactone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steady-state and picosecond time-resolved emission experiments are used to examine the excited-state charge transfer reaction of crystal violet lactone (CVL) in aprotic solvents. Solvatochromic analysis using a dielectric continuum model suggests dipole moments of 9-12 D for the initially excited (LE) state and ?24 D for the charge-transfer (CT) state. Intensities of steady-state emission as well as kinetic data provide free energies for the LE ? CT reaction that range from +12 kJ/mol in nonpolar solvents to -10 kJ/mol in highly polar solvents at 25 °C. Reaction rates constants, which lie in the range of 10-100 ns(-1) in most solvents, depend on both solvent polarity and solvent friction. In highly polar solvents, rates are correlated to solvation times in a manner that indicates that the reaction is a solvent-controlled electron transfer on an adiabatic potential surface having a modest barrier. PMID:20831148

Li, Xiang; Maroncelli, Mark

2011-04-28

283

Photoinduced electron transfer in rhenium(I)-oligotriarylamine molecules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two molecular triads with an oligotriarylamine multielectron donor were synthesized and investigated with a view to obtaining charge-separated states in which the oligotriarylamine is oxidized 2-fold. Such photoinduced accumulation of multiple redox equivalents is of interest for artificial photosynthesis. The first triad was comprised of the oligotriarylamine and two rhenium(I) tricarbonyl diimine photosensitizers each of which can potentially accept one electron. In the second triad the oligotriarylamine was connected to anthraquinone, in principle an acceptor of two electrons, via a rhenium(I) tricarbonyl diimine unit. With nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (using an ordinary pump-probe technique) no evidence for the generation of 2-fold oxidized oligotriarylamine or 2-fold reduced anthraquinone was found. The key factors limiting the photochemistry of the new triads to simple charge separation of one electron and one hole are discussed, and the insights gained from this study are useful for further research in the area of charge accumulation in purely molecular (nanoparticle-free) systems. An important problem of the rhenium-based systems considered here is the short wavelength required for photoexcitation. In the second triad, photogenerated anthraquinone monoanion is protonated by organic acids, and the resulting semiquinone species leads to an increase in lifetime of the charge-separated state by about an order of magnitude. This shows that the proton-coupled electron transfer chemistry of quinones could be beneficial for photoinduced charge accumulation. PMID:25271567

Bonn, Annabell G; Neuburger, Markus; Wenger, Oliver S

2014-10-20

284

Electron-transfer functionality of synthetic coiled-coil metalloproteins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O campo emergente da engenharia molecular de metaloproteínas visa preparar proteínas artificiais, cujas propriedades podem imitar e talvez até mesmo melhorar várias características encontradas nas metaloenzimas naturais. Este artigo de revisão resume nossos esforços recentes na preparação de metalop [...] roteínas sintéticas, construídas a partir de "coiled-coils" alfa-hélices, e na incorporação de grupos de transferência de elétrons nesses sistemas. Recentemente, concebemos uma cisteína contendo um peptídeo com hélice randômica, o qual forma uma estrutura "coiled-coil" alfa-helicoidal ao se ligar a vários metais. O aduto de CuI pode atuar como agente fotoindutor de transferência de elétrons para receptores exógenos, e transfere elétrons por colisão na região invertida de Marcus para várias aminas de rutênio, as quais atuam como receptores. Especula-se que este resultado inesperado advenha do posicionamento do cofator de CuI no interior da porção hidrofóbica da proteína, o qual proíbe a aproximação entre o doador e o receptor, diminuindo a velocidade de transferência eletrônica daquelas reações termodinamicamente muito favorecidas, para velocidades inferiores à do limite difusional. Abstract in english The emerging field of metalloprotein design seeks to prepare artificial proteins whose properties can mimic, enhance, and perhaps improve upon many features found in natural metalloenzymes. This review summarizes our recent efforts to prepare synthetic metalloproteins built from alpha-helical coiled [...] -coils and to incorporate electron-transfer functionality within these systems. We have recently designed a cysteine-containing random-coil peptide which forms a alpha-helical coiled-coil upon binding various metals. The CuI adduct can serve as photoinduced electron-transfer agent to exogenous acceptors and undergoes collisional electron-transfer in the inverted Marcus region to various ruthenium ammine acceptors. It is speculated that this unexpected result might be due to the positioning of the CuI cofactor within the hydrophobic core of the protein which prohibits close approach between the donor and acceptor to slow the high driving force reaction rates below the diffusion limit.

Michael Y., Ogawa; Jiufeng, Fan; Anna, Fedorova; Jing, Hong; Olesya A., Kharenko; Anna Y., Kornilova; Robin C., Lasey; Fei, Xie.

1516-15-01

285

ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER: EXPLORING THE DIFFICULTIES OF SECURITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generally the banking laws, regulations and supervision were designed primarily to address the fundamental principle relating to safe and sound business practices by financial institutions. In order to maintain safe and sound business practice it is of outmost importance that customers are protected against losses resulting from inadequate remedies available to them. Banking by its very nature is a high risk business. However, the major risks associated with banking are legal risks, credit interest rates and liquidity. Internet banking has increased some of these risks by creating new ones. Electronic funds transfers are based on technology which by its nature is designed to extend the geographical reach of banks and customers. This kind of a market expansion extend beyond borders, therefore there will be problems which banks will try to avoid like regulation and supervision. Other regulatory and legal risks include, the uncertainty about legal requirements in some countries and jurisdiction ambiguities regarding the responsibilities of different national authorities. Customers and banks may be exposed to legal risks associated with non-compliance with different national laws and regulations including consumer protection laws, record keeping and report requirements. Due to insecurity created by electronic funds transfer, it of importance to analyse measures under South African Law and whether these measures can effectively prevent insecurity and what lessons can be learned from abroad.

MPAKWANA ANNASTACIA MTHEMBU

2010-10-01

286

A semiclassical theory of electron transfer reactions in Condon approximation and beyond  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of the modulation of the electronic wave functions by configurational fluctuations of the molecular environment on the kinetic parameters of electron transfer reactions is discussed. A self-consistent algorithm for the calculation of the potential profile along the reaction coordinate of adiabatic electron transfer reactions is elaborated. A new formula for the transition probability of non-adiabatic electron transfer reactions is obtained in an improved Condon approximation A regular method for the calculation of non-Condon corrections is suggested. The importance of these effects for some specific biological and electrochemical electron transfer systems is discussed.

Kuznetsov, A. M.; Sokolov, V. V.

2001-01-01

287

Interfacial Electron Transfer and Transient Photoconductivity Studied with Terahertz Spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Terahertz spectroscopy is distinguished from other far infrared and millimeter wave spectroscopies by its inherent phase sensitivity and sub-picosecond time resolution making it a versatile technique to study a wide range of physical phenomena. As THz spectroscopy is still a relatively new field, many aspects of THz generation mechanisms have not been fully examined. Using terahertz emission spectroscopy (TES), THz emission from ZnTe(110) was analyzed and found to be limited by two-photon absorption and free-carrier generation at high excitation fluences. Due to concerns about the continued use of fossil fuels, solar energy has been widely investigated as a promising source of renewable energy. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been developed as a low-cost alternative to conventional photovoltaic solar cells. To solve the issues of the intermittency and inefficient transport associated with solar energy, researchers are attempting to adapt DSSCs for water oxidation and chemical fuel production. Both device designs incorporate sensitizer molecules covalently bound to metal oxide nanoparticles. The sensitizer, which is comprised of a chromophore and anchoring group, absorbs light and transfers an electron from its excited state to the conduction band of the metal oxide, producing an electric current. Using time-resolved THz spectroscopy (TRTS), an optical pump/THz probe technique, the efficiency and dynamics of electron injection from sensitizers to metal oxides was evaluated as a function of the chromophore, its anchoring group, and the metal oxide identity. Experiments for studying fully functioning DSSCs and water oxidation devices are also described. Bio-inspired pentafluorophenyl porphyrin chromophores have been designed and synthesized for use in photoelectrochemical water oxidation cells. Influences on the efficiency and dynamics of electron injection from the chromophores into TiO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles due to changes in both the central substituent to the porphyrin ring and degree of fluorination of ring substituents were analyzed. Due to the high reduction potentials of these sensitizers, injection into TiO2 was generally not observed. Injection timescales from the porphyrins into SnO2 depended strongly on the identity of the central substituent and were affected by competition with excited-state deactivation processes. The carboxylate anchoring group is commonly used to bind DSSC sensitizers to metal oxide surfaces but is typically not stable under the aqueous and oxidative conditions required for water oxidation. Electron injection efficiency and water stability of several alternative anchoring groups, including phosphonic acid, hydroxamic acid, acerylacetone, and boronic acid, were evaluated. While all of the anchoring groups exhibited water stability superior to carboxylate, the hydroxamate anchor had the best combination of ease of handling and electron injection efficiency. The effects on photoconductivity due to metal oxide morphology and the addition of dopants were also analyzed. Mixtures of anatase and rutile TiO 2 nanoparticles are known to exhibit cooperative effects which increase the efficiency of DSSCs and photocatalysis relative to the pure-phase materials. Through analysis of TRTS measurements, the mechanism of this synergistic effect was found to involve electron transfer from the lower-mobility, higher surface area rutile nanoparticles to anatase particles, resulting in a higher charge collection efficiency. In addition to morphology, doping has been investigated as a means of expanding the spectral range of visible absorption of photocatalysts. Doping ZnO nanowires with manganese(II) was found to significantly decrease the electron mobility, and doping with cobalt(II) increased the timescale for electron trapping. These differences can be understood by considering the changes to the band structure of ZnO effected by the dopants. Preliminary analyses of the solvent and electrolyte dependence on the electron injection rate and efficiency suggest that electron injection can be affected by

Milot, Rebecca Lee

288

Collisional electron transfer to photoexcited acceptor radical anions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this article, we show that photoexcitation of radical anions facilitates electron transfer from sodium atoms in femtosecond encounters. Thus, excitation of 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TCNQ) and fluorinated TCNQ (TCNQ-F(4)) anions to the second optically active state at 478 nm led to increases in the yields of dianions of about 20% and 10%, respectively. Photoexcitation with a nanosecond-long laser pulse was done a few microseconds before the ions entered the sodium collision cell so that none of the ions would be in any of the initially reached doublet-excited states. We suggest an explanation for the higher electron capture cross section based on the formation of long-lived quartet state anions. Excitation of TCNQ anions within the lowest-energy absorption band, where there are no accessible quartet states, led instead to a lower yield of dianions. There are at least three explanations for the lower dianion yields: (1) Depletion of the monoanion beam due to photodetachment after the absorption ofminimum two photons; (2) Formation of short-lived vibrationally excited dianions that decay by electron autodetachment prior to identification; and (3) Lower electron capture cross sections of vibrationally excited monoanions. Similar losses in dianion signal can occur at 478 nm so the actual yield of dianions at this wavelength due to the population of quartet states is therefore greater than that observed. Our methodology devises a more efficient route for the production of molecular dianions, and at the same time it may provide information on long-lived electronic states.

Wyer, Jean Ann; StØchkel, Kristian

2012-01-01

289

Cluster PEACE observations of electrons during magnetospheric flux transfer events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the first quarter of 2001 the apogees of the Cluster spacecraft quartet precessed through midday local times. This provides the first opportunity for 4 spacecraft studies of the bow shock, magnetosheath and the dayside magnetopause current layer and boundary layers. In this paper, we present observations of electrons in the energy range ~ 10 eV–26 keV made by the Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE located just inside the magnetopause boundary, together with supporting observations by the Flux Gate Magnetometer (FGM. During these observations, the spacecraft have separations of ~ 600 km. This scale size is of the order or less than the typical size of flux transfer events (FTEs, which are expected to be observed following bursts of reconnection on the dayside magnetopause. We study, in detail, the 3-D configuration of electron populations observed around a series of enhancements of magnetosheath-like electrons which were observed within the magnetosphere on 2 February 2001. We find that individual spacecraft observe magnetic field and electron signatures that are consistent with previous observations of magnetospheric FTEs. However, the differences in the signatures between spacecraft indicate that these FTEs have substructure on the scale of the spacecraft separation. We use these differences and the timings of the 4 spacecraft observations to infer the motions of the electron populations and thus the configuration of these substructures. We find that these FTEs are moving from noon towards dusk. The inferred size and speed of motion across the magnetopause, in one example, is ~ 0.8 RE and ~ 70 km s-1 respectively. In addition, we observe a delay in and an extended duration of the signature at the spacecraft furthest from the magnetopause. We discuss the implications of these 4 spacecraft observations for the structure of these FTEs. We suggest that these may include a compression of the closed flux tubes ahead of the FTE, which causes density and field strength enhancements; a circulation of open flux tubes within the FTE itself, which accounts for the delay in the arrival of the magnetosheath electron populations at locations deepest within the magnetosphere; and a possible trapping of magnetospheric electrons on the most recently opened flux tubes within the FTE.

Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; solar wind - magnetosphere interactions

C. J. Owen

290

Correlation properties of surface and percolation transfer of electrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work was received equation, connecting correlatively properties of surface with electrons distribution function. Usually for equilibrium is necessary a large number of collisions. Collisions are 'destroying' correlations. In case rare collisions large importance have correlations and 'memory' effects. Non-Markov's character of emitting particles by surface lead to strongly nonequilibrium condition of 'gas'. Here kinetic equation of diffusive form does not apply. Classical kinetic equation are described only conditions near to equilibrium. This work offers to use ideas anomal diffusion in phase-space. The correlation properties of surface describe by correlations of velocities of emitting electrons: B(t). We offer to use functional equation for probability collision instead of kinetic equation: ?0?0WnoncollF(?) dv = 1 - B(t). This functional allow to consider 'memory' effects. It is important for consideration of electrons and clusters near surfaces. Distribution function become direct connected with correlations. In classical Kubo-Mory theory of transfer is necessary to get nondivergences integral: D ? ?0?B(t). In considering case we can use even 'power function'. It was used 'slow' correlation function as Kohlraush in calculations. The information about kinetics and correlations properties are containing in one functional equation. It was received solution of this equation in form Levy function: F(?) ? 1/?? exp(-1/?). The solution of this form can not be get with help asymptotic methods of kinetic theory. Asymptotics of solution have scale-invariant character F(V) ? 1/V?. This indicate on fractal properties phase-space. (author)

291

48 CFR 52.232-33 - Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer-Central Contractor Registration.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (a) Method of payment. (1) All payments by the Government...contract shall be made by electronic funds transfer (EFT...may also include the payment information transfer...Clearing House (ACH) network, subject to...

2010-10-01

292

The geometry of the nitroguanyl fragment in the simplest nitroguanidine derivatives in the absence of intermolecular interactions: The gas electron diffraction data on 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-2-nitroguanidine  

Science.gov (United States)

The structures and force fields of the equilibrium forms of 2-nitroguanidine ( 1), 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-2-nitroguanidine ( 2), and nitroguanyl azide ( 3) were determined in the MP2(full)/6-311G(3 df, 2 p) approximation; wagging-inversion motions of the N amine atoms were studied. The internal rotation potential function of the NO2 group was calculated for 1. Similar functions for 1 and 2 were also obtained in the MP2(full)/6-311G( d, p) approximation. Direct one-dimensional problems for a nonrigid model were solved by the variational method, and the distribution of torsional levels was obtained. In the region of potential minimum, rotation in both molecules had the character of large-amplitude motions. For the first time, electron diffractions data were obtained at 100°C for molecule 2 without noticeable traces of substance decomposition. A structural r e analysis was performed using the model of large-amplitude motions for characteristic NO2 group torsional vibrations. Vibrational corrections to internuclear distances and mean amplitudes were calculated taking into account nonlinear kinematic effects using the force fields obtained in this work. The geometry of molecule 2 calculated in the MP2(full)/6-311G(3 df, 2 p) approximation well corresponds to the gas electron diffraction data. The parameters of molecule 2 in the crystalline phase, however, differ substantially from the parameters of the free molecule. This corresponds with the suggestion of the influence of intermolecular H-bonds involving the imine nitrogen atom and nitro groups oxygen atoms.

