WorldWideScience

Sample records for inspired visual representation

  1. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representat...

  2. Transformation Properties of Learned Visual Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Taco S.; Welling, Max

    2014-01-01

    When a three-dimensional object moves relative to an observer, a change occurs on the observer's image plane and in the visual representation computed by a learned model. Starting with the idea that a good visual representation is one that transforms linearly under scene motions, we show, using the theory of group representations, that any such representation is equivalent to a combination of the elementary irreducible representations. We derive a striking relationship betwe...

  3. Visual representations of Iranian transgenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerifar, Elhum

    2011-01-01

    Transsexuality in Iran has gained much attention and media coverage in the past few years, particularly in its questionable depiction as a permitted loophole for homosexuality, which is prohibited under Iran's Islamic-inspired legal system. Of course, attention in the West is also encouraged by the “shock” that sex change is available in Iran, a country that Western media and society delights in portraying as monolithically repressive. As a result, Iranian filmmakers inevitably have their own agendas, which are unsurprisingly brought into the film making process—from a desire to sell a product that will appeal to the Western market, to films that endorse specific socio-political agendas. This paper is an attempt to situate sex change and representations of sex change in Iran within a wider theoretical framework than the frequently reiterated conflation with homosexuality, and to open and engage with a wider debate concerning transsexuality in Iran, as well as to specifically analyze the representation of transexuality, in view of its current prominent presence in media. PMID:21910275

  4. A Lambda Term Representation Inspired by Linear Ordered Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Abel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new nameless representation of lambda terms inspired by ordered logic. At a lambda abstraction, number and relative position of all occurrences of the bound variable are stored, and application carries the additional information where to cut the variable context into function and argument part. This way, complete information about free variable occurrence is available at each subterm without requiring a traversal, and environments can be kept exact such that they only assign values to variables that actually occur in the associated term. Our approach avoids space leaks in interpreters that build function closures. In this article, we prove correctness of the new representation and present an experimental evaluation of its performance in a proof checker for the Edinburgh Logical Framework. Keywords: representation of binders, explicit substitutions, ordered contexts, space leaks, Logical Framework.

  5. A Lambda Term Representation Inspired by Linear Ordered Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Andreas; 10.4204/EPTCS.71.1

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new nameless representation of lambda terms inspired by ordered logic. At a lambda abstraction, number and relative position of all occurrences of the bound variable are stored, and application carries the additional information where to cut the variable context into function and argument part. This way, complete information about free variable occurrence is available at each subterm without requiring a traversal, and environments can be kept exact such that they only assign values to variables that actually occur in the associated term. Our approach avoids space leaks in interpreters that build function closures. In this article, we prove correctness of the new representation and present an experimental evaluation of its performance in a proof checker for the Edinburgh Logical Framework. Keywords: representation of binders, explicit substitutions, ordered contexts, space leaks, Logical Framework.

  6. Distorted representation in visual tourism research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2015-01-01

    Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations. On this background, this paper develops the notion ‘distorted representation’ to illustrate that blurred and obscure photos can in fact be intelligible and sensible in understanding tourism. Through an exploration of the overwhelmed and unintended practices of visual fieldwork, distorted representation illustrates how photographic materialities, performativities and sensations contribute to new tourism knowledges. While highlighting the potential of distorted representation, the paper posits a cautionary note in regards to the influential role of academic journals in determining the qualities of visual data. The paper exemplifies distorted representation through three impressionistic tales derived from ethnographic research on the European rail travel phenomenon: interrail.

  7. On visual determination of full inspiration on CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of experienced thoracic radiologists to assess full inspiration based on two CT slices, one above and one below the carina, in normal subjects. Ten healthy volunteers were studied. Total lung capacity (TLC) was measured with a body plethysmograph. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed in two slices at TLC and at various expired volumes. Mean Hounsfield values (HU) were calculated. Unidentifiable images, stored on a web server, were analysed visually by experienced thoracic radiologists. The results show that the mean lung density at TLC varied by approximately 40 HU between individuals. Within an individual this may correspond to a decrease in lung volume of approximately 25% of TLC. On visual determination of images taken at 65-74% of TLC, more than one-third of the images were assessed as taken at full inspiration; of the images taken at 75-84% of TLC, approximately 50% were assessed as taken at full inspiration. We conclude that visual determination of full inspiration on CT images in normal subjects is highly inaccurate. If quantitative density measurements are to be used in the diagnosis or follow-up of lung disease, thorough control of full inspiration is recommended. (orig.)

  8. Visual texture accurate material appearance measurement, representation and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Haindl, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This book surveys the state of the art in multidimensional, physically-correct visual texture modeling. Features: reviews the entire process of texture synthesis, including material appearance representation, measurement, analysis, compression, modeling, editing, visualization, and perceptual evaluation; explains the derivation of the most common representations of visual texture, discussing their properties, advantages, and limitations; describes a range of techniques for the measurement of visual texture, including BRDF, SVBRDF, BTF and BSSRDF; investigates the visualization of textural info

  9. A Visually Inspired Variational Method for Automatic Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Huixian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A visually inspired variational method for automatic image registration is proposed to solve local deformation which traditional global registration model cannot well satisfy. The variational model considers local transformation, global smoothness and visual constraints. To account for intensity variations, we incorporate change of local contrast and brightness into our model. Firstly, the data entry of registration model is built according to the root-mean-square error of intensity; secondly, adaptive constraint using H1 half norm is used to ensure the global smooth in the model; finally, in order to make sure that the spatial attributes of the image satisfy the visual requirements and without distortion, the linear features are used as priori constraints. During the solution of model parameters, the whole image is used to globally estimate the transformation parameters, and then local estimation of the parameters is taken in a small neighbor. The entire procedure is built upon a multi-level differential framework, and the transformation parameters are calculated iteratively, which can consider both global smoothness and local distortion. To assess the quality of the proposed method, ZY-3 satellite images were used. Visual and quantitative analysis proved that the proposed method can significantly improve the registration precision.

  10. Cross-cultural understanding through visual representation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kristina, Beckman; Susan N, Smith.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los dibujos de los estudiantes internacionales que hicieron de su país natal para su tarea de composición. Estos estudiantes de inglés como segundo idioma a menudo tienen dificultad llenando los requisitos del programa de escritura cuyo enfoque es el discurso argumentativo con [...] tesis y apoyo. Cualquier ensayo considerado irrelevante se censura y se considera estar "fuera del topico". Algunos estudiantes ven esta estructura demasiado directa e irrespetuosa. Mientras que no todos los estudiantes encuentran fácil la representación visual, los dibujos relevan ciertas características multiculturales básicias incrustadas en la escritura que se reflejan en las asignaturas. Primeramente discutimos los dibujos para el contenido retórico y luego lo discutimos utilizando la perspectiva de los estudiantes. Finalmente, analizamos como se formó nuestra propia pedagogía. Abstract in english This article analyzes international students' drawings of their home countries' essay assignments. These English as a Second Language (ESL) students often have difficulty in meeting the local demands of our Writing Program, which centers on argumentative writing with thesis and support. Any part of [...] an essay deemed irrelevant is censured as "off topic;" some students see this structure as too direct or even impolite. While not all students found visual representation easy, the drawings reveal some basic assumptions about writing embodied in their native cultures' assignments. We discuss the drawings first for visual rhetorical content, then in the students' own terms. Last, we consider how our own pedagogy has been shaped.

  11. Acoustic Tactile Representation of Visual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pubudu Madhawa

    Our goal is to explore the use of hearing and touch to convey graphical and pictorial information to visually impaired people. Our focus is on dynamic, interactive display of visual information using existing, widely available devices, such as smart phones and tablets with touch sensitive screens. We propose a new approach for acoustic-tactile representation of visual signals that can be implemented on a touch screen and allows the user to actively explore a two-dimensional layout consisting of one or more objects with a finger or a stylus while listening to auditory feedback via stereo headphones. The proposed approach is acoustic-tactile because sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used for pointing and kinesthetic feedback. A static overlay of raised-dot tactile patterns can also be added. A key distinguishing feature of the proposed approach is the use of spatial sound (directional and distance cues) to facilitate the active exploration of the layout. We consider a variety of configurations for acoustic-tactile rendering of object size, shape, identity, and location, as well as for the overall perception of simple layouts and scenes. While our primary goal is to explore the fundamental capabilities and limitations of representing visual information in acoustic-tactile form, we also consider a number of relatively simple configurations that can be tied to specific applications. In particular, we consider a simple scene layout consisting of objects in a linear arrangement, each with a distinct tapping sound, which we compare to a ''virtual cane.'' We will also present a configuration that can convey a ''Venn diagram.'' We present systematic subjective experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed display for shape perception, object identification and localization, and 2-D layout perception, as well as the applications. Our experiments were conducted with visually blocked subjects. The results are evaluated in terms of accuracy and speed, and they demonstrate the advantages of spatial sound for guiding the scanning finger or pointer in shape perception, object localization, and layout exploration. We show that these advantages increase with the amount of detail (smaller object size) in the display. Our experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the state of the art in shape perception, including variable friction displays. We also demonstrate that, even though they are currently available only as static overlays, raised dot patterns provide the best shape rendition in terms of both the accuracy and speed. Our experiments with layout rendering and perception demonstrate that simultaneous representation of objects, using the most effective approaches for directionality and distance rendering, approaches the optimal performance level provided by visual layout perception. Finally, experiments with the virtual cane and Venn diagram configurations demonstrate that the proposed techniques can be used effectively in simple but nontrivial real-world applications. One of the most important conclusions of our experiments is that there is a clear performance gap between experienced and inexperienced subjects, which indicates that there is a lot of room for improvement with appropriate and extensive training. By exploring a wide variety of design alternatives and focusing on different aspects of the acoustic-tactile interfaces, our results offer many valuable insights and great promise for the design of future systematic tests visually impaired and visually blocked subjects, utilizing the most effective configurations.

  12. Invariant representations for action recognition in the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchetti, Andrea; Isik, Leyla; Poggio, Tomaso

    2015-09-01

    The human brain can rapidly parse a constant stream of visual input. The majority of visual neuroscience studies, however, focus on responses to static, still-frame images. Here we use magnetoencephalography (MEG) decoding and a computational model to study invariant action recognition in videos. We created a well-controlled, naturalistic dataset to study action recognition across different views and actors. We find that, like objects, actions can also be read out from MEG data in under 200 ms (after the subject has viewed only 5 frames of video). Action can also be decoded across actor and viewpoint, showing that this early representation is invariant. Finally, we developed an extension of the HMAX model, inspired by Hubel and Wiesel's findings of simple and complex cells in primary visual cortex as well as a recent computational theory of the feedforward invariant systems, which is traditionally used to perform size- and position-invariant object recognition in images, to recognize actions. We show that instantiations of this model class can also perform recognition in natural videos that are robust to non-affine transformations. Specifically, view-invariant action recognition and action invariant actor identification in the model can be achieved by pooling across views or actions, in the same manner and model layer as affine transformations (size and position) in traditional HMAX. Together these results provide a temporal map of the first few hundred milliseconds of human action recognition as well as a mechanistic explanation of the computations underlying invariant visual recognition. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326246

  13. Separate visual representations for perception and for visually guided behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Converging evidence from several sources indicates that two distinct representations of visual space mediate perception and visually guided behavior, respectively. The two maps of visual space follow different rules; spatial values in either one can be biased without affecting the other. Ordinarily the two maps give equivalent responses because both are veridically in register with the world; special techniques are required to pull them apart. One such technique is saccadic suppression: small target displacements during saccadic eye movements are not preceived, though the displacements can change eye movements or pointing to the target. A second way to separate cognitive and motor-oriented maps is with induced motion: a slowly moving frame will make a fixed target appear to drift in the opposite direction, while motor behavior toward the target is unchanged. The same result occurs with stroboscopic induced motion, where the frame jump abruptly and the target seems to jump in the opposite direction. A third method of separating cognitive and motor maps, requiring no motion of target, background or eye, is the Roelofs effect: a target surrounded by an off-center rectangular frame will appear to be off-center in the direction opposite the frame. Again the effect influences perception, but in half of the subjects it does not influence pointing to the target. This experience also reveals more characteristics of the maps and their interactions with one another, the motor map apparently has little or no memory, and must be fed from the biased cognitive map if an enforced delay occurs between stimulus presentation and motor response. In designing spatial displays, the results mean that what you see isn't necessarily what you get. Displays must be designed with either perception or visually guided behavior in mind.

  14. Physiological Responese Measrement to Identify Online Visual Representation Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ping Hsu; Edward Meyen; Richard Branham

    2014-01-01

    This research involved the identification and validation of text-related visual display design principles from the literature. Representations were designed and developed that illustrated the intent of each visual display design principle included in the study. The representations were embedded in a research intervention and included validated examples of accurate displays of each principle and examples with varying degrees of inaccuracies. The representations were created based on design the...

  15. Expertise Reversal for Iconic Representations in Science Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Bruce D.; Plass, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of prior knowledge and cognitive development on the effectiveness of iconic representations in science visualizations was examined. Middle and high school students (N = 186) were given narrated visualizations of two chemistry topics: Kinetic Molecular Theory (Day 1) and Ideal Gas Laws (Day 2). For half of the visualizations, iconic…

  16. Constructing visual representations : investigating the use of tangible tokens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations and during their analytic activities. We conclude by suggesting implications for tool design to enable broader support for infovis authoring.

  17. Learning Shared, Discriminative, and Compact Representations for Visual Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Hans; Vidal, Rene; Soto, Alvaro

    2015-11-01

    Dictionary-based and part-based methods are among the most popular approaches to visual recognition. In both methods, a mid-level representation is built on top of low-level image descriptors and high-level classifiers are trained on top of the mid-level representation. While earlier methods built the mid-level representation without supervision, there is currently great interest in learning both representations jointly to make the mid-level representation more discriminative. In this work we propose a new approach to visual recognition that jointly learns a shared, discriminative, and compact mid-level representation and a compact high-level representation. By using a structured output learning framework, our approach directly handles the multiclass case at both levels of abstraction. Moreover, by using a group-sparse prior in the structured output learning framework, our approach encourages sharing of visual words and thus reduces the number of words used to represent each class. We test our proposed method on several popular benchmarks. Our results show that, by jointly learning mid- and high-level representations, and fostering the sharing of discriminative visual words among target classes, we are able to achieve state-of-the-art recognition performance using far less visual words than previous approaches. PMID:26440263

  18. String-inspired representations of photon/gluon amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Villanueva, Victor M

    2012-01-01

    The string-based Bern-Kosower rules provide an efficient way for obtaining parameter integral representations of the one-loop N - photon/gluon amplitudes involving a scalar, spinor or gluon loop, starting from a master formula and using a certain integration-by-parts (`IBP') procedure. Strassler observed that this algorithm also relates to gauge invariance, since it leads to the absorption of polarization vectors into field strength tensors. Here we present a systematic IBP algorithm that works for arbitrary N and leads to an integrand that is not only suitable for the application of the Bern-Kosower rules but also optimized with respect to gauge invariance. In the photon case this means manifest transversality at the integrand level, in the gluon case that a form factor decomposition of the amplitude into transversal and longitudinal parts is generated naturally by the IBP, without the necessity to consider the nonabelian Ward identities. Our algorithm is valid off-shell, and provides an extremely efficient ...

  19. Distorted representation in visual tourism research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2015-01-01

    Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations. On this background, this paper develops the notion ‘distorted representation’ to illustrate that blurred and obscure photos can in fact be intelligible and sensible in understanding tourism. Through an exploration of t...

  20. Representation and adaptation in the primary visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the processing of visual stimuli in local networks of the primary visual cortex. Cortical cells can display highly stereotypical behavior for some aspects of a stimulus, but show considerable plasticity with respect to others. Here, we investigate both, how neurons in the primary visual cortex achieve the stable representation of oriented contours and the cause of their adaptation to prolonged stimuli. The formation of orientation tuned responses is one of the best-explored fea...

  1. Mechanisms and representations of language-mediated visual attention

    OpenAIRE

    FalkHuettig; RameshKumarMishra; ChristianN LOlivers

    2012-01-01

    The experimental investigation of language-mediated visual attention is a promising way to study the interaction of the cognitive systems involved in language, vision, attention, and memory. Here we review recent research addressing three key issues with regard to how this oculomotor behavior is instantiated: levels of representation at which language-derived and vision-derived representations are integrated; attentional mechanisms; and types of memory. Central points in our discussion are (a...

  2. Mechanisms and Representations of Language-Mediated Visual Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Huettig, Falk; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar; Olivers, Christian N. L.

    2012-01-01

    The experimental investigation of language-mediated visual attention is a promising way to study the interaction of the cognitive systems involved in language, vision, attention, and memory. Here we highlight four challenges for a mechanistic account of this oculomotor behavior: the levels of representation at which language-derived and vision-derived representations are integrated; attentional mechanisms; types of memory; and the degree of individual and group differences. Central points in ...

  3. Online Metric-Weighted Linear Representations for Robust Visual Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xi; Shen, Chunhua; Dick, Anthony; Zhang, Zhongfei; Zhuang, Yueting

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a visual tracker based on a metric-weighted linear representation of appearance. In order to capture the interdependence of different feature dimensions, we develop two online distance metric learning methods using proximity comparison information and structured output learning. The learned metric is then incorporated into a linear representation of appearance. We show that online distance metric learning significantly improves the robustness o...

  4. Visual Representation Determines Search Difficulty: Explaining Visual Search Asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Bruce

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In visual search experiments there exist a variety of experimental paradigms in which a symmetric set of experimental conditions yields asymmetric corresponding task performance. There are a variety of examples of this that currently lack a satisfactory explanation. In this paper, we demonstrate that distinct classes of asymmetries may be explained by virtue of a few simple conditions that are consistent with current thinking surrounding computational modeling of visual search and coding in the primate brain. This includes a detailed look at the role that stimulus familiarity plays in the determination of search performance. Overall, we demonstrate that all of these asymmetries have a common origin, namely, they are a consequence of the encoding that appears in the visual cortex. The analysis associated with these cases yields insight into the problem of visual search in general and predictions of novel search asymmetries.

  5. Extracting Visual Patterns from Deep Learning Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Gasulla, D.; Béjar, J.; Cortés, U.; Ayguadé, E.; Labarta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Vector-space word representations based on neural network models can include linguistic regularities, enabling semantic operations based on vector arithmetic. In this paper, we explore an analogous approach applied to images. We define a methodology to obtain large and sparse vectors from individual images and image classes, by using a pre-trained model of the GoogLeNet architecture. We evaluate the vector-space after processing 20,000 ImageNet images, and find it to be high...

  6. Data Representations, Transformations, and Statistics for Visual Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, Ross

    2011-01-01

    Analytical reasoning techniques are methods by which users explore their data to obtain insight and knowledge that can directly support situational awareness and decision making. Recently, the analytical reasoning process has been augmented through the use of interactive visual representations and tools which utilize cognitive, design and perceptual principles. These tools are commonly referred to as visual analytics tools, and the underlying methods and principles have roots in a variety of disciplines. This chapter provides an introduction to young researchers as an overview of common visual

  7. Efficient visual system processing of spatial and luminance statistics in representational and non-representational art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Daniel J.; Friedenberg, Jay D.; Rockmore, Daniel N.

    2009-02-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that artists consistently seek modes of representation that are efficiently processed by the human visual system, and that these shared properties could leave statistical signatures. In earlier work, we showed evidence that perceived similarity of representational art could be predicted using intensity statistics to which the early visual system is attuned, though semantic content was also found to be an important factor. Here we report two studies that examine the visual perception of similarity. We test a collection of non-representational art, which we argue possesses useful statistical and semantic properties, in terms of the relationship between image statistics and basic perceptual responses. We find two simple statistics-both expressed as single values-that predict nearly a third of the overall variance in similarity judgments of abstract art. An efficient visual system could make a quick and reasonable guess as to the relationship of a given image to others (i.e., its context) by extracting these basic statistics early in the visual stream, and this may hold for natural scenes as well as art. But a major component of many types of art is representational content. In a second study, we present findings related to efficient representation of natural scene luminances in landscapes by a well-known painter. We show empirically that elements of contemporary approaches to high-dynamic range tone-mapping-which are themselves deeply rooted in an understanding of early visual system coding-are present in the way Vincent Van Gogh transforms scene luminances into painting luminances. We argue that global tone mapping functions are a useful descriptor of an artist's perceptual goals with respect to global illumination and we present evidence that mapping the scene to a painting with different implied lighting properties produces a less efficient mapping. Together, these studies suggest that statistical regularities in art can shed light on visual processing.

  8. Physiological Responese Measrement to Identify Online Visual Representation Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Hsu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research involved the identification and validation of text-related visual display design principles from the literature. Representations were designed and developed that illustrated the intent of each visual display design principle included in the study. The representations were embedded in a research intervention and included validated examples of accurate displays of each principle and examples with varying degrees of inaccuracies. The representations were created based on design theories of human cognition: perceptual, attention memory, and mental models [1][2][3][4][5], and presented via a monitor in a controlled research environment. The environmental controls included space appropriate to the experiment, constant temperature, consistent lighting, management of distractions including sound, monitoring of operation of the measurement device and the use of standardized instructions. Bertin’s seven visual variables: position, size, color, shape, value, orientation and texture, were also examined within the design principles [6]. The result of the independent samples t test did not find significant differences between good and poor visual designs for all images across subjects. However, the results of the paired-samples t test found significant mean differences between Bertin’s principles for color, value and orientation of visual designs across subjects. The findings support future online instructional designs and investigate the implications for the design of online instruction.

  9. Visual Tracking Based on Extreme Learning Machine and Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoxian; Tang, Linbo; Yang, Jinglin; Zhao, Baojun; Wang, Shuigen

    2015-01-01

    The existing sparse representation-based visual trackers mostly suffer from both being time consuming and having poor robustness problems. To address these issues, a novel tracking method is presented via combining sparse representation and an emerging learning technique, namely extreme learning machine (ELM). Specifically, visual tracking can be divided into two consecutive processes. Firstly, ELM is utilized to find the optimal separate hyperplane between the target observations and background ones. Thus, the trained ELM classification function is able to remove most of the candidate samples related to background contents efficiently, thereby reducing the total computational cost of the following sparse representation. Secondly, to further combine ELM and sparse representation, the resultant confidence values (i.e., probabilities to be a target) of samples on the ELM classification function are used to construct a new manifold learning constraint term of the sparse representation framework, which tends to achieve robuster results. Moreover, the accelerated proximal gradient method is used for deriving the optimal solution (in matrix form) of the constrained sparse tracking model. Additionally, the matrix form solution allows the candidate samples to be calculated in parallel, thereby leading to a higher efficiency. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracker. PMID:26506359

  10. Prior expectations bias sensory representations in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Peter; Brouwer, Gijs Joost; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2013-10-01

    Perception is strongly influenced by expectations. Accordingly, perception has sometimes been cast as a process of inference, whereby sensory inputs are combined with prior knowledge. However, despite a wealth of behavioral literature supporting an account of perception as probabilistic inference, the neural mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. One important question is whether top-down expectation biases stimulus representations in early sensory cortex, i.e., whether the integration of prior knowledge and bottom-up inputs is already observable at the earliest levels of sensory processing. Alternatively, early sensory processing may be unaffected by top-down expectations, and integration of prior knowledge and bottom-up input may take place in downstream association areas that are proposed to be involved in perceptual decision-making. Here, we implicitly manipulated human subjects' prior expectations about visual motion stimuli, and probed the effects on both perception and sensory representations in visual cortex. To this end, we measured neural activity noninvasively using functional magnetic resonance imaging, and applied a forward modeling approach to reconstruct the motion direction of the perceived stimuli from the signal in visual cortex. Our results show that top-down expectations bias representations in visual cortex, demonstrating that the integration of prior information and sensory input is reflected at the earliest stages of sensory processing. PMID:24107959

  11. Lenses – Light, Bodies and Representations. A paper on the optical device that enables visual perception through representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehder, Mads

    2012-01-01

    I will discuss the many unique lenses available to visual anthropological research and how a nuanced and differentiated view on them can be the key to understanding the complexity of the representations we, as visual anthropologist, are creating.

  12. Novice Interpretations of Visual Representations of Geosciences Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkemper, L. K.; Arthurs, L.

    2013-12-01

    Past cognition research of individual's perception and comprehension of bar and line graphs are substantive enough that they have resulted in the generation of graph design principles and graph comprehension theories; however, gaps remain in our understanding of how people process visual representations of data, especially of geologic and atmospheric data. This pilot project serves to build on others' prior research and begin filling the existing gaps. The primary objectives of this pilot project include: (i) design a novel data collection protocol based on a combination of paper-based surveys, think-aloud interviews, and eye-tracking tasks to investigate student data handling skills of simple to complex visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data, (ii) demonstrate that the protocol yields results that shed light on student data handling skills, and (iii) generate preliminary findings upon which tentative but perhaps helpful recommendations on how to more effectively present these data to the non-scientist community and teach essential data handling skills. An effective protocol for the combined use of paper-based surveys, think-aloud interviews, and computer-based eye-tracking tasks for investigating cognitive processes involved in perceiving, comprehending, and interpreting visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data is instrumental to future research in this area. The outcomes of this pilot study provide the foundation upon which future more in depth and scaled up investigations can build. Furthermore, findings of this pilot project are sufficient for making, at least, tentative recommendations that can help inform (i) the design of physical attributes of visual representations of data, especially more complex representations, that may aid in improving students' data handling skills and (ii) instructional approaches that have the potential to aid students in more effectively handling visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data that they might encounter in a course, television news, newspapers and magazines, and websites. Such recommendations would also be the potential subject of future investigations and have the potential to impact the design features when data is presented to the public and instructional strategies not only in geoscience courses but also other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses.

  13. Learning Visual Representations for Perception-Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piater, Justus; Jodogne, Sebastien; Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert; Kroemer, Oliver; Peters, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss vision as a sensory modality for systems that effect actions in response to perceptions. While the internal representations informed by vision may be arbitrarily complex, we argue that in many cases it is advantageous to link them rather directly to action via learned mappings. These arguments are illustrated by two examples of our own work. First, our RLVC algorithm performs reinforcement learning directly on the visual input space. To make this very large space manageable, RLVC inte...

  14. Visual Awareness Is Limited by the Representational Architecture of the Visual System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael A; Nakayama, Ken; Konkle, Talia; Stanti?, Mirta; Alvarez, George A

    2015-11-01

    Visual perception and awareness have strict limitations. We suggest that one source of these limitations is the representational architecture of the visual system. Under this view, the extent to which items activate the same neural channels constrains the amount of information that can be processed by the visual system and ultimately reach awareness. Here, we measured how well stimuli from different categories (e.g., faces and cars) blocked one another from reaching awareness using two distinct paradigms that render stimuli invisible: visual masking and continuous flash suppression. Next, we used fMRI to measure the similarity of the neural responses elicited by these categories across the entire visual hierarchy. Overall, we found strong brain-behavior correlations within the ventral pathway, weaker correlations in the dorsal pathway, and no correlations in early visual cortex (V1-V3). These results suggest that the organization of higher level visual cortex constrains visual awareness and the overall processing capacity of visual cognition. PMID:26226078

  15. Visualization Through Knowledge Representation Model for Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Athar Javed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management is a systematic and organizationally specified process and knowledge management system is all those technological components; software, hardware, people and processes supporting knowledge management initiative. These initiatives includes work flow maps, web sites, portals, document/team management system, data warehouses, data mining processes, databases, contact lists, virtual teams, collaboration tools, customer relationship management, applications and news (Davenport and Prusak 1998, Jashapara 2004). Knowledge is not important per se (Agostini et al 2003) instead the process of knowing, learning and creating knowledge is the relevant aspect (Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995). In this paper knowledge representation is presented in 3D style for the understanding and visualization of dynamics of complex social networks by developing a TANetworkTool (Task Analysis Network Tool). The standard or normal representation of a typical social network is through a graph data structure in 2D. The dynamics of larger social networks is so complex some time it becomes difficult to understand the various levels of interactions and dependencies just by mere representation through a tree or graph. Although, many analytical methods provide relationship dependencies, role of different nodes and their importance in the network. In this paper we are presenting a visualization of networks by rotating the network through various dimensions to provide a more realistic view to understand the dynamics of complex social networks and complimenting the analytical results. This representation can also help authorities not necessarily having specific scientific background to understand and perhaps take preventive actions required in certain specific scenarios for example dealing with terrorist/covert networks.

  16. Visual Literacy and Biochemistry Learning: The role of external representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J.S.V. Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual Literacy can bedefined as people’s ability to understand, use, think, learn and express themselves through external representations (ER in a given subject. This research aims to investigate the development of abilities of ERs reading and interpretation by students from a Biochemistry graduate course of theFederal University of São João Del-Rei. In this way, Visual Literacy level was  assessed using a questionnaire validatedin a previous educational research. This diagnosis questionnaire was elaborated according to six visual abilitiesidentified as essential for the study of the metabolic pathways. The initial statistical analysis of data collectedin this study was carried out using ANOVA method. Results obtained showed that the questionnaire used is adequate for the research and indicated that the level of Visual Literacy related to the metabolic processes increased significantly with the progress of the students in the graduation course. There was also an indication of a possible interference in the student’s performancedetermined by the cutoff punctuation in the university selection process.

  17. Independent sources of anisotropy in visual orientation representation: a visual and a cognitive oblique effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikou, Panagiota; Gourtzelidis, Pavlos; Mantas, Asimakis; Moutoussis, Konstantinos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    The representation of visual orientation is more accurate for cardinal orientations compared to oblique, and this anisotropy has been hypothesized to reflect a low-level visual process (visual, "class 1" oblique effect). The reproduction of directional and orientation information also leads to a mean error away from cardinal orientations or directions. This anisotropy has been hypothesized to reflect a high-level cognitive process of space categorization (cognitive, "class 2," oblique effect). This space categorization process would be more prominent when the visual representation of orientation degrades such as in the case of working memory with increasing cognitive load, leading to increasing magnitude of the "class 2" oblique effect, while the "class 1" oblique effect would remain unchanged. Two experiments were performed in which an array of orientation stimuli (1-4 items) was presented and then subjects had to realign a probe stimulus within the previously presented array. In the first experiment, the delay between stimulus presentation and probe varied, while in the second experiment, the stimulus presentation time varied. The variable error was larger for oblique compared to cardinal orientations in both experiments reproducing the visual "class 1" oblique effect. The mean error also reproduced the tendency away from cardinal and toward the oblique orientations in both experiments (cognitive "class 2" oblique effect). The accuracy or the reproduced orientation degraded (increasing variable error) and the cognitive "class 2" oblique effect increased with increasing memory load (number of items) in both experiments and presentation time in the second experiment. In contrast, the visual "class 1" oblique effect was not significantly modulated by any one of these experimental factors. These results confirmed the theoretical predictions for the two anisotropies in visual orientation reproduction and provided support for models proposing the categorization of orientation in visual working memory. PMID:26226929

  18. A neuron-inspired computational architecture for spatiotemporal visual processing: real-time visual sensory integration for humanoid robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzbach, Andreas; Cheng, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we present a neurologically motivated computational architecture for visual information processing. The computational architecture's focus lies in multiple strategies: hierarchical processing, parallel and concurrent processing, and modularity. The architecture is modular and expandable in both hardware and software, so that it can also cope with multisensory integrations - making it an ideal tool for validating and applying computational neuroscience models in real time under real-world conditions. We apply our architecture in real time to validate a long-standing biologically inspired visual object recognition model, HMAX. In this context, the overall aim is to supply a humanoid robot with the ability to perceive and understand its environment with a focus on the active aspect of real-time spatiotemporal visual processing. We show that our approach is capable of simulating information processing in the visual cortex in real time and that our entropy-adaptive modification of HMAX has a higher efficiency and classification performance than the standard model (up to ?+6%). PMID:24687170

  19. A unified data representation theory for network visualization, ordering and coarse-graining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, István A.; Mizsei, Réka; Csermely, Péter

    2015-09-01

    Representation of large data sets became a key question of many scientific disciplines in the last decade. Several approaches for network visualization, data ordering and coarse-graining accomplished this goal. However, there was no underlying theoretical framework linking these problems. Here we show an elegant, information theoretic data representation approach as a unified solution of network visualization, data ordering and coarse-graining. The optimal representation is the hardest to distinguish from the original data matrix, measured by the relative entropy. The representation of network nodes as probability distributions provides an efficient visualization method and, in one dimension, an ordering of network nodes and edges. Coarse-grained representations of the input network enable both efficient data compression and hierarchical visualization to achieve high quality representations of larger data sets. Our unified data representation theory will help the analysis of extensive data sets, by revealing the large-scale structure of complex networks in a comprehensible form.

  20. A unified data representation theory for network visualization, ordering and coarse-graining

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, István A; Csermely, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Representation of large data sets became a key question of many scientific disciplines in the last decade. Several approaches for network visualization, data ordering and coarse-graining accomplished this goal. However, there was no underlying theoretical framework linking these problems. Here we show an elegant, information theoretic data representation approach as a unified solution of network visualization, data ordering and coarse-graining. The optimal representation is the hardest to distinguish from the original data matrix, measured by the relative entropy. The representation of network nodes as probability distributions provides an efficient visualization method and, in one dimension, an ordering of network nodes and edges. Coarse-grained representations of the input network enable both efficient data compression and hierarchical visualization to achieve high quality representations of larger data sets. Our unified data representation theory will help the analysis of huge data sets in science, by reve...

  1. Shape representations in the primate dorsal visual stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, Tom; Romero, Maria C; van Loon, Johannes; Janssen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The primate visual system extracts object shape information for object recognition in the ventral visual stream. Recent research has demonstrated that object shape is also processed in the dorsal visual stream, which is specialized for spatial vision and the planning of actions. A number of studies have investigated the coding of 2D shape in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP), one of the end-stage areas of the dorsal stream which has been implicated in the extraction of affordances for the purpose of grasping. These findings challenge the current understanding of area AIP as a critical stage in the dorsal stream for the extraction of object affordances. The representation of three-dimensional (3D) shape has been studied in two interconnected areas known to be critical for object grasping: area AIP and area F5a in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), to which AIP projects. In both areas neurons respond selectively to 3D shape defined by binocular disparity, but the latency of the neural selectivity is approximately 10 ms longer in F5a compared to AIP, consistent with its higher position in the hierarchy of cortical areas. Furthermore, F5a neurons were more sensitive to small amplitudes of 3D curvature and could detect subtle differences in 3D structure more reliably than AIP neurons. In both areas, 3D-shape selective neurons were co-localized with neurons showing motor-related activity during object grasping in the dark, indicating a close convergence of visual and motor information on the same clusters of neurons. PMID:25954189

  2. Shape representations in the primate dorsal visual stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Theys

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primate visual system extracts object shape information for object recognition in the ventral visual stream. Recent research has demonstrated that object shape is also processed in the dorsal visual stream, which is specialized for spatial vision and the planning of actions. A number of studies have investigated the coding of 2D shape in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP, one of the end-stage areas of the dorsal stream which has been implicated in the extraction of affordances for the purpose of grasping. These findings challenge the current understanding of area AIP as a critical stage in the dorsal stream for the extraction of object affordances. The representation of three-dimensional (3D shape has been studied in two interconnected areas known to be critical for object grasping: area AIP and area F5a in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv, to which AIP projects. In both areas neurons respond selectively to 3D shape defined by binocular disparity, but the latency of the neural selectivity is approximately 10 ms longer in F5a compared to AIP, consistent with its higher position in the hierarchy of cortical areas. Furthermore F5a neurons were more sensitive to small amplitudes of 3D curvature and could detect subtle differences in 3D structure more reliably than AIP neurons. In both areas, 3D-shape selective neurons were co-localized with neurons showing motor-related activity during object grasping in the dark, indicating a close convergence of visual and motor information on the same clusters of neurons.

  3. Shape representations in the primate dorsal visual stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, Tom; Romero, Maria C.; van Loon, Johannes; Janssen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The primate visual system extracts object shape information for object recognition in the ventral visual stream. Recent research has demonstrated that object shape is also processed in the dorsal visual stream, which is specialized for spatial vision and the planning of actions. A number of studies have investigated the coding of 2D shape in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP), one of the end-stage areas of the dorsal stream which has been implicated in the extraction of affordances for the purpose of grasping. These findings challenge the current understanding of area AIP as a critical stage in the dorsal stream for the extraction of object affordances. The representation of three-dimensional (3D) shape has been studied in two interconnected areas known to be critical for object grasping: area AIP and area F5a in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), to which AIP projects. In both areas neurons respond selectively to 3D shape defined by binocular disparity, but the latency of the neural selectivity is approximately 10 ms longer in F5a compared to AIP, consistent with its higher position in the hierarchy of cortical areas. Furthermore, F5a neurons were more sensitive to small amplitudes of 3D curvature and could detect subtle differences in 3D structure more reliably than AIP neurons. In both areas, 3D-shape selective neurons were co-localized with neurons showing motor-related activity during object grasping in the dark, indicating a close convergence of visual and motor information on the same clusters of neurons. PMID:25954189

  4. Transformation-invariant visual representations in self-organizing spiking neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    BenjaminEvans

    2012-01-01

    The ventral visual pathway achieves object and face recognition by building transformation-invariant representations from elementary visual features. In previous computer simulation studies with rate-coded neural networks, the development of transformation-invariant representations has been demonstrated using either of two biologically plausible learning mechanisms, Trace learning and Continuous Transformation (CT) learning. However, it has not previously been investigated how transformation-...

  5. Visual Representations on High School Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDue, Nicole D.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Thomas, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive use of visual representations in textbooks, curricula, and assessments underscores their importance in K-12 science education. For example, visual representations figure prominently in the recent publication of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States in Next generation science standards: for states, by states.…

  6. Reading visual representations of 'Ndabeni' in the public realms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sipokazi, Sambumbu.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay outlines and analyses contemporary image representations of Ndabeni (also called kwa-Ndabeni), a location near Cape Town where a group of people became confined between 1901 and 1936 following an outbreak of the bubonic plague in the city. This location was to shape Cape Town's landscape [...] for a little less that thirty-five years, accommodating people who were forcibly removed from the Cape Town docklands and from District Six. Images representing this place have been produced, archived, recovered, modified, reproduced and circulated in different ways and contexts. Ndabeni has become public knowledge through public visual representations that have been produced across a range of sites in post-apartheid Cape Town. I focus on three sites: the Victoria and Alfred Waterfront, the District Six Museum, and the Eziko Restaurant and Catering School. In each case I analyse the processes through which the Ndabeni images in question have been used and reused over time in changing contexts. I analyse the 'modalities' in which these images have been composed, interpreted and employed and in which knowledge has been mediated. I explore the contents and contexts of the storyboards and exhibition panels that purport to represent Ndabeni. Finally, I discuss potential meanings that could be constructed if the images could be read independent of the texts.

  7. Exploring Middle School Students' Representational Competence in Science: Development and Verification of a Framework for Learning with Visual Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Christine Diane

    Scientific knowledge is constructed and communicated through a range of forms in addition to verbal language. Maps, graphs, charts, diagrams, formulae, models, and drawings are just some of the ways in which science concepts can be represented. Representational competence---an aspect of visual literacy that focuses on the ability to interpret, transform, and produce visual representations---is a key component of science literacy and an essential part of science reading and writing. To date, however, most research has examined learning from representations rather than learning with representations. This dissertation consisted of three distinct projects that were related by a common focus on learning from visual representations as an important aspect of scientific literacy. The first project was the development of an exploratory framework that is proposed for use in investigations of students constructing and interpreting multimedia texts. The exploratory framework, which integrates cognition, metacognition, semiotics, and systemic functional linguistics, could eventually result in a model that might be used to guide classroom practice, leading to improved visual literacy, better comprehension of science concepts, and enhanced science literacy because it emphasizes distinct aspects of learning with representations that can be addressed though explicit instruction. The second project was a metasynthesis of the research that was previously conducted as part of the Explicit Literacy Instruction Embedded in Middle School Science project (Pacific CRYSTAL, http://www.educ.uvic.ca/pacificcrystal). Five overarching themes emerged from this case-to-case synthesis: the engaging and effective nature of multimedia genres, opportunities for differentiated instruction using multimodal strategies, opportunities for assessment, an emphasis on visual representations, and the robustness of some multimodal literacy strategies across content areas. The third project was a mixed-methods verification study that was conducted to refine and validate the theoretical framework. This study examined middle school students' representational competence and focused on students' creation of visual representations such as labelled diagrams, a form of representation commonly found in science information texts and textbooks. An analysis of the 31 Grade 6 participants' representations and semistructured interviews revealed five themes, each of which supports one or more dimensions of the exploratory framework: participants' use of color, participants' choice of representation (form and function), participants' method of planning for representing, participants' knowledge of conventions, and participants' selection of information to represent. Together, the results of these three projects highlight the need for further research on learning with rather than learning from representations.

  8. Honeybees as a model for the study of visually guided flight, navigation, and biologically inspired robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-04-01

    Research over the past century has revealed the impressive capacities of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, in relation to visual perception, flight guidance, navigation, and learning and memory. These observations, coupled with the relative ease with which these creatures can be trained, and the relative simplicity of their nervous systems, have made honeybees an attractive model in which to pursue general principles of sensorimotor function in a variety of contexts, many of which pertain not just to honeybees, but several other animal species, including humans. This review begins by describing the principles of visual guidance that underlie perception of the world in three dimensions, obstacle avoidance, control of flight speed, and orchestrating smooth landings. We then consider how navigation over long distances is accomplished, with particular reference to how bees use information from the celestial compass to determine their flight bearing, and information from the movement of the environment in their eyes to gauge how far they have flown. Finally, we illustrate how some of the principles gleaned from these studies are now being used to design novel, biologically inspired algorithms for the guidance of unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:21527730

  9. Numbers in the dark : early visual deprivation and the semantic numerical representation/

    OpenAIRE

    Castronovo, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Study of the impact of early visual deprivation and its following experience with numbers and numerosities on the elaboration of the semantic numerical representation with the same properties to those postulated in sighted people.

  10. Sparse representation, modeling and learning in visual recognition theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This unique text/reference presents a comprehensive review of the state of the art in sparse representations, modeling and learning. The book examines both the theoretical foundations and details of algorithm implementation, highlighting the practical application of compressed sensing research in visual recognition and computer vision. Topics and features: provides a thorough introduction to the fundamentals of sparse representation, modeling and learning, and the application of these techniques in visual recognition; describes sparse recovery approaches, robust and efficient sparse represen

  11. Visual representations in knowledge management: framework and cases

    OpenAIRE

    Eppler, Martin J.; Burkhard, Remo A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the potential of visualization for corporate knowledge management. The employed methodology consists of a taxonomy of visualization formats that are embedded in a conceptual framework to guide the application of visualization in knowledge management according to the type of knowledge that is visualized, the knowledge management objective, the target group, and the application situation. This conceptual framework is illustrated through real-life exampl...

  12. Visual Representations on High School Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDue, Nicole D.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Thomas, Stephen R.

    2015-05-01

    The pervasive use of visual representations in textbooks, curricula, and assessments underscores their importance in K-12 science education. For example, visual representations figure prominently in the recent publication of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States in Next generation science standards: for states, by states. Achieve, Inc. on behalf of the twenty-six states and partners that collaborated on the NGSS, 2013). Although assessments of the NGSS have yet to be developed, most students are currently evaluated on their ability to interpret science visuals. While numerous studies exist on particular visuals, it is unclear whether the same types of visuals are emphasized in all science disciplines. The present study is an evaluation of the similarities and differences of visuals used to assess students' knowledge of chemistry, earth science, living environment (biology), and physics on the New York State Regents examination. Analysis of 266 distinct visual representations categorized across the four content examinations reveals that the frequency and type of visuals vary greatly between disciplines. Diagrams, Graphs, Tables, and Maps are the most prevalent across all science disciplines. Maps, Cartograms, and Time Charts are unique to the Earth Science examination, and Network Diagrams are unique to the living environment (biology) examination. This study identifies which representations are most critical for training students across the science disciplines in anticipation of the implementation and eventual assessment of the NGSS.

  13. New contributions in overcomplete image representations inspired from the functional architecture of the visal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    [ES] La presente tesis doctoral tiene como objetivo indagar en algunos paralelismos entre la arquitectura funcional de las áreas visuales primarias y el tratamiento de imágenes. Un primer objetivo consiste en mejorar los modelos existentes de visión biológica basándose en la teoría de la información. Un segundo es el desarrollo de nuevos algoritmos de tratamiento de imágenes inspirados de la visión natural. Los datos disponibles sobre el sistema visual abarcan estudios fisiológ...

  14. Shape representations in the primate dorsal visual stream

    OpenAIRE

    Theys, Tom; Romero, Maria C.; van Loon, Johannes; Janssen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The primate visual system extracts object shape information for object recognition in the ventral visual stream. Recent research has demonstrated that object shape is also processed in the dorsal visual stream, which is specialized for spatial vision and the planning of actions. A number of studies have investigated the coding of 2D shape in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP), one of the end-stage areas of the dorsal stream which has been implicated in the extraction of affordances for the...

  15. Constructing Visual Representations: Investigating the Use of Tangible Tokens

    OpenAIRE

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as one of the major research challenges. A key task of the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people spontaneously transform da...

  16. Computational intelligence in multi-feature visual pattern recognition hand posture and face recognition using biologically inspired approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Pisharady, Pramod Kumar; Poh, Loh Ai

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of computational intelligence algorithms that addresses issues in visual pattern recognition such as high computational complexity, abundance of pattern features, sensitivity to size and shape variations and poor performance against complex backgrounds. The book has 3 parts. Part 1 describes various research issues in the field with a survey of the related literature. Part 2 presents computational intelligence based algorithms for feature selection and classification. The algorithms are discriminative and fast. The main application area considered is hand posture recognition. The book also discusses utility of these algorithms in other visual as well as non-visual pattern recognition tasks including face recognition, general object recognition and cancer / tumor classification. Part 3 presents biologically inspired algorithms for feature extraction. The visual cortex model based features discussed have invariance with respect to appearance and size of the hand, and provide good...

