WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Case study on visualizing hurricanes using illustration-inspired techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

The devastating power of hurricanes was evident during the 2005 hurricane season, the most active season on record. This has prompted increased efforts by researchers to understand the physical processes that underlie the genesis, intensification, and tracks of hurricanes. This research aims at facilitating an improved understanding into the structure of hurricanes with the aid of visualization techniques. Our approach was developed by a mixed team of visualization and domain experts. To better understand these systems, and to explore their representation in NWP models, we use a variety of illustration-inspired techniques to visualize their structure and time evolution. Illustration-inspired techniques aid in the identification of the amount of vertical wind shear in a hurricane, which can help meteorologists predict dissipation. Illustration-style visualization, in combination with standard visualization techniques, helped explore the vortex rollup phenomena and the mesovortices contained within. We evaluated the effectiveness of our visualization with the help of six hurricane experts. The expert evaluation showed that the illustration-inspired techniques were preferred over existing tools. Visualization of the evolution of structural features is a prelude to a deeper visual analysis of the underlying dynamics. PMID:19590099

Joshi, Alark; Caban, Jesus; Rheingans, Penny; Sparling, Lynn

2

A Lambda Term Representation Inspired by Linear Ordered Logic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We introduce a new nameless representation of lambda terms inspired by ordered logic. At a lambda abstraction, number and relative position of all occurrences of the bound variable are stored, and application carries the additional information where to cut the variable context into function and argument part. This way, complete information about free variable occurrence is available at each subterm without requiring a traversal, and environments can be kept exact such that they only assign values to variables that actually occur in the associated term. Our approach avoids space leaks in interpreters that build function closures. In this article, we prove correctness of the new representation and present an experimental evaluation of its performance in a proof checker for the Edinburgh Logical Framework. Keywords: representation of binders, explicit substitutions, ordered contexts, space leaks, Logical Framework.

Andreas Abel; Nicolai Kraus

2011-01-01

3

On visual determination of full inspiration on CT images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of experienced thoracic radiologists to assess full inspiration based on two CT slices, one above and one below the carina, in normal subjects. Ten healthy volunteers were studied. Total lung capacity (TLC) was measured with a body plethysmograph. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed in two slices at TLC and at various expired volumes. Mean Hounsfield values (HU) were calculated. Unidentifiable images, stored on a web server, were analysed visually by experienced thoracic radiologists. The results show that the mean lung density at TLC varied by approximately 40 HU between individuals. Within an individual this may correspond to a decrease in lung volume of approximately 25% of TLC. On visual determination of images taken at 65-74% of TLC, more than one-third of the images were assessed as taken at full inspiration; of the images taken at 75-84% of TLC, approximately 50% were assessed as taken at full inspiration. We conclude that visual determination of full inspiration on CT images in normal subjects is highly inaccurate. If quantitative density measurements are to be used in the diagnosis or follow-up of lung disease, thorough control of full inspiration is recommended. (orig.)

2003-01-01

4

On visual determination of full inspiration on CT images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of experienced thoracic radiologists to assess full inspiration based on two CT slices, one above and one below the carina, in normal subjects. Ten healthy volunteers were studied. Total lung capacity (TLC) was measured with a body plethysmograph. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed in two slices at TLC and at various expired volumes. Mean Hounsfield values (HU) were calculated. Unidentifiable images, stored on a web server, were analysed visually by experienced thoracic radiologists. The results show that the mean lung density at TLC varied by approximately 40 HU between individuals. Within an individual this may correspond to a decrease in lung volume of approximately 25% of TLC. On visual determination of images taken at 65-74% of TLC, more than one-third of the images were assessed as taken at full inspiration; of the images taken at 75-84% of TLC, approximately 50% were assessed as taken at full inspiration. We conclude that visual determination of full inspiration on CT images in normal subjects is highly inaccurate. If quantitative density measurements are to be used in the diagnosis or follow-up of lung disease, thorough control of full inspiration is recommended. (orig.)

Vikgren, J.; Gustavsson, S.; Tylen, U. [Department of Radiology, Goeteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, 413 45 Goeteborg (Sweden); Johansson, Aa.; Moonen, M.; Bake, B. [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Goeteborg University, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, 413 45 Goeteborg (Sweden)

2003-06-01

5

Robust Visual Tracking via Fuzzy Kernel Representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A robust visual kernel tracking approach is presented for solving the problem of existing background pixels in object model. At first, after definition of fuzzy set on image is given, a fuzzy factor is embedded into object model to form the fuzzy kernel representation. Secondly, a fuzzy membership functions are generated by center-surround approach and log likelihood ratio of feature distributions. Thirdly, details about fuzzy kernel tracking algorithm is provided. After that, methods of parameter selection and performance evaluation for tracking algorithm are proposed. At last, a mass of experimental results are done to show our method can reduce the influence of the incomplete representation of object model via integrating both color features and background features.

Zhiqiang Wen; Yongxin Long; Zhaoyi Peng

2013-01-01

6

Cross-cultural understanding through visual representation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo analiza los dibujos de los estudiantes internacionales que hicieron de su país natal para su tarea de composición. Estos estudiantes de inglés como segundo idioma a menudo tienen dificultad llenando los requisitos del programa de escritura cuyo enfoque es el discurso argumentativo con tesis y apoyo. Cualquier ensayo considerado irrelevante se censura y se considera estar "fuera del topico". Algunos estudiantes ven esta estructura demasiado directa e irre (more) spetuosa. Mientras que no todos los estudiantes encuentran fácil la representación visual, los dibujos relevan ciertas características multiculturales básicias incrustadas en la escritura que se reflejan en las asignaturas. Primeramente discutimos los dibujos para el contenido retórico y luego lo discutimos utilizando la perspectiva de los estudiantes. Finalmente, analizamos como se formó nuestra propia pedagogía. Abstract in english This article analyzes international students' drawings of their home countries' essay assignments. These English as a Second Language (ESL) students often have difficulty in meeting the local demands of our Writing Program, which centers on argumentative writing with thesis and support. Any part of an essay deemed irrelevant is censured as "off topic;" some students see this structure as too direct or even impolite. While not all students found visual representation easy, (more) the drawings reveal some basic assumptions about writing embodied in their native cultures' assignments. We discuss the drawings first for visual rhetorical content, then in the students' own terms. Last, we consider how our own pedagogy has been shaped.

Beckman, Kristina; Smith, Susan N

2006-01-01

7

Visual Literacy in Biology: A Comparison of Visual Representations in Textbooks and Journal Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

Using course materials to promote visual literacy skills is an important aspect of undergraduate science education. A comparison study was undertaken to determine the composition of visual representations, specifically representations of data generated from experimental research, found in general biology and discipline-specific textbooks compared…

Rybarczyk, Brian

2011-01-01

8

Discoveries from a Reggio-Inspired Classroom: Meeting Developmental Needs through the Visual Arts  

Science.gov (United States)

Educators from Reggio Emilia encourage educators to see children as competent and strong. They persuade educators to acknowledge the children's use of the visual arts as a "language," especially during project work. Inspired by the philosophy from Reggio Emilia, the author initiated a 10-week ethnographic study of young children in a…

Griebling, Susan

2011-01-01

9

Visual experience facilitates allocentric spatial representation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Representing the position of the objects independently from our own position is a fundamental cognitive ability. Here we investigated whether this ability depends on visual experience. Congenitally blind, late blind and blindfolded sighted participants haptically learnt a room-sized regularly shaped array of objects, and their spatial memory was tested to determine which spatial reference frame was used. Crucially, the use of an object-based reference frame requires representing the regular structure of the array. We found that blindfolded sighted and late blind participants, that is those with visual experience, showed a preferential use of the object-based or 'allocentric' reference frame. On the contrary, congenitally blind participants preferred a self-based, or egocentric, reference frame. This suggests that, due to its developmental effect on the multisensory brain areas involved in spatial cognition, visual experience is necessary to develop a preference for an object-based, allocentric reference frame.

Pasqualotto A; Spiller MJ; Jansari AS; Proulx MJ

2013-01-01

10

Carl Linnaeus and the visual representation of nature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is reputed to have transformed botanical practice by shunning the process of illustrating plants and relying on the primacy of literary descriptions of plant specimens. Botanists and historians have long debated Linnaeus's capacities as a draftsman. While some of his detailed sketches of plants and insects reveal a sure hand, his more general drawings of landscapes and people seem ill-executed. The overwhelming consensus, based mostly on his Lapland diary (1732), is that Linnaeus could not draw. Little has been said, however, on the role of drawing and other visual representations in Linnaeus's daily work as seen in his other numerous manuscripts. These manuscripts, held mostly at the Linnean Society of London, are peppered with sketches, maps, tables, and diagrams. Reassessing these manuscripts, along with the printed works that also contain illustrations of plant species, shows that Linnaeus's thinking was profoundly visual and that he routinely used visual representational devices in his various publications. This paper aims to explore the full range of visual representations Linnaeus used through his working life, and to reevaluate the epistemological value of visualization in the making of natural knowledge. By analyzing Linnaeus's use of drawings, maps, tables, and diagrams, I will show that he did not, as has been asserted, reduce the discipline of botany to text, and that his visual thinking played a fundamental role in his construction of new systems of classification.

Charmantier I

2011-01-01

11

A PCA based manifold representation for visual speech recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we discuss a new Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based manifold representation for visual speech recognition. In this regard, the real time input video data is compressed using Principal Component Analysis and the low-dimensional points calculated for each frame define the manifold...

Yu, Dahai; Ghita, Ovidiu; Sutherland, Alistair; Whelan, Paul F.

12

Visualizing Angular Momentum Eigenstates using the Spin Coherent State Representation  

CERN Document Server

Orbital angular momentum eigenfunctions are readily understood in terms of spherical harmonic wavefunctions. However, the quantum mechanical phenomenon of spin is often said to be mysterious and hard to visualize, with no classical analogue. Many textbooks give a heuristic and somewhat unsatisfying picture of a precessing spin vector. Here we advocate for the "spin wavefunction" in the spin coherent state representation as a striking, elegant, and mathematically meaningful visual tool. We also demonstrate that cartographic projections such as the Hammer projection are useful for visualizing wavefunctions defined on spherical surfaces.

Loh, Yen Lee

2013-01-01

13

Data Representations, Transformations, and Statistics for Visual Reasoning  

CERN Multimedia

Analytical reasoning techniques are methods by which users explore their data to obtain insight and knowledge that can directly support situational awareness and decision making. Recently, the analytical reasoning process has been augmented through the use of interactive visual representations and tools which utilize cognitive, design and perceptual principles. These tools are commonly referred to as visual analytics tools, and the underlying methods and principles have roots in a variety of disciplines. This chapter provides an introduction to young researchers as an overview of common visual

Maciejewski, Ross

2011-01-01

14

The Geometry of Visual Perception: Retinotopic and Non-retinotopic Representations in the Human Visual System.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Geometry is closely linked to visual perception; yet, very little is known about the geometry of visual processing beyond early retinotopic organization. We present a variety of perceptual phenomena showing that a retinotopic representation is neither sufficient nor necessary to support form perception. We discuss the popular "object files" concept as a candidate for non-retinotopic representations and, based on its shortcomings, suggest future directions for research using local manifold representations. We suggest that these manifolds are created by the emergence of dynamic reference-frames that result from motion segmentation. We also suggest that the metric of these manifolds is based on relative motion vectors.

O?men H; Herzog MH

2010-01-01

15

On-chip visual perception of motion: a bio-inspired connectionist model on FPGA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual motion provides useful information to understand the dynamics of a scene to allow intelligent systems interact with their environment. Motion computation is usually restricted by real time requirements that need the design and implementation of specific hardware architectures. In this paper, the design of hardware architecture for a bio-inspired neural model for motion estimation is presented. The motion estimation is based on a strongly localized bio-inspired connectionist model with a particular adaptation of spatio-temporal Gabor-like filtering. The architecture is constituted by three main modules that perform spatial, temporal, and excitatory-inhibitory connectionist processing. The biomimetic architecture is modeled, simulated and validated in VHDL. The synthesis results on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device show the potential achievement of real-time performance at an affordable silicon area. PMID:16102939

Torres-Huitzil, César; Girau, Bernard; Castellanos-Sánchez, Claudio

16

On-chip visual perception of motion: a bio-inspired connectionist model on FPGA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Visual motion provides useful information to understand the dynamics of a scene to allow intelligent systems interact with their environment. Motion computation is usually restricted by real time requirements that need the design and implementation of specific hardware architectures. In this paper, the design of hardware architecture for a bio-inspired neural model for motion estimation is presented. The motion estimation is based on a strongly localized bio-inspired connectionist model with a particular adaptation of spatio-temporal Gabor-like filtering. The architecture is constituted by three main modules that perform spatial, temporal, and excitatory-inhibitory connectionist processing. The biomimetic architecture is modeled, simulated and validated in VHDL. The synthesis results on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device show the potential achievement of real-time performance at an affordable silicon area.

Torres-Huitzil C; Girau B; Castellanos-Sánchez C

2005-06-01

17

Physiologically inspired model for the visual recognition of transitive hand actions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The visual recognition of actions is an important visual function that is critical for motor learning and social communication. Action-selective neurons have been found in different cortical regions, including the superior temporal sulcus, parietal and premotor cortex. Among those are mirror neurons, which link visual and motor representations of body movements. While numerous theoretical models for the mirror neuron system have been proposed, the computational basis of the visual processing of goal-directed actions remains largely unclear. While most existing models focus on the possible role of motor representations in action recognition, we propose a model showing that many critical properties of action-selective visual neurons can be accounted for by well-established visual mechanisms. Our model accomplishes the recognition of hand actions from real video stimuli, exploiting exclusively mechanisms that can be implemented in a biologically plausible way by cortical neurons. We show that the model provides a unifying quantitatively consistent account of a variety of electrophysiological results from action-selective visual neurons. In addition, it makes a number of predictions, some of which could be confirmed in recent electrophysiological experiments.

Fleischer F; Caggiano V; Thier P; Giese MA

2013-04-01

18

The body voyage as visual representation and art performance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper looks at the notion of the body as an interior landscape that is made intelligible through visual representation. It discerns the key figure of the inner corporeal voyage, identifies its main elements and examines how contemporary artists working with performances and installations deal with it. A further aim with the paper is to discuss what kind of image of the body that is conveyed through medical visual technologies, such as endoscopy, and relate it to contemporary discussions on embodiment, embodied vision and bodily presence. The paper concludes with a recent exhibition by the French artist Christian Boltanski, which gives a somewhat different meaning to the idea of the body voyage.

Olsén, Jan-Eric

2011-01-01

19

Learning Visual Representations for Perception-Action Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We discuss vision as a sensory modality for systems that effect actions in response to perceptions. While the internal representations informed by vision may be arbitrarily complex, we argue that in many cases it is advantageous to link them rather directly to action via learned mappings. These arguments are illustrated by two examples of our own work. First, our RLVC algorithm performs reinforcement learning directly on the visual input space. To make this very large space manageable, RLVC interleaves the reinforcement learner with a supervised classification algorithm that seeks to split perceptual states so as to reduce perceptual aliasing. This results in an adaptive discretization of the perceptual space based on the presence or absence of visual features. Its extension RLJC also handles continuous action spaces. In contrast to the minimalistic visual representations produced by RLVC and RLJC, our second method learns structural object models for robust object detection and pose estimation by probabilistic inference. To these models, the method associates grasp experiences autonomously learned by trial and error. These experiences form a nonparametric representation of grasp success likelihoods over gripper poses, which we call a grasp density. Thus, object detection in a novel scene simultaneously produces suitable grasping options.

Piater, Justus; Jodogne, Sebastien

2011-01-01

20

Visualization Through Knowledge Representation Model for Social Networks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge management is a systematic and organizationally specified process and knowledge management system is all those technological components; software, hardware, people and processes supporting knowledge management initiative. These initiatives includes work flow maps, web sites, portals, document/team management system, data warehouses, data mining processes, databases, contact lists, virtual teams, collaboration tools, customer relationship management, applications and news (Davenport and Prusak 1998, Jashapara 2004). Knowledge is not important per se (Agostini et al 2003) instead the process of knowing, learning and creating knowledge is the relevant aspect (Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995). In this paper knowledge representation is presented in 3D style for the understanding and visualization of dynamics of complex social networks by developing a TANetworkTool (Task Analysis Network Tool). The standard or normal representation of a typical social network is through a graph data structure in 2D. The dynamics of larger social networks is so complex some time it becomes difficult to understand the various levels of interactions and dependencies just by mere representation through a tree or graph. Although, many analytical methods provide relationship dependencies, role of different nodes and their importance in the network. In this paper we are presenting a visualization of networks by rotating the network through various dimensions to provide a more realistic view to understand the dynamics of complex social networks and complimenting the analytical results. This representation can also help authorities not necessarily having specific scientific background to understand and perhaps take preventive actions required in certain specific scenarios for example dealing with terrorist/covert networks.

Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Athar Javed, Muhammad

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Robust image analysis with sparse representation on quantized visual features.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent techniques based on sparse representation (SR) have demonstrated promising performance in high-level visual recognition, exemplified by the highly accurate face recognition under occlusion and other sparse corruptions. Most research in this area has focused on classification algorithms using raw image pixels, and very few have been proposed to utilize the quantized visual features, such as the popular bag-of-words feature abstraction. In such cases, besides the inherent quantization errors, ambiguity associated with visual word assignment and misdetection of feature points, due to factors such as visual occlusions and noises, constitutes the major cause of dense corruptions of the quantized representation. The dense corruptions can jeopardize the decision process by distorting the patterns of the sparse reconstruction coefficients. In this paper, we aim to eliminate the corruptions and achieve robust image analysis with SR. Toward this goal, we introduce two transfer processes (ambiguity transfer and mis-detection transfer) to account for the two major sources of corruption as discussed. By reasonably assuming the rarity of the two kinds of distortion processes, we augment the original SR-based reconstruction objective with l(0) norm regularization on the transfer terms to encourage sparsity and, hence, discourage dense distortion/transfer. Computationally, we relax the nonconvex l(0) norm optimization into a convex l(1) norm optimization problem, and employ the accelerated proximal gradient method to optimize the convergence provable updating procedure. Extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, Caltech-101, Caltech-256, Corel-5k, and CMU pose, illumination, and expression, manifest the necessity of removing the quantization corruptions and the various advantages of the proposed framework.

Bao BK; Zhu G; Shen J; Yan S

2013-03-01

22

Teaching with Concrete and Abstract Visual Representations: Effects on Students' Problem Solving, Problem Representations, and Learning Perceptions  

Science.gov (United States)

In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students' problem-solving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that…

Moreno, Roxana; Ozogul, Gamze; Reisslein, Martin

2011-01-01

23

Honeybees as a model for the study of visually guided flight, navigation, and biologically inspired robotics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research over the past century has revealed the impressive capacities of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, in relation to visual perception, flight guidance, navigation, and learning and memory. These observations, coupled with the relative ease with which these creatures can be trained, and the relative simplicity of their nervous systems, have made honeybees an attractive model in which to pursue general principles of sensorimotor function in a variety of contexts, many of which pertain not just to honeybees, but several other animal species, including humans. This review begins by describing the principles of visual guidance that underlie perception of the world in three dimensions, obstacle avoidance, control of flight speed, and orchestrating smooth landings. We then consider how navigation over long distances is accomplished, with particular reference to how bees use information from the celestial compass to determine their flight bearing, and information from the movement of the environment in their eyes to gauge how far they have flown. Finally, we illustrate how some of the principles gleaned from these studies are now being used to design novel, biologically inspired algorithms for the guidance of unmanned aerial vehicles.

Srinivasan MV

2011-04-01

24

Fixed-Rank Representation for Unsupervised Visual Learning  

CERN Multimedia

Subspace clustering and feature extraction are two of the most extensive unsupervised visual learning tasks in computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, we pose these two problems in a unified framework, named fixed-rank representation (FRR). For subspace clustering, our first contribution is to show that, when the data is clean, we can efficiently solve FRR in closed-form and the global optimal solution to FRR can exactly recover the multiple subspace structure. Furthermore, we prove that under some suitable conditions, even with insufficient observations, the memberships of data points still can be exactly recovered by FRR. In the case that the data is corrupted by noises and outliers, a sparse regularization is introduced to achieve robustness for FRR. For feature extraction, we provide some new insights to understand existing methods, which lead to a new approach for robust feature extraction. As a non-trivial byproduct, a fast numerical solver is developed for FRR. Experimental results on b...

Liu, Risheng; De la Torre, Fernando; Su, Zhixun

2012-01-01

25

Reading visual representations of 'Ndabeni' in the public realms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay outlines and analyses contemporary image representations of Ndabeni (also called kwa-Ndabeni), a location near Cape Town where a group of people became confined between 1901 and 1936 following an outbreak of the bubonic plague in the city. This location was to shape Cape Town's landscape for a little less that thirty-five years, accommodating people who were forcibly removed from the Cape Town docklands and from District Six. Images representing this place have been produced, archived, recovered, modified, reproduced and circulated in different ways and contexts. Ndabeni has become public knowledge through public visual representations that have been produced across a range of sites in post-apartheid Cape Town. I focus on three sites: the Victoria and Alfred Waterfront, the District Six Museum, and the Eziko Restaurant and Catering School. In each case I analyse the processes through which the Ndabeni images in question have been used and reused over time in changing contexts. I analyse the 'modalities' in which these images have been composed, interpreted and employed and in which knowledge has been mediated. I explore the contents and contexts of the storyboards and exhibition panels that purport to represent Ndabeni. Finally, I discuss potential meanings that could be constructed if the images could be read independent of the texts.

Sipokazi Sambumbu

2010-01-01

26

Exploring Middle School Students' Representational Competence in Science: Development and Verification of a Framework for Learning with Visual Representations  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific knowledge is constructed and communicated through a range of forms in addition to verbal language. Maps, graphs, charts, diagrams, formulae, models, and drawings are just some of the ways in which science concepts can be represented. Representational competence---an aspect of visual literacy that focuses on the ability to interpret, transform, and produce visual representations---is a key component of science literacy and an essential part of science reading and writing. To date, however, most research has examined learning from representations rather than learning with representations. This dissertation consisted of three distinct projects that were related by a common focus on learning from visual representations as an important aspect of scientific literacy. The first project was the development of an exploratory framework that is proposed for use in investigations of students constructing and interpreting multimedia texts. The exploratory framework, which integrates cognition, metacognition, semiotics, and systemic functional linguistics, could eventually result in a model that might be used to guide classroom practice, leading to improved visual literacy, better comprehension of science concepts, and enhanced science literacy because it emphasizes distinct aspects of learning with representations that can be addressed though explicit instruction. The second project was a metasynthesis of the research that was previously conducted as part of the Explicit Literacy Instruction Embedded in Middle School Science project (Pacific CRYSTAL, http://www.educ.uvic.ca/pacificcrystal). Five overarching themes emerged from this case-to-case synthesis: the engaging and effective nature of multimedia genres, opportunities for differentiated instruction using multimodal strategies, opportunities for assessment, an emphasis on visual representations, and the robustness of some multimodal literacy strategies across content areas. The third project was a mixed-methods verification study that was conducted to refine and validate the theoretical framework. This study examined middle school students' representational competence and focused on students' creation of visual representations such as labelled diagrams, a form of representation commonly found in science information texts and textbooks. An analysis of the 31 Grade 6 participants' representations and semistructured interviews revealed five themes, each of which supports one or more dimensions of the exploratory framework: participants' use of color, participants' choice of representation (form and function), participants' method of planning for representing, participants' knowledge of conventions, and participants' selection of information to represent. Together, the results of these three projects highlight the need for further research on learning with rather than learning from representations.

Tippett, Christine Diane

27

A summary statistic representation in peripheral vision explains visual search.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vision is an active process: We repeatedly move our eyes to seek out objects of interest and explore our environment. Visual search experiments capture aspects of this process, by having subjects look for a target within a background of distractors. Search speed often correlates with target-distractor discriminability; search is faster when the target and distractors look quite different. However, there are notable exceptions. A given discriminability can yield efficient searches (where the target seems to "pop-out") as well as inefficient ones (where additional distractors make search significantly slower and more difficult). Search is often more difficult when finding the target requires distinguishing a particular configuration or conjunction of features. Search asymmetries abound. These puzzling results have fueled three decades of theoretical and experimental studies. We argue that the key issue in search is the processing of image patches in the periphery, where visual representation is characterized by summary statistics computed over a sizable pooling region. By quantifying these statistics, we predict a set of classic search results, as well as peripheral discriminability of crowded patches such as those found in search displays. PMID:22523401

Rosenholtz, Ruth; Huang, Jie; Raj, Alvin; Balas, Benjamin J; Ilie, Livia

2012-04-20

28

A summary statistic representation in peripheral vision explains visual search.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vision is an active process: We repeatedly move our eyes to seek out objects of interest and explore our environment. Visual search experiments capture aspects of this process, by having subjects look for a target within a background of distractors. Search speed often correlates with target-distractor discriminability; search is faster when the target and distractors look quite different. However, there are notable exceptions. A given discriminability can yield efficient searches (where the target seems to "pop-out") as well as inefficient ones (where additional distractors make search significantly slower and more difficult). Search is often more difficult when finding the target requires distinguishing a particular configuration or conjunction of features. Search asymmetries abound. These puzzling results have fueled three decades of theoretical and experimental studies. We argue that the key issue in search is the processing of image patches in the periphery, where visual representation is characterized by summary statistics computed over a sizable pooling region. By quantifying these statistics, we predict a set of classic search results, as well as peripheral discriminability of crowded patches such as those found in search displays.