Khaikin, L. S.; Grikina, O. E.; Girichev, G. V.; Kovacs, A.; Dyugaev, K. P.; Astachov, A. M.

2011-03-01

293

Reorganization energy of electron transfer at the solvent glass transition  

CERN Document Server

We present a molecular-dynamics study of the solvent reorganization energy of electron transfer in supercooled water. We observe a sharp decrease of the reorganization energy at a temperature identified as the temperature of structural arrest due to cage effect as discussed by the mode coupling theory. Both the heat capacity and dielectric susceptibility of the pure water show sharp drops at about the same temperature. This temperature also marks the onset of the enhancement of translational diffusion relative to rotational relaxation signaling the break-down of the Stokes-Einstein relation. The change in the reorganization energy at the transition temperature reflects the dynamical arrest of the slow, collective relaxation of the solvent related to Debye relaxation of the solvent dipolar polarization.

Ghorai, P K; Ghorai, Pradip K.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

2005-01-01

294

Facile direct electron transfer in glucose oxidase modified electrodes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Glucose oxidase (GOx) is widely used in the glucose biosensor industry. However, mediatorless direct electron transfer (DET) from GOx to electrode surfaces is very slow. Recently, mediatorless DET has been reported via the incorporation of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles in the modification of electrodes. Here we report GOx electrodes showing DET without the need for any nanomaterials. The enzyme after immobilization with poly-L-lysine (PLL) and Nafion retains the biocatalytic activities and oxidizes glucose efficiently. The amperometric response of Nafion-PLL-GOx modified electrode is linearly proportional to the concentration of glucose up to 10 mM with a sensitivity of 0.75 {mu}A/mM at a low detection potential (-0.460 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The methodology developed in this study will have impact on glucose biosensors and biofuel cells and may potentially simplify enzyme immobilization in other biosensing systems.

Wang Dan [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Chen Liwei [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Suzhou Institute of Nano Tech and Nano Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 398 Ruoshui Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215125 (China)], E-mail: lwchen2008@sinano.ac.cn

2009-07-15

295

Allosteric control of internal electron transfer in cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase is a bifunctional multiheme enzyme catalyzing the one-electron reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide and the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the internal electron transfer process in the Pseudomonas stutzeri enzyme have been studied and found to be dominated by pronounced interactions between the c and the d1 hemes. The interactions are expressed both in dramatic changes in the internal electron-transfer rates between these sites and in marked cooperativity in their electron affinity. The results constitute a prime example of intraprotein control of the electron-transfer rates by allosteric interactions.

Farver, Ole; Kroneck, Peter M. H.; Zumft, Walter G.; Pecht, Israel

2003-06-01

296

Allosteric control of internal electron transfer in cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase is a bifunctional multiheme enzyme catalyzing the one-electron reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide and the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the internal electron transfer process in the Pseudomonas stutzeri enzyme have been studied and found to be dominated by pronounced interactions between the c and the d1 hemes. The interactions are expressed both in dramatic changes in the internal electron-transfer rates between these sites and in marked cooperativity in their electron affinity. The results constitute a prime example of intraprotein control of the electron-transfer rates by allosteric interactions.

Farver, Ole; Kroneck, Peter M H

2003-01-01

297

A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmentally induced fluctuations of the optical gap play a crucial role in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to account for excitation energies' thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, since the original work of HSR, many groups have employed stochastic models to simulate the same transfer dynamics. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equations via the generalized Langevin approach. Based on this connection, we propose a novel scheme to take account of reorganization effects within the framework of stochastic models. The proposed scheme provides a better description of the population dynamics especially in the regime of strong exciton-phonon coupling. Finally, we discuss the effect of the bath reorganization in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of ideal J-aggregates in terms of the Stokes shifts. We find a simple expression that relates the reorganization contribution to the Stokes shifts - the reorganization shift - to the ideal or non-ideal exciton delocalization in a J-aggregate. The reorganization shift can be described by three parameters: the monomer reorganization energy, the relaxation time of the optical gap, and the exciton delocalization length. This simple relationship allows one to understand the physical origin of the Stokes shifts in molecular aggregates. PMID:24985614

Fujita, Takatoshi; Huh, Joonsuk; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2014-06-28

298

A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmentally induced fluctuations of the optical gap play a crucial role in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to account for excitation energies’ thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, since the original work of HSR, many groups have employed stochastic models to simulate the same transfer dynamics. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equations via the generalized Langevin approach. Based on this connection, we propose a novel scheme to take account of reorganization effects within the framework of stochastic models. The proposed scheme provides a better description of the population dynamics especially in the regime of strong exciton-phonon coupling. Finally, we discuss the effect of the bath reorganization in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of ideal J-aggregates in terms of the Stokes shifts. We find a simple expression that relates the reorganization contribution to the Stokes shifts – the reorganization shift – to the ideal or non-ideal exciton delocalization in a J-aggregate. The reorganization shift can be described by three parameters: the monomer reorganization energy, the relaxation time of the optical gap, and the exciton delocalization length. This simple relationship allows one to understand the physical origin of the Stokes shifts in molecular aggregates

299

Role of Electron--Electron Interactions on Spin Effects in Electron--Hole Recombination in Organic Light Emitting Diodes  

OpenAIRE

We extend our theory of electron--hole recombination in organic light emitting diodes to investigate the possibility that high energy singlet and triplet excited states with large electron--hole separations are generated in such processes, over and above the lowest singlet and triplet excitons. Our approach involves a time-dependent calculation of the interchain / intermolecular charge--transfer within model Hamiltonians that explicitly include electron-electron interactions...

Das, Mousumi; Mazumdar, S.; Ramasesha, S.

2004-01-01

300

Steric guided change of electron transfer mechanism in benzene  

Science.gov (United States)

In fluorescence quenching study via electron transfer (ET), the quenching rate constant ( kq) values generally decrease with lowering of quencher concentration, since smaller concentration of quencher always leads to a red shift in the donor-acceptor (D-A) distance in ET [M. Tachiya, S. Murata, J. Phys. Chem. 96 (1992) 8441; S. Murata, M. Tachiya, J. Phys. Chem. 100 (1996) 4064; L. Burel, M. Mastafavi, S. Murata, M. Tachiya, J. Phys. Chem. A 103 (1999) 5882]. However, while doing a comparative study with different carbazole (CZ) derivatives-1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCB) systems in benzene (BZ), we observed a deviation from that normal behaviour. It was found that for all of them with lower quencher (DCB) concentration, kq values actually increase instead of the expected reduction. Exceptionally, for simple CZ (C 12H 9N) with decrease in concentration of DCB, kq values can even reach the order of energy transfer (10 11 s -1). Interestingly, it is not observed when toluene (TL) or xylene (XY) is used as solvent. To explain this unique observation, a sandwich type of molecular structure is predicted, where BZ sliding in between CZ and DCB brings them closer enough, imparting more through bond character to CZ-DCB interaction and hence a higher rate of ET ( kq) is observed [L. Burel, M. Mastafavi, S. Murata, M. Tachiya, J. Phys. Chem. A. 103 (1999) 5882].

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Basu, Samita; Ghosh, Nandita; Chakrabarty, Manas

2005-06-01

301

Analyses of donor-acceptor distance-dependent rates of photo-induced electron transfer in flavoproteins with three kinds of electron transfer theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reported donor-acceptor distance-dependent rates of photo-induced electron transfer from tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr), and benzoate (Bz) to the excited isoalloxazine in ten flavoprotein systems were analyzed with three kinds of electron transfer theories by Marcus, by Bixon and Jortner, and also by Kakitani, Yoshimori, and Mataga. Average donor-acceptor distances that were obtained from X-ray structures of flavoproteins were used for the analysis, rather than the edge-to-edge distance. The observed photo-induced electron transfer rates were best reproduced by the Kakitani, Yoshimori, and Mataga theory

302

Proton-coupled electron transfer: the mechanistic underpinning for radical transport and catalysis in biology  

OpenAIRE

Charge transport and catalysis in enzymes often rely on amino acid radicals as intermediates. The generation and transport of these radicals are synonymous with proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), which intrinsically is a quantum mechanical effect as both the electron and proton tunnel. The caveat to PCET is that proton transfer (PT) is fundamentally limited to short distances relative to electron transfer (ET). This predicament is resolved in biology by the evolution of enzymes to contr...

Reece, Steven Y.; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Stubbe, Joanne; Nocera, Daniel G.

2006-01-01

303

Characterization of electron transfer dissociation in the Orbitrap Velos HCD cell.  

OpenAIRE

Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is commonly employed in ion traps utilizing rf fields that facilitate efficient electron transfer reactions. Here, we explore performing ETD in the HCD collision cell on an Orbitrap Velos instrument by applying a static DC gradient axially to the rods. This gradient enables simultaneous three dimensional, charge sign independent, trapping of cations and anions, initiating electron transfer reactions in the center of the HCD cell where oppositely charged io...

Frese, Ck; Nolting, D.; Altelaar, Af; Griep-raming, J.; Mohammed, S.; Heck, Aj

2013-01-01

304

Control of electron transfer from lead-salt nanocrystals to TiO?.  

Science.gov (United States)

The roles of solvent reorganization energy and electronic coupling strength on the transfer of photoexcited electrons from PbS nanocrystals to TiO(2) nanoparticles are investigated. We find that the electron transfer depends only weakly on the solvent, in contrast to the strong dependence in the nanocrystal-molecule system. This is ascribed to the larger size of the acceptor in this system, and is accounted for by Marcus theory. The electronic coupling of the PbS and TiO(2) is varied by changing the length, aliphatic and aromatic structure, and anchor groups of the linker molecules. Shorter linker molecules consistently lead to faster electron transfer. Surprisingly, linker molecules of the same length but distinct chemical structures yield similar electron transfer rates. In contrast, the electron transfer rate can vary dramatically with different anchor groups. PMID:21506588

Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Bartnik, A C; Sun, Liangfeng; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, F W

2011-05-11

305

Transfer of spectral weight in spectroscopies of correlated electron systems  

CERN Document Server

We study the transfer of spectral weight in the photoemission and optical spectra of strongly correlated electron systems. Within the LISA, that becomes exact in the limit of large lattice coordination, we consider and compare two models of correlated electrons, the Hubbard model and the periodic Anderson model. The results are discussed in regard of recent experiments. In the Hubbard model, we predict an anomalous enhancement optical spectral weight as a function of temperature in the correlated metallic state which is in qualitative agreement with optical measurements in V_2O_3. We argue that anomalies observed in the spectroscopy of the metal are connected to the proximity to a crossover region in the phase diagram of the model. In the insulating phase, we obtain an excellent agreement with the experimental data and present a detailed discussion on the role of magnetic frustration by studying the k-resolved single particle spectra. The results for the periodic Anderson model are discussed in connection to ...

Rozenberg, M J; Kajueter, H

1995-01-01

306

Theory of Electron-Transfer Reactions and of Related Phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on electronexchange reactions have provided insight into factors influencing rates of electron-transfer reactions in solution. The present paper has the twofold purpose of discussing some of these factors and of describing applications of these exchange data and theory to other phenomena. The reaction rate depends upon the extent of reorganization of bond lengths (angles) in the reactants and of solvent reorientation outside them. The reorganization is facilitated or hindered in a comparatively simple way by a favorable or unfavorable standard free energy of reaction. The rate depends, too, on coulombic and other interactions, as evidenced perhaps by certain salt effects, though probably only by a few orders of magni - tude typically. The observed variation of rates of some 15 orders of magnitude is best attributed primarily to differences in the vibrational reorganization term, a factor calculable from bond lengths and force constants when known. A remaining factor, non-adiabaticity, is at present of uncertain importance. Arrhenius frequency factors in chemical and electrochemical exchange rate constants would provide the most direct information, but can be complicated or even dwarfed by solvent reordering effects in the coulombic interaction. Available data are few. They provide examples where a non-adiabatic effect is minor. There appear to be no known examples where it is major (Fe2+ - Fe3+, could be a candidate but its mechanism is appad be a candidate but its mechanism is apparently uncertain). Reorganization in reactants and in solvent occurs in a variety of related phenomena, and related concepts will be applied to treat them. In turn, chemical exchange data have useful applications to the latter. These areas include electrochemical exchange reactions, chemiluminescent electron-transfer reactions (between positive and negative aromatic ions, for example), and redox reactions of the solvated electron. An explanation for the chemiluminescent reactions will be based on the possible ''inverse ?F°'' effect, discussed several years ago by the author. A related phenomenon involving solvent 'orientation strain' occurs in light absorption or emission by polar solutes in polar solvents, and the theoretical approach used by the author for treating it is closely related to that used for the exchange reactions. (author)

307

Recent Advances in Photoinduced Electron Transfer Processes of Fullerene-Based Molecular Assemblies and Nanocomposites  

OpenAIRE

Photosensitized electron-transfer processes of fullerenes hybridized with electron donating or other electron accepting molecules have been surveyed in this review on the basis of the recent results reported mainly from our laboratories. Fullerenes act as photo-sensitizing electron acceptors with respect to a wide variety of electron donors; in addition, fullerenes in the ground state also act as good electron acceptors in the presence of light-absorbing electron donors such as porphyrins. Wi...

Osamu Ito; Francis D’Souza

2012-01-01

308

Photoinitiated electron transfer in multi-chromophoric species: Synthetic tetrads and pentads. Technical progress report, 1987--1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research project involves the design, synthesis and study of the molecules which mimic many of the important aspects of photosynthetic electron and energy transfer. Specifically, the molecules are designed to mimic the following aspects of natural photosynthetic multistep electron transfer: electron donation from a tetrapyrrole excited singlet state, electron transfer between tetrapyrroles, electron transfer from tetrapyrroles to quinones, and electron transfer between quinones with different redox properties. In addition, they model carotenoid antenna function in photosynthesis (singlet-singlet energy transfer from carotenoid polyenes to chlorophyll) and carotenoid photoprotection from singlet oxygen damage (triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophyll to carotenoids).

1990-02-14

309

77 FR 22066 - Proposed Collection of Information: “Notice of Reclamation Electronic Funds Transfer, Federal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Service solicits comments concerning forms FMS-I33, ``Notice of Reclamation. Electronic...Transfer, Federal Recurring Payment'' and FMS-135, ``Request for Debit. Electronic...OMB Number: 1510-0043. Form Number: FMS 133, FMS 135. [[Page 22067

2012-04-12

310

DETERMINATION OF HETEROGENEOUS ELECTRON TRANSFER RATE CONSTANTS AT MICROFABRICATED IRIDIUM ELECTRODES. (R825511C022)  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been an increasing use of both solid metal and microfabricated iridium electrodes as substrates for various types of electroanalysis. However, investigations to determine heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants on iridium, especially at an electron beam evapor...

311

Thermal transfer structures coupling electronics card(s) to coolant-cooled structure(s)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cooling apparatuses and coolant-cooled electronic systems are provided which include thermal transfer structures configured to engage with a spring force one or more electronics cards with docking of the electronics card(s) within a respective socket(s) of the electronic system. A thermal transfer structure of the cooling apparatus includes a thermal spreader having a first thermal conduction surface, and a thermally conductive spring assembly coupled to the conduction surface of the thermal spreader and positioned and configured to reside between and physically couple a first surface of an electronics card to the first surface of the thermal spreader with docking of the electronics card within a socket of the electronic system. The thermal transfer structure is, in one embodiment, metallurgically bonded to a coolant-cooled structure and facilitates transfer of heat from the electronics card to coolant flowing through the coolant-cooled structure.

David, Milnes P; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Parida, Pritish R; Schmidt, Roger R

2014-12-16

312

Direct electron transfer from glucose oxidase immobilized on a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: > A direct electron transfer reaction of glucose oxidase was observed on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode. > A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed at the formal potential of approximately -0.439 V. > The apparent electron transfer rate constant was measured to be 5.27 s{sup -1}. > A mechanism for the observed direct electron transfer reaction was proposed, which consists of a two-electron and a two-proton transfer. - Abstract: A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed for the direct electron transfer (DET) reaction of an immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode at the formal potential (E{sup o}') of -0.439 V versus Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl. The electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) was calculated to be 5.27 s{sup -1}. The dependence of E{sup o}' on pH indicated that the direct electron transfer of the GOx was a two-electron transfer process, coupled with two-proton transfer. The results clearly demonstrate that the nano-porous glassy carbon electrode is a cost-effective and ready-to-use scaffold for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor.