  17. Population coding of visual space: comparison of spatial representations in the dorsal and ventral pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne B Sereno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the representation of space is as fundamental to visual processing as the representation of shape, it has received relatively little attention from neurophysiological investigations. In this study we characterize representations of space within visual cortex, and examine how they differ in a first direct comparison between dorsal and ventral subdivisions of the visual pathways. Neural activities were recorded in anterior inferotemporal cortex (AIT and lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP of awake behaving monkeys, structures associated with the ventral and dorsal visual pathways respectively, as a stimulus was presented at different locations within the visual field. In spatially selective cells, we find greater modulation of cell responses in LIP with changes in stimulus position. Further, using a novel population-based statistical approach (namely, multidimensional scaling, we recover the spatial map implicit within activities of neural populations, allowing us to quantitatively compare the geometry of neural space with physical space. We show that a population of spatially selective LIP neurons, despite having large receptive fields, is able to almost perfectly reconstruct stimulus locations within a low-dimensional representation. In contrast, a population of AIT neurons, despite each cell being spatially selective, provide less accurate low-dimensional reconstructions of stimulus locations. They produce instead only a topologically (categorically correct rendition of space, which nevertheless might be critical for object and scene recognition. Furthermore, we found that the spatial representation recovered from population activity shows greater translation invariance in LIP than in AIT. We suggest that LIP spatial representations may be dimensionally isomorphic with 3D physical space, while in AIT spatial representations may reflect a more categorical representation of space (e.g., “next to” or “above”.

  18. Human visual cortex gradually transitions from 2D to 3D spatial representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Nonie; Golomb, Julie

    2015-09-01

    We live in a 3D world, and yet the majority of vision research is restricted to 2D phenomena. Previous research has shown that neural representations of 2D visual space are present throughout visual cortex. Many of these visual areas are also known to be sensitive to depth information (including V3, V3A, V3B/KO, V7, LO, and MT) - how does this depth information interact with 2D spatial information? Using fMRI and multi-voxel pattern analysis, we investigated the relationship between horizontal (x), vertical (y), and depth (z) representations in the brain. Participants viewed random dot stereograms with red/green anaglyph glasses. Eight different locations were stimulated in a blocked design: each location was defined by x, y, and z location (left or right, above or below, and in front or behind the fixation cross). The patterns of activation for each of the x, y, and z location conditions were compared across the brain with a searchlight analysis and within functionally localized ROIs. As expected, both x and y location information was present all along the visual pathways, with x information outperforming y information in higher visual areas. Importantly, while only 2D location information could be decoded in early visual cortex, all three types of location information could be decoded in several higher visual cortex regions. Moreover, this pattern seemed to emerge gradually: we found opposite trends for y and z location information, with y information decreasing and z information increasing along the visual hierarchy (both dorsal and ventral streams). In addition, we found that representations of depth are dependent on x location, but tolerant of changes in y location. We conclude that what begins as purely 2D spatial information in early visual areas gradually transitions to 3D spatial representations higher along the visual hierarchy. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326977

  19. Digital representations of the real world how to capture, model, and render visual reality

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Theobalt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Create Genuine Visual Realism in Computer Graphics Digital Representations of the Real World: How to Capture, Model, and Render Visual Reality explains how to portray visual worlds with a high degree of realism using the latest video acquisition technology, computer graphics methods, and computer vision algorithms. It explores the integration of new capture modalities, reconstruction approaches, and visual perception into the computer graphics pipeline.Understand the Entire Pipeline from Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Modeling to Realistic Rendering and ApplicationsThe book covers sensors fo

  20. A visually impaired savant artist: interacting perceptual and memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermelin, B; Pring, L; Buhler, M; Wolff, S; Heaton, P

    1999-10-01

    In this single case study, paintings by a visually impaired and cognitively handicapped savant artist are evaluated. He paints his pictures exclusively from memory, either after having looked at a natural scene through binoculars, or after studying landscape photographs in brochures, catalogues, and books. The paintings are compared with the models from which they were derived, and the resulting generative changes are accounted for by an interaction between impaired visual input and memory transformations. PMID:10576541

  1. A Biologically-Inspired Framework for Contour Detection UsingSuperpixel-Based Candidates and Hierarchical Visual Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Shang, Ke; Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen; Ma, Jiayi

    2015-01-01

    Contour detection has been extensively investigated as a fundamental problem in computer vision. In this study, a biologically-inspired candidate weighting framework is proposed for the challenging task of detecting meaningful contours. In contrast to previous models that detect contours from pixels, a modified superpixel generation processing is proposed to generate a contour candidate set and then weigh the candidates by extracting hierarchical visual cues. We extract the low-level visual local cues to weigh the contour intrinsic property and mid-level visual cues on the basis of Gestalt principles for weighting the contour grouping constraint. Experimental results tested on the BSDS benchmark show that the proposed framework exhibits promising performances to capture meaningful contours in complex scenes. PMID:26492252

  2. A review of visual memory capacity: Beyond individual items and towards structured representations

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional memory research has focused on identifying separate memory systems and exploring different stages of memory processing. This approach has been valuable for establishing a taxonomy of memory systems and characterizing their function, but has been less informative about the nature of stored memory representations. Recent research on visual memory has shifted towards a representation-based emphasis, focusing on the contents of memory, and attempting to determine the format and struct...

  3. Visualization and Rule Validation in Human-Behavior Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Lisa Jean; McKenzie, Frederic D.; Nguyen, Quynh-Anh H.

    2008-01-01

    Human behavior representation (HBR) models simulate human behaviors and responses. The Joint Crowd Federate [TM] cognitive model developed by the Virginia Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation Center (VMASC) and licensed by WernerAnderson, Inc., models the cognitive behavior of crowds to provide credible crowd behavior in support of military…

  4. Parsed and fixed block representations of visual information for image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Soo Hyun; Juang, Biing-Hwang

    2009-02-01

    The theory of linguistics teaches us the existence of a hierarchical structure in linguistic expressions, from letter to word root, and on to word and sentences. By applying syntax and semantics beyond words, one can further recognize the grammatical relationship between among words and the meaning of a sequence of words. This layered view of a spoken language is useful for effective analysis and automated processing. Thus, it is interesting to ask if a similar hierarchy of representation of visual information does exist. A class of techniques that have a similar nature to the linguistic parsing is found in the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing scheme. Based on a new class of multidimensional incremental parsing algorithms extended from the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing, a new framework for image retrieval, which takes advantage of the source characterization property of the incremental parsing algorithm, was proposed recently. With the incremental parsing technique, a given image is decomposed into a number of patches, called a parsed representation. This representation can be thought of as a morphological interface between elementary pixel and a higher level representation. In this work, we examine the properties of two-dimensional parsed representation in the context of imagery information retrieval and in contrast to vector quantization; i.e. fixed square-block representations and minimum average distortion criteria. We implemented four image retrieval systems for the comparative study; three, called IPSILON image retrieval systems, use parsed representation with different perceptual distortion thresholds and one uses the convectional vector quantization for visual pattern analysis. We observe that different perceptual distortion in visual pattern matching does not have serious effects on the retrieval precision although allowing looser perceptual thresholds in image compression result poor reconstruction fidelity. We compare the effectiveness of the use of the parsed representations, as constructed under the latent semantic analysis (LSA) paradigm so as to investigate their varying capabilities in capturing semantic concepts. The result clearly demonstrates the superiority of the parsed representation.

  5. 07221 Executive Summary - Information Visualization - Human-Centered Issues in Visual Representation, Interaction, and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kerren, Andreas; Stasko, John T.; Fekete, Jean-Daniel; North, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Information Visualization (InfoVis) focuses on the use of visualization techniques to help people understand and analyze data. While related fields such as Scientific Visualization involve the presentation of data that has some physical or geometric correspondence, Information Visualization centers on abstract information without such correspondences. One important aim of this seminar was to bring together theoreticians and practitioners from Information Visualization and related fields a...

  6. Newborn chickens generate invariant object representations at the onset of visual object experience

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Justin N.

    2013-01-01

    To recognize objects quickly and accurately, mature visual systems build invariant object representations that generalize across a range of novel viewing conditions (e.g., changes in viewpoint). To date, however, the origins of this core cognitive ability have not yet been established. To examine how invariant object recognition develops in a newborn visual system, I raised chickens from birth for 2 weeks within controlled-rearing chambers. These chambers provided complete control over all vi...

  7. Visual representations in portuguese produced english language teaching coursebooks

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the role of illustrations in the context of English Language Teaching (ELT) coursebooks produced in Portugal. Taking illustrations to be one pilar in the construction of meaning throughthe representation of culture, the discussion shifts between their useover the last 35 years and their potential as a source of innovation andimprovement in this area of ELT materials development. The centralissue relates to the need for illustrations to perform something more thana decorati...

  8. Parallel representation of stimulus identity and intensity in a dual pathway model inspired by the olfactory system of the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schmuker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The honeybee Apis mellifera has a remarkable ability to detect and locate food sources during foraging, and to associate odor cues with food rewards. In the honeybee’s olfactory system, sensory input is first processed in the antennal lobe (AL network. Uniglomerular projection neurons (PNs convey the sensory code from the AL to higher brain regions via two parallel but anatomically distinct pathways, the lateral and the medial antenno-cerebral tract (l- and m-ACT. Neurons innervating either tract show characteristic differences in odor selectivity, concentration dependence, and representation of mixtures. It is still unknown how this differential stimulus representation is achieved within the AL network. In this contribution, we use a computational network model to demonstrate that the experimentally observed features of odor coding in PNs can be reproduced by varying lateral inhibition and gain control in an otherwise unchanged AL network. We show that odor coding in the l-ACT supports detection and accurate identification of weak odor traces at the expense of concentration sensitivity, while odor coding in the m-ACT provides the basis for the computation and following of concentration gradients but provides weaker discrimination power. Both coding strategies are mutually exclusive, which creates a tradeoff between detection accuracy and sensitivity. The development of two parallel systems may thus reflect an evolutionary solution to this problem that enables honeybees to achieve both tasks during bee foraging in their natural environment, and which could inspire the development of artificial chemosensory devices for odor-guided navigation in robots.

  9. Visual Representations in Second Graders' Information Book Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Julianne M.; Bradley, Linda Golson; Donovan, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the visuals second grade students included in their own information book compositions during a science unit on weather during which multimodal science trade books on the topic of weather were read aloud. First, the multimodal nature of the information books used in the unit are described. Second, the teacher's talk about…

  10. Hierarchical representation of shapes in visual cortex - from localized features to figural shape segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Tschechne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual structures in the environment are effortlessly segmented into image regions and those combined to a representation of surfaces and prototypical objects. Such a perceptual organization is performed by complex neural mechanisms in the visual cortex of primates. Multiple mutually connected areas in the ventral cortical pathway receive visual input and extract local form features that are subsequently grouped into increasingly complex, more meaningful image elements. At this stage, highly articulated changes in shape boundary as well as very subtle curvature changes contribute to the perception of an object.We propose a recurrent computational network architecture that utilizes a hierarchical distributed representation of shape features to encode boundary features over different scales of resolution. Our model makes use of neural mechanisms that model the processing capabilities of early and intermediate stages in visual cortex, namely areas V1-V4 and IT. We suggest that multiple specialized component representations interact by feedforward hierarchical processing that is combined with feedback from representations generated at higher stages. In so doing, global configurational as well as local information is available to distinguish changes in the object's contour. Once the outline of a shape has been established, contextual contour configurations are used to assign border ownership directions and thus achieve segregation of figure and ground. This combines separate findings about the generation of cortical shape representation using hierarchical representations with figure-ground segregation mechanisms.Our model is probed with a selection of artificial and real world images to illustrate processing results at different processing stages. We especially highlight how modulatory feedback connections contribute to the processing of visual input at various stages in the processing hierarchy.

  11. DESIGNING FOR MULTIPLE SENSES WHILE USING VISUAL REPRESENTATION TECHNIQUES? CROSSMODAL CORRESPONDENCES AS A COUNTERFORCE TO THE DOMINANCE OF THE VISUAL SENSE

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Carmen; PETERMANS, Ann; Vanrie, Jan; JANSSENS, WIM

    2014-01-01

    In design practice designers often use visual representation techniques to communicate to their clients. The use of visual representation techniques has been critiqued to add to a dominance of the visual sense, which is seen as a potential weakness since the other senses might by subordinated. In this paper the authors therefore introduce the concept of crossmodal correspondences. Crossmodal correspondences refer to the tendency for a feature or attribute in one sensory modality to be matched...

  12. Representation of concurrent stimuli by population activity in visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, L.; Wade, A. R.; Carandini, M

    2009-01-01

    How do neuronal populations represent concurrent stimuli? We measured population responses in cat primary visual cortex (V1) using electrode arrays. Population responses to two superimposed gratings were weighted sums of the individual grating responses. The weights depended strongly on the relative contrasts of the components. When the contrasts were similar the population performed an approximately equal summation. When the contrasts differed markedly, however, the population performed appr...

  13. Generating and Analyzing Visual Representations of Conic Sections with the Use of Technological Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Espinosa-Perez, Hugo; Reyes-Rodriguez, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Technological tools have the potential to offer students the possibility to represent information and relationships embedded in problems and concepts in ways that involve numerical, algebraic, geometric, and visual approaches. In this paper, the authors present and discuss an example in which an initial representation of a mathematical object…

  14. External Visual Representations in Science Learning: The Case of Relations among System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, Billie; Poyas, Yael

    2010-01-01

    How do external visual representations (e.g., graph, diagram) promote or constrain students' ability to identify system components and their interrelations, to reinforce a systemic view through the application of the STS approach? University students (N = 150) received information cards describing cellphones' communication system and its subsystem…

  15. The Role of Visual Experience on the Representation and Updating of Novel Haptic Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, Achille; Newell, Fiona N.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the role of visual experience on the spatial representation and updating of haptic scenes by comparing recognition performance across sighted, congenitally and late blind participants. We first established that spatial updating occurs in sighted individuals to haptic scenes of novel objects. All participants were required to…

  16. Real-time Visual Tracking Using Sparse Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hanxi; Shi, Qinfeng

    2010-01-01

    The $\\ell_1$ tracker obtains robustness by seeking a sparse representation of the tracking object via $\\ell_1$ norm minimization \\cite{Xue_ICCV_09_Track}. However, the high computational complexity involved in the $ \\ell_1 $ tracker restricts its further applications in real time processing scenario. Hence we propose a Real Time Compressed Sensing Tracking (RTCST) by exploiting the signal recovery power of Compressed Sensing (CS). Dimensionality reduction and a customized Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) algorithm are adopted to accelerate the CS tracking. As a result, our algorithm achieves a real-time speed that is up to $6,000$ times faster than that of the $\\ell_1$ tracker. Meanwhile, RTCST still produces competitive (sometimes even superior) tracking accuracy comparing to the existing $\\ell_1$ tracker. Furthermore, for a stationary camera, a further refined tracker is designed by integrating a CS-based background model (CSBM). This CSBM-equipped tracker coined as RTCST-B, outperforms most state-of-the-a...

  17. A Reggio-Inspired Music Atelier: Opening the Door between Visual Arts and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Wendell

    2014-01-01

    The Reggio Emilia approach is based on the idea that every child has at least, "one hundred languages" available for expressing perspectives of the world, and one of those languages is music. While all of the arts (visual, music, dance, drama) are considered equally important in Reggio schools, the visual arts have been particularly…

  18. Comparing visual representations across human fMRI and computational vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Daniel D; Seibert, Darren A; Pyles, John A; Tarr, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Feedforward visual object perception recruits a cortical network that is assumed to be hierarchical, progressing from basic visual features to complete object representations. However, the nature of the intermediate features related to this transformation remains poorly understood. Here, we explore how well different computer vision recognition models account for neural object encoding across the human cortical visual pathway as measured using fMRI. These neural data, collected during the viewing of 60 images of real-world objects, were analyzed with a searchlight procedure as in Kriegeskorte, Goebel, and Bandettini (2006): Within each searchlight sphere, the obtained patterns of neural activity for all 60 objects were compared to model responses for each computer recognition algorithm using representational dissimilarity analysis (Kriegeskorte et al., 2008). Although each of the computer vision methods significantly accounted for some of the neural data, among the different models, the scale invariant feature transform (Lowe, 2004), encoding local visual properties gathered from "interest points," was best able to accurately and consistently account for stimulus representations within the ventral pathway. More generally, when present, significance was observed in regions of the ventral-temporal cortex associated with intermediate-level object perception. Differences in model effectiveness and the neural location of significant matches may be attributable to the fact that each model implements a different featural basis for representing objects (e.g., more holistic or more parts-based). Overall, we conclude that well-known computer vision recognition systems may serve as viable proxies for theories of intermediate visual object representation. PMID:24273227

  19. Pattern dot quantity affects auditory facilitation effects on visual object representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Gyoba, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    Auditory stimuli often facilitate visual perception. Audiovisual integration requires spatial and/or temporal proximity between visual and auditory stimuli; additionally, sensory processing speed affects the audiovisual integration process. In the present study we examined the relationship between processing speed and the auditory facilitation effect on visual representations by manipulating dot quantity patterns. We hypothesized that the auditory facilitation effect would be observed in longer interstimulus interval conditions with more dot quantities. This is because more processing time would be required to integrate visual and auditory stimuli. During a backward masking paradigm used in experiment 1, the auditory facilitation effect depended on dot quantity among patterns and the interval between visual stimuli and masks. Moreover, differences in processing time required to integrate visual and auditory stimuli between dot quantities was confirmed from a same-different discrimination task in experiment 2. Therefore, dot quantity affects sensory processing time, and a longer processing time is required for integrating visual and auditory stimuli when visual dot quantity is high. PMID:24919347

  20. Representations of retrieved face information in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue-Hyun; Levy, Brandon; Baker, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Despite the high similarity of human faces, we can easily recognize and discriminate dozens of faces based on our memories and can retrieve how people look. Here, we asked how retrieved face information is represented in cortex? To address this question, we performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, comprising separate perception, learning and retrieval sessions. During the perception session, inside the scanner, participants were presented with fixed pairings of six auditory cues (pseudowords) and face images (e.g. 'greds'- man1, 'drige'-man2), and six auditory cues and shoe images. During the learning session, on a separate day outside the scanner, participants were trained to memorize the pseudoword-image associations for about one hour. Finally, one day after the learning session, participants were scanned and instructed to retrieve each image in response to the paired pseudoword cue. To test the veracity of the retrieved visual information, participants were asked to perform forced-choice tests after the retrieval scan session. Every participant showed good performance in the forced-choice test (> 95% correct). We focused on the patterns of response in face-selective and object-selective cortical areas. Using multivoxel pattern analyses, we found 1) that face-selective and object-selective areas showed category (faces or shoes) specific patterns during both retrieval and perception, 2) that neither face nor object-selective areas showed patterns specific to individual faces or shoes during perception, but 3) that face-selective areas showed specific patterns of response to individual faces during retrieval. Taken together, these results suggest that retrieval of face information generates more discriminative neural responses for individual faces than that evoked by perception of the very same faces. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325782

  1. Bio-inspired modeling and implementation of the ocelli visual system of flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremillion, Gregory; Humbert, J Sean; Krapp, Holger G

    2014-12-01

    Two visual sensing modalities in insects, the ocelli and compound eyes, provide signals used for flight stabilization and navigation. In this article, a generalized model of the ocellar visual system is developed for a 3-D visual simulation environment based on behavioral, anatomical, and electrophysiological data from several species. A linear measurement model is estimated from Monte Carlo simulation in a cluttered urban environment relating state changes of the vehicle to the outputs of the ocellar model. A fully analog-printed circuit board sensor based on this model is designed and fabricated. Open-loop characterization of the sensor to visual stimuli induced by self motion is performed. Closed-loop stabilizing feedback of the sensor in combination with optic flow sensors is implemented onboard a quadrotor micro-air vehicle and its impulse response is characterized. PMID:25217116

  2. Experience-driven formation of parts-based representations in a model of layered visual memory

    CERN Document Server

    Jitsev, Jenia

    2009-01-01

    Growing neuropsychological and neurophysiological evidence suggests that the visual cortex uses parts-based representations to encode, store and retrieve relevant objects. In such a scheme, objects are represented as a set of spatially distributed local features, or parts, arranged in stereotypical fashion. To encode the local appearance and to represent the relations between the constituent parts, there has to be an appropriate memory structure formed by previous experience with visual objects. Here, we propose a model how a hierarchical memory structure supporting efficient storage and rapid recall of parts-based representations can be established by an experience-driven process of self-organization. The process is based on the collaboration of slow bidirectional synaptic plasticity and homeostatic unit activity regulation, both running at the top of fast activity dynamics with winner-take-all character. These neural mechanisms lay down the basis for cooperation and competition between the distributed units...

  3. Visual perception involves event-type representations: The case of containment versus occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Brent; Scholl, Brian J

    2015-06-01

    Recent infant cognition research suggests that core knowledge involves event-type representations: During perception, the mind automatically categorizes physical events into broad types (e.g., occlusion and containment), which then guide attention to different properties (e.g., with width processed at a younger age than height in containment events but not occlusion events). We tested whether this aspect of infant cognition also structures adults' visual processing. In 6 experiments, adults had to detect occasional changes in ongoing dynamic displays that depicted repeating occlusion or containment events. Mirroring the developmental progression, change detection was better for width versus height changes in containment events, but no such difference was found for otherwise equivalent occlusion events, even though most observers were not even aware of the subtle occlusion-containment difference. These results suggest for the first time that event-type representations exist and operate automatically and unconsciously as part of the underlying currency of adult visual cognition. PMID:25867222

  4. Visual Behaviour Based Bio-Inspired Polarization Techniques in Computer Vision and Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Shabayek, Abd El Rahman; Morel, Olivier; Fofi, David

    2012-01-01

    For long time, it was thought that the sensing of polarization by animals is invariably related to their behavior, such as navigation and orientation. Recently, it was found that polarization can be part of a high-level visual perception, permitting a wide area of vision applications. Polarization vision can be used for most tasks of color vision including object recognition, contrast enhancement, camouflage breaking, and signal detection and discrimination. The polarization based visual beha...

  5. Invariance of brain-wave representations of simple visual images and their names

    OpenAIRE

    Suppes, Patrick; Han, Bing; Epelboim, Julie; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    1999-01-01

    In two experiments, electric brain waves of 14 subjects were recorded under several different conditions to study the invariance of brain-wave representations of simple patches of colors and simple visual shapes and their names, the words blue, circle, etc. As in our earlier work, the analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to both of which Fourier transforms were applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. A leas...

  6. Representations of facial identity information in the ventral visual stream investigated with multivoxel pattern analyses

    OpenAIRE

    E. Goesaert; H. P. Op de Beeck

    2013-01-01

    The neural basis of face recognition has been investigated extensively. Using fMRI, several regions have been identified in the human ventral visual stream that seem to be involved in processing and identifying faces, but the nature of the face representations in these regions is not well known. In particular, multivoxel pattern analyses have revealed distributed maps within these regions, but did not reveal the organizing principles of these maps. Here we isolated different types of perceptu...

  7. Blind Audio-Visual Source Separation based on Sparse Redundant Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Llagostera Casanovas, Anna; Monaci, Gianluca; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Gribonval, Rémi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method which is able to detect and separate audio-visual sources present in a scene. Our method exploits the correlation between the video signal captured with a camera and a synchronously recorded one-microphone audio track. In a ?rst stage, audio and video modalities are decomposed into relevant basic structures using redundant representations. Next, synchrony between relevant events in audio and video modalities is quanti...

  8. Knowledge practices in design: The role of visual representations as 'epistemic objects'

    OpenAIRE

    Ewenstein, B; J. Whyte

    2009-01-01

    We use a detailed study of the knowledge work around visual representations to draw attention to the multidimensional nature of `objects'. Objects are variously described in the literatures as relatively stable or in flux; as abstract or concrete; and as used within or across practices. We clarify these dimensions, drawing on and extending the literature on boundary objects, and connecting it with work on epistemic and technical objects. In particular, we highlight the epistemic role of objec...

  9. The Rise and Fall of Priming: How Visual Exposure Shapes Cortical Representations of Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Zago, Laure; Fenske, Mark J.; Aminoff, Elissa; Bar, Moshe

    2005-01-01

    How does the amount of time for which we see an object influence the nature and content of its cortical representation? To address this question, we varied the duration of initial exposure to visual objects and then measured functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal and behavioral performance during a subsequent repeated presentation of these objects. We report a novel ‘rise-and-fall’ pattern relating exposure duration and the corresponding magnitude of fMRI cortical signal. Compare...

  10. Representação visual de estruturas biológicas em materiais de ensino Visual representation of biological structures in teaching material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Azevedo Morato

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade de se definir parâmetros de apresentação e tratamento da informação científica em materiais de ensino. Através de consultas a bibliotecas e a especialistas em ciências da saúde e artes gráficas e visuais, fez-se uma pesquisa que resultou na descrição comparativa entre as primeiras manifestações da ilustração científica na anatomia e a trajetória da representação visual do conhecimento sobre a célula. O estudo traz ainda exemplos significativos de ilustrações utilizadas como elementos de análise.Parameters must be defined for presenting and handling scientific information presented in the form of teaching materials. Through library research and consultations with specialists in the health sciences and in graphic arts and design, this study undertook a comparative description of the first examples of scientific illustrations of anatomy and the evolution of visual representations of knowledge on the cell. The study includes significant examples of illustrations which served as elements of analysis.

  11. Transform-invariant visual representations in self-organizing spiking neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Evans

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ventral visual pathway achieves object and face recognition by building transform-invariant representations from elementary visual features. In previous computer simulation studies with rate-coded neural networks, the development of transform invariant representations has been demonstrated using either of two biologically plausible learning mechanisms, Trace learning and Continuous Transformation (CT learning. However, it has not previously been investigated how transform invariant representations may be learned in a more biologically accurate spiking neural network. A key issue is how the synaptic connection strengths in such a spiking network might self-organize through Spike-Time Dependent Plasticity (STDP where the change in synaptic strength is dependent on the relative times of the spikes emitted by the pre- and postsynaptic neurons rather than simply correlated activity driving changes in synaptic efficacy. Here we present simulations with conductance-based integrate-and-fire (IF neurons using a STDP learning rule to address these gaps in our understanding. It is demonstrated that with the appropriate selection of model pa- rameters and training regime, the spiking network model can utilize either Trace-like or CT-like learning mechanisms to achieve transform-invariant representations.

  12. Dissociations and associations between shape and category representations in the two visual pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, Stefania; Op de Beeck, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that both visual pathways encode object structural properties (e.g., shape) as well as semantic representations (e.g., categories). In theory, the two codes could coexist in one representation reflecting both visual and semantic information. However, in practice, the recent literature is filling with reports that try to prove one by disproving the other. We present an event-related fMRI study that explicitly dissociates shape from category with a two-factorial design, allowing us to investigate the independent contribution of the two factors as well as their interactions. In 14 participants, we measured responses to 54 images comprising 6 semantic categories (minerals, animals, fruits/vegetables, musical instruments, sport items, tools) and 9 shape types. Our analyses included 15 regions of interest (ROIs) that altogether covered a large cortical area comprising both visual pathways. To investigate how information about object shape and category is distributed throughout the ventral and dorsal stream, dissimilarity matrices derived from similarity judgments acquired on both dimensions were compared with neural dissimilarity matrices derived from ROIs' multi-voxel activity patterns. Results revealed an independent contribution from each dimension in both visual pathways, with a transition from shape-preferring ROIs to category-preferring ROIs along the posterior-to-anterior anatomical axis. Interestingly, although both ventral and dorsal areas encoded object category, the nature of their representations largely differed; whereas the animate/inanimate division was primarily observed in ventral stream areas, dorsal stream areas distinguished objects based on their action-related properties. Furthermore, information content about shape evolved - from low-level (silhouette) shape to high-level (perceived) shape - from posterior to anterior areas, highlighting the same gradient along which category selectivity emerges. Our results show that representations of shape and category independently coexist and at the same time interact throughout the visual hierarchy, as such reconciling visual and semantic accounts of the functional organization in the visual system. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326808

  13. Visual representation of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease and Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network criteria for anaphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Manivannan, Veena; Decker, Wyatt W.; Latha G. Stead; Li, James T.C.; Campbell, Ronna L.

    2009-01-01

    We present a user-friendly visual representation of The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease and the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network criteria so as to enhance recognition of anaphylaxis and active teaching and learning.

  14. Body ownership affects visual perception of object size by rescaling the visual representation of external space

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hoort B; Ehrsson HH

    2014-01-01

    Size perception is most often explained by a combination of cues derived from the visual system. However, this traditional cue approach neglects the role of the observer’s body beyond mere visual comparison. In a previous study, we used a full-body illusion to show that objects appear larger and farther away when participants experience a small artificial body as their own and that objects appear smaller and closer when they assume ownership of a large artificial body (“Barbie-doll illusion”;...

  15. Biologically Inspired Visual Model With Preliminary Cognition and Active Attention Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hong; Xi, Xuanyang; Li, Yinlin; Wu, Wei; Li, Fengfu

    2015-11-01

    Recently, many computational models have been proposed to simulate visual cognition process. For example, the hierarchical Max-Pooling (HMAX) model was proposed according to the hierarchical and bottom-up structure of V1 to V4 in the ventral pathway of primate visual cortex, which could achieve position- and scale-tolerant recognition. In our previous work, we have introduced memory and association into the HMAX model to simulate visual cognition process. In this paper, we improve our theoretical framework by mimicking a more elaborate structure and function of the primate visual cortex. We will mainly focus on the new formation of memory and association in visual processing under different circumstances as well as preliminary cognition and active adjustment in the inferior temporal cortex, which are absent in the HMAX model. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) in the memory and association part, we apply deep convolutional neural networks to extract various episodic features of the objects since people use different features for object recognition. Moreover, to achieve a fast and robust recognition in the retrieval and association process, different types of features are stored in separated clusters and the feature binding of the same object is stimulated in a loop discharge manner and 2) in the preliminary cognition and active adjustment part, we introduce preliminary cognition to classify different types of objects since distinct neural circuits in a human brain are used for identification of various types of objects. Furthermore, active cognition adjustment of occlusion and orientation is implemented to the model to mimic the top-down effect in human cognition process. Finally, our model is evaluated on two face databases CAS-PEAL-R1 and AR. The results demonstrate that our model exhibits its efficiency on visual recognition process with much lower memory storage requirement and a better performance compared with the traditional purely computational methods. PMID:25532204

  16. When memory is not enough: Electrophysiological evidence for goal-dependent use of working memory representations in guiding visual attention

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, Nancy B.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    Biased competition theory proposes that representations in working memory drive visual attention to select similar inputs. However, behavioral tests of this hypothesis have led to mixed results. These inconsistent findings could be due to the inability of behavioral measures to reliably detect the early, automatic effects on attentional deployment that the memory representations exert. Alternatively, executive mechanisms may govern how working memory representations influence attention based ...

  17. Automatic frame-centered object representation and integration revealed by iconic memory, visual priming, and backward masking

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Zhicheng; He, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Object identities (“what”) and their spatial locations (“where”) are processed in distinct pathways in the visual system, raising the question of how the what and where information is integrated. Because of object motions and eye movements, the retina-based representations are unstable, necessitating nonretinotopic representation and integration. A potential mechanism is to code and update objects according to their reference frames (i.e., frame-centered representation and integration). To is...

  18. A Dual Fast and Slow Feature Interaction in Biologically Inspired Visual Recognition of Human Action

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi, Bardia; Loo, C.K.

    2015-01-01

    Computational neuroscience studies that have examined human visual system through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have identified a model where the mammalian brain pursues two distinct pathways (for recognition of biological movement tasks). In the brain, dorsal stream analyzes the information of motion (optical flow), which is the fast features, and ventral stream (form pathway) analyzes form information (through active basis model based incremental slow featur...

  19. Social Categories Shape the Neural Representation of Emotion: Evidence from a Visual Face Adaptation Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Otten

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent behavioral studies have shown that emotional expressions are differently perceived depending on the race of a face, and that that perception of race cues is influenced by emotional expressions. However, neural processes related to the perception of invariant cues that indicate the identity of a face (such as race are often described to proceed independently of processes related to the perception of cues that can vary over time (such as emotion. Using a visual face adaptation paradigm, we tested whether these behavioral interactions between emotion and race also reflect interdependent neural representation of emotion and race. We compared visual emotion aftereffects when the adapting face and ambiguous test face differed in race or not. Emotion aftereffects were much smaller in different race trials than same race trials, indicating that the neural representation of a facial expression is significantly different depending on whether the emotional face is black or white. It thus seems that invariable cues such as race interact with variable face cues such as emotion not just at a response level, but also at the level of perception and neural representation.

  20. The Concept of Happiness as Conveyed in Visual Representations: Analysis of the Work of Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Zimet, Gila; Segel, Sarit

    2014-01-01

    This research was designed to examine how early-childhood educators pursuing their graduate degrees perceive the concept of happiness, as conveyed in visual representations. The research methodology combines qualitative and quantitative paradigms using the metaphoric collage, a tool used to analyze visual and verbal aspects. The research…

  1. Body ownership affects visual perception of object size by rescaling the visual representation of external space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoort, Björn; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2014-07-01

    Size perception is most often explained by a combination of cues derived from the visual system. However, this traditional cue approach neglects the role of the observer's body beyond mere visual comparison. In a previous study, we used a full-body illusion to show that objects appear larger and farther away when participants experience a small artificial body as their own and that objects appear smaller and closer when they assume ownership of a large artificial body ("Barbie-doll illusion"; van der Hoort, Guterstam, & Ehrsson, PLoS ONE, 6(5), e20195, 2011). The first aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this own-body-size effect is distinct from the role of the seen body as a direct familiar-size cue. To this end, we developed a novel setup that allowed for occlusion of the artificial body during the presentation of test objects. Our results demonstrate that the feeling of ownership of an artificial body can alter the perceived sizes of objects without the need for a visible body. Second, we demonstrate that fixation shifts do not contribute to the own-body-size effect. Third, we show that the effect exists in both peri-personal space and distant extra-personal space. Finally, through a meta-analysis, we demonstrate that the own-body-size effect is independent of and adds to the classical visual familiar-size cue effect. Our results suggest that, by changing body size, the entire spatial layout rescales and new objects are now perceived according to this rescaling, without the need to see the body. PMID:24806404

  2. A biologically inspired psychometric function for accuracy of visual identification as a function of exposure duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias

    The psychometric function of letter identification is typically described as a function of stimulus intensity. However, the effect of stimulus exposure duration on letter identification remains poorly described. This is surprising because the effect of exposure duration has played a central role in modelling human performance in whole and partial report tasks in which multiple simultaneously presented letters are to be reported (Shibuya & Bundesen, 1988). Therefore, we investigated visual letter identification as a function of exposure duration. On each trial, a single randomly chosen letter (A-Z) was presented at the centre of the screen. Exposure duration was varied from 5 to 210 milliseconds. The letter was followed by a pattern mask. Three subjects each completed 54,080 trials in a 26-Alternative Forced Choice procedure. We compared the exponential, the gamma and the Weibull psychometric functions, all of these having a temporal offset included, as well as the ex-Gaussian, and finally a new psychometric function, motivated from single-neuron studies by (Albrecht, Geisler, Frazor & Crane, 2002). The new psychometric function stands out by having a nonmonotonous hazard rate which is initially rising from zero, then peaking, and finally decaying to a somewhat sustained plateau, mimicking closely observed instantaneous firing rates of monkey visual cortex neurons. The new psychometric function fits well to experimental data in both the present study and in a previous study of single-letter identification accuracy (Bundesen & Harms, 1999). Also, we conducted a follow-up experiment to test the ability of the psychometric functions to fit single-letter identification data, at different stimulus contrast levels; also in this experiment the new psychometric function prevailed. Further, after insertion into Bundesen’s Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990), the new psychometric function enables closer fits to data from a previous whole and partial report experiment.

  3. A task-independent neural representation of subjective certainty in visual perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heereman, Johannes; Walter, Henrik; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2015-01-01

    Am I really sure? This is a question not only scientists ask themselves but practically everybody every day. A recent study provides behavioral evidence supporting the view that one’s subjective confidence in a decision (i.e., feeling sure that a decision is correct) is represented in a task-independent format. Previous neuroimaging studies identified neural correlates of decision confidence but whether or not these are task-dependent remains unclear. Here, combining two perceptual decision tasks with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we provide neural evidence for a task-independent representation of degrees of subjective certainty (i.e., a neural representation of subjective certainty that remains constant across two visual tasks). Importantly, due to the constant stimulus-intensity used this result is independent of task-difficulty and stimulus properties. Our data provide strong evidence for a generic mechanism underlying the computation of subjective perceptual certainty in vision.

  4. How to Make a Good Animation: A Grounded Cognition Model of How Visual Representation Design Affects the Construction of Abstract Physics Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongzhou; Gladding, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Visual representations play a critical role in teaching physics. However, since we do not have a satisfactory understanding of how visual perception impacts the construction of abstract knowledge, most visual representations used in instructions are either created based on existing conventions or designed according to the instructor's…

  5. Functional organization and visual representations in human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Wai Yiu Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex even in the absence of working memory demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex remain unclear. Further, in a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of lateral prefrontal cortex? What do these findings tell us about the underlying function and organization principles of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex? What is the future direction for investigating visual representations in this cortex? This review focuses on the function, topography, and circuitry of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex to enhance our understanding of the evolution and development of this cortex.

  6. Objets Sonores: Une Repr\\'esentation Bio-Inspir\\'ee Hi\\'erarchique Parcimonieuse \\`A Tr\\`es Grandes Dimensions Utilisable En Reconnaissance; Auditory Objects: Bio-Inspired Hierarchical Sparse High Dimensional Representation for Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Brodeur, Simon; Rouat, Jean

    2013-01-01

    L'accent est plac\\'e dans cet article sur la structure hi\\'erarchique, l'aspect parcimonieux de la repr\\'esentation de l'information sonore, la tr\\`es grande dimension des caract\\'eristiques ainsi que sur l'ind\\'ependance des caract\\'eristiques permettant de d\\'efinir les composantes des objets sonores. Les notions d'objet sonore et de repr\\'esentation neuronale sont d'abord introduites, puis illustr\\'ees avec une application en analyse de signaux sonores vari\\'es: parole, m...

  7. A bio-inspired method and system for visual object-based attention and segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, David J.; Khosla, Deepak

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes a method and system of human-like attention and object segmentation in visual scenes that (1) attends to regions in a scene in their rank of saliency in the image, (2) extracts the boundary of an attended proto-object based on feature contours, and (3) can be biased to boost the attention paid to specific features in a scene, such as those of a desired target object in static and video imagery. The purpose of the system is to identify regions of a scene of potential importance and extract the region data for processing by an object recognition and classification algorithm. The attention process can be performed in a default, bottom-up manner or a directed, top-down manner which will assign a preference to certain features over others. One can apply this system to any static scene, whether that is a still photograph or imagery captured from video. We employ algorithms that are motivated by findings in neuroscience, psychology, and cognitive science to construct a system that is novel in its modular and stepwise approach to the problems of attention and region extraction, its application of a flooding algorithm to break apart an image into smaller proto-objects based on feature density, and its ability to join smaller regions of similar features into larger proto-objects. This approach allows many complicated operations to be carried out by the system in a very short time, approaching real-time. A researcher can use this system as a robust front-end to a larger system that includes object recognition and scene understanding modules; it is engineered to function over a broad range of situations and can be applied to any scene with minimal tuning from the user.

  8. The role of visual representations in the learning and teaching of science: An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. GILBERT

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Representations are the entities with which all thinking is considered to take place. Hence they are central to the process of learning and consequently to that of teaching. They are therefore important in the conduct and learning of science, given the central commitment of that discipline to providing evidence-based explanations of natural phenomena, in which underlying entities and mechanisms have to be postulated and substantiated on the basis of empirical enquiry. The three generic types of representation and the modes in which they are expressed are presented against the background of an established model of their acquisition, processing and display. The two meanings of ‘visualization’ are discussed as is the key role played by fluency in them in the attainment of expert status in the processes of science. The nature and origins of students’ problems in attaining this ‘metavisual competence’ are derived from a review of the literature. Good practice in the teaching of the conventions of representation is suggested. Specific research and development is needed if this key aspect of knowledge acquisition and display is to be fully recognised in the varied curricula of formal science education and in the provision of opportunities for the informal communication of science.

  9. The Concept of Happiness as Conveyed in Visual Representations: Analysis of the Work of Early Childhood Educators

    OpenAIRE

    Gila Russo-Zimet; Sarit Segel

    2014-01-01

    This research was designed to examine how early-childhood educators pursuing their graduate degrees perceive the concept of happiness, as conveyed in visual representations. The research methodology combines qualitative and quantitative paradigms using the metaphoric collage, a tool used to analyze visual and verbal aspects. The research population included 32 students from various locations in Israel. The findings revealed that the concept of happiness is perceived as love, spirituality and ...

  10. Internal reference frames for representation and storage of visual information: the role of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Joseph; Lipshits, Mark; Zaoui, Mohamed; Berthoz, Alain; Gurfinkel, Victor

    2001-08-01

    Experimental studies of visual mechanisms suggest that the CNS represents image information with respect to preferred horizontal and vertical axes, as shown by a phenomenon known as the "oblique effect". In the current study we used this effect to evaluate the influence of gravity on the representation and storage of visual orientation information. Subjects performed a psychophysical task in which a visually-presented stimulus line was aligned with the remembered orientation of a reference stimulus line presented moments before. The experiments were made on 5 cosmonauts during orbital space flight and additionally on 13 subjects in conditions of normal gravity with a tilting chair. Data were analyzed with respect to response variability and timing. On earth, these measurements for this task show a distinct preference for horizontally and vertically oriented stimuli when the body and gravitational axes were aligned. This preference was markedly decreased or disappeared when the body axis was tilted with respect to gravity; this effect was not connected with ocular counter-rolling nor could we find a preference of any other intermediate axis between the gravity and body aligned axes. On the other hand, the preference for vertical and horizontal axes was maintained for tests performed in microgravity over the course of a 6 month flight, starting from flight day 6. We concluded that subjects normally process visual orientation information in a multi-modal reference frame that combines both proprioceptive and gravitational cues when both are available, but that a proprioceptive reference frame is sufficient for this task in the absence of gravity after a short period of adaptation. Some of the results from this study have been previously published in a preliminary report [7].

  11. VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF MAIN ACTORS POVERTY IN SERBIA: SEMIOTIC ANALYSIS OF TELEVISION IMAGE AND PHOTOGRAPHY IN MEDIA TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankica Draškovi?

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the media's visual representation of various poverty groups within Serbia.The visual representation is not simply a reflection of reality, but rather an instrument that plays an important role in prescribing different meaning  to media events and their appearances in public.The aim of this research is to determine how the visual code transmits messages about poverty and socially excluded groups, in the analyzed television news, newspaper and online photographs. Based on the sample of  410 articles on poverty, collected between the 14th and  28th of  October 2010 and 2011, this paper critically analyses the medias representation of poverty within Serbian society through methods of content analysis, critical discourse studies, and the use of semiotic approahes to images. Analysis of the structure of discourse shows that the visual representation of the poor in Serbian society is highly simplified, stereotyped and is seperated from the wider societal context of poverty. It is rather reduced to bits and  pieces of media images, which do not properly indicate the seriousnes of the problem of poverty making it difficult for mass audiences to identify with.

  12. High dynamic range imaging pipeline: perception-motivated representation of visual content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantiuk, Rafal; Krawczyk, Grzegorz; Mantiuk, Radoslaw; Seidel, Hans-Peter

    2007-02-01

    The advances in high dynamic range (HDR) imaging, especially in the display and camera technology, have a significant impact on the existing imaging systems. The assumptions of the traditional low-dynamic range imaging, designed for paper print as a major output medium, are ill suited for the range of visual material that is shown on modern displays. For example, the common assumption that the brightest color in an image is white can be hardly justified for high contrast LCD displays, not to mention next generation HDR displays, that can easily create bright highlights and the impression of self-luminous colors. We argue that high dynamic range representation can encode images regardless of the technology used to create and display them, with the accuracy that is only constrained by the limitations of the human eye and not a particular output medium. To facilitate the research on high dynamic range imaging, we have created a software package (http://pfstools.sourceforge.net/) capable of handling HDR data on all stages of image and video processing. The software package is available as open source under the General Public License and includes solutions for high quality image acquisition from multiple exposures, a range of tone mapping algorithms and a visual difference predictor for HDR images. Examples of shell scripts demonstrate how the software can be used for processing single images as well as video sequences.

  13. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26010021

  14. Using surface imaging and visual coaching to improve the reproducibility and stability of deep-inspiration breath hold for left-breast-cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late cardiac complications may arise after left-breast radiation therapy. Deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH) allows reduction of the irradiated heart volume at the same time as it reduces tumor bed motion and increases lung sparing. In the present study, we have evaluated the improvement in reproducibility and stability of the DIBH for left-breast-cancer treatment when visual coaching is provided with the aid of 3D video surface imaging and video goggles. Five left-breast-cancer patients and fifteen healthy volunteers were asked to perform a series of DIBHs without and with visual coaching. Reproducibility and stability of DIBH were measured for each individual with and without visual coaching. The average reproducibility and stability changed from 2.1 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively, without visual feedback to 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm with visual feedback, showing a significant statistical difference (p 2 mm) in reproducibility and stability were observed in 35% and 15% of the subjects, respectively. The average chest wall excursion of the DIBH with respect to the free breathing preceding the DIBH was found to be 11.3 mm. The reproducibility and stability of the DIBH improve significantly from the visual coaching provided to the patient, especially in those patients with poor reproducibility and stability.

  15. Using surface imaging and visual coaching to improve the reproducibility and stability of deep-inspiration breath hold for left-breast-cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerviño, Laura I.; Gupta, Sonia; Rose, Mary A.; Yashar, Catheryn; Jiang, Steve B.

    2009-11-01

    Late cardiac complications may arise after left-breast radiation therapy. Deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH) allows reduction of the irradiated heart volume at the same time as it reduces tumor bed motion and increases lung sparing. In the present study, we have evaluated the improvement in reproducibility and stability of the DIBH for left-breast-cancer treatment when visual coaching is provided with the aid of 3D video surface imaging and video goggles. Five left-breast-cancer patients and fifteen healthy volunteers were asked to perform a series of DIBHs without and with visual coaching. Reproducibility and stability of DIBH were measured for each individual with and without visual coaching. The average reproducibility and stability changed from 2.1 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively, without visual feedback to 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm with visual feedback, showing a significant statistical difference (p 2 mm) in reproducibility and stability were observed in 35% and 15% of the subjects, respectively. The average chest wall excursion of the DIBH with respect to the free breathing preceding the DIBH was found to be 11.3 mm. The reproducibility and stability of the DIBH improve significantly from the visual coaching provided to the patient, especially in those patients with poor reproducibility and stability.