Rosenholtz R; Huang J; Raj A; Balas BJ; Ilie L

2012-01-01

29

Distinct visual working memory systems for view-dependent and view-invariant representation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: How do people sustain a visual representation of the environment? Currently, many researchers argue that a single visual working memory system sustains non-spatial object information such as colors and shapes. However, previous studies tested visual working memory for two-dimensional objects only. In consequence, the nature of visual working memory for three-dimensional (3D) object representation remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, I show that when sustaining information about 3D objects, visual working memory clearly divides into two separate, specialized memory systems, rather than one system, as was previously thought. One memory system gradually accumulates sensory information, forming an increasingly precise view-dependent representation of the scene over the course of several seconds. A second memory system sustains view-invariant representations of 3D objects. The view-dependent memory system has a storage capacity of 3-4 representations and the view-invariant memory system has a storage capacity of 1-2 representations. These systems can operate independently from one another and do not compete for working memory storage resources. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide evidence that visual working memory sustains object information in two separate, specialized memory systems. One memory system sustains view-dependent representations of the scene, akin to the view-specific representations that guide place recognition during navigation in humans, rodents and insects. The second memory system sustains view-invariant representations of 3D objects, akin to the object-based representations that underlie object cognition.

Wood JN

2009-01-01

30

Abnormal ipsilateral visual field representation in areas 17 and 18 of hypopigmented cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared the central projections of retinal ganglion cells in temporal retina and the cortical representation of visual fields in areas 17 and 18 in cats with various hypopigmentation phenotypes (albino, heterozygous albino, Siamese, and heterozygous Siamese). In all cats studied, we found that the extent of abnormal ipsilateral visual field representation varied widely, and more of the ipsilateral visual field was represented in area 18 than in area 17. The greatest degree of ipsilateral visual field representation was found in albino cats, followed by Siamese, heterozygous albino and heterozygote Siamese cats, respectively. Additionally, in the different groups there was wide variation in the numbers of contralaterally projecting alpha and beta ganglion cells in temporal retina. In all cases, however, contralaterally projecting alpha cells were found to extend further into temporal retina than beta cells. We found that in each cat studied, the maximum extent of the abnormal ipsilateral visual field representation in areas 18 and 17 corresponded to the location of the 50% decussation line (i.e., the point where 50% of the ganglion cells in temporal retina project to the contralateral hemisphere) for alpha and beta cells, respectively, for that cat. Our results suggest that the extent of the abnormal visual field representations in visual cortex of hypopigmented cats reflects the extent of contralaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells in temporal retina. PMID:7782497

Ault, S J; Leventhal, A G; Vitek, D J; Creel, D J

1995-04-01

31

Lexical and visual choices in the representation of immigration in Spanish press  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our goal in this paper is to shed some light on the treatment of immigration issues in the current Spanish press via the analysis of the visual and lexical choices used in the journalistic representation of immigration. With this in mind, taking Critical Discourse Analysis and Visual Grammar as theo...

Crespo Fernández, Eliecer; Martínez Lirola, María

32

Newborn chickens generate invariant object representations at the onset of visual object experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To recognize objects quickly and accurately, mature visual systems build invariant object representations that generalize across a range of novel viewing conditions (e.g., changes in viewpoint). To date, however, the origins of this core cognitive ability have not yet been established. To examine how invariant object recognition develops in a newborn visual system, I raised chickens from birth for 2 weeks within controlled-rearing chambers. These chambers provided complete control over all visual object experiences. In the first week of life, subjects' visual object experience was limited to a single virtual object rotating through a 60° viewpoint range. In the second week of life, I examined whether subjects could recognize that virtual object from novel viewpoints. Newborn chickens were able to generate viewpoint-invariant representations that supported object recognition across large, novel, and complex changes in the object's appearance. Thus, newborn visual systems can begin building invariant object representations at the onset of visual object experience. These abstract representations can be generated from sparse data, in this case from a visual world containing a single virtual object seen from a limited range of viewpoints. This study shows that powerful, robust, and invariant object recognition machinery is an inherent feature of the newborn brain.

Wood JN

2013-08-01

33

Multi-voxel patterns of visual category representation during episodic encoding are predictive of subsequent memory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Successful encoding of episodic memories is thought to depend on contributions from prefrontal and temporal lobe structures. Neural processes that contribute to successful encoding have been extensively explored through univariate analyses of neuroimaging data that compare mean activity levels elicited during the encoding of events that are subsequently remembered vs. those subsequently forgotten. Here, we applied pattern classification to fMRI data to assess the degree to which distributed patterns of activity within prefrontal and temporal lobe structures elicited during the encoding of word-image pairs were diagnostic of the visual category (Face or Scene) of the encoded image. We then assessed whether representation of category information was predictive of subsequent memory. Classification analyses indicated that temporal lobe structures contained information robustly diagnostic of visual category. Information in prefrontal cortex was less diagnostic of visual category, but was nonetheless associated with highly reliable classifier-based evidence for category representation. Critically, trials associated with greater classifier-based estimates of category representation in temporal and prefrontal regions were associated with a higher probability of subsequent remembering. Finally, consideration of trial-by-trial variance in classifier-based measures of category representation revealed positive correlations between prefrontal and temporal lobe representations, with the strength of these correlations varying as a function of the category of image being encoded. Together, these results indicate that multi-voxel representations of encoded information can provide unique insights into how visual experiences are transformed into episodic memories.

Kuhl BA; Rissman J; Wagner AD

2012-03-01

34

Representations of facial identity information in the ventral visual stream investigated with multivoxel pattern analyses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The neural basis of face recognition has been investigated extensively. Using fMRI, several regions have been identified in the human ventral visual stream that seem to be involved in processing and identifying faces, but the nature of the face representations in these regions is not well known. In particular, multivoxel pattern analyses have revealed distributed maps within these regions, but did not reveal the organizing principles of these maps. Here we isolated different types of perceptual and conceptual face properties to determine which properties are mapped in which regions. A set of faces was created with systematic manipulations of featural and configural visual characteristics. In a second part of the study, personal and spatial context information was added to all faces except one. The perceptual properties of faces were represented in face regions and in other regions of interest such as early visual and object-selective cortex. Only representations in early visual cortex were correlated with pixel-based similarities between the stimuli. The representation of nonperceptual properties was less distributed. In particular, the spatial location associated with a face was only represented in the parahippocampal place area. These findings demonstrate a relatively distributed representation of perceptual and conceptual face properties that involves both face-selective/sensitive and non-face-selective cortical regions.

Goesaert E; Op de Beeck HP

2013-05-01

35

Visual Representation of the Numeric Bioenvironmental Data Display of the International Space Station's Flight Surgeon Console  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Certain visual information displays can be better than others in conveying similar information [1,2,3]. Representational analysis was conducted to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the newly designed graphic data display of the numeric bioenvironmental data display currently used by the Biome...

Rinkus, Susan; Gong, Yang

36

Introducing the Project Approach and Use of Visual Representation to Early Childhood Education in Bhutan  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a collaborative action research project that followed two teachers and their students in a primary school in the Paro valley of Bhutan as they began to implement the Project Approach and promote children's use of visual representation. The article begins with a description of the primary education system and teacher…

Brooks, Margaret; Wangmo, Tshering

2011-01-01

37

Developing Explanations and Developing Understanding: Students Explain the Phases of the Moon Using Visual Representations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a theoretical model of the process by which students construct and elaborate explanations of scientific phenomena using visual representations. The model describes progress in the underlying conceptual processes in students' explanations as a reorganization of fine-grained knowledge elements based on the Knowledge in Pieces…

Parnafes, Orit

2012-01-01

38

Visual long-term memory stores high-fidelity representations of observed actions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability to remember others' actions is fundamental to social cognition, but the precision of action memories remains unknown. To probe the fidelity of the action representations stored in visual long-term memory, we asked observers to view a large number of computer-animated actions. Afterward, observers were shown pairs of actions and indicated which of the two actions they had seen for each pair. On some trials, the previously viewed action was paired with an action from a different action category, and on other trials, it was paired with an action from the same category. Accuracy on both types of trials was remarkably high (81% and 82%, respectively). Further, results from a second experiment showed that the action representations maintained in visual long-term memory can be nearly as precise as the action representations maintained in visual working memory. Together, these findings provide evidence for a mechanism in visual long-term memory that maintains high-fidelity representations of observed actions.

Urgolites ZJ; Wood JN

2013-04-01

39

Generating and Analyzing Visual Representations of Conic Sections with the Use of Technological Tools  

Science.gov (United States)

|Technological tools have the potential to offer students the possibility to represent information and relationships embedded in problems and concepts in ways that involve numerical, algebraic, geometric, and visual approaches. In this paper, the authors present and discuss an example in which an initial representation of a mathematical object…

Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Espinosa-Perez, Hugo; Reyes-Rodriguez, Aaron

2006-01-01

40

Man-machine visual interface: Information representation (2nd part)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Relative to the basic concepts to be taken into account in the planning of optimum man-machine interface systems, this second part of a two-part article (the first article examined the neuro-physiological aspects of the human visual apparatus) develops a set of design specifications for control panel coloured push-buttons, luminous indicators and graphics. The paper also deals with occupational safety aspects, e.g., correct lighting of the work environment to avoid problems of glare and reflection, correct sitting posture, duration of working periods, protection against ionizing radiation emissions from video terminals, etc.

Grassani, E.

1991-10-01

 
 
 
 
41

A two-directional 1-gram visual motion sensor inspired by the fly's eye  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Optic flow based autopilots for Micro-Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) need lightweight, low-power sensors to be able to fly safely through unknown environments. The new tiny 6-pixel visual motion sensor presented here meets these demanding requirements in term of its mass, size and power consumption. This 1-...

Roubieu, Frédéric; Expert, Fabien; Sabiron, Guillaume; Ruffier, Franck

42

Regional variation in the representation of the visual field in the visual cortex of the Siamese cat.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Siamese cats, many ganglion cell fibers from the temporal retina misproject to the contralateral hemisphere; as a result, each lateral geniculate nucleus contains an abnormally large representation of the ipsilateral visual field. The manner in which the visual cortex processes this aberrant visual information has been examined in several previous studies. In some Siamese cats, the region of the 17/18 border was found to contain an extensive, systematic map of the ipsilateral field, while in other animals no such map was found, and the 17/18 border appeared to represent the zero meridian of azimuth (as in normal cats). These results have led to the suggestion that there are two distinct types of Siamese cat ("Boston" and "Midwestern") which can be distinguished on the basis of cortical topography and the anatomical organization oif the geniculocortical pathway. In the present study, we have recorded from four Siamese cats in order to examine the visual field map in the region of the 17/18 border; in each cat we recorded at anterior coronal levels corresponding to the representation of the lower visual field, and also at more posterior levels near the horizontal meridian representation. In all of the animals we found that the anterior penetrations (corresponding to mean receptive field elevations inferior to -7 degrees) yielded 15-20 degrees of ipsilateral field representation at the 17/18 border; however, the posterior, horizontal meridian penetrations (with mean elevations from +1 degrees to -4 degrees) showed excursions of only about 5 degrees into the ipsilateral field. This large difference in the representation of azimuth was not due to rotation of the eyes during our recording sessions. The finding of appreciable differences in the amount of ipsilateral field represented at different anterior-posterior levels of the same animal might lead to the suggestion that there are not two distinct populations (or types) of Siamese cat with regard to the cortical map of the ipsilateral field. Rather, we raise the possibility that Siamese cats form one population in which there is a continuous variation in the extent of ipsilateral field represented in the cortex. PMID:7430429

Cooper, M L; Blasdel, G G

1980-09-01

43

Regional variation in the representation of the visual field in the visual cortex of the Siamese cat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Siamese cats, many ganglion cell fibers from the temporal retina misproject to the contralateral hemisphere; as a result, each lateral geniculate nucleus contains an abnormally large representation of the ipsilateral visual field. The manner in which the visual cortex processes this aberrant visual information has been examined in several previous studies. In some Siamese cats, the region of the 17/18 border was found to contain an extensive, systematic map of the ipsilateral field, while in other animals no such map was found, and the 17/18 border appeared to represent the zero meridian of azimuth (as in normal cats). These results have led to the suggestion that there are two distinct types of Siamese cat ("Boston" and "Midwestern") which can be distinguished on the basis of cortical topography and the anatomical organization oif the geniculocortical pathway. In the present study, we have recorded from four Siamese cats in order to examine the visual field map in the region of the 17/18 border; in each cat we recorded at anterior coronal levels corresponding to the representation of the lower visual field, and also at more posterior levels near the horizontal meridian representation. In all of the animals we found that the anterior penetrations (corresponding to mean receptive field elevations inferior to -7 degrees) yielded 15-20 degrees of ipsilateral field representation at the 17/18 border; however, the posterior, horizontal meridian penetrations (with mean elevations from +1 degrees to -4 degrees) showed excursions of only about 5 degrees into the ipsilateral field. This large difference in the representation of azimuth was not due to rotation of the eyes during our recording sessions. The finding of appreciable differences in the amount of ipsilateral field represented at different anterior-posterior levels of the same animal might lead to the suggestion that there are not two distinct populations (or types) of Siamese cat with regard to the cortical map of the ipsilateral field. Rather, we raise the possibility that Siamese cats form one population in which there is a continuous variation in the extent of ipsilateral field represented in the cortex.

Cooper ML; Blasdel GG

1980-09-01

44

A biologically inspired psychometric function for accuracy of visual identification as a function of exposure duration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The psychometric function of letter identification is typically described as a function of stimulus intensity. However, the effect of stimulus exposure duration on letter identification remains poorly described. This is surprising because the effect of exposure duration has played a central role in modelling human performance in whole and partial report tasks in which multiple simultaneously presented letters are to be reported (Shibuya & Bundesen, 1988). Therefore, we investigated visual letter identification as a function of exposure duration. On each trial, a single randomly chosen letter (A-Z) was presented at the centre of the screen. Exposure duration was varied from 5 to 210 milliseconds. The letter was followed by a pattern mask. Three subjects each completed 54,080 trials in a 26-Alternative Forced Choice procedure. We compared the exponential, the gamma and the Weibull psychometric functions, all of these having a temporal offset included, as well as the ex-Gaussian, and finally a new psychometric function, motivated from single-neuron studies by (Albrecht, Geisler, Frazor & Crane, 2002). The new psychometric function stands out by having a nonmonotonous hazard rate which is initially rising from zero, then peaking, and finally decaying to a somewhat sustained plateau, mimicking closely observed instantaneous firing rates of monkey visual cortex neurons. The new psychometric function fits well to experimental data in both the present study and in a previous study of single-letter identification accuracy (Bundesen & Harms, 1999). Also, we conducted a follow-up experiment to test the ability of the psychometric functions to fit single-letter identification data, at different stimulus contrast levels; also in this experiment the new psychometric function prevailed. Further, after insertion into Bundesen’s Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990), the new psychometric function enables closer fits to data from a previous whole and partial report experiment.

Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias

45

Shared representations for working memory and mental imagery in early visual cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early visual areas contain specific information about visual items maintained in working memory, suggesting a role for early visual cortex in more complex cognitive functions [1-4]. It is an open question, however, whether these areas also underlie the ability to internally generate images de novo (i.e., mental imagery). Research on mental imagery has to this point focused mostly on whether mental images activate early sensory areas, with mixed results [5-7]. Recent studies suggest that multivariate pattern analysis of neural activity patterns in visual regions can reveal content-specific representations during cognitive processes, even though overall activation levels are low [1-4]. Here, we used this approach [8, 9] to study item-specific activity patterns in early visual areas (V1-V3) when these items are internally generated. We could reliably decode stimulus identity from neural activity patterns in early visual cortex during both working memory and mental imagery. Crucially, these activity patterns resembled those evoked by bottom-up visual stimulation, suggesting that mental images are indeed "perception-like" in nature. These findings suggest that the visual cortex serves as a dynamic "blackboard" [10, 11] that is used during both bottom-up stimulus processing and top-down internal generation of mental content. PMID:23871239

Albers, Anke Marit; Kok, Peter; Toni, Ivan; Dijkerman, H Chris; de Lange, Floris P

2013-07-18

46

Non-sparse Linear Representations for Visual Tracking with Online Reservoir Metric Learning  

CERN Multimedia

Most sparse linear representation-based trackers need to solve a computationally expensive L1-regularized optimization problem. To address this problem, we propose a visual tracker based on non-sparse linear representations, which admit an efficient closed-form solution without sacrificing accuracy. Moreover, in order to capture the correlation information between different feature dimensions, we learn a Mahalanobis distance metric in an online fashion and incorporate the learned metric into the optimization problem for obtaining the linear representation. We show that online metric learning using proximity comparison significantly improves the robustness of the tracking, especially on those sequences exhibiting drastic appearance changes. Furthermore, in order to prevent the unbounded growth in the number of training samples for the metric learning, we design a time-weighted reservoir sampling method to maintain and update limited-sized foreground and background sample buffers for balancing sample diversity ...

Li, Xi; Shi, Qinfeng; Dick, Anthony; Hengel, Anton van den

2012-01-01

47

Time perception of visual motion is tuned by the motor representation of human actions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several studies have shown that the observation of a rapidly moving stimulus dilates our perception of time. However, this effect appears to be at odds with the fact that our interactions both with environment and with each other are temporally accurate. This work exploits this paradox to investigate whether the temporal accuracy of visual motion uses motor representations of actions. To this aim, the stimuli were a dot moving with kinematics belonging or not to the human motor repertoire and displayed at different velocities. Participants had to replicate its duration with two tasks differing in the underlying motor plan. Results show that independently of the task's motor plan, the temporal accuracy and precision depend on the correspondence between the stimulus' kinematics and the observer's motor competencies. Our data suggest that the temporal mechanism of visual motion exploits a temporal visuomotor representation tuned by the motor knowledge of human actions.

Gavazzi G; Bisio A; Pozzo T

2013-01-01

48

Time perception of visual motion is tuned by the motor representation of human actions  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have shown that the observation of a rapidly moving stimulus dilates our perception of time. However, this effect appears to be at odds with the fact that our interactions both with environment and with each other are temporally accurate. This work exploits this paradox to investigate whether the temporal accuracy of visual motion uses motor representations of actions. To this aim, the stimuli were a dot moving with kinematics belonging or not to the human motor repertoire and displayed at different velocities. Participants had to replicate its duration with two tasks differing in the underlying motor plan. Results show that independently of the task's motor plan, the temporal accuracy and precision depend on the correspondence between the stimulus' kinematics and the observer's motor competencies. Our data suggest that the temporal mechanism of visual motion exploits a temporal visuomotor representation tuned by the motor knowledge of human actions.

Gavazzi, Gioele; Bisio, Ambra; Pozzo, Thierry

2013-01-01

49

Experience-driven formation of parts-based representations in a model of layered visual memory  

CERN Multimedia

Growing neuropsychological and neurophysiological evidence suggests that the visual cortex uses parts-based representations to encode, store and retrieve relevant objects. In such a scheme, objects are represented as a set of spatially distributed local features, or parts, arranged in stereotypical fashion. To encode the local appearance and to represent the relations between the constituent parts, there has to be an appropriate memory structure formed by previous experience with visual objects. Here, we propose a model how a hierarchical memory structure supporting efficient storage and rapid recall of parts-based representations can be established by an experience-driven process of self-organization. The process is based on the collaboration of slow bidirectional synaptic plasticity and homeostatic unit activity regulation, both running at the top of fast activity dynamics with winner-take-all character. These neural mechanisms lay down the basis for cooperation and competition between the distributed units...

Jitsev, Jenia

2009-01-01

50

Representação visual de estruturas biológicas em materiais de ensino Visual representation of biological structures in teaching material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade de se definir parâmetros de apresentação e tratamento da informação científica em materiais de ensino. Através de consultas a bibliotecas e a especialistas em ciências da saúde e artes gráficas e visuais, fez-se uma pesquisa que resultou na descrição comparativa entre as primeiras manifestações da ilustração científica na anatomia e a trajetória da representação visual do conhecimento sobre a célula. O estudo traz ainda exemplos significativos de ilustrações utilizadas como elementos de análise.Parameters must be defined for presenting and handling scientific information presented in the form of teaching materials. Through library research and consultations with specialists in the health sciences and in graphic arts and design, this study undertook a comparative description of the first examples of scientific illustrations of anatomy and the evolution of visual representations of knowledge on the cell. The study includes significant examples of illustrations which served as elements of analysis.

Marina Azevedo Morato; Miriam Struchiner; Eduardo Bordoni; Regina Maria Vieira Ricciardi

1998-01-01

51

Visual representation of fashion at graphic devices ///// A representação visual da moda nos suportes gráficos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tanto a busca de referências criativas quanto a expressão das ideias em desenhos de moda (croquis) para o desenvolvimento de uma coleção se dão majoritariamente no plano visual. No mesmo sentido, o design gráfico manipula elementos básicos (ponto, linha, plano e mancha) e elementos conceituais (cor, tonalidade e textura) de modo a compor textos informativos, ou seja, dotados de significação. A metodologia consistiu em aplicar o repertório teórico de Dondis (2007), Lupton e Phillips (2010) e Perassi (2010) nas expressões visuais de moda. O presente trabalho propôs-se a estudar implicações no surgimento de novas tecnologias e de uma nova sintaxe de expressão visual na transformação da cultura material para uma cultura digital. A linguagem gráfico-digital com suas possibilidades alterou o processo simbólico-referencial da cultura contemporânea, com ideias ou conceitos típicos da cibercultura. ///// Both the search of creative references and the expression of ideas though drawings (croquis) to the development of a fashion collection are given, majorly, in the visual canvas. In the same direction, graphic design manipulates basic elements (dot, line, surfaces and blots) and conceptual elements (tone, color, texture, etc) in order to compose informative texts. Texts with signification. The methodology consisted in applying the theoretical repertory of Dondis (2007), Lupton e Phillips (2010) and Perassi (2010) in fashion visual expressions. This present paper proposed to study the implications of new technology emergence and its implications on a new visual expression syntax in the paradigm shift from a material to a digital culture. The graphicdigital language, and its possibilities, had altered the symbolic-reference process of the contemporary culture, with ideas and concepts typical of the cyber culture.

Amanda Queiroz Campos; Richard Perassi Luiz de Sousa

2012-01-01

52

Representation of contextually related multiple objects in the human ventral visual pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Real-world scenes usually contain a set of cluttered and yet contextually related objects. Here we used fMRI to investigate where and how contextually related multiple objects were represented in the human ventral visual pathway. Specifically, we measured the responses in face-selective and body-selective regions along the ventral pathway when faces and bodies were presented either simultaneously or in isolation. We found that, in the posterior regions, the response for the face and body pair was the weighted average response for faces and bodies presented in isolation. In contrast, the anterior regions encoded the face and body pair in a mutually facilitative fashion, with the response for the pair significantly higher than that for its constituent objects. Furthermore, in the right fusiform face area, the face and body pair was represented as one inseparable object, possibly to reduce perceptual load and increase representation efficiency. Therefore, our study suggests that the visual system uses a hierarchical representation scheme to process multiple objects in natural scenes: the average mechanism in posterior regions helps retaining information of individual objects in clutter, whereas the nonaverage mechanism in the anterior regions uses the contextual information to optimize the representation for multiple objects.

Song Y; Luo YL; Li X; Xu M; Liu J

2013-08-01

53

Linguistic representations of motion do not depend on the visual motion system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Embodied semantics proposes that constructing the meaning of motion verb phrases relies on representations of motion in sensory cortex. However, the data reported by earlier studies as evidence for this claim are also explained by a symbolic-semantics view proposing interactions between dissociable systems. In the experiments reported here, participants were visually adapted to real and implied leftward or rightward motion, which produced a motion aftereffect opposite to the direction of the adapting stimulus. Participants then decided whether a directionally ambiguous or a leftward- or rightward-directional verb phrase implied leftward or rightward motion. Because the visual system is engaged in the motion aftereffect, embodied semantics predicts that responses in the motion-aftereffect direction (opposite to the direction of the adapting stimulus) are facilitated, whereas symbolic semantics predicts response facilitation in the direction of the adapting stimulus (opposite to the direction of the motion aftereffect). We found response facilitation in the direction of real- and implied-motion adapting stimuli in ambiguous and directional verb phrases. These results suggest that visual and linguistic representations of motion can be dissociated.

Pavan A; Baggio G

2013-02-01

54

Direct isosurface visualization of hex-based high-order geometry and attribute representations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we present a novel isosurface visualization technique that guarantees the accurate visualization of isosurfaces with complex attribute data defined on (un)structured (curvi)linear hexahedral grids. Isosurfaces of high-order hexahedral-based finite element solutions on both uniform grids (including MRI and CT scans) and more complex geometry representing a domain of interest that can be rendered using our algorithm. Additionally, our technique can be used to directly visualize solutions and attributes in isogeometric analysis, an area based on trivariate high-order NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-splines) geometry and attribute representations for the analysis. Furthermore, our technique can be used to visualize isosurfaces of algebraic functions. Our approach combines subdivision and numerical root finding to form a robust and efficient isosurface visualization algorithm that does not miss surface features, while finding all intersections between a view frustum and desired isosurfaces. This allows the use of view-independent transparency in the rendering process. We demonstrate our technique through a straightforward CPU implementation on both complex-structured and complex-unstructured geometries with high-order simulation solutions, isosurfaces of medical data sets, and isosurfaces of algebraic functions.

Martin T; Cohen E; Kirby RM

2012-05-01

55

Spatial scene representations formed by self-organizing learning in a hippocampal extension of the ventral visual system.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show in a unifying computational approach that representations of spatial scenes can be formed by adding an additional self-organizing layer of processing beyond the inferior temporal visual cortex in the ventral visual stream without the introduction of new computational principles. The invarian...