Haghighi, Behzad, E-mail: haghighi@iasbs.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabrizi, Mahmoud Amouzadeh [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-11-30

313

Direct electron transfer from glucose oxidase immobilized on a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A direct electron transfer reaction of glucose oxidase was observed on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode. ? A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed at the formal potential of approximately -0.439 V. ? The apparent electron transfer rate constant was measured to be 5.27 s-1. ? A mechanism for the observed direct electron transfer reaction was proposed, which consists of a two-electron and a two-proton transfer. - Abstract: A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed for the direct electron transfer (DET) reaction of an immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode at the formal potential (Eo') of -0.439 V versus Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl. The electron transfer rate constant (ks) was calculated to be 5.27 s-1. The dependence of Eo' on pH indicated that the direct electron transfer of the GOx was a two-electron transfer process, coupled with two-proton transfer. The results clearly demonstrate that the nano-porous glassy carbon electrode is a cost-effective and ready-to-use scaffold for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor.

314

Light-induced electron transfer vs. energy transfer in molecular thin-film systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quenching of fluoranthene (FA) singlets by tetrabromo-o-benzoquinone (TBBQ) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) was studied both in xylene solutions and in spin-cast polystyrene (PS) films. Emphasis was placed on time-resolved fluorescence transients resulting from pulsed excitation. Linear Stern-Volmer plots were obtained for quenching in solution and gave diffusion-controlled rate constants, of 1.45 x 1010 M-1 sec-1 and 1.53 x 1010 M-1 sec-1 for TBBQ and TMPD, respectively. TBBQ was found to quench FA singlets in PS over the studied concentration range 12 mM 0 was experimentally determined to be 24.3 A, which is in good agreement with the theoretical value of 23 A calculated from spectral data. Quenching of FA singlets in PS films was found to be independent of FA concentration over a 300 mM to 1200 mM FA concentration range for a constant TBBQ concentration of 24.0 mM. TMPD was only slightly effective as a quencher of FA singlets in PS because it apparently behaves strictly as a contact quencher based on reversible charge transfer. The implications of these results for the design of systems intended to exploit light-induced electron transfer are discussed

315

Structural factors influencing the intramolecular charge transfer and photoinduced electron transfer in tetrapyrazinoporphyrazines.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of unsymmetrical tetrapyrazinoporphyrazines (TPyzPzs) from the group of azaphthalocyanines with one peripherally attached amino substituent (donor) were synthesized, and their photophysical properties (fluorescence quantum yield and singlet oxygen quantum yield) were determined. The synthesized TPyzPzs were expected to undergo intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) as the main pathway for deactivating their excited states. Several structural factors were found to play a critical role in ICT efficiency. The substituent in the ortho position to the donor center significantly influences the ICT, with tert-butylsulfanyl and butoxy substituents inducing the strongest ICTs, whereas chloro, methyl, phenyl, and hydrogen substituents in this position reduce the efficiency. The strength of the donor positively influences the ICT efficiency and correlates well with the oxidation potential of the amines used as the substituents on the TPyzPz as follows: n-butylamine < N,N-diethylamine < aniline < phenothiazine. The ICT (with conjugated donors and acceptors) in the TPyzPz also proved to be much stronger than a photoinduced electron transfer in which the donor and the acceptor are connected through an aliphatic linker. PMID:24509513

Novakova, Veronika; Hladík, Petr; Filandrová, Tereza; Zajícová, Ivana; Krepsová, Veronika; Miletin, Miroslav; Len?o, Juraj; Zimcik, Petr

2014-03-21

316

Modeling of ultrafast electron-transfer processes: Validity of multilevel Redfield theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The capability of multilevel Redfield theory to describe ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer reactions is investigated. Adopting a standard model of photoinduced electron transfer in a condensed-phase environment, we consider electron-transfer reactions in the normal and inverted regimes, as well as for different values of the electron-transfer parameters, such as reorganization energy, electronic coupling, and temperature. Based on the comparison with numerically exact reference results, obtained using the self-consistent hybrid method, we discuss in some detail the advantages and shortcomings of two different versions of Redfield theory, which employ the time-dependent and stationary Redfield tensor, respectively. The results of the study demonstrate that multilevel Redfield theory, if applied in the appropriate parameter regime, is well suited to describe the ultrafast coherent dynamics of photoinduced electron-transfer reactions

317

Long-distance fluorescence quenching by electron transfer in rigid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fluorescence of aromatic molecules in solid solutions at room temperature and low temperature is quenched by addition of strong electron donors. The efficiency of quenching correlates well with calculated energetics for electron transfer (ET) from the added donors to the excited molecules, D + A* ? D+ + A-. The quencher (D) always had a substantially higher-lying excited state than did A to prevent electronic energy transfer (e.g., Foerster transfer). The A* fluorescence decreased exponentially with D concentration, being halved by addition of about 0.1 M D in cases with favorable energetics for electron transfer. These quenching measurements are interpreted as indicating electron transfer over distances up to 15 A (center to center). These maximum quenching distances are in excellent agreement with electron tunneling distances measured for ion-molecule reactions by pulse radiolysis. Formation of donor-acceptor complexes during sample preparation is a possible alternate interpretattion, but several features of the data provide evidence against this alternative

318

Coherent transfer of light polarization to electron spins in a semiconductor  

OpenAIRE

We demonstrate that the superposition of light polarization states is coherently transferred to electron spins in a semiconductor quantum well. By using time-resolved Kerr rotation we observe the initial phase of Larmor precession of electron spins whose coherence is transferred from light. To break the electron-hole spin entanglement, we utilized the big discrepancy between the transverse g-factors of electrons and light holes. The result encourages us to make a quantum med...

Kosaka, Hideo; Shigyou, Hideki; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Rikitake, Yoshiaki; Imamura, Hiroshi; Kutsuwa, Takeshi; Arai, Koichiro; Edamatsu, Keiichi

2007-01-01

319

Spin correlated radical ion pairs generated by photoinduced electron transfer in composites of sexithiophene/fullerene derivatives: a transient EPR study  

Science.gov (United States)

Photoinduced electron transfer was observed in a series of methylsulfanyl sexithiophene/fulleropyrrolidine composites deposited as films. Paramagnetic states were observed by transient EPR spectroscopy in the microseconds time domain. The spectra displayed polarized lines with characteristic antiphase emission/absorption pattern of spin polarization and were assigned to spin correlated radical ion pairs (SCRP) formed by intermolecular electron transfer from sexithiophene donor to C 60 fullerene acceptor molecules. Also transient signals detected at selected magnetic fields showed phase effects that are typical of SCRPs. Spectrum simulation was obtained by allowing for a distribution of respective orientations of the dipolar axes and g-tensors of partners in a pair. Fitting parameters used for one composite were D/g?=-135 ?T and J/g?=2.5 ?T for dipolar and spin exchange coupling constants, corresponding to an interradical mean distance of 27.4 Å. Similar values were obtained for the other examined systems. Pair structure and dynamics suggest to ascribe the charge-separated state to a radical pair generated after a hopping of the electron-hole charges from a primary pair originated in neighbor molecular sites.

Pasimeni, Luigi; Ruzzi, Marco; Prato, Maurizio; Da Ros, Tatiana; Barbarella, Giovanna; Zambianchi, Massimo

2001-01-01

320

Overpotential-induced lability of the electronic overlap factor in long-range electrochemical electron transfer: charge and distance dependence  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Long-distance electrochemical electron transfer exhibits approximately exponential dependence on the electron transfer distance. On the basis of a jellium model of the metal surface we show that the slope of the logarithm of the current vs. the transfer distance also depends strongly on the electrode charge. The slope is smaller the more negative the charge density due to enhanced extension of the surface electronic density profile on the solution side, and thereby better electronic overlap with the reacting molecule. The effect is sensitive to the bulk electron density of the metal and the localization of the electronic state at the molecular reactant site. Effects similar to these have been observed experimentally and could be common for electronically light metals.

Kornyshev, A. A.; Kuznetsov, A. M.

2000-01-01

321

Electron transfer reactions of macrocyclic compounds of cobalt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The kinetics and mechanisms of reduction of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Br/sub 2/, and I/sub 2/ by various macrocyclic tetraaza complexes of cobalt(II), including Vitamin B/sub 12r/, were studied. The synthetic macrocycles studied were all 14-membered rings which varied in the degree of unsaturation,substitution of methyl groups on the periphery of the ring, and substitution within the ring itself. Scavenging experiments demonstrated that the reductions of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ produce free hydroxyl radicals only in the case of Co((14)ane)/sup 2 +/ but with none of the others. In the latter instances apparently H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ simultaneously oxidizes the metal center and the ligand. The reductions of Br/sub 2/ and I/sub 2/ produce an aquohalocobalt(III) product for all reductants (except B/sub 12r/ + Br/sub 2/, which was complicated by bromination of the corrin ring). The mechanism of halogen reduction was found to involve rate-limiting inner-sphere electron transfer from cobalt to halogen to produce a dihalide anion coordinated to the cobalt center. This intermediate subsequently decomposes in rapid reactions to halocobalt(III) and halogen atom species or reacts with another cobalt(II) center to give two molecules of halocobalt(III). The reductions of halomethylcobaloximes and related compounds and diamminecobaloxime by Cr/sup 2 +/ were also studied. The reaction was found to be biphasic in all cases with the reaction products being halomethane (for the halomethylcobaloximes), Co/sup 2 +/ (in less than 100 percent yield), a Cr(III)-dimethylglyoxime species, a small amount of free dmgH/sub 2/, and a highly-charged species containing both cobalt and chromium. The first-stage reaction occurs with a stoichiometry of 1:1 producing an intermediate with an absorption maximum at 460 nm for all starting reagents. The results were interpreted in terms of inner-sphere coordination of the cobaloxime to the Cr(II) and electron transfer through the oxime N-O bond.

Heckman, R.A.

1978-08-01

322

ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER: EXPLORING THE DIFFICULTIES OF SECURITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Generally the banking laws, regulations and supervision were designed primarily to address the fundamental principle relating to safe and sound business practices by financial institutions. In order to maintain safe and sound business practice it is of outmost importance that customers are protected against losses resulting from inadequate remedies available to them. Banking by its very nature is a high risk business. However, the major risks associated with banking are legal risks, credit interest rates and liquidity. Internet banking has increased some of these risks by creating new ones. Electronic funds transfers are based on technology which by its nature is designed to extend the geographical reach of banks and customers. This kind of a market expansion extend beyond borders, therefore there will be problems which banks will try to avoid like regulation and supervision. Other regulatory and legal risks include, the uncertainty about legal requirements in some countries and jurisdiction ambiguities regarding the responsibilities of different national authorities. Customers and banks may be exposed to legal risks associated with non-compliance with different national laws and regulations including consumer protection laws, record keeping and report requirements. Due to insecurity created by electronic funds transfer, it of importance to analyse measures under South African Law and whether these measures can effectively prevent insecurity and what lessons can be learned from abroad.

MPAKWANA ANNASTACIA MTHEMBU

2010-09-01

323

Theoretical study on the electronic structure of triphenyl sulfonium salts: Electronic excitation and electron transfer processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Density functional theory (DFT) and Time Dependent DFT calculations on triphenyl sulfonium cation (TPS) and the salts of TPS with triflate, nonaflate, perfluoro-1-octanesulfonate and hexafluoro antimonate anions are presented. These systems are widely used as cationic photoinitiators and as electron ejection layer for polymer light-emitting diodes. While some differences exist in the electronic structure of the different salts, their lowest energy intense absorption maxima are calculated at nearly the same energy for all systems. The first excited state of TPS and of the TPS salts is dissociating. Electron addition to the TPS salts lowers their energy by 1.0-1.33 eV.

Petsalakis, Ioannis D.; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N.; Georgiadou, Dimitra G.; Vasilopoulou, Maria; Argitis, Panagiotis

2014-05-01

324

The electron transfer complex between nitrous oxide reductase and its electron donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifying redox partners and the interaction surfaces is crucial for fully understanding electron flow in a respiratory chain. In this study, we focused on the interaction of nitrous oxide reductase (N(2)OR), which catalyzes the final step in bacterial denitrification, with its physiological electron donor, either a c-type cytochrome or a type 1 copper protein. The comparison between the interaction of N(2)OR from three different microorganisms, Pseudomonas nautica, Paracoccus denitrificans, and Achromobacter cycloclastes, with their physiological electron donors was performed through the analysis of the primary sequence alignment, electrostatic surface, and molecular docking simulations, using the bimolecular complex generation with global evaluation and ranking algorithm. The docking results were analyzed taking into account the experimental data, since the interaction is suggested to have either a hydrophobic nature, in the case of P. nautica N(2)OR, or an electrostatic nature, in the case of P. denitrificans N(2)OR and A. cycloclastes N(2)OR. A set of well-conserved residues on the N(2)OR surface were identified as being part of the electron transfer pathway from the redox partner to N(2)OR (Ala495, Asp519, Val524, His566 and Leu568 numbered according to the P. nautica N(2)OR sequence). Moreover, we built a model for Wolinella succinogenes N(2)OR, an enzyme that has an additional c-type-heme-containing domain. The structures of the N(2)OR domain and the c-type-heme-containing domain were modeled and the full-length structure was obtained by molecular docking simulation of these two domains. The orientation of the c-type-heme-containing domain relative to the N(2)OR domain is similar to that found in the other electron transfer complexes. PMID:21739254

Dell'acqua, Simone; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J G; Pauleta, Sofia R

2011-12-01

325

Photoinduced energy and electron transfer in rubrene-benzoquinone and rubrene-porphyrin systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Excited-state electron and energy transfer from singlet excited rubrene (Ru) to benzoquinone (BQ) and tetra-(4-aminophenyl) porphyrin (TAPP) were investigated by steady-state absorption and emission, time-resolved transient absorption, and femtosecond (fs)-nanosecond (ns) fluorescence spectroscopy. The low reduction potential of BQ provides the high probability of electron transfer from the excited Ru to BQ. Steady-state and time-resolved results confirm such an excited electron transfer scenario. On the other hand, strong spectral overlap between the emission of Ru and absorption of TAPP suggests that energy transfer is a possible deactivation pathway of the Ru excited state.

Khan, Jafar I.; Abbas, Abdullah Saud; Aly, Shawkat M.; Usman, Anwar; Melnikov, Vasily A.; Alarousu, Erkki; Mohammed, Omar F.

2014-11-01

326

Application of electron-transfer theory to several systems of biological interest  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electron-transfer reaction rates are compared with theoretically calculated values for several reactions in the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center. A second aspect of the theory, the cross-relation, is illustrated using protein-protein electron transfers. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

Marcus, R.A.; Sutin, N.

1985-01-01

327

Vibrational coherence probes the mechanism of ultrafast electron transfer in polymer–fullerene blends  

Science.gov (United States)

The conversion of photoexcitations into charge carriers in organic solar cells is facilitated by the dissociation of excitons at the donor/acceptor interface. The ultrafast timescale of charge separation demands sophisticated theoretical models and raises questions about the role of coherence in the charge-transfer mechanism. Here, we apply two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy to study the electron transfer process in poly(3-hexylthiophene)/PCBM (P3HT/PCBM) blends. We report dynamics maps showing the pathways of charge transfer that clearly expose the significance of hot electron transfer. During this ultrafast electron transfer, vibrational coherence is directly transferred from the P3HT exciton to the P3HT hole polaron in the crystalline domain. This result reveals that the exciton converts to a hole with a similar spatial extent on a timescale far exceeding other photophysical dynamics including vibrational relaxation.

Song, Yin; Clafton, Scott N.; Pensack, Ryan D.; Kee, Tak W.; Scholes, Gregory D.

2014-09-01

328

Vibrational coherence probes the mechanism of ultrafast electron transfer in polymer-fullerene blends.  