  16. Automatic frame-centered object representation and integration revealed by iconic memory, visual priming, and backward masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhicheng; He, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Object identities ("what") and their spatial locations ("where") are processed in distinct pathways in the visual system, raising the question of how the what and where information is integrated. Because of object motions and eye movements, the retina-based representations are unstable, necessitating nonretinotopic representation and integration. A potential mechanism is to code and update objects according to their reference frames (i.e., frame-centered representation and integration). To isolate frame-centered processes, in a frame-to-frame apparent motion configuration, we (a) presented two preceding or trailing objects on the same frame, equidistant from the target on the other frame, to control for object-based (frame-based) effect and space-based effect, and (b) manipulated the target's relative location within its frame to probe frame-centered effect. We show that iconic memory, visual priming, and backward masking depend on objects' relative frame locations, orthogonal of the retinotopic coordinate. These findings not only reveal that iconic memory, visual priming, and backward masking can be nonretinotopic but also demonstrate that these processes are automatically constrained by contextual frames through a frame-centered mechanism. Thus, object representation is robustly and automatically coupled to its reference frame and continuously being updated through a frame-centered, location-specific mechanism. These findings lead to an object cabinet framework, in which objects ("files") within the reference frame ("cabinet") are orderly coded relative to the frame. PMID:23104817

  17. Inter-modal attention shifts trigger the selective activation of task-relevant tactile or visual working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katus, Tobias; Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2015-09-01

    The sensory recruitment account of working memory (WM) assumes that the short-term retention of visual or tactile stimuli is implemented by cortical areas that are also responsible for the perceptual processing of these stimuli. Focal attention supports the short-term retention of sensory information, but it is unknown whether attention can also be flexibly shifted between visual and tactile WM representations. This study explored such inter-modal attention shifts in a task that required memory for simultaneously presented tactile and visual stimuli. A set of bilateral tactile and visual sample stimuli was followed after a retention period by a set of test stimuli. In different blocks, participants were instructed to memorize all stimuli on either the left or the right side. An auditory retro-cue, presented 500 ms after the sample sets, signalled whether the tactile or visual stimuli were relevant for the upcoming memory test. To study how these cues affect tactile and visual short-term storage, we measured the visual contralateral delay activity (CDA component) of the event-related potential (ERP) and its tactile counterpart (tCDA) that are elicited over modality-specific visual and somatosensory cortex. Scalp current density transforms were used to minimize volume-conduction, and to simultaneously measure these components over somatosensory and visual regions of interest (ROIs). A significant ROI x cued modality interaction demonstrated that visual and tactile WM was affected by the cued task-relevance of these sensory modalities. The tCDA component over somatosensory scalp regions was present only when touch was cued. The CDA over visual cortex was present in both cueing conditions, but was larger when vision was cued. Our results suggest that tactile and visual stimuli are stored separately in modality-specific memory systems. We conclude that retro-cues elicit inter-modal attention shifts that selectively activate information in the currently task-relevant modality. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326549

  18. Representation of visual scenes by local neuronal populations in layer 2/3 of mouse visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritjof Helmchen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How are visual scenes encoded in local neural networks of visual cortex? In rodents, visual cortex lacks a columnar organization so that processing of diverse features from a spot in visual space could be performed locally by populations of neighboring neurons. To examine how complex visual scenes are represented by local microcircuits in mouse visual cortex we measured visually-evoked responses of layer 2/3 neuronal populations using 3D two-photon calcium imaging. Both natural and artificial movie scenes (10-s duration evoked distributed and sparsely organized responses in local populations of 70 to 150 neurons within the sampled volumes. About 50% of neurons showed calcium transients during visual scene presentation, of which about half displayed reliable temporal activation patterns. The majority of the reliably responding neurons were activated primarily by one of the four visual scenes applied. Consequently, single neurons performed poorly in decoding, which visual scene had been presented. In contrast, high levels of decoding performance (>80% were reached when considering population responses, requiring about 80 randomly picked cells or 20 reliable responders. Furthermore, reliable responding neurons tended to have neighbors sharing the same stimulus preference. Because of this local redundancy, it was beneficial for efficient scene decoding to read out activity from spatially distributed rather than locally clustered neurons. Our results suggest a population code in layer 2/3 of visual cortex, where the visual environment is dynamically represented in the activation of distinct functional sub-networks.

  19. Decoding the emerging representation of degraded visual objects in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootswagers, Tijl; Carlson, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Object recognition is fast and reliable, and works even when our eyes are focused elsewhere. The aim of our study was to examine how the visual system compensates for degraded inputs in object recognition by looking at the time course of the brain's processing of naturally degraded visual object stimuli. The study used a set of 48 images depicting real world objects (24 animate and 24 inanimate). In experiment 1, we degraded the images by varying the simulated focus, such that each image was equally recognizable. In experiment 2, we presented the intact and out-of-focus images to participants, while their brain activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the scanner, participants were asked to categorize the objects as animate or inanimate as quickly and accurately as possible. We predicted a behavioural reaction time effect and accordingly observed degraded objects were recognized 22ms slower. Time resolved multivariate pattern analysis was used to decode category (animacy) membership, as well as object identity for all possible pairwise exemplar comparisons as a function of time. In the decoding analysis, we observed lower decoding performance for degraded images overall; and the decoding onset and peak for degraded stimuli were 15ms slower. We assessed several models to explain the behavioural reaction time difference, including distance-based models, which predict reaction times based on exemplar decodability, as well as time-based models, which use the decoding onset and peak. Our analysis shows that distance based models are better predictors. These findings suggest that the time decodable information emerges is less important for determining reaction time behaviour than the quality of the representation (decodability). Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326775

  20. The use of multiple representations and visualizations in student learning of introductory physics: An example from work and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xueli

    In the past three decades, physics education research has primarily focused on student conceptual understanding; little work has been conducted to investigate student difficulties in problem solving. In cognitive science and psychology, however, extensive studies have explored the differences in problem solving between experts and naive students. A major finding indicates that experts often apply qualitative representations in problem solving, but that novices use an equation-centered method. This dissertation describes investigations into the use of multiple representations and visualizations in student understanding and problem solving with the concepts of work and energy. A multiple-representation strategy was developed to help students acquire expertise in solving work-energy problems. In this approach, a typical work-energy problem is considered as a physical process. The process is first described in words-the verbal representation of the process. Next, a sketch or a picture, called a pictorial representation, is used to represent the process. This is followed by work-energy bar charts-a physical representation of the same processes. Finally, this process is represented mathematically by using a generalized work-energy equation. In terms of the multiple representations, the goal of solving a work- energy problem is to represent the physical process the more intuitive pictorial and diagrammatic physical representations. Ongoing assessment of student learning indicates that this multiple-representation technique is more effective than standard instruction methods in student problem solving. visualize this difficult-to-understand concept, a guided- inquiry learning activity using a pair of model carts and an experiment problem using a sandbag were developed. Assessment results have shown that these research-based materials are effective in helping students visualize this concept and give a pictorial idea of ``where the kinetic energy goes'' during inelastic collisions. The research and curriculum development was conducted in the context of the introductory calculus-based physics course. Investigations were carried out using common physics education research tools, including open-ended surveys, written test questions, and individual student interviews.

  1. Ant Robotic Swarm for Visualizing Invisible Hazardous Substances

    OpenAIRE

    John Oyekan; Huosheng Hu

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the simplicity of how nature solves its problems, this paper presents a novel approach that would enable a swarm of ant robotic agents (robots with limited sensing, communication, computational and memory resources) form a visual representation of distributed hazardous substances within an environment dominated by diffusion processes using a decentralized approach. Such a visual representation could be very useful in enabling a quicker evacuation of a city’s population affected by...

  2. Dynamic visualization in a developing framework for the representation of geographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Blok

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to translate the characteristics of geographic data into signs and signals that can be perceived from a map, a language consisting of building blocks and a syntax are required. The first language to be developed was a graphic sign language, introduced by Bertin. His framework has been adapted and extended. It now includes languages for other senses, like touch and hearing, and even smell and taste are currently being investigated. In this paper it has been argued that the overall framework is continuously growing under the influence of technological, conceptual and user-oriented developments. Technological developments in particular are rapid. For example, they allow the representation of geographic data in virtual environments, which can be experienced through multiple senses. If cartographers want to play a role here, they should be willing to contribute to further extension of the framework, which may never be complete. In addition, current definitions of the concepts 'cartography' and 'map' have to be adapted. An example of user-oriented developments is the growing awareness of different types of map use, ranging from presentation to analysis/exploration. Application of the sign language may be different for each type of use, so the framework also needs further development in this direction. As an example, research ideas with respect to the use of dynamic visualization variables in cartographic animations for exploration purposes are included.

  3. Adding words to the brain's visual dictionary: novel word learning selectively sharpens orthographic representations in the VWFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, Laurie S; Kim, Judy; Rule, Josh; Jiang, Xiong; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2015-03-25

    The nature of orthographic representations in the human brain is still subject of much debate. Recent reports have claimed that the visual word form area (VWFA) in left occipitotemporal cortex contains an orthographic lexicon based on neuronal representations highly selective for individual written real words (RWs). This theory predicts that learning novel words should selectively increase neural specificity for these words in the VWFA. We trained subjects to recognize novel pseudowords (PWs) and used fMRI rapid adaptation to compare neural selectivity with RWs, untrained PWs (UTPWs), and trained PWs (TPWs). Before training, PWs elicited broadly tuned responses, whereas responses to RWs indicated tight tuning. After training, TPW responses resembled those of RWs, whereas UTPWs continued to show broad tuning. This change in selectivity was specific to the VWFA. Therefore, word learning appears to selectively increase neuronal specificity for the new words in the VWFA, thereby adding these words to the brain's visual dictionary. PMID:25810526

  4. Representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud en la discapacidad visual / Social representation of the health service providers in visual disability

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo, Díaz Llanes; Judith, Prieto Sedano.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el conocimiento de la representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud resulta de suma importancia para la salud pública, debido a su influencia en la calidad de su relación con los pacientes. Objetivo: caracterizar la representación social de los prestadores de servicios [...] de salud acerca de la discapacidad visual. Métodos: estudio de caso realizado en el policlínico "Hermanos Ruíz Aboy" en San Miguel del Padrón en el período de enero a junio de 2012. Participaron 33 informantes clave escogidos por muestreo intencional. Las técnicas de indagación empleadas fueron la asociación libre de palabras y las entrevistas en profundidad. Resultados: el estudio reveló la existencia en los prestadores de una representación angustiosa-conmiserativa-dependiente que configura elementos provenientes de referentes experienciales, componentes afectivos e insumos informacionales relacionados con las personas en situación de discapacidad visual. Conclusiones: los prestadores de servicios de salud investigados tiene en el núcleo de sus representaciones experiencias y conocimientos relacionados con el daño anatómico que condiciona limitación e incapacidad para la participación en la vida social de las personas con discapacidad visual, pero las asociaciones relativas a las necesidades de atención, definen un deficiente reconocimiento de elementos que garantizarían la compensación e integración psicosocial en estas personas. Abstract in english Introduction: knowing the social representation of the health service providers is very important for the public health, due to their influence on the quality of relationship with the patients. Objective: to characterize the social representation of the health service providers on visual disability. [...] Methods: case study performed in "Hermanos Ruiz Aboy" in San Miguel del Padron municipality in the period of January through June, 2012. Thirty three key informants selected by intentional sampling participated. The research techniques were free association of words and in-depth interviews. Results: this study disclosed the existence in health providers of an anguishing-commisserative-dependent representation that shapes elements from experience referents, affective components and informational inputs related to the persons facing visual disability. Conclusions: the health service providers under research have, in the core of their representation, experiences and knowledge linked to the anatomical damage that causes limitation and disability to be involved in the people with visual disability; however, the relative associations with the care requirements define a poor recognition of those elements that would assure compensation and psychosocial integration of these people.

  5. A perceptual representation in the frontal eye field during covert visual search that is more reliable than the behavioral report

    OpenAIRE

    Trageser, Jason C.; Monosov, Ilya E.; Zhou, Yifeng; Thompson, Kirk G.

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal activity in the frontal eye field (FEF) identifies locations of behaviorally important objects for guiding attention and eye movements. We recorded neural activity in the FEF of monkeys trained to manually turn a lever towards the location of a pop-out target of a visual search array without shifting gaze. We examined whether the reliability of the neural representation of the salient target location predicted the monkeys’ accuracy of reporting target location. We found that FEF neur...

  6. Learning multisensory representations for auditory-visual transfer of sequence category knowledge: a probabilistic language of thought approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ilker; Jacobs, Robert A

    2015-06-01

    If a person is trained to recognize or categorize objects or events using one sensory modality, the person can often recognize or categorize those same (or similar) objects and events via a novel modality. This phenomenon is an instance of cross-modal transfer of knowledge. Here, we study the Multisensory Hypothesis which states that people extract the intrinsic, modality-independent properties of objects and events, and represent these properties in multisensory representations. These representations underlie cross-modal transfer of knowledge. We conducted an experiment evaluating whether people transfer sequence category knowledge across auditory and visual domains. Our experimental data clearly indicate that we do. We also developed a computational model accounting for our experimental results. Consistent with the probabilistic language of thought approach to cognitive modeling, our model formalizes multisensory representations as symbolic "computer programs" and uses Bayesian inference to learn these representations. Because the model demonstrates how the acquisition and use of amodal, multisensory representations can underlie cross-modal transfer of knowledge, and because the model accounts for subjects' experimental performances, our work lends credence to the Multisensory Hypothesis. Overall, our work suggests that people automatically extract and represent objects' and events' intrinsic properties, and use these properties to process and understand the same (and similar) objects and events when they are perceived through novel sensory modalities. PMID:25338656

  7. The role of visual representations within working memory for paired-associate and serial order of spoken words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Taiji; Saito, Satoru

    2013-09-01

    Caplan and colleagues have recently explained paired-associate learning and serial-order learning with a single-mechanism computational model by assuming differential degrees of isolation. Specifically, two items in a pair can be grouped together and associated to positional codes that are somewhat isolated from the rest of the items. In contrast, the degree of isolation among the studied items is lower in serial-order learning. One of the key predictions drawn from this theory is that any variables that help chunking of two adjacent items into a group should be beneficial to paired-associate learning, more than serial-order learning. To test this idea, the role of visual representations in memory for spoken verbal materials (i.e., imagery) was compared between two types of learning directly. Experiment 1 showed stronger effects of word concreteness and of concurrent presentation of irrelevant visual stimuli (dynamic visual noise: DVN) in paired-associate memory than in serial-order memory, consistent with the prediction. Experiment 2 revealed that the irrelevant visual stimuli effect was boosted when the participants had to actively maintain the information within working memory, rather than feed it to long-term memory for subsequent recall, due to cue overloading. This indicates that the sensory input from irrelevant visual stimuli can reach and affect visual representations of verbal items within working memory, and that this disruption can be attenuated when the information within working memory can be efficiently supported by long-term memory for subsequent recall. PMID:23472610

  8. Representações visuais para recuperação de informação na BDTD-UFPE / Visual representations to information retrieval in BDTD-UFPE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Fernandes, Correa; Jessica Monique de Lira, Vieira.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisa a aplicabilidade de visualizações, como interfaces amigáveis para Sistemas de Recuperação de Informação (SRIs), bem como discute a construção de representação visual de informações para o SRI da Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações (BDTD) da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE). A [...] metodologia consiste em estudo de caso, envolvendo análise do uso de visualizações em sites de SRIs e discussão dos caminhos percorridos para construção de visualizações para recuperação de teses e dissertações do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direto da UFPE. Conclui-se que interfaces de SRIs, que disponibilizam visualizações, transmitem informações de forma agradável e interativa, possibilitando a recuperação de documentos relevantes e garantido melhor socialização dos conhecimentos. Entretanto, a escolha da visualização a ser construída para determinado SRI, deve levar em conta não só as vantagens do uso das mesmas pelo usuário, mas, também, o atendimento aos requisitos de organização da informação necessários para construção de cada visualização. Abstract in english This article analyzes the applicability of visualizations as friendly interfaces for Information Retrieval Systems (IRSs) and discusses the construction of visual representation of information to the IRS of the Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (BDTD) at Federal University of Pernambuco (U [...] FPE). The methodology consists of case study involving analysis of the use of visualizations in SRIs sites, and discussion of the paths chosen to build visualizations for retrieval of theses and dissertations of the Law Graduate Program at UFPE. We conclude that SRI interfaces that provide visualizations convey information so enjoyable and interactive, allowing the retrieval of relevant documents and ensuring better socialization of knowledge. However, the choice of one visualization to be built for a specific SRI, should take into account not only the advantages for users of using the same, but also meeting the requirements of information organizing required for construction of each visualization.

  9. The Effect of Visual-Chunking-Representation Accommodation on Geometry Testing for Students with Math Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dake; Ding, Yi; Stegall, Joanna; Mo, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Students who struggle with learning mathematics often have difficulties with geometry problem solving, which requires strong visual imagery skills. These difficulties have been correlated with deficiencies in visual working memory. Cognitive psychology has shown that chunking of visual items accommodates students' working memory deficits. This…

  10. Temporally-structured acquisition of multidimensional optical imaging data facilitates visualization of elusive cortical representations in the behaving monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, David B; Hildesheim, Rina; Grinvald, Amiram

    2013-11-15

    Fundamental understanding of higher cognitive functions can greatly benefit from imaging of cortical activity with high spatiotemporal resolution in the behaving non-human primate. To achieve rapid imaging of high-resolution dynamics of cortical representations of spontaneous and evoked activity, we designed a novel data acquisition protocol for sensory stimulation by rapidly interleaving multiple stimuli in continuous sessions of optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes. We also tested a new algorithm for the "temporally structured component analysis" (TSCA) of a multidimensional time series that was developed for our new data acquisition protocol, but was tested only on simulated data (Blumenfeld, 2010). In addition to the raw data, the algorithm incorporates prior knowledge about the temporal structure of the data as well as input from other information. Here we showed that TSCA can successfully separate functional signal components from other signals referred to as noise. Imaging of responses to multiple visual stimuli, utilizing voltage-sensitive dyes, was performed on the visual cortex of awake monkeys. Multiple cortical representations, including orientation and ocular dominance maps as well as the hitherto elusive retinotopic representation of orientation stimuli, were extracted in only 10s of imaging, approximately two orders of magnitude faster than accomplished by conventional methods. Since the approach is rather general, other imaging techniques may also benefit from the same stimulation protocol. This methodology can thus facilitate rapid optical imaging explorations in monkeys, rodents and other species with a versatility and speed that were not feasible before. PMID:23689017

  11. Students' Use of Three Different Visual Representations to Interpret Whether Molecules Are Polar or Nonpolar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Gunnar E.; Schonborn, Konrad J.; Palmerius, Karljohan E. Lundin

    2012-01-01

    Visualizing molecular properties is often crucial for constructing conceptual understanding in chemistry. However, research has revealed numerous challenges surrounding students' meaningful interpretation of the relationship between the geometry and electrostatic properties of molecules. This study explored students' (n = 18) use of three visual

  12. Cardiac and pulmonary dose reduction for tangentially irradiated breast cancer, utilizing deep inspiration breath-hold with audio-visual guidance, without compromising target coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose. Cardiac disease and pulmonary complications are documented risk factors in tangential breast irradiation. Respiratory gating radiotherapy provides a possibility to substantially reduce cardiopulmonary doses. This CT planning study quantifies the reduction of radiation doses to the heart and lung, using deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). Patients and methods. Seventeen patients with early breast cancer, referred for adjuvant radiotherapy, were included. For each patient two CT scans were acquired; the first during free breathing (FB) and the second during DIBH. The scans were monitored by the Varian RPM respiratory gating system. Audio coaching and visual feedback (audio-visual guidance) were used. The treatment planning of the two CT studies was performed with conformal tangential fields, focusing on good coverage (V95>98%) of the planning target volume (PTV). Dose-volume histograms were calculated and compared. Doses to the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, ipsilateral lung and the contralateral breast were assessed. Results. Compared to FB, the DIBH-plans obtained lower cardiac and pulmonary doses, with equal coverage of PTV. The average mean heart dose was reduced from 3.7 to 1.7 Gy and the number of patients with >5% heart volume receiving 25 Gy or more was reduced from four to one of the 17 patients. With DIBH the heart was completely out of the beam portals for ten patients, with FB this could not be achieved for any of the 17 patients. The average mean dose to the LAD coronary artery was reduced from 18.1 to 6.4 Gy. The average ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 20 Gy was reduced from 12.2 to 10.0%. Conclusion. Respiratory gating with DIBH, utilizing audio-visual guidance, reduces cardiac and pulmonary doses for tangentially treated left sided breast cancer patients without compromising the target coverage

  13. The time course of protecting a visual memory representation from perceptual interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Gunseli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cueing a remembered item during the delay of a visual memory task leads to enhanced recall of the cued item compared to when an item is not cued. This cueing benefit has been proposed to reflect attention within visual memory being shifted from a distributed mode to a focused mode, thus protecting the cued item against perceptual interference. Here we investigated the dynamics of building up this mnemonic protection against visual interference by systematically varying the SOA between cue onset and a subsequent visual mask in an orientation memory task. Experiment 1 showed that a cue counteracted the deteriorating effect of pattern masks. Experiment 2 demonstrated that building up this protection is a continuous process that is completed in approximately half a second after cue onset. The similarities between shifting attention in perceptual and remembered space are discussed.

  14. Neuronal learning of invariant object representation in the ventral visual stream is not dependent on reward

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Nuo; Dicarlo, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Neurons at the top of primate ventral visual stream (inferior temporal cortex, IT) have selectivity for objects that is highly tolerant to variation in the object’s appearance on the retina. Previous non-human primate (Macaca mulatta) studies suggest that this neuronal tolerance is at least partly supported by the natural temporal contiguity of visual experience, because altering that temporal contiguity can robustly alter adult IT position and size tolerance. According to that work, it is th...

  15. The Effect of Visual Representation Style in Problem-Solving: A Perspective from Cognitive Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Niels A. Taatgen

    2013-01-01

    Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath pa...

  16. The Impact of Density and Ratio on Object-Ensemble Representation in Human Anterior-Medial Ventral Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Jonathan S; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral research has demonstrated that observers can extract summary statistics from ensembles of multiple objects. We recently showed that a region of anterior-medial ventral visual cortex, overlapping largely with the scene-sensitive parahippocampal place area (PPA), participates in object-ensemble representation. Here we investigated the encoding of ensemble density in this brain region using fMRI-adaptation. In Experiment 1, we varied density by changing the spacing between objects and found no sensitivity in PPA to such density changes. Thus, density may not be encoded in PPA, possibly because object spacing is not perceived as an intrinsic ensemble property. In Experiment 2, we varied relative density by changing the ratio of 2 types of objects comprising an ensemble, and observed significant sensitivity in PPA to such ratio change. Although colorful ensembles were shown in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 demonstrated that sensitivity to object ratio change was not driven mainly by a change in the ratio of colors. Thus, while anterior-medial ventral visual cortex is insensitive to density (object spacing) changes, it does code relative density (object ratio) within an ensemble. Object-ensemble processing in this region may thus depend on high-level visual information, such as object ratio, rather than low-level information, such as spacing/spatial frequency. PMID:24964917

  17. Neural Correlates of Visual Short-term Memory Dissociate between Fragile and Working Memory Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; de Vries, Jade G; Cohen, Michael X; Lamme, Victor A F

    2015-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the classic two-stage model of visual STM (VSTM), comprising iconic memory (IM) and visual working memory (WM), is incomplete. A third memory stage, termed fragile VSTM (FM), seems to exist in between IM and WM [Vandenbroucke, A. R. E., Sligte, I. G., & Lamme, V. A. F. Manipulations of attention dissociate fragile visual STM from visual working memory. Neuropsychologia, 49, 1559-1568, 2011; Sligte, I. G., Scholte, H. S., & Lamme, V. A. F. Are there multiple visual STM stores? PLoS One, 3, e1699, 2008]. Although FM can be distinguished from IM using behavioral and fMRI methods, the question remains whether FM is a weak expression of WM or a separate form of memory with its own neural signature. Here, we tested whether FM and WM in humans are supported by dissociable time-frequency features of EEG recordings. Participants performed a partial-report change detection task, from which individual differences in FM and WM capacity were estimated. These individual FM and WM capacities were correlated with time-frequency characteristics of the EEG signal before and during encoding and maintenance of the memory display. FM capacity showed negative alpha correlations over peri-occipital electrodes, whereas WM capacity was positively related, suggesting increased visual processing (lower alpha) to be related to FM capacity. Furthermore, FM capacity correlated with an increase in theta power over central electrodes during preparation and processing of the memory display, whereas WM did not. In addition to a difference in visual processing characteristics, a positive relation between gamma power and FM capacity was observed during both preparation and maintenance periods of the task. On the other hand, we observed that theta-gamma coupling was negatively correlated with FM capacity, whereas it was slightly positively correlated with WM. These data show clear differences in the neural substrates of FM versus WM and suggest that FM depends more on visual processing mechanisms compared with WM. This study thus provides novel evidence for a dissociation between different stages in VSTM. PMID:26351862

  18. A layered neural architecture for the consolidation, maintenance, and updating of representations in visual working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeffrey S; Spencer, John P; Schöner, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    Many everyday tasks rely on our ability to hold information about a perceived stimulus in mind after that stimulus is no longer visible and to compare this information with incoming perceptual information. This ability has been shown to rely on a short-term form of visual memory that has come to be known as visual working memory. Research and theory at both the behavioral and neural levels has begun to provide important insights into the basic properties of the neuro-cognitive systems underly...

  19. Multi resolution representations and interactive visualization of huge unstructured volume meshes

    OpenAIRE

    Sondershaus, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Modern scientists must consume ever bigger volumes of data gushing out of supercomputer simulations or high-powered sensors. Often, the data are represented as vast blocks of numbers which need to be transformed into a graphic representation which enables and improves understanding and analyzation. On their way from raw data to interactive visualizion, huge scientific datasets need algorithms out of three areas of research: reduction with a controllable approximation error, out-of-core techni...

  20. a Study on Mental Representations for Realistic Visualization the Particular Case of Ski Trail Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, R.; Dalmasso, A.; Murat, M.

    2015-08-01

    This article presents preliminary results from a research project in progress that brings together geographers, cognitive scientists, historians and computer scientists. The project investigates the evolution of a particular territorial model: ski trails maps. Ski resorts, tourist and sporting innovations for mountain economies since the 1930s, have needed cartographic representations corresponding to new practices of the space.Painter artists have been involved in producing ski maps with painting techniques and panoramic views, which are by far the most common type of map, because they allow the resorts to look impressive to potential visitors. These techniques have evolved throughout the mutations of the ski resorts. Paper ski maps no longer meet the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to digital media. In a computerized process perspective, the early stage of the project aims to identify the artist-representations, based on conceptual and technical rules, which are handled by users-skiers to perform a task (location, wayfinding, decision-making) and can be transferred to a computer system. This article presents the experimental phase that analyzes artist and user mental representations that are at stake during the making and the reading of a paper ski map. It particularly focuses on how the invention of the artist influences map reading.

  1. Specific and Nonspecific Neural Activity during Selective Processing of Visual Representations in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwamee; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2010-01-01

    In this fMRI study, we investigated prefrontal cortex (PFC) and visual association regions during selective information processing. We recorded behavioral responses and neural activity during a delayed recognition task with a cue presented during the delay period. A specific cue ("Face" or "Scene") was used to indicate which one of the two…

  2. The effect of visual representation style in problem-solving: a perspective from cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A

    2013-01-01

    Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath patterns in the two tasks. Results from our study indicate that low-level subconscious visual processes, such as differential acuity in peripheral vision and low-level iconic memory, can have indirect, but significant effects on decision making during a problem-solving task. We have developed two ACT-R models that employ the same basic strategy but deal with different presentations styles. Our ACT-R models confirm that changes in low-level visual processes triggered by changes in presentation style can propagate to higher-level cognitive processes. Such a domino effect can significantly affect reaction times and eye movements, without affecting the overall strategy of problem solving. PMID:24260415

  3. The VIPER project (Visualization Integration Platform for Exploration Research): a biologically inspired autonomous reconfigurable robotic platform for diverse unstructured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Oliver J.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-09-01

    Over the last decade the world has seen numerous autonomous vehicle programs. Wheels and track designs are the basis for many of these vehicles. This is primarily due to four main reasons: a vast preexisting knowledge base for these designs, energy efficiency of power sources, scalability of actuators, and the lack of control systems technologies for handling alternate highly complex distributed systems. Though large efforts seek to improve the mobility of these vehicles, many limitations still exist for these systems within unstructured environments, e.g. limited mobility within industrial and nuclear accident sites where existing plant configurations have been extensively changed. These unstructured operational environments include missions for exploration, reconnaissance, and emergency recovery of objects within reconfigured or collapsed structures, e.g. bombed buildings. More importantly, these environments present a clear and present danger for direct human interactions during the initial phases of recovery operations. Clearly, the current classes of autonomous vehicles are incapable of performing in these environments. Thus the next generation of designs must include highly reconfigurable and flexible autonomous robotic platforms. This new breed of autonomous vehicles will be both highly flexible and environmentally adaptable. Presented in this paper is one of the most successful designs from nature, the snake-eel-worm (SEW). This design implements shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators which allow for scaling of the robotic SEW designs from sub-micron scale to heavy industrial implementations without major conceptual redesigns as required in traditional hydraulic, pneumatic, or motor driven systems. Autonomous vehicles based on the SEW design posses the ability to easily move between air based environments and fluid based environments with limited or no reconfiguration. Under a SEW designed vehicle, one not only achieves vastly improved maneuverability within a highly unstructured environment, but also gains robotic manipulation abilities, normally relegated as secondary add-ons within existing vehicles, all within one small condensed package. The prototype design presented includes a Beowulf style computing system for advanced guidance calculations and visualization computations. All of the design and implementation pertaining to the SEW robot discussed in this paper is the product of a student team under the summer fellowship program at the DOEs INEEL.

  4. Hippocampal representations of attentional state predict the formation of visual memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Mariam; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2015-09-01

    Attention does not only modulate what we see, but also what we remember about an experience. Despite this connection in behavior, little is known about how attention influences the formation of memories in the brain. Using high-resolution fMRI, we investigated the hypothesis that attentional states are represented in the hippocampus - a brain region necessary for long-term memory - and that the quality of these representations during encoding influences whether the attended information is later remembered. The study consisted of three phases. In Phase 1, observers performed an attention task in which, on every trial, they were presented with an image consisting of a room with a painting and then searched through a stream of four other images. The search target was specified by a cue at the beginning of the trial: either a painting from the same artist (art state) or a room with the same layout (room state). We then used all trials of each attentional state to identify an average pattern of activity within each hippocampal subfield that corresponded to the representation of that state. Phase 2 used an incidental encoding design: observers performed a 1-back task with trial-unique images (rooms with art), attending to the art in one block and the room layouts in the other. Memory for the attended feature of each image (art or room) was tested in Phase 3. We predicted that when observers correctly remembered a feature (e.g., spatial layout), it was because their hippocampus was more strongly in an attentional state that prioritized that feature (e.g., room state) during encoding. This was measured by correlating trial-by-trial activity patterns from Phase 2 with the state representations from Phase 1. Our predictions were confirmed in the CA2/3 subfield of the hippocampus. Together, these results offer a mechanistic window into how attention enhances memory. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326805

  5. Functional organization and visual representations of human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Annie W.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) even in the absence of working memory (WM) demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the VLPFC remain unclear. In a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of later...

  6. Functional organization and visual representations in human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    AnnieWai YiuChan

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex even in the absence of working memory demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex remain unclear. Further, in a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current...

  7. Linked Data based Health Information Representation, Visualization and Retrieval System on the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Tilahun, Binyam Chakilu

    2013-01-01

    To better facilitate health information dissemination, using flexible ways to represent, query and visualize health data becomes increasingly important. Semantic Web technologies, which provide a common framework by allowing data to be shared and reused between applications, can be applied to the management of health data. Linked open data - a new semantic web standard to publish and link heterogonous data- allows not only human, but also machine to brows data in unlimited w...

  8. The Representation of S-cone Signals in Primary Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Elizabeth N.; Van Hooser, Stephen D.; Fitzpatrick, David

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of middle- (M-) and long- (L-) wavelength-sensitive cone responses in primate primary visual cortex (V1) have challenged the view that color and form are represented by distinct neuronal populations. Individual V1 neurons exhibit hallmarks of both color and form processing (cone-opponency and orientation-selectivity), and many display cone interactions that do not fit classic chromatic/achromatic classifications. Comparable analysis of short-wavelength-sensitive (S-) cone respo...

  9. Advancing Bag-of-Visual-Words Representations for Lesion Classification in Retinal Images

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Ramon; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Wainer, Jacques; Valle, Eduardo; Rocha, Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes that can lead to blindness if not readily discovered. Automated screening algorithms have the potential to improve identification of patients who need further medical attention. However, the identification of lesions must be accurate to be useful for clinical application. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) algorithm employs a maximum-margin classifier in a flexible framework that is able to detect the most common DR-related lesions such as m...

  10. Incremental Learning of 3D-DCT Compact Representations for Robust Visual Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Li, xi; Dick, Anthony; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den; Wang, Hanzi

    2012-01-01

    Visual tracking usually requires an object appearance model that is robust to changing illumination, pose and other factors encountered in video. In this paper, we construct an appearance model using the 3D discrete cosine transform (3D-DCT). The 3D-DCT is based on a set of cosine basis functions, which are determined by the dimensions of the 3D signal and thus independent of the input video data. In addition, the 3D-DCT can generate a compact energy spectrum whose high-freq...

  11. Design as Montage : The Role of Visual Representation in Design Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette

    The paper explores the role of video and (visual) anthropology in design and product development processes from creating insights about users to developing design ideas in interdisciplinary teams. In the paper we suggest montage as a metaphor for understanding how meaning and ideas are created in design processes. Rather than viewing montage as a particular style of filmmaking, we see the design process itself as a montage, a process where different heterogeneous materials – sketches, video, prototypes, etc. – as well as different professional and disciplinary perspectives are brought together, juxtaposed and combined like a montage ‘in-the-making’.

  12. Saliency-based Representations and Multi-component Classifiers for Visual Scene Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Fornoni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Visual scene recognition deals with the problem of automatically recognizing the high-level semantic concept describing a given image as a whole, such as the environment in which the scene is occurring (e.g. a mountain), or the event that is taking place (e.g. a rock climbing event). Scene categories, especially those related to man-made places and events, present high degrees of intra-class variability and inter-class similarity, which in turn require robust and discriminative recognition sy...

  13. Large Scale Isosurface Bicubic Subdivision-Surface Wavelets for Representation and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, M.; Duchaineau, M.A.; Hamann, B.; Joy, K.I.

    2000-01-05

    We introduce a new subdivision-surface wavelet transform for arbitrary two-manifolds with boundary that is the first to use simple lifting-style filtering operations with bicubic precision. We also describe a conversion process for re-mapping large-scale isosurfaces to have subdivision connectivity and fair parameterizations so that the new wavelet transform can be used for compression and visualization. The main idea enabling our wavelet transform is the circular symmetrization of the filters in irregular neighborhoods, which replaces the traditional separation of filters into two 1-D passes. Our wavelet transform uses polygonal base meshes to represent surface topology, from which a Catmull-Clark-style subdivision hierarchy is generated. The details between these levels of resolution are quickly computed and compactly stored as wavelet coefficients. The isosurface conversion process begins with a contour triangulation computed using conventional techniques, which we subsequently simplify with a variant edge-collapse procedure, followed by an edge-removal process. This provides a coarse initial base mesh, which is subsequently refined, relaxed and attracted in phases to converge to the contour. The conversion is designed to produce smooth, untangled and minimally-skewed parameterizations, which improves the subsequent compression after applying the transform. We have demonstrated our conversion and transform for an isosurface obtained from a high-resolution turbulent-mixing hydrodynamics simulation, showing the potential for compression and level-of-detail visualization.

  14. Visual representation of liquid modernity: what do the mannequins tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michely Calciolari Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The flow of images, technological transformations and the body and beauty cult are same characteristics that spot the contemporaneity. Pictures, illustrations and images in the media diffuse models that represent us and in which we can identify ourselves. It was an objective to analyze how we are represented by the mannequins from the stores. For that, it was developed a count of mannequins in a mall inMaringácity, Paraná. It was realized that the mannequins represent, in their majority, the colored or white people. It was verified that the number of mannequins of different race colors do not correspond to the number of Brazilians that consider themselves black people, brown people , yellow people or red people. Based on this, it was discussed the importance of teacher’s training to the visual aspects of the contemporaneity.

  15. Effects of abstract versus concrete visual representations in an instructional simulation on students' declarative knowledge, learning transfer, and perceptions of the simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, William Ernesto

    2011-12-01

    Thanks to different multimedia authoring tools and specialized software that facilitate the design and development of computer-based simulations, science teachers and instructional media designers have a variety of simulations to support instructional delivery. However, there is a lack of research on how instructional designers and science teachers can select, design, and implement science simulations most effectively based on the simulations' visual attributes. One of the design principles that play an important part in the simulation design process is the visual representation of on-screen objects used to describe science concepts or principles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abstract and concrete visual representation of electricity concepts and principles in an instructional simulation on students' declarative knowledge, learning transfer, and perceptions of the simulation. The participants in this study were 39 elementary education pre-service teachers who were randomly assigned to either the concrete or the abstract treatment. The educational intervention was conducted over three 100-minute sessions. Since the sample violated the normality assumption, Mann-Whitney tests were conducted to verify whether the independent variable had significant effects on the three dependent variables. The data analysis found no statistically significant difference on learners' declarative knowledge, learning transfer, and perceptions about the simulation's attributes between those assigned to the concrete treatment and those assigned to the abstract treatment (p>.05). This finding did not favor one type of visual representation over the other.

  16. Bits from Brains for Biologically Inspired Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Wibral, Michael; Lizier, Joseph T; Priesemann, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Inspiration for artificial biologically inspired computing is often drawn from neural systems. This article shows how to analyze neural systems using information theory with the aim of obtaining constraints that help to identify the algorithms run by neural systems and the information they represent. Algorithms and representations identified this way may then guide the design of biologically inspired computing systems. The material covered includes the necessary introduction to information th...

  17. Remembering to Forget: Marginalised Visual Representations in the Irish Nation Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Baylis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The period 1890 to 1914 witnesses a European-wide crisis in masculinity and an acceleration of modern nationalism.  The figure of the boy becomes a central symbol for re-securing both masculinity and the nation.  As a consequence boy culture became increasing associated with militarism.  Nation states are masculine institutions and therefore it hardly surprises that the story that the modern state tells to legitimise its origins prioritises masculine concerns. This study focuses on the construction of visual nation-building narratives expressed through nationalist boy culture in Ireland at the beginning of the twentieth century. It aims to connect these currents to the broader European context and, in the process, evaluate the relationship between gendering and nationalism at this specific historical juncture. It argues that by focusing on the role and development of boy culture during this period we can better understand why the nation narrative prioritises one vi­su­alised story of national self-determinacy over a num­ber of competing versions, and it foregrounds the re­silience of hegemonic masculinity in this. In this context, which photographs are chosen to support the nation narrative and which get forgotten is significant because it indicates the gendered nature of nation formation.

  18. Ant Robotic Swarm for Visualizing Invisible Hazardous Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Oyekan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the simplicity of how nature solves its problems, this paper presents a novel approach that would enable a swarm of ant robotic agents (robots with limited sensing, communication, computational and memory resources form a visual representation of distributed hazardous substances within an environment dominated by diffusion processes using a decentralized approach. Such a visual representation could be very useful in enabling a quicker evacuation of a city’s population affected by such hazardous substances. This is especially true if the ratio of emergency workers to the population number is very small.

  19. Does using a visual-representation tool foster students' ability to identify forces and construct free-body diagrams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinainen, Antti; Mäkynen, Asko; Nieminen, Pasi; Viiri, Jouni

    2013-06-01

    Earlier research has shown that after physics instruction, many students have difficulties with the force concept, and with constructing free-body diagrams (FBDs). It has been suggested that treating forces as interactions could help students to identify forces as well as to construct the correct FBDs. While there is evidence that identifying interactions helps students in quantitative problem solving, there is no previous research investigating the effect of a visual-representation tool—an interaction diagram (ID)—on students’ ability to identify forces, and to construct the correct FBDs. We present an empirical study conducted in 11 Finnish high schools on students (n=335, aged 16) taking their first, mandatory, introductory physics course. The study design involved groups of students having heavy, light, or no use of IDs. The heavy and light ID groups answered eight pairs of ID and FBD questions in various physical contexts and the no ID group answered two of the eight FBD questions. The results indicate that the heavy ID group outperformed both the light and the no ID groups in identifying forces and constructing the correct FBDs. The analysis of these data indicates that the use of IDs is especially beneficial in identifying forces when constructing FBDs.

  20. The Effect of Using a Visual Representation Tool in a Teaching-Learning Sequence for Teaching Newton's Third Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinainen, Antti; Mäkynen, Asko; Nieminen, Pasi; Viiri, Jouni

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a research-based teaching-learning sequence (TLS) that focuses on the notion of interaction in teaching Newton's third law (N3 law) which is, as earlier studies have shown, a challenging topic for students to learn. The TLS made systematic use of a visual representation tool—an interaction diagram (ID)—highlighting interactions between objects and addressing the learning demand related to N3 law. This approach had been successful in enhancing students' understanding of N3 law in pilot studies conducted by teacher-researchers. However, it was unclear whether teachers, who have neither been involved with the research nor received intensive tutoring, could replicate the positive results in ordinary school settings. To address this question, we present an empirical study conducted in 10 Finnish upper secondary schools with students (n = 261, aged 16) taking their mandatory physics course. The study design involved three groups: the heavy ID group (the TLS with seven to eight exercises on IDs), the light ID group (two to three exercises on IDs) and the no ID group (no exercises on IDs). The heavy and light ID groups answered eight ID questions, and all the students answered four questions on N3 law after teaching the force concept. The findings clearly suggest that systematic use of the IDs in teaching the force concept significantly fostered students' understanding of N3 law even with teachers who have no intensive tutoring or research background.

  1. Inspired Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Robert; Spruch, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    It has been nearly 400 years since Harvard College was created, and since then, thousands of colleges and universities have been built across the United States. From the classically inspired lines of Thomas Jefferson's University of Virginia to the Spanish architecture at Stanford University, every campus has its own personality. It's not unusual,…

  2. Concurrent Dynamic Visualizations With Expressive Petri Net Representations to Enrich the Understanding of Biological and Pathological Processes: an Application to Signaling Pathways

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Ramos; C., Hallal; A., Nieto; D., García; J., Berúmen; D., Escárcega.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En biología de sistemas la visualización dinámica y las representaciones expresivas son necesarias para representar interacciones múltiples que ocurren durante los procesos biológicos en bioredes. La visualización dinámica facilita a los usuarios interactuar con modelos de bioredes, mientras que las [...] representaciones deben expresar como se llevan a cabo las interacciones dentro de éstas. A pesar de que diversas bases de datos proveen de redes a los usuarios, generalmente la información y representación contenidas en cada una son diferentes, y la interacción usuario-biored es restringida debido a la visualización estática. Una solución que se ha adoptado es hacer converger varias representaciones para obtener una más completa. Sin embargo, debido al uso de diferentes formatos incompatibles entre ellos y a las múltiples conexiones involucradas en las redes, la integración frecuentemente resulta en modelos erróneos y en una maraña de conexiones representadas en la red que son muy difíciles de analizar y manipular. En este trabajo introducimos la visualización dinámica concurrente (VDC) de una misma vía, la cual es recuperada de diferentes bases de datos y transformada a representaciones en redes de Petri para facilitar el entendimiento de los procesos biológicos y modificar las vías obtenidas interactuando con ellas. Hemos aplicado esta estrategia al análisis de la vía de señalización de Notch, asociada a cáncer cérvicouterino, obteniéndola de tres diferentes fuentes, comparándolas y manipulándolas simultáneamente interactuando con la VDC provista, hasta la generación de una vía personalizada. Abstract in english Dynamic visualizations and expressive representations are needed in systems biology to handle multiple interactions occurring during the biological processes of biopathway representations. Dynamic visualizations allow users an ease of interaction with pathway models. At the same time, representation [...] s of biopathways should express how interactions take place. In spite of the fact that diverse databases provide users with pathways, their information and representation are frequently different from each other and show restricted interactions because of their static visualization. An adopted solution is to merge diverse representations to obtain a richer one. However, due to different formats and the multiple links involved in the pathway representations, the merge results frequently in erroneous models and in a tangle web of relations very hard to be manipulated. Instead, this work introduces a concurrent dynamic visualization (CDV) of the same pathway, which is retrieved from different sites and then transformed into Petri net representations to facilitate the understanding of their biological processes by interacting with them. We applied this approach to the analysis of the Notch signaling pathway, associated with cervical cancer; we obtained it from different sources which we compared and manipulated simultaneously by interacting with the provided CDV until the user generated a personalized pathway.

  3. Object representations in ventral and dorsal visual streams: fMRI repetition effects depend on attention and part–whole configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Volker; Henson, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of attention and object configuration on the neural responses to short-lag visual image repetition were investigated with fMRI. Attention to one of two object images in a prime display was cued spatially. The images were either intact or split vertically; a manipulation that negates the influence of view-based representations. A subsequent single intact probe image was named covertly. Behavioural priming observed as faster button presses was found for attended primes in both intac...