Rolls, ET; Tromans, JM; Stringer, SM

56

Neural representations of contextual guidance in visual search of real-world scenes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exploiting scene context and object-object co-occurrence is critical in guiding eye movements and facilitating visual search, yet the mediating neural mechanisms are unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging while observers searched for target objects in scenes and used multivariate pattern analyses (MVPA) to show that the lateral occipital complex (LOC) can predict the coarse spatial location of observers' expectations about the likely location of 213 different targets absent from the scenes. In addition, we found weaker but significant representations of context location in an area related to the orienting of attention (intraparietal sulcus, IPS) as well as a region related to scene processing (retrosplenial cortex, RSC). Importantly, the degree of agreement among 100 independent raters about the likely location to contain a target object in a scene correlated with LOC's ability to predict the contextual location while weaker but significant effects were found in IPS, RSC, the human motion area, and early visual areas (V1, V3v). When contextual information was made irrelevant to observers' behavioral task, the MVPA analysis of LOC and the other areas' activity ceased to predict the location of context. Thus, our findings suggest that the likely locations of targets in scenes are represented in various visual areas with LOC playing a key role in contextual guidance during visual search of objects in real scenes.

Preston TJ; Guo F; Das K; Giesbrecht B; Eckstein MP

2013-05-01

57

The role of visual representations in the learning and teaching of science: An introduction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Representations are the entities with which all thinking is considered to take place. Hence they are central to the process of learning and consequently to that of teaching. They are therefore important in the conduct and learning of science, given the central commitment of that discipline to providing evidence-based explanations of natural phenomena, in which underlying entities and mechanisms have to be postulated and substantiated on the basis of empirical enquiry. The three generic types of representation and the modes in which they are expressed are presented against the background of an established model of their acquisition, processing and display. The two meanings of ‘visualization’ are discussed as is the key role played by fluency in them in the attainment of expert status in the processes of science. The nature and origins of students’ problems in attaining this ‘metavisual competence’ are derived from a review of the literature. Good practice in the teaching of the conventions of representation is suggested. Specific research and development is needed if this key aspect of knowledge acquisition and display is to be fully recognised in the varied curricula of formal science education and in the provision of opportunities for the informal communication of science.

John K. GILBERT

2010-01-01

58

Seeing is believing: neural representations of visual stimuli in human auditory cortex correlate with illusory auditory perceptions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In interpersonal communication, the listener can often see as well as hear the speaker. Visual stimuli can subtly change a listener's auditory perception, as in the McGurk illusion, in which perception of a phoneme's auditory identity is changed by a concurrent video of a mouth articulating a different phoneme. Studies have yet to link visual influences on the neural representation of language with subjective language perception. Here we show that vision influences the electrophysiological representation of phonemes in human auditory cortex prior to the presentation of the auditory stimulus. We used the McGurk effect to dissociate the subjective perception of phonemes from the auditory stimuli. With this paradigm we demonstrate that neural representations in auditory cortex are more closely correlated with the visual stimuli of mouth articulation, which drive the illusory subjective auditory perception, than the actual auditory stimuli. Additionally, information about visual and auditory stimuli transfer in the caudal-rostral direction along the superior temporal gyrus during phoneme perception as would be expected of visual information flowing from the occipital cortex into the ventral auditory processing stream. These results show that visual stimuli influence the neural representation in auditory cortex early in sensory processing and may override the subjective auditory perceptions normally generated by auditory stimuli. These findings depict a marked influence of vision on the neural processing of audition in tertiary auditory cortex and suggest a mechanistic underpinning for the McGurk effect.

Smith E; Duede S; Hanrahan S; Davis T; House P; Greger B

2013-01-01

59

Seeing is believing: neural representations of visual stimuli in human auditory cortex correlate with illusory auditory perceptions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In interpersonal communication, the listener can often see as well as hear the speaker. Visual stimuli can subtly change a listener's auditory perception, as in the McGurk illusion, in which perception of a phoneme's auditory identity is changed by a concurrent video of a mouth articulating a different phoneme. Studies have yet to link visual influences on the neural representation of language with subjective language perception. Here we show that vision influences the electrophysiological representation of phonemes in human auditory cortex prior to the presentation of the auditory stimulus. We used the McGurk effect to dissociate the subjective perception of phonemes from the auditory stimuli. With this paradigm we demonstrate that neural representations in auditory cortex are more closely correlated with the visual stimuli of mouth articulation, which drive the illusory subjective auditory perception, than the actual auditory stimuli. Additionally, information about visual and auditory stimuli transfer in the caudal-rostral direction along the superior temporal gyrus during phoneme perception as would be expected of visual information flowing from the occipital cortex into the ventral auditory processing stream. These results show that visual stimuli influence the neural representation in auditory cortex early in sensory processing and may override the subjective auditory perceptions normally generated by auditory stimuli. These findings depict a marked influence of vision on the neural processing of audition in tertiary auditory cortex and suggest a mechanistic underpinning for the McGurk effect. PMID:24023823

Smith, Elliot; Duede, Scott; Hanrahan, Sara; Davis, Tyler; House, Paul; Greger, Bradley

2013-09-04

60

Using surface imaging and visual coaching to improve the reproducibility and stability of deep-inspiration breath hold for left-breast-cancer radiotherapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Late cardiac complications may arise after left-breast radiation therapy. Deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH) allows reduction of the irradiated heart volume at the same time as it reduces tumor bed motion and increases lung sparing. In the present study, we have evaluated the improvement in reproducibility and stability of the DIBH for left-breast-cancer treatment when visual coaching is provided with the aid of 3D video surface imaging and video goggles. Five left-breast-cancer patients and fifteen healthy volunteers were asked to perform a series of DIBHs without and with visual coaching. Reproducibility and stability of DIBH were measured for each individual with and without visual coaching. The average reproducibility and stability changed from 2.1 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively, without visual feedback to 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm with visual feedback, showing a significant statistical difference (p < 0.001 for reproducibility, p < 0.01 for stability). Significant changes (>2 mm) in reproducibility and stability were observed in 35% and 15% of the subjects, respectively. The average chest wall excursion of the DIBH with respect to the free breathing preceding the DIBH was found to be 11.3 mm. The reproducibility and stability of the DIBH improve significantly from the visual coaching provided to the patient, especially in those patients with poor reproducibility and stability.

Cervino, Laura I; Gupta, Sonia; Rose, Mary A; Yashar, Catheryn; Jiang, Steve B [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Diego, 3855 Health Sciences Dr, La Jolla, CA 92037-0843 (United States)], E-mail: sbjiang@ucsd.edu

2009-11-21

 
 
 
 
61

Using surface imaging and visual coaching to improve the reproducibility and stability of deep-inspiration breath hold for left-breast-cancer radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Late cardiac complications may arise after left-breast radiation therapy. Deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH) allows reduction of the irradiated heart volume at the same time as it reduces tumor bed motion and increases lung sparing. In the present study, we have evaluated the improvement in reproducibility and stability of the DIBH for left-breast-cancer treatment when visual coaching is provided with the aid of 3D video surface imaging and video goggles. Five left-breast-cancer patients and fifteen healthy volunteers were asked to perform a series of DIBHs without and with visual coaching. Reproducibility and stability of DIBH were measured for each individual with and without visual coaching. The average reproducibility and stability changed from 2.1 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively, without visual feedback to 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm with visual feedback, showing a significant statistical difference (p 2 mm) in reproducibility and stability were observed in 35% and 15% of the subjects, respectively. The average chest wall excursion of the DIBH with respect to the free breathing preceding the DIBH was found to be 11.3 mm. The reproducibility and stability of the DIBH improve significantly from the visual coaching provided to the patient, especially in those patients with poor reproducibility and stability.

2009-11-21

62

Reduced lung dose and improved inspiration level reproducibility in visually guided DIBH compared to audio coached EIG radiotherapy for breast cancer patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Introduction. Patients with left-sided breast cancer with lymph node involvement have routinely been treated with enhanced inspiration gating (EIG) for a decade at our institution. In a transition from EIG to deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) we compared the two techniques with focus on target coverage, dose to organs at risk and reproducibility of the inspiration level (IL). Material and methods. Twenty-four patients were computed tomography (CT) scanned with EIG and DIBH. For DIBH we used visual feedback and for EIG audio coaching, both during scan and treatment. Treatment plans for 50 Gy over 25 fractions were calculated. Seventeen of the patients were included in the analysis of reproducibility. They were audio coached for one minute before beam-on in DIBH at nine treatment sessions. These respiration curves were analysed with average maximum IL and standard deviation (SD) for the EIG part of the respiratory signal, and mean IL and SD for the DIBH. Comparison of dosimetric and respiration parameters were performed with the Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test. Results. In DIBH, the ipsilateral lung volume increased further compared to EIG (p audio-coached EIG. Based on these findings, the DIBH technique is our new breathing adaptation standard for radiotherapy of patients with left-sided breast cancer with lymph node involvement. PMID:23957594

Damkjær, Sidsel M S; Aznar, Marianne C; Pedersen, Anders N; Vogelius, Ivan R; Bangsgaard, Jens Peter; Josipovic, Mirjana

2013-08-19

63

Visualization and representation of physical systems: Wavemaker as an aid to conceptualizing wave phenomena  

Science.gov (United States)

An understanding of wave mechanics is essential to making the leap from classical to quantum systems. Wavemaker is a simulation environment developed to reveal graphically the behavior of periodic systems using a series of increasingly sophisticated visualization tools. Individual particles in a many-particle system can be instrumented for study of kinematic behavior. Parametric representations reveal time-independent behaviors. Problems dealing with propagation, reflection, and Fourier synthesis are easily studied. Use with students has revealed that many students have preconceptions about the behavior of waves and that use of this software is helpful in connecting real to simulated systems, separating holistic behaviors from those of individual elements, identifying critical parameters, and making connections between variables that are used to describe and measure periodic systems.

Sadler, Philip M.; Whitney, Charles; Shore, Linda; Deutsch, Freeman

2005-11-23

64

Reduced lung dose and improved inspiration level reproducibility in visually guided DIBH compared to audio coached EIG radiotherapy for breast cancer patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Introduction. Patients with left-sided breast cancer with lymph node involvement have routinely been treated with enhanced inspiration gating (EIG) for a decade at our institution. In a transition from EIG to deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) we compared the two techniques with focus on target coverage, dose to organs at risk and reproducibility of the inspiration level (IL). Material and methods. Twenty-four patients were computed tomography (CT) scanned with EIG and DIBH. For DIBH we used visual feedback and for EIG audio coaching, both during scan and treatment. Treatment plans for 50 Gy over 25 fractions were calculated. Seventeen of the patients were included in the analysis of reproducibility. They were audio coached for one minute before beam-on in DIBH at nine treatment sessions. These respiration curves were analysed with average maximum IL and standard deviation (SD) for the EIG part of the respiratory signal, and mean IL and SD for the DIBH. Comparison of dosimetric and respiration parameters were performed with the Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test. Results. In DIBH, the ipsilateral lung volume increased further compared to EIG (p < 0.0004, mean increase 11%). This lead to a 9% mean reduction (p = 0.002) of the ipsilateral lung volume receiving 20 Gy (V20 Gy). We found no other significant dosimetric differences between the two methods. The reproducibility of the IL was better with the DIBH method, observed as a significantly smaller SD in most patients (p < 0.04 for 16 of 17 patients). Conclusion. The DIBH method resulted in a significantly larger lung volume and lower ipsilateral lung V20 Gy compared to EIG. The IL for visually guided DIBH was more reproducible than audio-coached EIG. Based on these findings, the DIBH technique is our new breathing adaptation standard for radiotherapy of patients with left-sided breast cancer with lymph node involvement.

Damkjær SM; Aznar MC; Pedersen AN; Vogelius IR; Bangsgaard JP; Josipovic M

2013-10-01

65

Is a picture worth a thousand words? The interaction of visual display and attribute representation in attenuating framing bias}  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The attribute framing bias is a well-established phenomenon, in which an object or an event is evaluated more favorably when presented in a positive frame such as ``the half full glass'' than when presented in the complementary negative framing. Given that previous research showed that visual aids can attenuate this bias, the current research explores the factors underlying the attenuating effect of visual aids. In a series of three experiments, we examined how attribute framing bias is affected by two factors: (a) The display mode---verbal versus visual; and (b) the representation of the critical attribute---whether one outcome, either the positive or the negative, is represented or both outcomes are represented. In Experiment 1 a marginal attenuation of attribute framing bias was obtained when verbal description of either positive or negative information was accompanied by corresponding visual representation. In Experiment 2 similar marginal attenuation was obtained when both positive and negative outcomes were verbally represented. In Experiment 3, where the verbal description represented both positive and negative outcomes, significant attenuation was obtained when it was accompanied by a visual display that represented a single outcome, and complete attenuation, totally eliminating the framing bias, was obtained when it was accompanied by a visual display that represented both outcomes. Thus, our findings showed that interaction between the display mode and the representation of the critical attribute attenuated the framing bias. Theoretical and practical implications of the interaction between verbal description, visual aids and representation of the critical attribute are discussed, and future research is suggested.

Eyal Gamliel; Hamutal Kreiner

2013-01-01

66

Coarse-to-Fine Construction for High-Resolution Representation in Visual Working Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

Background This study explored whether the high-resolution representations created by visual working memory (VWM) are constructed in a coarse-to-fine or all-or-none manner. The coarse-to-fine hypothesis suggests that coarse information precedes detailed information in entering VWM and that its resolution increases along with the processing time of the memory array, whereas the all-or-none hypothesis claims that either both enter into VWM simultaneously, or neither does. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested the two hypotheses by asking participants to remember two or four complex objects. An ERP component, contralateral delay activity (CDA), was used as the neural marker. CDA is higher for four objects than for two objects when coarse information is primarily extracted; yet, this CDA difference vanishes when detailed information is encoded. Experiment 1 manipulated the comparison difficulty of the task under a 500-ms exposure time to determine a condition in which the detailed information was maintained. No CDA difference was found between two and four objects, even in an easy-comparison condition. Thus, Experiment 2 manipulated the memory array’s exposure time under the easy-comparison condition and found a significant CDA difference at 100 ms while replicating Experiment 1?s results at 500 ms. In Experiment 3, the 500-ms memory array was blurred to block the detailed information; this manipulation reestablished a significant CDA difference. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the creation of high-resolution representations in VWM is a coarse-to-fine process.

Gao, Zaifeng; Ding, Xiaowei; Yang, Tong; Liang, Junying; Shui, Rende

2013-01-01

67

Incremental learning of 3D-DCT compact representations for robust visual tracking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual tracking usually requires an object appearance model that is robust to changing illumination, pose, and other factors encountered in video. Many recent trackers utilize appearance samples in previous frames to form the bases upon which the object appearance model is built. This approach has the following limitations: 1) The bases are data driven, so they can be easily corrupted, and 2) it is difficult to robustly update the bases in challenging situations. In this paper, we construct an appearance model using the 3D discrete cosine transform (3D-DCT). The 3D-DCT is based on a set of cosine basis functions which are determined by the dimensions of the 3D signal and thus independent of the input video data. In addition, the 3D-DCT can generate a compact energy spectrum whose high-frequency coefficients are sparse if the appearance samples are similar. By discarding these high-frequency coefficients, we simultaneously obtain a compact 3D-DCT-based object representation and a signal reconstruction-based similarity measure (reflecting the information loss from signal reconstruction). To efficiently update the object representation, we propose an incremental 3D-DCT algorithm which decomposes the 3D-DCT into successive operations of the 2D discrete cosine transform (2D-DCT) and 1D discrete cosine transform (1D-DCT) on the input video data. As a result, the incremental 3D-DCT algorithm only needs to compute the 2D-DCT for newly added frames as well as the 1D-DCT along the third dimension, which significantly reduces the computational complexity. Based on this incremental 3D-DCT algorithm, we design a discriminative criterion to evaluate the likelihood of a test sample belonging to the foreground object. We then embed the discriminative criterion into a particle filtering framework for object state inference over time. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed tracker. PMID:22868649

Li, Xi; Dick, Anthony; Shen, Chunhua; van den Hengel, Anton; Wang, Hanzi

2013-04-01

68

Incremental learning of 3D-DCT compact representations for robust visual tracking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Visual tracking usually requires an object appearance model that is robust to changing illumination, pose, and other factors encountered in video. Many recent trackers utilize appearance samples in previous frames to form the bases upon which the object appearance model is built. This approach has the following limitations: 1) The bases are data driven, so they can be easily corrupted, and 2) it is difficult to robustly update the bases in challenging situations. In this paper, we construct an appearance model using the 3D discrete cosine transform (3D-DCT). The 3D-DCT is based on a set of cosine basis functions which are determined by the dimensions of the 3D signal and thus independent of the input video data. In addition, the 3D-DCT can generate a compact energy spectrum whose high-frequency coefficients are sparse if the appearance samples are similar. By discarding these high-frequency coefficients, we simultaneously obtain a compact 3D-DCT-based object representation and a signal reconstruction-based similarity measure (reflecting the information loss from signal reconstruction). To efficiently update the object representation, we propose an incremental 3D-DCT algorithm which decomposes the 3D-DCT into successive operations of the 2D discrete cosine transform (2D-DCT) and 1D discrete cosine transform (1D-DCT) on the input video data. As a result, the incremental 3D-DCT algorithm only needs to compute the 2D-DCT for newly added frames as well as the 1D-DCT along the third dimension, which significantly reduces the computational complexity. Based on this incremental 3D-DCT algorithm, we design a discriminative criterion to evaluate the likelihood of a test sample belonging to the foreground object. We then embed the discriminative criterion into a particle filtering framework for object state inference over time. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed tracker.

Li X; Dick A; Shen C; van den Hengel A; Wang H

2013-04-01

69

Traditional descriptive analysis and novel visual representation of diagnostic repeatability and reproducibility: application to an infectious salmon anaemia virus RT-PCR assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a component of diagnostic test evaluation, the estimation of repeatability and reproducibility of an assay is necessary to assess the robustness and the transferability of the method among laboratories. Respectively defined as the agreement within and between laboratories, repeatability and reproducibility of a qualitative diagnostic test are traditionally reported using observed proportion of agreement or Kappa values. Applied to a recently designed RT-PCR assay for the detection of infectious salmon anaemia virus, repeatability only within a national reference laboratory and reproducibility with two additional independent regional laboratories were investigated. Homogenization of fish kidney tissue was conducted to potentially provide more uniform submission material, and to assess the effect of homogenization on laboratory comparability. Comparison of agreement between non-homogenized and homogenized tissue samples revealed different patterns of test results and unexpected alterations of agreement due to homogenization. This observation may be explained by cross-contamination of some samples during the homogenization process. One of the laboratories was in clear disagreement with the two others and impacted the overall reproducibility of the assay. Agreement levels were visually described using a novel tree-shape representation inspired from phylogenetic studies. The resulting phylogram illustrated the proximity of test findings between repeated samples within a laboratory and between laboratories, and facilitated the interpretation of the agreement levels. PMID:19748139

Caraguel, Charles; Stryhn, Henrik; Gagné, Nellie; Dohoo, Ian; Hammell, Larry

2009-09-11

70

Traditional descriptive analysis and novel visual representation of diagnostic repeatability and reproducibility: application to an infectious salmon anaemia virus RT-PCR assay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a component of diagnostic test evaluation, the estimation of repeatability and reproducibility of an assay is necessary to assess the robustness and the transferability of the method among laboratories. Respectively defined as the agreement within and between laboratories, repeatability and reproducibility of a qualitative diagnostic test are traditionally reported using observed proportion of agreement or Kappa values. Applied to a recently designed RT-PCR assay for the detection of infectious salmon anaemia virus, repeatability only within a national reference laboratory and reproducibility with two additional independent regional laboratories were investigated. Homogenization of fish kidney tissue was conducted to potentially provide more uniform submission material, and to assess the effect of homogenization on laboratory comparability. Comparison of agreement between non-homogenized and homogenized tissue samples revealed different patterns of test results and unexpected alterations of agreement due to homogenization. This observation may be explained by cross-contamination of some samples during the homogenization process. One of the laboratories was in clear disagreement with the two others and impacted the overall reproducibility of the assay. Agreement levels were visually described using a novel tree-shape representation inspired from phylogenetic studies. The resulting phylogram illustrated the proximity of test findings between repeated samples within a laboratory and between laboratories, and facilitated the interpretation of the agreement levels.

Caraguel C; Stryhn H; Gagné N; Dohoo I; Hammell L

2009-11-01

71

Developmental dissociation of visual dorsal stream parvo and magnocellular representations and the functional impact of negative retinotopic BOLD responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Localized neurodevelopmental defects provide an opportunity to study structure-function correlations in the human nervous system. This unique multimodal case report of epileptogenic dysplasia in the visual cortex allowed exploring visual function across distinct pathways in retinotopic regions and the dorsal stream, in relation to fMRI retinotopic mapping and spike triggered BOLD responses. Pre-surgical EEG/video monitoring, MRI/DTI, EEG/fMRI, PET and SPECT were performed to characterize structure/function correlations in this patient with a very early lesion onset. In addition, we included psychophysical methods (assessing parvo/konio and magnocellular pathways) and retinotopic mapping. We could identify dorsal stream impairment (with extended contrast sensitivity deficits within the input magno system contrasting with more confined parvocellular deficits) with disrupted active visual field input representations in regions neighboring the lesion. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI identified perilesional and retinotopic bilaterally symmetric BOLD deactivation triggered by interictal spikes, which matched the contralateral spread of magnocellular dysfunction revealed in the psychophysical tests. Topographic changes in retinotopic organization further suggested long term functional effects of abnormal electrical discharges during brain development. We conclude that fMRI based visual field cortical mapping shows evidence for retinotopic dissociation between magno and parvocellular function well beyond striate cortex, identifiable in high level dorsal visual representations around visual area V3A which is consistent with the effects of epileptic spike triggered negative BOLD. PMID:23933589

Duarte, Isabel Catarina; Cunha, Gil; Castelhano, João; Sales, Francisco; Reis, Aldina; Cunha, João Paulo Silva; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

2013-08-09

72

Representation of the visual field in the primary visual area of the marmoset monkey: magnification factors, point-image size, and proportionality to retinal ganglion cell density.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The primary visual area (V1) forms a systematic map of the visual field, in which adjacent cell clusters represent adjacent points of visual space. A precise quantification of this map is key to understanding the anatomical relationships between neurons located in different stations of the visual pathway, as well as the neural bases of visual performance in different regions of the visual field. We used computational methods to quantify the visual topography of V1 in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small diurnal monkey. The receptive fields of neurons throughout V1 were mapped in two anesthetized animals using electrophysiological recordings. Following histological reconstruction, precise 3D reconstructions of the V1 surface and recording sites were generated. We found that the areal magnification factor (M(A) ) decreases with eccentricity following a function that has the same slope as that observed in larger diurnal primates, including macaque, squirrel, and capuchin monkeys, and humans. However, there was no systematic relationship between M(A) and polar angle. Despite individual variation in the shape of V1, the relationship between M(A) and eccentricity was preserved across cases. Comparison between V1 and the retinal ganglion cell density demonstrated preferential magnification of central space in the cortex. The size of the cortical compartment activated by a punctiform stimulus decreased from the foveal representation towards the peripheral representation. Nonetheless, the relationship between the receptive field sizes of V1 cells and the density of ganglion cells suggested that each V1 cell receives information from a similar number of retinal neurons, throughout the visual field.

Chaplin TA; Yu HH; Rosa MG

2013-04-01

73

Representation of the visual field in the primary visual area of the marmoset monkey: magnification factors, point-image size, and proportionality to retinal ganglion cell density.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary visual area (V1) forms a systematic map of the visual field, in which adjacent cell clusters represent adjacent points of visual space. A precise quantification of this map is key to understanding the anatomical relationships between neurons located in different stations of the visual pathway, as well as the neural bases of visual performance in different regions of the visual field. We used computational methods to quantify the visual topography of V1 in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small diurnal monkey. The receptive fields of neurons throughout V1 were mapped in two anesthetized animals using electrophysiological recordings. Following histological reconstruction, precise 3D reconstructions of the V1 surface and recording sites were generated. We found that the areal magnification factor (M(A) ) decreases with eccentricity following a function that has the same slope as that observed in larger diurnal primates, including macaque, squirrel, and capuchin monkeys, and humans. However, there was no systematic relationship between M(A) and polar angle. Despite individual variation in the shape of V1, the relationship between M(A) and eccentricity was preserved across cases. Comparison between V1 and the retinal ganglion cell density demonstrated preferential magnification of central space in the cortex. The size of the cortical compartment activated by a punctiform stimulus decreased from the foveal representation towards the peripheral representation. Nonetheless, the relationship between the receptive field sizes of V1 cells and the density of ganglion cells suggested that each V1 cell receives information from a similar number of retinal neurons, throughout the visual field. PMID:22911425

Chaplin, Tristan A; Yu, Hsin-Hao; Rosa, Marcello G P

2013-04-01

74

Preliminary tests of a possible outdoor light adaptation solution for a fly inspired visual sensor: a biomimetic solution - biomed 2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two previous papers, presented at RMBS in 2009 and 2010, introduced a fly inspired vision sensor that could adapt to indoor light conditions by mimicking the light adaptation process of the commonhousefly, Muscadomestica. A new system has been designed that should allow the sensor to adapt to outdoor light conditions which will enable the sensor?s use inapplications such as: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) obstacle avoidance, UAV landing support, target tracking, wheelchair guidance, large structure monitoring, and many other outdoor applications. A sensor of this type is especially suited for these applications due to features of hyperacuity (or an ability to achieve movement resolution beyond the theoretical limit), extreme sensitivity to motion, and (through software simulation) image edge extraction, motion detection, and orientation and location of a line.Many of these qualities are beyond the ability of traditional computervision sensors such as charge coupled device (CCD) arrays.To achieve outdoor light adaptation, a variety of design obstacles have to be overcome such as infrared interference, dynamic range expansion, and light saturation. The newly designed system overcomes the latter two design obstacles by mimicking the fly?s solution of logarithmic compression followed by removal of the average background light intensity. This paper presents the new design and the preliminary tests that were conducted to determine its effectiveness.