Science.gov (United States)

The conversion of photoexcitations into charge carriers in organic solar cells is facilitated by the dissociation of excitons at the donor/acceptor interface. The ultrafast timescale of charge separation demands sophisticated theoretical models and raises questions about the role of coherence in the charge-transfer mechanism. Here, we apply two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy to study the electron transfer process in poly(3-hexylthiophene)/PCBM (P3HT/PCBM) blends. We report dynamics maps showing the pathways of charge transfer that clearly expose the significance of hot electron transfer. During this ultrafast electron transfer, vibrational coherence is directly transferred from the P3HT exciton to the P3HT hole polaron in the crystalline domain. This result reveals that the exciton converts to a hole with a similar spatial extent on a timescale far exceeding other photophysical dynamics including vibrational relaxation. PMID:25215959

Song, Yin; Clafton, Scott N; Pensack, Ryan D; Kee, Tak W; Scholes, Gregory D

2014-01-01

329

Concerted proton-coupled electron transfer from a metal-hydride complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Metal hydrides are key intermediates in the catalytic reduction of protons and CO2 as well as in the oxidation of H2. In these reactions, electrons and protons are transferred to or from separate acceptors or donors in bidirectional proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) steps. The mechanistic interpretation of PCET reactions of metal hydrides has focused on the stepwise transfer of electrons and protons. A concerted transfer may, however, occur with a lower reaction barrier and therefore proceed at higher catalytic rates. Here we investigate the feasibility of such a reaction by studying the oxidation–deprotonation reactions of a tungsten hydride complex. The rate dependence on the driving force for both electron transfer and proton transfer—employing different combinations of oxidants and bases—was used to establish experimentally the concerted, bidirectional PCET of a metal-hydride species. Consideration of the findings presented here in future catalyst designs may lead to more-efficient catalysts.

Bourrez, Marc; Steinmetz, Romain; Ott, Sascha; Gloaguen, Frederic; Hammarström, Leif

2015-02-01

330

Electron transfer precedes ATP hydrolysis during nitrogenase catalysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The biological reduction of N2 to NH3 catalyzed by Mo-dependent nitrogenase requires at least eight rounds of a complex cycle of events associated with ATP-driven electron transfer (ET) from the Fe protein to the catalytic MoFe protein, with each ET coupled to the hydrolysis of two ATP molecules. Although steps within this cycle have been studied for decades, the nature of the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and ET, in particular the order of ET and ATP hydrolysis, has been elusive. Here, we have measured first-order rate constants for each key step in the reaction sequence, including direct measurement of the ATP hydrolysis rate constant: kATP = 70 s?1, 25 °C. Comparison of the rate constants establishes that the reaction sequence involves four sequential steps: (i) conformationally gated ET (kET = 140 s?1, 25 °C), (ii) ATP hydrolysis (kATP = 70 s?1, 25 °C), (iii) Phosphate release (kPi = 16 s?1, 25 °C), and (iv) Fe protein dissociation from the MoFe protein (kdiss = 6 s?1, 25 °C). These findings allow completion of the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the Fe protein, showing that the energy of ATP binding and protein–protein association drive ET, with subsequent ATP hydrolysis and Pi release causing dissociation of the complex between the Feox(ADP)2 protein and the reduced MoFe protein. PMID:24062462

Duval, Simon; Danyal, Karamatullah; Shaw, Sudipta; Lytle, Anna K.; Dean, Dennis R.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Antony, Edwin; Seefeldt, Lance C.

2013-01-01

331

Electron transfer of peroxidase assemblies at tailored nanocarbon electrodes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In bioelectrochemistry, the catalytic function of redox enzymes depends largely upon the nature of the working electrode material. One major example of this phenomenon is the improvement of biogenic analyte detection at graphitic carbon with increased edge plane character in the graphene lattice. In our laboratories, we have found that the edge plane character of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) prepared using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) can be tuned via selective doping with nitrogen, termed N-CNTs. In this report, we extend these studies to investigate the influence of N-doping of nanocarbons on the electron transfer of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) using spectrophotometric enzyme activity assays and electrochemical measurements. Our findings demonstrate that HRP adsorption at N-CNTs increases by a factor of two relative to that of nondoped CNTs, with surface coverages, ?m, of 75 ± 4 and 33 ± 5 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) U/mg, respectively. Surprisingly, however, only ?40% of the HRP adsorbed at N-CNTs is electroactive, as assessed by voltammetry of the HRP Fe2+/3+ redox response. By contrast, HRP adsorbed at nondoped CNTs is nearly 100% electroactive, suggesting that the nature of the HRP adsorption (e.g., electrostatic, van der Waals) and geometric factors of heme orientation affect the biocatalytic performance. We also describe studies that utilize the properties of both nondoped CNTs and N-CNTs with adsorbenondoped CNTs and N-CNTs with adsorbed HRP for unmediated, quantitative H2O2 sensing

332

Diameter dependent electron transfer kinetics in semiconductor-enzyme complexes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excited state electron transfer (ET) is a fundamental step for the catalytic conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. To understand the properties controlling ET between photoexcited nanoparticles and catalysts, the ET kinetics were measured for solution-phase complexes of CdTe quantum dots and Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase I (CaI) using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Over a 2.0-3.5 nm diameter range of CdTe nanoparticles, the observed ET rate (kET) was sensitive to CaI concentration. To account for diameter effects on CaI binding, a Langmuir isotherm and two geometric binding models were created to estimate maximal CaI affinities and coverages at saturating concentrations. Normalizing the ET kinetics to CaI surface coverage for each CdTe diameter led to k(ET) values that were insensitive to diameter, despite a decrease in the free energy for photoexcited ET (?GET) with increasing diameter. The turnover frequency (TOF) of CaI in CdTe-CaI complexes was measured at several molar ratios. Normalization for diameter-dependent changes in CaI coverage showed an increase in TOF with diameter. These results suggest that k(ET) and H2 production for CdTe-CaI complexes are not strictly controlled by ?G(ET) and that other factors must be considered. PMID:25244026

Brown, Katherine A; Song, Qing; Mulder, David W; King, Paul W

2014-10-28

333

Synthesis, Characterization, Photophysics and Photochemistry of Pyrylogen Electron Transfer Sensitizers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of new dicationic sensitizers that are hybrids of pyrylium salts and viologens has been synthesized. The electrochemical and photophysical properties of these "pyrylogen" sensitizers are reported in sufficient detail to allow rationale design of new photoinduced electron transfer reactions. The range of their reduction potentials (+0.37-+0.05V vs SCE) coupled with their range of singlet (48-63 kcal mol(-1)) and triplet (48-57kcalmol(-1)) energies demonstrate that they are potent oxidizing agents in both their singlet and triplet excited states, thermodynamically capable of oxidizing substrates with oxidation potentials as high as 3.1eV. The pyrylogens are synthesized in three steps from readily available starting materials in modest overall 11.4-22.3% yields. These sensitizers have the added advantages that: (1) their radical cations do not react on the CV timescale with oxygen bypassing the need to run reactions under nitrogen or argon and (2) have long wavelength absorptions between 413 and 523nm well out of the range where competitive absorbance by most substrates would cause a problem. These new sensitizers do react with water requiring special precautions to operate in a dry reaction environment.

Clennan, Edward L. [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Liao, Chen [ORNL

2014-01-01

334

Electronic coulombic coupling of excitation-energy transfer in xanthorhodopsin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic coupling of excitation-energy transfer (EET) in a retinal (RET) protein, xanthorhodopsin (xR), was studied theoretically. The protein, functioning as a light driven proton pump, contains a carotenoid antenna, salinixanthin (SXN), to collect light energy for an RET chromophore through EET. The pseudo-Coulombic interaction (PCI) between the donor SXN and the acceptor RET molecules was calculated by a transition density fragment interaction (TDFI) method, which overcomes difficulty arising in the evaluation of PCI in xR by a conventional dipole-dipole (dd) method, at the ab initio TDDFT/SAC-CI level of theory. The result nicely agrees with the experimentally observed PCI. To examine the correlation between the SXN-RET alignment and the EET efficiency, we computed PCIs for SXN conformations that are virtually generated around the protein. The calculation shows that the optimal SXN alignment for the maximally tuned efficiency of EET is attained in the native xR. PCI in another retinal protein, archaerhodopsin-2, which also binds a carotenoid but lacks EET activity, was also evaluated. The computed PCI is negligibly small, well explaining the lack of EET efficiency. PMID:19772318

Fujimoto, Kazuhiro J; Hayashi, Shigehiko

2009-10-14

335

SO2?· Electron Transfer Ion/Ion Reactions with Disulfide Linked Polypeptide Ions  

OpenAIRE

Multiply-charged peptide cations comprised of two polypeptide chains (designated A and B) bound via a disulfide linkage have been reacted with SO2?· in an electrodynamic ion trap mass spectrometer. These reactions proceed through both proton transfer (without dissociation) and electron transfer (with and without dissociation). Electron transfer reactions are shown to give rise to cleavage along the peptide backbone, loss of neutral molecules, and cleavage of the cystine bond. Disulfide bon...

Chrisman, Paul A.; Pitteri, Sharon J.; Hogan, Jason M.; Mcluckey, Scott A.

2005-01-01

336

The microwave-look into the photo electrode: What can we learn about interfacial electron transfer?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By combining photo-electrochemical and photo-induced microwave conductivity measurements, information on potential dependent minority charge carrier accumulation, on interfacial minority carrier concentration and on interfacial charge transfer rates can be obtained. It suggests a correlation between electron transfer processes and accumulated charge carriers dominated by non-equilibrium conditions. This is inconsistent with the general assumptions leading to the classical Marcus-Gerischer electron transfer at electrodes, conceived for weak interaction, quasi-equilibrium and absence of polarisability effects. It is considered only to be applicable in special situations. A non-linear interfacial electron transfer theory, the properties of which are outlined, will on the other hand open the potential for new phenomena. They include faster (stimulated), and cooperative electron transfer. The latter, which is excluded by the classical theory, requires non linear dynamic feedback polarisability, which will have to be developed on the basis of structural-electronic considerations for semiconductor interfaces to become highly catalytic

337

Vacuum fluctuations and intermolecular interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electromagnetic field operators in the vicinity of a neutral molecule are obtained in the Heisenberg picture. The fields are found using the multipolar Hamiltonian and the interaction includes electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and diamagnetic couplings. These fields are used to calculate the dispersion energy between two neutral molecules. The dispersion energy may be obtained by treating one molecule as a test body and calculating its response to the field of the other. A note-worthy feature of this test-body approach is that the energy expressions so obtained are valid for all intermolecular separations outside overlap and retardation effects are fully taken into account. The method is applied to the calculation of dispersion energy between a pair of molecules with different polarizability characteristics. The contribution of the diamagnetic coupling to the energy shift is also presented. The theory is adapted to the calculation of N-molecule dispersion interactions and applied to 3- and 4-molecule systems. (orig.)

338

Pulse radiolytic and electrochemical investigations of intramolecular electron transfer in carotenoporphyrins and carotenoporphyrin-quinone triads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of intramolecular electron-transfer reactions in carotenoporphyrin dyads and carotenoid-porphyrin-quinone triads have been studied by using pulse radiolysis and cyclic voltammetry. Rapid (<1 ?s) electron transfer from carotenoid radical anions to attached porphyrins has been inferred. Carotenoid cations, on the other hand, do not readily accept electrons from attached porphyrins or pyropheophorbides. Electrochemical studies provide the thermodynamic basis for these observations and also allow estimation of the energetics of photoinitiated two-step electron transfer and two-step charge recombination in triad models for photosynthetic charge separation

339

Desensitization and recovery of metastable intermolecular composites  

Science.gov (United States)

A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

Busse, James R. (South Fork, CO); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Foley, Timothy J. (Los Alamos, NM); Higa, Kelvin T. (Ridgecrest, CA); Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Sanders, Victor E. (White Rock, NM); Son, Steven F. (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-09-07

340

Photoinduced electron transfer in fullerene triads bearing pyrene and fluorene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photochemical properties of pyrene and fluorene appended fulleropyrrolidine triads (AH1-C60-AH2; AH1=pyrene and fluorene; AH2=naphthalene and phenyl) are reported. Electrochemical studies using cyclic voltammetry technique and DFT calculations at B3LYP/3-21G(*) method revealed that the charge-separated states in pyrene and fluorene appended triads are pyrenedot+-C60dot-AH2 and fluorenedot+-C60dot-AH2, respectively; however, no such charge-separated states could be established for naphthalene and phenyl appended triads. As demonstrated from the time resolved fluorescence, upon excitation of AH moiety in nonpolar solvents, energy transfer predominantly occurred from the singlet excited fluorophore to the C60 moiety, whereas in polar DMF charge-separation also contributed to the fluorescence quenching. Additionally, charge separation also occurred from the singlet excited C60 to the pyrene or fluorene entities of the triads in DMF. The rates and quantum yields of charge separation obtained by time-resolved emission studies were around 109s-1 and 0.9-0.6 for pyrene-C60-AH2 and fluorene-C60-AH2 triads. Nanosecond transient absorption spectral studies performed by using 355nm laser light on the triads, exhibited transient bands corresponding to thibited transient bands corresponding to the C60dot- and pyrenedot+ or fluorenedot+, thus establishing the occurrence of electron transfer in these triads in DMF. The rates of charge recombination obtained by monitoring the decay of the C60dot- were found to be around 106s-1 in DMF which resulted in the lifetimes of the radical ion pairs up to 1000ns indicating charge stabilization in pyrene-C60-AH2 and fluorene-C60-AH2 triads. The formations of long-lived charge-separated states, pyrenedot+-C60d'ot-AH2 and fluorenedot+-C60dot-AH2 in DMF, were rationalized by evaluating the Marcus parameters from the temperature dependence of the charge-recombination rate constants

341

Photoinduced electron transfer in fullerene triads bearing pyrene and fluorene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photochemical properties of pyrene and fluorene appended fulleropyrrolidine triads (AH{sub 1}-C{sub 60}-AH{sub 2}; AH{sub 1}=pyrene and fluorene; AH{sub 2}=naphthalene and phenyl) are reported. Electrochemical studies using cyclic voltammetry technique and DFT calculations at B3LYP/3-21G(*) method revealed that the charge-separated states in pyrene and fluorene appended triads are pyrene{sup dot+}-C{sub 60}{sup dot-}AH{sub 2} and fluorene{sup dot+}-C{sub 60}{sup dot-}AH{sub 2}, respectively; however, no such charge-separated states could be established for naphthalene and phenyl appended triads. As demonstrated from the time resolved fluorescence, upon excitation of AH moiety in nonpolar solvents, energy transfer predominantly occurred from the singlet excited fluorophore to the C{sub 60} moiety, whereas in polar DMF charge-separation also contributed to the fluorescence quenching. Additionally, charge separation also occurred from the singlet excited C{sub 60} to the pyrene or fluorene entities of the triads in DMF. The rates and quantum yields of charge separation obtained by time-resolved emission studies were around 10{sup 9}s{sup -1} and 0.9-0.6 for pyrene-C{sub 60}-AH{sub 2} and fluorene-C{sub 60}-AH{sub 2} triads. Nanosecond transient absorption spectral studies performed by using 355nm laser light on the triads, exhibited transient bands corresponding to the C{sub 60}{sup dot-} and pyrene{sup dot+} or fluorene{sup dot+}, thus establishing the occurrence of electron transfer in these triads in DMF. The rates of charge recombination obtained by monitoring the decay of the C{sub 60}{sup dot-} were found to be around 10{sup 6}s{sup -1} in DMF which resulted in the lifetimes of the radical ion pairs up to 1000ns indicating charge stabilization in pyrene-C{sub 60}-AH{sub 2} and fluorene-C{sub 60}-AH{sub 2} triads. The formations of long-lived charge-separated states, pyrene{sup dot+}-C{sub 60}{sup d}'o{sup t-}AH{sub 2} and fluorene{sup dot+}-C{sub 60}{sup dot-}AH{sub 2} in DMF, were rationalized by evaluating the Marcus parameters from the temperature dependence of the charge-recombination rate constants.