  4. Processos comunicacionais em ambiente escolar: o potencial de sentidos de representações visuais / Communicational processes in school setting: the potential of meanings of the visual representations / Procesos comunicacionales en ambiente escolar: potencial de los significados en las representaciones visuales

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Coutinho Pagliarini de, Souza; Maria Ogécia, Drigo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, resultado de pesquisa em desenvolvimento sob os auspícios da FAPESP, trata de interseções entre Comunicação e Educação inseridas no ambiente educacional a partir de recursos pedagógicos disponibilizados, como o livro didático. Objetiva-se refletir sobre o potencial de sentidos engendrad [...] os em representações visuais sobre masculino/feminimo que constam de livros didáticos e para tanto apresentam-se reflexões sobre imagens; sobre a alteridade e o processo de construção da identidade cultural na pós-modernidade, enquanto o instrumental para análise das representações visuais selecionadas está baseado na semiótica peirceana. As representações visuais cumprem o propósito de abrir caminho para reflexões no campo Comunicação/Educação capazes de gerarem ações que podem redundar na possibilidade de construção de um pensamento crítico em relação às representações visuais. Abstract in spanish Este artículo, resulta de una investigación en desarrollo apoyada por la Fundación de Apoyo a la Investigación del Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP, trata de intersecciones entre la Comunicación y la Educación inserta en el ámbito educativo con recursos didácticos disponibles, tales como el libro de tex [...] to. Objetivase la reflexión sobre el potencial de los sentidos engendrados en representaciones visuales de sexo masculino/feminimo contenidos en los libros de texto. Para tanto se presentan reflexiones sobre las imágenes en la contemporaneidad; la alteridad y la construcción de la identidad cultural en la postmodernidad, mientras el instrumental de análisis de las representaciones visuales se basa en la semiótica peirceana. Las representaciones visuales cumplen el propósito de dar paso a las reflexiones de la Comunicación / Educación capaz de generar acciones que pueden resultar en la posibilidad de construir un pensamiento crítico en relación a las representaciones visuales de campo. Abstract in english This paper is result of a research that is being developed under the auspices of FAPESP and it shows intersections between Communication and Education in the educational environment with teaching resources available, such as the textbook. In order to think about the potential of visual representatio [...] ns about male/female that are in textbooks and, for that, it shows some reflections about images; about the process of the construction of cultural identity are presented, while the semiotics analyses of the visual representation is made from peircean semiotics. Visual representations fulfill the purpose to make way for reflections in the field Communication / Education capable of generating actions that could result in the possibility of building critical thinking in relation to visual representations.

  5. Semantic based visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Larrea, Martín Leonardo; Martig, Sergio R.; Castro, Silvia Mabel

    2006-01-01

    Visualization is the process of mapping data into visual dimensions to create a visual representation to amplify cognition. Visual representations are essential aids to human cognitive tasks and are valued to the extent that they provide stable and external reference points upon which dynamic activities and thought processes may be calibrated and upon which models and theories can be tested and confirmed. The active use and manipulation of visual representations makes many complex and intensi...

  6. The Effect of Visual Devices Based on Bruner's Modes of Representation on Teaching Concepts of Electrostatics to Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Patrick J.; Reed, Jack A.

    1976-01-01

    Visual devices were used, corresponding to Bruner's three types of information-processing models: enactive (action), iconic (imagery), and symbolic (language). Concluded that the type of visual device had no significant effect on the subjects' achievement on an electrostatics concepts test. (MLH)

  7. Visual perception from the perspective of a representational, non-reductionistic, level-dependent account of perception and conscious awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a new model to interpret seemingly conflicting evidence concerning the correlation of consciousness and neural processes. Based on an analysis of research of blindsight and subliminal perception, the reorganization of elementary functions and consciousness framework suggests that mental representations consist of functions at several different levels of analysis, including truly localized perceptual elementary functions and perceptual algorithmic modules, which are interconnections of the elementary functions. We suggest that conscious content relates to the 'top level' of analysis in a 'situational algorithmic strategy' that reflects the general state of an individual. We argue that conscious experience is intrinsically related to representations that are available to guide behaviour. From this perspective, we find that blindsight and subliminal perception can be explained partly by too coarse-grained methodology, and partly by top-down enhancing of representations that normally would not be relevant to action.

  8. Visual perception from the perspective of a representational, non-reductionistic, level-dependent account of perception and conscious awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a new model to interpret seemingly conflicting evidence concerning the correlation of consciousness and neural processes. Based on an analysis of research of blindsight and subliminal perception, the reorganization of elementary functions and consciousness framework suggests that mental representations consist of functions at several different levels of analysis, including truly localized perceptual elementary functions and perceptual algorithmic modules, which are intercon...

  9. Representaciones visuales del cuerpo humano: análisis de los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales en la reforma educativa mexicana / Visual Representations of the Human Body: An Analysis of the New Elementary Science Textbooks in Mexico's Educational Reform

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yolanda, Postigo; Asunción, López-Manjón.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizamos las concepciones sobre la naturaleza de las representaciones visuales sobre el cuerpo humano que dirigen su selección, diseño y tratamiento didáctico en los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales (3° a 6° grados) de la Reforma Integral de la Educación Básica en Mé [...] xico. Se describen dos tipos de concepciones: una intuitiva, que asume una simplicidad y facilidad en el uso de las imágenes junto con una naturaleza realista de las mismas, y una más compleja, de naturaleza constructivista, en la que se consideran las imágenes como un sistema externo de representación con las dificultades que demanda su uso. Los resultados muestran que la concepción que subyace a las imágenes sobre el cuerpo humano de 3° a 6° grados corresponde a una de tipo intuitivo con pocos cambios respecto de su tratamiento en los libros de texto anteriores a la Reforma. Abstract in english This study analyzes the natural conceptions of the visual representations of the human body that guide selection, design, and didactic treatment in the new elementary science textbooks (3rd grade to 6th grade) of Mexico's Integral Reform of Basic Education. Two types of conceptions are described: an [...] intuitive conception, which assumes simplicity and facility in the use of images, along with a realistic representation; and a more complex conception of a constructivist nature that considers images to be an external system of representation with the difficulties their use demands. The results show that the underlying conception of the images of the human body from the 3rd to the 6th grades corresponds to an intuitive type with few changes, with respect to textbooks prior to the Reform.

  10. Impact of stride-coupled gaze shifts of walking blowflies on the neuronal representation of visual targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kress

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During locomotion animals rely heavily on visual cues gained from the environment to guide their behavior. Examples are basic behaviors like collision avoidance or the approach to a goal. The saccadic gaze strategy of flying flies, which separates translational from rotational phases of locomotion, has been suggested to facilitate the extraction of environmental information, because only image flow evoked by translational self-motion contains relevant distance information about the surrounding world. In contrast to the translational phases of flight during which gaze direction is kept largely constant, walking flies experience continuous rotational image flow that is coupled to their stride-cycle. The consequences of these self-produced image shifts for the extraction of environmental information are still unclear. To assess the impact of stride-coupled image shifts on visual information processing, we performed electrophysiological recordings from the HSE cell, a motion sensitive wide-field neuron in the blowfly visual system. This cell has been concluded to play a key role in mediating optomotor behavior, self-motion estimation and spatial information processing. We used visual stimuli that were based on the visual input experienced by walking blowflies while approaching a black vertical bar. The response of HSE to these stimuli was dominated by periodic membrane potential fluctuations evoked by stride-coupled image shifts. Nevertheless, during the approach the cell’s response contained information about the bar and its background. The response components evoked by the bar were larger than the responses to its background, especially during the last phase of the approach. However, as revealed by targeted modifications of the visual input during walking, the extraction of distance information on the basis of HSE responses is much impaired by stride-coupled retinal image shifts. Possible mechanisms that may cope with these stride-coupled responses are discussed.

  11. Sparse Representations-Based Super-Resolution of Key-Frames Extracted from Frames-Sequences Generated by a Visual Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sajjad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual sensor networks (VSNs usually generate a low-resolution (LR frame-sequence due to energy and processing constraints. These LR-frames are not very appropriate for use in certain surveillance applications. It is very important to enhance the resolution of the captured LR-frames using resolution enhancement schemes. In this paper, an effective framework for a super-resolution (SR scheme is proposed that enhances the resolution of LR key-frames extracted from frame-sequences captured by visual-sensors. In a VSN, a visual processing hub (VPH collects a huge amount of visual data from camera sensors. In the proposed framework, at the VPH, key-frames are extracted using our recent key-frame extraction technique and are streamed to the base station (BS after compression. A novel effective SR scheme is applied at BS to produce a high-resolution (HR output from the received key-frames. The proposed SR scheme uses optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (OOMP for sparse-representation recovery in SR. OOMP does better in terms of detecting true sparsity than orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP. This property of the OOMP helps produce a HR image which is closer to the original image. The K-SVD dictionary learning procedure is incorporated for dictionary learning. Batch-OMP improves the dictionary learning process by removing the limitation in handling a large set of observed signals. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and show its superiority over other state-of-the-art schemes.

  12. Effect of 1% Inspired CO2 During Head-Down Tilt on Ocular Structures, Cerebral Blood Flow, and Visual Acuity in Healthy Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, S. S.; Hu, X.; Lee, S. M. C.; Martin, D. S.; Phillips, T. R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Taibbi, G.; Zwart, S. R.; Vizzeri, G.

    2016-01-01

    The cephalad fluid shift induced by microgravity has been hypothesized to elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to the development of the visual impairment/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome experienced by many astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. In addition, elevated ambient partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) on the International Space Station (ISS) has also been hypothesized to contribute to the development of VIIP. We seek to determine if an acute, mild CO2 exposure, similar to that occurring on the ISS, combined with the cephalad fluid shift induced by head-down tilt will induce ophthalmic and ICP changes consistent with the VIIP syndrome.

  13. Distributed system load visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Larrea, Martín Leonardo; Martig, Sergio R.; Castro, Silvia Mabel

    2006-01-01

    In this article we show how the interface design for the visualization of distributed system load can benefit from the combination of concepts and techniques from Information Visualization and Human Computer Interaction (HCI). The use of visual representations and interactions to accelerate the insight into complex data is what distinguishes visual analytic software form other types of analytical tools. Visual representations translate data into a visible form that highlights important data f...

  14. Sistema de visualización remota para la representación interactiva de volúmenes de datos médicos / Remote visualization system for interactive representation of medical volume dataset

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osvaldo, Pereira Bárzaga; Leitniz, Pérez Buján; Ramón, Carrasco Velar.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las aplicaciones de visualización médica han adquirido un elevado auge en la medicina a nivel mundial, ya que les permite a los médicos especialistas realizar diagnósticos preoperatorios no invasivos y de alta precisión desde una perspectiva 3D. La idea principal de la misma es obtener un modelo tri [...] dimensional de alta resolución gráfica a partir de imágenes médicas digitales de las modalidades de Tomografía Axial Computarizada y Resonancia Magnética Nuclear. Los usuarios de este tipo de aplicaciones demandan de forma creciente que las aplicaciones permitan el diagnóstico de patologías en un entorno de trabajo colaborativo. En este trabajo presentamos una arquitectura para sistemas de visualización remota basados en la transmisión de imágenes. El esquema de comunicación y transmisión de datos e imágenes entre el servidor y los clientes utiliza RTP como protocolo de comunicación. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que la variante de algoritmo RLE implementada permite obtener visualizaciones interactivas y en tiempo real con un consumo mínimo del ancho de banda de la red. Abstract in english Three-dimensional medical visualization applications have acquired a high rise in medicine. They allow specialized doctors to make preoperative diagnostics with high accuracy from a 3D perspective. The main idea of medical visualization is to obtain a three-dimensional and high-resolution graphics f [...] rom digital medical imaging modalities like computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The users of these applications increasingly demand that applications allow diagnosis in a collaborative work environment. Architecture for remote visualization systems based on image is presented. The server and client scheme of communication and transmission of data and images use RTP as communication protocol. Our results show that the implemented variant of RLE algorithm allows interactive and real time representation with a minimum of bandwidth.

  15. Visualizers of solidarity: organizational politics in humanitarian and international development NGOs

    OpenAIRE

    Orgad, Shani

    2013-01-01

    iscussion of the visual politics of solidarity, in relation specifically to the representation of suffering and development, has been grounded in analysis of images. This article seeks to expand this debate by exploring the organizational politics that shape and are shaped by these images. The article is inspired by production studies in the cultural industries and draws on interviews with 17 professionals from 10 UK-based international development and humanitarian organizations that are enga...

  16. Directional multiresolution image representations

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Minh N.

    2002-01-01

    Efficient representation of visual information lies at the foundation of many image processing tasks, including compression, filtering, and feature extraction. Efficiency of a representation refers to the ability to capture significant information of an object of interest in a small description. For practical applications, this representation has to be realized by structured transforms and fast algorithms. Recently, it has become evident that commonly used separable transforms (such as wavele...

  17. The Inspirational Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Mark D.; Hughes, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Amid the focus on improved standardized test scores, differentiated instruction, value-added initiatives and improved teacher evaluation, one must not ignore an education leader's need to inspire and be inspired. But how do education leaders inspire their students and teachers during some of the most difficult economic times the nation has ever…

  18. Virtual visual reminiscing pain stimulation of allodynia patients activates cortical representation of pain and emotions. fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely known that sensation of the pain is derived from sensory-discriminative factor and emotional factor. Especially in chronic pain, emotional factors and psychosocial backgrounds are more likely to contribute for the patients' discomfort. The aim of this study is to investigate how emotional factor of pain participates in intractable pain. We employed functional MRI (fMRI) to compare the brain activations occurring in the orthopaedic neuropathic pain patients with allodynia and normal individuals in response to the visual virtual painful experience. During fMRI scanning, a video demonstrating an actual tactile stimulation of the palm and its imitation were shown to participants. In contrast to normal individuals, allodynia patients also displayed activation of the areas reflecting emotions: frontal lobe and anterior cingulate. These findings suggest that brain have important role in the development and maintaining of peripheral originated chronic painful condition. (author)

  19. Eesti õpetaja pälvis Inspiration Software'i stipendiumi / Ave Lauringson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lauringson, Ave

    2007-01-01

    USA tarkvarafirma Inspiration Software tegi teatavaks 30 õpetaja nimed üle maailma, kes saavad 2007. aasta haridusstipendiumi (Inspired Teacher Scholarships for Visual Learning). Nende seas on ka Lasnamäe Lasteaia-Algkooli õpetaja, Tiigrihüppe SA ekspert ja koolitaja ning Tiigri Tegija 2007 auhinnasaaja Ingrid Maadvere

  20. Hyperspectral image visualization based on a human visual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongqin; Peng, Honghong; Fairchild, Mark D.; Montag, Ethan D.

    2008-02-01

    Hyperspectral image data can provide very fine spectral resolution with more than 200 bands, yet presents challenges for visualization techniques for displaying such rich information on a tristimulus monitor. This study developed a visualization technique by taking advantage of both the consistent natural appearance of a true color image and the feature separation of a PCA image based on a biologically inspired visual attention model. The key part is to extract the informative regions in the scene. The model takes into account human contrast sensitivity functions and generates a topographic saliency map for both images. This is accomplished using a set of linear "center-surround" operations simulating visual receptive fields as the difference between fine and coarse scales. A difference map between the saliency map of the true color image and that of the PCA image is derived and used as a mask on the true color image to select a small number of interesting locations where the PCA image has more salient features than available in the visible bands. The resulting representations preserve hue for vegetation, water, road etc., while the selected attentional locations may be analyzed by more advanced algorithms.

  1. Translation-Invariant Representation for Cumulative Foot Pressure Images

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Shuai; Tan, Tieniu

    2010-01-01

    Human can be distinguished by different limb movements and unique ground reaction force. Cumulative foot pressure image is a 2-D cumulative ground reaction force during one gait cycle. Although it contains pressure spatial distribution information and pressure temporal distribution information, it suffers from several problems including different shoes and noise, when putting it into practice as a new biometric for pedestrian identification. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical translation-invariant representation for cumulative foot pressure images, inspired by the success of Convolutional deep belief network for digital classification. Key contribution in our approach is discriminative hierarchical sparse coding scheme which helps to learn useful discriminative high-level visual features. Based on the feature representation of cumulative foot pressure images, we develop a pedestrian recognition system which is invariant to three different shoes and slight local shape change. Experiments are conducted on...

  2. Interaction for visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Tominski, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as

  3. Instructional Design and Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortin, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the roles of visual thinking, visual rehearsal, and introspection in educational technology, and suggests that instructional designers should externalize their internal representations and involve the internal and external representations of content specialists and learners in the instructional design. Fifteen references are listed. (MBR)

  4. Bio-inspired vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems, if they are to succeed in demanding applications such as autonomous robot navigation, micro-manipulation or high-speed tracking, must exploit the power of the asynchronous, frame-free, biomimetic approach.

  5. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems, if they are to succeed in demanding applications such as autonomous robot navigation, micro-manipulation or high-speed tracking, must exploit the power of the asynchronous, frame-free, biomimetic approach.

  6. Visually Exploring Transportation Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Cesar; Guo, Zhan; Silva, Claudio T; Freire, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Public transportation schedules are designed by agencies to optimize service quality under multiple constraints. However, real service usually deviates from the plan. Therefore, transportation analysts need to identify, compare and explain both eventual and systemic performance issues that must be addressed so that better timetables can be created. The purely statistical tools commonly used by analysts pose many difficulties due to the large number of attributes at trip- and station-level for planned and real service. Also challenging is the need for models at multiple scales to search for patterns at different times and stations, since analysts do not know exactly where or when relevant patterns might emerge and need to compute statistical summaries for multiple attributes at different granularities. To aid in this analysis, we worked in close collaboration with a transportation expert to design TR-EX, a visual exploration tool developed to identify, inspect and compare spatio-temporal patterns for planned and real transportation service. TR-EX combines two new visual encodings inspired by Marey's Train Schedule: Trips Explorer for trip-level analysis of frequency, deviation and speed; and Stops Explorer for station-level study of delay, wait time, reliability and performance deficiencies such as bunching. To tackle overplotting and to provide a robust representation for a large numbers of trips and stops at multiple scales, the system supports variable kernel bandwidths to achieve the level of detail required by users for different tasks. We justify our design decisions based on specific analysis needs of transportation analysts. We provide anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of TR-EX through a series of case studies that explore NYC subway service, which illustrate how TR-EX can be used to confirm hypotheses and derive new insights through visual exploration. PMID:26529697

  7. Physicists get INSPIREd

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Particle physicists thrive on information. They first create information by performing experiments or elaborating theoretical conjectures and then they share it through publications and various web tools. The INSPIRE service, just released, will bring state of the art information retrieval to the fingertips of researchers.   Keeping track of the information shared within the particle physics community has long been the task of libraries at the larger labs, such as CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, as well as the focus of indispensible services like arXiv and those of the Particle Data Group. In 2007, many providers of information in the field came together for a summit at SLAC to see how physics information resources could be enhanced, and the INSPIRE project emerged from that meeting. The vision behind INSPIRE was built by a survey launched by the four labs to evaluate the real needs of the community. INSPIRE responds to these directives from the community by combining the most successful aspe...

  8. Bio-Inspired Motion Vision for Aerial Course Control

    OpenAIRE

    Plett, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The visual system of the fly constitutes an ideal source of inspiration for technical deployment due to its high speed, precision and robustness. This interdisciplinary work focuses on neurobiological assessment, control oriented analysis, practical implementation and experimental evaluation of a biologically inspired motion sensor. This novel strategy exhibits substantial improvements over conventional approaches and thereby serves as a guidepost example of synergies between neurobiology and...

  9. Perceptions of Talented Students in Their Visual Representations about the Future World and Technology (Üstün Yetenekli Ö?rencilerin Görsel Anlat?mlar?nda Gelece?in Dünyas?na ve Teknolojisine ?li?kin Alg?lar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Duygu Eri?ti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and significance: The present study aimed at investigating talented students’ artistic representations and perceptions regarding the future world and technology through their animated designs according to their design-based representations. A learning environment which allows talented students to use their ability, thoughts and creativity in the process of design-based instructional activities is of great interest for them. It is important for talented students to have instructional experiences which provide independent and unique learning opportunities and special application areas that allow these students to show their abilities (CfBT, 2008. Results: The participants of the study were talented elementary school students attending the Education Programs for Talented Students (EPTS at Anadolu University. The criterion sampling method was used to select the research participants. The criterion for selecting the participants was attendance in the course of ‘Computer-Aided Graphics Design’ offered in the EPTS. The participants included a total of 35 elementary school 6th, 7th and 8th grade talented students. The study was conducted in three phases: instruction process, design process and evaluation process. Some preliminary preparations related to the design program were carried out considering that the students would use them while doing animated designs through the instruction process. The instruction phase involved an animated representation study during which the students designed their own animations. In the last phase, all the animate designs of the talented students were analyzed. The thematic analysis based on qualitative research method along with art-based inquiry was used. The thematic coding system for analyzing concepts revealed from the research data was implemented. The visual language used in pictorial representations produce messages, with its specialized codes. The degree of students’ understanding and explaining their perceptions of technology in future composes the visual codes in this research. The results obtained in the study were grouped under two themes: talented elementary school students’ ways of perception of the future world and talented elementary school students’ ways of perception of future technology.Discussion: Students’ perceptions about the future world in their visual representations and in the interview forms based on their visual representations were mostly classified under the theme of the extinction of the world, nature and universe. Students had quite unusual and original ideas about future technology. It was seen that the students put forward such subthemes as voyages between planets and space cars, flying cars, aliens’ visit to the world, street air-conditioners, voyage to the moon by space rockets and voyage via teleportation. The students who generally had negative views about the future world considered technology as a way of solution to the awaiting problems in future. In the research process, based on the researcher’s observations, it could be stated that the students taking design education were in the process of making design-related decisions and testing and discussing their knowledge about a certain goal; that they revised their needs, efficacies and creative potentials regarding the goal determined; and that they experimented, evaluated, developed and associated their decisions with the design process.Conclusions: Depending on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that students’ perceptions of the future world and technology reveal quite a negative picture in general. There could be a number of reasons for this negative picture; however, considering the technology and media interaction involving students, it could be stated that there are negative reflections of such environments and the popular culture within this context. In addition, the themes regarding the extinction of the world and collision of the planets envisaged by the talented students for the future world as well as the students’ visual repr

  10. Inspiration, anyone? (Editorial)

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Glynn

    2006-01-01

    I have to admit that writing an editorial for this issue was a struggle. Trying to sit down and write when the sun was shining outside and most of my colleagues were on vacation was, to say the least, difficult. Add to that research projects and conferences…let’s just say that I found myself less than inspired. A pitiful plea for ideas to a colleague resulted in the reintroduction to a few recent evidence based papers and resources which inspired further searching and reading. Thoug...

  11. An active system for visually-guided reaching in 3D across binocular fixations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Martin, Ester; del Pobil, Angel P; Chessa, Manuela; Solari, Fabio; Sabatini, Silvio P

    2014-01-01

    Based on the importance of relative disparity between objects for accurate hand-eye coordination, this paper presents a biological approach inspired by the cortical neural architecture. So, the motor information is coded in egocentric coordinates obtained from the allocentric representation of the space (in terms of disparity) generated from the egocentric representation of the visual information (image coordinates). In that way, the different aspects of the visuomotor coordination are integrated: an active vision system, composed of two vergent cameras; a module for the 2D binocular disparity estimation based on a local estimation of phase differences performed through a bank of Gabor filters; and a robotic actuator to perform the corresponding tasks (visually-guided reaching). The approach's performance is evaluated through experiments on both simulated and real data. PMID:24672295

  12. You shall know an object by the company it keeps: An investigation of semantic representations derived from object co-occurrence in visual scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Zahra; McClelland, James L.; Hoffman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An influential position in lexical semantics holds that semantic representations for words can be derived through analysis of patterns of lexical co-occurrence in large language corpora. Firth (1957) famously summarised this principle as “you shall know a word by the company it keeps”. We explored whether the same principle could be applied to non-verbal patterns of object co-occurrence in natural scenes. We performed latent semantic analysis (LSA) on a set of photographed scenes in which all of the objects present had been manually labelled. This resulted in a representation of objects in a high-dimensional space in which similarity between two objects indicated the degree to which they appeared in similar scenes. These representations revealed similarities among objects belonging to the same taxonomic category (e.g., items of clothing) as well as cross-category associations (e.g., between fruits and kitchen utensils). We also compared representations generated from this scene dataset with two established methods for elucidating semantic representations: (a) a published database of semantic features generated verbally by participants and (b) LSA applied to a linguistic corpus in the usual fashion. Statistical comparisons of the three methods indicated significant association between the structures revealed by each method, with the scene dataset displaying greater convergence with feature-based representations than did LSA applied to linguistic data. The results indicate that information about the conceptual significance of objects can be extracted from their patterns of co-occurrence in natural environments, opening the possibility for such data to be incorporated into existing models of conceptual representation. PMID:25196838

  13. In Search of Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Keeping one's self inspired in the music classroom is all about connections. Sometimes educators need to look at what they're doing from a different perspective. Luckily, there's no shortage of ways to revitalize one's classroom approach, and to help the author explores a few, he made use of some connections of his own, turning to five educators…

  14. Inspirations in medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Reza

    2014-03-21

    There are abundant instances in the history of genetics and medical genetics to illustrate how curiosity, charisma of mentors, nature, art, the saving of lives and many other matters have inspired great discoveries. These achievements from deciphering genetic concepts to characterizing genetic disorders have been crucial for management of the patients. There remains, however, a long pathway ahead. PMID:24658215

  15. Polytropic inspired inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Setare, M R; Darabi, F.(Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz 53714-161, Iran)

    2013-01-01

    We study the chaotic inflation in the context of a gravity theory where the Friedman equation is modified, inspired by the polytropic gas equation of state. It is seen that in the $n=1$ case for the polytropic index the inflaton field at the end of inflation $\\phi_e$, depends on the Planck mass, while for $n\

  16. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  17. Nanotechnology: Inspiration from Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Sheeparamatti B; Sheeparamatti R; Kadadevaramath J

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is molecular manipulation. Any branch of technology that results from our ability to control and manipulate matter on length scales of 1-100 nm can be treated as nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is not new to nature. Nature has been doing molecular manipulation to build its systems like plants and animals. After observing and understanding the fundamental design principles of natural products, one gets inspiration to build his own nanoproducts. This paper stimulates a nanotechnic...

  18. Learning Visualizations by Analogy: Promoting Visual Literacy through Visualization Morphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchikachorn, Puripant; Mueller, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    We propose the concept of teaching (and learning) unfamiliar visualizations by analogy, that is, demonstrating an unfamiliar visualization method by linking it to another more familiar one, where the in-betweens are designed to bridge the gap of these two visualizations and explain the difference in a gradual manner. As opposed to a textual description, our morphing explains an unfamiliar visualization through purely visual means. We demonstrate our idea by ways of four visualization pair examples: data table and parallel coordinates, scatterplot matrix and hyperbox, linear chart and spiral chart, and hierarchical pie chart and treemap. The analogy is commutative i.e. any member of the pair can be the unfamiliar visualization. A series of studies showed that this new paradigm can be an effective teaching tool. The participants could understand the unfamiliar visualization methods in all of the four pairs either fully or at least significantly better after they observed or interacted with the transitions from the familiar counterpart. The four examples suggest how helpful visualization pairings be identified and they will hopefully inspire other visualization morphings and associated transition strategies to be identified. PMID:26357285

  19. Trianguline representations

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Trianguline representations are a certain class of p-adic representations of Gal(Qp^alg/Qp) like the crystalline, semistable and de Rham representations of Fontaine. Their definition involves the theory of (phi,Gamma)-modules. In this survey, we explain the theory of (phi,Gamma)-modules and the definition and properties of trianguline representations. After that, we give some examples of their occurrence in arithmetic geometry.

  20. Inspiring a generation

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The motto of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is ‘Inspire a generation’ so it was particularly pleasing to see science, the LHC and Higgs bosons featuring so strongly in the opening ceremony of the Paralympics last week.   It’s a sign of just how far our field has come that such a high-profile event featured particle physics so strongly, and we can certainly add our support to that motto. If the legacy of London 2012 is a generation inspired by science as well as sport, then the games will have more than fulfilled their mission. Particle physics has truly inspiring stories to tell, going well beyond Higgs and the LHC, and the entire community has played its part in bringing the excitement of frontier research in particle physics to a wide audience. Nevertheless, we cannot rest on our laurels: maintaining the kind of enthusiasm for science we witnessed at the Paralympic opening ceremony will require constant vigilance, and creative thinking about ways to rea...

  1. Quantum-Inspired Maximizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

  2. Visualization analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Munzner, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Visualization Analysis and Design provides a systematic, comprehensive framework for thinking about visualization in terms of principles and design choices. The book features a unified approach encompassing information visualization techniques for abstract data, scientific visualization techniques for spatial data, and visual analytics techniques for interweaving data transformation and analysis with interactive visual exploration. It emphasizes the careful validation of effectiveness and the consideration of function before form. The book breaks down visualization design according to three questions: what data users need to see, why users need to carry out their tasks, and how the visual representations proposed can be constructed and manipulated. It walks readers through the use of space and color to visually encode data in a view, the trade-offs between changing a single view and using multiple linked views, and the ways to reduce the amount of data shown in each view. The book concludes with six case stu...

  3. Glyph-Based Comparative Visualization for Diffusion Tensor Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changgong; Schultz, Thomas; Lawonn, Kai; Eisemann, Elmar; Vilanova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging modality that enables the in-vivo reconstruction and visualization of fibrous structures. To inspect the local and individual diffusion tensors, glyph-based visualizations are commonly used since they are able to effectively convey full aspects of the diffusion tensor. For several applications it is necessary to compare tensor fields, e.g., to study the effects of acquisition parameters, or to investigate the influence of pathologies on white matter structures. This comparison is commonly done by extracting scalar information out of the tensor fields and then comparing these scalar fields, which leads to a loss of information. If the glyph representation is kept, simple juxtaposition or superposition can be used. However, neither facilitates the identification and interpretation of the differences between the tensor fields. Inspired by the checkerboard style visualization and the superquadric tensor glyph, we design a new glyph to locally visualize differences between two diffusion tensors by combining juxtaposition and explicit encoding. Because tensor scale, anisotropy type, and orientation are related to anatomical information relevant for DTI applications, we focus on visualizing tensor differences in these three aspects. As demonstrated in a user study, our new glyph design allows users to efficiently and effectively identify the tensor differences. We also apply our new glyphs to investigate the differences between DTI datasets of the human brain in two different contexts using different b-values, and to compare datasets from a healthy and HIV-infected subject. PMID:26529729

  4. When science inspires art

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    On Tuesday 18 January 2011, artist Pipilotti Rist came to CERN to find out how science could provide her with a source of inspiration for her art and perhaps to get ideas for future work. Pipilotti, who is an eclectic artist always on the lookout for an original source of inspiration, is almost as passionate about physics as she is about art.   Ever Is Over All, 1997, audio video installation by Pipilotti Rist.  View of the installation at the National Museum for Foreign Art, Sofia, Bulgaria. © Pipilotti Rist. Courtesy the artist and Hauser & Wirth. Photo by Angel Tzvetanov. Swiss video-maker Pipilotti Rist (her real name is Elisabeth Charlotte Rist), who is well-known in the international art world for her highly colourful videos and creations, visited CERN for the first time on Tuesday 18 January 2011.  Her visit represented a trip down memory lane, since she originally studied physics before becoming interested in pursuing a career as an artist and going on to de...

  5. Loop Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bruegmann, B.

    1993-01-01

    The loop representation plays an important role in canonical quantum gravity because loop variables allow a natural treatment of the constraints. In these lectures we give an elementary introduction to (i) the relevant history of loops in knot theory and gauge theory, (ii) the loop representation of Maxwell theory, and (iii) the loop representation of canonical quantum gravity. (Based on lectures given at the 117. Heraeus Seminar, Bad Honnef, Sept. 1993)

  6. Scientific visualization uncertainty, multifield, biomedical, and scalable visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Min; Johnson, Christopher; Kaufman, Arie; Hagen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Based on the seminar that took place in Dagstuhl, Germany in June 2011, this contributed volume studies the four important topics within the scientific visualization field: uncertainty visualization, multifield visualization, biomedical visualization and scalable visualization. • Uncertainty visualization deals with uncertain data from simulations or sampled data, uncertainty due to the mathematical processes operating on the data, and uncertainty in the visual representation, • Multifield visualization addresses the need to depict multiple data at individual locations and the combination of multiple datasets, • Biomedical is a vast field with select subtopics addressed from scanning methodologies to structural applications to biological applications, • Scalability in scientific visualization is critical as data grows and computational devices range from hand-held mobile devices to exascale computational platforms. Scientific Visualization will be useful to practitioners of scientific visualization, ...

  7. Semantics-based color assignment in visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Larrea, Martín Leonardo; Martig, Sergio R.; Castro, Silvia Mabel

    2010-01-01

    The active use and manipulation of visual representations makes many complex and intensive cognitive tasks feasible. A visual representation is able to convey relationships among many elements in parallel and it provides an individual with directly observable memory. A successful visualization allows the user to gain insight into the data, that is, to communicate different aspects of the data in an effective way. Even with today's visualization systems that give the user a considerable con...

  8. Visual interference disrupts visual and only visual knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Pierce; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-09-01

    Visual imagery and the making of visual judgments involves activation of cortical regions that underlie visual perception (e.g., reporting that taxicabs are yellow recruits color sensitive regions of cortex, Simmons et al., 2007). Such results, however, leave open the critical question of whether perceptual representations are constitutive of visual knowledge (Barsalou, Simmons, Barbey, & Wilson, 2003; Mahon & Caramazza, 2008). We report evidence that visual interference disrupts the activation of visual and only visual knowledge. Recognizing an upright object next to a rotated picture of the same object is known to be aided by cueing; hearing word cues that match the subsequently presented pictures (e.g., hearing "alligator" prior to seeing pictures of alligators) improves performance, whereas hearing invalid cues (e.g., hearing "alligator" prior to seeing pictures of dogs) impairs it. We show that we can reduce this cueing effect by 46% by presenting a visual mask during or after the auditory word cue. The mask did not affect performance on no-cue trials, showing that the effect of the visual interference disrupts the knowledge activated by the word. In subsequent studies we show that the same type of visual interference affects knowledge probed by verbal propositions. For example, hearing the word "table" while viewing visual noise patterns made participants 1.4 times more likely to make an error in affirming the visual property that tables have flat surfaces but not the more general (and equally difficult) property that tables are furniture. These results provide a convincing resolution of a longstanding debate in cognitive psychology and neuroscience about the format of visual knowledge. Although much of our knowledge abstracts away from perceptual details, knowledge of what things look like appears to be represented in a visual format. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325698

  9. Measuring visual abilities and visual knowledge of aviation security screeners

    OpenAIRE

    Schwaninger, Adrian; Hardmeier, Diana; Hofer, Franziska

    2004-01-01

    A central aspect of airport security is reliable detection of forbidden objects in passenger bags using X-ray screening equipment. Human recognition involves visual processing of the X-ray image and matching items with object representations stored in visual memory. Thus, without knowing which objects are forbidden and what they look like, prohibited items are difficult to recognize (aspect of visual knowledge). In order to measure whether a screener has acquired the necessary visual knowledg...

  10. 3D hierarchical spatial representation and memory of multimodal sensory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Deepak; Dow, Paul A.; Huber, David J.

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes an efficient method and system for representing, processing and understanding multi-modal sensory data. More specifically, it describes a computational method and system for how to process and remember multiple locations in multimodal sensory space (e.g., visual, auditory, somatosensory, etc.). The multimodal representation and memory is based on a biologically-inspired hierarchy of spatial representations implemented with novel analogues of real representations used in the human brain. The novelty of the work is in the computationally efficient and robust spatial representation of 3D locations in multimodal sensory space as well as an associated working memory for storage and recall of these representations at the desired level for goal-oriented action. We describe (1) A simple and efficient method for human-like hierarchical spatial representations of sensory data and how to associate, integrate and convert between these representations (head-centered coordinate system, body-centered coordinate, etc.); (2) a robust method for training and learning a mapping of points in multimodal sensory space (e.g., camera-visible object positions, location of auditory sources, etc.) to the above hierarchical spatial representations; and (3) a specification and implementation of a hierarchical spatial working memory based on the above for storage and recall at the desired level for goal-oriented action(s). This work is most useful for any machine or human-machine application that requires processing of multimodal sensory inputs, making sense of it from a spatial perspective (e.g., where is the sensory information coming from with respect to the machine and its parts) and then taking some goal-oriented action based on this spatial understanding. A multi-level spatial representation hierarchy means that heterogeneous sensory inputs (e.g., visual, auditory, somatosensory, etc.) can map onto the hierarchy at different levels. When controlling various machine/robot degrees of freedom, the desired movements and action can be computed from these different levels in the hierarchy. The most basic embodiment of this machine could be a pan-tilt camera system, an array of microphones, a machine with arm/hand like structure or/and a robot with some or all of the above capabilities. We describe the approach, system and present preliminary results on a real-robotic platform.

  11. Biologically inspired emotion recognition from speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscicchio Cosimo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emotion recognition has become a fundamental task in human-computer interaction systems. In this article, we propose an emotion recognition approach based on biologically inspired methods. Specifically, emotion classification is performed using a long short-term memory (LSTM recurrent neural network which is able to recognize long-range dependencies between successive temporal patterns. We propose to represent data using features derived from two different models: mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC and the Lyon cochlear model. In the experimental phase, results obtained from the LSTM network and the two different feature sets are compared, showing that features derived from the Lyon cochlear model give better recognition results in comparison with those obtained with the traditional MFCC representation.

  12. Biologically inspired emotion recognition from speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponetti, Laura; Buscicchio, Cosimo Alessandro; Castellano, Giovanna

    2011-12-01

    Emotion recognition has become a fundamental task in human-computer interaction systems. In this article, we propose an emotion recognition approach based on biologically inspired methods. Specifically, emotion classification is performed using a long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network which is able to recognize long-range dependencies between successive temporal patterns. We propose to represent data using features derived from two different models: mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and the Lyon cochlear model. In the experimental phase, results obtained from the LSTM network and the two different feature sets are compared, showing that features derived from the Lyon cochlear model give better recognition results in comparison with those obtained with the traditional MFCC representation.

  13. Immuno-inspired robotic applications: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Raza, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Artificial immune systems primarily mimic the adaptive nature of biological immune functions. Their ability to adapt to varying pathogens makes such systems a suitable choice for various robotic applications. Generally, AIS-based robotic applications map local instantaneous sensory information into either an antigen or a co-stimulatory signal, according to the choice of representation schema. Algorithms then use relevant immune functions to output either evolved antibodies or maturity of dendritic cells, in terms of actuation signals. It is observed that researchers, in an attempt to solve the problem in hand, do not try to replicate the biological immunity but select necessary immune functions instead, resulting in an ad-hoc manner these applications are reported. Authors, therefore, present a comprehensive review of immuno-inspired robotic applications in an attempt to categorize them according to underlying immune definitions. Implementation details are tabulated in terms of corresponding mathematical expr...

  14. The Molecule Cloud - compact visualization of large collections of molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertl Peter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis and visualization of large collections of molecules is one of the most frequent challenges cheminformatics experts in pharmaceutical industry are facing. Various sophisticated methods are available to perform this task, including clustering, dimensionality reduction or scaffold frequency analysis. In any case, however, viewing and analyzing large tables with molecular structures is necessary. We present a new visualization technique, providing basic information about the composition of molecular data sets at a single glance. Summary A method is presented here allowing visual representation of the most common structural features of chemical databases in a form of a cloud diagram. The frequency of molecules containing particular substructure is indicated by the size of respective structural image. The method is useful to quickly perceive the most prominent structural features present in the data set. This approach was inspired by popular word cloud diagrams that are used to visualize textual information in a compact form. Therefore we call this approach “Molecule Cloud”. The method also supports visualization of additional information, for example biological activity of molecules containing this scaffold or the protein target class typical for particular scaffolds, by color coding. Detailed description of the algorithm is provided, allowing easy implementation of the method by any cheminformatics toolkit. The layout algorithm is available as open source Java code. Conclusions Visualization of large molecular data sets using the Molecule Cloud approach allows scientists to get information about the composition of molecular databases and their most frequent structural features easily. The method may be used in the areas where analysis of large molecular collections is needed, for example processing of high throughput screening results, virtual screening or compound purchasing. Several example visualizations of large data sets, including PubChem, ChEMBL and ZINC databases using the Molecule Cloud diagrams are provided.

  15. Inspired by CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Art students inspired by CERN will be returning to show their work 9 to 16 October in Building 500, outside the Auditorium. Seventeen art students from around Europe visited CERN last January for a week of introductions to particle physics and astrophysics, and discussions with CERN scientists about their projects. A CERN scientist "adopted"each artist so they could ask questions during and after the visit. Now the seeds planted during their visit have come to fruition in a show using many media and exploring varied concepts, such as how people experience the online world, the sheer scale of CERN's equipment, and the abstractness of the entities scientists are looking for. "The work is so varied, people are going to love some pieces and detest others," says Andrew Charalambous, the project coordinator from University College London who is also curating the exhibition. "It's contemporary modern art, and that's sometimes difficult to take in." For more information on this thought-provoking show, see: htt...

  16. Digital models for architectonical representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Brusaporci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital instruments and technologies enrich architectonical representation and communication opportunities. Computer graphics is organized according the two phases of visualization and construction, that is modeling and rendering, structuring dichotomy of software technologies. Visualization modalities give different kinds of representations of the same 3D model and instruments produce a separation between drawing and image’s creation. Reverse modeling can be related to a synthesis process, ‘direct modeling’ follows an analytic procedure. The difference between interactive and not interactive applications is connected to the possibilities offered by informatics instruments, and relates to modeling and rendering. At the same time the word ‘model’ describes different phenomenon (i.e. files: mathematical model of the building and of the scene; raster representation and post-processing model. All these correlated different models constitute the architectonical interpretative model, that is a simulation of reality made by the model for improving the knowledge.

  17. From Quantification to Visualization: A Taxonomy of Uncertainty Visualization Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Kristin; Rosen, Paul; Johnson, Chris R.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying uncertainty is an increasingly important topic across many domains. The uncertainties present in data come with many diverse representations having originated from a wide variety of disciplines. Communicating these uncertainties is a task often left to visualization without clear connection between the quantification and visualization. In this paper, we first identify frequently occurring types of uncertainty. Second, we connect those uncertainty representations to ones commonly u...

  18. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modulates the parameters of the locomotor central pattern generators. We present phonotactic performance results of the simulated lizard-salamander hybrid robot.

  19. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modulates the parameters of the locomotor central pattern generators. We present phonotactic performance results of the simulated lizard-salamander hybrid robot.

  20. BINARY WAVELET TRANSFORM FOR IMAGE REPRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHOK.M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The MRA (Multi resolution analysis for an image provides specific information localized in space or frequency domain .In this paper an efficient representation of the visual information is presented using Binary wavelet Transform for both color and gray level image. Analytical results shows that this method proves to be more efficient in representing the visual information than the earlier

  1. Inspiration, anyone? (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available I have to admit that writing an editorial for this issue was a struggle. Trying to sit down and write when the sun was shining outside and most of my colleagues were on vacation was, to say the least, difficult. Add to that research projects and conferences…let’s just say that I found myself less than inspired. A pitiful plea for ideas to a colleague resulted in the reintroduction to a few recent evidence based papers and resources which inspired further searching and reading. Though I generally find myself surrounded (more like buried in research papers and EBLIP literature, somehow I had missed the great strides that have been made of late in the world of evidence based library and information practice. I realize now that I am inspired by the researchers, authors and innovators who are putting EBLIP on the proverbial map. My biggest beef with library literature in general has been the plethora of articles highlighting what we should be doing. Take a close look at the evidence based practitioners in the information professions: these are some of the people who are actively practicing what has been preached for the past few years. Take, for example, the about?to?be released Libraries using Evidence Toolkit by Northern Sydney Central Coast Health and The University of Newcastle, Australia (see their announcement in this issue. An impressive advisory group is responsible for maintaining the currency and relevancy of the site as well as promoting the site and acting as a steering committee for related projects. This group is certainly doing more than “talking the talk”: they took their experience at the 3rd International Evidence Based Librarianship Conference and did something with the information they obtained by implementing solutions that worked in their environment. The result? The creation of a collection of tools for all of us to use. This toolkit is just what EBLIP needs: a portal to resources aimed at supporting the information specialists who want to adopt the evidence based model of practice. I have already got it bookmarked and set up an RSS feed. Even before the official toolkit launch, a wealth of information is available on the website including presentations, project and events information, and a blog containing site updates. There has been much discussion on increasing the knowledge base from which to draw evidence for library and information practitioners. Original research needs to be published so that we can use it as evidence to support our decision making. The literature is lacking the significant numbers of publication types widely considered to be the highest level of evidence: systematic reviews, meta?analyses and randomized controlled trials. This issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice proudly boasts both a systematic review/meta?analysis and a randomized controlled trial. Denise Koufogiannakis and Natasha Wiebe, in their systematic review/meta?analysis, provide evidence that shows that computer assisted instruction is as effective as traditional instruction for students at an introductory, undergraduate level. Nicola Pearce?Smith compared the effectiveness of self?directed, web?based learning with a classroom?based, interactive workshop in her randomized controlled trial. I am looking forward to reading and utilizing more and more of these in the future. Another example is even closer to home. I recently attended a strategic planning meeting at my institution where new services and procedures were discussed. Unlike the past, when new initiatives were implemented and later evaluated, all librarians instinctively indicated that the literature should be searched first to see if there was any evidence either for or against changing or adding new services or procedures. The evidence based model of practice is catching on. I know that there are numerous examples of information practitioners taking a proactive role in putting research into practice, and many research papers that are worth mentioning. To highlight them all would be a task muc

  2. Brain-inspired Stochastic Models and Implementations

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2015-05-12

    One of the approaches to building artificial intelligence (AI) is to decipher the princi- ples of the brain function and to employ similar mechanisms for solving cognitive tasks, such as visual perception or natural language understanding, using machines. The recent breakthrough, named deep learning, demonstrated that large multi-layer networks of arti- ficial neural-like computing units attain remarkable performance on some of these tasks. Nevertheless, such artificial networks remain to be very loosely inspired by the brain, which rich structures and mechanisms may further suggest new algorithms or even new paradigms of computation. In this thesis, we explore brain-inspired probabilistic mechanisms, such as neural and synaptic stochasticity, in the context of generative models. The two questions we ask here are: (i) what kind of models can describe a neural learning system built of stochastic components? and (ii) how can we implement such systems e ?ciently? To give specific answers, we consider two well known models and the corresponding neural architectures: the Naive Bayes model implemented with a winner-take-all spiking neural network and the Boltzmann machine implemented in a spiking or non-spiking fashion. We propose and analyze an e ?cient neuromorphic implementation of the stochastic neu- ral firing mechanism and study the e ?ects of synaptic unreliability on learning generative energy-based models implemented with neural networks.

  3. Nature-inspired optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

  4. Development & Implementation of a PyMOL 'putty' Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Mura, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    The PyMOL molecular graphics program has been modi?ed to introduce a new 'putty' cartoon representation, akin to the 'sausage'-style representation of the MOLMOL molecular visualization (MolVis) software package. This document outlines the development and implementation of the putty representation.