Dean BK; Wright CH; Barrett SF

2011-01-01

75

Portraits or people? Distinct representations of face identity in the human visual cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans can identify individual faces under different viewpoints, even after a single encounter. We determined brain regions responsible for processing face identity across view changes after variable delays with several intervening stimuli, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during a long-term repetition priming paradigm. Unfamiliar faces were presented sequentially either in a frontal or three-quarter view. Each face identity was repeated once after an unpredictable lag, with either the same or another viewpoint. Behavioral data showed significant priming in response time, irrespective of view changes. Brain imaging results revealed a reduced response in the lateral occipital and fusiform cortex with face repetition. Bilateral face-selective fusiform areas showed view-sensitive repetition effects, generalizing only from three-quarter to front-views. More medial regions in the left (but not in the right) fusiform showed repetition effects across all types of viewpoint changes. These results reveal that distinct regions within the fusiform cortex hold view-sensitive or view-invariant traces of novel faces, and that face identity is represented in a view-sensitive manner in the functionally defined face-selective areas of both hemispheres. In addition, our finding of a better generalization after exposure to a 3/4-view than to a front-view demonstrates for the first time a neural substrate in the fusiform cortex for the common recognition advantage of three-quarter faces. This pattern provides new insights into the nature of face representation in the human visual system. PMID:16102236

Pourtois, Gilles; Schwartz, Sophie; Seghier, Mohamed L; Lazeyras, François; Vuilleumier, Patrik

2005-07-01

76

Cardiac and pulmonary dose reduction for tangentially irradiated breast cancer, utilizing deep inspiration breath-hold with audio-visual guidance, without compromising target coverage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background and purpose. Cardiac disease and pulmonary complications are documented risk factors in tangential breast irradiation. Respiratory gating radiotherapy provides a possibility to substantially reduce cardiopulmonary doses. This CT planning study quantifies the reduction of radiation doses to the heart and lung, using deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). Patients and methods. Seventeen patients with early breast cancer, referred for adjuvant radiotherapy, were included. For each patient two CT scans were acquired; the first during free breathing (FB) and the second during DIBH. The scans were monitored by the Varian RPM respiratory gating system. Audio coaching and visual feedback (audio-visual guidance) were used. The treatment planning of the two CT studies was performed with conformal tangential fields, focusing on good coverage (V95>98%) of the planning target volume (PTV). Dose-volume histograms were calculated and compared. Doses to the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, ipsilateral lung and the contralateral breast were assessed. Results. Compared to FB, the DIBH-plans obtained lower cardiac and pulmonary doses, with equal coverage of PTV. The average mean heart dose was reduced from 3.7 to 1.7 Gy and the number of patients with >5% heart volume receiving 25 Gy or more was reduced from four to one of the 17 patients. With DIBH the heart was completely out of the beam portals for ten patients, with FB this could not be achieved for any of the 17 patients. The average mean dose to the LAD coronary artery was reduced from 18.1 to 6.4 Gy. The average ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 20 Gy was reduced from 12.2 to 10.0%. Conclusion. Respiratory gating with DIBH, utilizing audio-visual guidance, reduces cardiac and pulmonary doses for tangentially treated left sided breast cancer patients without compromising the target coverage

Vikstroem, Johan; Hjelstuen, Mari H.B.; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Dybvik, Kjell Ivar (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Stavanger Univ. Hospital, Stavanger (Norway)), e-mail: vijo@sus.no

2011-01-15

77

Cardiac and pulmonary dose reduction for tangentially irradiated breast cancer, utilizing deep inspiration breath-hold with audio-visual guidance, without compromising target coverage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Background and purpose. Cardiac disease and pulmonary complications are documented risk factors in tangential breast irradiation. Respiratory gating radiotherapy provides a possibility to substantially reduce cardiopulmonary doses. This CT planning study quantifies the reduction of radiation doses to the heart and lung, using deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). Patients and methods. Seventeen patients with early breast cancer, referred for adjuvant radiotherapy, were included. For each patient two CT scans were acquired; the first during free breathing (FB) and the second during DIBH. The scans were monitored by the Varian RPM respiratory gating system. Audio coaching and visual feedback (audio-visual guidance) were used. The treatment planning of the two CT studies was performed with conformal tangential fields, focusing on good coverage (V95>98%) of the planning target volume (PTV). Dose-volume histograms were calculated and compared. Doses to the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, ipsilateral lung and the contralateral breast were assessed. Results. Compared to FB, the DIBH-plans obtained lower cardiac and pulmonary doses, with equal coverage of PTV. The average mean heart dose was reduced from 3.7 to 1.7 Gy and the number of patients with >5% heart volume receiving 25 Gy or more was reduced from four to one of the 17 patients. With DIBH the heart was completely out of the beam portals for ten patients, with FB this could not be achieved for any of the 17 patients. The average mean dose to the LAD coronary artery was reduced from 18.1 to 6.4 Gy. The average ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 20 Gy was reduced from 12.2 to 10.0%. Conclusion. Respiratory gating with DIBH, utilizing audio-visual guidance, reduces cardiac and pulmonary doses for tangentially treated left sided breast cancer patients without compromising the target coverage

2011-01-01

78

Shape similarity, better than semantic membership, accounts for the structure of visual object representations in a population of monkey inferotemporal neurons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The anterior inferotemporal cortex (IT) is the highest stage along the hierarchy of visual areas that, in primates, processes visual objects. Although several lines of evidence suggest that IT primarily represents visual shape information, some recent studies have argued that neuronal ensembles in IT code the semantic membership of visual objects (i.e., represent conceptual classes such as animate and inanimate objects). In this study, we investigated to what extent semantic, rather than purely visual information, is represented in IT by performing a multivariate analysis of IT responses to a set of visual objects. By relying on a variety of machine-learning approaches (including a cutting-edge clustering algorithm that has been recently developed in the domain of statistical physics), we found that, in most instances, IT representation of visual objects is accounted for by their similarity at the level of shape or, more surprisingly, low-level visual properties. Only in a few cases we observed IT representations of semantic classes that were not explainable by the visual similarity of their members. Overall, these findings reassert the primary function of IT as a conveyor of explicit visual shape information, and reveal that low-level visual properties are represented in IT to a greater extent than previously appreciated. In addition, our work demonstrates how combining a variety of state-of-the-art multivariate approaches, and carefully estimating the contribution of shape similarity to the representation of object categories, can substantially advance our understanding of neuronal coding of visual objects in cortex.

Baldassi C; Alemi-Neissi A; Pagan M; Dicarlo JJ; Zecchina R; Zoccolan D

2013-08-01

79

The role of visual representations within working memory for paired-associate and serial order of spoken words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caplan and colleagues have recently explained paired-associate learning and serial-order learning with a single-mechanism computational model by assuming differential degrees of isolation. Specifically, two items in a pair can be grouped together and associated to positional codes that are somewhat isolated from the rest of the items. In contrast, the degree of isolation among the studied items is lower in serial-order learning. One of the key predictions drawn from this theory is that any variables that help chunking of two adjacent items into a group should be beneficial to paired-associate learning, more than serial-order learning. To test this idea, the role of visual representations in memory for spoken verbal materials (i.e., imagery) was compared between two types of learning directly. Experiment 1 showed stronger effects of word concreteness and of concurrent presentation of irrelevant visual stimuli (dynamic visual noise: DVN) in paired-associate memory than in serial-order memory, consistent with the prediction. Experiment 2 revealed that the irrelevant visual stimuli effect was boosted when the participants had to actively maintain the information within working memory, rather than feed it to long-term memory for subsequent recall, due to cue overloading. This indicates that the sensory input from irrelevant visual stimuli can reach and affect visual representations of verbal items within working memory, and that this disruption can be attenuated when the information within working memory can be efficiently supported by long-term memory for subsequent recall. PMID:23472610

Ueno, Taiji; Saito, Satoru

2013-03-08

80

Multiple parietal reach regions in humans: cortical representations for visual and proprioceptive feedback during on-line reaching.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reaching toward a visual target involves at least two sources of information. One is the visual feedback from the hand as it approaches the target. Another is proprioception from the moving limb, which informs the brain of the location of the hand relative to the target even when the hand is not visible. Where these two sources of information are represented in the human brain is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the cortical representations for reaching with or without visual feedback from the moving hand, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. To identify reach-dominant areas, we compared reaching with saccades. Our results show that a reach-dominant region in the anterior precuneus (aPCu), extending into medial intraparietal sulcus, is equally active in visual and nonvisual reaching. A second region, at the superior end of the parieto-occipital sulcus (sPOS), is more active for visual than for nonvisual reaching. These results suggest that aPCu is a sensorimotor area whose sensory input is primarily proprioceptive, while sPOS is a visuomotor area that receives visual feedback during reaching. In addition to the precuneus, medial, anterior intraparietal, and superior parietal cortex were also activated during both visual and nonvisual reaching, with more anterior areas responding to hand movements only and more posterior areas responding to both hand and eye movements. Our results suggest that cortical networks for reaching are differentially activated depending on the sensory conditions during reaching. This indicates the involvement of multiple parietal reach regions in humans, rather than a single homogenous parietal reach region.

Filimon F; Nelson JD; Huang RS; Sereno MI

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

The VIPER project (Visualization Integration Platform for Exploration Research): a biologically inspired autonomous reconfigurable robotic platform for diverse unstructured environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade the world has seen numerous autonomous vehicle programs. Wheels and track designs are the basis for many of these vehicles. This is primarily due to four main reasons: a vast preexisting knowledge base for these designs, energy efficiency of power sources, scalability of actuators, and the lack of control systems technologies for handling alternate highly complex distributed systems. Though large efforts seek to improve the mobility of these vehicles, many limitations still exist for these systems within unstructured environments, e.g. limited mobility within industrial and nuclear accident sites where existing plant configurations have been extensively changed. These unstructured operational environments include missions for exploration, reconnaissance, and emergency recovery of objects within reconfigured or collapsed structures, e.g. bombed buildings. More importantly, these environments present a clear and present danger for direct human interactions during the initial phases of recovery operations. Clearly, the current classes of autonomous vehicles are incapable of performing in these environments. Thus the next generation of designs must include highly reconfigurable and flexible autonomous robotic platforms. This new breed of autonomous vehicles will be both highly flexible and environmentally adaptable. Presented in this paper is one of the most successful designs from nature, the snake-eel-worm (SEW). This design implements shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators which allow for scaling of the robotic SEW designs from sub-micron scale to heavy industrial implementations without major conceptual redesigns as required in traditional hydraulic, pneumatic, or motor driven systems. Autonomous vehicles based on the SEW design posses the ability to easily move between air based environments and fluid based environments with limited or no reconfiguration. Under a SEW designed vehicle, one not only achieves vastly improved maneuverability within a highly unstructured environment, but also gains robotic manipulation abilities, normally relegated as secondary add-ons within existing vehicles, all within one small condensed package. The prototype design presented includes a Beowulf style computing system for advanced guidance calculations and visualization computations. All of the design and implementation pertaining to the SEW robot discussed in this paper is the product of a student team under the summer fellowship program at the DOEs INEEL.

Schubert, Oliver J.; Tolle, Charles R.

2004-09-01

82

Preoperational Graphic Representation: From Intellectual Realism to Visual Realism in Draw a House-Tree Task.  

Science.gov (United States)

|In a pilot study of children's drawings of "a house with a tree behind it," Piagetian sequence (scribbling, fortuitous realism, failed realism, intellectual realism, and visual realism) was tentatively supported. Children's strategies in decentering from intellectual to visual realism were noted. The study reported in this paper was undertaken to…

Kalyan-Masih, Violet

83

Multi-voxel pattern analysis of selective representation of visual working memory in ventral temporal and occipital regions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While previous results from univariate analysis showed that the activity level of the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) but not the fusiform gyrus (FG) reflects selective maintenance of the cued picture category, present results from multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) showed that the spatial response patterns of both regions can be used to differentiate the selected picture category in working memory. The ventral temporal and occipital areas including the PHG and FG have been shown to be specialized in perceiving and processing different kinds of visual information, though their role in the representation of visual working memory remains unclear. To test whether the PHG and FG show spatial response patterns that reflect selective maintenance of task-relevant visual working memory in comparison with other posterior association regions, we reanalyzed data from a previous fMRI study of visual working memory with a cue inserted during the delay period of a delayed recognition task. Classification of FG and PHG activation patterns for the selected category (face or scene) during the cue phase was well above chance using classifiers trained with fMRI data from the cue or probe phase. Classification of activity in other temporal and occipital regions for the cued picture category during the cue phase was relatively less consistent even though classification of their activity during the probe recognition was comparable with the FG and PHG. In sum, these findings suggest that the FG and PHG carry information relevant to the cued visual category, and their spatial activation patterns during selective maintenance seem to match those during visual recognition.

Han X; Berg AC; Oh H; Samaras D; Leung HC

2013-06-01

84

A perceptual representation in the frontal eye field during covert visual search that is more reliable than the behavioral report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neuronal activity in the frontal eye field (FEF) identifies locations of behaviorally important objects for guiding attention and eye movements. We recorded neural activity in the FEF of monkeys trained to manually turn a lever towards the location of a pop-out target of a visual search array without shifting gaze. We examined whether the reliability of the neural representation of the salient target location predicted the monkeys' accuracy of reporting target location. We found that FEF neurons reliably encoded the location of the target stimulus not only on correct trials but also on error trials. The representation of target location in FEF persisted until the manual behavioral report but did not increase in magnitude. This result suggests that, in the absence of an eye movement report, FEF encodes the perceptual information necessary to perform the task but does not accumulate this sensory evidence towards a perceptual decision threshold. These results provide physiological evidence that, under certain circumstances, accurate perceptual representations do not always lead to accurate behavioral reports and that variability in processes outside of perception must be considered to account for the variability in perceptual choice behavior.

Trageser JC; Monosov IE; Zhou Y; Thompson KG

2008-12-01

85

A perceptual representation in the frontal eye field during covert visual search that is more reliable than the behavioral report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuronal activity in the frontal eye field (FEF) identifies locations of behaviorally important objects for guiding attention and eye movements. We recorded neural activity in the FEF of monkeys trained to manually turn a lever towards the location of a pop-out target of a visual search array without shifting gaze. We examined whether the reliability of the neural representation of the salient target location predicted the monkeys' accuracy of reporting target location. We found that FEF neurons reliably encoded the location of the target stimulus not only on correct trials but also on error trials. The representation of target location in FEF persisted until the manual behavioral report but did not increase in magnitude. This result suggests that, in the absence of an eye movement report, FEF encodes the perceptual information necessary to perform the task but does not accumulate this sensory evidence towards a perceptual decision threshold. These results provide physiological evidence that, under certain circumstances, accurate perceptual representations do not always lead to accurate behavioral reports and that variability in processes outside of perception must be considered to account for the variability in perceptual choice behavior. PMID:19032593

Trageser, Jason C; Monosov, Ilya E; Zhou, Yifeng; Thompson, Kirk G

2008-11-21

86

A Lightweight AV System for Providing a Faithful and Spatially Manipulable Visual Hand Representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper introduces the technical foundations of a system designed to embed a lightweight, faithful and spatially manipulable representation of the user's hand into an otherwise virtual world (aka Augmented Virtuality, AV). A highly intuitive control during pointing-like near space interaction can...

Pusch, Andreas; Martin, Olivier; Coquillart, Sabine

87

A model for learning topographically organized parts-based representations of objects in visual cortex: topographic nonnegative matrix factorization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Object representation in the inferior temporal cortex (IT), an area of visual cortex critical for object recognition in the primate, exhibits two prominent properties: (1) objects are represented by the combined activity of columnar clusters of neurons, with each cluster representing component features or parts of objects, and (2) closely related features are continuously represented along the tangential direction of individual columnar clusters. Here we propose a learning model that reflects these properties of parts-based representation and topographic organization in a unified framework. This model is based on a nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) basis decomposition method. NMF alone provides a parts-based representation where nonnegative inputs are approximated by additive combinations of nonnegative basis functions. Our proposed model of topographic NMF (TNMF) incorporates neighborhood connections between NMF basis functions arranged on a topographic map and attains the topographic property without losing the parts-based property of the NMF. The TNMF represents an input by multiple activity peaks to describe diverse information, whereas conventional topographic models, such as the self-organizing map (SOM), represent an input by a single activity peak in a topographic map. We demonstrate the parts-based and topographic properties of the TNMF by constructing a hierarchical model for object recognition where the TNMF is at the top tier for learning high-level object features. The TNMF showed better generalization performance over NMF for a data set of continuous view change of an image and more robustly preserving the continuity of the view change in its object representation. Comparison of the outputs of our model with actual neural responses recorded in the IT indicates that the TNMF reconstructs the neuronal responses better than the SOM, giving plausibility to the parts-based learning of the model.

Hosoda K; Watanabe M; Wersing H; Körner E; Tsujino H; Tamura H; Fujita I

2009-09-01

88

[Representation and readout of object information in macaque higher visual cortex].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Electrocorticogram (ECoG) is an electrophysiological brain activity recording technique that has been widely revisited in recent years, not only for clinical monitoring, but also for prosthetic applications. However, the extent and limitations of the technique are poorly understood. Higher areas of human and macaque ventral visual cortices are known to have functional domain structures that are selective to certain categories, and population vectors that have been derived from visually evoked single-unit activity (SUA) recording in this region have been shown to form category clusters. How can visually evoked potentials recorded with ECoG from the same region be exploited to extract category information? To answer this question, the development of a simultaneous ECoG and SUA recording device by the modification of a previously reported flexible mesh ECoG probe with a microelectromechanical system has been promising (Toda et al., 2011). Indeed, Toda et al. conducted simultaneous recordings and reported that mesh ECoG signals exhibited comparable or better signal variabilities compared to conventional methods in the rat visual cortex. With this approach, we conducted intensive simultaneous ECoG and SUA recordings from the macaque anterior inferior temporal (IT) cortex. We compared how basic visual category and fine information is decoded from different recording modalities. Our preliminary results indicated that ECoG signals from the IT cortex may be a useful source for reading out certain levels of category information from visual input.

Miyakawa N; Hasegawa I

2013-06-01

89

The visual representations of words and style in text: an adaptation study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While the nature of face representations in the human perceptual system has been extensively studied using adaptation, there has been little investigation using this technique of the neural basis of another parallel class of high-level objects, words. We used the perceptual-bias technique to determine if aftereffects could be generated for either the word content or stylistic properties of textual stimuli, and if these aftereffects showed invariance for the non-adapted dimension. In a first experiment, we examined adaptation for word versus handwriting style. In a second experiment we contrasted adaptation for words with adaptation for computer font. The third experiment performed a similar study of aftereffects for words and case. In all three experiments we consistently found adaptation for words, which were not diminished by changing the style between the adapting and probe stimuli: hence word aftereffects are invariant for handwriting, font and case. Aftereffects were negligible for style. Additional analyses showed that discriminative ability was better for word than for style content. These results confirm that the neural representations of words can be probed with the adaptation technique and suggest that adaptation accesses word representations at an abstract level, where the identity of a word is invariant for stylistic properties.

Hanif HM; Perler BL; Jason J S B

2013-06-01

90

Neural population representation hypothesis of visual flow and its illusory after effect in the brain: psychophysics, neurophysiology and computational approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The neural representation of motion aftereffects induced by various visual flows (translational, rotational, motion-in-depth, and translational transparent flows) was studied under the hypothesis that the imbalances in discharge activities would occur in favor in the direction opposite to the adapting stimulation in the monkey MST cells (cells in the medial superior temporal area) which can discriminate the mode (i.e., translational, rotational, or motion-in-depth) of the given flow. In single-unit recording experiments conducted on anaesthetized monkeys, we found that the rate of spontaneous discharge and the sensitivity to a test stimulus moving in the preferred direction decreased after receiving an adapting stimulation moving in the preferred direction, whereas they increased after receiving an adapting stimulation moving in the null direction. To consistently explain the bidirectional perception of a transparent visual flow and its unidirectional motion aftereffect by the same hypothesis, we need to assume the existence of two subtypes of MST D cells which show directionally selective responses to a translational flow: component cells and integration cells. Our physiological investigation revealed that the MST D cells could be divided into two types: one responded to a transparent flow by two peaks at the instances when the direction of one of the component flow matched the preferred direction of the cell, and the other responded by a single peak at the instance when the direction of the integrated motion matched the preferred direction. In psychophysical experiments on human subjects, we found evidence for the existence of component and integration representations in the human brain. To explain the different motion perceptions, i.e., two transparent flows during presentation of the flows and a single flow in the opposite direction to the integrated flows after stopping the flow stimuli, we suggest that the pattern-discrimination system can select the motion representation that is consistent with the perception of the pattern from two motion representations. We discuss the computational aspects related to the integration of component motion fields.

Saito HA; Hida E; Amari S; Ohno H; Hashimoto N

2012-04-01

91

Visual Representation of Eye Gaze Is Coded by a Nonopponent Multichannel System  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, there is no functional account of the visual perception of gaze in humans. Previous work has demonstrated that left gaze and right gaze are represented by separate mechanisms. However, these data are consistent with either a multichannel system comprising separate channels for distinct gaze directions (e.g., left, direct, and right) or an…

Calder, Andrew J.; Jenkins, Rob; Cassel, Anneli; Clifford, Colin W. G.

2008-01-01

92

A comparison of visual and auditory representational momentum in spatial tasks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Similarities have been observed in the localization of the final position of moving visual and moving auditory stimuli: Perceived endpoints that are judged to be farther in the direction of motion in both modalities likely reflect extrapolation of the trajectory, mediated by predictive mechanisms at higher cognitive levels. However, actual comparisons of the magnitudes of displacement between visual tasks and auditory tasks using the same experimental setup are rare. As such, the purpose of the present free-field study was to investigate the influences of the spatial location of motion offset, stimulus velocity, and motion direction on the localization of the final positions of moving auditory stimuli (Experiment 1 and 2) and moving visual stimuli (Experiment 3). To assess whether auditory performance is affected by dynamically changing binaural cues that are used for the localization of moving auditory stimuli (interaural time differences for low-frequency sounds and interaural intensity differences for high-frequency sounds), two distinct noise bands were employed in Experiments 1 and 2. In all three experiments, less precise encoding of spatial coordinates in paralateral space resulted in larger forward displacements, but this effect was drowned out by the underestimation of target eccentricity in the extreme periphery. Furthermore, our results revealed clear differences between visual and auditory tasks. Displacements in the visual task were dependent on velocity and the spatial location of the final position, but an additional influence of motion direction was observed in the auditory tasks. Together, these findings indicate that the modality-specific processing of motion parameters affects the extrapolation of the trajectory.

Schmiedchen K; Freigang C; Rübsamen R; Richter N

2013-07-01

93

A null effect of target's velocity in the visual representation of motion with schizophrenic patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When people are shown a moving object that suddenly disappears and are instructed to locate its vanishing position, systematic errors in the direction of motion and in the direction of gravity are usually observed. Entitled, respectively, Representational Momentum (RepMo) and Representational Gravity, these phenomena seem to be influenced by low-level perceptual mechanisms and high-level cognitive aspects alike. Although being widely acknowledged that schizophrenic patients reveal several deficits in the perception and processing of motion, no study to date has explored these behavioral spatial mislocalizations of smoothly moving targets. The present study reports two experiments intending to fill this gap. The outcomes systematically disclosed a null effect of target's velocity for schizophrenic patients, a well established determinant of RepMo's magnitude with nonpsychiatric populations. No other variables (implied mass and motion direction) revealed this dissociation between the groups. The results are discussed within the distinction of kinematic and dynamic variables, with schizophrenic patients revealing a deficit in the processing of the former, and a link with dysfunctional smooth pursuit eye movements is suggested.

De Sá Teixeira N; Pimenta S; Raposo V

2013-02-01

94

Discourse-mediation of the mapping between language and the visual world: eye movements and mental representation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two experiments explored the mapping between language and mental representations of visual scenes. In both experiments, participants viewed, for example, a scene depicting a woman, a wine glass and bottle on the floor, an empty table, and various other objects. In Experiment 1, participants concurrently heard either 'The woman will put the glass on the table' or 'The woman is too lazy to put the glass on the table'. Subsequently, with the scene unchanged, participants heard that the woman 'will pick up the bottle, and pour the wine carefully into the glass.' Experiment 2 was identical except that the scene was removed before the onset of the spoken language. In both cases, eye movements after 'pour' (anticipating the glass) and at 'glass' reflected the language-determined position of the glass, as either on the floor, or moved onto the table, even though the concurrent (Experiment 1) or prior (Experiment 2) scene showed the glass in its unmoved position on the floor. Language-mediated eye movements thus reflect the real-time mapping of language onto dynamically updateable event-based representations of concurrently or previously seen objects (and their locations).

Altmann GT; Kamide Y

2009-04-01

95

Atypical cortical representation of peripheral visual space in children with an autism spectrum disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A key feature of early visual cortical regions is that they contain discretely organized retinotopic maps. Titration of these maps must occur through experience, and the fidelity of their spatial tuning will depend on the consistency and accuracy of the eye movement system. Anomalies in fixation patterns and the ballistics of eye movements are well documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with off-center fixations a hallmark of the phenotype. We hypothesized that these atypicalities might affect the development of visuo-spatial maps and specifically that peripheral inputs might receive altered processing in ASD. Using high-density recordings of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and a novel system-identification approach known as VESPA (visual evoked spread spectrum analysis), we assessed sensory responses to centrally and peripherally presented stimuli. Additionally, input luminance was varied to bias responsiveness to the magnocellular system, given previous suggestions of magnocellular-specific deficits in ASD. Participants were 22 ASD children (7-17 years of age) and 31 age- and performance-IQ-matched neurotypical controls. Both VEP and VESPA responses to central presentations were indistinguishable between groups. In contrast, peripheral presentations resulted in significantly greater early VEP and VESPA amplitudes in the ASD cohort. We found no evidence that anomalous enhancement was restricted to magnocellular-biased responses. The extent of peripheral response enhancement was related to the severity of stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests, cardinal symptoms of ASD. The current results point to differential visuo-spatial cortical mapping in ASD, shedding light on the consequences of peculiarities in gaze and stereotyped visual behaviors often reported by clinicians working with this population.