Sandanayaka, Atula S.D. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Araki, Yasuyaki [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ito, Osamu [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: ito@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Deviprasad, Gollapalli R. [Department of Chemistry, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount, Wichita, KS 67260-0051 (United States); Smith, Phillip M. [Department of Chemistry, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount, Wichita, KS 67260-0051 (United States); Rogers, Lisa M. [Department of Chemistry, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount, Wichita, KS 67260-0051 (United States); Zandler, Melvin E. [Department of Chemistry, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount, Wichita, KS 67260-0051 (United States); D' Souza, Francis [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: Francis.DSouza@wichita.edu

2006-06-20

342

Photoinduced electron transfer in fullerene triads bearing pyrene and fluorene  

Science.gov (United States)

Photochemical properties of pyrene and fluorene appended fulleropyrrolidine triads (AH 1-C 60-AH 2; AH 1 = pyrene and fluorene; AH 2 = naphthalene and phenyl) are reported. Electrochemical studies using cyclic voltammetry technique and DFT calculations at B3LYP/3-21G( ?) method revealed that the charge-separated states in pyrene and fluorene appended triads are pyrene-C60rad --AH2 and fluorene-C60rad --AH2, respectively; however, no such charge-separated states could be established for naphthalene and phenyl appended triads. As demonstrated from the time resolved fluorescence, upon excitation of AH moiety in nonpolar solvents, energy transfer predominantly occurred from the singlet excited fluorophore to the C 60 moiety, whereas in polar DMF charge-separation also contributed to the fluorescence quenching. Additionally, charge separation also occurred from the singlet excited C 60 to the pyrene or fluorene entities of the triads in DMF. The rates and quantum yields of charge separation obtained by time-resolved emission studies were around 10 9 s -1 and 0.9-0.6 for pyrene-C 60-AH 2 and fluorene-C 60-AH 2 triads. Nanosecond transient absorption spectral studies performed by using 355 nm laser light on the triads, exhibited transient bands corresponding to the C60rad - and pyrene rad + or fluorene rad + , thus establishing the occurrence of electron transfer in these triads in DMF. The rates of charge recombination obtained by monitoring the decay of the C60rad - were found to be around 10 6 s -1 in DMF which resulted in the lifetimes of the radical ion pairs up to 1000 ns indicating charge stabilization in pyrene-C 60-AH 2 and fluorene-C 60-AH 2 triads. The formations of long-lived charge-separated states, pyrene-C60rad --AH2 and fluorene-C60rad --AH2 in DMF, were rationalized by evaluating the Marcus parameters from the temperature dependence of the charge-recombination rate constants.

Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Araki, Yasuyaki; Ito, Osamu; Deviprasad, Gollapalli R.; Smith, Phillip M.; Rogers, Lisa M.; Zandler, Melvin E.; D'Souza, Francis

2006-06-01

343

Activated-ion electron transfer dissociation improves the ability of electron transfer dissociation to identify peptides in a complex mixture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a modified electron transfer dissociation (ETD)-enabled quadrupole linear ion trap (QLT) mass spectrometer, we demonstrate the utility of IR activation concomitant with ETD ion-ion reactions (activated-ion ETD, AI-ETD). Analyzing 12 strong cation exchanged (SCX) fractions of a LysC digest of human cell protein extract using ETD, collision-activated dissociation (CAD), and AI-ETD, we find that AI-ETD generates 13?405 peptide spectral matches (PSMs) at a 1% false-discovery rate (1% FDR), surpassing both ETD (7?968) and CAD (10?904). We also analyze 12 SCX fractions of a tryptic digest of human cell protein extract and find that ETD produces 6?234 PSMs, AI-ETD 9?130 PSMs, and CAD 15?209 PSMs. Compared to ETD with supplemental collisional activation (ETcaD), AI-ETD generates ?80% more PSMs for the whole cell lysate digested with trypsin and ?50% more PSMs for the whole cell lysate digested with LysC. PMID:21062032

Ledvina, Aaron R; Beauchene, Nicole A; McAlister, Graeme C; Syka, John E P; Schwartz, Jae C; Griep-Raming, Jens; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J

2010-12-15

344

Electron transfer of peroxidase assemblies at tailored nanocarbon electrodes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In bioelectrochemistry, the catalytic function of redox enzymes depends largely upon the nature of the working electrode material. One major example of this phenomenon is the improvement of biogenic analyte detection at graphitic carbon with increased edge plane character in the graphene lattice. In our laboratories, we have found that the edge plane character of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) prepared using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) can be tuned via selective doping with nitrogen, termed N-CNTs. In this report, we extend these studies to investigate the influence of N-doping of nanocarbons on the electron transfer of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) using spectrophotometric enzyme activity assays and electrochemical measurements. Our findings demonstrate that HRP adsorption at N-CNTs increases by a factor of two relative to that of nondoped CNTs, with surface coverages, {gamma}{sub m}, of 75 {+-} 4 and 33 {+-} 5 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) U/mg, respectively. Surprisingly, however, only {proportional_to}40% of the HRP adsorbed at N-CNTs is electroactive, as assessed by voltammetry of the HRP Fe{sup 2+/3+} redox response. By contrast, HRP adsorbed at nondoped CNTs is nearly 100% electroactive, suggesting that the nature of the HRP adsorption (e.g., electrostatic, van der Waals) and geometric factors of heme orientation affect the biocatalytic performance. We also describe studies that utilize the properties of both nondoped CNTs and N-CNTs with adsorbed HRP for unmediated, quantitative H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensing. (author)

Lyon, Jennifer L.; Stevenson, Keith J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station MC A5300, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2008-10-01

345

Photoinduced electron transfer in perylene-TiO2 nanoassemblies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The photosensitization effect of three perylene dye derivatives on titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) has been investigated. The dyes used, 1,7-dibromoperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxy dianhydride (1), 1,7-dipyrrolidinylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxy dianhydride (2) and 1,7-bis(4-tert-butylphenyloxy)perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxy dianhydride (3) have in common bisanhydride groups that convert into TiO2 binding groups upon hydrolysis. The different substituents on the bay position of the dyes enable tuning of their redox properties to yield significantly different driving forces for photoinduced electron transfer (PeT). Recently developed TiO2 NPs having a small average size and a narrow distribution (4 ± 1 nm) are used in this work to prepare the dye-TiO2 systems under study. Whereas successful sensitization was obtained with 1 and 2 as evidenced by steady-state spectral shifts and transient absorption results, no evidence for the attachment of 3 to TiO2 was observed. The comparison of the rates of PeT (kPeT ) for 1- and 2-TiO2 systems studied in this work with those obtained for previously reported analogous systems, having TiO2 NPs covered by a surfactant layer (Hernandez et al. [2012] J. Phys. Chem. B., 117, 4568-4581), indicates that kPeT for the former systems is slower than that for the later. These results are interpreted in terms of the different energy values of the conduction band edge in each system. PMID:23742178

Llansola-Portoles, Manuel J; Bergkamp, Jesse J; Tomlin, John; Moore, Thomas A; Kodis, Gerdenis; Moore, Ana L; Cosa, Gonzalo; Palacios, Rodrigo E

2013-01-01

346

Photonic switching of photoinduced electron transfer in a dithienylethene-porphyrin-fullerene triad molecule.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dithienylethene (DTE)-porphyrin (P)-fullerene (C(60)) triad molecule in which intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer is controlled by the photochromic DTE moiety has been prepared. Irradiation of the molecule with visible light gives the open form of the dithienylethene (DTEo). Excitation of the porphyrin gives DTEo-(1)P-C(60), which undergoes photoinduced electron transfer with a time constant of 25 ps to generate DTEo-P(.+)-C(60)(.-). Irradiation with ultraviolet light produces the closed form of the dithienylethene (DTEc). Excitation of DTEc-P-C(60) yields DTEc-(1)P-C(60), whose porphyrin first excited singlet state is quenched in 2.3 ps by singlet-singlet energy transfer to DTEc, generating (1)DTEc-P-C(60) and precluding significant photoinduced electron transfer. Such highly reversible photonically controlled intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer may eventually be useful in the design of photonic or optoelectronic devices. PMID:12083915

Liddell, Paul A; Kodis, Gerdenis; Moore, Ana L; Moore, Thomas A; Gust, Devens

2002-07-01

347

High throughput electron transfer from carbon dots to chloroplast: a rationale of enhanced photosynthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

A biocompatible amine functionalized fluorescent carbon dots were developed and isolated for gram scale applications. Such carbogenic quantum dots can strongly conjugate over the surface of the chloroplast and due to that strong interaction the former can easily transfer electrons towards the latter by assistance of absorbed light or photons. An exceptionally high electron transfer from carbon dots to the chloroplast can directly effect the whole chain electron transfer pathway in a light reaction of photosynthesis, where electron carriers play an important role in modulating the system. As a result, carbon dots can promote photosynthesis by modulating the electron transfer process as they are capable of fastening the conversion of light energy to the electrical energy and finally to the chemical energy as assimilatory power (ATP and NADPH).A biocompatible amine functionalized fluorescent carbon dots were developed and isolated for gram scale applications. Such carbogenic quantum dots can strongly conjugate over the surface of the chloroplast and due to that strong interaction the former can easily transfer electrons towards the latter by assistance of absorbed light or photons. An exceptionally high electron transfer from carbon dots to the chloroplast can directly effect the whole chain electron transfer pathway in a light reaction of photosynthesis, where electron carriers play an important role in modulating the system. As a result, carbon dots can promote photosynthesis by modulating the electron transfer process as they are capable of fastening the conversion of light energy to the electrical energy and finally to the chemical energy as assimilatory power (ATP and NADPH). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06079a

Chandra, Sourov; Pradhan, Saheli; Mitra, Shouvik; Patra, Prasun; Bhattacharya, Ankita; Pramanik, Panchanan; Goswami, Arunava

2014-03-01

348

Role of ligand substitution on long-range electron transfer in azurins  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Azurin contains two potential redox sites, a copper centre and, at the opposite end of the molecule, a cystine disulfide (RSSR). Intramolecular electron transfer between a pulse radiolytically produced RSSR- radical anion and the blue Cu(II) ion was studied in a series of azurins in which single-site mutations were introduced into the copper ligand sphere. In the Met121His mutant, the rate constant for intramolecular electron transfer is half that of the corresponding wild-type azurin. In the His46Gly and His117Gly mutants, a water molecule is co-ordinated to the copper ion when no external ligands are added. Both these mutants also exhibit slower intramolecular electron transfer than the corresponding wild-type azurin. However, for the His117Gly mutant in the presence of excess imidazole, an azurin-imidazole complex is formed and the intramolecular electron-transfer rate increases considerably, becoming threefold faster than that observed in the native protein. Activation parameters for all these electron-transfer processes were determined and combined with data from earlier studies on intramolecular electron transfer in wild-type and single-site-mutated azurins. A linear relationship between activation enthalpy and activation entropy was observed. These results are discussed in terms of reorganization energies, driving force and possible electron-transfer pathways.

Farver, O; Jeuken, L J

2000-01-01

349

Coherent transfer of light polarization to electron spins in a semiconductor  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate that the superposition of light polarization states is coherently transferred to electron spins in a semiconductor quantum well. By using time-resolved Kerr rotation we observe the initial phase of Larmor precession of electron spins whose coherence is transferred from light. To break the electron-hole spin entanglement, we utilized the big discrepancy between the transverse g-factors of electrons and light holes. The result encourages us to make a quantum media converter between flying photon qubits and stationary electron spin qubits in semiconductors.

Kosaka, Hideo; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Rikitake, Yoshiaki; Imamura, Hiroshi; Kutsuwa, Takeshi; Arai, Koichiro; Edamatsu, Keiichi

2007-01-01

350

Coherent transfer of light polarization to electron spins in a semiconductor.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate that the superposition of light polarization states is coherently transferred to electron spins in a semiconductor quantum well. By using time-resolved Kerr rotation, we observe the initial phase of Larmor precession of electron spins whose coherence is transferred from light. To break the electron-hole spin entanglement, we utilized the big discrepancy between the transverse g factors of electrons and light-holes. The result encourages us to make a quantum media converter between flying photon qubits and stationary electron-spin qubits in semiconductors. PMID:18352739

Kosaka, Hideo; Shigyou, Hideki; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Rikitake, Yoshiaki; Imamura, Hiroshi; Kutsuwa, Takeshi; Arai, Koichiro; Edamatsu, Keiichi

2008-03-01

351

77 FR 50404 - Electronic Fund Transfers; Intent To Make Determination of Effect on State Laws (Maine and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION...CFPB-2012-0036] Electronic Fund Transfers; Intent...AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection...Regulations, Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection...I. Background The Electronic Fund Transfer...

2012-08-21

352

Electron transfer from 2-methyltetrahydrofuran radical to tetracyanoethylene at low temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formation mechanism of tetracyanoethylene(TCNE) radical anions in irradiated 2-methyltetrahydrofuran(2-MTHF) solutions of TCNE has been studied at low temperatures using matrix isolation and pulse radiolysis techniques. TCNE radical anions are produced not only by electron attachment but also by electron transfer from 2-MTHF radicals to TCNE molecules. The latter process (electron transfer) was found to proceed more slowly than the former process. On the basis of the diffusion controlled reaction theory and free volume theory, an expression is presented for the bimolecular rate constant of the electron transfer reaction. Electron transfer from 2-MTHF radicals to pyrene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, and 1,4-dicyanobenzene has not been observed. (author)

353

78 FR 30661 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E)  

Science.gov (United States)

...do not affect the total amount that will be received...these taxes on the total amount transferred, deciding...refund a transfer amount to the sender...Proposal, the burden allotted to this disclosure...year. The current total annual burden...

2013-05-22

354

77 FR 50243 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E)  

Science.gov (United States)

...interpreting the phrase ``normal course of business...the disclosures, error resolution, and...transfers in the normal course of business...the disclosure, error resolution, and...provider has made a single transfer multiple times or that an error had occurred,...

2012-08-20

355

Double strand interaction is the predominant pathway for intermolecular recombination of adeno-associated viral genomes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intermolecular recombination is the foundation for dual vector mediated larger gene transfer by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV). To identify precursors for intermolecular recombination, we sequentially infected skeletal muscle with AAV LacZ trans-splicing viruses. At 1 month postinfection, nearly all inputting single-strand (ss) AAV genomes were cleared out in muscle. If ss-ss interaction is absolutely required for intermolecular recombination, LacZ expression from sequential infection will be negligible to that from coinfection. Interestingly, expression from sequential infection reached ?50% of that from coinfection at the 1-month time-point in BL6 mice. In immune deficient SCID mice, expression from sequential infection was comparable to that from coinfection at the 4- and 13-month time points. Our results suggest that ds interaction represents the predominant pathway for AAV intermolecular recombination

356

Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conventional and fast-kinetics techniques of photochemistry, photophysics, radiation chemistry, and electrochemistry were used to study the intermediates involved in transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. These intermediates were excited state of Ru(II) and Cr(III) photosensitizers, their reduced forms, and species formed in reactions of redox quenchers and electron-transfer agents. Of particular concern was the back electron-transfer reaction between the geminate pair formed in the redox quenching of the photosensitizers, and the dependence of its rate on solution medium and temperature in competition with transformation and cage escape processes. (DLC)

Hoffman, M.Z.

1992-07-31

357

Single-molecule interfacial electron transfer dynamics manipulated by external electric current  

CERN Document Server

Interfacial electron transfer (IET) dynamics in 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3, 3, 3', 3'-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine (DiD) dye molecules / indium tin oxide (ITO) film system have been probed at the ensemble and single-molecule level by recording the change of fluorescence emission intensity. By comparing the difference of the external electric current (EEC) dependence of lifetime and intensity for enambles and single molecules, it is shown that the single-molecule probe can effcienly demonstrate the IET dynamics. The backward electron transfer and electron transfer of ground state induce the single molecules fluorescence quenching when an EEC is applied to ITO film.