  5. Geodezija in direktiva INSPIRE : Geodesy And INSPIRE Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Petek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available SI: ?Direktiva Evropskega parlamenta in Sveta EU INSPIRE je bila sprejeta 24. aprila 2008 in je za?ela veljati 15. maja 2008. Zdaj se kon?uje obdobje njenega prenosa v pravni red držav ?lanic in se za?enja njeno izvajanje. Direktiva INSPIRE ureja izhodiš?a za vzpostavitev evropske podatkovne infrastrukture za prostorske informacije v državah ?lanicah EU, imenovane tudi INSPIRE (Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE.V veliki ve?ini evropskih držav bo uskladitev dolo?b Direktive INSPIRE z nacionalno zakonodajo izvedena s pripravo novega zakona, ki bo dodelil osrednje mesto državnim geodetskim in kartografskim službam. Državne geodetske službe so v obveznostih, ki jih državam ?lanicam nalaga direktiva, videle priložnost za aktivno udejstvovanje. Za uspešno izvedbo Direktive INSPIRE je namre? klju?nega pomena, da pri tem sodelujejo vsi upravljavci in uporabniki podatkov o prostoru in okolju (v nadaljevanju prostorskih podatkov, ki so navedeni v prilogah k direktivi. Tako je treba vzpostaviti tudi dolo?ene organizacijske strukture. Direktiva INSPIRE namre? opredeljuje na?in usklajevanja na podro?ju prostorske podatkovne infrastrukture med državami ?lanicami EU in institucijami EU. Izvajanje Direktive INSPIRE bo vplivalo na poslovanje vseh organov javne uprave, ki vodijo in vzdržujejo prostorske podatke. Ve? kot dve tretjini podatkov, navedenih v prilogah k Direktivi INSPIRE, so podatki, ki jih v Sloveniji že danes vodi in vzdržuje državna geodetska služba. ?EN: The Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council INSPIRE was adopted on 24th April 2008 and it entered into force on 15th May 2008. The transposition period into national legal framework is finishing and we are at the beginning of the implementation period. The purpose of the Directive is to lay down general rules aimed at the establishment of the infrastructure for spatial information in the European Community (hereinafter referred to as INSPIRE, for the purposes of Community environmental policies and policies or activities which may have an impact on environment. In many European countries the transposition phase will be done with adoption of a new law, where national mapping and cadastral agencies will have leading role. Successful implementation calls for strong cooperation between all stakeholders (data providers and users from environmental and spatial fields. So it is necessary to establish appropriate coordination mechanisms and structures. Directive INSPIRE also defines organisational measures for the coordination in the field of spatial data infrastructure between Member States and Community institutions. The Republic of Slovenia state geodetic authority already manages more than two thirds of data types listed in annexes to the Directive INSPIRE. Metadata services and data viewers are already available to users through web portal ‘prostor’. Slovenian geodesy has already assured users good access to data and services related to spatial data and their use. Search services for most of the spatial data are available to users without unnecessary administrative obstacles and for the majority of spatial data also metadata descriptions exist. ?But we are facing a big challenge and responsibility for establishing Slovenian spatial data infrastructure (hereinafter SDI and mechanisms for coordination of all stakeholders. It is necessary to define legal and technical details of spatial data interoperability, review data access rules for spatial data, which are managed by public authorities in Slovenia and harmonise pricing policy rules. In the article we try to describe possibilities and challenges the Slovenian geodetic sector is facing and are related to the establishment of Slovenian SDI.

  6. Quiver representations

    CERN Document Server

    Schiffler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a textbook for a course in Representation Theory of Algebras at the beginning graduate level. The text has two parts. In Part I, the theory is studied in an elementary way using quivers and their representations. This is a very hands-on approach and requires only basic knowledge of linear algebra. The main tool for describing the representation theory of a finite-dimensional algebra is its Auslander-Reiten quiver, and the text introduces these quivers as early as possible. Part II then uses the language of algebras and modules to build on the material developed before. The equivalence of the two approaches is proved in the text. The last chapter gives a proof of Gabriel’s Theorem. The language of category theory is developed along the way as needed.

  7. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

    2011-12-01

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  8. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  9. Exploration of complex visual feature spaces for object perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Leeds

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mid- and high-level visual properties supporting object perception in the ventral visual pathway are poorly understood. In the absence of well-specified theory, many groups have adopted a data-driven approach in which they progressively interrogate neural units to establish each unit’s selectivity. Such methods are challenging in that they require search through a wide space of feature models and stimuli using a limited number of samples. To more rapidly identify higher-level features underlying human cortical object perception, we implemented a novel method in which visual stimuli are selected in real-time based on BOLD responses to recently shown stimuli. This work was inspired by earlier primate physiology work, in which neural selectivity for mid-level features in IT was characterized using a simple parametric approach (Hung 2012. To extend such work to human neuroimaging, we used natural and synthetic object stimuli embedded in feature spaces constructed on the basis of the complex visual properties of the objects themselves. During fMRI scanning, we employed a real-time search method to control continuous stimulus selection within each image space. This search was designed to maximize neural responses across a pre-determined 1 cm3 brain region within ventral cortex. To assess the value of this method for understanding object encoding, we examined both the behavior of the method itself and the complex visual properties the method identified as reliably activating selected brain regions. We observed: 1 Regions selective for both holistic and component object features and for a variety of surface properties; 2 Object stimulus pairs near one another in feature space that produce responses at the opposite extremes of the measured activity range. Together, these results suggest that real-time fMRI methods may yield more widely informative measures of selectivity within the broad classes of visual features associated with cortical object representation.

  10. Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria GraziaDi Bono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters from their eye-centred (i.e., retinal locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Conversely, there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words – which was the model’s learning objective – is largely based on letter-level information.

  11. Hyperspectral Imagery Super-Resolution by Compressive Sensing Inspired Dictionary Learning and Spatial-Spectral Regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the instrumental and imaging optics limitations, it is difficult to acquire high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery (HSI. Super-resolution (SR imagery aims at inferring high quality images of a given scene from degraded versions of the same scene. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral imagery super-resolution (HSI-SR method via dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization. The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, inspired by the compressive sensing (CS framework, for learning the high resolution dictionary, we encourage stronger sparsity on image patches and promote smaller coherence between the learned dictionary and sensing matrix. Thus, a sparsity and incoherence restricted dictionary learning method is proposed to achieve higher efficiency sparse representation. Second, a variational regularization model combing a spatial sparsity regularization term and a new local spectral similarity preserving term is proposed to integrate the spectral and spatial-contextual information of the HSI. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recover spatial information and better preserve spectral information. The high spatial resolution HSI reconstructed by the proposed method outperforms reconstructed results by other well-known methods in terms of both objective measurements and visual evaluation.

  12. Hyperspectral imagery super-resolution by compressive sensing inspired dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Hongyi; Wei, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Due to the instrumental and imaging optics limitations, it is difficult to acquire high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Super-resolution (SR) imagery aims at inferring high quality images of a given scene from degraded versions of the same scene. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral imagery super-resolution (HSI-SR) method via dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization. The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, inspired by the compressive sensing (CS) framework, for learning the high resolution dictionary, we encourage stronger sparsity on image patches and promote smaller coherence between the learned dictionary and sensing matrix. Thus, a sparsity and incoherence restricted dictionary learning method is proposed to achieve higher efficiency sparse representation. Second, a variational regularization model combing a spatial sparsity regularization term and a new local spectral similarity preserving term is proposed to integrate the spectral and spatial-contextual information of the HSI. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recover spatial information and better preserve spectral information. The high spatial resolution HSI reconstructed by the proposed method outperforms reconstructed results by other well-known methods in terms of both objective measurements and visual evaluation. PMID:25608212

  13. Investigating the use of Visual Focus of Attention for Audio-Visual Speaker Diarisation

    OpenAIRE

    Garau, Giulia; Ba, Silèye O.; Bourlard, Hervé; Odobez, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    Audio-visual speaker diarisation is the task of estimating ``who spoke when'' using audio and visual cues. In this paper we propose the combination of an audio diarisation system with psychology inspired visual features, reporting experiments on multiparty meetings, a challenging domain characterised by unconstrained interaction and participant movements. More precisely the role of gaze in coordinating speaker turns was exploited by the use of Visual Focus of Attention features. Experiments ...

  14. Ventral-stream-like shape representation: from pixel intensity values to trainable object-selective COSFIRE models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, George; Petkov, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable abilities of the primate visual system have inspired the construction of computational models of some visual neurons. We propose a trainable hierarchical object recognition model, which we call S-COSFIRE (S stands for Shape and COSFIRE stands for Combination Of Shifted FIlter REsponses) and use it to localize and recognize objects of interests embedded in complex scenes. It is inspired by the visual processing in the ventral stream (V1/V2 ? V4 ? TEO). Recognition and localization of objects embedded in complex scenes is important for many computer vision applications. Most existing methods require prior segmentation of the objects from the background which on its turn requires recognition. An S-COSFIRE filter is automatically configured to be selective for an arrangement of contour-based features that belong to a prototype shape specified by an example. The configuration comprises selecting relevant vertex detectors and determining certain blur and shift parameters. The response is computed as the weighted geometric mean of the blurred and shifted responses of the selected vertex detectors. S-COSFIRE filters share similar properties with some neurons in inferotemporal cortex, which provided inspiration for this work. We demonstrate the effectiveness of S-COSFIRE filters in two applications: letter and keyword spotting in handwritten manuscripts and object spotting in complex scenes for the computer vision system of a domestic robot. S-COSFIRE filters are effective to recognize and localize (deformable) objects in images of complex scenes without requiring prior segmentation. They are versatile trainable shape detectors, conceptually simple and easy to implement. The presented hierarchical shape representation contributes to a better understanding of the brain and to more robust computer vision algorithms. PMID:25126068

  15. Ventral-stream-like shape representation: from pixel intensity values to trainable object-selective COSFIRE models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Azzopardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable abilities of the primate visual cortex have inspired the construction of computational models of some visual neurons. We propose a trainable hierarchical object recognition model, which we call S-COSFIRE (S stands for Shape and COSFIRE stands for Combination Of Shifted FIlter REsponses and use it to localize and recognize objects of interests embedded in complex scenes. It is inspired by the visual processing in the ventral stream (V1/V2 -> V4 -> TEO. Recognition and localization of objects embedded in complex scenes is important for many computer vision applications. Most existing methods require prior segmentation of the objects from the background which on its turn requires recognition. A S-COSFIRE filter is automatically configured to be selective for an arrangement of contour-based features that belong to a prototype shape specified by an example. The configuration comprises selecting relevant vertex detectors and determining certain blur and shift parameters. The response is computed as the weighted geometric mean of the blurred and shifted responses of the selected vertex detectors. S-COSFIRE filters share similar properties with some neurons in inferotemporal cortex, which provided inspiration for this work. We demonstrate the effectiveness of S-COSFIRE filters in two applications: letter and keyword spotting in handwritten manuscripts and object spotting in complex scenes for the computer vision system of a domestic robot. S-COSFIRE filters are effective to recognize and localize (deformable objects in images of complex scenes without requiring prior segmentation. They are versatile trainable shape detectors, conceptually simple and easy to implement. The presented hierarchical shape representation contributes to a better understanding of the brain and to more robust computer vision algorithms.

  16. Visual Mining of Epidemic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Clémençon, Stéphan; De Arazoza, Hector; Rossi, Fabrice; Tran, Viet Chi

    2011-01-01

    We show how an interactive graph visualization method based on maximal modularity clustering can be used to explore a large epidemic network. The visual representation is used to display statistical tests results that expose the relations between the propagation of HIV in a sexual contact network and the sexual orientation of the patients.

  17. Visual Mining of Epidemic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Clémençon, Stéphan; Rossi, Fabrice; Tran, Viet Chi; 10.1007/978-3-642-21498-1_35

    2012-01-01

    We show how an interactive graph visualization method based on maximal modularity clustering can be used to explore a large epidemic network. The visual representation is used to display statistical tests results that expose the relations between the propagation of HIV in a sexual contact network and the sexual orientation of the patients.

  18. Visual Programming of Subsumption - Based Reactive Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Philip T.; Omid Banyasad

    2008-01-01

    General purpose visual programming languages (VPLs) promote the construction of programs that are more comprehensible, robust, and maintainable by enabling programmers to directly observe and manipulate algorithms and data. However, they usually do not exploit the visual representation of entities in the problem domain, even if those entities and their interactions have obvious visual representations, as is the case in the robot control domain. We present a formal control model for autonomous...

  19. Bio-Inspired Antifouling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Chelsea M.; Brennan, Anthony B.

    2012-08-01

    Biofouling is a complex, dynamic problem that globally impacts both the economy and environment. Interdisciplinary research in marine biology, polymer science, and engineering has led to the implementation of bio-inspired strategies for the development of the next generation of antifouling marine coatings. Natural fouling defense mechanisms have been mimicked through chemical, physical, and/or stimuli-responsive strategies. This review outlines the detrimental effects associated with biofouling, describes the theoretical basis for antifouling coating design, and highlights prominent advances in bio-inspired antifouling technologies.

  20. The matrix of inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlmann, Dietmar; Ohlmann, Odile M.; Danzebrink, Hans U.

    2005-04-01

    The research of Odile Meulien and Dietmar Ohlmann is about perceiving a multidimensional world. Not about the cyberspace created for new cinema creation, nor the reality which seems to be created by communication. It's the search for the reality we perceive, when the mind "touches" an object with its senses. In fact, it is a study of the surface of an object, which we can record in its visual appearing, its structure, shape and colors. When using photographic media, the tactile sense of the structure is missing, when using some other reproductive media; we experience somewhere a sensation of fault, something different. When using holography, we are able to record some three dimensional shape which has in fact a lot of parameter of a realistic copy. What is missing is the touch, the smell, the way we can go close and far, surround the object, relate the reflected light to its surrounding. The only interesting attribute of a hologram is for Dietmar Ohlmann its capacity to illustrate a continuum. He likes its changing diffractive character during daytime and surrounds lighting. For Odile Meulien the continuum of a hologram represents a new possible model for understanding wholeness in a social context. In fact, both are working on an educational process together, helping children and adults to find a new position of their own in harmony with living surrounding. Dietmar Ohlmann is working on his artistic side, while Odile Meulien works on educational programs experiencing the perspective of a curator and social analyst. New is the implication of using the latest of the techniques like the atomic force microscopy, which make possible to touch the holographic grating while the holographic image remains untouched. In other words it is the reverse of the usual approach of objects which at first we touch to investigate further. Their difference in experiencing and perceiving scientific and technical approach brings a lot of paradigm in their discussion. Together they will perform this exchange, as a matrix, understood as source, of new ideas.

  1. Visualization of Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ing-Xiang; Yang, Cheng-Zen

    With the ubiquitous characteristic of the Internet, today many online social environments are provided to connect people. Various social relationships are thus created, connected, and migrated from our real lives to the Internet environment from different social groups. Many social communities and relationships are also quickly constructed and connected via instant personal messengers, blogs, Twitter, Facebook, and a great variety of online social services. Since social network visualizations can structure the complex relationships between different groups of individuals or organizations, they are helpful to analyze the social activities and relationships of actors, particularly over a large number of nodes. Therefore, many studies and visualization tools have been investigated to present social networks with graph representations. In this chapter, we will first review the background of social network analysis and visualization methods, and then introduce various novel visualization applications for social networks. Finally, the challenges and the future development of visualizing online social networks are discussed.

  2. Representación visual de la movilización estudiantil en Chile: las fotografías de las marchas como espacios de narración, actuación e identificación política (Visual representation of the student mobilization in Chile: the photographs of marches as spaces of narrative, action and political identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cárdenas Neira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo explora la representación visual de las marchas estudiantiles suscitadas en Chile durante el 2011, con el propósito de describir los actores e identidades grupales simbolizadas, así como las acciones sociales y los modos como son legitimadas o deslegitimadas en la interacción. Se analiza un corpus fotográfico del libro "Marchas" (Yutronic y Ortiz, 2012, desde un marco teórico-metodológico que considera aportaciones de los Estudios Críticos del Discurso y la Semiótica Social. Se plantea que las fotografías de las marchas constituyen una narración capaz de organizar significados que estructuran formas de actuación e identificación política en oposición, excluyendo a otros participantes críticos del conflicto educativo, como las élites políticas y económicas. Se construye así un tipo de confrontación entre jóvenes y fuerzas policiales, que simplifica la lucha ideológica y refuerza estereotipos sobre grupos cuya acción, al ser objeto de una mediatización permanente, es cognitivamente reforzada. Se concluye que la narración indagada constituye una opción de representación que enfatiza el carácter histórico de la protesta estudiantil, proveyendo un espacio de visibilización de la acción juvenil postdictatorial. (This paper explores the visual representation of student’s protests raised in Chile during 2011. The purpose is to describe the actors and symbolized group identities, as well as the social actions and the ways in which these specific actions are legitimized or delegitimized in the interaction. The corpus is a photographic book entitled "Marchas" (Marches (Yutronic & Ortiz, 2012, which is analyzed from a theoretical and methodological framework that considers input from Critical Discourse Studies and Social Semiotics. The paper claims that the photographs of marches are able to organize narrative meanings which structure opposite forms of performance and political identification, excluding other critical participants in the educational conflict, such as political and economic elites. Thus, it is constructed a type of confrontation between young people and police, which simplifies the ideological struggle and reinforces stereotypes about groups whose action, being subject to constant media coverage, is, therefore, cognitively enhanced. The paper concludes that the narration inquired is an option of representation that emphasizes the historical character of the students’ protest, providing in this way a space that makes visible the postdictatorial action of youth.

  3. Supporting Polyrepresentation in a Quantum-inspired geometrical Retrieval Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frommholz, Ingo; Larsen, Birger

    2010-01-01

    The relevance of a document has many facets, going beyond the usual topical one, which have to be considered to satisfy a user's information need. Multiple representations of documents, like user-given reviews or the actual document content, can give evidence towards certain facets of relevance. In this respect polyrepresentation of documents, where such evidence is combined, is a crucial concept to estimate the relevance of a document. In this paper, we discuss how a geometrical retrieval framework inspired by quantum mechanics can be extended to support polyrepresentation. We show by example how different representations of a document can be modelled in a Hilbert space, similar to physical systems known from quantum mechanics. We further illustrate how these representations are combined by means of the tensor product to support polyrepresentation, and discuss the case that representations of documents are not independent from a user point of view. Besides giving a principled framework for polyrepresentation, the potential of this approach is to capture and formalise the complex interdependent relationships that the different representations can have between each other.

  4. Institutionalizing New Ideas Through Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Jancsary, Dennis

    How do visualization and visual forms of communication influence the process of transforming a novel idea into established organizational practice? In this paper, we build theory with regard to the role of visuals in manifesting and giving form to an innovative idea as it proceeds through various stages of institutionalization. Ideas become institutionalized not merely through widespread diffusion in a cognitive-discursive form but eventually through their translation into concrete activities and transformation into specific patterns of organizational practice. We argue that visualization plays a pivotal and unique role in this process. Visualization bridges the ideational with the practical realm by providing representations of ideas, connecting them to existing knowledge, and illustrating the specific actions that instantiate them. Similar to verbal discourse, and often in tandem, visual representations diffuse more rapidly and further than the practices themselves. Consolidating the relationship between abstract ideas and specific practice, such visual or multi-modal representations facilitate the implementation of novel ideas, reinforce particular translations, and imbue associated organizational practice with legitimacy – and thus solidify the coupling of innovative ideas and organizational practice. Extending existing research, we develop a set of propositions linking dimensions of visuality and visualization to the different stages of institutionalization in order to explain the institutional trajectory of new ideas. Our analysis advances insight into a core dimension of institutionalization: the transformation of an idea into practice.

  5. Representational Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Casati, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive metaphysics investigates our naive ontology as this is articulated in the content of our perception or of our pre-reflective thought about the world. But is access to such content reliable? Sceptics about the standard modes of access (introspection, or language-driven intuitions) may think that investigations in descriptive metaphysics can be aided by the controlled findings of cognitive science. Cognitive scientists have studied a promising range of representational advantages, t...

  6. Manipulating Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Recchia-Luciani, Angelo N. M.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper proposes a definition for the complex polysemic concepts of consciousness and awareness (in humans as well as in other species), and puts forward the idea of a progressive ontological development of consciousness from a state of ‘childhood’ awareness, in order to explain that humans are not only able to manipulate objects, but also their mental representations. The paper builds on the idea of qualia intended as entities posing regular invariant requests to neural processes, ...

  7. Poetic representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a Danish research project with young people in vulnerable positions. Young people are involved throughout the research process, including the interpretation of material produced through interviews, and discussions on how reflections and conclusions from the research should be written up and disseminated. The article takes a methodological focus, considering general aims and methods of the research project, before turning to the elaboration on how poetic representations h...

  8. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    The conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' (1-5 June 2009, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) that myself and two former presidents of the American Biophysical Society—Wilma Olson (Rutgers University) and Adrian Parsegian (NIH), with the support of an ICTP team (Ralf Gebauer (Local Organizer) and Doreen Sauleek (Conference Secretary)), have organized was intended to establish stronger links between the biology and physics communities on the DNA front. The relationships between them were never easy. In 1997, Adrian published a paper in Physics Today ('Harness the Hubris') summarizing his thoughts about the main obstacles for a successful collaboration. The bottom line of that article was that physicists must seriously learn biology before exploring it and even having an interpreter, a friend or co-worker, who will be cooperating with you and translating the problems of biology into a physical language, may not be enough. He started his story with a joke about a physicist asking a biologist: 'I want to study the brain. Tell me something about it!' Biologist: 'First, the brain consists of two parts, and..' Physicist: 'Stop. You have told me too much.' Adrian listed a few direct avenues where physicists' contributions may be particularly welcome. This gentle and elegantly written paper caused, however, a stormy reaction from Bob Austin (Princeton), published together with Adrian's notes, accusing Adrian of forbidding physicists to attack big questions in biology straightaway. Twelve years have passed and many new developments have taken place in the biologist-physicist interaction. This was something I addressed in my opening conference speech, with my position lying somewhere inbetween Parsegian's and Austin's, which is briefly outlined here. I will first recall certain precepts or 'dogmas' that fly in the air like Valkyries, poisoning those relationships. Since the early seventies when I was a first year PhD student at the Frumkin Institute in Moscow attending hot theoretical seminars chaired by Benjamin Levich (1917-1986, a pupil of Landau and the founding father of physical-chemical hydrodynamics), I particularly remember one of his many jokes he used to spice up his seminar. When some overly enthusiastic speaker was telling us with 100% confidence how the electron transfers between atomic moieties in a solvent near an electrode, and what the molecules exactly do to promote the transfer, he used to ask the speaker: 'How do you know it? Have you been there?' Today this is no longer a question or even a joke. We have plenty of experimental tools to 'get there'. The list of such techniques is too long to cover fully, I may just refer to FIONA (fluorescence imaging with nanometer accuracy) which allows us to trace the motion of myosin on actin or kinesin on microtubules and similar aspects of protein motility in vivo and in vitro (fluorescence methods were at the center of the Biological and Molecular Machine Program at Kavli ITP, Santa Barbara, where the founders of those techniques taught us what we can learn using them) or visualizing the positions of adsorbed counterions on DNA by synchrotron radiation. Therefore, the following dogmas can be given: Dogma 1: 'Seeing is believing'. Once, I asked an Assistant Professor from one of the top US universities, who was preaching such methods, had he tried to plot his data in some coordinates, where I would have expected his data to lie on a straight line. The answer was, 'Come on, what you speak about is 20th century science; it's no longer interesting!' I am afraid he was not unique in his generation, voting for what I would call 'MTV-science'. This science does make you dance, but on its own is not sufficient without a deep theoretical analysis of what you actually see. Otherwise, 'what you see is what you get' and not more. Dogma 2: 'A theory must contain not more than exponential functions, logarithms and alike. Otherwise the job should be left with computers. No Bessel functions, please!' This point of view was advocat

  9. Generative Representations for Automated Design of Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homby, Gregory S.; Lipson, Hod; Pollack, Jordan B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of automated design of complex, modular robots involves an evolutionary process in which generative representations of designs are used. The term generative representations as used here signifies, loosely, representations that consist of or include algorithms, computer programs, and the like, wherein encoded designs can reuse elements of their encoding and thereby evolve toward greater complexity. Automated design of robots through synthetic evolutionary processes has already been demonstrated, but it is not clear whether genetically inspired search algorithms can yield designs that are sufficiently complex for practical engineering. The ultimate success of such algorithms as tools for automation of design depends on the scaling properties of representations of designs. A nongenerative representation (one in which each element of the encoded design is used at most once in translating to the design) scales linearly with the number of elements. Search algorithms that use nongenerative representations quickly become intractable (search times vary approximately exponentially with numbers of design elements), and thus are not amenable to scaling to complex designs. Generative representations are compact representations and were devised as means to circumvent the above-mentioned fundamental restriction on scalability. In the present method, a robot is defined by a compact programmatic form (its generative representation) and the evolutionary variation takes place on this form. The evolutionary process is an iterative one, wherein each cycle consists of the following steps: 1. Generative representations are generated in an evolutionary subprocess. 2. Each generative representation is a program that, when compiled, produces an assembly procedure. 3. In a computational simulation, a constructor executes an assembly procedure to generate a robot. 4. A physical-simulation program tests the performance of a simulated constructed robot, evaluating the performance according to a fitness criterion to yield a figure of merit that is fed back into the evolutionary subprocess of the next iteration. In comparison with prior approaches to automated evolutionary design of robots, the use of generative representations offers two advantages: First, a generative representation enables the reuse of components in regular and hierarchical ways and thereby serves a systematic means of creating more complex modules out of simpler ones. Second, the evolved generative representation may capture intrinsic properties of the design problem, so that variations in the representations move through the design space more effectively than do equivalent variations in a nongenerative representation. This method has been demonstrated by using it to design some robots that move, variously, by walking, rolling, or sliding. Some of the robots were built (see figure). Although these robots are very simple, in comparison with robots designed by humans, their structures are more regular, modular, hierarchical, and complex than are those of evolved designs of comparable functionality synthesized by use of nongenerative representations.

  10. London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

  11. Social insects inspire human design

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design.

  12. Integrated Visualization Environment for Science Mission Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work will provide NASA with an integrated visualization environment providing greater insight and a more intuitive representation of large technical...

  13. Representational Inquiry Competences in Science Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    This chapter concerns the enactment of competences in a particular science learning game Homicide, which is played in lower secondary schools. Homicide is a forensic investigation game in which pupils play police experts solving criminal cases in the space of one week. The game is designed to support work with genuine scientific inquiry and to meet the seventh- to tenth grade curriculum objectives for science and Danish education in Danish schools. This paper comprises a presentation of the results of a long-term empirical study done of four school classes who have played the game. The chapter includes studies of how students construct visual representations of the cases they investigate and how they use these representations to establish hypotheses and evidence. The term ‘Representational Inquiry Competences' is developed; it refers to the students' ability to construct, productively use, transform and criticize visual representations as an integrated part of conducting an inquiry in the science game

  14. E6 inspired composite Higgs model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzorov, R.; Thomas, A. W.

    2015-10-01

    We consider a composite Higgs model embedded into a grand unified theory (GUT) based on the E6 gauge group. The phenomenological viability of this E6inspired composite Higgs model (E6CHM ) implies that standard model (SM) elementary fermions with different baryon or lepton number should stem from 27 different representations of E6. We present a six-dimensional orbifold GUT model in which the E6 gauge symmetry is broken to the SM gauge group so that the appropriate splitting of the bulk 27-plets takes place. In this model the strongly coupled sector is localized on one of the branes and possesses an S U (6 ) global symmetry that contains the S U (3 )C×S U (2 )W×U (1 )Y subgroup. In this case the approximate gauge coupling unification can be attained if the right-handed top quark is a composite state and the elementary sector involves extra exotic matter beyond the SM which ensures anomaly cancellation. The breakdown of the approximate S U (6 ) symmetry at low energies in this model results in a set of the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone states which include a Higgs doublet and scalar color triplet. We discuss the generation of the masses of the SM fermions in the E6CHM . The presence of the TeV scale vectorlike exotic quarks and scalar color triplet may provide spectacular new physics signals that can be observed at the LHC.

  15. E6 inspired composite Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    Nevzorov, R

    2015-01-01

    We consider a composite Higgs model embedded into a Grand Unified Theory(GUT) based on the E_6 gauge group. The phenomenological viability of this E_6 inspired composite Higgs model (E6CHM) implies that standard model (SM) elementary fermions with different baryon or lepton number should stem from different 27 representations of E_6. We present a six-dimensional orbifold GUT model in which the E_6 gauge symmetry is broken to the SM gauge group so that the appropriate splitting of the bulk 27-plets takes place. In this model the strongly coupled sector is localised on one of the branes and possesses an SU(6) global symmetry that contains the SU(3)_C\\times SU(2)_W\\times U(1)_Y subgroup. In this case the approximate gauge coupling unification can be attained if the right-handed top quark is a composite state and the elementary sector involves extra exotic matter beyond the SM which ensures anomaly cancellation. The breakdown of the approximate SU(6) symmetry at low energies in this model results in a set of the ...

  16. Knowledge Representations for Planning Manipulation Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharias, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the capability map, a novel general representation of the kinematic capabilities of a robot arm, is introduced. The capability map allows to determine how well regions of the workspace are reachable for the end effector in different orientations. It is a representation that can be machine processed as well as intuitively visualized for the human. The capability map and the derived algorithms are a valuable source of information for high- and low-level planning processes. T...

  17. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement: Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, A. David (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Method and system for enhancing or extending visual representation of a selected region of a visual image, where visual representation is interfered with or distorted, by supplementing a visual signal with at least one audio signal having one or more audio signal parameters that represent one or more visual image parameters, such as vertical and/or horizontal location of the region; region brightness; dominant wavelength range of the region; change in a parameter value that characterizes the visual image, with respect to a reference parameter value; and time rate of change in a parameter value that characterizes the visual image. Region dimensions can be changed to emphasize change with time of a visual image parameter.

  18. Visual Learning in Application of Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt Shafie, Afza; Barnachea Janier, Josefina; Bt Wan Ahmad, Wan Fatimah

    Innovative use of technology can improve the way how Mathematics should be taught. It can enhance student's learning the concepts through visualization. Visualization in Mathematics refers to us of texts, pictures, graphs and animations to hold the attention of the learners in order to learn the concepts. This paper describes the use of a developed multimedia courseware as an effective tool for visual learning mathematics. The focus is on the application of integration which is a topic in Engineering Mathematics 2. The course is offered to the foundation students in the Universiti Teknologi of PETRONAS. Questionnaire has been distributed to get a feedback on the visual representation and students' attitudes towards using visual representation as a learning tool. The questionnaire consists of 3 sections: Courseware Design (Part A), courseware usability (Part B) and attitudes towards using the courseware (Part C). The results showed that students demonstrated the use of visual representation has benefited them in learning the topic.

  19. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  20. Decrypting $SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale; Fiorentin, Michele Re

    2014-01-01

    Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of $SO(10)$-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry $N^{\\rm p,i}_{B-L}$, the strong thermal (ST) condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the {\\rm ST}-$SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analy...

  1. Inspiring Student Self-Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Brackett

    2007-01-01

    While normally appreciative of the invitation to join colleagues in a discussion of pedagogy and what “works” in the classroom, I have in most instances reluctantly participated in discussion of student motivation. I dip my toe into this philosophical quagmire only if permitted license to substitute the phrase student inspiration in place of student motivation. I also find it helpful to turn the rhetorical tables, as it were, and consider self-motivation on the part of students. The concept o...

  2. Neural pathways for visual speech perception

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Lynne E.; Liebenthal, Einat

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the questions, what levels of speech can be perceived visually, and how is visual speech represented by the brain? Review of the literature leads to the conclusions that every level of psycholinguistic speech structure (i.e., phonetic features, phonemes, syllables, words, and prosody) can be perceived visually, although individuals differ in their abilities to do so; and that there are visual modality-specific representations of speech qua speech in higher-level vision bra...

  3. Augmented Segmentation and Visualization for Presentation Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Haubold, Alexander; Kender, John R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate methods of segmenting, visualizing, and indexing presentation videos by separately considering audio and visual data. The audio track is segmented by speaker, and augmented with key phrases which are extracted using an Automatic Speech Recognizer (ASR). The video track is segmented by visual dissimilarities and augmented by representative key frames. An interactive user interface combines a visual representation of audio, video, text, and key frames, and allow...

  4. Visualizing abstract objects and relations

    CERN Document Server

    Kamada, Tomihisa

    1989-01-01

    Pictorial representations are very useful for humans to understand complicated relations or structures. This is the reason that the user interface of information systems is strongly required to visualize many kinds of information in a wide variety of graphical forms. At present, however, only some very specialized visualization techniques have been developed probably because the generality in the visualization has not been appreciated correctly. This book presents a visualization framework for translating abstract objects and relations, typically represented in textual forms, into pictorial re

  5. Visual Vocabulary Learning and Its Application to 3D and Mobile Visual Search

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Liujuan

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we review related works and recent trends in visual vocabulary based web image search, object recognition, mobile visual search, and 3D object retrieval. Especial focuses would be also given for the recent trends in supervised/unsupervised vocabulary optimization, compact descriptor for visual search, as well as in multi-view based 3D object representation.

  6. A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Mukul

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems are a source of inspiration in the development of small autonomous sensor nodes. The two major types of optical vision systems found in nature are the single aperture human eye and the compound eye of insects. The latter are among the most compact and smallest vision sensors. The eye is a compound of individual lenses with their own photoreceptor arrays.  The visual system of insects allows them to fly with a limited intelligence and brain processing power. A CMOS image sensor replicating the perception of vision in insects is discussed and designed in this book for industrial (machine vision) and medical applications. The CMOS metal layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer able to sense polarization information. This polarization information is shown to be useful in applications like real time material classification and autonomous agent navigation. Further the sensor is equipped with in pixel analog and digital memories which allow variation of the dynamic range and in-pixel b...

  7. The greenhouse effect visualizer: a tool for the science classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Gordin, Douglas N.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Pea, Roy D.

    1995-01-01

    The Greenhouse Effect Visualizer (GEV) is designed to help students visualize data sets related to the earth's energy balance. This work was inspired by the benefits scientific visualization have provided to scientists in discovering patterns and presenting the results of their work to broad communities. The hope is that scientific visualization can provide equal assistance to students trying to learn science. The philosophy underlying this approach links learning with practice. Hence, studen...

  8. Visualizing guided tours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe Herbers; Fjord-Larsen, Mads; Hansen, Frank Allan; Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg

    2001-01-01

    This paper identifies several problems with navigating and visualizing guided tours in traditional hypermedia systems. We discuss solutions to these problems, including the representation of guided tours as 3D metro maps with content preview. Issues regarding navigation and disorientation are addressed and we suggest a combination of the metro map and an intuitive navigation system. Finally we present a prototype (Webvise3D) which implements our ideas.

  9. Multi-Field Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Obermaier, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Modern science utilizes advanced measurement and simulation techniques to analyze phenomena from fields such as medicine, physics, or mechanics. The data produced by application of these techniques takes the form of multi-dimensional functions or fields, which have to be processed in order to provide meaningful parts of the data to domain experts. Definition and implementation of such processing techniques with the goal to produce visual representations of portions of the data are topic of re...

  10. Multi-field visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Obermaier, H.

    2011-01-01

    Modern science utilizes advanced measurement and simulation techniques to analyze phenomena from fields such as medicine, physics, or mechanics. The data produced by application of these techniques takes the form of multi-dimensional functions or fields, which have to be processed in order to provide meaningful parts of the data to domain experts. Definition and implementation of such processing techniques with the goal to produce visual representations of portions of the data are topic of re...

  11. Contested Urbanism : Struggles About Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PlØger, John

    2010-01-01

    Iconic architecture plays a crucial role in cities' interurban competition. This is also the case with Copenhagen which has used iconic architecture as part of its boosterism to gain investment, to increase tourism and to attract the creative class. This battle over the symbolic representation of city dynamism, architectural identity and market competitiveness is expressed in discourses and visual signs in space—be it cyberspace, on location, in newspapers or debates. The articulation of representations and meaning can produce conflicts which show the voids, ruptures, and rational generatives at play. This article will exemplify how actors' use of a specific spatial dispositif of visibility and legibility may be intertwined with particular discourses on community, architectural heritage and identity of place. Two cases are chosen, the first concerns resistance towards high-rise buildings and the second concerns a current debate about the development of a 'metropol-zone'. Both cases concern Copenhagen. The signifying dispositifs (content, argument, rationality) in each case will be identified and the paper will emphasise how certain dispositifs of the visible and the arguable become strategically intertwined through symbolic, visual and virtual representations of the wrongs of current urban planning

  12. Visual Perception of Force: Comment on White (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2012-01-01

    White (2012) proposed that kinematic features in a visual percept are matched to stored representations containing information regarding forces (based on prior haptic experience) and that information in the matched, stored representations regarding forces is then incorporated into visual perception. Although some elements of White's (2012) account…

  13. Why the verbal may be experienced as visual.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedrová, Stanislava; Jedli?ková, Alice

    Newcastle upon Tyne : Cambridge Scholars publishing, 2010 - (Dadejík, O.; Stejskal, J.), s. 76-88 ISBN 978-1-4438-2428-6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90560517 Keywords : verbal representation * visual representation * visuality * multisensoriality * description * experientiality * intermediality * intertextuality * mental imagery Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  14. Orienting Attention to Sound Object Representations Attenuates Change Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Kristina C.; Alain, Claude

    2012-01-01

    According to the object-based account of attention, multiple objects coexist in short-term memory (STM), and we can selectively attend to a particular object of interest. Although there is evidence that attention can be directed to visual object representations, the assumption that attention can be oriented to sound object representations has yet…

  15. Think Spatial: The Representation in Mental Rotation Is Nonvisual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesefeld, Heinrich R.; Zimmer, Hubert D.

    2013-01-01

    For mental rotation, introspection, theories, and interpretations of experimental results imply a certain type of mental representation, namely, visual mental images. Characteristics of the rotated representation can be examined by measuring the influence of stimulus characteristics on rotational speed. If the amount of a given type of information…

  16. Saliency Detection Using Sparse and Nonlinear Feature Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad Anwar; Qingjie Zhao; Muhammad Farhan Manzoor; Saqib Ishaq Khan

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of visual saliency detection is how features that form an input image are represented. A popular theory supports sparse feature representation, an image being represented with a basis dictionary having sparse weighting coefficient. Another method uses a nonlinear combination of image features for representation. In our work, we combine the two methods and propose a scheme that takes advantage of both sparse and nonlinear feature representation. To this end, we use independ...

  17. A Deep Representation for Invariance And Music Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chiyuan; Evangelopoulos, Georgios; Voinea, Stephen; Rosasco, Lorenzo; Poggio, Tomaso

    2014-01-01

    Representations in the auditory cortex might be based on mechanisms similar to the visual ventral stream; modules for building invariance to transformations and multiple layers for compositionality and selectivity. In this paper we propose the use of such computational modules for extracting invariant and discriminative audio representations. Building on a theory of invariance in hierarchical architectures, we propose a novel, mid-level representation for acoustical signals,...

  18. Towards a Unifying Visualization Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Martin; Polowinski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Although many terminologies, taxonomies and also first ontologies for visualization have been suggested, there is still no unified and formal knowledge representation including the various fields of this interdisciplinary domain. We moved a step towards such an ontology by systematically reviewing existing models and classifications, identifying important fields and discussing inconsistently used terms. Finally, we specified an initial visualization ontology which can be used for both classif...

  19. Neural Schematics as a unified formal graphical representation of large-scale Neural Network Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Ehrlich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major outcomes of neuroscientific research are models of Neural Network Structures. Descriptions of these models usually consist of a non-standardized mixture of text, figures, and other means of visual information communication in print media. However, as neuroscience is an interdisciplinary domain by nature, a standardized way of consistently representing models of Neural Network Structures is required. While generic descriptions of such models in textual form have recently been developed, a formalized way of schematically expressing them does not exist to date. Hence, in this paper we present Neural Schematics as a concept inspired by similar approaches from other disciplines for a generic two dimensional representation of said structures. After introducing Neural Network Structures in general, a set of current visualizations of models of Neural Network Structures is reviewed and analyzed for what information they convey and how their elements are rendered. This analysis then allows for the definition of general items and symbols to consistently represent these models as Neural Schematics on a two dimensional plane. We will illustrate the possibilities an agreed upon standard can yield on sampled diagrams transformed into Neural Schematics and an example application for the design and modeling of large-scale Neural Network Structures.

  20. VACS : Visual Analytics Suite for Cyber Security - Visual Exploration of Cyber Security Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Fabian; Keim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Visual exploration of cyber security datasets is an important andhighly relevant field of research. To address the cyber securitychallenge of the VAST Challenge 2013, we utilized our novel VisualAnalytics Suite for Cyber Security (VACS) to visually explorethe given datasets using a combination of different visual representations.VACS primarily provides a dashboard view, host-basedthumbnail overview and a querying interface to retrieve and drilldown to investigate suspicious hosts.

  1. Modulation of Visual Responses in the Superior Temporal Sulcus by Audio-Visual Congruency

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual ...

  2. Cognitive and artificial representations in handwriting recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaghan, Andrew P.; Malyan, Ron

    1996-03-01

    Both cognitive processes and artificial recognition systems may be characterized by the forms of representation they build and manipulate. This paper looks at how handwriting is represented in current recognition systems and the psychological evidence for its representation in the cognitive processes responsible for reading. Empirical psychological work on feature extraction in early visual processing is surveyed to show that a sound psychological basis for feature extraction exists and to describe the features this approach leads to. The first stage of the development of an architecture for a handwriting recognition system which has been strongly influenced by the psychological evidence for the cognitive processes and representations used in early visual processing, is reported. This architecture builds a number of parallel low level feature maps from raw data. These feature maps are thresholded and a region labeling algorithm is used to generate sets of features. Fuzzy logic is used to quantify the uncertainty in the presence of individual features.

  3. Guard Cell and Tropomyosin Inspired Chemical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn K.S. Nagel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensors are an integral part of many engineered products and systems. Biological inspiration has the potential to improve current sensor designs as well as inspire innovative ones. This paper presents the design of an innovative, biologically-inspired chemical sensor that performs “up-front” processing through mechanical means. Inspiration from the physiology (function of the guard cell coupled with the morphology (form and physiology of tropomyosin resulted in two concept variants for the chemical sensor. Applications of the sensor design include environmental monitoring of harmful gases, and a non-invasive approach to detect illnesses including diabetes, liver disease, and cancer on the breath.

  4. Kernel polynomial representation of imaginary-time Green's functions

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the recent proposed Legendre orthogonal polynomial representation of imaginary-time Green's functions, we develop an alternate representation for the Green's functions of quantum impurity models and combine it with the hybridization expansion continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo impurity solver. This representation is based on the kernel polynomial method, which introduces various integral kernels to filter fluctuations caused by the explicit truncations of polynomial expansion series and improve the computational precision significantly. As an illustration of the new representation, we reexamine the imaginary-time Green's functions of single-band Hubbard model in the framework of dynamical mean-field theory. The calculated results suggest that with carefully chosen integral kernels the Gibbs oscillations found in previous orthogonal polynomial representation have been suppressed vastly and remarkable corrections to the measured Green's functions have been obtained.

  5. Visualizing and Understanding Neural Models in NLP

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiwei; CHEN, XINLEI; Hovy, Eduard; Jurafsky, Dan

    2015-01-01

    While neural networks have been successfully applied to many NLP tasks the resulting vector-based models are very difficult to interpret. For example it's not clear how they achieve {\\em compositionality}, building sentence meaning from the meanings of words and phrases. In this paper we describe four strategies for visualizing compositionality in neural models for NLP, inspired by similar work in computer vision. We first plot unit values to visualize compositionality of ne...

  6. Deep learning of orthographic representations in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Thomas; Ziegler, Johannes C; Dufau, Stéphane; Fagot, Joël; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels) of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process. PMID:24416300

  7. Visual Mementos: Reflecting Memories with Personal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thudt, Alice; Baur, Dominikus; Huron, Samuel; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the creation of visual mementos as a new application area for visualization. We define visual mementos as visualizations of personally relevant data for the purpose of reminiscing, and sharing of life experiences. Today more people collect digital information about their life than ever before. The shift from physical to digital archives poses new challenges and opportunities for self-reflection and self-representation. Drawing on research on autobiographical memory and on the role of artifacts in reminiscing, we identified design challenges for visual mementos: mapping data to evoke familiarity, expressing subjectivity, and obscuring sensitive details for sharing. Visual mementos can make use of the known strengths of visualization in revealing patterns to show the familiar instead of the unexpected, and extend representational mappings beyond the objective to include the more subjective. To understand whether people's subjective views on their past can be reflected in a visual representation, we developed, deployed and studied a technology probe that exemplifies our concept of visual mementos. Our results show how reminiscing has been supported and reveal promising new directions for self-reflection and sharing through visual mementos of personal experiences. PMID:26529711

  8. Collide@CERN: sharing inspiration

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Late last year, Julius von Bismarck was appointed to be CERN's first "artist in residence" after winning the Collide@CERN Digital Arts award. He’ll be spending two months at CERN starting this March but, to get a flavour of what’s in store, he visited the Organization last week for a crash course in its inspiring activities.   Julius von Bismarck, taking a closer look... When we arrive to interview German artist Julius von Bismarck, he’s being given a presentation about antiprotons’ ability to kill cancer cells. The whiteboard in the room contains graphs and equations that might easily send a non-scientist running, yet as Julius puts it, “if I weren’t interested, I’d be asleep”. Given his numerous questions, he must have been fascinated. “This ‘introduction’ week has been exhilarating,” says Julius. “I’ve been able to interact ...

  9. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  10. Decrypting SO(10-inspired leptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Di Bari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of SO(10-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that it is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry NB?Lp,i, the strong thermal (ST condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the ST-SO(10-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analytical lower bound on the effective neutrino-less double beta decay neutrino mass, mee?8 meV, for NB?Lp,i=10?3, testable with next generation experiments. This, in combination with an upper bound on the atmospheric mixing angle, necessarily in the first octant, forces the lightest neutrino mass within a narrow range m1?(10–30 meV (corresponding to ?imi?(75–125 meV. We also show why the solution could correctly predict a non-vanishing reactor neutrino mixing angle and requires the Dirac phase to be in the fourth quadrant, implying sin?? (and JCP negative as hinted by current global analyses. Many of the analytical results presented (expressions for the orthogonal matrix, RH neutrino mixing matrix, masses and phases can have applications beyond leptogenesis.