Frey HP; Molholm S; Lalor EC; Russo NN; Foxe JJ

2013-07-01

96

Atypical cortical representation of peripheral visual space in children with an autism spectrum disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key feature of early visual cortical regions is that they contain discretely organized retinotopic maps. Titration of these maps must occur through experience, and the fidelity of their spatial tuning will depend on the consistency and accuracy of the eye movement system. Anomalies in fixation patterns and the ballistics of eye movements are well documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with off-center fixations a hallmark of the phenotype. We hypothesized that these atypicalities might affect the development of visuo-spatial maps and specifically that peripheral inputs might receive altered processing in ASD. Using high-density recordings of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and a novel system-identification approach known as VESPA (visual evoked spread spectrum analysis), we assessed sensory responses to centrally and peripherally presented stimuli. Additionally, input luminance was varied to bias responsiveness to the magnocellular system, given previous suggestions of magnocellular-specific deficits in ASD. Participants were 22 ASD children (7-17 years of age) and 31 age- and performance-IQ-matched neurotypical controls. Both VEP and VESPA responses to central presentations were indistinguishable between groups. In contrast, peripheral presentations resulted in significantly greater early VEP and VESPA amplitudes in the ASD cohort. We found no evidence that anomalous enhancement was restricted to magnocellular-biased responses. The extent of peripheral response enhancement was related to the severity of stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests, cardinal symptoms of ASD. The current results point to differential visuo-spatial cortical mapping in ASD, shedding light on the consequences of peculiarities in gaze and stereotyped visual behaviors often reported by clinicians working with this population. PMID:23692590

Frey, Hans-Peter; Molholm, Sophie; Lalor, Edmund C; Russo, Natalie N; Foxe, John J

2013-05-22

97

Visual representation of statistical information improves diagnostic inferences in doctors and their patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Doctors and patients have difficulty inferring the predictive value of a medical test from information about the prevalence of a disease and the sensitivity and false-positive rate of the test. Previous research has established that communicating such information in a format the human mind is adapted to-namely natural frequencies-as compared to probabilities, boosts accuracy of diagnostic inferences. In a study, we investigated to what extent these inferences can be improved-beyond the effect of natural frequencies-by providing visual aids. Participants were 81 doctors and 81 patients who made diagnostic inferences about three medical tests on the basis of information about prevalence of a disease, and the sensitivity and false-positive rate of the tests. Half of the participants received the information in natural frequencies, while the other half received the information in probabilities. Half of the participants only received numerical information, while the other half additionally received a visual aid representing the numerical information. In addition, participants completed a numeracy scale. Our study showed three important findings: (1) doctors and patients made more accurate inferences when information was communicated in natural frequencies as compared to probabilities; (2) visual aids boosted accuracy even when the information was provided in natural frequencies; and (3) doctors were more accurate in their diagnostic inferences than patients, though differences in accuracy disappeared when differences in numerical skills were controlled for. Our findings have important implications for medical practice as they suggest suitable ways to communicate quantitative medical data.

Garcia-Retamero R; Hoffrage U

2013-04-01

98

The representation of complex images in spatial frequency domains of primary visual cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The organization of cat primary visual cortex has been well mapped using simple stimuli such as sinusoidal gratings, revealing superimposed maps of orientation and spatial frequency preferences. However, it is not yet understood how complex images are represented across these maps. In this study, we ask whether a linear filter model can explain how cortical spatial frequency domains are activated by complex images. The model assumes that the response to a stimulus at any point on the cortical surface can be predicted by its individual orientation, spatial frequency, and temporal frequency tuning curves. To test this model, we imaged the pattern of activity within cat area 17 in response to stimuli composed of multiple spatial frequencies. Consistent with the predictions of the model, the stimuli activated low and high spatial frequency domains differently: at low stimulus drift speeds, both domains were strongly activated, but activity fell off in high spatial frequency domains as drift speed increased. To determine whether the filter model quantitatively predicted the activity patterns, we measured the spatiotemporal tuning properties of the functional domains in vivo and calculated expected response amplitudes from the model. The model accurately predicted cortical response patterns for two types of complex stimuli drifting at a variety of speeds. These results suggest that the distributed activity of primary visual cortex can be predicted from cortical maps like those of orientation and SF preference generated using simple, sinusoidal stimuli, and that dynamic visual acuity is degraded at or before the level of area 17. PMID:17728445

Zhang, Jing X; Rosenberg, Ari; Mallik, Atul K; Husson, T Robert; Issa, Naoum P

2007-08-29

99

Conjoint Control of Hippocampal Place Cell Firing by Two Visual Stimuli: II. a Vector-Field Theory That Predicts Modifications of the Representation of the Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Changing the angular separation between two visual stimuli attached to the wall of a recording cylinder causes the firing fields of place cells to move relative to each other, as though the representation of the floor undergoes a topological distortion. The displacement of the firing field center of...

Fenton, André A.; Csizmadia, Gyorgy; Muller, Robert U.

100

Levels of representation in visual word recognition: a dissociation between morphological and semantic processing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A robust semantic priming effect typically occurs in visual word recognition if the prime is read before a response to the target. However, this effect is dramatically reduced if a letter search is performed on the prime prior to responding to the target. Three lexical decision experiments document the new observation that morphological priming is preserved following letter search on the prime. This dissociation between morphological and semantic priming following letter search can be understood in the context of an interactive activation framework. In addition, the implications of these results for connectionist and compound cue accounts of word recognition, as well as the issue of automaticity in word recognition, are discussed.

Stolz JA; Besner D

1998-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Levels of representation in visual word recognition: a dissociation between morphological and semantic processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

A robust semantic priming effect typically occurs in visual word recognition if the prime is read before a response to the target. However, this effect is dramatically reduced if a letter search is performed on the prime prior to responding to the target. Three lexical decision experiments document the new observation that morphological priming is preserved following letter search on the prime. This dissociation between morphological and semantic priming following letter search can be understood in the context of an interactive activation framework. In addition, the implications of these results for connectionist and compound cue accounts of word recognition, as well as the issue of automaticity in word recognition, are discussed. PMID:9861715

Stolz, J A; Besner, D

1998-12-01

102

Central visual field representation in striate-peristriate cortex as the functional unit of pattern discrimination in the bushbaby (Galago senegalensis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bushbabies were trained on a battery of visual discrimination and localization tests and retested after serial lesions of the occipital and temporal lobes. The results of these experiments indicated that visual deficits following occipital lobectomy depend on the extent of damage to the central vision representation in both striate and peristriate cortices. If lesions involved both cortical representations of central vision, form and stripes discrimination capacities were lost. When the peristriate representation was spared, form vision was lost but vision for striped patterns was retained. The subsequent addition of middle or ventral temporal area lesions did not alter discrimination performance. Results are discussed in terms of a transcytoarchitectonic subdivision in striate and peristriate cortices as the functional unit of organization for pattern vision.

Caldwell RB; Ward JP

1982-01-01

103

Central visual field representation in striate-peristriate cortex as the functional unit of pattern discrimination in the bushbaby (Galago senegalensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Bushbabies were trained on a battery of visual discrimination and localization tests and retested after serial lesions of the occipital and temporal lobes. The results of these experiments indicated that visual deficits following occipital lobectomy depend on the extent of damage to the central vision representation in both striate and peristriate cortices. If lesions involved both cortical representations of central vision, form and stripes discrimination capacities were lost. When the peristriate representation was spared, form vision was lost but vision for striped patterns was retained. The subsequent addition of middle or ventral temporal area lesions did not alter discrimination performance. Results are discussed in terms of a transcytoarchitectonic subdivision in striate and peristriate cortices as the functional unit of organization for pattern vision. PMID:7159829

Caldwell, R B; Ward, J P

1982-01-01

104

Large Scale Isosurface Bicubic Subdivision-Surface Wavelets for Representation and Visualization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We introduce a new subdivision-surface wavelet transform for arbitrary two-manifolds with boundary that is the first to use simple lifting-style filtering operations with bicubic precision. We also describe a conversion process for re-mapping large-scale isosurfaces to have subdivision connectivity and fair parameterizations so that the new wavelet transform can be used for compression and visualization. The main idea enabling our wavelet transform is the circular symmetrization of the filters in irregular neighborhoods, which replaces the traditional separation of filters into two 1-D passes. Our wavelet transform uses polygonal base meshes to represent surface topology, from which a Catmull-Clark-style subdivision hierarchy is generated. The details between these levels of resolution are quickly computed and compactly stored as wavelet coefficients. The isosurface conversion process begins with a contour triangulation computed using conventional techniques, which we subsequently simplify with a variant edge-collapse procedure, followed by an edge-removal process. This provides a coarse initial base mesh, which is subsequently refined, relaxed and attracted in phases to converge to the contour. The conversion is designed to produce smooth, untangled and minimally-skewed parameterizations, which improves the subsequent compression after applying the transform. We have demonstrated our conversion and transform for an isosurface obtained from a high-resolution turbulent-mixing hydrodynamics simulation, showing the potential for compression and level-of-detail visualization.

Bertram, M.; Duchaineau, M.A.; Hamann, B.; Joy, K.I.

2000-01-05

105

Mental representation of three-dimensional objects in visual problem solving and recognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Subjects inspected sets of flat, separated orthographic projections of surfaces of potential three-dimensional objects. After solving problems based on these orthographic views, subjects discriminated between isometric views of the same objects and drawings of distractor structures. Recognition of the isometrics, which had never been shown during the problem solving phase of the experiment, was excellent. In addition, recognition of isometrics corresponding to problems that had been solved correctly when presented in orthographic form was significantly superior to recognition of isometrics based on problems solved incorrectly. In Experiment 2, conditions were included in which either orthographic or isometric views functioned as problem solving or recognition displays. Only in the case of orthographic problem solving followed by isometric recognition (Experiment 1) was the superiority of recognition for correctly-solved problems over incorrectly-solved problems obtained. The pattern of results suggests that viewers construct mental representations embodying structural information about integrated, three-dimensional objects when asked to reason about flat, disconnected projections.

Cooper LA

1990-11-01

106

Natural scene statistics account for the representation of scene categories in human visual cortex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During natural vision, humans categorize the scenes they encounter: an office, the beach, and so on. These categories are informed by knowledge of the way that objects co-occur in natural scenes. How does the human brain aggregate information about objects to represent scene categories? To explore this issue, we used statistical learning methods to learn categories that objectively capture the co-occurrence statistics of objects in a large collection of natural scenes. Using the learned categories, we modeled fMRI brain signals evoked in human subjects when viewing images of scenes. We find that evoked activity across much of anterior visual cortex is explained by the learned categories. Furthermore, a decoder based on these scene categories accurately predicts the categories and objects comprising novel scenes from brain activity evoked by those scenes. These results suggest that the human brain represents scene categories that capture the co-occurrence statistics of objects in the world.

Stansbury DE; Naselaris T; Gallant JL

2013-09-01

107

Does using a visual-representation tool foster students' ability to identify forces and construct free-body diagrams?  

Science.gov (United States)

Earlier research has shown that after physics instruction, many students have difficulties with the force concept, and with constructing free-body diagrams (FBDs). It has been suggested that treating forces as interactions could help students to identify forces as well as to construct the correct FBDs. While there is evidence that identifying interactions helps students in quantitative problem solving, there is no previous research investigating the effect of a visual-representation tool—an interaction diagram (ID)—on students’ ability to identify forces, and to construct the correct FBDs. We present an empirical study conducted in 11 Finnish high schools on students (n=335, aged 16) taking their first, mandatory, introductory physics course. The study design involved groups of students having heavy, light, or no use of IDs. The heavy and light ID groups answered eight pairs of ID and FBD questions in various physical contexts and the no ID group answered two of the eight FBD questions. The results indicate that the heavy ID group outperformed both the light and the no ID groups in identifying forces and constructing the correct FBDs. The analysis of these data indicates that the use of IDs is especially beneficial in identifying forces when constructing FBDs.

Savinainen, Antti; Mäkynen, Asko; Nieminen, Pasi; Viiri, Jouni

2013-06-01

108

Representation of possible and impossible objects in the human visual cortex: evidence from fMRI adaptation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Impossible objects are defined as 2D drawings that represent objects that could not exist in real 3D space. Previous studies have proposed that such objects are represented differently in long-term memory due to their invalid spatial structure. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether these discrepancies reflect early perceptual processes or late, post-recognition, processes. Here, we address this issue by using fMRI adaptation. Interestingly, equivalent adaptation levels were obtained for repeated compared to non-repeated possible and impossible objects in object selective regions within the human high-level visual cortex. Yet, a significant correlation between fMRI adaptation and behavioral facilitation was found for possible but not for impossible objects, thus exhibiting some dissociation in the representation of the two object categories. Overall, our findings suggest that the initial perception of possible and impossible objects is mediated by shared neural mechanisms whereas the observed differences between the two types of objects may reflect higher post-recognition processes.

Freud E; Ganel T; Avidan G

2013-01-01

109

Ant Robotic Swarm for Visualizing Invisible Hazardous Substances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inspired by the simplicity of how nature solves its problems, this paper presents a novel approach that would enable a swarm of ant robotic agents (robots with limited sensing, communication, computational and memory resources) form a visual representation of distributed hazardous substances within an environment dominated by diffusion processes using a decentralized approach. Such a visual representation could be very useful in enabling a quicker evacuation of a city’s population affected by such hazardous substances. This is especially true if the ratio of emergency workers to the population number is very small.

John Oyekan; Huosheng Hu

2013-01-01

110

Fotografías de indígenas en manuales escolares argentinos: representaciones visuales y connotaciones textuales/ Photographs of indigenous people in argentinian school textbooks: visual representations and textual connotations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las fotografías de pueblos originarios argentinos utilizadas en manuales escolares de 2o y 3o ciclo publicados por dos editoriales: Santillana y Aique. Se presentan los resultados de un análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de 93 fotografías correspondientes a 38 manuales publicados entre los anos 2000 y 2005. Se reconoce qué tipo de imágenes son utilizadas, la presencia o no de cultura material autóctona, la utilización de ep? (more) ?grafes y la adscripción étnica de los retratados. Se concluye que existe una representación diferencial a favor de aquellas imágenes que muestran pueblos originarios con su cultura material, pero, al mismo tiempo, una utilización de un lenguaje que emplea términos como "aborigen", que implica un sesgo homogeneizador. Las fotografías son empleadas sólo en su función denotativa, mientras que se deja de lado la connotación visual en privilegio de la textual. La información presente en epígrafes y textos que acompanan a las imágenes no cumple con los requisitos necesarios de precisión y rigurosidad. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analyze photographs of native people in Argentinean primary and secondary school textbooks published by two companies, Santillana and Aique. Results from quantitative and qualitative analyses of 93 images taken from 38 school text books published between 2000 and 2005 are presented. Type of image used, presence of autochthonous material culture, use of epigraphs, and the ethnic adscription of the subjects portrayed are analyzed. It is concluded (more) that there is differential representation in favor of those images showing native people with their material culture, although the use of language that contains derogative terms such as "aborigen" (i.e., native people) at the same time clearly indicates an homogenizing bias. Images are used mostly denotatively, while textual connotation is privileged over visual connotation. Information on the epigraphs and texts accompanying an image do not fulfill the requirements of thoroughness and accuracy, thus reducing the images to illustrations rather than useful documents.

Saletta, María José

2012-07-01

111

Evidence from auditory and visual event-related potential (ERP) studies of deviance detection (MMN and vMMN) linking predictive coding theories and perceptual object representations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predictive coding theories posit that the perceptual system is structured as a hierarchically organized set of generative models with increasingly general models at higher levels. The difference between model predictions and the actual input (prediction error) drives model selection and adaptation processes minimizing the prediction error. Event-related brain potentials elicited by sensory deviance are thought to reflect the processing of prediction error at an intermediate level in the hierarchy. We review evidence from auditory and visual studies of deviance detection suggesting that the memory representations inferred from these studies meet the criteria set for perceptual object representations. Based on this evidence we then argue that these perceptual object representations are closely related to the generative models assumed by predictive coding theories. PMID:22047947

Winkler, István; Czigler, István

2011-10-30

112

Evidence from auditory and visual event-related potential (ERP) studies of deviance detection (MMN and vMMN) linking predictive coding theories and perceptual object representations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Predictive coding theories posit that the perceptual system is structured as a hierarchically organized set of generative models with increasingly general models at higher levels. The difference between model predictions and the actual input (prediction error) drives model selection and adaptation processes minimizing the prediction error. Event-related brain potentials elicited by sensory deviance are thought to reflect the processing of prediction error at an intermediate level in the hierarchy. We review evidence from auditory and visual studies of deviance detection suggesting that the memory representations inferred from these studies meet the criteria set for perceptual object representations. Based on this evidence we then argue that these perceptual object representations are closely related to the generative models assumed by predictive coding theories.

Winkler I; Czigler I

2012-02-01

113

The Inspirational Leader  

Science.gov (United States)

Amid the focus on improved standardized test scores, differentiated instruction, value-added initiatives and improved teacher evaluation, one must not ignore an education leader's need to inspire and be inspired. But how do education leaders inspire their students and teachers during some of the most difficult economic times the nation has ever…

Benigni, Mark D.; Hughes, Mark A

2012-01-01

114

Women in Sanaa: Public Appearance and Visual Representation Frauen in Sanaa: öffentliche Präsenz und mediale Repräsentation Mujeres en Sanaa: Apariencia pública y representación visual  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An exponential increase in media usage in the Yemeni capital, Sanaa (foreign satellite channels, Yemeni TV, photography and video) changes not only the (media) public (Öffentlichkeit), but social spaces in a local setting within a particular global-local framework. In this article I discuss women in the Yemeni capital who use television and other pictorial representations strategically, and, in reworking the frontiers between visibility and invisibility, change the gendered social spaces of their life world (Lebenswelt). Pictures, as parts of the life world open up views into new spaces ([Blick-] Räume) and make new relationships ([Blick-] Kontakte) possible. Looks and gazes determine social space and play a part in the social construction of bodies and spaces. This is negotiated on the performative as well as on the discursive level. The case study I present is part of a larger research project based on one year of fieldwork, field notes and 45 hours of audio-visual material. Analysis of the discourses of young women about their own image practices reveals how they perceive the endangerment of a social order, how they articulate their interest in change, and their strategies for becoming "visible." Thus, this article refers to culturally different readings of what can be seen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902150El aumento exponencial en el uso de medios en Sanaa, capital de la República de Yemen, (canales extranjeros vía satélite, TV yemenita, fotografía y video) torna no solamente lo público (Öffentlichkeit), sino también los espacios sociales en un escenario local con un marco global-local particular. En este artículo discuto acerca de las mujeres en la capital yemenita que usan estratégicamente la televisión y otras representaciones ilustradas y, al reelaborar las fronteras entre visibilidad e invisibilidad, cambian los espacios sociales basados en el género en sus mundos de vida (Lebenswelt). Las imágenes, como partes del mundo de vida abre perspectivas hacia nuevos espacios ([Blick-] Räume) y hace posible nuevas relaciones ([Blick-] Kontakte) posible. Las vistas y las miradas fijas determinan el espacio social y juegan una parte en la construcción social de cuerpos y espacios. Lo cual se negocia tanto a nivel performativo como discursivo. El estudio de caso que presento es parte de un proyecto de investigación más grande basado e un año de trabajo de campo, notas de campo y 45 horas de material audiovisual. El análisis de los discursos de mujeres jóvenes acerca de sus propias prácticas de imagen revela la forma en que ellas perciben la puesta en peligro de un orden social, cómo articulan sus intereses al cambiar y sus estrategias al hacerse "visibles". Así, este artículo se refiere a lecturas culturalmente de lo que se puede ver. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902150Ein explosionsartiger Anstieg der Mediennutzung (ausländisches Satellitenfernsehen, ein eigener nationaler Satellitenkanal sowie Foto- und Videopraxen) verändert nicht nur die "Öffentlichkeit", sondern den lokalen sozialen Raum in einem speziellen global-lokalen Spannungsfeld insgesamt. In diesem Artikel wird gezeigt, wie Frauen in der Hauptstadt des Jemen Fernsehen und andere Bildmedien strategisch nutzen, indem sie entlang der Grenzen von Sichtbarkeit und Unsichtbarkeit die geschlechterspezifischen sozialen Räume ihrer Lebenswelt verändern. Medienbilder eröffnen als Teil der Lebenswelt der Akteure (Blick-) Räume und ermöglichen (Blick-) Kontakte. Die Blicke prägen den sozialen Raum und spielen bei der wechselseitigen Konstitution von Räumen und Körpern eine Rolle. Dies wird sowohl auf der performativen als auch auf der diskursiven Ebene verhandelt. Die vorgestellte Fallstudie ist Teil eines Forschungsprojekts, das auf einem einjährigen Feldaufenthalt, Feldnotizen und 45 Stunden audiovisuellem Material beruht. Anhand der Diskurse der jungen Frauen über eigene Bilderpraxen wird nachvollzogen, wie sie die "Gefährdung" einer gesellschaftlichen Ordnung durchbuchstab

Irina Linke

2009-01-01

115

Representation of the visual field in the striate cortex: comparison of MR findings with visual field deficits in organic mercury poisoning (Minamata disease).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To compare MR imaging findings of the striate cortex with visual field deficits in patients with Minamata disease and to reestimate the classical Holmes retinotopic map by using the data obtained from comparing visual field abnormalities with degree of visual cortex atrophy. METHODS: MR imaging was performed in eight patients with Minamata disease who had been given a full neuroophthalmic examination, including Goldmann dynamic perimetry. The atrophic portions of the calcarine area were measured in the sagittal plane next to the midsagittal image and represented as a percentage of atrophy of the total length of the calcarine fissure. MR findings were compared with results of a visual field test. RESULTS: The visual field test revealed moderate to severe concentric constriction of the visual fields, with central vision ranging from 7 degrees to 42 degrees (mean, 19 degrees). The ventral portion of the calcarine sulcus was significantly dilated on MR images in all patients. A logarithmic correlation was found between the visual field defect and the extent of dilatation of the calcarine fissure. The central 10 degrees and 30 degrees of vision seemed to fill about 20% and 50% of the total surface area of the calcarine cortex, respectively. CONCLUSION: Visual field deficits in patients with Minamata disease correlated well with MR findings of the striate cortex. Our data were consistent with the classical Holmes retinotopic map.

Korogi Y; Takahashi M; Hirai T; Ikushima I; Kitajima M; Sugahara T; Shigematsu Y; Okajima T; Mukuno K

1997-06-01

116

Eesti õpetaja pälvis Inspiration Software'i stipendiumi / Ave Lauringson  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

USA tarkvarafirma Inspiration Software tegi teatavaks 30 õpetaja nimed üle maailma, kes saavad 2007. aasta haridusstipendiumi (Inspired Teacher Scholarships for Visual Learning). Nende seas on ka Lasnamäe Lasteaia-Algkooli õpetaja, Tiigrihüppe SA ekspert ja koolitaja ning Tiigri Tegija 2007 auhinnasaaja Ingrid Maadvere

Lauringson, Ave

2007-01-01

117

Sobre a função das representações conceituais simbólicas na gramática do design visual: encaixamento ou subjacência?/ On the functions of symbolic conceptual representations in the grammar of visual design: embedded or underlying patterns?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Nosso objetivo neste trabalho é discutir a função das categorias gramaticais atributo simbólico e portador na Gramática do Design Visual (KRESS e van LEEUWEN, 2006 [1996]). Para os autores, estes constituintes, pertencentes à metafunção ideacional, poderiam estar presentes ou não em estruturas conceituais simbólicas, conferindo a um participante um valor que o caracterizaria e/ou o conceituaria. Advogamos aqui que, decorrente dessa função, os atributos simból (more) icos e os portadores são responsáveis pela realização de inferências por parte dos leitores de imagens e, portanto, estão sempre presentes em quaisquer representações visuais. Em virtude disso, entendemos que as representações conceituais simbólicas não estão no mesmo nível de autonomia que as representações narrativas e conceituais classificatórias e analíticas, e sim num nível de subjacência. Abstract in english Our aim in this article is to discuss the function of the grammatical categories symbolic attribute and carrier in the Grammar of Visual Design (Kress and van Leeuwen, 2006 [1996]). For the authors, these constituents, belonging to the ideational metafunction, could be present or not in symbolic conceptual structures, giving a participant a value that would characterize and/or conceptualize him. We advocate that, as a result of the ideational function, symbolic attributes (more) and carriers are responsible for the production of inferences by the readers of images and, therefore, are always present in any visual representation. As a result, we believe that symbolic conceptual representations are not at the same level of autonomy as classifying and analytical narrative and conceptual representations, but at the level of underlying patterns.

Biasi-Rodrigues, Bernardete; Nobre, Kennedy Cabral

2010-04-01

118

Rotation-independent representations for haptic movements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The existence of a common mechanism for visual and haptic representations has been reported in object perception. In contrast, representations of movements might be more specific to modalities. Referring to the vertical axis is natural for visual representations whereas a fixed reference axis might be inappropriate for haptic movements and thus also inappropriate for its representations in the brain. The present study found that visual and haptic movement representations are processed independently. A psychophysical experiment examining mental rotation revealed the well-known effect of rotation angle for visual representations whereas no such effect was found for haptic representations. We also found no interference between processes for visual and haptic movements in an experiment where different stimuli were presented simultaneously through visual and haptic modalities. These results strongly suggest that (1) there are separate representations of visual and haptic movements, and (2) the haptic process has a rotation-independent representation.