Zhang, Guofeng; Chen, Ruiyun; Gao, Yan; Wang, Xiaobo; Jia, Suotang

2011-01-01

358

Photo-induced electron transfer at nanostructured semiconductor-zinc porphyrin interface  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron transfer at metal oxide-organic dye interface on ZnO nanorod (ZnOr) templates was studied by femtosecond absorption spectroscopy method. Further confirmation of the electron transfer was obtained from photoelectrical studies. The fastest electron transfer from zinc porphyrin (ZnP) to semiconductor was observed for ZnOr modified by a 5 nm layer of TiO2 (TiO2 being faster than at the interface of TiO2 nanoparticle and ZnP. This indicates that the charge recombination depends mainly on semiconductor bulk properties whereas the charge separation is determined by the organic-semiconductor interface.

Hakola, Hanna; Pyymaki Perros, Alexander; Myllyperkiö, Pasi; Kurotobi, Kei; Lipsanen, Harri; Imahori, Hiroshi; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.

2014-01-01

359

Syntrophic growth with direct interspecies electron transfer as the primary mechanism for energy exchange  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) through biological electrical connections is an alternative to interspecies H2 transfer as a mechanism for electron exchange in syntrophic cultures. However, it has not previously been determined whether electrons received via DIET yield energy to support cell growth. In order to investigate this, co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens, which can transfer electrons to wild-type G.?sulfurreducens via DIET, were established with a citrate synthase-deficient G.?sulfurreducens strain that can receive electrons for respiration through DIET only. In a medium with ethanol as the electron donor and fumarate as the electron acceptor, co-cultures with the citrate synthase-deficient G.?sulfurreducens strain metabolized ethanol as fast as co-cultures with wild-type, but the acetate that G.?metallireducens generated from ethanol oxidation accumulated. The lack of acetate metabolism resulted in less fumarate reduction and lower cell abundance of G.?sulfurreducens. RNAseq analysis of transcript abundance was consistent with a lack of acetate metabolism in G.?sulfurreducens and revealed gene expression levels for the uptake hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, the pilus-associated c-type cytochrome OmcS and pili consistent with electron transfer via DIET. These results suggest that electrons transferred via DIET can serve as the sole energy source to support anaerobic respiration.

Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

2013-01-01

360

Transferable pseudoclassical electrons for aufbau of atomic ions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Generalizing the LEWIS reactive force field from electron pairs to single electrons, we present LEWIS• in which explicit valence electrons interact with each other and with nuclear cores via pairwise interactions. The valence electrons are independently mobile particles, following classical equations of motion according to potentials modified from Coulombic as required to capture quantum characteristics. As proof of principle, the aufbau of atomic ions is described for diverse main group elements from the first three rows of the periodic table, using a single potential for interactions between electrons of like spin and another for electrons of unlike spin. The electrons of each spin are found to distribute themselves in a fashion akin to the major lobes of the hybrid atomic orbitals, suggesting a pointillist description of the electron density. The broader validity of the LEWIS• force field is illustrated by predicting the vibrational frequencies of diatomic and triatomic hydrogen species. PMID:24752384

Ekesan, Solen; Kale, Seyit; Herzfeld, Judith

2014-06-01

361

The Role of Protein Fluctuation Correlations in Electron Transfer in Photosynthetic Complexes  

CERN Document Server

We consider the dependence of the electron transfer in photosynthetic complexes on correlation properties of random fluctuations of the protein environment. The electron subsystem is modeled by a finite network of connected electron (exciton) sites. The fluctuations of the protein environment are modeled by random telegraph processes, which act either collectively (correlated) or independently (uncorrelated) on the electron sites. We derived an exact closed system of first-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, for the average density matrix elements and for their first moments. Under some conditions, we obtain analytic expressions for the electron transfer rates. We compare the correlated and uncorrelated regimes, and demonstrated numerically that the uncorrelated fluctuations of the protein environment can, under some conditions, either increase or decrease the electron transfer rates.

Nesterov, Alexander I

2014-01-01

362

Pulse radiolytic studies of electron transfer processes and applications to solar photochemistry. Progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pulse radiolysis technique is applied to the study of electron transfer processes in a variety of chemical systems. Reactive intermediates are produced in solution by electron pulse irradiation and the kinetics of their reactions are followed by time resolved absorption spectrophotometry. Complementary experiments are carried out with excimer laser flash photolysis. These studies are concerned with mechanisms, kinetics, and thermodynamics of reactions of organic and inorganic radicals and unstable oxidation states of metal ions. Reactions are studied in both aqueous and non-aqueous solutions. The studies focus on the unique ability of pulse radiolysis to provide absolute rate constants for reactions of many inorganic radicals and organic peroxyl radicals, species that are key intermediates in many chemical processes. A special concern of this work is the study of electron transfer reactions of metalloporphyrins, which permits evaluation of these molecules as intermediates in solar energy conversion. Metalloporphyrins react with free radicals via electron transfer, involving the ligand or the metal center, or via bonding to the metal, leading to a variety of chemical species whose behavior is also investigated. The highlights of the results during the past three years are summarized below under the following sections: (a) electron transfer reactions of peroxyl radicals, concentrating on the characterization of new peroxyl radicals derived from vinyl, phenyl, other aryl, and pyridyl; (b) solvent effects on electron transfer reactions of inorganic and organic peroxyl radicals, including reactions with porphyrins, and (c) electron transfer and alkylation reactions of metalloporphyrins and other complexes.

Neta, P.

1995-02-01

363

On the connection of semiclassical instanton theory with Marcus theory for electron transfer in solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a derivation of Marcus theory of electron transfer in solution starting from semiclassical instanton theory. The conventional semiclassical instanton theory provides an inadequate description of the electron transfer process in the inverted Marcus regime. This has been attributed to the lack of backscattering in the product region, which is represented as a semi-infinite continuum of states. For electron transfer processes in condensed phase, the electronic states in the acceptor well are bound, which violates the continuum assumption. We show by detailed analysis of the minimum action path of a model system for electron transfer that the proper tunneling coordinate is a delocalized, “bead-count” mode. The tunneling mode is analytically continued in the complex plane as in the traditional derivation. Unlike the traditional analysis where the method of steepest descent is used, the tunneling coordinate is treated as a quasi-zero mode. This feature allows including the influence of backscattering in the acceptor well and leads to the recovery of the Marcus formula for the rate of electron transfer. The results have implications on the performance of ring polymer molecular dynamics for the study of electron transfer dynamics.

364

Electron transfer dynamics and excited state branching in a charge-transfer platinum(II) donor-bridge-acceptor assembly.  

Science.gov (United States)

A linear asymmetric Pt(ii) trans-acetylide donor-bridge-acceptor triad designed for efficient charge separation, NAP[triple bond, length as m-dash]Pt(PBu3)2[triple bond, length as m-dash]Ph-CH2-PTZ (), containing strong electron acceptor and donor groups, 4-ethynyl-N-octyl-1,8-naphthalimide (NAP) and phenothiazine (PTZ) respectively, has been synthesised and its photoinduced charge transfer processes characterised in detail. Excitation with 400 nm, ?50 fs laser pulse initially populates a charge transfer manifold stemming from electron transfer from the Pt-acetylide centre to the NAP acceptor and triggers a cascade of charge and energy transfer events. A combination of ultrafast time-resolved infrared (TRIR) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopies, supported by UV-Vis/IR spectroelectrochemistry, emission spectroscopy and DFT calculations reveals a self-consistent photophysical picture of the excited state evolution from femto- to milliseconds. The characteristic features of the NAP-anion and PTZ-cation are clearly observed in both the TRIR and TA spectra, confirming the occurrence of electron transfer and allowing the rate constants of individual ET-steps to be obtained. Intriguingly, has three separate ultrafast electron transfer pathways from a non-thermalised charge transfer manifold directly observed by TRIR on timescales ranging from 0.2 to 14 ps: charge recombination to form either the intraligand triplet (3)NAP with 57% yield, or the ground state, and forward electron transfer to form the full charge-separated state (3)CSS ((3)[PTZ(+)-NAP(-)]) with 10% yield as determined by target analysis. The (3)CSS decays by charge-recombination to the ground state with ?1 ns lifetime. The lowest excited state is (3)NAP, which possesses a long lifetime of 190 ?s and efficiently sensitises singlet oxygen. Overall, molecular donor-bridge-acceptor triad demonstrates excited state branching over 3 different pathways, including formation of a long-distant (18 Å) full charge-separated excited state from a directly observed vibrationally hot precursor state. PMID:25361227

Scattergood, Paul A; Delor, Milan; Sazanovich, Igor V; Bouganov, Oleg V; Tikhomirov, Sergei A; Stasheuski, Alexander S; Parker, Anthony W; Greetham, Gregory M; Towrie, Michael; Davies, E Stephen; Meijer, Anthony J H M; Weinstein, Julia A

2014-12-21

365

27 CFR 40.165a - Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

...in taxes on tobacco products, cigarette papers, and cigarette tubes combining tax liabilities...commercial bank in making payment by electronic fund transfer (EFT) of taxes on tobacco products, cigarette papers, and cigarette...

2010-04-01

366

27 CFR 41.115a - Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

...in taxes on tobacco products, cigarette papers, and cigarette tubes combining tax liabilities...commercial bank in making payment by electronic fund transfer (EFT) of taxes on tobacco products, cigarette papers, and cigarette...

2010-04-01

367

Facilitation of Electron Transfer in the Presence of Mitochondria-Targeting Molecule SS31  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron transfer (ET) processes in mitochondria are very important for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the common source of the chemical energy. The inability to transfer electrons efficiently in mitochondrial ET chain plays a major role in age associated diseases, including diabetes and cancer. In this work, we used the time dependent absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy to study the electron transfer kinetics along the ET chain of mitochondria. Our spectroscopic results suggest that SS31, a small peptide molecule targeting to the mitochondrial inner membrane, can facilitate electron transfer and increase ATP production. We show that SS31 targets cytochrome c to both increase the availability of state and also potentially reduce the energy barrier required to reduce cytochrome c.

Nosach, Tetiana; Ebrahim, Mark; Ren, Yuhang; Darrah, Shaun; Szeto, Hazel

2010-03-01

368

Synthesis of 3-Alkenyl-1-azaanthraquinones via Diels-Alder and Electron Transfer Reactions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A convenient route to 3-alkenyl-1-azaanthraquinones via a hetero Diels-Alder reaction between an azadiene and naphthoquinone, a free radical chlorination and an electron transfer reaction is reported.

Patrice Vanelle

2002-12-01

369

Photoinduced electron transfer reactions of ruthenium(II)-complexes containing amino acid with quinones.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aim of mimicking, at basic level the photoinduced electron transfer process in the reaction center of photosystem II, ruthenium(II)-polypyridyl complexes, carrying amino acids were synthesized and studied their photoinduced electron transfer reactions with quinones by steady state and time resolved measurements. The reaction of quinones with excited state of ruthenium(II)-complexes, I-V in acetonitrile has been studied by luminescence quenching technique and the rate constant, k(q), values are close to the diffusion controlled rate. The detection of the semiquinone anion radical in this system using time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy confirms the electron transfer nature of the reaction. The semiclassical theory of electron transfer has been successfully applied to the photoluminescence quenching of Ru(II)-complexes with quinones. PMID:24590578

Eswaran, Rajkumar; Kalayar, Swarnalatha; Paulpandian, Muthu Mareeswaran; Seenivasan, Rajagopal

2014-05-01

370

27 CFR 41.115a - Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer. ...and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF...Brought Into the United States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco...

2010-04-01

371

ElectronTransfer Induced Ring Opening of α-Epoxyketones: Spirodioxolane Formation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stereospecific formation of spirodioxolanes has been observed on electron transfer induced ring opening of α-epoxyketones by 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate in the presence of cyclohexanone

Farzad Nikpour

2002-01-01

372

Synthesis of 3-Alkenyl-1-azaanthraquinones via Diels-Alder and Electron Transfer Reactions  

OpenAIRE

A convenient route to 3-alkenyl-1-azaanthraquinones via a hetero Diels-Alder reaction between an azadiene and naphthoquinone, a free radical chlorination and an electron transfer reaction is reported.

Patrice Vanelle; Vincent Rémusat; Pascal Rathelot

2002-01-01

373

Deterministic quantum state transfer from an electronic charge qubit to a photonic polarization qubit  

CERN Document Server

Building on an earlier proposal for the production of polarization-entangled microwaves by means of intraband transitions in a pair of quantum dots, we show how this device can be used to transfer an unknown single-qubit state from electronic charge to photonic polarization degrees of freedom. No postselection is required, meaning that the quantum state transfer happens deterministically. Decoherence of the charge qubit causes a non-monotonic decay of the fidelity of the transferred state with increasing decoherence rate.

Ament, L J P

2006-01-01

374

Deterministic quantum state transfer from an electronic charge qubit to a photonic polarization qubit  

Science.gov (United States)

Building on an earlier proposal for the production of polarization-entangled microwaves by means of intraband transitions in a pair of quantum dots, we show how this device can be used to transfer an unknown single-qubit state from electronic charge to photonic polarization degrees of freedom. No postselection is required, meaning that the quantum state transfer happens deterministically. Decoherence of the charge qubit causes a nonmonotonic decay of the fidelity of the transferred state with an increasing decoherence rate.

Ament, L. J. P.; Beenakker, C. W. J.

2006-03-01

375

Electron transfer with C60 in the gas phase: an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Here I provide a brief overview of recent experimental gas-phase measurements using the Selected-Ion Flow Tube or SIFT technique at 294±2 K with helium buffer gas at 0.35 Torr for reactions which remove electrons from the C60 molecule or donate electrons to singly and multiply-charged C60 cations. The results of these measurements have provided new insight into physicochemical aspects of electron transfer and have revealed the occurrence of unprecedented electron transfer reactions at thermal energies. (author)

376

The Roles of Outer Membrane Cytochromes of Shewanella and Geobacter in Extracellular Electron Transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As key components of the electron transfer (ET) pathways used for dissimilatory reduction of solid iron [Fe(III)] and manganese [Mn(IV)] (hydr)oxides, outer membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and OmcE and OmcS of Geobacter sulfurreducens mediate ET reactions extracellularly. Cell surface-exposed MtrC and OmcA can transfer electrons directly to the metal oxides. S. oneidensis MR-1 cells also secrete flavins that can facilitate ET to the oxides. The secreted flavins are thought to serve either as chelators that form soluble Fe(III)/Mn(IV)-flavin complexes or as electron shuttles that ferry the electrons from cell-associated ET proteins to the metal oxides. Cell-surface localization may also permit MtrC and OmcA to transfer electrons extracellularly to either flavin-chelated Fe(III)/Mn(IV) or oxidized flavins. OmcE and OmcS are proposed to be located on the Geobacter cell surface where they are believed to function as the intermediates to relay electrons to type IV pili, which are then hypothesized to transfer electrons directly to the metal oxides. Thus, cell surface-localization positions these outer membrane cytochromes to transfer electrons to Fe(III)/Mn(IV) oxides external to the bacterial cells either directly, indirectly, or both, demonstrating a common strategy shared by Shewanella and Geobacter for extracellular reduction of the oxides.

Shi, Liang; Richardson, David; Wang, Zheming; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2009-08-01

377

Electron transfer in collisions of keV potassium ions with methane molecules  

Science.gov (United States)

Absolute total electron transfer cross sections have been measured for the K+-CH4 system, at impact energies 0.5-3.5 keV. The charge transfer cross sections show a monotonic increasing behaviour as a function of the incident energy. Semiempirical calculation is in good agreement with the present cross-section data.

Alarcón, F. B.; Martínez, H.