  11. Applied research in auditory data representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frysinger, Steve P.

    1990-08-01

    A class of data displays, characterized generally as Auditory Data Representation, is described and motivated. This type of data representation takes advantage of the tremendous pattern recognition capability of the human auditory channel. Audible displays offer an alternative means of conveying quantitative data to the analyst to facilitate information extraction, and are successfully used alone and in conjunction with visual displays. The Auditory Data Representation literature is reviewed, along with elements of the allied fields of investigation, Psychoacoustics and Musical Perception. A methodology for applied research in this field, based upon the well-developed discipline of psychophysics, is elaborated using a recent experiment as a case study. This method permits objective estimation of a data representation technique by comparing it to alternative displays for the pattern recognition task at hand. The psychophysical threshold of signal to noise level, for constant pattern recognition performance, is the measure of display effectiveness.

  12. A Visual Information Retrieval Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…

  13. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  14. Bio-inspired silicon-based materials

    CERN Document Server

    Zelisko, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The contributed volume addresses a wide range of topics including, but not limited to, biotechnology, synthetic chemistry, polymer chemistry and materials chemistry. The book will serve as a specialized review of the field of biologically inspired silicon-based structures. Researchers studying biologically inspired silicon materials chemistry will find this volume invaluable.

  15. Capturing lived experiences in movement educational contexts through videographic participation and visual narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DegerbØl, Stine Mikés; Svendler Nielsen, Charlotte

    This paper explores and reflects upon possibilities and challenges of using “videographic participation” (Svendler Nielsen 2009a) as a research method combining filmic ethnography (Møhl 2003) and phenomenology (van Manen 1990; Todres 2007) in movement educational contexts. The research method helps visualizing and communicating the meaning-making of the participants and emphasizes the role of the researcher’s embodied involvement when ‘looking for lived experiences’. The paper exemplifies the use of videographic participation and presents (audio)visual narratives from two educational contexts: children in a primary school participating in a collaboration with a professional dance company and youngsters ages 18-26 doing contemporary circus training. Both studies use film as a knowledge creating practice (Møhl 2003) in combination with a hermeneutic-phenomenological analysis (van Manen 1990) to cast light on ways of understanding embodied learning. The use of videographic participation in the two contexts of educational practice are explored, compared and discussed. On an overall methodological level it is discussed how it is possible to capture lived experiences in fields of movement education by use of videographic participation and what the challenges of ‘looking for lived experiences’ in movement can be. Inspired by Performative Social Science (Jones et al. 2008; Gergen and Jones 2008) the paper exemplifies and discusses (re)presentation of research data in artistic forms by highlighting the question of how meaning-making of the participants can be captured and disseminated through (audio)visual narratives.

  16. AER synthetic generation in hardware for bio-inspired spiking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Civit-Balcells, Anton

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) to read AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualize it on screen, and (b) convert conventional frame-based video stream in the computer into AER and inject it at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for test and debugging of complex AER systems. This paper addresses the problem of converting, in a computer, a conventional frame-based video stream into the spike event based representation AER. There exist several proposed software methods for synthetic generation of AER for bio-inspired systems. This paper presents a hardware implementation for one method, which is based on Linear-Feedback-Shift-Register (LFSR) pseudo-random number generation. The sequence of events generated by this hardware, which follows a Poisson distribution like a biological neuron, has been reconstructed using two AER integrator cells. The error of reconstruction for a set of images that produces different traffic loads of event in the AER bus is used as evaluation criteria. A VHDL description of the method, that includes the Xilinx PCI Core, has been implemented and tested using a general purpose PCI-AER board. This PCI-AER board has been developed by authors, and uses a Spartan II 200 FPGA. This system for AER Synthetic Generation is capable of transforming frames of 64x64 pixels, received through a standard computer PCI bus, at a frame rate of 25 frames per second, producing spike events at a peak rate of 107 events per second.

  17. Program visualization: bringing visual analysis to code development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbacher, Robert F.; Grinstein, Georges G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper focuses on the visualization of application code. The goal is to provide a visual representation of the code that relieves the user from having to rely solely on textual representations. The visual representation of code can be correlated with visual displays of the data and displayed simultaneously within a single display. This prevents the user from having to change perceptual contexts or focus to a separate window. The visualization techniques are themselves based on the familiar metaphor of picture frames. Since we wish to provide the application data within the same display, representing operations and instructions as a frame around the application data provides a merged display with the data and operations correlated in an unobtrusive manner. The borders also work well by matching with the human perceptual systems ability to differentiate and characterize edges. The borders can be as simple as rectangles with the characteristics of the rectangle (i.e., thickness, color, consistency, etc.) identifying the type of operation. Portions of the frame can be made representative of the underlying data (i.e., current and termination conditions).

  18. New Inspirations in Nature: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Maganlal Sureja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, the studies on algorithms inspired by nature have shown that these methods can be efficiently used to eliminate most of the difficulties of classical methods. Nature inspired algorithms are widely used to solve optimization problems with complex nature. Various research works are carried out and algorithms are presented based on that during last few decades. Recently, some new algorithms inspired from nature are proposed to further improve the solutions obtained by the algorithms presented before. In this paper, a survey of five recently introduced Nature inspired algorithms is carried out. They include Firefly algorithm (FA, Cuckoo Search (CS, and Bat Inspired Algorithm (BA. Each of these algorithms are introduced and applied on various numerical optimization functions by various authors. We have tried to review and study the papers published by the authors and present a conclusion of this survey based on the results obtained.

  19. Visual Programming of Subsumption - Based Reactive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip T. Cox

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available General purpose visual programming languages (VPLs promote the construction of programs that are more comprehensible, robust, and maintainable by enabling programmers to directly observe and manipulate algorithms and data. However, they usually do not exploit the visual representation of entities in the problem domain, even if those entities and their interactions have obvious visual representations, as is the case in the robot control domain. We present a formal control model for autonomous robots, based on subsumption, and use it as the basis for a VPL in which reactive behaviour is programmed via interactions with a simulation.

  20. Finding the best visualization of an ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabritius, Christina; Madsen, Nadia; Clausen, Jens; Larsen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    An ontology is a classification model for a given domain.In information retrieval ontologies are used to perform broad searches.An ontology can be visualized as nodes and edges. Each node represents an element and each edge a relation between a parent and a child element. Working with an ontology becomes easier with a visual representation. An idea is to use the expressive power that a 3D representation to provide visualization for the user. In this paper we propose a new method for positioning ...

  1. Perception-inspired tone mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Krawczyk, Grzegorz Marek

    2007-01-01

    The display of high dynamic range images and video requires a tonemapping algorithm to depict their original appearance on existing display devices whose capabilities in terms of dynamic range are insufficient. The insightful application of knowledge about human visual system can assure high fidelity of depiction in such an algorithm. In this thesis, we design new tone mapping models and improve existing algorithms by an informed use of human perception to provide a high fidelity depiction of...

  2. NodeTrix: Hybrid Representation for Analyzing Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, Nathalie; Mcguffin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The need to visualize large social networks is growing as hardware capabilities make analyzing large networks feasible and many new data sets become available. Unfortunately, the visualizations in existing systems do not satisfactorily answer the basic dilemma of being readable both for the global structure of the network and also for detailed analysis of local communities. To address this problem, we present NodeTrix, a hybrid representation for networks that combines the advantages of two traditional representations: node-link diagrams are used to show the global structure of a network, while arbitrary portions of the network can be shown as adjacency matrices to better support the analysis of communities. A key contribution is a set of interaction techniques. These allow analysts to create a NodeTrix visualization by dragging selections from either a node-link or a matrix, flexibly manipulate the NodeTrix representation to explore the dataset, and create meaningful summary visualizations of their findings....

  3. Bio-inspired method and system for actionable intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Deepak; Chelian, Suhas E.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a bio-inspired VISion based actionable INTelligence system (VISINT) that provides automated capabilities to (1) understand objects, patterns, events and behaviors in vision data; (2) translate this understanding into timely recognition of novel and anomalous entities; and (3) discover underlying hierarchies and relationships between disparate labels entered by multiple users to provide a consistent data representation. VISINT is both a system and a novel collection of novel bio-inspired algorithms/modules. These modules can be used independently for various aspects of the actionable intelligence problem or sequenced together for an end-to-end actionable intelligence system. The algorithms can be useful in many other applications such as scene understanding, behavioral analysis, automatic surveillance systems, etc. The bio-inspired algorithms are a novel combination of hierarchical spatial and temporal networks based on the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART). The novel aspects of this work are that it is an end-to-end system for actionable intelligence that combines existing and novel implementations of various modules in innovative ways to develop a system concept for actionable intelligence. Although there are other algorithms/implementations of several of the modules in VISINT, they suffer from various limitations and often system integration is not considered. The overall VISINT system can be viewed an incremental learning system where no offline training is required and data from multiple sources and times can be seamlessly integrated. The user is in the loop, but due to the semi-supervised nature of the underlying algorithms, only significant variations of entities, not all false alarms, are shown to the user. It does not forget the past even with new learning. While VISINT is designed as a vision-based system, it could also work with other kinds of sensor data that can recognize and locate individual objects in the scene. Beyond that stage of object recognition and localization, all aspects of VISINT are applicable to other kinds of sensor data.

  4. The Trade-offs with Space Time Cube Representation of Spatiotemporal Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensson, Per Ola; Dahlback, Nils; Anundi, Daniel; Bjornstad, Marius; Gillberg, Hanna; Haraldsson, Jonas; Martensson, Ingrid; Nordvall, Matttias; Stahl, Josefin

    2007-01-01

    Space time cube representation is an information visualization technique where spatiotemporal data points are mapped into a cube. Fast and correct analysis of such information is important in for instance geospatial and social visualization applications. Information visualization researchers have previously argued that space time cube representation is beneficial in revealing complex spatiotemporal patterns in a dataset to users. The argument is based on the fact that both t...

  5. Adapting models of visual aesthetics for personalized content creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liapis, Antonios; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a search-based approach to personalized content generation with respect to visual aesthetics. The approach is based on a two-step adaptation procedure where (1) the evaluation function that characterizes the content is adjusted to match the visual aesthetics of users and (2) the content itself is optimized based on the personalized evaluation function. To test the efficacy of the approach we design fitness functions based on universal properties of visual perception, inspir...

  6. Automatic landing on aircraft carrier by visual servoing

    OpenAIRE

    Coutard, L.; Chaumette, F; Pflimlin, J.-M.

    2011-01-01

    The landing on carrier is a very difficult task even for trained pilots. This paper presents a method to land automatically using aircraft sensors and three visual features inspired by visual cues used by pilots. These features whose link with the aircraft state is established, are introduced in a control scheme using a linearized aircraft model. The control law demonstrates a large convergence domain using simulated visual features and a 3D tracker applied on synthetic images.

  7. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen FrØlund; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects related to amino acid enrichment and depletion. Besides allowing input in the format of peptides and MSA, Seq2Logo accepts input as Blast sequence profiles, providing easy access for non-expert end-users to characterize and identify functionally conserved/variable amino acids in any given protein of interest. The output from the server is a sequence logo and a PSSM. Seq2Logo is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/biotools/Seq2Logo (14 May 2012, date last accessed).

  8. Fracture Mechanics: Inspirations from Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taylor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nature there are many examples of materials performing structural functions. Nature requires materials which are stiff and strong to provide support against various forces, including self-weight, the dynamic forces involved in movement, and external loads such as wind or the actions of a predator. These materials and structures have evolved over millions of years; the science of Biomimetics seeks to understand Nature and, as a result, to find inspiration for the creation of better engineering solutions. There has been relatively little fundamental research work in this area from a fracture mechanics point of view. Natural materials are quite brittle and, as a result, they have evolved several interesting strategies for preventing failure by crack propagation. Fatigue is also a major problem for many animals and plants. In this paper, several examples will be given of recent work in the Bioengineering Research Centre at Trinity College Dublin, investigating fracture and fatigue in such diverse materials as bamboo, the legs and wings of insects, and living cells.

  9. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded. PMID:24684339

  10. Inspired at a book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    During the Frankfurt book fair last October, the CERN stand drew quite the crowd. Director-General Rolf Heuer was there to promote CERN’s mission and the "LHC: the Large Hadron Collider" book. He met a lot of visitors and for one of them there was also a nice follow-up…   Marcus and his father visiting the LINAC facility. Fifteen year-old Marcus lives in Lauterecken near Frankfurt. The popular book fair last autumn was for him a nice opportunity to get in touch with the CERN environment. Inspired by the stand and what the CERN people were describing, he started to ask more and more questions… So many, that Rolf Heuer decided to invite him to come to CERN and find out some of the answers for himself. A few weeks later, while recovering from an exciting visit to the ATLAS underground cavern and other CERN installations with a cup of tea in Restaurant 1, Marcus shared his enthusiasm about the Organization: “When I was younger, my moth...

  11. Future scenarios to inspire innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Smedt, Peter; Borch, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, accelerated by the economic and financial crisis, complex global issues have moved to the forefront of policy-making. These grand challenges require policy-makers to address a variety of interrelated issues, which are built upon yet uncoordinated and dispersed bodies of knowledge. Due to the social dynamics of innovation, new socio-technical subsystems are emerging, however there is lack of exploitation of novel ideas and sustainable solutions to address these grand challenges. In this paper we argue that issues of how knowledge is represented can have a part in this lack of exploitation. For example, when drivers of change are not only multiple but also mutable, it is not sensible to extrapolate the future from data and relationships of the past. This paper investigates ways in which futures thinking can be used as a tool for inspiring actions and structures that address the grand challenges. By analyzing several scenario cases, elements of good practices and principles on how to strengthen innovation systems through future scenarios are identified. This is needed because innovation itself needs to be oriented along more sustainable pathways enabling transformations of socio-technical systems. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biologically-inspired soft exosuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbeck, Alan T; Dyer, Robert J; Larusson, Arnar F; Walsh, Conor J

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of a novel soft cable-driven exosuit that can apply forces to the body to assist walking. Unlike traditional exoskeletons which contain rigid framing elements, the soft exosuit is worn like clothing, yet can generate moments at the ankle and hip with magnitudes of 18% and 30% of those naturally generated by the body during walking, respectively. Our design uses geared motors to pull on Bowden cables connected to the suit near the ankle. The suit has the advantages over a traditional exoskeleton in that the wearer's joints are unconstrained by external rigid structures, and the worn part of the suit is extremely light, which minimizes the suit's unintentional interference with the body's natural biomechanics. However, a soft suit presents challenges related to actuation force transfer and control, since the body is compliant and cannot support large pressures comfortably. We discuss the design of the suit and actuation system, including principles by which soft suits can transfer force to the body effectively and the biological inspiration for the design. For a soft exosuit, an important design parameter is the combined effective stiffness of the suit and its interface to the wearer. We characterize the exosuit's effective stiffness, and present preliminary results from it generating assistive torques to a subject during walking. We envision such an exosuit having broad applicability for assisting healthy individuals as well as those with muscle weakness. PMID:24187272

  13. Dynamic visual noise reduces confidence in short-term memory for visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Andrade, Jackie

    2012-05-01

    Previous research has shown effects of the visual interference technique, dynamic visual noise (DVN), on visual imagery, but not on visual short-term memory, unless retention of precise visual detail is required. This study tested the prediction that DVN does also affect retention of gross visual information, specifically by reducing confidence. Participants performed a matrix pattern memory task with three retention interval interference conditions (DVN, static visual noise and no interference control) that varied from trial to trial. At recall, participants indicated whether or not they were sure of their responses. As in previous research, DVN did not impair recall accuracy or latency on the task, but it did reduce recall confidence relative to static visual noise and no interference. We conclude that DVN does distort visual representations in short-term memory, but standard coarse-grained recall measures are insensitive to these distortions. PMID:22120748

  14. Bio-inspired computation in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Ting, TO

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

  15. Fusion of twisted representations

    OpenAIRE

    Gaberdiel, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    The comultiplication formula for fusion products of untwisted representations of the chiral algebra is generalised to include arbitrary twisted representations. We show that the formulae define a tensor product with suitable properties, and determine the analogue of Zhu's algebra for arbitrary twisted representations. As an example we study the fusion of representations of the Ramond sector of the N=1 and N=2 superconformal algebra. In the latter case, certain subtleties ...

  16. Visualizing structures of speech expressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Speech is both beautiful and informative. In this work, a conceptual study of the speech, through investigation of the tower of Babel, the archetypal phonemes, and a study of the reasons of uses of language is undertaken in order to create an artistic work investigating the nature of speech. The Babel myth speaks about distance created when aspiring to the heaven as the reason for language division. Meanwhile, Locquin states through thorough investigations that only a few phonemes are present throughout history. Our interpretation is that a system able to recognize archetypal phonemes through vowels and consonants, and which converts the speech energy into visual particles that form complex visual structures, provides us with a mean to present the expressiveness of speech into a visual mode. This system is presented in an artwork whose scenario is inspired from the reasons of language. The artwork is presented at the Re:New festival in May 2008.

  17. Biologically Inspired Hierarchical Model for Feature Extraction and Localization

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, L

    2006-01-01

    Feature extraction and matching are among central problems of computer vision. It is inefficent to search features over all locations and scales. Neurophysiological evidence shows that to locate objects in a digital image the human visual system employs visual attention to a specific object while ignoring others. The brain also has a mechanism to search from coarse to fine. In this paper, we present a feature extractor and an associated hierarchical searching model to simulate such processes. With the hierarchical representation of the object, coarse scanning is done through the matching of the larger scale and precise localization is conducted through the matching of the smaller scale. Experimental results justify the proposed model in its effectiveness and efficiency to localize features.

  18. Arbitrary waveform generator biologically inspired

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A system biologically inspired that produces arbitrary analog signals is studied. • The proposed system is based in the BVAM biological model. • The system is analyzed with a discrete equivalent system defined by a Poincaré map. • The operation regimes of the system are identified changing the control parameter. • The system functionality is shown by the simulations obtained from SIMULINK™. -- Abstract: This work shows and analyzes a system that produces arbitrary waveforms, which is a simplification, based on spatial discretization, of the BVAM model proposed by Barrio et al. in 1999 [1] to model the biological pattern formation. Since the analytical treatment of non-linear terms of this system is often prohibitive, its dynamic has been analyzed using a discrete equivalent system defined by a Poincaré map. In this analysis, the bifurcation diagrams and the Lyapunov exponent are the tools used to identify the different operating regimes of the system and to provide evidence of the periodicity and randomness of the generated waveforms. Also, it is shown that the analyzed system presents the period doubling phenomenon, the values of its bifurcation points are related by the Feigenbaum constant and they converge to the onset of chaos. It is shown that, the analyzed system can be electronically implemented using operational amplifiers to produce arbitrary waveforms when varying a single control parameter. The functionality and behavior of the ideal electronic implementation of the analyzed system is shown by the simulations obtained from the MatLab–Simulink™ toolbox. Finally, some problems related to a real electronic implementation are discussed. This paper gives a brief overview of how ideas from biology can be used to design new systems that produce arbitrary waveforms

  19. Inspirational Catalogue of Master Thesis Proposals 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project.

  20. Biologically Inspired Technology Using Electroactive Polymers (EAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    Evolution allowed nature to introduce highly effective biological mechanisms that are incredible inspiration for innovation. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature's inventions and we are increasingly making advances that it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. This brought us to the ability to create technology that is far beyond the simple mimicking of nature. Having better tools to understand and to implement nature's principles we are now equipped like never before to be inspired by nature and to employ our tools in far superior ways. Effectively, by bio-inspiration we can have a better view and value of nature capability while studying its models to learn what can be extracted, copied or adapted. Using electroactive polymers (EAP) as artificial muscles is adding an important element to the development of biologically inspired technologies.

  1. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  2. Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

  3. Robust Models for Optic Flow Coding in Natural Scenes Inspired by Insect Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkworth, Russell S. A.; O'Carroll, David C

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of accurate self-motion information from the visual world is a difficult problem that has been solved very efficiently by biological organisms utilizing non-linear processing. Previous bio-inspired models for motion detection based on a correlation mechanism have been dogged by issues that arise from their sensitivity to undesired properties of the image, such as contrast, which vary widely between images. Here we present a model with multiple levels of non-linear dynamic adapt...

  4. Real-Time Illumination Invariant Face Detection Using Biologically Inspired Feature Set and BP Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Azad

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, face detection has been thoroughly studied due to its wide potential applications, including face recognition, human-computer interaction, video surveillance, etc.In this paper, a new and illumination invariant face detection method, based on features inspired by the human's visual cortexand applying BP neural network on the extracted featureset is proposed.A feature set is extracted from face and non-face images, by means of a feed-forward model, which contains a view and il...

  5. A bio-inspired image coder with temporal scalability

    CERN Document Server

    Masmoudi, Khaled; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel bio-inspired and dynamic coding scheme for static images. Our coder aims at reproducing the main steps of the visual stimulus processing in the mammalians retina taking into account its time behavior. The main novelty of this work is to show how to exploit the time behavior of the retina cells to ensure, in a simple way, scalability and bit allocation. To do so, our main source of inspiration will be the biologically plausible retina model called Virtual Retina. Following a similar structure, our model has two stages. The first stage is an image transform which is performed by the outer layers in the retina. Here it is modelled by filtering the image with a bank of difference of Gaussians with time-delays. The second stage is a time-dependent analog-to-digital conversion which is performed by the inner layers in the retina. Thanks to its conception, our coder enables scalability and bit allocation across time. Also, compared to the JPEG standards, our decoded images do not show annoying art...

  6. Veto studies for LIGO inspiral triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIGO recently conducted its third scientific data run, S3. Here, we summarize the veto and data quality studies conducted by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration in connection with the search for binary inspiral signals in the S3 data. The veto results presented here come from studies on the S3 playground data. LIGO's interferometer channels and physical environmental monitors were monitored, and events in these channels coincident with inspiral triggers were examined

  7. Measurement of the flow past a cactus-inspired cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.; El-Makdah, Adnan M.

    2012-11-01

    Desert cacti are tall cylindrical plants characterized by longitudinal u- or v-shaped grooves that run parallel to the plant axis, covering its surface area. We study the wake flow modifications resulting from the introduction of cactus-inspired surface grooves to a circular cylinder. Particle image velocimetry PIV is implemented in a wind tunnel to visualize and quantify the wake flow from a cactus cylinder in cross wind and an equivalent circular cylinder at Re O(1E5). The cactus wake exhibits superior behavior over its circular counterpart as seen from the mean and turbulent velocity profiles. The surface flow within the grooves is also probed to elucidate the origins of the wake alterations. Lastly, we use simple statistical analysis based only on the wake velocity fields, under the assumption of periodicity of the shedding, to recover the time varying flow from the randomly acquired PIV snapshots.

  8. Musca domestica inspired machine vision sensor with hyperacuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D T; Harmann, W M; Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G

    2008-06-01

    A fiber optic sensor inspired by the compound eye of the common housefly, Musca domestica, has been developed. The sensor coupled with analog preprocessing hardware has the potential to extract edge information quickly and in parallel. The design is motivated by the parallel nature of the fly's vision system and its demonstrated hyperacuity or precision of visual localization beyond the conventional resolution limit. The fly's anatomy supporting the design is reviewed, followed by the design of a one-dimensional, cartridge-based sensor. The sensor's ability to locate a line stimulus in a two-dimensional space is demonstrated. Discussion is provided to extend this work in scale, cartridge dimension, information and array processing. PMID:18441410

  9. Data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  10. INSPIRE from the JRC Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Cetl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises some recent developments in INSPIRE implementation from the JRC (Joint Research Centre point of view. The INSPIRE process started around 11 years ago and today, clear results and benefits can be seen. Spatial data are more accessible and shared more frequently between countries and at the European level. In addition to this, efficient, unified coordination and collaboration between different stakeholders and participants has been achieved, which is another great success. The JRC, as a scientific think-tank of the European Commission, has played a very important role in this process from the very beginning. This role is in line with its mission, which is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of European Union (EU policies. The JRC acts as the overall technical coordinator of INSPIRE, but it also carries out the activities necessary to support the coherent implementation of INSPIRE, by helping member states in the implementation process. Experiences drawn from collaboration and negotiation in each country and at the European level will be of great importance in the revision of the INSPIRE Directive, which is envisaged for 2014. Keywords: spatial data infrastructure (SDI; INSPIRE; development; Joint Research Centre (JRC

  11. Visual imagery without visual perception?

    OpenAIRE

    Helder Bértolo

    2005-01-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be us...

  12. How visual is visual culture

    OpenAIRE

    Sonesson, Göran

    2007-01-01

    If we admit that, with the exception of language, human perception is predominantly visual, it is reasonable to think that all phenomena conveyed by the visual senses have something in common, but then visual semiotics/visual culture will comprehend much more than painting, sculpture, and architecture. The double coding hypotheses of cognitive psychology, as well as Lessing’s classical opposition between language and painting, tell us something about this basic opposition. But to understand v...

  13. Audio-Visual Speech Recognition Using MPEG-4 Compliant Visual Features

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksic Petar S; Williams Jay J; Wu Zhilin; Katsaggelos Aggelos K

    2002-01-01

    We describe an audio-visual automatic continuous speech recognition system, which significantly improves speech recognition performance over a wide range of acoustic noise levels, as well as under clean audio conditions. The system utilizes facial animation parameters (FAPs) supported by the MPEG-4 standard for the visual representation of speech. We also describe a robust and automatic algorithm we have developed to extract FAPs from visual data, which does not require hand labeling or exte...

  14. Audio-Visual Speech Recognition Using MPEG-4 Compliant Visual Features

    OpenAIRE

    Petar S. Aleksic; Jay J. Williams; Zhilin Wu; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.

    2002-01-01

    We describe an audio-visual automatic continuous speech recognition system, which significantly improves speech recognition performance over a wide range of acoustic noise levels, as well as under clean audio conditions. The system utilizes facial animation parameters (FAPs) supported by the MPEG-4 standard for the visual representation of speech. We also describe a robust and automatic algorithm we have developed to extract FAPs from visual data, which does not require hand labeling or exten...

  15. VisualPhysics.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    This new web site is designed to facilitate forming a community whose animations are every bit as sophisticated as the math encountered in any realm of physics, even quantum mechanics. All animations involve events embedded in spacetime. Events are treated mathematically as quaternions, with time as a scalar, and space as the 3-vector. A collection of quaternions can be sorted by time, put in the right frame for a finite animation, then with ray tracing software, drawn in space with shadows. The groups U(1), SU(2), U(1)xSU(2), and SU(3) all have new visual representations. In the talk I will present a visual explanation of the delayed-choice experiment of quantum mechanics.

  16. Hypermedia and visual technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lloyd

    1990-01-01

    Applications of a codified professional practice that uses visual representations of the thoughts and ideas of a working group are reported in order to improve productivity, problem solving, and innovation. This visual technology process was developed under the auspices of General Foods as part of a multi-year study. The study resulted in the validation of this professional service as a way to use art and design to facilitate productivity and innovation and to define new opportunities. It was also used by NASA for planning Lunar/Mars exploration and by other companies for general business and advanced strategic planning, developing new product concepts, and litigation support. General Foods has continued to use the service for packaging innovation studies.

  17. The Role of the Human Extrastriate Visual Cortex in Mirror Symmetry Discrimination: A TMS-Adaptation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Mattavelli, Giulia; Papagno, Costanza; Herbert, Andrew; Silvanto, Juha

    2011-01-01

    The human visual system is able to efficiently extract symmetry information from the visual environment. Prior neuroimaging evidence has revealed symmetry-preferring neuronal representations in the dorsolateral extrastriate visual cortex; the objective of the present study was to investigate the necessity of these representations in symmetry…

  18. Visual Imagery without Visual Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolo, Helder

    2005-01-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review…

  19. Blind Audiovisual Source Separation Using Sparse Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Llagostera Casanovas, Anna; Monaci, Gianluca; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present a method to jointly separate active audio and visual structures on a given mixture. Blind Audiovisual Source Separation is achieved exploiting the coherence between a video signal and a one-microphone audio track. The efficient representation of audio and video sequences allows to build relationships between correlated structures on both modalities. Video structures exhibiting strong correlations with the audio signal and that are spatially close are grouped usin...

  20. Dictionary learning in visual computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed fast development on dictionary learning approaches for a set of visual computing tasks, largely due to their utilization in developing new techniques based on sparse representation. Compared with conventional techniques employing manually defined dictionaries, such as Fourier Transform and Wavelet Transform, dictionary learning aims at obtaining a dictionary adaptively from the data so as to support optimal sparse representation of the data. In contrast to conventional clustering algorithms like K-means, where a data point is associated with only one cluster c

  1. Dynamic Bayesian Networks for Audio-Visual Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ara V. Nefian; Luhong Liang; Xiaobo Pi; Xiaoxing Liu; Kevin Murphy

    2002-01-01

    The use of visual features in audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR) is justified by both the speech generation mechanism, which is essentially bimodal in audio and visual representation, and by the need for features that are invariant to acoustic noise perturbation. As a result, current AVSR systems demonstrate significant accuracy improvements in environments affected by acoustic noise. In this paper, we describe the use of two statistical models for audio-visual integration, the coupled H...

  2. Rolling the Dice: Multidimensional Visual Exploration using Scatterplot Matrix Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Elmqvist, Niklas; Dragicevic, Pierre; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Scatterplots remain one of the most popular and widely-used visual representations for multidimensional data due to their simplicity, familiarity and visual clarity, even if they lack some of the flexibility and visual expressiveness of newer multidimensional visualization techniques. This paper presents new interactive methods to explore multidimensional data using scatterplots. This exploration is performed using a matrix of scatterplots that gives an overview of the possible configurations...

  3. Solar System Visualization (SSV) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jessida L.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar System Visualization (SSV) project aims at enhancing scientific and public understanding through visual representations and modeling procedures. The SSV project's objectives are to (1) create new visualization technologies, (2) organize science observations and models, and (3) visualize science results and mission Plans. The SSV project currently supports the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and Cassini. In support of the these missions, the SSV team has produced pan and zoom animations of large mosaics to reveal details of surface features and topography, created 3D animations of science instruments and procedures, formed 3-D anaglyphs from left and right stereo pairs, and animated registered multi-resolution mosaics to provide context for microscopic images.

  4. Visual imagery without visual perception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Bértolo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be used as a way of answering some of those questions, namely if it is possible to have visual imagery without visual perception. We present results from the work of our group using visual activation in dreams and its relation with EEG?s spectral components, showing that congenitally blind have visual contents in their dreams and are able to draw them; furthermore their Visual Activation Index is negatively correlated with EEG alpha power. This study supports the hypothesis that it is possible to have visual imagery without visual experience.

  5. Graph-based clustering and data visualization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Vathy-Fogarassy, Ágnes

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a data visualization technique that combines graph-based topology representation and dimensionality reduction methods to visualize the intrinsic data structure in a low-dimensional vector space. The application of graphs in clustering and visualization has several advantages. A graph of important edges (where edges characterize relations and weights represent similarities or distances) provides a compact representation of the entire complex data set. This text describes clustering and visualization methods that are able to utilize information hidden in these graphs, based on

  6. Vectors of Locally Aggregated Centers for Compact Video Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Alhabib; Deligiannis, Nikos; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel vector aggregation technique for compact video representation, with application in accurate similarity detection within large video datasets. The current state-of-the-art in visual search is formed by the vector of locally aggregated descriptors (VLAD) of Jegou et. al. VLAD generates compact video representations based on scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) vectors (extracted per frame) and local feature centers computed over a training set. With the ...

  7. Students' Responses To Different Representations Of A Vector Addition Question

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Jeffrey M.; Thompson, John R; Michael C. Wittmann; Eleanor C. Sayre; Frank, Brian W.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate if the visual representation of vectors can affect which methods students use to add them. We gave students one of four questions with different graphical representations, asking students to add the same two vectors. For students in an algebra-based class the arrangement of the vectors had a statistically significant effect on the vector addition method chosen while the addition or removal of a grid did not.

  8. Visual Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating the functions of the images and visuality in new forms of knowledge-building beyond traditional boundaries of school subjects. New learning cultures emerge and place the visual skills of decoding and meaning-makin...

  9. Visualization and Simulation in Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. ?apek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the representation of scheduling results and it introduces a new tool for visualization and simulation in time scheduling called VISIS. The purpose of this tool is to provide an environment for visualization, e.g. in production line scheduling. The simulation also proposes a way to simulate the influence of a schedule on a user defined system, e.g. for designing filters in digital signal processing. VISIS arises from representing scheduling results using the well-known Gantt chart. The application is implemented in the Matlab programming environment using Simulink and the Virtual Reality toolbox. 

  10. Highly eccentric inspirals into a black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Osburn, Thomas; Evans, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact stellar-mass object into a massive non-rotating black hole including all dissipative and conservative first-order-in-the-mass-ratio effects on the orbital motion. The techniques we develop allow inspirals with initial eccentricities as high as $e\\sim0.8$ and initial separations as large as $\\sim 100M$ to be evolved through many thousands of orbits up to the onset of the plunge into the black hole. The inspiral is computed using an osculating elements scheme driven by a hybridized self-force model, which combines Lorenz-gauge self-force results with highly accurate flux data from a Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli code. The high accuracy of our hybrid self-force model allows the orbital phase of the inspirals to be tracked to within $\\sim0.1$ radians or better. The difference between self-force models and inspirals computed in the radiative approximation is quantified.

  11. Attention expands visual space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liu; Ooi, Teng Leng; He, Zijiang

    2015-09-01

    Whereas much is known about attention's role in object perception, little is known of whether attention affects the representation of the visual space. Here, we asked if a differential allocation of attention resource to either the lower visual field (ground) or upper visual field (ceiling) affects space perception. In Experiment 1, the observer fixated on a small, dimly lit LED (1.5m at the eye level) for 3-6 sec in a dark room. To ensure proper fixation, the LED was randomly turned off for 0.1 sec 1-3 times within a 3-6 sec fixation period. The observer had to correctly report each time the LED flickered. Meantime, he/she also attended to either the upper or lower field. Upon fixation removal, a texture surface (2x4 LED array spanning 1.4x3m area) was presented in either the upper or lower field (0.15 sec), followed by an LED target (1 sec) on the texture surface. The observer judged the target location using the blind walking-gesturing task. We found that when the target and texture surface were in the lower field, judged location was more accurate if the observer had attended to the lower field (cue-valid) rather than the upper field (cue-invalid). This indicates attention leads to less space compression in the attended field. Experiment 2 employed the same procedures except the target was located at the eye-level and the texture surfaces were presented in both the upper and lower fields. We found that judged target location was more accurate when the observer attended to the lower than upper field. This indicates the visual space is more extensive when one attends to the ground. Overall, our findings reveal that attention contributes to visual space representation, which perhaps is the first step in a cascade of operations leading to our perception of the visual world. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326563

  12. Traffic Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti; Vatjus-Anttila, Jarkko; Quigley, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a space-time visualization to provide city's decision-makers the ability to analyse and uncover important "city events" in an understandable manner for city planning activities. An interactive Web mashup visualization is presented that integrates several visualization techniques to give a rapid overview of traf?c data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for traf?c visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city plan...

  13. Comparative Visualization of Climate Simulation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röber, Niklas; Meier-Fleischer, Karin; Böttinger, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Visualization is the process of transforming abstract (scientific) data into a graphical representation, to aid in the understanding of the information contained within the data. Climate data sets are typically quite large, time varying, and consist of many different variables that are sampled on an underlying grid. A variety of different climate models - and sub models - are developed to simulate the climate system and its components, such as the physics of the atmosphere and the ocean, marine biogeochemical processes and the land biosphere. Visualization software is used to assist in the process of visualization and data analysis by transforming the abstract numerical information into a graphical illustration. Different approaches exist in the design of visualization software and for the process of visualization itself, depending on the type and nature of the data as well as on the visualization goal. In addition to a large high performance compute cluster that is exclusively used for climate simulations, the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ) also hosts a dedicated visualization cluster for post-processing, data analysis and visualization. On this visualization server, a variety of software is installed to assist the user in the data visualization task. Amongst others, the software stack includes Avizo Green, CDO, NCL, Paraview and SimVis. Each tool has its own strengths and weaknesses, and is selected by the user with regard to the visualization goal. While Avizo Green is great for visualizing the data out of the box, SimVis and Paraview are better suited for an interactive and explorative data analysis. This PICO presentation uses several different visualization solutions - among them Avizo Green, NCL, Paraview and SimVis - to analyze and visualize the same climate data set. We will thereby explicitly focus on each software's strengths, and not highlight its weaknesses. This PICO interactively shows that - depending on the visualization tool used - not only are different visualizations created, but also different visualization stories can be told.

  14. Visual Analysis of Weblog Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

    2007-03-26

    In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

  15. Texture analysis and scientific visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromatis, Sebastien; Bo?, Jean-Marc

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new formalism that enables to take into account image textural features in a very robust and selective way. This approach also permits to visualize these features so experts can efficiently supervise an image segmentation process based on texture analysis. The texture concept has been studied through different approaches. One of them is based on the notion of ordered local extrema and is very promising. Unfortunately, this approach does not take in charge texture directionality; and the mathematical morphology formalism, on which it is based, does not enable extensions to this feature. This led us to design a new formalism for texture representation which is able to include directionality features. It produces a representation of texture relevant features in the form of a surface z = f(x,y). The visualization of this surface gives experts sufficient information to discriminate different textures.

  16. Neuro-inspired smart image sensor: analog Hmax implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paindavoine, Michel; Dubois, Jérôme; Musa, Purnawarman

    2015-03-01

    Neuro-Inspired Vision approach, based on models from biology, allows to reduce the computational complexity. One of these models - The Hmax model - shows that the recognition of an object in the visual cortex mobilizes V1, V2 and V4 areas. From the computational point of view, V1 corresponds to the area of the directional filters (for example Sobel filters, Gabor filters or wavelet filters). This information is then processed in the area V2 in order to obtain local maxima. This new information is then sent to an artificial neural network. This neural processing module corresponds to area V4 of the visual cortex and is intended to categorize objects present in the scene. In order to realize autonomous vision systems (consumption of a few milliwatts) with such treatments inside, we studied and realized in 0.35?m CMOS technology prototypes of two image sensors in order to achieve the V1 and V2 processing of Hmax model.

  17. Beyond Control Panels: Direct Manipulation for Visual Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endert, Alexander; Bradel, Lauren; North, Chris

    2013-07-19

    Information Visualization strives to provide visual representations through which users can think about and gain insight into information. By leveraging the visual and cognitive systems of humans, complex relationships and phenomena occurring within datasets can be uncovered by exploring information visually. Interaction metaphors for such visualizations are designed to enable users direct control over the filters, queries, and other parameters controlling how the data is visually represented. Through the evolution of information visualization, more complex mathematical and data analytic models are being used to visualize relationships and patterns in data – creating the field of Visual Analytics. However, the expectations for how users interact with these visualizations has remained largely unchanged – focused primarily on the direct manipulation of parameters of the underlying mathematical models. In this article we present an opportunity to evolve the methodology for user interaction from the direct manipulation of parameters through visual control panels, to interactions designed specifically for visual analytic systems. Instead of focusing on traditional direct manipulation of mathematical parameters, the evolution of the field can be realized through direct manipulation within the visual representation – where users can not only gain insight, but also interact. This article describes future directions and research challenges that fundamentally change the meaning of direct manipulation with regards to visual analytics, advancing the Science of Interaction.

  18. String and string-inspired phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    López, J L

    1994-01-01

    In these lectures I review the progress made over the last few years in the subject of string and string-inspired phenomenology. I take a practical approach, thereby concentrating more on explicit examples rather than on formal developments. Topics covered include: introduction to string theory the free-fermionic formulation and its general features, generic conformal field theory properties, SU(5)\\times U(1) GUT and string model-building, supersymmetry breaking, the bottom-up approach to string-inspired models, radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, the determination of the allowed parameter space of supergravity models and the experimental constraints on this class of models, and prospects for direct and indirect tests of string-inspired models. (Lectures delivered at the XXII ITEP International Winter School of Physics, Moscow, Russia, February 22 -- March 2, 1994)

  19. An Adaptive Quantum-inspired Differential Evolution Algorithm for 0-1 Knapsack Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Hota, Ashish Ranjan

    2011-01-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a population based evolutionary algorithm widely used for solving multidimensional global optimization problems over continuous spaces. However, the design of its operators makes it unsuitable for many real-life constrained combinatorial optimization problems which operate on binary space. On the other hand, the quantum inspired evolutionary algorithm (QEA) is very well suitable for handling such problems by applying several quantum computing techniques such as Q-bit representation and rotation gate operator, etc. This paper extends the concept of differential operators with adaptive parameter control to the quantum paradigm and proposes the adaptive quantum-inspired differential evolution algorithm (AQDE). The performance of AQDE is found to be significantly superior as compared to QEA and a discrete version of DE on the standard 0-1 knapsack problem for all the considered test cases.

  20. Enhanced perception in volume visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Iriberri, José

    2013-01-01

    Due to the nature of scientic data sets, the generation of convenient visualizations may be a difficult task, but crucial to correctly convey the relevant information of the data. When working with complex volume models, such as the anatomical ones, it is important to provide accurate representations, since a misinterpretation can lead to serious mistakes while diagnosing a disease or planning surgery. In these cases, enhancing the perception of the features of interest usually helps to prope...

  1. Visualization Software for Molecular Assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, Thomas D.; Ferrin, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    Software for viewing three-dimensional models and maps of viruses, ribosomes, filaments and other molecular assemblies is advancing on many fronts. New developments include molecular representations that offer better control over level of detail, lighting that improves the perception of depth, and two-dimensional projections that simplify data interpretation. Programmable graphics processors offer quality, speed and visual effects not previously possible, while 3D printers, haptic interaction...

  2. A toolbox for representational similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nili, Hamed; Wingfield, Cai; Walther, Alexander; Su, Li; Marslen-Wilson, William; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2014-04-01

    Neuronal population codes are increasingly being investigated with multivariate pattern-information analyses. A key challenge is to use measured brain-activity patterns to test computational models of brain information processing. One approach to this problem is representational similarity analysis (RSA), which characterizes a representation in a brain or computational model by the distance matrix of the response patterns elicited by a set of stimuli. The representational distance matrix encapsulates what distinctions between stimuli are emphasized and what distinctions are de-emphasized in the representation. A model is tested by comparing the representational distance matrix it predicts to that of a measured brain region. RSA also enables us to compare representations between stages of processing within a given brain or model, between brain and behavioral data, and between individuals and species. Here, we introduce a Matlab toolbox for RSA. The toolbox supports an analysis approach that is simultaneously data- and hypothesis-driven. It is designed to help integrate a wide range of computational models into the analysis of multichannel brain-activity measurements as provided by modern functional imaging and neuronal recording techniques. Tools for visualization and inference enable the user to relate sets of models to sets of brain regions and to statistically test and compare the models using nonparametric inference methods. The toolbox supports searchlight-based RSA, to continuously map a measured brain volume in search of a neuronal population code with a specific geometry. Finally, we introduce the linear-discriminant t value as a measure of representational discriminability that bridges the gap between linear decoding analyses and RSA. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the toolbox, we apply it to both simulated and real fMRI data. The key functions are equally applicable to other modalities of brain-activity measurement. The toolbox is freely available to the community under an open-source license agreement (http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/methods-and-resources/toolboxes/license/). PMID:24743308

  3. The Trade-offs with Space Time Cube Representation of Spatiotemporal Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensson, Per Ola; Anundi, Daniel; Bjornstad, Marius; Gillberg, Hanna; Haraldsson, Jonas; Martensson, Ingrid; Nordvall, Matttias; Stahl, Josefin

    2007-01-01

    Space time cube representation is an information visualization technique where spatiotemporal data points are mapped into a cube. Fast and correct analysis of such information is important in for instance geospatial and social visualization applications. Information visualization researchers have previously argued that space time cube representation is beneficial in revealing complex spatiotemporal patterns in a dataset to users. The argument is based on the fact that both time and spatial information are displayed simultaneously to users, an effect difficult to achieve in other representations. However, to our knowledge the actual usefulness of space time cube representation in conveying complex spatiotemporal patterns to users has not been empirically validated. To fill this gap we report on a between-subjects experiment comparing novice users error rates and response times when answering a set of questions using either space time cube or a baseline 2D representation. For some simple questions the error rat...

  4. Developing a Psychologically Inspired Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Control: The Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS)

    OpenAIRE

    Troy Dale Kelley

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing development of a robotic control architecture that was inspired by computational cognitive architectures from the discipline of cognitive psychology. The robotic control architecture combines symbolic and subsymbolic representations of knowledge into a unified control structure. The architecture is organized as a goal driven, serially executing, production system at the highest symbolic level; and a multiple algorithm, parallel executing, simple collection of ...

  5. Efficient image representations and features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Michael; Vig, Eleonora; Barth, Erhardt

    2013-03-01

    Interdisciplinary research in human vision and electronic imaging has greatly contributed to the current state of the art in imaging technologies. Image compression and image quality are prominent examples and the progress made in these areas relies on a better understanding of what natural images are and how they are perceived by the human visual system. A key research question has been: given the (statistical) properties of natural images, what are the most efficient and perceptually relevant image representations, what are the most prominent and descriptive features of images and videos? We give an overview of how these topics have evolved over the 25 years of HVEI conferences and how they have influenced the current state of the art. There are a number of striking parallels between human vision and electronic imaging. The retina does lateral inhibition, one of the early coders was using a Laplacian pyramid; primary visual cortical areas have orientation- and frequency-selective neurons, the current JPEG standard defines similar wavelet transforms; the brain uses a sparse code, engineers are currently excited about sparse coding and compressed sensing. Some of this has indeed happened at the HVEI conferences and we would like to distill that.

  6. The visual language of technique

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Volume 1 : The book is inspired by the first seminar in a cycle connected to the celebrations of the 150th anniversary of the Politecnico di Milano (May 2013). "Dealing with the Image. Ivory Towers and Virtual Bridges" was the motto of this meeting, aiming to stimulate a discussion among engineers, designers and architects, all of whom are traditionally involved in the use of the Image as a specialized language supporting their work, their research activities, and their educational tasks. The volume also includes essays and contributions of invited or interviewed authors from other disciplines, namely Philosophy, Mathematics and Semiotics, together with articles from the poster session and a report from the round table. According to Regis Debray, in the present "Visual Age", which he has significantly defined as a "Video-Sphere", all the information tends to be processed and controlled by means of visual devices. This occurs especially in the various branches of many technical studies and activities, one of ...