Shioiri S; Yamazaki T; Matsumiya K; Kuriki I

2013-09-01

119

Representaciones visuales del cuerpo humano: análisis de los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales en la reforma educativa mexicana/ Visual Representations of the Human Body: An Analysis of the New Elementary Science Textbooks in Mexico's Educational Reform  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo analizamos las concepciones sobre la naturaleza de las representaciones visuales sobre el cuerpo humano que dirigen su selección, diseño y tratamiento didáctico en los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales (3° a 6° grados) de la Reforma Integral de la Educación Básica en México. Se describen dos tipos de concepciones: una intuitiva, que asume una simplicidad y facilidad en el uso de las imágenes junto con una naturaleza realista de las m (more) ismas, y una más compleja, de naturaleza constructivista, en la que se consideran las imágenes como un sistema externo de representación con las dificultades que demanda su uso. Los resultados muestran que la concepción que subyace a las imágenes sobre el cuerpo humano de 3° a 6° grados corresponde a una de tipo intuitivo con pocos cambios respecto de su tratamiento en los libros de texto anteriores a la Reforma. Abstract in english This study analyzes the natural conceptions of the visual representations of the human body that guide selection, design, and didactic treatment in the new elementary science textbooks (3rd grade to 6th grade) of Mexico's Integral Reform of Basic Education. Two types of conceptions are described: an intuitive conception, which assumes simplicity and facility in the use of images, along with a realistic representation; and a more complex conception of a constructivist natu (more) re that considers images to be an external system of representation with the difficulties their use demands. The results show that the underlying conception of the images of the human body from the 3rd to the 6th grades corresponds to an intuitive type with few changes, with respect to textbooks prior to the Reform.

Postigo, Yolanda; López-Manjón, Asunción

2012-06-01

120

Physicists get INSPIREd  

CERN Document Server

Particle physicists thrive on information. They first create information by performing experiments or elaborating theoretical conjectures and then they share it through publications and various web tools. The INSPIRE service, just released, will bring state of the art information retrieval to the fingertips of researchers.   Keeping track of the information shared within the particle physics community has long been the task of libraries at the larger labs, such as CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, as well as the focus of indispensible services like arXiv and those of the Particle Data Group. In 2007, many providers of information in the field came together for a summit at SLAC to see how physics information resources could be enhanced, and the INSPIRE project emerged from that meeting. The vision behind INSPIRE was built by a survey launched by the four labs to evaluate the real needs of the community. INSPIRE responds to these directives from the community by combining the most successful aspe...

CERN Bulletin

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Celebrated, Dispossessed and Worshiped. Representations of the Tragic Destiny of the Hero in Contemporary Caribbean Visual Imaginary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper focuses on analyzing the images of violence through the representation of heroes associated to combat contexts. Specifically, we will examine those cases in which that hero, despite its champion condition, appears defeated, overcome by the context. The reflections of artists such as Marcos Lora Read (Dominican Republic), Javier Castro (Cuba) and Ebony Patterson (Jamaica), by using various artistic mediums, have used the image of the hero to deconstruct elements of their societies, offering a discourse able to produce subversive values from the heroic tragedy.

Garrido Castellano, Carlos

2012-01-01

122

Macaque V1 representations in natural and reduced visual contexts: spatial and temporal properties and influence of saccadic eye movements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vision in natural situations is different from the paradigms generally used to study vision in the laboratory. In natural vision, stimuli usually appear in a receptive field as the result of saccadic eye movements rather than suddenly flashing into view. The stimuli themselves are rich with meaningful and recognizable objects rather than simple abstract patterns. In this study we examined the sensitivity of neurons in macaque area V1 to saccades and to complex background contexts. Using a variety of visual conditions, we find that natural visual response patterns are unique. Compared with standard laboratory situations, in more natural vision V1 responses have longer latency, slower time course, delayed orientation selectivity, higher peak selectivity, and lower amplitude. Furthermore, the influences of saccades and background type (complex picture vs. uniform gray) interact to give a distinctive, and presumably more natural, response pattern. While in most of the experiments natural images were used as background, we find that similar synthetic unnatural background stimuli produce nearly identical responses (i.e., complexity matters more than "naturalness"). These findings have important implications for our understanding of vision in more natural situations. They suggest that with the saccades used to explore complex images, visual context ("surround effects") would have a far greater effect on perception than in standard experiments with stimuli flashed on a uniform background. Perceptual thresholds for contrast and orientation should also be significantly different in more natural situations.

Ruiz O; Paradiso MA

2012-07-01

123

Translation-Invariant Representation for Cumulative Foot Pressure Images  

CERN Document Server

Human can be distinguished by different limb movements and unique ground reaction force. Cumulative foot pressure image is a 2-D cumulative ground reaction force during one gait cycle. Although it contains pressure spatial distribution information and pressure temporal distribution information, it suffers from several problems including different shoes and noise, when putting it into practice as a new biometric for pedestrian identification. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical translation-invariant representation for cumulative foot pressure images, inspired by the success of Convolutional deep belief network for digital classification. Key contribution in our approach is discriminative hierarchical sparse coding scheme which helps to learn useful discriminative high-level visual features. Based on the feature representation of cumulative foot pressure images, we develop a pedestrian recognition system which is invariant to three different shoes and slight local shape change. Experiments are conducted on...

Zheng, Shuai; Tan, Tieniu

2010-01-01

124

Neural representations of faces and limbs neighbor in human high-level visual cortex: evidence for a new organization principle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neurophysiology and optical imaging studies in monkeys and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in both monkeys and humans have localized clustered neural responses in inferotemporal cortex selective for images of biologically relevant categories, such as faces and limbs. Using higher resolution (1.5 mm voxels) fMRI scanning methods than past studies (3-5 mm voxels), we recently reported a network of multiple face- and limb-selective regions that neighbor one another in human ventral temporal cortex (Weiner and Grill-Spector, Neuroimage, 52(4):1559-1573, 2010) and lateral occipitotemporal cortex (Weiner and Grill-Spector, Neuroimage, 56(4):2183-2199, 2011). Here, we expand on three basic organization principles of high-level visual cortex revealed by these findings: (1) consistency in the anatomical location of functional regions, (2) preserved spatial relationship among functional regions, and (3) a topographic organization of face- and limb-selective regions in adjacent and alternating clusters. We highlight the implications of this structure in comparing functional brain organization between typical and atypical populations. We conclude with a new model of high-level visual cortex consisting of ventral, lateral, and dorsal components, where multimodal processing related to vision, action, haptics, and language converges in the lateral pathway.

Weiner KS; Grill-Spector K

2013-01-01

125

To bind or not to bind: addressing the question of object representation in visual short-term memory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a capacity limited resource, which is consistently estimated to hold about four visual items at a time. There is, however, debate in the literature about what constitutes an "item" and how resources are allocated within VSTM. Some research suggests information is stored in VSTM as discrete objects; however, there is also evidence suggesting that within-object features alter VSTM performance. The present study addresses the question of whether VSTM load effects reflect the number of discrete objects and/or the number of within-object features. An electrophysiological correlate of VSTM--the contralateral delay activity (CDA)--was measured while participants performed a lateralized change-detection task, in which to-be-remembered items varied in the number of features and locations. Each trial contained either a solitary simple feature (shape, color, or orientation) or one of two multifeature arrays: three features presented at three separate locations or three features bound at one location. While presenting multiple features--regardless of whether they are at discrete locations or bound within a single object--resulted in greater CDA amplitude relative to a solitary feature, there was a dissociation in the distribution of activity between the two multifeature conditions, such that the CDA at site P1/P2 was sensitive to the number of discrete objects, while activity at P7/P8 was most enhanced when multiple features were bound in one object. The findings demonstrate the inhomogeneity of the CDA and suggest this electrophysiological marker may reflect both discrete object individuation/separation and flexible feature-feature binding in VSTM.

Wilson KE; Adamo M; Barense MD; Ferber S

2012-01-01

126

Technology: A Tool for Knowledge Construction in a Reggio Emilia Inspired Teacher Education Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the application of technology in Reggio Emilia inspired early childhood and teacher education programs at the University of Michigan-Dearborn. We have found that technology used in a Reggio inspired program can be a valuable tool for the representation and organization of ideas, collaboration among a specific learning…

Hong, Seong B.; Trepanier-Street, Mary

2004-01-01

127

Dynamic visualization in a developing framework for the representation of geographic data Des variables de visualisation dynamique de structure en développement pour la représentation des données géographiques.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to translate the characteristics of geographic data into signs and signals that can be perceived from a map, a language consisting of building blocks and a syntax are required. The first language to be developed was a graphic sign language, introduced by Bertin. His framework has been adapted and extended. It now includes languages for other senses, like touch and hearing, and even smell and taste are currently being investigated. In this paper it has been argued that the overall framework is continuously growing under the influence of technological, conceptual and user-oriented developments. Technological developments in particular are rapid. For example, they allow the representation of geographic data in virtual environments, which can be experienced through multiple senses. If cartographers want to play a role here, they should be willing to contribute to further extension of the framework, which may never be complete. In addition, current definitions of the concepts 'cartography' and 'map' have to be adapted. An example of user-oriented developments is the growing awareness of different types of map use, ranging from presentation to analysis/exploration. Application of the sign language may be different for each type of use, so the framework also needs further development in this direction. As an example, research ideas with respect to the use of dynamic visualization variables in cartographic animations for exploration purposes are included.

Connie Blok

2000-01-01

128

Astronomy. Inspiration. Art  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazi? (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maleti? (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djuki?, Nenad Jeremi?, Olivera Obradovi?, Romana Vujasinovi?, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.

Stanic, N.

2008-10-01

129

Inspiring a generation  

CERN Multimedia

The motto of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is ‘Inspire a generation’ so it was particularly pleasing to see science, the LHC and Higgs bosons featuring so strongly in the opening ceremony of the Paralympics last week.   It’s a sign of just how far our field has come that such a high-profile event featured particle physics so strongly, and we can certainly add our support to that motto. If the legacy of London 2012 is a generation inspired by science as well as sport, then the games will have more than fulfilled their mission. Particle physics has truly inspiring stories to tell, going well beyond Higgs and the LHC, and the entire community has played its part in bringing the excitement of frontier research in particle physics to a wide audience. Nevertheless, we cannot rest on our laurels: maintaining the kind of enthusiasm for science we witnessed at the Paralympic opening ceremony will require constant vigilance, and creative thinking about ways to rea...

2012-01-01

130

Visual Imagery Facilitates Visual Perception: Psychophysical Evidence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual imagery is the invention or recreation of a perceptual experience in the absence of retinal input.The degree to which the same neural representations are involved in both visual imagery and visual perception is unclear. Previous studies have shown that visual imagery interferes with perceptio...

Ishai, A; Sagi, D

131

Cyclotomic Hecke algebras: Jucys-Murphy elements, representations, classical limit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An inductive approach to the representation theory of cyclotomic Hecke algebras, inspired by Okounkov and Vershik, is developed. We study the common spectrum of the Jucys-Murphy elements using representations of the simplest a?ne Hecke algebra. Representations are constructed with the help of a new ...

Ogievetsky, Oleg; Poulain D'Andecy, Loic

132

Time-to-contact maps for navigation with a low resolution visual prosthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The perception of independently moving objects in the scene is an important capability for prosthetic vision, but is impeded by the limited resolution and dynamic range of current and near-term retinal prostheses. We propose a novel, biologically-inspired visual representation for prosthetic vision based on the recovery of time-to-contact (?) with surfaces in the scene. The representation directly encodes the extent of motion towards the observer, placing greatest emphasis on objects posing an imminent threat of collision. Our results suggest the proposed ?-based representation may facilitate earlier perception of incoming objects, and provide clearer distinction between moving objects and the static structure of the scene compared with intensity and depth-based scene representations.

McCarthy C; Barnes N

2012-01-01

133

Fear Selectively Modulates Visual Mental Imagery and Visual Perception  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Emotions have been shown to modulate low-level visual processing of simple stimuli. In this study, we investigate whether emotions only modulate processing of visual representations created from direct visual inputs or whether they also modulate representations that underlie visual mental images. Ou...

Kosslyn, Stephen Michael; Borst, Grégoire

134

Nanotechnology: Inspiration from Nature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nanotechnology is molecular manipulation. Any branch of technology that results from our ability to control and manipulate matter on length scales of 1-100 nm can be treated as nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is not new to nature. Nature has been doing molecular manipulation to build its systems like plants and animals. After observing and understanding the fundamental design principles of natural products, one gets inspiration to build his own nanoproducts. This paper stimulates a nanotechnician or a student to study nanotechnology and to think inline with nature, since it has been a great nanoscientist and nanotechnologist.

Sheeparamatti B; Sheeparamatti R; Kadadevaramath J

2007-01-01

135

Visual methods for education  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter is an exploration of what playful visual methods contribute to design processes, and how visuals impact on design processes. The analysis revolves around key principles for integrating visual methods: to support mediated play, to generate metaphors, and to open for dialogue. The principles are inspired by design anthropology (Gaver), visual sociology (Banks), dialogic communication (Phillips, Bakhtin), and pragmatic (Dewey) constructivist (Wertsch) approaches to learning, including narrative cognition (Bruner) and “serious” games design (Gee)

FrØlunde, Lisbeth

2014-01-01

136

When science inspires art  

CERN Document Server

On Tuesday 18 January 2011, artist Pipilotti Rist came to CERN to find out how science could provide her with a source of inspiration for her art and perhaps to get ideas for future work. Pipilotti, who is an eclectic artist always on the lookout for an original source of inspiration, is almost as passionate about physics as she is about art.   Ever Is Over All, 1997, audio video installation by Pipilotti Rist.  View of the installation at the National Museum for Foreign Art, Sofia, Bulgaria. © Pipilotti Rist. Courtesy the artist and Hauser & Wirth. Photo by Angel Tzvetanov. Swiss video-maker Pipilotti Rist (her real name is Elisabeth Charlotte Rist), who is well-known in the international art world for her highly colourful videos and creations, visited CERN for the first time on Tuesday 18 January 2011.  Her visit represented a trip down memory lane, since she originally studied physics before becoming interested in pursuing a career as an artist and going on to de...

Anaïs Vernède

2011-01-01

137

Analogical Representations  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maps and pictures are examples of analogical representations. The internal structureof such representations closely resembles the internal structure of the things represented.Such representations have good computational properties, and have been used successfullyin various knowledge-based reasoning systems. In this paper, we review the propertiesand uses of such representations.1 IntroductionThe notion of analogical representations or analogues was introduced by Sloman (1971) inorder to make a distinction between representations consisting of a description in some language,and representations which are more direct models or pictures of the things represented.Sloman uses the term Fregean representations for the first category, and analogical representationsfor the latter. An example of a Fregean representation is a set of sentences in first-orderlogic. Some examples of analogical representations are maps, pictures, diagrams, linked lists,and flow charts. In recent year...

Bart Selman

138

Biologically-Inspired Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

A Web site from Michigan State University (1) is a useful starting point for learning about biologically inspired technologies. In addition to briefly discussing the natural processes that are most commonly studied in the development of such technologies, there is a large collection of links to other research efforts and related material. The Ant Colony Optimization project (2) uses the behavior of ants as a model to solve optimization problems, such as how to minimize Internet traffic congestion. Several downloadable research papers are included on the project's homepage, as well as links to news stories, radio broadcasts, and conference proceedings about ant algorithms. A seminar course at the University of Virginia (3) in spring 2003 considered aspects of biologically-inspired computing. The course homepage has links to journal articles and research papers that range in topic from evolutionary programming to spacecraft designs based on living cells. Biomimetics is the focus of work being done at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (4). One of the selected publications available on the Web site will be presented at an international conference in July 2003. The paper discusses the use of artificial muscles in intelligent robots. A research group at the California Institute of Technology (5) is studying the capability of DNA and other biomolecules to process information and implement algorithms. A general overview of the group's purpose and motivation is provided, as well as a number of publications. An excellent background of some of the most significant developments in artificial life and intelligence is given in a 56-page paper from Hewlett-Packard Laboratories (6). The author discusses many different issues, including neural networks and software agents, and concludes by alluding to future application areas. Cutting edge, biologically-inspired robots are the topic of a June 2003 news article from The Boston Globe (7). These robots include RoboLobster and BigDog, the latter of which is said will be able to run at fifteen miles per hour when it is finished around the beginning of 2005. Finally, a NASA technology brief from May 2003 (8) discusses efforts to combine characteristics of several different species into one artificial creation to optimally serve the purposes of a mission.

Leske, Cavin.

139

Biomineralization as an inspiration for materials chemistry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Living organisms are well known for building a wide range of specially designed organic-inorganic hybrid materials such as bone, teeth, and shells, which are highly sophisticated in terms of their adaptation to function. This has inspired physicists, chemists, and materials scientists to mimic such structures and their properties. In this Review we describe how strategies used by nature to build and tune the properties of biominerals have been applied to the synthesis of materials for biomedical, industrial, and technological purposes. Bio-inspired approaches such as molecular templating, supramolecular templating, organized surfaces, and phage display as well as methods to replicate the structure and function of biominerals are discussed. We also show that the application of in situ techniques to study and visualize the bio-inspired materials is of paramount importance to understand, control, and optimize their preparation. Biominerals are synthesized in aqueous media under ambient conditions, and these approaches can lead to materials with a reduced ecological footprint than can traditional methods.

Nudelman F; Sommerdijk NA

2012-07-01

140

Biomineralization as an inspiration for materials chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Living organisms are well known for building a wide range of specially designed organic-inorganic hybrid materials such as bone, teeth, and shells, which are highly sophisticated in terms of their adaptation to function. This has inspired physicists, chemists, and materials scientists to mimic such structures and their properties. In this Review we describe how strategies used by nature to build and tune the properties of biominerals have been applied to the synthesis of materials for biomedical, industrial, and technological purposes. Bio-inspired approaches such as molecular templating, supramolecular templating, organized surfaces, and phage display as well as methods to replicate the structure and function of biominerals are discussed. We also show that the application of in situ techniques to study and visualize the bio-inspired materials is of paramount importance to understand, control, and optimize their preparation. Biominerals are synthesized in aqueous media under ambient conditions, and these approaches can lead to materials with a reduced ecological footprint than can traditional methods. PMID:22639420

Nudelman, Fabio; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M

2012-05-25

 
 
 
 
141

A Biologically Inspired Classifier  

CERN Document Server

We present a method for measuring the distance among records based on the correlations of data stored in the corresponding database entries. The original method (F. Bagnoli, A. Berrones and F. Franci. Physica A 332 (2004) 509-518) was formulated in the context of opinion formation. The opinions expressed over a set of topic originate a ``knowledge network'' among individuals, where two individuals are nearer the more similar their expressed opinions are. Assuming that individuals' opinions are stored in a database, the authors show that it is possible to anticipate an opinion using the correlations in the database. This corresponds to approximating the overlap between the tastes of two individuals with the correlations of their expressed opinions. In this paper we extend this model to nonlinear matching functions, inspired by biological problems such as microarray (probe-sample pairing). We investigate numerically the error between the correlation and the overlap matrix for eight sequences of reference with r...

Bagnoli, Franco

2007-01-01

142

Perceptual image representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a rarity-based visual attention model working on both still images and video sequences. Applications of this kind of models are numerous and we focus on a perceptual image representation which enhances the perceptually important areas and uses lower resolution for perceptually l...

MANCAS, Matei; Gosselin, Bernard; Macq, Benoît

143

Microflyers: inspiration from nature  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, there has been considerable interest in miniaturizing aircraft to create a class of extremely small, robotic vehicles with a gross mass on the order of tens of grams and a dimension on the order of tens of centimeters. These are collectively refered to as micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) or microflyers. Because the size of microflyers is on the same order as that of small birds and large insects, engineers are turning to nature for inspiration. Bioinspired concepts make use of structural or aerodynamic mechanisms that are observed in insects and birds, such as elastic energy storage and unsteady aerodynamics. Biomimetic concepts attempt to replicate the form and function of natural flyers, such as flapping-wing propulsion and external appearance. This paper reviews recent developments in the area of man-made microflyers. The design space for microflyers will be described, along with fundamental physical limits to miniaturization. Key aerodynamic phenomena at the scale of microflyers will be highlighted. Because the focus is on bioinspiration and biomimetics, scaled-down versions of conventional aircraft, such as fixed wing micro air vehicles and microhelicopters will not be addressed. A few representative bioinspired and biomimetic microflyer concepts developed by researchers will be described in detail. Finally, some of the sensing mechanisms used by natural flyers that are being implemented in man-made microflyers will be discussed.

Sirohi, Jayant

2013-04-01

144

Inspired by CERN  

CERN Multimedia

Art students inspired by CERN will be returning to show their work 9 to 16 October in Building 500, outside the Auditorium. Seventeen art students from around Europe visited CERN last January for a week of introductions to particle physics and astrophysics, and discussions with CERN scientists about their projects. A CERN scientist "adopted"each artist so they could ask questions during and after the visit. Now the seeds planted during their visit have come to fruition in a show using many media and exploring varied concepts, such as how people experience the online world, the sheer scale of CERN's equipment, and the abstractness of the entities scientists are looking for. "The work is so varied, people are going to love some pieces and detest others," says Andrew Charalambous, the project coordinator from University College London who is also curating the exhibition. "It's contemporary modern art, and that's sometimes difficult to take in." For more information on this thought-provoking show, see: htt...

2004-01-01

145

Immuno-inspired robotic applications: a review  

CERN Multimedia

Artificial immune systems primarily mimic the adaptive nature of biological immune functions. Their ability to adapt to varying pathogens makes such systems a suitable choice for various robotic applications. Generally, AIS-based robotic applications map local instantaneous sensory information into either an antigen or a co-stimulatory signal, according to the choice of representation schema. Algorithms then use relevant immune functions to output either evolved antibodies or maturity of dendritic cells, in terms of actuation signals. It is observed that researchers, in an attempt to solve the problem in hand, do not try to replicate the biological immunity but select necessary immune functions instead, resulting in an ad-hoc manner these applications are reported. Authors, therefore, present a comprehensive review of immuno-inspired robotic applications in an attempt to categorize them according to underlying immune definitions. Implementation details are tabulated in terms of corresponding mathematical expr...

Raza, Ali

2012-01-01

146

Biologically inspired emotion recognition from speech  

Science.gov (United States)

Emotion recognition has become a fundamental task in human-computer interaction systems. In this article, we propose an emotion recognition approach based on biologically inspired methods. Specifically, emotion classification is performed using a long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network which is able to recognize long-range dependencies between successive temporal patterns. We propose to represent data using features derived from two different models: mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and the Lyon cochlear model. In the experimental phase, results obtained from the LSTM network and the two different feature sets are compared, showing that features derived from the Lyon cochlear model give better recognition results in comparison with those obtained with the traditional MFCC representation.

Caponetti, Laura; Buscicchio, Cosimo Alessandro; Castellano, Giovanna

2011-12-01

147

Biologically inspired emotion recognition from speech  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Emotion recognition has become a fundamental task in human-computer interaction systems. In this article, we propose an emotion recognition approach based on biologically inspired methods. Specifically, emotion classification is performed using a long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network which is able to recognize long-range dependencies between successive temporal patterns. We propose to represent data using features derived from two different models: mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and the Lyon cochlear model. In the experimental phase, results obtained from the LSTM network and the two different feature sets are compared, showing that features derived from the Lyon cochlear model give better recognition results in comparison with those obtained with the traditional MFCC representation.