2013-03-01

378

Intercalation of trioxatriangulenium ion in DNA: binding, electron transfer, x-ray crystallography, and electronic structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trioxatriangulenium ion (TOTA(+)) is a flat, somewhat hydrophobic compound that has a low-energy unoccupied molecular orbital. It binds to duplex DNA by intercalation with a preference for G-C base pairs. Irradiation of intercalated TOTA(+) causes charge (radical cation) injection that results in strand cleavage (after piperidine treatment) primarily at GG steps. The X-ray crystal structure of TOTA(+) intercalated in the hexameric duplex d[CGATCG](2) described here reveals that intercalation of TOTA(+) results in an unusually large extension of the helical rise of the DNA and that the orientation of TOTA(+) is sensitive to hydrogen-bonding interactions with backbone atoms of the DNA. Electronic structure calculations reveal no meaningful charge transfer from DNA to TOTA(+) because the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of TOTA(+), (LUMO)(T), falls in the gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital, (HOMO)(D), and the (LUMO)(D) of the DNA bases. These calculations reveal the importance of backbone, water, and counterion interactions, which shift the energy levels of the bases and the intercalated TOTA(+) orbitals significantly. The calculations also show that the inserted TOTA(+) strongly polarizes the intercalation cavity where a sheet of excess electron density surrounds the TOTA(+). PMID:12590535

Reynisson, Jóhannes; Schuster, Gary B; Howerton, Sheldon B; Williams, Loren Dean; Barnett, Robert N; Cleveland, Charles L; Landman, Uzi; Harrit, Niels; Chaires, Jonathan B

2003-02-26

379

Electron transfer experiments and atomic magnetism values. Progress report, February 1, 1975--September 30, 1975  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress in the first seven months of this new research is described. A new apparatus was constructed, tested and moved to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for studies using the Penning ion source test facility. Preliminary electron transfer cross section results for N4+, N5+, He2+ and C5+ ions on gases were obtained. Energy loss measurements made to date support expectations that single electron transfer for multiply-charged ions colliding with gas atoms produces excited final state ions

380

Analysis of intact proteins on a chromatographic time scale by electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry  

OpenAIRE

Direct analysis of intact proteins on a chromatographic time scale is demonstrated on a modified linear ion trap mass spectrometer using sequential ion/ion reactions, electron transfer and proton transfer, to dissociate the sample and to convert the resulting peptide fragments to a mixture of singly and doubly charged species. Proteins are converted to gas-phase, multiply-charged, positive ions by electrospray ionization and then allowed to react with fluoranthene radical anions. Electron tra...

Chi, An; Bai, Dina L.; Geer, Lewis Y.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.

2007-01-01

381

Microbial nanowires: a new paradigm for biological electron transfer and bioelectronics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery that Geobacter sulfurreducens can produce protein filaments with metallic-like conductivity, known as microbial nanowires, that facilitate long-range electron transport is a paradigm shift in biological electron transfer and has important implications for biogeochemistry, microbial ecology, and the emerging field of bioelectronics. Although filaments in a wide diversity of microorganisms have been called microbial nanowires, the type IV pili of G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens are the only filaments that have been shown to be required for extracellular electron transport to extracellular electron acceptors or for conduction of electrons through biofilms. Studies of G. sulfurreducens pili preparations and intact biofilms under physiologically relevant conditions have provided multiple lines of evidence for metallic-like conduction along the length of pili and for the possibility of pili networks to confer high conductivity within biofilms. This mechanism of electron conduction contrasts with the previously known mechanism for biological electron transfer via electron tunneling or hopping between closely associated molecules, a strategy unlikely to be well adapted for long-range electron transport outside the cell. In addition to promoting electron exchange with abiotic electron acceptors, microbial nanowires have recently been shown to be involved in direct interspecies electron transfer between syntrophic partners. An improved understanding of the mechanisms for metallic-like conductivity in microbial nanowires, as well as engineering microorganisms with desirable catalytic abilities with nanowires, could lead to new applications in microbial electrosynthesis and bioelectronics. PMID:22614997

Malvankar, Nikhil S; Lovley, Derek R

2012-06-01

382

Reaction dynamics and proton coupled electron transfer: studies of tyrosine-based charge transfer in natural and biomimetic systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

In bioenergetic reactions, electrons are transferred long distances via a hopping mechanism. In photosynthesis and DNA synthesis, the aromatic amino acid residue, tyrosine, functions as an intermediate that is transiently oxidized and reduced during long distance electron transfer. At physiological pH values, oxidation of tyrosine is associated with a deprotonation of the phenolic oxygen, giving rise to a proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction. Tyrosine-based PCET reactions are important in photosystem II, which carries out the light-induced oxidation of water, and in ribonucleotide reductase, which reduces ribonucleotides to form deoxynucleotides. Photosystem II contains two redox-active tyrosines, YD (Y160 in the D2 polypeptide) and YZ (Y161 in the D1 polypeptide). YD forms a light-induced stable radical, while YZ functions as an essential charge relay, oxidizing the catalytic Mn?CaO? cluster on each of four photo-oxidation reactions. In Escherichia coli class 1a RNR, the ?2 subunit contains the radical initiator, Y122O•, which is reversibly reduced and oxidized in long range electron transfer with the ?2 subunit. In the isolated E. coli ?2 subunit, Y122O• is a stable radical, but Y122O• is activated for rapid PCET in an ?2?2 substrate/effector complex. Recent results concerning the structure and function of YD, YZ, and Y122 are reviewed here. Comparison is made to recent results derived from bioengineered proteins and biomimetic compounds, in which tyrosine-based charge transfer mechanisms have been investigated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vibrational spectroscopies and bioenergetic systems. PMID:25260243

Barry, Bridgette A

2015-01-01

383

Structural snapshots of yeast alkyl hydroperoxide reductase Ahp1 peroxiredoxin reveal a novel two-cysteine mechanism of electron transfer to eliminate reactive oxygen species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are thiol-specific antioxidant proteins that protect cells against reactive oxygen species and are involved in cellular signaling pathways. Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase Ahp1 belongs to the Prx5 subfamily and is a two-cysteine (2-Cys) Prx that forms an intermolecular disulfide bond. Enzymatic assays and bioinformatics enabled us to re-assign the peroxidatic cysteine (C(P)) to Cys-62 and the resolving cysteine (C(R)) to Cys-31 but not the previously reported Cys-120. Thus Ahp1 represents the first 2-Cys Prx with a peroxidatic cysteine after the resolving cysteine in the primary sequence. We also found the positive cooperativity of the substrate t-butyl hydroperoxide binding to Ahp1 homodimer at a Hill coefficient of ?2, which enabled Ahp1 to eliminate hydroperoxide at much higher efficiency. To gain the structural insights into the catalytic cycle of Ahp1, we determined the crystal structures of Ahp1 in the oxidized, reduced, and Trx2-complexed forms at 2.40, 2.91, and 2.10 ? resolution, respectively. Structural superposition of the oxidized to the reduced form revealed significant conformational changes at the segments containing C(P) and C(R). An intermolecular C(P)-C(R) disulfide bond crossing the A-type dimer interface distinguishes Ahp1 from other typical 2-Cys Prxs. The structure of the Ahp1-Trx2 complex showed for the first time how the electron transfers from thioredoxin to a peroxidase with a thioredoxin-like fold. In addition, site-directed mutagenesis in combination with enzymatic assays suggested that the peroxidase activity of Ahp1 would be altered upon the urmylation (covalently conjugated to ubiquitin-related modifier Urm1) of Lys-32. PMID:22474296

Lian, Fu-Ming; Yu, Jiang; Ma, Xiao-Xiao; Yu, Xiao-Jie; Chen, Yuxing; Zhou, Cong-Zhao

2012-05-18

384

Nanofibers of hydrogen-bonded two-component gel with closely connected p- and n-channels and photoinduced electron transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

An D-A-D gelator (DTCQ) was designed and synthesized using 2,3-dimethyl-5,8-di(thiophen-2-yl)quinoxaline and N-alkyl 3-aminocarbazole units as acceptor and donor, respectively, which were linked by a single bond. The compound could gelate several solvents, such as benzyl alcohol, aniline, acetophenone, and o-dichlorobenzene, as well as self-assemble into one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers in gel phase. The absorption and infrared spectra of the gels indicated that ?-? interactions between aromatic moieties, intermolecular hydrogen bonds between amide units, and van der Waals forces were the driving forces for the formation of 1D self-assemblies and gel. DTCQ gel was red and emits red fluorescence because it has a strong absorption band at 487 nm and an emissive band at 620 nm. Moreover, DTCQ and a fullerene carboxylic acid formed two-component gel, in which the two compounds developed a hydrogen bond complex and self-assembled into 1D nanofibers with closely connected p- and n-channels. The nanofibrous xerogel film can rapidly generate a photocurrent under visible-light radiation through electron transfer from the gelator to fullerene, and then, the excellent exciton separation and charge transfer to two electrodes. PMID:25347786

Xue, Pengchong; Wang, Panpan; Yao, Boqi; Sun, Jiabao; Gong, Peng; Zhang, Zhenqi; Qian, Chong; Lu, Ran

2014-12-10

385

Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer in coumarin 343 sensitized TiO2-colloidal solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Photoinduced electron transfer from organic dye molecules to semiconductor nanoparticles is the first and most important reaction step for the mechanism in the so called “wet solar cells” [1]. The time scale between the photoexcitation of the dye and the electron injection into the conduction band of the semiconductor colloid varies from a few tens of femtoseconds to nanoseconds, depending on the specific electron transfer parameters of the system, e.g., electronic coupling or free energy values of donor and acceptor molecules [2–10]. We show that visible pump/ white light probe is a very efficient tool to investigate the electron injection reaction allowing to observe simultaneously the relaxation of the excited dye, the injection process of the electron, the cooling of the injected electron and the charge recombination reaction.

Michael Grätzel

1999-01-01

386

Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer of Ruthenium(III)-Pterin Complexes: A Mechanistic Insight  

OpenAIRE

Ruthenium(II) complexes having pterins of redox-active heteroaromatic coenzymes as ligands were demonstrated to perform multistep proton transfer (PT), electron transfer (ET), and proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes. Thermodynamic parameters including pKa, bond dissociation energy (BDE) of multistep PCET processes in acetonitrile (MeCN) were determined for ruthenium-pterin complexes, [RuII(Hdmp)(TPA)](ClO4)2 (1), [RuII(Hdmdmp)(TPA)](ClO4)2 (2), [RuII(dmp?)(TPA)]ClO4 (3) and [R...

Miyazaki, Soushi; Kojima, Takahiko; Mayer, James M.; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

2009-01-01

387

77 FR 6310 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E)  

Science.gov (United States)

...customers, but sends a couple of international consumer...iii) any fees and taxes imposed on the remittance...the transfer. (ii) Taxes described in Sec. 1005...section only if those taxes are a percentage of the...customers, but sends a couple of international...

2012-02-07

388

Optimized intermolecular potential for nitriles based on Anisotropic United Atoms model.  

Science.gov (United States)

An extension of the anisotropic united atoms intermolecular potential model is proposed for nitriles. The electrostatic part of the intermolecular potential is calculated using atomic charges obtained by a simple Mulliken population analysis. The repulsion-dispersion interaction parameters for methyl and methylene groups are taken from transferable AUA4 literature parameters [Ungerer et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2000, 112, 5499]. Non-bonding Lennard-Jones intermolecular potential parameters are regressed for the carbon and nitrogen atoms of the nitrile group (-C[triple bound] N) from experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data of acetonitrile. Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data agreement is very good for acetonitrile, and better than previous molecular potential proposed by Hloucha et al. [J. Chem. Phys., 2000, 113, 5401]. The transferability of the resulting potential is then successfully tested, without any further readjustment, to predict vapor-liquid phase equilibrium of propionitrile and n-butyronitrile. PMID:18478282

Hadj-Kali, Mohamed Kamel; Gerbaud, Vincent; Joulia, Xavier; Lacaze-Dufaure, Corinne; Mijoule, Claude; Ungerer, Philippe

2008-07-01

389

Fabrication of nanowire electronics on nonconventional substrates by water-assisted transfer printing method.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a simple, versatile, and wafer-scale water-assisted transfer printing method (WTP) that enables the transfer of nanowire devices onto diverse nonconventional substrates that were not easily accessible before, such as paper, plastics, tapes, glass, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), aluminum foil, and ultrathin polymer substrates. The WTP method relies on the phenomenon of water penetrating into the interface between Ni and SiO(2). The transfer yield is nearly 100%, and the transferred devices, including NW resistors, diodes, and field effect transistors, maintain their original geometries and electronic properties with high fidelity. PMID:21696196

Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Zheng, Xiaolin

2011-08-10

390

Ultrafast competition between energy and charge transfer in a functionalized electron donor/fullerene derivative  

Science.gov (United States)

The fact that fullerenes are good electron acceptors has generated interest in covalently linked complexes between electron donors and fullerenes; photoinduced charge transfer in these dyads has great potential for use in photovoltaic devices. In this Letter, we investigate the excited-state properties of a perylene-fulleropyrrolidine dyad using steady-state and femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopies. Following photoexcitation, charge separation and energy transfer occur in nearly equal proportion; both processes take place on a sub-picosecond timescale. This suggests that competition between energy and charge transfer is common in these molecular systems, so that the best molecules for device applications are not necessarily those with the fastest electron transfer rates.

Martini, Ignacio B.; Ma, Bin; Da Ros, Tatiana; Helgeson, Roger; Wudl, Fred; Schwartz, Benjamin J.

2000-09-01

391

Electron transfer reactions in structural units of copper proteins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In previous pulse radiolysis studies it was suggested that the reduction of the Cu(II) ions in copper proteins by the hydrated electron is a multi-step electron migration process. The technique has been extended to investigate the reduction of some structural units of these proteins. These studies include: the reaction of the hydrated electron with peptides, the reaction of the disulphide bridge with formate radical ion and radicals produced by the reduction of peptides, and the reaction of Cu(II)-peptide complex with esub(aq)sup(-) and CO2-. Using these results the reduction mechanism of copper and other proteins will be discussed. (author)

392

MAGNETIC PROPERTIES AND ELECTRON TRANSFER IN BINUCLEAR ORGANO-IRON SANDWICHES  

OpenAIRE

Bi-iron electron reservoirs complexes, of sandwich structure, have been studied in the 36, 37, 38 e- states, by Mössbauer spectroscopy in external magnetic fields. The nature of the various couplings between the 19 e- subunits has been elucidated, and correlated to the electron transfer to the bridge in the mixed valence state.

Guillin, J.; Desbois, M.; Lacoste, M.; Astruc, D.; Varret, F.

1988-01-01

393

ESR studies of radiation induced electron transfer between myosin and caffeic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanism of radiation induced electron transfer within a series of binary molecular aggregates, which were composed of myosin and caffeic acid with varied molar ratios (r) of amino acid residues in myosin to caffeic acid, has been studied by resolution of composite ESR spectra recorded at 77 K. A series of spin transfer ratios (RST) defined as the spin concentration ratios of caffeic acid anion radical arising from transfer of captured electron by peptide chain of myosin to that from directly trapping of secondary electrons by caffeic acid were obtained. A series of RST were plotted against r varied from 1:1 to 100:1. A linear relationship between RSt and r demonstrates that RSt increase linearly with decrease of caffeic acid content. The capture of radiation induced secondary electrons depend on the electron affinities of components including electron affinitive amino acid residues and peptide carbonyl of myosin and caffeic acid. The process of electron transfer along peptide chain and trapping on caffeic acid finally has been elucidated based on the comparison of the energies of lowest empty molecular orbital (ELUMO) of the electron affinitive components and reaction rate constants of eaq- with these components respectively using pulse radiolysis techniques

394

77 FR 30923 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E)  

Science.gov (United States)

...Prepaid cards are one of the fastest growing payment instruments in the United States. The prepaid...which a consumer can use anywhere that accepts payment from a retail electronic payments network, such as Visa, MasterCard, American...