  7. A 3D texture-based octree volume visualization algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Boada, Imma; Navazo, Isabel; Scopigno, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    We present a 3D texture based Octree Volume Visualization algorithm that combines 3D texture hardware and hierarchical representation of data sets to obtain multiresolution renderings of very large data sets. The algortihm exploits advantages of both octree representation and 3D texture hardware. The basis of the algorithm is to take advantage of nearly iso-valued areas of the volume and regions of no interest to compute a more synthetical volume texture representation. A new volume-texture a...

  8. Pop Art--Inspired Self-Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donna J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art lesson that was inspired by Andy Warhol's mass-produced portraits. Warhol began his career as a graphic artist and illustrator. His artwork was a response to the redundancy of the advertising images put in front of the American public. Celebrities and famous people in magazines and newspapers were seen…

  9. Astrophysical constrains on Ungravity inspired models

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, O; Santos, P

    2009-01-01

    We use stellar dynamics arguments to constrain the relevant parameters of ungravity inspired models. We show that resulting bounds do constrain the parameters of the theory of unparticles, as far as its energy scale is higher than $\\Lambda_U > 1 TeV$ and $d_U$ is close to unity.

  10. Water Treatment Technologies Inspire Healthy Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.

  11. Inspired by Athletes, Myths, and Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Tales of love and hate, of athleticism, heroism, devotion to gods and goddesses that influenced myth and culture are a way of sharing ancient Greece's rich history. In this article, the author describes how her students created their own Greek-inspired clay vessels as artifacts of their study. (Contains 6 online resources.)

  12. Finding Inspiration in Middle School General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

    2011-01-01

    Middle school general music programs can be vibrant, exciting places, where students are inspired to learn more about music and themselves. In this article, the author discusses how to work with rather than against adolescents' age-appropriate characteristics when planning "content", "process", "assessment", and "classroom environment". Then, she…

  13. Biologically Inspired Nanomaterials: A Conference Report

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Melik; Crespi, Vincent; Reed, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the nanoscale physical properties of biomolecules and biomaterials will ultimately promote the research in the biological sciences. In this review, we focused on theory, simulation, and experiments involving nanoscale materials inspired by biological systems. Specifically, self-assembly in living and synthetic materials, bio-functionalized nanomaterials and probing techniques that use nanomaterials are discussed.

  14. Nature inspired algorithms and artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Valentina Onet; Ecaterina Vladu

    2008-01-01

    Artificial intelligence has been very muchinterested in studying the characteristics ofintelligent agent, mainly planning, learning,reasoning (making decisions) and perception.Biological processes and methods have beeninfluencing science from many decades. Naturalsystems have many properties that inspiredapplications - self-organisation, simplicity of basicelements, dynamics, flexibility. This paper is a surveyof nature inspired algorithms, like Particle SwarmOptimization (PSO), Ant Colony Op...

  15. Visual coherence for large-scale line-plot visualizations

    KAUST Repository

    Muigg, Philipp

    2011-06-01

    Displaying a large number of lines within a limited amount of screen space is a task that is common to many different classes of visualization techniques such as time-series visualizations, parallel coordinates, link-node diagrams, and phase-space diagrams. This paper addresses the challenging problems of cluttering and overdraw inherent to such visualizations. We generate a 2x2 tensor field during line rasterization that encodes the distribution of line orientations through each image pixel. Anisotropic diffusion of a noise texture is then used to generate a dense, coherent visualization of line orientation. In order to represent features of different scales, we employ a multi-resolution representation of the tensor field. The resulting technique can easily be applied to a wide variety of line-based visualizations. We demonstrate this for parallel coordinates, a time-series visualization, and a phase-space diagram. Furthermore, we demonstrate how to integrate a focus+context approach by incorporating a second tensor field. Our approach achieves interactive rendering performance for large data sets containing millions of data items, due to its image-based nature and ease of implementation on GPUs. Simulation results from computational fluid dynamics are used to evaluate the performance and usefulness of the proposed method. © 2011 The Author(s).

  16. Destination visual image and expectation of experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, H.; Tussyadiah, Iis

    2011-01-01

    A unique experience is the essence of tourism sought by tourists. The most effective way to communicate the notion of a tourism experience at a destination is to provide visual cues that stimulate the imagination and connect with potential tourists in a personal way. This study aims at understanding how a visual image is relevant to the expectation of experiences by deconstructing images of a destination and interpreting visitors' perceptions of these images and the experiences associated with them. The results suggest that tourists with different understandings of desirable experiences found different contents and notions of images inspired them to visit a destination. Several managerial implications are discussed. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  17. Bio-inspired approach for intelligent unattended ground sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueber, Nicolas; Raymond, Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Pichler, Alexander; Perrot, Maxime; Voisin, Philippe; Moeglin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Improving the surveillance capacity over wide zones requires a set of smart battery-powered Unattended Ground Sensors capable of issuing an alarm to a decision-making center. Only high-level information has to be sent when a relevant suspicious situation occurs. In this paper we propose an innovative bio-inspired approach that mimics the human bi-modal vision mechanism and the parallel processing ability of the human brain. The designed prototype exploits two levels of analysis: a low-level panoramic motion analysis, the peripheral vision, and a high-level event-focused analysis, the foveal vision. By tracking moving objects and fusing multiple criteria (size, speed, trajectory, etc.), the peripheral vision module acts as a fast relevant event detector. The foveal vision module focuses on the detected events to extract more detailed features (texture, color, shape, etc.) in order to improve the recognition efficiency. The implemented recognition core is able to acquire human knowledge and to classify in real-time a huge amount of heterogeneous data thanks to its natively parallel hardware structure. This UGS prototype validates our system approach under laboratory tests. The peripheral analysis module demonstrates a low false alarm rate whereas the foveal vision correctly focuses on the detected events. A parallel FPGA implementation of the recognition core succeeds in fulfilling the embedded application requirements. These results are paving the way of future reconfigurable virtual field agents. By locally processing the data and sending only high-level information, their energy requirements and electromagnetic signature are optimized. Moreover, the embedded Artificial Intelligence core enables these bio-inspired systems to recognize and learn new significant events. By duplicating human expertise in potentially hazardous places, our miniature visual event detector will allow early warning and contribute to better human decision making.

  18. Meet the 'entangled' fieldworker - Distorted (re)presentations in tourism research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations. On this background, this paper develops the notion ‘distorted representation’ to illustrate that blurred and obscure photos can in fact be intelligible and sensible in understanding tourism. Through an exploration of the overwhelmed and unintended practices of visual fieldwork, distorted representation illustrates how photographic materialities, performativities and sensations contribute to new tourism knowledges. While highlighting the potential of distorted representation, the paper posits a cautionary note in regards to the influential role of academic journals in determining the qualities of visual data. The paper exemplifies distorted representation through three impressionistic tales derived from ethnographic research on the European rail travel phenomenon, InterRail.

  19. Visualization software for molecular assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Thomas D; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2007-10-01

    Software for viewing three-dimensional models and maps of viruses, ribosomes, filaments, and other molecular assemblies is advancing on many fronts. New developments include molecular representations that offer better control over level of detail, lighting that improves the perception of depth, and two-dimensional projections that simplify data interpretation. Programmable graphics processors offer quality, speed, and visual effects not previously possible, while 3D printers, haptic interaction devices, and auto-stereo displays show promise in more naturally engaging our senses. Visualization methods are developed by diverse groups of researchers with differing goals: experimental biologists, database developers, computer scientists, and package developers. We survey recent developments and problems faced by the developer community in bringing innovative visualization methods into widespread use. PMID:17728125

  20. Using the INSPIRAL program to search for gravitational waves from low-mass binary inspiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INSPIRAL program is the LIGO Scientific Collaboration's computational engine for the search for gravitational waves from binary neutron stars and sub-solar mass black holes. We describe how this program, which makes use of the FINDCHIRP algorithm, is integrated into a sophisticated data analysis pipeline that was used in the search for low-mass binary inspirals in data taken during the second LIGO science run

  1. ESQUEMAS VISUALES Y EMPLAZAMIENTO DE LAS REPRESENTACIONES RUPESTRES DE CAMÉLIDOS DEL LOA SUPERIOR EN TIEMPOS INCAICOS: ¿UNA NUEVA ESTRATEGIA DE INCORPORACIÓN DE ESTE TERRITORIO AL TAWANTINSUYU? VISUAL OUTLINES AND LOCATION OF CAMELIDS REPRESENTATIONS OF THE UPPER LOA DURING THE INCA TIMES: A NEW STRATEGY OF THE TAWANTINSUYU TO INCORPORATE THIS TERRITORY?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela A. Sepúlveda R.

    2004-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados obtenidos del estudio del arte rupestre adscrito al período Tardío (1.450- 1.540 d.C.), correspondiente a la presencia Inka en la región del Loa Superior. En particular, se analizan las representaciones de camélidos de varios sitios de la cuenca del río Salado, en comparación con algunas del Alto Loa. Este trabajo expone, por un lado, un análisis de las formas anatómicas representadas, definidas como esquemas visuales; y, por otro, algunas observaciones acerca de l...

  2. NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Section NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... turn Javascript on. Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers Fogarty scholar helps Zambians fight cervical cancer ...

  3. Visual Inductosyn

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Erik

    2005-01-01

    This is a project where modern visualization techniques are used to create an interactive and animated technical illustration of how the position measuring product Inductosyn works. The project is made on behalf of Inductosyn International, an engineering company in Valhalla, New York. The visualization is focused on the operating principle of the product and the technical benefits of using the product in the two application areas Air Surveillance Radar and Air Defence Systems. The purpose wi...

  4. Modelling auditory attention: Insights from the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, K. L.; Andersen, Tobias; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Lamberts, K.

    2013-01-01

    We report initial progress towards creating an auditory analogue of a mathematical model of visual attention: the ‘Theory of Visual Attention’ (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). TVA is one of the best established models of visual attention. It assumes that visual stimuli are initially processed in parallel, and that there is a ‘race’ for selection and representation in visual short term memory (VSTM). In the basic TVA task, participants view a brief display of letters and are asked to report either all of t...

  5. A Novel Quantum Inspired Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Bin Packing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdesslem Layeb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bin Packing Problem (BPP is one of the most known combinatorial optimization problems. This problem consists to pack a set of items into a minimum number of bins. There are several variants of this problem; the most basic problem is the one-dimensional bin packing problem (1-BPP. In this paper, we present a new approach based on the quantum inspired cuckoo search algorithm to deal with the 1-BPP problem. The contribution consists in defining an appropriate quantum representation based on qubit representation to represent bin packing solutions. The second contribution is proposition of a new hybrid quantum measure operation which uses first fit heuristic to pack no filled objects by the standard measure operation. The obtained results are very encouraging and show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. A Core Knowledge Architecture of Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Justin N.

    2011-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is widely thought to contain specialized buffers for retaining spatial and object information: a "spatial-object architecture." However, studies of adults, infants, and nonhuman animals show that visual cognition builds on core knowledge systems that retain more specialized representations: (1) spatiotemporal…

  7. A new image representation for compact and secure communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many areas of nuclear materials management there is a need for communication, archival, and retrieval of annotated image data between heterogeneous platforms and devices to effectively implement safety, security, and safeguards of nuclear materials. Current image formats such as JPEG are not ideally suited in such scenarios as they are not scalable to different viewing formats, and do not provide a high-level representation of images that facilitate automatic object/change detection or annotation. The new Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) open standard for representing graphical information, recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is designed to address issues of image scalability, portability, and annotation. However, until now there has been no viable technology to efficiently field images of high visual quality under this standard. Recently, LANL has developed a vectorized image representation that is compatible with the SVG standard and preserves visual quality. This is based on a new geometric framework for characterizing complex features in real-world imagery that incorporates perceptual principles of processing visual information known from cognitive psychology and vision science, to obtain a polygonal image representation of high fidelity. This representation can take advantage of all textual compression and encryption routines unavailable to other image formats. Moreover, this vectorized image representation can be exploited to facilitate automated object recognition that can reduce time required for data review. The objects/features of interest in these vectorized images can be annotated via animated graphics to facilitate quick and easy display and comprehension of processed image content.

  8. The mental representation in mental rotation : its content, timing, and neuronal source

    OpenAIRE

    Liesefeld, Heinrich René

    2012-01-01

    What is rotated in mental rotation? The implicitly or explicitly most widely accepted assumption is that the rotated representation is a visual mental image. We here provide converging evidence that instead mental rotation is a process specialized on a certain type of spatial information. As a basis, we here develop a general theory on how to manipulate and empirically examine representational content. One technique to examine the content of the representation in mental rotation is to measure...

  9. Cortical networks for visual self-recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly reviews recent developments regarding the brain mechanisms of visual self-recognition. A special cognitive mechanism for visual self-recognition has been postulated based on behavioral and neuropsychological evidence, but its neural substrate remains controversial. Recent functional imaging studies suggest that multiple cortical mechanisms play self-specific roles during visual self-recognition, reconciling the existing controversy. Respective roles for the left occipitotemporal, right parietal, and frontal cortices in symbolic, visuospatial, and conceptual aspects of self-representation have been proposed. (author)

  10. Graph-Based Visualization of Ontology-Based Competence Profiles for Research Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Afzal, Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    Information visualization can be valuable in a wide range of applications, it deals with abstract, non-spatial data and with the representation of data elements in a meaningful form irrespective of the size of the data, because sometimes visualization itself focuses on the certain key aspects of the data in the representation and thus it helps by providing ease for the goal oriented interpretation. Information visualization focuses on providing a spontaneous and deeper level of the understand...

  11. Audio-visual interactions in environment assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Anna; Koci?ski, J?drzej; Hafke-Dys, Honorata; Wrzosek, Ma?gorzata

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how visual and audio information influences audio-visual environment assessment. Original audio-visual recordings were made at seven different places in the city of Pozna?. Participants of the psychophysical experiments were asked to rate, on a numerical standardized scale, the degree of comfort they would feel if they were in such an environment. The assessments of audio-visual comfort were carried out in a laboratory in four different conditions: (a) audio samples only, (b) original audio-visual samples, (c) video samples only, and (d) mixed audio-visual samples. The general results of this experiment showed a significant difference between the investigated conditions, but not for all the investigated samples. There was a significant improvement in comfort assessment when visual information was added (in only three out of 7 cases), when conditions (a) and (b) were compared. On the other hand, the results show that the comfort assessment of audio-visual samples could be changed by manipulating the audio rather than the video part of the audio-visual sample. Finally, it seems, that people could differentiate audio-visual representations of a given place in the environment based rather of on the sound sources' compositions than on the sound level. Object identification is responsible for both landscape and soundscape grouping. PMID:25863510

  12. Representations and Relations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ko?átko, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 3 (2014), s. 282-302. ISSN 1335-0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : representation * proposition * truth-conditions * belief-ascriptions * reference * externalism * fiction Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  13. Hyperfinite Representation of Distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Sousa Pinto; R F Hoskins

    2000-11-01

    Hyperfinite representation of distributions is studied following the method introduced by Kinoshita [2, 3], although we use a different approach much in the vein of [4]. Products and Fourier transforms of representatives of distributions are also analysed.

  14. Exceptional representations of quivers

    OpenAIRE

    Ringel, Claus Michael

    2013-01-01

    Let Q be a connected directed quiver with n vertices. We show that Q is representation-infinite if and only if there do exist n isomorphism classes of exceptional modules of some fixed length at least 2.

  15. Effects of healthy aging on human primary visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Alyssa A.; Brian Barton

    2012-01-01

    Aging often results in reduced visual acuity from changes in both the eye and neural circuits [1-4]. In normally aging subjects, primary visual cortex has been shown to have reduced responses to visual stimulation [5]. It is not known, however, to what extent aging affects visual field repre-sentations and population receptive sizes in human primary visual cortex. Here we use func-tional MRI (fMRI) and population receptive field (pRF) modeling [6] to measure angular and ec-centric retinotopic...

  16. On Number Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Rofa, Rafael I.

    2013-01-01

    Place value numbers, such as the binary or decimal numbers can be represented by the end vertices (leaf or pendant vertices) of rooted symmetrical trees. Numbers that consist of at most a fixed number of digits are represented by vertices that are equidistant from the root vertex and the corresponding number representations do not depend on the distance from the root vertex. In this paper, we introduce place value number systems which are representable by rooted symmetrical ...

  17. Lifting torsion Galois representations

    OpenAIRE

    Khare, Chandrashekhar; Ramakrishna, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Typos in the abstract have been corrected. Let $\\rho_n$ be an ordinary weight two representation of absolute Galois group of the rationals to $GL_2(\\mathcal O/\\pi^n)$. Here $\\mathcal O$ is a ramified DVR with uniformiser $\\pi$. If $\\rho_n$ satisfies mild hypotheses we lift it to a characteristic zero $\\mathcal O$-valued geometric weight two representation. The earlier methods could handle only the unramified case. We show that the deformation ring of a residual representat...

  18. Autonomous Learning of Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Oliver; Häb-Umbach, Reinhold; Mokbel, Bassam; Paaßen, Benjamin; Hammer, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Besides the core learning algorithm itself, one major question in machine learning is how to best encode given training data such that the learning technology can efficiently learn based thereon and generalize to novel data. While classical approaches often rely on a hand coded data representation, the topic of autonomous representation or feature learning plays a major role in modern learning architectures. The goal of this contribution is to give an overview about different principles of au...

  19. Taxonomic etymology – in search of inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jó?wiak, Piotr; Rewicz, Tomasz; Pabis, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present a review of the etymology of zoological taxonomic names with emphasis on the most unusual examples. The names were divided into several categories, starting from the most common – given after morphological features – through inspiration from mythology, legends, and classic literature but also from fictional and nonfictional pop-culture characters (e.g., music, movies or cartoons), science, and politics. A separate category includes zoological names created using word-play and figures of speech such as tautonyms, acronyms, anagrams, and palindromes. Our intention was to give an overview of possibilities of how and where taxonomists can find the inspirations that will be consistent with the ICZN rules and generate more detail afterthought about the naming process itself, the meaningful character of naming, as well as the recognition and understanding of names. PMID:26257573

  20. Biologically inspired water purification through selective transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biologically inspired systems based on cellular mechanics demonstrate the ability to selectively transport ions across a bilayer membrane. These systems may be observed in nature in plant roots, which remove select nutrients from the surrounding soil against significant concentration gradients. Using biomimetic principles in the design of tailored active materials allows for the development of selective membranes for capturing and filtering targeted ions. Combining this biomimetic transport system with a method for reclaiming the captured ions will allow for increased removal potential. To illustrate this concept, a device for removing nutrients from waterways to aid in reducing eutrophication is outlined and discussed. Presented is a feasibility study of various cellular configurations designed for this purpose, focusing on maximizing nutrient uptake. The results enable a better understanding of the benefits and obstacles when developing these cellularly inspired systems. (paper)

  1. Neurobiologically Inspired Control of Engineered Flapping Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Soon-Jo; Stoner, Jeremiah R

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new control approach and dynamic model for engineered flapping flight with many interacting degrees of freedom. This paper explores the applications of neurobiologically inspired control systems in the form of Central Pattern Generators (CPG) to control flapping flight dynamics. A rigorous mathematical and control theoretic framework to design complex three dimensional wing motions is presented based on phase synchronization and Hopf bifurcation. In particular, we show that tailless aircraft alternating between flapping and gliding can be effectively stabilized by smooth wing motions driven by the CPG network. Furthermore, a novel robotic testbed has been developed to emulate the flight of bats. This model has shoulder and leg joints totaling ten control variables of wing properties. Results of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulation of CPG-based flight control validate the effectiveness of the proposed neurobiologically inspired control approach.

  2. Recent developments in biologically inspired seeker technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Massie, Mark A.

    2001-06-01

    As electro-optic sensors increase in size and frame rate, the data transfer and digital processing resource requirements also increase. In many missions, the spatial area of interest is but a small fraction of the available field of view. Choosing the right region of interest, however, is a challenge and still requires an enormous amount of downstream digital processing resources. In order to filter this ever-increasing amount of data, we look at how nature solves the problem. The Advanced Guidance Division of the Munitions Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/MNG) at Eglin AFB, Florida, has been pursuing research in the area of advanced sensor and image processing concepts based on biologically inspired sensory information processing. A summary of some vertebrate and invertebrate inspired 'neuromorphic' processing efforts will be presented along with a seeker system concept utilizing this innovative technology. Concepts and requirements for future such efforts will also be discussed.

  3. Taxonomic etymology – in search of inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Jozwiak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the etymology of zoological taxonomic names with emphasis on the most unusual examples. The names were divided into several categories, starting from the most common – given after morphological features – through inspiration from mythology, legends, and classic literature but also from fictional and nonfictional pop-culture characters (e.g., music, movies or cartoons, science, and politics. A separate category includes zoological names created using word-play and figures of speech such as tautonyms, acronyms, anagrams, and palindromes. Our intention was to give an overview of possibilities of how and where taxonomists can find the inspirations that will be consistent with the ICZN rules and generate more detail afterthought about the naming process itself, the meaningful character of naming, as well as the recognition and understanding of names.

  4. Taxonomic etymology - in search of inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jó?wiak, Piotr; Rewicz, Tomasz; Pabis, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of the etymology of zoological taxonomic names with emphasis on the most unusual examples. The names were divided into several categories, starting from the most common - given after morphological features - through inspiration from mythology, legends, and classic literature but also from fictional and nonfictional pop-culture characters (e.g., music, movies or cartoons), science, and politics. A separate category includes zoological names created using word-play and figures of speech such as tautonyms, acronyms, anagrams, and palindromes. Our intention was to give an overview of possibilities of how and where taxonomists can find the inspirations that will be consistent with the ICZN rules and generate more detail afterthought about the naming process itself, the meaningful character of naming, as well as the recognition and understanding of names. PMID:26257573

  5. Towards Real-Time Novel View Synthesis Using Visual Hulls

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming

    2004-01-01

    This thesis discusses fast novel view synthesis from multiple images taken from different viewpoints. We propose several new algorithms that take advantage of modern graphics hardware to create novel views. Although different approaches are explored, one geometry representation, the visual hull, is employed throughout our work. First the visual hull plays an auxiliary role and assists in reconstruction of depth maps that are utilized for novel view synthesis. Then we treat the visual hull as ...

  6. Iterative Fragmentation of Cognitive Maps in a Visual Imagery Task

    OpenAIRE

    Fourtassi, Maryam; Hajjioui, Abderrazak; Urquizar, Christian; Rossetti, Yves; Rode, Gilles; Pisella, Laure

    2013-01-01

    It remains unclear whether spontaneous eye movements during visual imagery reflect the mental generation of a visual image (i.e. the arrangement of the component parts of a mental representation). To address this specificity, we recorded eye movements in an imagery task and in a phonological fluency (non-imagery) task, both consisting in naming French towns from long-term memory. Only in the condition of visual imagery the spontaneous eye positions reflected the geographic position of the tow...

  7. Intact reading in patients with profound early visual dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Keir X X; Warren, Jason D.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite substantial neuroscientific evidence for a region of visual cortex dedicated to the processing of written words, many studies continue to reject explanations of letter-by-letter (LBL) reading in terms of impaired word form representations or parallel letter processing in favour of more general deficits of visual function. In the current paper, we demonstrate that whilst LBL reading is often associated with general visual deficits, these deficits are not necessarily sufficient to cause...

  8. Spatially Continuous Change of Abstraction in Molecular Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Lueks, Wouter; Viola, Ivan; Van Der Zwan, Matthew; Bekker, Henk; Isenberg, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Based on an approach for the temporal change of abstraction in molecular visualization we describe how to achieve a spatially explicit control of abstraction. This allows us to depict different abstraction stages of a single molecule in a single still-image visualization. This approach works best for long, linear molecules with repeating substructures that allow viewers to visually compare the continuous representational changes of these parts.

  9. Junction Type Representations of the Temperley-Lieb Algebra and Associated Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Doikou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by earlier works on representations of the Temperley-Lieb algebra we introduce a novel family of representations of the algebra. This may be seen as a generalization of the so called asymmetric twin representation. The underlying symmetry algebra is also examined and it is shown that in addition to certain obvious exact quantum symmetries non trivial quantum algebraic realizations that exactly commute with the representation also exist. Non trivial representations of the boundary Temperley-Lieb algebra as well as the related residual symmetries are also discussed. The corresponding novel R and K matrices solutions of the Yang-Baxter and reflection equations are identified, the relevant quantum spin chain is also constructed and its exact symmetries are studied.

  10. CREATING UNIQUE PATTERN DESIGNS : WITH CULTURAL INSPIRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Khalili, Kania

    2014-01-01

    The topic of the present thesis is about creating unique pattern designs. The idea was to present the final pattern designs on kitchen-ware textiles. The patterns are designed with inspiration from Japan, for instance Japanese cultural elements, nature and symbols. The thesis consisted of the following stages; theory, design experimentation, quantitative research, final product samples and discussion. Before the design process, theoretical knowledge of textile design was gained, and pat...

  11. Biologically inspired emotion recognition from speech

    OpenAIRE

    Buscicchio Cosimo; Caponetti Laura; Castellano Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Emotion recognition has become a fundamental task in human-computer interaction systems. In this article, we propose an emotion recognition approach based on biologically inspired methods. Specifically, emotion classification is performed using a long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network which is able to recognize long-range dependencies between successive temporal patterns. We propose to represent data using features derived from two different models: mel-frequency ceps...

  12. Neurobiologically inspired mobile robot navigation and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Quoy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available After a short review of biologically inspired navigation architectures, mainly relying on modeling the hippocampal anatomy, or at least some of its functions, we present a navigation and planning model for mobile robots. This architecture is based on a model of the hippocampal and prefrontal interactions. In particular, the system relies on the definition of a new cell type “transition cells” that encompasses traditional “place cells”.

  13. String and string-inspired phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, J

    1994-01-01

    In these lectures I review the progress made over the last few years in the subject of string and string-inspired phenomenology. I take a practical approach, thereby concentrating more on explicit examples rather than on formal developments. Topics covered include: introduction to string theory, the free-fermionic formulation and its general features, generic conformal field theory properties, $SU(5)\\times U(1)$ GUT and string model-building, supersymmetry breaking, the bott...

  14. Swarm intelligence in bio-inspired robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Jannik; Karud, Camilla Haukenes

    2011-01-01

    In this report, we have explored swarm intelligence through a box-pushing taskwith physical robots called e-pucks. Research on social insects has been presentedtogether with dierent ways of controlling autonomous robots, where combiningthis knowledge has been essential in our quest to make a biological plausible antretrieving system.Inspired by ants and behavior-based robotics, we have created the system CRABS.It is based on Brooks' subsumption architecture to control six dierent behavio...

  15. Membrane computing: traces, neural inspired models, controls

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu, Armand-Mihai

    2008-01-01

    Membrane Computing:Traces, Neural Inspired Models, ControlsAutor: Armand-Mihai IonescuDirectores: Dr. Victor Mitrana (URV)Dr. Takashi Yokomori (Universidad Waseda, Japón)Resumen Castellano:El presente trabajo está dedicado a una área muy activa del cálculo natural (que intenta descubrir la odalidad en la cual la naturaleza calcula, especialmente al nivel biológico), es decir el cálculo con membranas, y más preciso, a los modelos de membranas inspirados de la funcionalidad biológica de la neur...

  16. Inspirational catalogue of Master Thesis proposals 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project. If you have an idea for a project which is not covered by the catalogue you are more than welcome to contact any of the supervisors.

  17. Biologically inspired algorithms for financial modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Brabazon, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Predicting the future for financial gain is a difficult, sometimes profitable activity. The focus of this book is the application of biologically inspired algorithms (BIAs) to financial modelling.In a detailed introduction, the authors explain computer trading on financial markets and the difficulties faced in financial market modelling. Then Part I provides a thorough guide to the various bioinspired methodologies - neural networks, evolutionary computing (particularly genetic algorithms and grammatical evolution), particle swarm and ant colony optimization, and immune systems. Part II brings

  18. Binary compact object inspiral: Detection expectations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassiliki Kalogera

    2004-10-01

    We review the current estimates of binary compact object inspiral rates in particular in view of the recently discovered highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737-3039. One of the robust results is that, because of this discovery, the rate estimates for binary neutron stars have increased by a factor of 6-7 independent of any uncertainties related to the pulsar population properties. This rate increase has dramatic implications for gravitational wave detectors. For initial LIGO, the most probable detection rates for double neutron star (DNS) inspirals is 1 event/(5{250) yr; at 95% confidence we obtain rates up to 1/1.5 yr. For advanced LIGO, the most probable rates are 20-1000 events/yr. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by initial LIGO to the astrophysically relevant regime. We also use our models to predict that the large-scale Parkes multibeam pulsar survey with acceleration searches could detect an average of three to four binary pulsars similar to those known at present. In comparison, rate estimates for binaries with black holes are derived based on binary evolution calculation, and based on the optimistic ends of the ranges, remain an important candidate for inspiral detection in the next few years. We also consider another aspect of the detectability of binary inspiral: the effect of precession on the detection efficiency of astrophysically relevant binaries. Based on our current astrophysical expectations, large tilt angles are not favored. As a result the decrease in detection rate varies rather slowly with black hole spin magnitude and is within $20-30$% of the maximum possible values.

  19. Nature inspired algorithms and artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Valentina Onet

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence has been very muchinterested in studying the characteristics ofintelligent agent, mainly planning, learning,reasoning (making decisions and perception.Biological processes and methods have beeninfluencing science from many decades. Naturalsystems have many properties that inspiredapplications - self-organisation, simplicity of basicelements, dynamics, flexibility. This paper is a surveyof nature inspired algorithms, like Particle SwarmOptimization (PSO, Ant Colony Optimization (ACOand Artificial Bee Colony(ABC.

  20. Tidal interaction in binary black hole inspiral

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Richard H.; Whelan, John T

    2001-01-01

    In rotating viscous fluid stars, tidal torque leads to an exchange of spin and orbital angular momentum. The horizon of a black hole has an effective viscosity that is large compared to that of stellar fluids, and an effective tidal torque may lead to important effects in the strong field interaction at the endpoint of the inspiral of two rapidly rotating holes. In the most interesting case both holes are maximally rotating and all angular momenta (orbital and spins) are ali...

  1. Simultaneous visualization of anatomical and functional 3D data by combining volume rendering and flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafhitzel, Tobias; Rößler, Friedemann; Weiskopf, Daniel; Ertl, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Modern medical imaging provides a variety of techniques for the acquisition of multi-modality data. A typical example is the combination of functional and anatomical data from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and anatomical MRI measurements. Usually, the data resulting from each of these two methods is transformed to 3D scalar-field representations to facilitate visualization. A common method for the visualization of anatomical/functional multi-modalities combines semi-transparent isosurfaces (SSD, surface shaded display) with other scalar visualization techniques like direct volume rendering (DVR). However, partial occlusion and visual clutter that typically result from the overlay of these traditional 3D scalar-field visualization techniques make it difficult for the user to perceive and recognize visual structures. This paper addresses these perceptual issues by a new visualization approach for anatomical/functional multi-modalities. The idea is to reduce the occlusion effects of an isosurface by replacing its surface representation by a sparser line representation. Those lines are chosen along the principal curvature directions of the isosurface and rendered by a flow visualization method called line integral convolution (LIC). Applying the LIC algorithm results in fine line structures that improve the perception of the isosurface's shape in a way that it is possible to render it with small opacity values. An interactive visualization is achieved by executing the algorithm completely on the graphics processing unit (GPU) of modern graphics hardware. Furthermore, several illumination techniques and image compositing strategies are discussed for emphasizing the isosurface structure. We demonstrate our method for the example of fMRI/MRI measurements, visualizing the spatial relationship between brain activation and brain tissue.

  2. A review of uncertainty visualization within the IPCC reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocke, Thomas; Reusser, Dominik; Wrobel, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Results derived from climate model simulations confront non-expert users with a variety of uncertainties. This gives rise to the challenge that the scientific information must be communicated such that it can be easily understood, however, the complexity of the science behind is still incorporated. With respect to the assessment reports of the IPCC, the situation is even more complicated, because heterogeneous sources and multiple types of uncertainties need to be compiled together. Within this work, we systematically (1) analyzed the visual representation of uncertainties in the IPCC AR4 and AR5 reports, and (2) executed a questionnaire to evaluate how different user groups such as decision-makers and teachers understand these uncertainty visualizations. Within the first step, we classified visual uncertainty metaphors for spatial, temporal and abstract representations. As a result, we clearly identified a high complexity of the IPCC visualizations compared to standard presentation graphics, sometimes even integrating two or more uncertainty classes / measures together with the "certain" (mean) information. Further we identified complex written uncertainty explanations within image captions even within the "summary reports for policy makers". In the second step, based on these observations, we designed a questionnaire to investigate how non-climate experts understand these visual representations of uncertainties, how visual uncertainty coding might hinder the perception of the "non-uncertain" data, and if alternatives for certain IPCC visualizations exist. Within the talk/poster, we will present first results from this questionnaire. Summarizing, we identified a clear trend towards complex images within the latest IPCC reports, with a tendency to incorporate as much as possible information into the visual representations, resulting in proprietary, non-standard graphic representations that are not necessarily easy to comprehend on one glimpse. We conclude that further translation is required to (visually) present the IPCC results to non-experts, providing tailored static and interactive visualization solutions for different user groups.

  3. Gravitational radiation, inspiraling binaries, and cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, David F.; Finn, Lee S.

    1993-01-01

    We show how to measure cosmological parameters using observations of inspiraling binary neutron star or black hole systems in one or more gravitational wave detectors. To illustrate, we focus on the case of fixed mass binary systems observed in a single Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)-like detector. Using realistic detector noise estimates, we characterize the rate of detections as a function of a threshold SNR Rho(0), H0, and the binary 'chirp' mass. For Rho(0) = 8, H0 = 100 km/s/Mpc, and 1.4 solar mass neutron star binaries, the sample has a median redshift of 0.22. Under the same assumptions but independent of H0, a conservative rate density of coalescing binaries implies LIGO will observe about 50/yr binary inspiral events. The precision with which H0 and the deceleration parameter q0 may be determined depends on the number of observed inspirals. For fixed mass binary systems, about 100 observations with Rho(0) = 10 in the LIGO will give H0 to 10 percent in an Einstein-DeSitter cosmology, and 3000 will give q0 to 20 percent. For the conservative rate density of coalescing binaries, 100 detections with Rho(0) = 10 will require about 4 yrs.

  4. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Lopez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioural experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler ‘to speak’, [parl-]; b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter ‘to repeat’, [répét-] and [répèt-]; c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer ‘to adore’, [ador-] and [adOr-]; and d. idiosyncratic (boire ‘to drink’, [boi-] and [buv-]. For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-] have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-], suggesting that they share a single abstract and underspecified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French inflectional verbal suffixes.

  5. Do the Contents of Visual Working Memory Automatically Influence Attentional Selection During Visual Search?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Steven J Luck

    2007-01-01

    In many theories of cognition, researchers propose that working memory and perception operate interactively. For example, in previous studies researchers have suggested that sensory inputs matching the contents of working memory will have an automatic advantage in the competition for processing resources. The authors tested this hypothesis by requiring observers to perform a visual search task while concurrently maintaining object representations in visual working memory. The hypothesis that ...

  6. Neurally inspired rapid detection of sparse objects in videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Deepak; Huber, David J.; Bhattacharyya, Rajan; Daily, Mike; Tasinga, Penn

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we describe COGNIVA, a closed-loop Cognitive-Neural method and system for image and video analysis that combines recent technological breakthroughs in bio-vision cognitive algorithms and neural signatures of human visual processing. COGNIVA is an "operational neuroscience" framework for intelligent and rapid search and categorization of Items Of Interest (IOI) in imagery and video. The IOI could be a single object, group of objects, specific image regions, specific spatio-temporal pattern/sequence or even the category that the image itself belongs to (e.g., vehicle or non-vehicle). There are two main types of approach for rapid search and categorization of IOI in imagery and video. The first approach uses conventional machine vision or bio-inspired cognitive algorithms. These usually need a predefined set of IOI and suffer from high false alarm rates. The second class of algorithms is based on neural signatures of target detection. These algorithms usually break the entire image into sub-images and process EEG data from these images and classify them based on it. This approach may suffer from high false alarms and is slow because the entire image is chipped and presented to the human observer. The proposed COGNIVA overcomes the limitations of both methods by combining them resulting in a low false alarm rate and high detection with high throughput making it applicable to both image and video analysis. In the most basic form, COGNIVA first uses bioinspired cognitive algorithms for deciding potential IOI in a sequence of images/video. These potential IOI are then shown to a human and neural signatures of visual detection of IOI are collected and processed. The resulting signatures are used to categorize and provide final IOI. We will present the concept and typical results of COGNIVA for detecting Items of interest in image data.

  7. XML Based Representation of DFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Salil Kolhatkar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the world of Information Technology, the working of a information system is well explained with the use of Data Flow Diagrams (DFD. DFDs are one of the three essential perspectives of the Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM. [3]The sponsor of a project and the end users are briefed and consulted throughout all stages of a system's evolution. With a data flow diagram, users are able to visualize how the system will operate, what the system will accomplish, and how the system will be implemented. But, various practical problems exist with the representation of DFDs. Different tools are available in the market for representing the DFDs. These tools are user friendly and based on the object oriented features. The diagrams drawn using these tools can be sent over the network for communicating with others. On the other hand, the XML is platform independent, textual information and is totally extensible. XML is structured and is an excellent way to transfer the information along with the metadata over the network. XML can be used to transfer the information related to DFDs, there by removing the problems related to understanding the diagrammatic notations and concentrating more on the information flow in the system. This paper is aimed at understanding the problems related to DFDs and representing it in XML[4] format for their storage and communication over the network. The discussion is divided into four main topics – introduction to XML and DFD, problems related to DFD, an XML representation for DFDs and finally the conclusion.

  8. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings. PMID:26303026

  9. From Idea to Organizational Practice : Institutionalizing Innovative Ideas Through Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate E.; Jancsary, Dennis

    How do visualization and visual forms of communication influence the process of transforming a novel idea into established organizational practice? In this paper, we build theory with regard to the role of visuals in manifesting and giving form to an innovative idea as it proceeds through various stages of institutionalization. Ideas become institutionalized not merely through widespread diffusion in a cognitive-discursive form but eventually through their translation into concrete activities and transformation into specific patterns of organizational practice. We argue that visualization plays a pivotal and unique role in this process. Visualization bridges the ideational with the practical realm by providing representations of ideas, connecting them to existing knowledge, and illustrating the specific actions that instantiate them. Similar to verbal discourse, and often in tandem, visual representations diffuse more rapidly and further than the practices themselves. Consolidating the relationship between abstract ideas and specific practice, such visual or multi-modal representations facilitate the implementation of novel ideas, reinforce particular translations, and imbue associated organizational practice with legitimacy – and thus solidify the coupling of innovative ideas and organizational practice. Extending existing research, we develop a set of propositions linking dimensions of visuality and visualization to the different stages of institutionalization in order to explain the institutional trajectory of new ideas. Our analysis advances insight into a core dimension of institutionalization: the transformation of an idea into practice.

  10. Biochemistry Instructors' Views toward Developing and Assessing Visual Literacy in Their Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemistry instructors are inundated with various representations from which to choose to depict biochemical phenomena. Because of the immense amount of visual know-how needed to be an expert biochemist in the 21st century, there have been calls for instructors to develop biochemistry students' visual literacy. However, visual literacy has…

  11. Advanced textural representation of materials appearance.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Filip, Ji?í

    New York : ACM, 2011 - (Sander, P.), s. 1-84 ISBN 978-1-4503-1135-9. [SIGGRAPH Asia 2011. Hong Kong (CN), 12.12.2011-15.12.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA102/08/0593; GA ?R GAP103/11/0335 Grant ostatní: CESNET(CZ) 387/2010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : visual texture * Bidirectional Texture Function * materials appearance Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/RO/haindl-advanced textural representation of materials appearance.pdf

  12. Digital Art Wonderland Creative Techniques for Inspirational Journaling and Beautiful Blogging

    CERN Document Server

    Sullins, Angi

    2011-01-01

    Headline: Set out on a digital adventure!Come inside Digital Art Wonderland where digital art and art journaling embark together on a luscious visual journey. The daring crew of Angi Sullins and Silas Toball give you a personal tour through a digital art journaling world, showing you how to make your own wonderous creations through instruction, design concepts and lots of inspiration.In Digital Art Wonderland, you'll find:- 8 tutorials with techniques, tricks and trips for the intermediate Adobe Photoshop user to enhance physical art as well as create digital art from scratch.- Instructions a

  13. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  14. A Graphic Representation of States for Quantum Copying Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Felloni, S; Felloni, Sara; Strini, Giuliano

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new graphic representation of quantum states by means of a specific application: the analysis of two models of quantum copying machines. The graphic representation by diagrams of states offers a clear and detailed visualization of quantum information's flow during the unitary evolution of not too complex systems. The diagrams of states are exponentially more complex in respect to the standard representation and this clearly illustrates the discrepancy of computational power between quantum and classical systems. After a brief introductive exposure of the general theory, we present a constructive procedure to illustrate the new representation by means of concrete examples. Elementary diagrams of states for single-qubit and two-qubit systems and a simple scheme to represent entangled states are presented. Quantum copying machines as imperfect cloners of quantum states are introduced and the quantum copying machines of Griffiths and Niu and of Buzek and Hillery are analyze...

  15. Modelling Cell Cycle using Different Levels of Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Basuki, Thomas Anung; Carvalho, Rafael V; 10.4204/EPTCS.11.4

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of biological systems requires a complex setting of in vitro and in vivo experiments, which attracts high costs in terms of time and resources. The use of mathematical models allows researchers to perform computerised simulations of biological systems, which are called in silico experiments, to attain important insights and predictions about the system behaviour with a considerably lower cost. Computer visualisation is an important part of this approach, since it provides a realistic representation of the system behaviour. We define a formal methodology to model biological systems using different levels of representation: a purely formal representation, which we call molecular level, models the biochemical dynamics of the system; visualisation-oriented representations, which we call visual levels, provide views of the biological system at a higher level of organisation and are equipped with the necessary spatial information to generate the appropriate visualisation. We choose Spati...

  16. Grassmannian sparse representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azary, Sherif; Savakis, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    We present Grassmannian sparse representations (GSR), a sparse representation Grassmann learning framework for efficient classification. Sparse representation classification offers a powerful approach for recognition in a variety of contexts. However, a major drawback of sparse representation methods is their computational performance and memory utilization for high-dimensional data. A Grassmann manifold is a space that promotes smooth surfaces where points represent subspaces and the relationship between points is defined by the mapping of an orthogonal matrix. Grassmann manifolds are well suited for computer vision problems because they promote high between-class discrimination and within-class clustering, while offering computational advantages by mapping each subspace onto a single point. The GSR framework combines Grassmannian kernels and sparse representations, including regularized least squares and least angle regression, to improve high accuracy recognition while overcoming the drawbacks of performance and dependencies on high dimensional data distributions. The effectiveness of GSR is demonstrated on computationally intensive multiview action sequences, three-dimensional action sequences, and face recognition datasets.

  17. Locally Refined Splines Representation for Geospatial Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokken, T.; Skytt, V.; Barrowclough, O.

    2015-08-01

    When viewed from distance, large parts of the topography of landmasses and the bathymetry of the sea and ocean floor can be regarded as a smooth background with local features. Consequently a digital elevation model combining a compact smooth representation of the background with locally added features has the potential of providing a compact and accurate representation for topography and bathymetry. The recent introduction of Locally Refined B-Splines (LR B-splines) allows the granularity of spline representations to be locally adapted to the complexity of the smooth shape approximated. This allows few degrees of freedom to be used in areas with little variation, while adding extra degrees of freedom in areas in need of more modelling flexibility. In the EU fp7 Integrating Project IQmulus we exploit LR B-splines for approximating large point clouds representing bathymetry of the smooth sea and ocean floor. A drastic reduction is demonstrated in the bulk of the data representation compared to the size of input point clouds. The representation is very well suited for exploiting the power of GPUs for visualization as the spline format is transferred to the GPU and the triangulation needed for the visualization is generated on the GPU according to the viewing parameters. The LR B-splines are interoperable with other elevation model representations such as LIDAR data, raster representations and triangulated irregular networks as these can be used as input to the LR B-spline approximation algorithms. Output to these formats can be generated from the LR B-spline applications according to the resolution criteria required. The spline models are well suited for change detection as new sensor data can efficiently be compared to the compact LR B-spline representation.

  18. LOCALLY REFINED SPLINES REPRESENTATION FOR GEOSPATIAL BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dokken

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When viewed from distance, large parts of the topography of landmasses and the bathymetry of the sea and ocean floor can be regarded as a smooth background with local features. Consequently a digital elevation model combining a compact smooth representation of the background with locally added features has the potential of providing a compact and accurate representation for topography and bathymetry. The recent introduction of Locally Refined B-Splines (LR B-splines allows the granularity of spline representations to be locally adapted to the complexity of the smooth shape approximated. This allows few degrees of freedom to be used in areas with little variation, while adding extra degrees of freedom in areas in need of more modelling flexibility. In the EU fp7 Integrating Project IQmulus we exploit LR B-splines for approximating large point clouds representing bathymetry of the smooth sea and ocean floor. A drastic reduction is demonstrated in the bulk of the data representation compared to the size of input point clouds. The representation is very well suited for exploiting the power of GPUs for visualization as the spline format is transferred to the GPU and the triangulation needed for the visualization is generated on the GPU according to the viewing parameters. The LR B-splines are interoperable with other elevation model representations such as LIDAR data, raster representations and triangulated irregular networks as these can be used as input to the LR B-spline approximation algorithms. Output to these formats can be generated from the LR B-spline applications according to the resolution criteria required. The spline models are well suited for change detection as new sensor data can efficiently be compared to the compact LR B-spline representation.

  19. Quad Tree-based Level-of-details Representation of Digital Globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Porwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional visualization of the geographic data using a digital globe model has been an integral part of a modern GIS system. The visualization of the digital globe model presents many challenges not found in traditional terrain visualization system. The representation of the digital earth (globe model is important to efficiently render the geographical data without any distortion either at equator or Polar Regions. This paper presents a uniform scheme for efficient quad tree based level-of-details (LOD representation of the digital globe to minimize the distortion at Polar Regions and meets the requirement of fast frame rate rendering.