Caponetti Laura; Buscicchio Cosimo; Castellano Giovanna

2011-01-01

148

Visual sedimentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce Visual Sedimentation, a novel design metaphor for visualizing data streams directly inspired by the physical process of sedimentation. Visualizing data streams (e. g., Tweets, RSS, Emails) is challenging as incoming data arrive at unpredictable rates and have to remain readable. For data streams, clearly expressing chronological order while avoiding clutter, and keeping aging data visible, are important. The metaphor is drawn from the real-world sedimentation processes: objects fall due to gravity, and aggregate into strata over time. Inspired by this metaphor, data is visually depicted as falling objects using a force model to land on a surface, aggregating into strata over time. In this paper, we discuss how this metaphor addresses the specific challenge of smoothing the transition between incoming and aging data. We describe the metaphor's design space, a toolkit developed to facilitate its implementation, and example applications to a range of case studies. We then explore the generative capabilities of the design space through our toolkit. We finally illustrate creative extensions of the metaphor when applied to real streams of data. PMID:24051811

Huron, Samuel; Vuillemot, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

2013-12-01

149

Perceptions of Talented Students in Their Visual Representations about the Future World and Technology (Üstün Yetenekli Ö?rencilerin Görsel Anlat?mlar?nda Gelece?in Dünyas?na ve Teknolojisine ?li?kin Alg?lar?)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose and significance: The present study aimed at investigating talented students’ artistic representations and perceptions regarding the future world and technology through their animated designs according to their design-based representations. A learning environment which allows talented students to use their ability, thoughts and creativity in the process of design-based instructional activities is of great interest for them. It is important for talented students to have instructional experiences which provide independent and unique learning opportunities and special application areas that allow these students to show their abilities (CfBT, 2008). Results: The participants of the study were talented elementary school students attending the Education Programs for Talented Students (EPTS) at Anadolu University. The criterion sampling method was used to select the research participants. The criterion for selecting the participants was attendance in the course of ‘Computer-Aided Graphics Design’ offered in the EPTS. The participants included a total of 35 elementary school 6th, 7th and 8th grade talented students. The study was conducted in three phases: instruction process, design process and evaluation process. Some preliminary preparations related to the design program were carried out considering that the students would use them while doing animated designs through the instruction process. The instruction phase involved an animated representation study during which the students designed their own animations. In the last phase, all the animate designs of the talented students were analyzed. The thematic analysis based on qualitative research method along with art-based inquiry was used. The thematic coding system for analyzing concepts revealed from the research data was implemented. The visual language used in pictorial representations produce messages, with its specialized codes. The degree of students’ understanding and explaining their perceptions of technology in future composes the visual codes in this research. The results obtained in the study were grouped under two themes: talented elementary school students’ ways of perception of the future world and talented elementary school students’ ways of perception of future technology.Discussion: Students’ perceptions about the future world in their visual representations and in the interview forms based on their visual representations were mostly classified under the theme of the extinction of the world, nature and universe. Students had quite unusual and original ideas about future technology. It was seen that the students put forward such subthemes as voyages between planets and space cars, flying cars, aliens’ visit to the world, street air-conditioners, voyage to the moon by space rockets and voyage via teleportation. The students who generally had negative views about the future world considered technology as a way of solution to the awaiting problems in future. In the research process, based on the researcher’s observations, it could be stated that the students taking design education were in the process of making design-related decisions and testing and discussing their knowledge about a certain goal; that they revised their needs, efficacies and creative potentials regarding the goal determined; and that they experimented, evaluated, developed and associated their decisions with the design process.Conclusions: Depending on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that students’ perceptions of the future world and technology reveal quite a negative picture in general. There could be a number of reasons for this negative picture; however, considering the technology and media interaction involving students, it could be stated that there are negative reflections of such environments and the popular culture within this context. In addition, the themes regarding the extinction of the world and collision of the planets envisaged by the talented students for the future world as well as the students’ visual re

S. Duygu Eri?ti

2012-01-01

150

Inspiring Student Self-Motivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While normally appreciative of the invitation to join colleagues in a discussion of pedagogy and what “works” in the classroom, I have in most instances reluctantly participated in discussion of student motivation. I dip my toe into this philosophical quagmire only if permitted license to substitute the phrase student inspiration in place of student motivation. I also find it helpful to turn the rhetorical tables, as it were, and consider self-motivation on the part of students. The concept of individuals who hold some sense of self that a classroom mentor may nurture through student inspiration is one in which I place a modicum of trust. To “inspire” is literally to “breathe in,” to actively pull sustenance from a proffered external source. Active student determination based on some sense of self may couple with instructor inspiration to promote academic success.

Virginia Brackett

2007-01-01

151

Inspiration, anyone? (Editorial)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I have to admit that writing an editorial for this issue was a struggle. Trying to sit down and write when the sun was shining outside and most of my colleagues were on vacation was, to say the least, difficult. Add to that research projects and conferences…let’s just say that I found myself less than inspired. A pitiful plea for ideas to a colleague resulted in the reintroduction to a few recent evidence based papers and resources which inspired further searching and reading. Though I generally find myself surrounded (more like buried) in research papers and EBLIP literature, somehow I had missed the great strides that have been made of late in the world of evidence based library and information practice. I realize now that I am inspired by the researchers, authors and innovators who are putting EBLIP on the proverbial map. My biggest beef with library literature in general has been the plethora of articles highlighting what we should be doing. Take a close look at the evidence based practitioners in the information professions: these are some of the people who are actively practicing what has been preached for the past few years. Take, for example, the about?to?be released Libraries using Evidence Toolkit by Northern Sydney Central Coast Health and The University of Newcastle, Australia (see their announcement in this issue). An impressive advisory group is responsible for maintaining the currency and relevancy of the site as well as promoting the site and acting as a steering committee for related projects. This group is certainly doing more than “talking the talk”: they took their experience at the 3rd International Evidence Based Librarianship Conference and did something with the information they obtained by implementing solutions that worked in their environment. The result? The creation of a collection of tools for all of us to use. This toolkit is just what EBLIP needs: a portal to resources aimed at supporting the information specialists who want to adopt the evidence based model of practice. I have already got it bookmarked and set up an RSS feed. Even before the official toolkit launch, a wealth of information is available on the website including presentations, project and events information, and a blog containing site updates. There has been much discussion on increasing the knowledge base from which to draw evidence for library and information practitioners. Original research needs to be published so that we can use it as evidence to support our decision making. The literature is lacking the significant numbers of publication types widely considered to be the highest level of evidence: systematic reviews, meta?analyses and randomized controlled trials. This issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice proudly boasts both a systematic review/meta?analysis and a randomized controlled trial. Denise Koufogiannakis and Natasha Wiebe, in their systematic review/meta?analysis, provide evidence that shows that computer assisted instruction is as effective as traditional instruction for students at an introductory, undergraduate level. Nicola Pearce?Smith compared the effectiveness of self?directed, web?based learning with a classroom?based, interactive workshop in her randomized controlled trial. I am looking forward to reading and utilizing more and more of these in the future. Another example is even closer to home. I recently attended a strategic planning meeting at my institution where new services and procedures were discussed. Unlike the past, when new initiatives were implemented and later evaluated, all librarians instinctively indicated that the literature should be searched first to see if there was any evidence either for or against changing or adding new services or procedures. The evidence based model of practice is catching on. I know that there are numerous examples of information practitioners taking a proactive role in putting research into practice, and many research papers that are worth mentioning. To highlight them all would be a task m

Lindsay Glynn

2006-01-01

152

Geodezija in direktiva INSPIRE : Geodesy And INSPIRE Directive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SI: ?Direktiva Evropskega parlamenta in Sveta EU INSPIRE je bila sprejeta 24. aprila 2008 in je za?ela veljati 15. maja 2008. Zdaj se kon?uje obdobje njenega prenosa v pravni red držav ?lanic in se za?enja njeno izvajanje. Direktiva INSPIRE ureja izhodiš?a za vzpostavitev evropske podatkovne infrastrukture za prostorske informacije v državah ?lanicah EU, imenovane tudi INSPIRE (Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE)).V veliki ve?ini evropskih držav bo uskladitev dolo?b Direktive INSPIRE z nacionalno zakonodajo izvedena s pripravo novega zakona, ki bo dodelil osrednje mesto državnim geodetskim in kartografskim službam. Državne geodetske službe so v obveznostih, ki jih državam ?lanicam nalaga direktiva, videle priložnost za aktivno udejstvovanje. Za uspešno izvedbo Direktive INSPIRE je namre? klju?nega pomena, da pri tem sodelujejo vsi upravljavci in uporabniki podatkov o prostoru in okolju (v nadaljevanju prostorskih podatkov), ki so navedeni v prilogah k direktivi. Tako je treba vzpostaviti tudi dolo?ene organizacijske strukture. Direktiva INSPIRE namre? opredeljuje na?in usklajevanja na podro?ju prostorske podatkovne infrastrukture med državami ?lanicami EU in institucijami EU. Izvajanje Direktive INSPIRE bo vplivalo na poslovanje vseh organov javne uprave, ki vodijo in vzdržujejo prostorske podatke. Ve? kot dve tretjini podatkov, navedenih v prilogah k Direktivi INSPIRE, so podatki, ki jih v Sloveniji že danes vodi in vzdržuje državna geodetska služba. ?EN: The Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council INSPIRE was adopted on 24th April 2008 and it entered into force on 15th May 2008. The transposition period into national legal framework is finishing and we are at the beginning of the implementation period. The purpose of the Directive is to lay down general rules aimed at the establishment of the infrastructure for spatial information in the European Community (hereinafter referred to as INSPIRE), for the purposes of Community environmental policies and policies or activities which may have an impact on environment. In many European countries the transposition phase will be done with adoption of a new law, where national mapping and cadastral agencies will have leading role. Successful implementation calls for strong cooperation between all stakeholders (data providers and users) from environmental and spatial fields. So it is necessary to establish appropriate coordination mechanisms and structures. Directive INSPIRE also defines organisational measures for the coordination in the field of spatial data infrastructure between Member States and Community institutions. The Republic of Slovenia state geodetic authority already manages more than two thirds of data types listed in annexes to the Directive INSPIRE. Metadata services and data viewers are already available to users through web portal ‘prostor’. Slovenian geodesy has already assured users good access to data and services related to spatial data and their use. Search services for most of the spatial data are available to users without unnecessary administrative obstacles and for the majority of spatial data also metadata descriptions exist. ?But we are facing a big challenge and responsibility for establishing Slovenian spatial data infrastructure (hereinafter SDI) and mechanisms for coordination of all stakeholders. It is necessary to define legal and technical details of spatial data interoperability, review data access rules for spatial data, which are managed by public authorities in Slovenia and harmonise pricing policy rules. In the article we try to describe possibilities and challenges the Slovenian geodetic sector is facing and are related to the establishment of Slovenian SDI.

Tomaž Petek

2008-01-01

153

Cell 2-representations of finitary 2-categories  

CERN Multimedia

We study 2-representations of finitary 2-categories with involution and adjunctions by functors on module categories over finite dimensional algebras. In particular, we define, construct and describe in detail (right) cell 2-representations inspired by Kazhdan-Lusztig cell modules for Hecke algebras. Under some natural assumptions we show that cell 2-representations are strongly simple and do not depend on the choice of a right cell inside a two-sided cell. This reproves and extends the uniqueness result on categorification of Kazhdan-Lusztig cell modules for Hecke algebras of type $A$ from \\cite{MS2}.

Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

2010-01-01

154

A Neuro-inspired Adaptive Motion Detector  

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Full Text Available In this paper, a novel motion detector is proposed to perceive the weak changes in a image sequence. This is inspired by the mechanism of fixational eye movement and dynamics of vertebrate’s cortex. We realized respectively an artificial model of visual attention selection, called dual-probe adaptive model (DPAM), and an active tremor operation (ATO) approach. It is found that between them there exists a resonance phenomenon. The phenomenon is enhanced when the ATO and the DPAM are in-phase and is suppressed when they are anti-phase. Based on this, we construct a novel motion detector combined by the ATO and the DPAM to resonate with the motion direction. This allows capturing moving edges even in the image sequences with lighting change and noisy background. Simulation and Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness.

Xiaopin Zhong; Lin Ma

2013-01-01

155

Visualization of Morse Connection Graphs for Topologically Rich 2D Vector Fields.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in vector field topologymake it possible to compute its multi-scale graph representations for autonomous 2D vector fields in a robust and efficient manner. One of these representations is a Morse Connection Graph (MCG), a directed graph whose nodes correspond to Morse sets, generalizing stationary points and periodic trajectories, and arcs - to trajectories connecting them. While being useful for simple vector fields, the MCG can be hard to comprehend for topologically rich vector fields, containing a large number of features. This paper describes a visual representation of the MCG, inspired by previous work on graph visualization. Our approach aims to preserve the spatial relationships between the MCG arcs and nodes and highlight the coherent behavior of connecting trajectories. Using simulations of ocean flow, we show that it can provide useful information on the flow structure. This paper focuses specifically on MCGs computed for piecewise constant (PC) vector fields. In particular, we describe extensions of the PC framework that make it more flexible and better suited for analysis of data on complex shaped domains with a boundary. We also describe a topology simplification scheme that makes our MCG visualizations less ambiguous. Despite the focus on the PC framework, our approach could also be applied to graph representations or topological skeletons computed using different methods. PMID:24051843

Szymczak, Andrzej; Sipeki, Levente

2013-12-01

156

Bio-Inspired Antifouling Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofouling is a complex, dynamic problem that globally impacts both the economy and environment. Interdisciplinary research in marine biology, polymer science, and engineering has led to the implementation of bio-inspired strategies for the development of the next generation of antifouling marine coatings. Natural fouling defense mechanisms have been mimicked through chemical, physical, and/or stimuli-responsive strategies. This review outlines the detrimental effects associated with biofouling, describes the theoretical basis for antifouling coating design, and highlights prominent advances in bio-inspired antifouling technologies.

Kirschner, Chelsea M.; Brennan, Anthony B.

2012-08-01

157

London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration  

Science.gov (United States)

Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

Guhin, Paula

2012-01-01

158

Novel locomotion via biological inspiration  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal behavioral, physiological and neurobiological studies are providing a wealth of inspirational data for robot design and control. Several very different biologically inspired mobile robots will be reviewed. A robot called DIGbot is being developed that moves independent of the direction of gravity using Distributed Inward Gripping (DIG) as a rapid and robust attachment mechanism observed in climbing animals. DIGbot is an 18 degree of freedom hexapod with onboard power and control systems. Passive compliance in its feet, which is inspired by the flexible tarsus of the cockroach, increases the robustness of the adhesion strategy and enables DIGbot to execute large steps and stationary turns while walking on mesh screens. A Whegs™ robot, inspired by insect locomotion principles, is being developed that can be rapidly reconfigured between tracks and wheel-legs and carry GeoSystems Zipper Mast. The mechanisms that cause it to passively change its gait on irregular terrain have been integrated into its hubs for a compact and modular design. The robot is designed to move smoothly on moderately rugged terrain using its tracks and run on irregular terrain and stairs using its wheel-legs. We are also developing soft bodied robots that use peristalsis, the same method of locomotion earthworms use. We present a technique of using a braided mesh exterior to produce fluid waves of motion along the body of the robot that increase the robot's speed relative to previous designs. The concept is highly scalable, for endoscopes to water, oil or gas line inspection.

Quinn, Roger D.; Boxerbaum, Alexander; Palmer, Luther; Chiel, Hillel; Diller, Eric; Hunt, Alexander; Bachmann, Richard

2011-05-01

159

Social insects inspire human design.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The international conference 'Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design', hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18-20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design.

Holbrook CT; Clark RM; Moore D; Overson RP; Penick CA; Smith AA

2010-08-01

160

Social insects inspire human design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. ...

Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

 
 
 
 
161

Revealing children's implicit spelling representations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned by increasingly explicit levels of spelling representation. However, their proposal that implicit representations may underlie early 'visually based' spelling remains unresolved. Children (N = 101, aged 4-6 years) were given a recognition task (Critten et al., 2007) and a novel production task, both involving verbal justifications of why spellings are correct/incorrect, strategy use and word pattern similarity. Results for both tasks supported an implicit level of spelling characterized by the ability to correctly recognize/produce words but the inability to explain operational strategies or generalize knowledge. Explicit levels and multiple representations were also in evidence across the two tasks. Implications for cognitive mechanisms underlying spelling development are discussed.

Critten S; Pine KJ; Messer DJ

2013-06-01

162

INSPIRE 2012 da Istanbul a Firenze  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DURING THE CONFERENCE HELD IN  ISTANBUL IN  2012 INSPIRE  THE  NEWS  THAT  MOST  IMPRESSED ITALIANS PRESENT,  EVEN THOSE IN THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION , WAS THAT THE NEXT  INSPIRE CONFERENCE WILL TAKE PLACE IN  FLORENCEDurante la conferenza INSPIRE 2012 svoltasi ad Istanbul la notizia che ha maggiormente colpito gli italiani presenti, anche quelli della pubblica amministrazione , è stata che la prossima Conferenza INSPIRE si svolgerà a Firenze dal 23 al 27 giugno 2013.

Mauro Salvemini

2012-01-01

163

LAS CONEXIONES ENTRE EL PENSAMIENTO DE ALEJANDRO MALASPINA Y LA REPRESENTACIÓN VISUAL DE LA EXPEDICIÓN EN LA PATAGONIA (1789-1794) THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE THOUGHT OF ALEJANDRO MALASPINA AND VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF THE EXPEDITION IN PATAGONIA (1789-1794)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es estudiar la expedición al mando de Alejandro Malaspina (1789-1794) específicamente, su paso por la Patagonia. Observar cómo coincide la formación profesional del capitán con el imaginario dieciochesco en España, y aventurar una explicación al trabajo visual de José del Pozo sobre los indígenas del sur. Revisar qué elementos del arte neoclásico están presentes en sus registros visuales, además de verificar los nexos con el pensamiento malaspiniano, en lo que respecta a la evaluación de la situación colonial en América.The aim of this work is to study the expedition led by Alejandro Malaspina (1789-1794) and specifically its passage through Patagonia. See how his professional training coincides with the imaginary predominant in Spain during the XVIIIth century, and adventure an explanation for the visual work of José del Pozo on the indigenous people of the south. Check which neoclassical art elements are present in their visual records, in addition to the links with the thought of Malaspina, regarding the evaluation of the colonial situation in America.

GABRIELA S ÁLVAREZ G

2010-01-01

164

Visualizing natural image statistics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Natural image statistics is an important area of research in cognitive sciences and computer vision. Visualization of statistical results can help identify clusters and anomalies as well as analyze deviation, distribution, and correlation. Furthermore, they can provide visual abstractions and symbolism for categorized data. In this paper, we begin our study of visualization of image statistics by considering visual representations of power spectra, which are commonly used to visualize different categories of images. We show that they convey a limited amount of statistical information about image categories and their support for analytical tasks is ineffective. We then introduce several new visual representations, which convey different or more information about image statistics. We apply ANOVA to the image statistics to help select statistically more meaningful measurements in our design process. A task-based user evaluation was carried out to compare the new visual representations with the conventional power spectra plots. Based on the results of the evaluation, we made further improvement of visualizations by introducing composite visual representations of image statistics.

Fang H; Tam GK; Borgo R; Aubrey AJ; Grant PW; Rosin PL; Wallraven C; Cunningham D; Marshall D; Chen M

2013-07-01

165

Visualizing natural image statistics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural image statistics is an important area of research in cognitive sciences and computer vision. Visualization of statistical results can help identify clusters and anomalies as well as analyze deviation, distribution, and correlation. Furthermore, they can provide visual abstractions and symbolism for categorized data. In this paper, we begin our study of visualization of image statistics by considering visual representations of power spectra, which are commonly used to visualize different categories of images. We show that they convey a limited amount of statistical information about image categories and their support for analytical tasks is ineffective. We then introduce several new visual representations, which convey different or more information about image statistics. We apply ANOVA to the image statistics to help select statistically more meaningful measurements in our design process. A task-based user evaluation was carried out to compare the new visual representations with the conventional power spectra plots. Based on the results of the evaluation, we made further improvement of visualizations by introducing composite visual representations of image statistics. PMID:23661013

Fang, Hui; Tam, Gary Kwok-Leung; Borgo, Rita; Aubrey, Andrew J; Grant, Philip W; Rosin, Paul L; Wallraven, Christian; Cunningham, Douglas; Marshall, David; Chen, Min

2013-07-01

166

Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation.

Hullman J; Diakopoulos N

2011-12-01

167

Representation of non periodic functions by trigonometric series with almost integer frequencies  

CERN Multimedia

Inspired by Menshov's representation theorem, we prove that there exists a sequence of frequecies such that any measurable (complex valued) function on R can be represented as a sum of almost everywhere convergent trigonometric series with these frequencies.

Kozma, G; Kozma, Gady; Olevskii, Alexander

1999-01-01

168

Social insects inspire human design.  

Science.gov (United States)

The international conference 'Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design', hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18-20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design. PMID:20392721

Holbrook, C Tate; Clark, Rebecca M; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P; Penick, Clint A; Smith, Adrian A

2010-04-14

169

Bio-Inspired Computing and Networking  

CERN Multimedia

In seeking new methods to cope with greater communication demands, researchers are finding inspiration in examples presented by nature. Considering a range of sources from insect to primate communication, leading researches present state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for developing bio-inspired models. They cover mathematical models and present experimental studies of bio-inspired computing and communications. They explore bio-inspired topology control and reconfiguration methods, as well as bio-inspired localization, synchronization, and mobility approaches. They also delve int

Xiao, Yang

2011-01-01

170

UNIVERSO REPRESENTACIONAL DEL ARTE RUPESTRE DEL SITIO LOS MELLIZOS (PROVINCIA DEL CHOAPA):: CONVENCIONES VISUALES Y RELACIONES CULTURALES REPRESENTATIONAL UNIVERSE OF LOS MELLIZOS ROCK ART SITE (CHOAPA PROVINCE):: VISUAL CONVENTIONS AND CULTURAL RELATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabajo examina nuevos caminos metodológicos para el estudio de la iconografía del arte rupestre del sitio Los Mellizos. En particular, se emplean los principios geométricos de la simetría en la descripción y la comprensión de este arte visual. Luego se clasifican sus formas y estructuras subyacentes. Al mismo tiempo, la estructura del diseño ha demostrado ser un atributo sensible a problemas relacionados con la identidad de grupo y los procesos de intercambio e interacción. Para abordar este último aspecto, un segundo esfuerzo fue realizado al comparar los patrones decorativos de Los Mellizos con patrones decorativos de la decoración cerámica de culturas prehispánicas presentes en la región. Como resultado de este ejercicio identificamos una fuerte presencia de iconografía Inka o Diaguita-Inka, así como otras influencias culturales.This paper examines new methodological approaches to the systematic study of Los Mellizos rock art iconography. In particular, we use the geometrical principles of symmetry to describe and understand this visual art, then classify the forms and underlying structures. At the same time, the structure of the design has been shown to be sensitive to issues of group identity, exchange and interaction. Therefore, a secondary effort compares Los Mellizos decorative patterns with ceramic decorative patterns of the pre-Hispanic cultures present in the region. As a result of this exercise, we identified the strong presence of Inka and Diaguita-Inka visual patterns and other cultural influences.

Paola González Carvajal

2011-01-01

171

Bio-Inspired Asynchronous Pixel Event Tricolor Vision Sensor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article investigates the potential of the first ever prototype of a vision sensor that combines tricolor stacked photo diodes with the bio-inspired asynchronous pixel event communication protocol known as Address Event Representation (AER). The stacked photo diodes are implemented in a 22 × 22 pixel array in a standard STM 90 nm CMOS process. Dynamic range is larger than 60 dB and pixels fill factor is 28%. The pixels employ either simple pulse frequency modulation (PFM) or a Time-to-First-Spike (TFS) mode. A heuristic linear combination of the chip's inherent pseudo colors serves to approximate RGB color representation. Furthermore, the sensor outputs can be processed to represent the radiation in the near infrared (NIR) band without employing external filters, and to color-encode direction of motion due to an asymmetry in the update rates of the different diode layers.

Lenero-Bardallo JA; Bryn DH; Hafliger P

2013-08-01

172

E6 inspired supersymmetric models with exact custodial symmetry  

Science.gov (United States)

The breakdown of E6 gauge symmetry at high energies may lead to supersymmetric models based on the standard model gauge group together with extra U(1)? and U(1)? gauge symmetries. To ensure anomaly cancellation the particle content of these E6 inspired models involves extra exotic states that generically give rise to nondiagonal flavor transitions and rapid proton decay. We argue that a single discrete Z˜2H symmetry can be used to forbid tree-level flavor changing transitions, as well as the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. We present 5D and 6D orbifold grand unified theory constructions that lead to the E6 inspired supersymmetric models of this type. The breakdown of U(1)? and U(1)? gauge symmetries that preserves E6 matter parity assignment guarantees that ordinary quarks and leptons and their superpartners, as well as the exotic states which originate from 27 representations of E6, survive to low energies. These E6 inspired models contain two dark matter candidates and must also include additional TeV scale vectorlike lepton or vectorlike down-type quark states to render the lightest exotic quark unstable. We examine gauge coupling unification in these models and discuss their implications for collider phenomenology and cosmology.

Nevzorov, Roman

2013-01-01

173

E6 inspired SUSY models with exact custodial symmetry  

CERN Document Server

The breakdown of E_6 gauge symmetry at high energies may result in supersymmetric (SUSY) models based on the Standard Model (SM) gauge group together with extra U(1)_{\\psi} and U(1)_{\\chi} gauge symmetries. To ensure anomaly cancellation the particle content of these E_6 inspired models involves extra exotic states that can give rise to non--diagonal flavour transitions and rapid proton decay. We argue that a single discrete \\tilde{Z}^{H}_2 symmetry can be used to forbid tree--level flavor-changing transitions and the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. We present 5D and 6D orbifold GUT models that can lead to the E_6 inspired SUSY models of this type. The breakdown of U(1)_{\\psi} and U(1)_{\\chi} gauge symmetries that preserves E_6 matter parity assignment guarantees that the exotic states which originate from 27_i representations of E_6 as well as ordinary quark and lepton states survive to low energies. The considered E_6 inspired models contain at least two dark-matter candidates a...

Nevzorov, R

2012-01-01

174

Natural photonics for industrial inspiration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are two considerations for optical biomimetics: the diversity of submicrometre architectures found in the natural world, and the industrial manufacture of these. A review exists on the latter subject, where current engineering methods are considered along with those of the natural cells. Here, on the other hand, I will provide a modern review of the different categories of reflectors and antireflectors found in animals, including their optical characterization. The purpose of this is to inspire designers within the $2 billion annual optics industry.

Parker AR

2009-05-01

175

Dissociation Between Visual Attention and Visual Mental Imagery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual mental imagery (which involves generating and transforming visual mental representations, i.e., seeing with the mind's eye) and visual attention appear to be distinct processes. However, some researchers have claimed that imagery effects can be explained by appeal to attention (and thus, that...

Thompson, William L.; Hsiao, Yaling; Kosslyn, Stephen Michael

176

CT anatomy of the diaphragm: changes in end inspiration and end expiration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the change in configuration of the diaphragm between scans obtained at end inspiration and end expiration. Two series of CT scans at end inspiration and at end expiration were obtained in 37 patients. We evaluated the changes in the type of anterior diaphragm, pseudotumor, undulation of the diaphragm, and diaphragmatic defect during the respiratory phases. The configuration of the anterior portion of the diaphragm changed between end inspiratory and end expiratory CT scans in 25(67.6%) of 37 patients. Diaphragmatic defect, diaphragmatic pseudotumor, and undulation of the diaphragm were more frequent at end inspiration (13.5%, 18.9%, 37.8%, respectively) than at end expiration (0%, 5.4%, 10.8%, respectively). There is a change in the configuration of the anterior portion of the diaphragm and we also observed differences in the visualization of diaphragmatic defects, pseudotumor, and undulation between scans obtained at end inspiration and end expiration.