2012-05-24

395

Molecular view of an electron transfer process essential for iron-sulfur protein biogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biogenesis of iron-sulfur cluster proteins is a highly regulated process that requires complex protein machineries. In the cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly machinery, two human key proteins--NADPH-dependent diflavin oxidoreductase 1 (Ndor1) and anamorsin--form a stable complex in vivo that was proposed to provide electrons for assembling cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster proteins. The Ndor1-anamorsin interaction was also suggested to be implicated in the regulation of cell survival/death mechanisms. In the present work we unravel the molecular basis of recognition between Ndor1 and anamorsin and of the electron transfer process. This is based on the structural characterization of the two partner proteins, the investigation of the electron transfer process, and the identification of those protein regions involved in complex formation and those involved in electron transfer. We found that an unstructured region of anamorsin is essential for the formation of a specific and stable protein complex with Ndor1, whereas the C-terminal region of anamorsin, containing the [2Fe-2S] redox center, transiently interacts through complementary charged residues with the FMN-binding site region of Ndor1 to perform electron transfer. Our results propose a molecular model of the electron transfer process that is crucial for understanding the functional role of this interaction in human cells. PMID:23596212

Banci, Lucia; Bertini, Ivano; Calderone, Vito; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Giachetti, Andrea; Jaiswal, Deepa; Mikolajczyk, Maciej; Piccioli, Mario; Winkelmann, Julia

2013-04-30

396

Molecular view of an electron transfer process essential for iron–sulfur protein biogenesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Biogenesis of iron–sulfur cluster proteins is a highly regulated process that requires complex protein machineries. In the cytosolic iron–sulfur protein assembly machinery, two human key proteins—NADPH-dependent diflavin oxidoreductase 1 (Ndor1) and anamorsin—form a stable complex in vivo that was proposed to provide electrons for assembling cytosolic iron–sulfur cluster proteins. The Ndor1–anamorsin interaction was also suggested to be implicated in the regulation of cell survival/death mechanisms. In the present work we unravel the molecular basis of recognition between Ndor1 and anamorsin and of the electron transfer process. This is based on the structural characterization of the two partner proteins, the investigation of the electron transfer process, and the identification of those protein regions involved in complex formation and those involved in electron transfer. We found that an unstructured region of anamorsin is essential for the formation of a specific and stable protein complex with Ndor1, whereas the C-terminal region of anamorsin, containing the [2Fe-2S] redox center, transiently interacts through complementary charged residues with the FMN-binding site region of Ndor1 to perform electron transfer. Our results propose a molecular model of the electron transfer process that is crucial for understanding the functional role of this interaction in human cells. PMID:23596212

Banci, Lucia; Bertini, Ivano; Calderone, Vito; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Giachetti, Andrea; Jaiswal, Deepa; Mikolajczyk, Maciej; Piccioli, Mario; Winkelmann, Julia

2013-01-01

397

How do solvent relaxation dynamics affect electron transfer rates. A study in rigid solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nonadiabatic electron transfer has been studied in glycerol in which the solvent relaxation time (tau/sub L/ is varied (by temperature) from 10-8 to 10-1 s. A strong dependence of rate on tau is observed with kappa approx. (tau/sub L/)-06. A qualitative rationale suggests that the actual dependence for a nonadiabatic process can range from (tau/sub L/ )0 to (tau/sub L/)-1 depending on whether the electronic coupling strength or solvent polarization determines the frequency factor for reaction. Such intermediate cases may be significant in a variety of condensed-phase electron-transfer processes

398

Excitation of the ligand-to-metal charge transfer band induces electron tunnelling in azurin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optical excitation of azurin blue copper protein immobilized on indium-tin oxide, in resonance with its ligand-to-metal charge transfer absorption band, resulted in a light-induced current tunnelling within the protein milieu. The related electron transport rate is estimated to be about 10{sup 5}?s{sup ?1}. A model based on resonant tunnelling through an azurin excited molecular state is proposed. The capability of controlling electron transfer processes through light pulses opens interesting perspectives for implementation of azurin in bio-nano-opto-electronic devices.

Baldacchini, Chiara [Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, DEB-CNISM, Università della Tuscia, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Institute of Agro-environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council, I-05010 Porano (Italy); Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore, E-mail: cannistr@unitus.it [Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, DEB-CNISM, Università della Tuscia, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy)

2014-03-03

399

Spectroscopic and Computational Studies of Nitrite Reductase: Proton Induced Electron Transfer and Backbonding Contributions to Reactivity  

OpenAIRE

A combination of spectroscopy and DFT calculations has been used to define the geometric and electronic structure of the nitrite bound type 2 (T2) copper site at high and low pH in nitrite reductase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. At high pH there is no electron transfer from reduced type 1 (T1) to the nitrite bound T2 copper, while protonation triggers T1 ? T2 electron transfer and generation of NO. The DFT calculated reaction coordinate for the N-O bond cleavage in nitrite reduction by the ...

Ghosh, Somdatta; Dey, Abhishek; Sun, Yan; Scholes, Charles P.; Solomon, Edward I.

2009-01-01

400

Photoinduced electron transfer from semiconductor quantum dots to metal oxide nanoparticles  

OpenAIRE

Quantum dot-metal oxide junctions are an integral part of next-generation solar cells, light emitting diodes, and nanostructured electronic arrays. Here we present a comprehensive examination of electron transfer at these junctions, using a series of CdSe quantum dot donors (sizes 2.8, 3.3, 4.0, and 4.2 nm in diameter) and metal oxide nanoparticle acceptors (SnO2, TiO2, and ZnO). Apparent electron transfer rate constants showed strong dependence on change in system free energy, exhibiting a ...

Tvrdy, Kevin; Frantsuzov, Pavel A.; Kamat, Prashant V.

2011-01-01

401

Electron transfer and coupling in graphene–tungsten disulfide van der Waals heterostructures  

Science.gov (United States)

The newly discovered two-dimensional materials can be used to form atomically thin and sharp van der Waals heterostructures with nearly perfect interface qualities, which can transform the science and technology of semiconductor heterostructures. Owing to the weak van der Waals interlayer coupling, the electronic states of participating materials remain largely unchanged. Hence, emergent properties of these structures rely on two key elements: electron transfer across the interface and interlayer coupling. Here we show, using graphene–tungsten disulfide heterostructures as an example, evidence of ultrafast and highly efficient interlayer electron transfer and strong interlayer coupling and control. We find that photocarriers injected in tungsten disulfide transfer to graphene in 1?ps and with near-unity efficiency. We also demonstrate that optical properties of tungsten disulfide can be effectively tuned by carriers in graphene. These findings illustrate basic processes required for using van der Waals heterostructures in electronics and photonics.

He, Jiaqi; Kumar, Nardeep; Bellus, Matthew Z.; Chiu, Hsin-Ying; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Hui

2014-11-01

402

Storage, transport, release: heme versatility in nitrite reductase electron transfer studied by molecular dynamics simulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using molecular dynamics simulations of the thermodynamic integration type, we study the energetics and kinetics of electron transfer through the nitrite reductase enzyme of Sulfurospirillum deleyianum, Wolinella succinogenes and Campylobacter jejuni. In all of these five-heme proteins, the storage of an even number of electrons within a monomeric chain is thermodynamically favoured. Kinetically, two of these electrons are usually transferred almost simultaneously towards the active site. Although the free energy landscape for charge transfer varies significantly from organism to organism, the heme cofactor closest to the interface of a protein dimer always exhibits a particularly low free energy, suggesting that protein dimerization is functional. Interheme electron interaction effects do not play a significant role. PMID:25579411

Bauß, Anna; Koslowski, Thorsten

2015-01-28

403

Transfer printing of thermoreversible ion gels for flexible electronics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermally assisted transfer printing was employed to pattern thin films of high capacitance ion gels on polyimide, poly(ethylene terephthalate), and SiO2 substrates. The ion gels consisted of 20 wt?% block copolymer poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide-b-styrene and 80 wt?% ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)amide. Patterning resolution was on the order of 10 ?m. Importantly, ion gels containing the block polymer with short PS end blocks (3.4 kg/mol) could be transfer-printed because of thermoreversible gelation that enabled intimate gel-substrate contact at 100 °C, while gels with long PS blocks (11 kg/mol) were not printable at the same temperature due to poor wetting contact between the gel and substrates. By using printed ion gels as high-capacitance gate insulators, electrolyte-gated thin-film transistors were fabricated that operated at low voltages (printed transistors demonstrated the excellent reproducibility of the printing technique. The results show that transfer printing is an attractive route to pattern high-capacitance ion gels for flexible thin-film devices. PMID:24028461

Lee, Keun Hyung; Zhang, Sipei; Gu, Yuanyan; Lodge, Timothy P; Frisbie, C Daniel

2013-10-01

404

Modulating the electronic structure of chromophores by chemical substituents for efficient energy transfer: application to fluorone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strong electron correlation within a quasi-spin model of chromophores was recently shown to enhance exciton energy transfer significantly. Here we investigate how the modulation of the electronic structure of the chromophores by chemical substitution can enhance energy-transfer efficiency. Unlike previous work that does not consider the direct effect of the electronic structure on exciton dynamics, we add chemical substituents to the fluorone dimer to study the effect of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents on exciton energy transfer. The exciton dynamics are studied from the solution of a quantum Liouville equation for an open system whose model Hamiltonian is derived from excited-state electronic structure calculations. Both van der Waals energies and coupling energies, arising from the Hellmann-Feynman force generated upon transferring the dimers from infinity to a finite separation, are built into the model Hamiltonian. Though these two effects are implicitly treated in dipole-based models, their explicit and separate treatment as discussed here is critical to forging the correct connection with the electronic structure calculations. We find that the addition of electron-donating substituents to the fluorone system results in an increase in exciton-transfer rates by factors ranging from 1.3-1.9. The computed oscillator strength is consistent with the recent experimental results on a larger heterodimer system containing fluorone. The oscillator strength increases with the addition of electron-donating substituents. Our results indicate that the study of chromophore networks via electronic structure will help in the future design of efficient synthetic light-harvesting systems. PMID:25062094

Sand, Andrew M; Liu, Claire; Valentine, Andrew J S; Mazziotti, David A

2014-08-01

405

Tuning intramolecular electron and energy transfer processes in novel conjugates of La2@C80 and electron accepting subphthalocyanines.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of two conjugates with La2@C80 and subphthalocyanine (SubPc) have been prepared and characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry, absorption, fluorescence, and femtosecond resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The strong electron-donating character of La2@C80 is essential to power an intramolecular electron-transfer in the La2@C80-SubPc conjugates upon photoexcitation. PMID:25407560

Feng, Lai; Rudolf, Marc; Trukhina, Olga; Slanina, Zdenek; Uhlik, Filip; Lu, Xing; Torres, Tomas; Guldi, Dirk M; Akasaka, Takeshi

2015-01-01

406

Synthesis and Photoinduced Electron Transfer of Donor-Sensitizer-Acceptor Systems  

OpenAIRE

Artificial systems involving water oxidation and solar cells are promising ways for the conversion of solar energy into fuels and electricity. These systems usually consist of a photosensitizer, an electron donor and / or an electron acceptor. This thesis deals with the synthesis and photoinduced electron transfer of several donor-sensitizer-acceptor supramolecular systems. The first part of this thesis describes the synthesis and properties of two novel dinuclear ruthenium complexes as elect...

Xu, Yunhua

2005-01-01

407

Properties of the transfer matrices of deflecting magnet systems for free electron laser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oscillation of the free electron laser (FEL) requires the high current and low emittance electron beam. The beam transport system should be achromatic and isochronous to preserve the brightness and the emittance of the electron beam. In this paper we clarify the algebraic properties of the transfer matrices of the magnetic deflection system, which is a key component in the beam transport line. (author)

408

Investigating the transfer of techniques for electronic technical support documentation from aerospace to machine tools  

OpenAIRE

Abstract This paper describes a scoping study that investigated the possible transfer of techniques for creation of electronic technical support documentation from the aerospace industry to the machine tool industry. Electronic maintenance manuals have been supplied by aircraft manufacturers over the past 20 years with demonstrated benefits. Despite research that indicates the likelihood of similar benefits for machine tool users, the supply of electronic technical support d...

Greenough, Richard M.; Williams, David

2007-01-01

409

Long-range intramolecular electron transfer in aromatic radical anions and binuclear transition metal complexes  

OpenAIRE

Intramolecular electron transfer (ET) over distances up to about 10 Å between states in which the electron is localized on donor and acceptor groups by interaction with molecular or external solvent nuclear motion occurs, in particular, in two classes of systems. The excess electron in anionic radicals containing two aromatic end groups connected by a flexible polymethylene chain or a rigid cyclohexane frame is thus trapped on either aromatic end group, and ET between these groups can be det...

Kuznetsov, A. M.; Ulstrup, Jens

1981-01-01

410

The transfer between electron bulk kinetic energy and thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By performing two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the transfer between electron bulk kinetic and electron thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection. In the vicinity of the X line, the electron bulk kinetic energy density is much larger than the electron thermal energy density. The evolution of the electron bulk kinetic energy is mainly determined by the work done by the electric field force and electron pressure gradient force. The work done by the electron gradient pressure force in the vicinity of the X line is changed to the electron enthalpy flux. In the magnetic island, the electron enthalpy flux is transferred to the electron thermal energy due to the compressibility of the plasma in the magnetic island. The compression of the plasma in the magnetic island is the consequence of the electromagnetic force acting on the plasma as the magnetic field lines release their tension after being reconnected. Therefore, we can observe that in the magnetic island the electron thermal energy density is much larger than the electron bulk kinetic energy density

411

Designed Surface Residue Substitutions in [NiFe] Hydrogenase that Improve Electron Transfer Characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Photobiological hydrogen production is an attractive, carbon-neutral means to convert solar energy to hydrogen. We build on previous research improving the Alteromonas macleodii “Deep Ecotype” [NiFe] hydrogenase, and report progress towards creating an artificial electron transfer pathway to supply the hydrogenase with electrons necessary for hydrogen production. Ferredoxin is the first soluble electron transfer mediator to receive high-energy electrons from photosystem I, and bears an electron with sufficient potential to efficiently reduce protons. Thus, we engineered a hydrogenase-ferredoxin fusion that also contained several other modifications. In addition to the C-terminal ferredoxin fusion, we truncated the C-terminus of the hydrogenase small subunit, identified as the available terminus closer to the electron transfer region. We also neutralized an anionic patch surrounding the interface Fe-S cluster to improve transfer kinetics with the negatively charged ferredoxin. Initial screening showed the enzyme tolerated both truncation and charge neutralization on the small subunit ferredoxin-binding face. While the enzyme activity was relatively unchanged using the substrate methyl viologen, we observed a marked improvement from both the ferredoxin fusion and surface modification using only dithionite as an electron donor. Combining ferredoxin fusion and surface charge modification showed progressively improved activity in an in vitro assay with purified enzyme.

Isaac T. Yonemoto

2015-01-01

412

Designed Surface Residue Substitutions in [NiFe] Hydrogenase that Improve Electron Transfer Characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photobiological hydrogen production is an attractive, carbon-neutral means to convert solar energy to hydrogen. We build on previous research improving the Alteromonas macleodii "Deep Ecotype" [NiFe] hydrogenase, and report progress towards creating an artificial electron transfer pathway to supply the hydrogenase with electrons necessary for hydrogen production. Ferredoxin is the first soluble electron transfer mediator to receive high-energy electrons from photosystem I, and bears an electron with sufficient potential to efficiently reduce protons. Thus, we engineered a hydrogenase-ferredoxin fusion that also contained several other modifications. In addition to the C-terminal ferredoxin fusion, we truncated the C-terminus of the hydrogenase small subunit, identified as the available terminus closer to the electron transfer region. We also neutralized an anionic patch surrounding the interface Fe-S cluster to improve transfer kinetics with the negatively charged ferredoxin. Initial screening showed the enzyme tolerated both truncation and charge neutralization on the small subunit ferredoxin-binding face. While the enzyme activity was relatively unchanged using the substrate methyl viologen, we observed a marked improvement from both the ferredoxin fusion and surface modification using only dithionite as an electron donor. Combining ferredoxin fusion and surface charge modification showed progressively improved activity in an in vitro assay with purified enzyme. PMID:25603181

Yonemoto, Isaac T; Smith, Hamilton O; Weyman, Philip D

2015-01-01

413

Designed Surface Residue Substitutions in [NiFe] Hydrogenase that Improve Electron Transfer Characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

Photobiological hydrogen production is an attractive, carbon-neutral means to convert solar energy to hydrogen. We build on previous research improving the Alteromonas macleodii “Deep Ecotype” [NiFe] hydrogenase, and report progress towards creating an artificial electron transfer pathway to supply the hydrogenase with electron