  20. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that is likely to cause visual impairment, many treatments are available. Options may include eyeglasses, contact lenses, and eye drops or other medicines. In some cases, surgery may be required. For instance, cataracts are often treated by removing the clouded lens ...

  1. Kakovost podatkov in direktiva inspire : data quality and the inspire directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ažman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available V prispevku so predstavljeni vse ve?ji pomen kakovosti geodetskih in prostorskih podatkov, dolo?be o kakovosti prostorskih informacij v direktivi INSPIRE in predpisih, sprejetih na njeni podlagi, ter zahteve, povezane s kakovostjo prostorskih podatkov in storitev, ki jih pred slovenske ponudnike podatkov in storitev postavlja evropska zakonodaja ; This article presents the growing importance of the quality of geodetic and spatial information. It describes the contents related to the data quality in the INSPIRE Directive, regulations for its implementation and guidelines, as well as the requirements related to the quality of spatial data and services set for Slovenian suppliers of data by European legislation.

  2. Saliency detection using sparse and nonlinear feature representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Shahzad; Zhao, Qingjie; Manzoor, Muhammad Farhan; Khan, Saqib Ishaq

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of visual saliency detection is how features that form an input image are represented. A popular theory supports sparse feature representation, an image being represented with a basis dictionary having sparse weighting coefficient. Another method uses a nonlinear combination of image features for representation. In our work, we combine the two methods and propose a scheme that takes advantage of both sparse and nonlinear feature representation. To this end, we use independent component analysis (ICA) and covariant matrices, respectively. To compute saliency, we use a biologically plausible center surround difference (CSD) mechanism. Our sparse features are adaptive in nature; the ICA basis function are learnt at every image representation, rather than being fixed. We show that Adaptive Sparse Features when used with a CSD mechanism yield better results compared to fixed sparse representations. We also show that covariant matrices consisting of nonlinear integration of color information alone are sufficient to efficiently estimate saliency from an image. The proposed dual representation scheme is then evaluated against human eye fixation prediction, response to psychological patterns, and salient object detection on well-known datasets. We conclude that having two forms of representation compliments one another and results in better saliency detection. PMID:24895644

  3. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  4. Finding the best visualization of an ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabritius, Christina Valentin; Madsen, Nadia Lyngaa

    2004-01-01

    An ontology is a classification model for a given domain. In information retrieval ontologies are used to perform broad searches. An ontology can be visualized as nodes and edges. Each node represents an element and each edge a relation between a parent and a child element. Working with an ontology becomes easier with a visual representation. An idea is to use the expressive power that a 3D representation to provide visualization for the user. In this paper we propose a new method for positioning the elements of the visualized concept lattice in the 3D world based on Operations Research (OR) methods. One method uses a discrete location model to create an initial solution and we propose heuristic methods to further improve the visual result. We evaluate the visual results according to our success criteria and the feedback from users. Running times of the heuristic indicate that an improved version should be feasible for on-line processing and what-if analysis of ontologies.

  5. Correlative visualization techniques for multidimensional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treinish, Lloyd A.; Goettsche, Craig

    1989-01-01

    Critical to the understanding of data is the ability to provide pictorial or visual representation of those data, particularly in support of correlative data analysis. Despite the advancement of visualization techniques for scientific data over the last several years, there are still significant problems in bringing today's hardware and software technology into the hands of the typical scientist. For example, there are other computer science domains outside of computer graphics that are required to make visualization effective such as data management. Well-defined, flexible mechanisms for data access and management must be combined with rendering algorithms, data transformation, etc. to form a generic visualization pipeline. A generalized approach to data visualization is critical for the correlative analysis of distinct, complex, multidimensional data sets in the space and Earth sciences. Different classes of data representation techniques must be used within such a framework, which can range from simple, static two- and three-dimensional line plots to animation, surface rendering, and volumetric imaging. Static examples of actual data analyses will illustrate the importance of an effective pipeline in data visualization system.

  6. Cognition Inspired Object Oriented Knowledge Warehouse Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixu Fu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive knowledge system needs massive knowledge. But massive knowledge can handicap the speed of searching and reasoning. Good structure can considerably enhance the expressive power and efficiency of a knowledge system. Inspired by the structure of human memory and data warehouse, object-oriented warehouse architecture of knowledge based on the 3-World model was advanced after exploring the essence of knowledge and cognition. Great amount of conceptual and nonconceptual knowledge can be well handled with this architecture. System using the architecture can be more adaptable with different tasks.

  7. Innovative Outreach Programs Inspire Interest in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne Allen, Alice; Lauderman, Julie

    2015-04-01

    The NASA West Virginia Space Grant Consortium has given Concord University financial support to develop, acquire materials for, and implement an outreach program in physics and astronomy that will provide hands-on learning opportunities related to outer space and to inspire interest in science. Using materials purchased with these funds, we have developed successful outreach programs related to the electromagnetic spectrum, the launching of objects into space, and the challenges of building objects in space. The success of these outreach projects in our rural region of southern West Virginia will be presented. Supported by NASA West Virginia Space Grant Consortium Extension and Public Outreach Grant.

  8. Metamaterial-Inspired Efficient Electrically Small Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Ziolkowski, R. W.

    2008-01-01

    Planar two-dimensional (2D) and volumetric three-dimensional (3D) metamaterial-inspired efficient electrically-small antennas that are easy to design; are easy and inexpensive to build; and are easy to test; are reported, i.e., the EZ antenna systems. The proposed 2D and 3D electrical- and magnetic-based EZ antennas are shown to be naturally matched to a 50 source, i.e., without the introduction of a matching network. It is demonstrated numerically that these EZ antennas have high radiation effi...

  9. Wormhole inspired by non-commutative geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Farook; Karmakar, Sreya; Karar, Indrani; Ray, Saibal

    2015-06-01

    In the present Letter we search for a new wormhole solution inspired by noncommutative geometry with the additional condition of allowing conformal Killing vectors (CKV). A special aspect of noncommutative geometry is that it replaces point-like structures of gravitational sources with smeared objects under Gaussian distribution. However, the purpose of this letter is to obtain wormhole solutions with noncommutative geometry as a background where we consider a point-like structure of gravitational object without smearing effect. It is found through this investigation that wormhole solutions exist in this Lorentzian distribution with viable physical properties.

  10. Wormhole inspired by non-commutative geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farook Rahaman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present Letter we search for a new wormhole solution inspired by noncommutative geometry with the additional condition of allowing conformal Killing vectors (CKV. A special aspect of noncommutative geometry is that it replaces point-like structures of gravitational sources with smeared objects under Gaussian distribution. However, the purpose of this letter is to obtain wormhole solutions with noncommutative geometry as a background where we consider a point-like structure of gravitational object without smearing effect. It is found through this investigation that wormhole solutions exist in this Lorentzian distribution with viable physical properties.

  11. Visualization of second order tensor fields and matrix data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmarcelle, Thierry; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1992-01-01

    We present a study of the visualization of 3-D second order tensor fields and matrix data. The general problem of visualizing unsymmetric real or complex Hermitian second order tensor fields can be reduced to the simultaneous visualization of a real and symmetric second order tensor field and a real vector field. As opposed to the discrete iconic techniques commonly used in multivariate data visualization, the emphasis is on exploiting the mathematical properties of tensor fields in order to facilitate their visualization and to produce a continuous representation of the data. We focus on interactively sensing and exploring real and symmetric second order tensor data by generalizing the vector notion of streamline to the tensor concept of hyperstreamline. We stress the importance of a structural analysis of the data field analogous to the techniques of vector field topology extraction in order to obtain a unique and objective representation of second order tensor fields.

  12. Software tangible: metáforas, representaciones visuales y actividades de apoyo didáctico para la enseñanza en construcción de software / Tangible software: metaphors, visual representations and didactic support activities for teaching in software construction / Software tangível: metáforas, representações visuais e atividades de apoio didático para o ensino em construção de software

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Carlos, Díaz Chaparro; Miguel Eduardo, Torres Moreno; José Hernando, Hurtado Rojas; Germán Alberto, Chavarro Flórez; Edgar Enrique, Ruiz García.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Introdução. Desde a experiência no processo de ensino aprendizagem dos primeiros níveis de análises, desenho, construção e execução de algoritmos se detectou que realmente é complicado ilustrar e compreender conceitos de caráter intangível. Resulta ser uma meta para os professores gerar analo [...] gias ou outro tipo de ajudas conceituais que de alguma maneira contribuam à imaginação ou abstração que devem fundar os estudantes no momento de entender os conceitos básicos de programação. Objetivo. Definir um conjunto de representações visuais e metáforas que permitam estabelecer uma base para o desenvolvimento de materiais didáticos, aplicações de software e atividades pertinentes que brindem suporte ao ensino e aprendizagem em programação. Materiais e métodos. Com base em algumas teorias da área da pedagogia e a revisão de projetos semelhantes, definiram-se várias propostas de representação, metáforas e atividades de aprendizagem significativa, a partir de uma primeira seleção de conceitos de programação. Resultados. Compartilharam-se experiências docentes e se formalizaram várias atividades que foram desenvolvidas diretamente em classe por parte dos professores envolvidos na linha de trabalho denominada Software Tangível. Gerou-se e se utilizou um conjunto de instrumentos físicos e ferramentas de software de apoio didático relacionadas e integradas sob uma consistente definição de representações visuais comuns. Conclusão. O uso das representações visuais, metáforas, instrumentos e atividades de aprendizagem significativa permite apoiar a geração das abstrações necessárias que contribuem a compreender os conceitos intangíveis próprios da programação e execução de algoritmos. Abstract in spanish Resumen Introducción. Desde la experiencia en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de los primeros niveles de análisis, diseño, construcción y ejecución de algoritmos se ha detectado que realmente es complicado ilustrar y comprender conceptos de carácter intangible. Resulta ser un reto para los profe [...] sores generar analogías u otro tipo de ayudas conceptuales que de alguna manera aporten a la imaginación o abstracción que deben fundar los estudiantes en el momento de entender los conceptos básicos de programación. Objetivo. Definir un conjunto de representaciones visuales y metáforas que permitan establecer una base para el desarrollo de materiales didácticos, aplicaciones de software y actividades pertinentes que brinden soporte a la enseñanza y aprendizaje en programación. Materiales y métodos. Con base en algunas teorías del área de la pedagogía y la revisión de proyectos semejantes, se definieron varias propuestas de representación, metáforas y actividades de aprendizaje significativo, a partir de una primera selección de conceptos de programación. Resultados. Se compartieron experiencias docentes y se formalizaron varias actividades que fueron desarrolladas directamente en clase por parte de los profesores involucrados en la línea de trabajo denominada Software Tangible. Se generó y se utilizó un conjunto de instrumentos físicos y herramientas de software de apoyo didáctico relacionadas e integradas bajo una consistente definición de representaciones visuales comunes. Conclusión. El uso de las representaciones visuales, metáforas, instrumentos y actividades de aprendizaje significativo permite apoyar la generación de las abstracciones necesarias que contribuyen a comprender los conceptos intangibles propios de la programación y ejecución de algoritmos. Abstract in english Abstract Introduction. From the experience in the teachinglearning process of the first levels of analysis, design, construction and execution of algorithms, the difficulty of illustrating and understanding intangible concepts has been detected. Generating analogies or other kinds of conceptual reso [...] urces to contribute to the imagination or the abstraction students require to understand the basic elements of programming, turn

  13. Imprinting modulates processing of visual information in the visual wulst of chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchimura Motoaki

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imprinting behavior is one form of learning and memory in precocial birds. With the aim of elucidating of the neural basis for visual imprinting, we focused on visual information processing. Results A lesion in the visual wulst, which is similar functionally to the mammalian visual cortex, caused anterograde amnesia in visual imprinting behavior. Since the color of an object was one of the important cues for imprinting, we investigated color information processing in the visual wulst. Intrinsic optical signals from the visual wulst were detected in the early posthatch period and the peak regions of responses to red, green, and blue were spatially organized from the caudal to the nasal regions in dark-reared chicks. This spatial representation of color recognition showed plastic changes, and the response pattern along the antero-posterior axis of the visual wulst altered according to the color the chick was imprinted to. Conclusion These results indicate that the thalamofugal pathway is critical for learning the imprinting stimulus and that the visual wulst shows learning-related plasticity and may relay processed visual information to indicate the color of the imprint stimulus to the memory storage region, e.g., the intermediate medial mesopallium.

  14. Can we throw information out of visual working memory and does this leave informational residue in long-term memory?

    OpenAIRE

    AshleighMonetteMaxcey; GeoffreyF.Woodman

    2014-01-01

    Can we entirely erase a temporary memory representation from mind? This question has been addressed in several recent studies that tested the specific hypothesis that a representation can be erased from visual working memory based on a cue that indicated that the representation was no longer necessary for the task. In addition to behavioral results that are consistent with the idea that we can throw information out of visual working memory, recent neurophysiological recordings support this pr...

  15. Insect-Inspired Flight Control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Stange, G.; Srinivasan, M.; Chahl, Javaan; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Flight-control and navigation systems inspired by the structure and function of the visual system and brain of insects have been proposed for a class of developmental miniature robotic aircraft called "biomorphic flyers" described earlier in "Development of Biomorphic Flyers" (NPO-30554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 54. These form a subset of biomorphic explorers, which, as reported in several articles in past issues of NASA Tech Briefs ["Biomorphic Explorers" (NPO-20142), Vol. 22, No. 9 (September 1998), page 71; "Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems" (NPO-21142), Vol. 27, No. 5 (May 2003), page 54; and "Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration" (NPO-30286), Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 36], are proposed small robots, equipped with microsensors and communication systems, that would incorporate crucial functions of mobility, adaptability, and even cooperative behavior. These functions are inherent to biological organisms but are challenging frontiers for technical systems. Biomorphic flyers could be used on Earth or remote planets to explore otherwise difficult or impossible to reach sites. An example of an exploratory task of search/surveillance functions currently being tested is to obtain high-resolution aerial imagery, using a variety of miniaturized electronic cameras. The control functions to be implemented by the systems in development include holding altitude, avoiding hazards, following terrain, navigation by reference to recognizable terrain features, stabilization of flight, and smooth landing. Flying insects perform these and other functions remarkably well, even though insect brains contains fewer than 10(exp -4) as many neurons as does the human brain. Although most insects have immobile, fixed-focus eyes and lack stereoscopy (and hence cannot perceive depth directly), they utilize a number of ingenious strategies for perceiving, and navigating in, three dimensions. Despite their lack of stereoscopy, insects infer distances to potential obstacles and other objects from image motion cues that result from their own motions in the environment. The concept of motion of texture in images as a source of motion cues is denoted generally as the concept of optic or optical flow. Computationally, a strategy based on optical flow is simpler than is stereoscopy for avoiding hazards and following terrain. Hence, this strategy offers the potential to design vision-based control computing subsystems that would be more compact, would weigh less, and would demand less power than would subsystems of equivalent capability based on a conventional stereoscopic approach.

  16. Combinatorial Representation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelo, Hélène; Ram, Arun

    1997-01-01

    We attempt to survey the field of combinatorial representation theory, describe the main results and main questions and give an update of its current status. We give a personal viewpoint on the field, while remaining aware that there is much important and beautiful work that we have not been able to mention.

  17. Igniting the Spark: Library Programs That Inspire High School Patrons. Library Programs That Inspire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Roger; Wilson, Patricia Potter

    This guide provides information to help librarians plan, execute, and evaluate events for high school students. Benefits of effective programs are emphasized, and techniques are offered to enhance the curriculum, improve school library media center usage, broaden student interest, and inspire lifelong learning. The book is divided into eight…

  18. Visualizing Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Reality Capture Technologies, Inc. is a spinoff company from Ames Research Center. Offering e-business solutions for optimizing management, design and production processes, RCT uses visual collaboration environments (VCEs) such as those used to prepare the Mars Pathfinder mission.The product, 4-D Reality Framework, allows multiple users from different locations to manage and share data. The insurance industry is one targeted commercial application for this technology.

  19. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, iden...

  20. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation the project elaborates on previous revisions of the concept of transformation (Macdonald-Ross & Waller, 1974; Kinross, 1979, Kinross & Marie Neurath, 2009). The inquiry method I have used is unusual in the way the material has been organized, by “rewinding” transformation (as explained later in the paper), using the finished charts as a starting point and then going back to the beginning; furthermore this inquiry presents a novel approach to clarifying the process by designing symbols and diagrams. It will be demonstrated that transformation offers an improved approach to data visualization. The message in the chart is not preformed, but formed through the process of transformation; this means that the purpose of transformation is not the styling of charts with pictograms but rather creating a meaningful message. The contribution of this paper is an elaborated understanding of the process of transformation and a demonstration of the adoption of a research-through-design method.

  1. Autobiography: Inspiring new visions of teacher learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Simon

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this article is to broaden the tradition of autobiography by using it as a way in which teachers can identify sources of inspiration in their educational experience. In the process, my aim is to make explicit the links between autobiography, learning and meta learning. Extending autobiographical inquiry to include different levels at which learning takes place serves to highlight the importance not only of the individual context of learning (the private self, but also the possibility of learning and constructing meaning from autobiography in dialogue with others. This article identifies four levels of learning-how-to-learn from autobiography. These levels are: 1. learning from autobiographical writing; 2. learning through intergenerational dialogues; 3. developmental learning through the career stages; and 4. whole group co-constructive learning. My ultimate goal is two fold. Firstly, to use these levels of learning to identify operational definitions of inspiration based on significant events and experiences in teacher’s personal stories. Secondly to identify a meta research orientation for linking autobiography with learning and meta-learning.

  2. What inspires South African student teachers for their future profession?

    OpenAIRE

    Charl Wolhuter; Hannes van der Walt; Ferdinand Potgieter; Louisa Meyer; Thapelo Mamiala

    2012-01-01

    The need for an inspired professional teacher corps to haul South African school education out of its current low level of quality was the driving force behind this project. Its aim was to determine what counted as sources of inspiration for student teachers and hence for future teachers. Based on a conceptual-theoretical study, a questionnaire that could probe student teachers' sources of inspiration was completed by a sample of student teachers (n = 1,683). A factor analysis of their respon...

  3. Conversion from Tree to Graph Representation of Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayank, Vimal; Everett, David Frank; Shmunis, Natalya; Austin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A procedure and software to implement the procedure have been devised to enable conversion from a tree representation to a graph representation of the requirements governing the development and design of an engineering system. The need for this procedure and software and for other requirements-management tools arises as follows: In systems-engineering circles, it is well known that requirements- management capability improves the likelihood of success in the team-based development of complex systems involving multiple technological disciplines. It is especially desirable to be able to visualize (in order to identify and manage) requirements early in the system- design process, when errors can be corrected most easily and inexpensively.

  4. Appendix VII: Knowledge representation and modeling at GRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge representation as a scientific domain has gained strong momentum, particularly in view of the 'Semantic Net' proposed by Tim Berners-Lee (the 'father' of the Internet) as the next 'intelligent' Internet. Several methods such as Topic Maps, Concept Maps or Ontologies are available, differing in the degree of formalization. In general, they offer a systematic approach to knowledge representation and a controlled vocabulary set up by experts to describe the domain as well as visualization and search facilities to navigate the maps. In more formal cases such as ontologies, the domain may be 'understood' by machines to e.g. draw inferences or check consistency

  5. Calibrating Bayesian Network Representations of Social-Behavioral Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Paul D.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2010-04-08

    While human behavior has long been studied, recent and ongoing advances in computational modeling present opportunities for recasting research outcomes in human behavior. In this paper we describe how Bayesian networks can represent outcomes of human behavior research. We demonstrate a Bayesian network that represents political radicalization research – and show a corresponding visual representation of aspects of this research outcome. Since Bayesian networks can be quantitatively compared with external observations, the representation can also be used for empirical assessments of the research which the network summarizes. For a political radicalization model based on published research, we show this empirical comparison with data taken from the Minorities at Risk Organizational Behaviors database.

  6. An Algebraic Process for Visualization Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindlmann, Gordon; Scheidegger, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    We present a model of visualization design based on algebraic considerations of the visualization process. The model helps characterize visual encodings, guide their design, evaluate their effectiveness, and highlight their shortcomings. The model has three components: the underlying mathematical structure of the data or object being visualized, the concrete representation of the data in a computer, and (to the extent possible) a mathematical description of how humans perceive the visualization. Because we believe the value of our model lies in its practical application, we propose three general principles for good visualization design. We work through a collection of examples where our model helps explain the known properties of existing visualizations methods, both good and not-so-good, as well as suggesting some novel methods. We describe how to use the model alongside experimental user studies, since it can help frame experiment outcomes in an actionable manner. Exploring the implications and applications of our model and its design principles should provide many directions for future visualization research. PMID:26356932

  7. Principles of Information Visualization for Business Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan I. ANDONE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the era of data-centric-science, a large number of visualization tools have been created to help researchers understand increasingly rich business databases. Information visualization is a process of constructing a visual presentation of business quantitative data, especially prepared for managerial use. Interactive information visualization provide researchers with remarkable tools for discovery and innovation. By combining powerful data mining methods with user-controlled interfaces, users are beginning to benefit from these potent telescopes for high-dimensional spaces. They can begin with an overview, zoom in on areas of interest, filter out unwanted items, and then click for details-on-demand. With careful design and efficient algorithms, the dynamic queries approach to data exploration can provide 100 msec updates even for million-record databases. Visualizations of business information are therefore widely used in actually business decision support systems, and by business researchers also. Visual user interfaces called dashboards are tools for reporting the status of a company and its business environment to facilitate business intelligence and performance management activities. In this study, we examine the research on concepts, and the principles of business information visualization, because we hope to be using correctly by business Ph.D. students in their researches. Visual representations are likely to improve business managers, and business researchers efficiency, offer new insights, and encouraging comparisons.

  8. Realizations of the Canonical Representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Vemuri

    2008-02-01

    A characterisation of the maximal abelian subalgebras of the bounded operators on Hilbert space that are normalised by the canonical representation of the Heisenberg group is given. This is used to classify the perfect realizations of the canonical representation.

  9. From Sensory Signals to Modality-Independent Conceptual Representations: A Probabilistic Language of Thought Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Goker; Yildirim, Ilker; Jacobs, Robert A

    2015-11-01

    People learn modality-independent, conceptual representations from modality-specific sensory signals. Here, we hypothesize that any system that accomplishes this feat will include three components: a representational language for characterizing modality-independent representations, a set of sensory-specific forward models for mapping from modality-independent representations to sensory signals, and an inference algorithm for inverting forward models-that is, an algorithm for using sensory signals to infer modality-independent representations. To evaluate this hypothesis, we instantiate it in the form of a computational model that learns object shape representations from visual and/or haptic signals. The model uses a probabilistic grammar to characterize modality-independent representations of object shape, uses a computer graphics toolkit and a human hand simulator to map from object representations to visual and haptic features, respectively, and uses a Bayesian inference algorithm to infer modality-independent object representations from visual and/or haptic signals. Simulation results show that the model infers identical object representations when an object is viewed, grasped, or both. That is, the model's percepts are modality invariant. We also report the results of an experiment in which different subjects rated the similarity of pairs of objects in different sensory conditions, and show that the model provides a very accurate account of subjects' ratings. Conceptually, this research significantly contributes to our understanding of modality invariance, an important type of perceptual constancy, by demonstrating how modality-independent representations can be acquired and used. Methodologically, it provides an important contribution to cognitive modeling, particularly an emerging probabilistic language-of-thought approach, by showing how symbolic and statistical approaches can be combined in order to understand aspects of human perception. PMID:26554704

  10. From Sensory Signals to Modality-Independent Conceptual Representations: A Probabilistic Language of Thought Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Goker; Yildirim, Ilker; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    People learn modality-independent, conceptual representations from modality-specific sensory signals. Here, we hypothesize that any system that accomplishes this feat will include three components: a representational language for characterizing modality-independent representations, a set of sensory-specific forward models for mapping from modality-independent representations to sensory signals, and an inference algorithm for inverting forward models—that is, an algorithm for using sensory signals to infer modality-independent representations. To evaluate this hypothesis, we instantiate it in the form of a computational model that learns object shape representations from visual and/or haptic signals. The model uses a probabilistic grammar to characterize modality-independent representations of object shape, uses a computer graphics toolkit and a human hand simulator to map from object representations to visual and haptic features, respectively, and uses a Bayesian inference algorithm to infer modality-independent object representations from visual and/or haptic signals. Simulation results show that the model infers identical object representations when an object is viewed, grasped, or both. That is, the model’s percepts are modality invariant. We also report the results of an experiment in which different subjects rated the similarity of pairs of objects in different sensory conditions, and show that the model provides a very accurate account of subjects’ ratings. Conceptually, this research significantly contributes to our understanding of modality invariance, an important type of perceptual constancy, by demonstrating how modality-independent representations can be acquired and used. Methodologically, it provides an important contribution to cognitive modeling, particularly an emerging probabilistic language-of-thought approach, by showing how symbolic and statistical approaches can be combined in order to understand aspects of human perception. PMID:26554704

  11. Testing learners' attitudes - visual components of texts as bridges or barriers to learning

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Anthonissen; Monica Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    This article considers how visual images in texts may enhance or inhibit language learning. It draws on Kress and Van Leeuwen’s (1996) work on the grammar of visual design, recognising that visual images form part of a powerful semiotic system that carries representational and connotative meanings in a manner comparable to that of words, sentences and larger textual units. It takes note of the ways in which new technologies have introduced more visual material in printed texts than was availa...

  12. Developing Representations of Compound Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    IngmarVisser

    2012-01-01

    Classification based on multiple dimensions of stimuli is usually associated with similarity-based representations, whereas uni-dimensional classifications are associated with rule-based representations. This paper studies classification of stimuli and category representations in school-aged children and adults when learning to categorize compound, multi-dimensional stimuli. Stimuli were such that both similarity-based and rule-based representations would lead to correct classification. This ...

  13. Digital media Experiences for Visual Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2013-01-01

    Visual learning is a topic for didactic studies in all levels of educaion, brought about by an increasing use of digital meida- digital media give rise to discussions of how learning expereienes come about from various media ressources that generate new learning situations. new situations call for new tools and new theoretical approaches with which to understand them. the article argues that the current phase of social practices and technological development makes it difficult to disitnguish between experience with digital media and mediated experiences, because of the use of renegotiation og both possibilites of technology and the nature of the content it facilitates. the discussion comes in three parts: 1. the alteration of visual representations in contemporary teaching and learning brought about by digital interfaces, 2. the functions af visual experience in learning processes brought about by the nature of diverse digital artefacts, 3. the learning potentials in using mobils devices for integrating thebody in visual perception processes.

  14. Visualization Through Knowledge Representation Model for Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Athar Javed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zaki

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management is a systematic and organizationally specified process and knowledge management system is all those technological components; software, hardware, people and processes supporting knowledge management initiative. These initiatives includes work flow maps, web sites, portals, document/team management system, data warehouses, data mining processes, databases, contact lists, virtual teams, collaboration tools, customer relationship management, applications and news (Davenport and...

  15. Dynamics and representation in the primary visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Adorjan, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Bestehende Modelle für Orientierungsselektivität einfacher Zellen in V1 nehmen an, dass durch die Muster der axonalen Projektionen vom Kniekörper zu V1 bereits eine schwache Orientierungsselektivität gegeben ist, die dann intrakortikal verstärkt wird. Als Alternative wurde ein mit experimentellenDaten konsistentes Modell zu der Hypothese konstruiert, dass beides, Verstärkung und Initiierung orientierungsselektiver neuronaler Antworten, ein intrakortikales Phänomen ist. Die Möglichkeit eines i...

  16. UNIFIED REPRESENTATION FOR COLLABORATIVE VISUALIZATION OF PLANETARY TERRAIN DATA Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to apply to planetary terrain mapping an alternative, multiresolution method, subdivision surfaces (subdivs), in place of conventional digital elevation...

  17. Language in the Mind's Eye: Visual Representations and Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Vandeberg, L.

    2012-01-01

    My favorite children’s book was (and still is) Matilda, by Roald Dahl. The story is about Matilda Wormwood, an extraordinarily clever and sweet five year old girl who loves to learn and read. Unfortunately, her unpleasant parents are contemptuous of her inquisitiveness and talent, as is the headmistress of her school, Miss Trunchbull. While Matilda’s parents force her to eat microwave dinners and watch loud game shows on TV, the child-hating Miss Trunchbull sows fear by locking...

  18. Realistic Visualization of Virtual Views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    Computer Graphics allows us today to visualize in real-time innumerable and amazing scenarios with no limits on viewpoint and viewing direction. However, to design accurate object models and to simulate all the physical phenomena occurring in analogous real situations often represents a job that can be impractical and sometime impossible. In addition, the artificial nature of data often makes visualized virtual scenarios not realistic enough. Not realistic in the sense that a synthetic scene is easy to discriminate visually from a natural scene. A new field of research has consequently developed and received much attention in recent years: Realistic Virtual View Synthesis. The main goal is a high fidelity representation of virtual scenarios while easing modeling and physical phenomena simulation. In particular, realism is achieved by the transfer to the novel view of all the physical phenomena captured in the reference photographs, (i.e. the transfer of photographic-realism). An overview of most prominent approaches in realistic virtual view synthesis will be presented and briefly discussed. Applications of proposed methods to visual survey, virtual cinematography, as well as mobile robotics, will also be described.

  19. Hyper-heuristic Evolution of Dispatching Rules: A Comparison of Rule Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branke, Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Torsten; Scholz-Reiter, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Dispatching rules are frequently used for real-time, online scheduling in complex manufacturing systems. Design of such rules is usually done by experts in a time consuming trial-and-error process. Recently, evolutionary algorithms have been proposed to automate the design process. There are several possibilities to represent rules for this hyper-heuristic search. Because the representation determines the search neighborhood and the complexity of the rules that can be evolved, a suitable choice of representation is key for a successful evolutionary algorithm. In this paper we empirically compare three different representations, both numeric and symbolic, for automated rule design: A linear combination of attributes, a representation based on artificial neural networks, and a tree representation. Using appropriate evolutionary algorithms (CMA-ES for the neural network and linear representations, genetic programming for the tree representation), we empirically investigate the suitability of each representation in a dynamic stochastic job shop scenario. We also examine the robustness of the evolved dispatching rules against variations in the underlying job shop scenario, and visualize what the rules do, in order to get an intuitive understanding of their inner workings. Results indicate that the tree representation using an improved version of genetic programming gives the best results if many candidate rules can be evaluated, closely followed by the neural network representation that already leads to good results for small to moderate computational budgets. The linear representation is found to be competitive only for extremely small computational budgets. PMID:24885679

  20. MENTAL STATE REPRESENTATION: SPATIOTEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Oktyabrinovich Prokhorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the time of statement of the problem of states in psychology, the study of “sensuous” tissue – the mental state representation-takes a fundamental meaning. The problem is concluded in the following questions: “How is mental state represented in the consciousness of an individual?”, “What is the specificity of the mental state representation as distinguished from the subject-matter representation?”, “What are the mechanisms of the mental state representation occurrence and the peculiarities of its dynamics? The study of the mental state representation will allow to explain its specificity and difference from the figurative representation, the peculiarities of state explication as a representation in the consciousness and its relation with other elements of consciousness, will allow to show the regularities of the mental state representation development and its dynamics, factors, which influence the specificity of its occurrence, the regulatory role of the state representation in the vital function. From these perspectives, the article presents the results of the study of spatiotemporal characteristics of the mental state representation; reveals the peculiar features of the spatiotemporal organization of mental state representations: Relieves, specificity, magnitude, variability of indicators, changes of structural characteristics in time spans; considers the age-specific peculiar features of the spatiotemporal organization of mental state representations in terms of organization, stability, coherence and differentiated nature of spatiotemporal structures with the representatives of certain age groups.

  1. Extension Data Mining Knowledge Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangqiang, Xie; Yang, Li

    This paper research on the representation of transformable knowledge from extension data mining. Traditional data mining technology obtain static knowledge, on the contrary, extension data mining obtain transformable knowledge, which widening the source of knowledge needed in extension strategy generating system. Transformable knowledge representation using finite automata provide us a new method of extension data mining knowledge representation.

  2. Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot (CoRLEGO): The motor system guides visual attention to movement-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Soeren; Woodgate, Philip J W; Sami, Saber A; Heinke, Dietmar

    2015-12-01

    We present an extension of a neurobiologically inspired robotics model, termed CoRLEGO (Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot). CoRLEGO models experimental evidence from choice reaching tasks (CRT). In a CRT participants are asked to rapidly reach and touch an item presented on the screen. These experiments show that non-target items can divert the reaching movement away from the ideal trajectory to the target item. This is seen as evidence attentional selection of reaching targets can leak into the motor system. Using competitive target selection and topological representations of motor parameters (dynamic neural fields) CoRLEGO is able to mimic this leakage effect. Furthermore if the reaching target is determined by its colour oddity (i.e. a green square among red squares or vice versa), the reaching trajectories become straighter with repetitions of the target colour (colour streaks). This colour priming effect can also be modelled with CoRLEGO. The paper also presents an extension of CoRLEGO. This extension mimics findings that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex modulates the colour priming effect (Woodgate et al., 2015). The results with the new CoRLEGO suggest that feedback connections from the motor system to the brain's attentional system (parietal cortex) guide visual attention to extract movement-relevant information (i.e. colour) from visual stimuli. This paper adds to growing evidence that there is a close interaction between the motor system and the attention system. This evidence contradicts the traditional conceptualization of the motor system as the endpoint of a serial chain of processing stages. At the end of the paper we discuss CoRLEGO's predictions and also lessons for neurobiologically inspired robotics emerging from this work. PMID:26667353

  3. Higher Representations Duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We uncover novel solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for scalarless gauge theories with matter transforming according to higher dimensional representations of the underlying gauge group. We argue that, if the duals exist, they are gauge theories with fermions transforming according to the defining representation of the dual gauge group. The resulting conformal windows match the one stemming from the all-orders beta function results when taking the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass to be unity which are also very close to the ones obtained using the Schwinger-Dyson approximation. We use the solutions to gain useful insight on the conformal window of the associated electric theory. A consistent picture emerges corroborating previous results obtained via different analytic methods and in agreement with first principle lattice explorations.

  4. Naturalising Representational Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content - to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  5. Algebraic representation of continua

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SONIA M., SABOGAL P..

    2007-10-29

    Full Text Available Usando la dualidad entre la categoría cuyos objetos son las representaciones de cocientes Hausdorff de espacios de Cantor y la categoría cuyos objetos son el anillo de Cantor dotado con una relación de ligazón (esta dualidad es un caso particular de una extensión de la dualidad de Stone obtenida en [...] [3]), obtenemos representaciones algebraicas de los siguientes continuos: el intervalo unidad I=[0,1], el círculo unitario S¹, la curva triangular de Sierpínski y el triodo simple. Abstract in english Using the duality between the category whose objects are the representations of Hausdorff quotients of Cantor spaces and the category whose objects are the Cantor ring endowed with a link relation (this duality is a particular case of an extension of the Stone duality obtained in [3]), we obtain alg [...] ebraic representations of the following continua: the unit interval I=[0,1], the unit circle S¹, the Sierpínski triangular curve and the simple triod.

  6. Representation as a Service

    OpenAIRE

    Alsharif, Ouais; Bachman, Philip; Pineau, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    Consider a Machine Learning Service Provider (MLSP) designed to rapidly create highly accurate learners for a never-ending stream of new tasks. The challenge is to produce task-specific learners that can be trained from few labeled samples, even if tasks are not uniquely identified, and the number of tasks and input dimensionality are large. In this paper, we argue that the MLSP should exploit knowledge from previous tasks to build a good representation of the environment it...

  7. Sparse representations of gravitational waves from precessing compact binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Jonathan; Szilagyi, Bela; Galley, Chad R; Tiglio, Manuel

    2014-07-11

    Many relevant applications in gravitational wave physics share a significant common problem: the seven-dimensional parameter space of gravitational waveforms from precessing compact binary inspirals and coalescences is large enough to prohibit covering the space of waveforms with sufficient density. We find that by using the reduced basis method together with a parametrization of waveforms based on their phase and precession, we can construct ultracompact yet high-accuracy representations of this large space. As a demonstration, we show that less than 100 judiciously chosen precessing inspiral waveforms are needed for 200 cycles, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and spin magnitudes ?0.9. In fact, using only the first 10 reduced basis waveforms yields a maximum mismatch of 0.016 over the whole range of considered parameters. We test whether the parameters selected from the inspiral regime result in an accurate reduced basis when including merger and ringdown; we find that this is indeed the case in the context of a nonprecessing effective-one-body model. This evidence suggests that as few as ?100 numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences may accurately represent the seven-dimensional parameter space of precession waveforms for the considered ranges. PMID:25062160

  8. Detection Strategies for Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals

    CERN Document Server

    Cornish, N J

    2008-01-01

    The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime. The gravitational radiation produced by these Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major science driver for the LISA observatory. The waveforms produced are very complex, and the signals need to be coherently tracked for hundreds to thousands of cycles to produce a detection, making EMRI signals one of the most challenging data analysis problems in all of gravitational wave astronomy. Estimates for the number of templates required to perform an optimal matched-filter search for these signals are astronomically large, and far out of reach of current computational resources. Here a sub-optimal, hierarchical approach to the EMRI detection problem is developed that employs a directed-stochastic search technique. The algorithm, dubbed Metropolis Hasti...

  9. An AIS Inspired Alert Reduction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahboubian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important topics in the field of intrusion detection systems is to find a solution to reduce the overwhelming alerts generated by IDSs in the network. Inspired by danger theory which is one of the most important theories in artificial immune system (AIS we proposed a complementary subsystem for IDS which can be integrated into any existing IDS models to aggregate the alerts in order to reduce them, and subsequently reduce false alarms among the alerts. After evaluation using different datasets and attack scenarios and also different set of rules, in best case our model managed to aggregate the alerts by the average rate of 97.5 percent.

  10. What is Mathematics? Perspectives inspired by anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØyrup, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the question “what is mathematics” from a point of view inspired by anthropology. In this perspective, the character of mathematical thinking and argument is strongly affected – almost essentially determined, indeed – by the dynamics of the specific social, mostly professional environments by which it is carried. Environments where future practitioners are taught as apprentices produce an approach different from that resulting from teaching in a school – the latter inviting to intra-mathematical explanation in a way the former does not. Moreover, once the interaction with the early classical Greek philosophical quest for causes and general explanations had caused mathematical explanation to become an autonomous endeavour in the shape of explicit proof and deductivity, proof and deductivity presented themselves as options – sometimes exploited, sometimes not – even in the teaching of mathematics for practitioners.

  11. CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

  12. Vibration driven vehicle inspired from grass spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Suo; Xu, Qi; Qin, Yong

    2013-05-01

    Searching and detecting in some harsh environments such as collapsed buildings, pipes, small cracks are crucial for human rescue and industrial detection, military surveillance etc. However, the drawbacks of traditional moving modes of current vehicles make them difficult to perform such tasks. So developing some new vehicles is urgent. Here, we report a Setaria viridis spike's interesting behavior on a vibrating track, and inspired by that phenomena we develop a concept for cargo delivery, and give a detailed discussion about its working mechanism. This vehicle can move on a wide range of smooth and rough surfaces. Moreover, its climbing capability in tilted and even vertical smooth pipe is also outstanding. These features make it suitable for search-rescue, military reconnaissance, etc. Finally, this vehicle can be reduced into micro/nano-scale, which makes it would play an important role in target-drug delivery, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS).

  13. A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Chortos, Alex; Berndt, Andre; Nguyen, Amanda Kim; Tom, Ariane; McGuire, Allister; Lin, Ziliang Carter; Tien, Kevin; Bae, Won-Gyu; Wang, Huiliang; Mei, Ping; Chou, Ho-Hsiu; Cui, Bianxiao; Deisseroth, Karl; Ng, Tse Nga; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-10-01

    Human skin relies on cutaneous receptors that output digital signals for tactile sensing in which the intensity of stimulation is converted to a series of voltage pulses. We present a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure into digital frequency signals directly. The output frequency ranges between 0 and 200 hertz, with a sublinear response to increasing force stimuli that mimics slow-adapting skin mechanoreceptors. The output of the sensors was further used to stimulate optogenetically engineered mouse somatosensory neurons of mouse cortex in vitro, achieving stimulated pulses in accordance with pressure levels. This work represents a step toward the design and use of large-area organic electronic skins with neural-integrated touch feedback for replacement limbs.

  14. A Physiologically Inspired Method for Audio Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Anderson

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore the use of physiologically inspired auditory features with both physiologically motivated and statistical audio classification methods. We use features derived from a biophysically defensible model of the early auditory system for audio classification using a neural network classifier. We also use a Gaussian-mixture-model (GMM-based classifier for the purpose of comparison and show that the neural-network-based approach works better. Further, we use features from a more advanced model of the auditory system and show that the features extracted from this model of the primary auditory cortex perform better than the features from the early auditory stage. The features give good classification performance with only one-second data segments used for training and testing.

  15. Aurelia aurita bio-inspired tilt sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quickly expanding field of mobile robots, unmanned underwater vehicles, and micro-air vehicles urgently needs a cheap and effective means for measuring vehicle inclination. Commonly, tilt or inclination has been mathematically derived from accelerometers; however, there is inherent error in any indirect measurement. This paper reports a bio-inspired tilt sensor that mimics the natural balance organ of jellyfish, called the ‘statocyst’. Biological statocysts from the species Aurelia aurita were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the morphology and size of the natural sensor. An artificial tilt sensor was then developed by using printed electronics that incorporates a novel voltage divider concept in conjunction with small surface mount devices. This sensor was found to have minimum sensitivity of 4.21° with a standard deviation of 1.77°. These results open the possibility of developing elegant tilt sensor architecture for both air and water based platforms. (paper)

  16. Bio-inspired Ant Algorithms: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Roy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ant Algorithms are techniques for optimizing which were coined in the early 1990’s by M. Dorigo. The techniques were inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants in the nature. The focus of ant algorithms is to find approximate optimized problem solutions using artificial ants and their indirect decentralized communications using synthetic pheromones. In this paper, at first ant algorithms are described in details, then transforms to computational optimization techniques: the ACO metaheuristics and developed ACO algorithms. A comparative study of ant algorithms also carried out, followed by past and present trends in AAs applications. Future prospect in AAs also covered in this paper. Finally a comparison between AAs with well-established machine learning techniques were focused, so that combining with machine learning techniques hybrid, robust, novel algorithms could be produces for outstanding result in future.

  17. A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Benjamin C-K; Chortos, Alex; Berndt, Andre; Nguyen, Amanda Kim; Tom, Ariane; McGuire, Allister; Lin, Ziliang Carter; Tien, Kevin; Bae, Won-Gyu; Wang, Huiliang; Mei, Ping; Chou, Ho-Hsiu; Cui, Bianxiao; Deisseroth, Karl; Ng, Tse Nga; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-10-16

    Human skin relies on cutaneous receptors that output digital signals for tactile sensing in which the intensity of stimulation is converted to a series of voltage pulses. We present a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure into digital frequency signals directly. The output frequency ranges between 0 and 200 hertz, with a sublinear response to increasing force stimuli that mimics slow-adapting skin mechanoreceptors. The output of the sensors was further used to stimulate optogenetically engineered mouse somatosensory neurons of mouse cortex in vitro, achieving stimulated pulses in accordance with pressure levels. This work represents a step toward the design and use of large-area organic electronic skins with neural-integrated touch feedback for replacement limbs. PMID:26472906

  18. Consistent representations of and conversions between 3D rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowenhorst, D.; Rollett, A. D.; Rohrer, G. S.; Groeber, M.; Jackson, M.; Konijnenberg, P. J.; De Graef, M.

    2015-12-01

    In materials science the orientation of a crystal lattice is described by means of a rotation relative to an external reference frame. A number of rotation representations are in use, including Euler angles, rotation matrices, unit quaternions, Rodrigues–Frank vectors and homochoric vectors. Each representation has distinct advantages and disadvantages with respect to the ease of use for calculations and data visualization. It is therefore convenient to be able to easily convert from one representation to another. However, historically, each representation has been implemented using a set of often tacit conventions; separate research groups would implement different sets of conventions, thereby making the comparison of methods and results difficult and confusing. This tutorial article aims to resolve these ambiguities and provide a consistent set of conventions and conversions between common rotational representations, complete with worked examples and a discussion of the trade-offs necessary to resolve all ambiguities. Additionally, an open source Fortran-90 library of conversion routines for the different representations is made available to the community.

  19. Small Representation Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, H B F

    2014-01-01

    In a previous article Don Bennett and I looked for, found and proposed a game in which the Standard Model Gauge Group $S(U(2) \\times U(3))$ gets singled out as the "winner". This "game" means that the by Nature chosen gauge group should be just that one, which has the maximal value for a quantity, which is a modification of the ratio of the quadratic Casimir for the adjoint representation and that for a "smallest" faithful representation. In a recent article I proposed to extend this "game" to construct a corresponding game between different potential dimensions for space-time. The idea is to formulate, how the same competition as the one between the potential gauge groups would run out, if restricted to the potential Lorentz or Poincare groups achievable for different dimensions of space-time $d$. The remarkable point is, that it is the experimental space-time dimension 4, which wins. It follows that the whole Standard Model is specified by requiring SMALLEST REPRESENTATIONS! Speculatively we even argue that...

  20. NASA Missions Inspire Online Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Fast forward to 2035. Imagine being part of a community of astronauts living and working on the Moon. Suddenly, in the middle of just another day in space, a meteorite crashes into the surface of the Moon, threatening life as you know it. The support equipment that provides oxygen for the entire community has been compromised. What would you do? While this situation is one that most people will never encounter, NASA hopes to place students in such situations - virtually - to inspire, engage, and educate about NASA technologies, job opportunities, and the future of space exploration. Specifically, NASA s Learning Technologies program, part of the Agency s Office of Education, aims to inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines through interactive technologies. The ultimate goal of these educational programs is to support the growth of a pool of qualified scientific and technical candidates for future careers at places like NASA. STEM education has been an area of concern in the United States; according to the results of the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment, 23 countries had higher average scores in mathematics literacy than the United States. On the science literacy scale, 18 countries had higher average scores. "This is part of a much bigger picture of trying to grow skilled graduates for places like NASA that will want that technical expertise," says Daniel Laughlin, the Learning Technologies project manager at Goddard Space Flight Center. "NASA is trying to increase the number of students going into those fields, and so are other government agencies."