1997-01-01

177

CT anatomy of the diaphragm: changes in end inspiration and end expiration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess the change in configuration of the diaphragm between scans obtained at end inspiration and end expiration. Two series of CT scans at end inspiration and at end expiration were obtained in 37 patients. We evaluated the changes in the type of anterior diaphragm, pseudotumor, undulation of the diaphragm, and diaphragmatic defect during the respiratory phases. The configuration of the anterior portion of the diaphragm changed between end inspiratory and end expiratory CT scans in 25(67.6%) of 37 patients. Diaphragmatic defect, diaphragmatic pseudotumor, and undulation of the diaphragm were more frequent at end inspiration (13.5%, 18.9%, 37.8%, respectively) than at end expiration (0%, 5.4%, 10.8%, respectively). There is a change in the configuration of the anterior portion of the diaphragm and we also observed differences in the visualization of diaphragmatic defects, pseudotumor, and undulation between scans obtained at end inspiration and end expiration.

Kim, Sung Jin; Han, Hae Ja; Kim, Wang Jung; Bae, Il Hun; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Kil Sun; Kim, Dae Young [Chungbuk National Univ. College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

1997-02-01

178

Fast blending scheme for molecular surface representation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Representation of molecular surfaces is a well established way to study the interaction of molecules. The state-of-theart molecular representation is the SES model, which provides a detailed surface visualization. Nevertheless, it is computationally expensive, so the less accurate Gaussian model is traditionally preferred. We introduce a novel surface representation that resembles the SES and approaches the rendering performance of the Gaussian model. Our technique is based on the iterative blending of implicit functions and avoids any pre-computation. Additionally, we propose a GPU-based ray-casting algorithm that efficiently visualize our molecular representation. A qualitative and quantitative comparison of our model with respect to the Gaussian and SES models is presented. As showcased in the paper, our technique is a valid and appealing alternative to the Gaussian representation. This is especially relevant in all the applications where the cost of the SES is prohibitive.

Parulek J; Brambilla A

2013-12-01

179

Guard Cell and Tropomyosin Inspired Chemical Sensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sensors are an integral part of many engineered products and systems. Biological inspiration has the potential to improve current sensor designs as well as inspire innovative ones. This paper presents the design of an innovative, biologically-inspired chemical sensor that performs “up-front” processing through mechanical means. Inspiration from the physiology (function) of the guard cell coupled with the morphology (form) and physiology of tropomyosin resulted in two concept variants for the chemical sensor. Applications of the sensor design include environmental monitoring of harmful gases, and a non-invasive approach to detect illnesses including diabetes, liver disease, and cancer on the breath.

Jacquelyn K.S. Nagel

2013-01-01

180

The Molecule Cloud - compact visualization of large collections of molecules  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis and visualization of large collections of molecules is one of the most frequent challenges cheminformatics experts in pharmaceutical industry are facing. Various sophisticated methods are available to perform this task, including clustering, dimensionality reduction or scaffold frequency analysis. In any case, however, viewing and analyzing large tables with molecular structures is necessary. We present a new visualization technique, providing basic information about the composition of molecular data sets at a single glance. Summary A method is presented here allowing visual representation of the most common structural features of chemical databases in a form of a cloud diagram. The frequency of molecules containing particular substructure is indicated by the size of respective structural image. The method is useful to quickly perceive the most prominent structural features present in the data set. This approach was inspired by popular word cloud diagrams that are used to visualize textual information in a compact form. Therefore we call this approach “Molecule Cloud”. The method also supports visualization of additional information, for example biological activity of molecules containing this scaffold or the protein target class typical for particular scaffolds, by color coding. Detailed description of the algorithm is provided, allowing easy implementation of the method by any cheminformatics toolkit. The layout algorithm is available as open source Java code. Conclusions Visualization of large molecular data sets using the Molecule Cloud approach allows scientists to get information about the composition of molecular databases and their most frequent structural features easily. The method may be used in the areas where analysis of large molecular collections is needed, for example processing of high throughput screening results, virtual screening or compound purchasing. Several example visualizations of large data sets, including PubChem, ChEMBL and ZINC databases using the Molecule Cloud diagrams are provided.

Ertl Peter; Rohde Bernhard

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

The Molecule Cloud - compact visualization of large collections of molecules.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Analysis and visualization of large collections of molecules is one of the most frequent challenges cheminformatics experts in pharmaceutical industry are facing. Various sophisticated methods are available to perform this task, including clustering, dimensionality reduction or scaffold frequency analysis. In any case, however, viewing and analyzing large tables with molecular structures is necessary. We present a new visualization technique, providing basic information about the composition of molecular data sets at a single glance. SUMMARY: A method is presented here allowing visual representation of the most common structural features of chemical databases in a form of a cloud diagram. The frequency of molecules containing particular substructure is indicated by the size of respective structural image. The method is useful to quickly perceive the most prominent structural features present in the data set. This approach was inspired by popular word cloud diagrams that are used to visualize textual information in a compact form. Therefore we call this approach "Molecule Cloud". The method also supports visualization of additional information, for example biological activity of molecules containing this scaffold or the protein target class typical for particular scaffolds, by color coding. Detailed description of the algorithm is provided, allowing easy implementation of the method by any cheminformatics toolkit. The layout algorithm is available as open source Java code. CONCLUSIONS: Visualization of large molecular data sets using the Molecule Cloud approach allows scientists to get information about the composition of molecular databases and their most frequent structural features easily. The method may be used in the areas where analysis of large molecular collections is needed, for example processing of high throughput screening results, virtual screening or compound purchasing. Several example visualizations of large data sets, including PubChem, ChEMBL and ZINC databases using the Molecule Cloud diagrams are provided.

Ertl P; Rohde B

2012-01-01

182

An Immune Inspired Multilayer IDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of artificial immune systems in intrusion detection is an appealing concept for two reasons. Firstly, the human immune system provides the human body with a high level of protection from invading pathogens, in a robust, selforganized and distributed manner. Secondly, current techniques used in computer security are not able to cope with the dynamic and increasingly complex nature of computer systems and their security. The objective of our system is to combine several immunological metaphors in order to develop a forbidding IDS. The inspiration come from: (1) Adaptive immunity which is characterized by learning, adaptability, and memory and is broadly divided into two branches: humoral and cellular immunity. And (2) The analogy of the human immune systems multilevel defense could be extended further to the intrusion detection system itself. This is also the objective of intrusion detection which need multiple detection mechanisms to obtain a very high detection rate with a very low false alarm rate.

Mafaz Muhsin Khalil Alanezi; Najlaa Badie Aldabagh

2011-01-01

183

Collide@CERN: sharing inspiration  

CERN Multimedia

Late last year, Julius von Bismarck was appointed to be CERN's first "artist in residence" after winning the Collide@CERN Digital Arts award. He’ll be spending two months at CERN starting this March but, to get a flavour of what’s in store, he visited the Organization last week for a crash course in its inspiring activities.   Julius von Bismarck, taking a closer look... When we arrive to interview German artist Julius von Bismarck, he’s being given a presentation about antiprotons’ ability to kill cancer cells. The whiteboard in the room contains graphs and equations that might easily send a non-scientist running, yet as Julius puts it, “if I weren’t interested, I’d be asleep”. Given his numerous questions, he must have been fascinated. “This ‘introduction’ week has been exhilarating,” says Julius. “I’ve been able to interact ...

Katarina Anthony

2012-01-01

184

[Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions.

Villarejo-Galende A; Herrero-San Martín A

2013-01-01

185

[Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions. PMID:23307357

Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

2013-01-16

186

Beyond Perceptual Symbols: A Call for Representational Pluralism  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent evidence from cognitive neuroscience suggests that certain cognitive processes employ perceptual representations. Inspired by this evidence, a few researchers have proposed that cognition is inherently perceptual. They have developed an innovative theoretical approach that rests on the notion of perceptual simulation and marshaled several…

Dove, Guy

2009-01-01

187

Pose estimation through cue integration: a neuroscience-inspired approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this paper is to improve the skills of robotic systems in their interaction with nearby objects. The basic idea is to enhance visual estimation of objects in the world through the merging of different visual estimators of the same stimuli. A neuroscience-inspired model of stereoptic and perspective orientation estimators, merged according to different criteria, is implemented on a robotic setup and tested in different conditions. Experimental results suggest that the integration of multiple monocular and binocular cues can make robot sensory systems more reliable and versatile. The same results, compared with simulations and data from human studies, show that the model is able to reproduce some well-recognized neuropsychological effects.

Chinellato E; Grzyb BJ; del Pobil AP

2012-04-01

188

Perception-inspired tone mapping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The display of high dynamic range images and video requires a tonemapping algorithm to depict their original appearance on existing display devices whose capabilities in terms of dynamic range are insufficient. The insightful application of knowledge about human visual system can assure high fidelit...

Krawczyk, Grzegorz Marek

189

SO(1,d+1) Racah coefficients: Type I Representations  

CERN Document Server

We use AdS/CFT inspired methods to study the Lorentz group SO(1,d+1) Racah coefficients for type I representations. For such representations the Racah coefficient can be represented as an integral of a product of 6 bulk-to-bulk propagators over 4 copies of the hyperbolic space H_{d+1}. To compute the integrals we represent the bulk-to-bulk propagators in terms of bulk-to-boundary ones. The bulk integrals can be computed explicitly, and the boundary integrations are carried out by introducing Feynman parameters. The final result is an integral representation of the Racah coefficient given by 4 Barnes-Mellin type integrals.

Krasnov, K V; Krasnov, Kirill; Louko, Jorma

2005-01-01

190

Future scenarios to inspire innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In recent years, accelerated by the economic and financial crisis, complex global issues have moved to the forefront of policy-making. These grand challenges require policy-makers to address a variety of interrelated issues, which are built upon yet uncoordinated and dispersed bodies of knowledge. Due to the social dynamics of innovation, new socio-technical subsystems are emerging, however there is lack of exploitation of novel ideas and sustainable solutions to address these grand challenges. In this paper we argue that issues of how knowledge is represented can have a part in this lack of exploitation. For example, when drivers of change are not only multiple but also mutable, it is not sensible to extrapolate the future from data and relationships of the past. This paper investigates ways in which futures thinking can be used as a tool for inspiring actions and structures that address the grand challenges. By analyzing several scenario cases, elements of good practices and principles on how to strengthen innovation systems through future scenarios are identified. This is needed because innovation itself needs to be oriented along more sustainable pathways enabling transformations of socio-technical systems. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

De Smedt, Peter; Borch, Kristian

2013-01-01

191

Factoring: A Visual Representation of Number  

Science.gov (United States)

This Focus on Math blog post presents a dot diagram by Brent Yorgey of the consecutive natural numbers. The configuration of each number of dots reveals quickly whether it is prime or composite and provides information about its prime factorization. Included are two links: one to Stephen Von Wordley's animated factorization diagrams and the other to Malke Rosenfeld's blog describing a game based on the diagram.

Norris, Carollee

2013-01-08

192

Indexing Visual Representations Through the Complexity Map  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In differential geometry curves are characterized as mappings from an interval to the plane.In topology curves are characterized as a Hausdorff space with certain countability properties.Neither of these definitions captures the role that curves play in vision, however, in whichcurves can denote simple objects (such as a straight line), or complicated objects (suchas a jumble of string). The difference between these situations is in part a measure oftheir complexity, and in part a measure of their dimensionality. Our goal is to develop aformal theory of curves appropriate for computational vision in general, and for problemslike separating straight lines from strings in particular. The theory is applied to the problemof perceptual grouping.R'esum'eEn g'eom'etrie diff'erentielle les courbes sont caract'eris'ees comme 'etant une application d'unintervalle au plan. En topologie, les courbes sont caract'eris'ees par un espace de Hausdorffavec certaines propri'et'es de cardinal...

Benoit Dubuc; Steven W. Zucker

193

Sobre lo visual en la historia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article considers the contribution of visual representations to thediscipline of History. It refers specifically to the cognitive richness inherent to the use of new historical interpretations to approach the Information Era. The use of visual representations must be understood as complementary to the written word and as an expansion of the traditional sphere of written history.

David J. Staley

2009-01-01

194

Representation Of Knowledge:  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

chemas, sometimes as "thectlvation of perceptual processes", andore recently as auaoues. The little manor his part has been put in a black boxhere he continues to live under such guisess "the visual system" or as something whichesponds to the analogues by moving limbs orttering sentences as required. Thisccount is admittedly unfair to the manynvestigators who understand the basicroblem quite well and are struggling toevelop representation systems adequate tohe task. But I believe that the caricaturedequately characterizes the vast majorityf psychological approaches to the.henomenon of so-called "non-verbalepresentation".I will confine my written remarks to amall subset of questions bearing on thisilemma. I would be glad to provideeprints of my other relevant papers onequest. Primarily what I will try to do is160to point out that many of the ways ofcasting the problem of "alternative forms ofrepresentation,, are misguided and that byblurring certain distincti

Zenon W. Pylyshyn; Old Homonculi; Never Die

195

Representational Inquiry Competences in Science Games  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter concerns the enactment of competences in a particular science learning game Homicide, which is played in lower secondary schools. Homicide is a forensic investigation game in which pupils play police experts solving criminal cases in the space of one week. The game is designed to support work with genuine scientific inquiry and to meet the seventh- to tenth grade curriculum objectives for science and Danish education in Danish schools. This paper comprises a presentation of the results of a long-term empirical study done of four school classes who have played the game. The chapter includes studies of how students construct visual representations of the cases they investigate and how they use these representations to establish hypotheses and evidence. The term ‘Representational Inquiry Competences' is developed; it refers to the students' ability to construct, productively use, transform and criticize visual representations as an integrated part of conducting an inquiry in the science game

Magnussen, Rikke

2009-01-01

196

POR UNA NUEVA IMAGEN DE CIUDAD. LA REPRESENTACIÓN GRÁFICO-VISUAL DEL PAISAJE ARBÓREO DE SANTIAGO DE CALI: EL RESCATE DE UN NUEVO IMAGINARIO URBANO/ TOWARDS A NEW IMAGE OF THE CITY THE GRAPHIC- VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF THE ARBOREAL LANDSCAPE OF SANTIAGO DE CALI: THE RESCUE OF A NEW URBAN IMAGINARY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se busca posicionar un imaginario urbano en la ciudad de Cali (Colombia) mediante el reconocimiento del potencial paisajístico arbóreo que la identifica en su singularidad. La representación gráfico-visual es parte de la metodología que permite el reconocimiento de componentes sintácticos, semánticos y pragmáticos que, unida a la metodología de incursión urbana diseñada para la agnición del espacio, se alimenta con el método de creación de imaginarios para p (more) roponer y desarrollar uno nuevo a nivel social. Se obtiene un proyecto que desarrolla la metodología de incursión urbana y proyecta la etapa siguiente que determina el genius loci de las configuraciones verdes; en otra etapa, constituirá rutas virtuales on line y rutas presenciales en pro de la cualificación estética de los sujetos que las realizan y el imaginario social previsto. Abstract in english This paper seeks to establish a new urban imaginary of the city of Call by recognizing its tree landscape potential that identifies the city in its singularity. Graphic-visual representation is the methodology that allows sintaxtic, semantic and pragmatic components, that together with an Urban incursión methodology, designed by this research project that incorporates the method of imagery creation for the purpose of developing a proposing a new one at the social level. (more) A Project is obtained, that develops urban incursión methods and towards a second part that determines the genius-loci of green areas. In a following stage, on-line virtual routes, as well as others are developed in search of an esthetic qualification of the actors that define them as well as the social imagery that results.

CASTRO RAMOS, RICARDO

2008-01-01

197

Development of OA Abroad and Its Inspirations  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study introduces the concept and characteristics of open access (OA), analyses the status quo and development of OA in foreign countries, and discusses its inspiration to its future development in China.|

Bi, Jing

2010-01-01

198

RHex: A Biologically Inspired Hexapod Runner.  

Science.gov (United States)

RHex is an untethered, compliant leg hexapod robot that travels at better than one body length per second over terrain few other robots can negotiate at all. Inspired by biomechanics insights into arthropod locomotion, RHex uses a clock excited alternatin...

R. Altendorfer N. Moore H. Komsuoglu M. Buehler H. B. Brown

2001-01-01

199

INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

2012-08-31

200

Engaging Students through Astronomically Inspired Music  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a lesson outline in which astronomically inspired musical compositions are used to teach astronomical concepts via an introductory activity, close listening, and critical/creative reflection.

Whitehouse, M.

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

The Visual Math Institute  

Science.gov (United States)

The Visual Math Project was founded in 1975 by Professor Ralph Abraham from the University of California at Santa Cruz. Ralph Abraham, who is now retired, formed a nonprofit organization called the Visual Math Institute (VMI) and continues to maintain its website. In the FAQ section, Abraham explains that Visual Math (VM) "refers to the coordination of multiple modes of intelligence and representation, cognitive styles, for the purpose of communication of mathematics." The FAQ section also includes information on Math Anxiety as well as an overview of mathematics, Euclid, and chaos theory. VMI's research, which is described further in the Research section, "is devoted to visual math research and education, including computation math, computer graphics, and interactive environments." The visual projects on Chaos, Euclid and Kepler provide overviews of related topics, information on useful references, and some visual demonstrations of the topics.

202

Kernel polynomial representation of imaginary-time Green's functions  

CERN Document Server

Inspired by the recent proposed Legendre orthogonal polynomial representation of imaginary-time Green's functions, we develop an alternate representation for the Green's functions of quantum impurity models and combine it with the hybridization expansion continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo impurity solver. This representation is based on the kernel polynomial method, which introduces various integral kernels to filter fluctuations caused by the explicit truncations of polynomial expansion series and improve the computational precision significantly. As an illustration of the new representation, we reexamine the imaginary-time Green's functions of single-band Hubbard model in the framework of dynamical mean-field theory. The calculated results suggest that with carefully chosen integral kernels the Gibbs oscillations found in previous orthogonal polynomial representation have been suppressed vastly and remarkable corrections to the measured Green's functions have been obtained.

Huang, Li

2012-01-01

203

Geometric Algebra Model of Distributed Representations  

Science.gov (United States)

Formalism based on GA is an alternative to distributed representation models developed so far: Smolensky's tensor product, Holographic Reduced Representations (HRR), and Binary Spatter Code (BSC). Convolutions are replaced by geometric products interpretable in terms of geometry, which seems to be the most natural language for visualization of higher concepts. This paper recalls the main ideas behind the GA model and investigates recognition test results using both inner product and a clipped version of matrix representation. The influence of accidental blade equality on recognition is also studied. Finally, the efficiency of the GA model is compared to that of previously developed models.

Patyk, Agnieszka

204

Visual Mining of Epidemic Networks  

CERN Multimedia

We show how an interactive graph visualization method based on maximal modularity clustering can be used to explore a large epidemic network. The visual representation is used to display statistical tests results that expose the relations between the propagation of HIV in a sexual contact network and the sexual orientation of the patients.

Clémençon, Stéphan; Rossi, Fabrice; Tran, Viet Chi; 10.1007/978-3-642-21498-1_35

2012-01-01

205

Contested Urbanism : Struggles About Representation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Iconic architecture plays a crucial role in cities' interurban competition. This is also the case with Copenhagen which has used iconic architecture as part of its boosterism to gain investment, to increase tourism and to attract the creative class. This battle over the symbolic representation of city dynamism, architectural identity and market competitiveness is expressed in discourses and visual signs in space—be it cyberspace, on location, in newspapers or debates. The articulation of representations and meaning can produce conflicts which show the voids, ruptures, and rational generatives at play. This article will exemplify how actors' use of a specific spatial dispositif of visibility and legibility may be intertwined with particular discourses on community, architectural heritage and identity of place. Two cases are chosen, the first concerns resistance towards high-rise buildings and the second concerns a current debate about the development of a 'metropol-zone'. Both cases concern Copenhagen. The signifying dispositifs (content, argument, rationality) in each case will be identified and the paper will emphasise how certain dispositifs of the visible and the arguable become strategically intertwined through symbolic, visual and virtual representations of the wrongs of current urban planning

PlØger, John

2010-01-01

206

The visualization management system approach to visualization in scientific computing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces the visualization management system (ViMS), a new approach to the development of software for visualization in scientific computing (ViSC). The conceptual foundation for a ViMS is an abstract visualization model that specifies a class of geometric objects, the graphic representations of the objects, and the operations on both. A ViMS implements a visualization model and provides four levels of mechanisms for developing applications. The ViMS requirements and a model-independent ViMS architecture are described. The ViMS approach presents several important opportunities for visualization standards.

Butler, D. M.; Pendley, M. H.

1989-09-01

207

Representations of $asl_2$  

CERN Multimedia

We study representations of the simple Lie antialgebra $asl_2$ introduced by Ovsienko. We show that representations of $asl_2$ are closely related to the famous ghost Casimir element of the universal enveloping algebra $osp(1|2)$. We prove that $asl_2$ has no non-trivial finite-dimensional representations; we define and classify some particular infinite-dimensional representations that we call weighted representations.

Morier-Genoud, Sophie

2008-01-01

208

Bio-inspired Artificial Single Ion Pump.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bio-inspired artificial functional nanochannels for intelligent molecular and ionic transport control at the nanoscale have wide potential applications in nanofluidics, energy conversion, and biosensors. Although various smart passive ion transport properties of ion channels have been artificially realized, it is still hugely challenging to achieve high level intelligent ion transport features existed in biological ion pumps. Here we show a unique bio-inspired single ion pump based on a cooperative pH response double-gate nanochannel, whose gates could be opened and closed alternately/simultaneously under symmetric/asymmetric pH environments. Stimulating the double-gate nanochannel by continuous switching of the symmetric/asymmetric pH stimuli, the bio-inspired system systematically realized three key ionic transport features of biological ion pumps, including alternating gates ion pumping process under symmetric pH stimuli, transformation of the ion pump into ion channel under asymmetric pH stimuli, and fail-safe ion pumping feature under both symmetric and asymmetric pH stimuli. The ion pumping processes could well be reproduced under concentration gradient. Taking advantages of the extraordinary ionic transport functions of biological ion pumps, the bio-inspired ion pump should find widespread applicability in active transportation controlling smart nanofluidic devices, efficient energy conversions, and sea water desalinization, and open the way to design and develop novel bio-inspired intelligent artificial nanochannel materials.

Zhang H; Hou X; Zeng L; Yang F; Li L; Yan D; Tian Y; Jiang L

2013-06-01

209

EXPRESSION-INDEPENDENT FACE RECOGNITION USING BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED FEATURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an effective two-dimensional Expression-Independent face recognition method, based on features inspired by thehuman’s visual ventral stream. A feature set is extracted by means of a feed-forward model, which contains illumination and view invariantC2 features from all images in the dataset. Then, these C2 feature vectors which derived from a cortex-like mechanism passed to a standard Nearest Neighbor classifier. We evaluated the proposed approach on JAFEE database. The results show that this model is an efficient and high accurate face recognition algorithm that is robust to facial expressions. Experiments indicate that the proposed approach maintains high recognition rate and outperforms the other alternative methods such as PCA and 2DPCA. The improvement in performance than PCA and 2DPCA based methods is about 5% and 4.5% respectively.

REZA EBRAHIMPOUR; AHMAD JAHANI; ALI AMIRI AND MASOOM NAZARI

2011-01-01

210

The body schema and the multisensory representation(s) of peripersonal space.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to guide the movement of the body through space, the brain must constantly monitor the position and movement of the body in relation to nearby objects. The effective 'piloting' of the body to avoid or manipulate objects in pursuit of behavioural goals (Popper & Eccles, 1977, p. 129), requires an integrated neural representation of the body (the 'body schema') and of the space around the body ('peripersonal space'). In the review that follows, we describe and evaluate recent results from neurophysiology, neuropsychology, and psychophysics in both human and non-human primates that support the existence of an integrated representation of visual, somatosensory, and auditory peripersonal space. Such a representation involves primarily visual, somatosensory, and proprioceptive modalities, operates in body part-centred reference frames, and demonstrates significant plasticity. Recent research shows that the use of tools, the viewing of one's body or body parts in mirrors, and in video-monitors, may also modulate the visuotactile representation of peripersonal space.

Holmes NP; Spence C

2004-06-01

211

Bio-inspired variable structural color materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Natural structural color materials, especially those that can undergo reversible changes, are attracting increasing interest in a wide variety of research fields. Inspired by the natural creatures, many elaborately nanostructured photonic materials with variable structural colors were developed. These materials have found important applications in switches, display devices, sensors, and so on. In this critical review, we will provide up-to-date research concerning the natural and bio-inspired photonic materials with variable structural colors. After introducing the variable structural colors in natural creatures, we will focus on the studies of artificial variable structural color photonic materials, including their bio-inspired designs, fabrications and applications. The prospects for the future development of these fantastic variable structural color materials will also be presented. We believe this review will promote the communications among biology, bionics, chemistry, optical physics, and material science (196 references).

Zhao Y; Xie Z; Gu H; Zhu C; Gu Z

2012-04-01

212

Astrophysics of extreme mass ratio inspiral sources  

CERN Document Server

Compact remnants on orbits with peri-apses close to the Schwarzschild radius of a massive black hole (MBH) lose orbital energy by emitting gravitational waves (GWs) and spiral in. Scattering with other stars allows successful inspiral of such extreme mass ratio inspiral sources (EMRIs) only within small distances, a < few \\times 0.01 pc from the MBH. The event rate of EMRIs is therefore dominated by the stellar dynamics and content in the inner few \\times 0.01 pc. I discuss the relevant dynamical aspects and resulting estimated event rates of EMRIs. Subjects considered include the loss-cone treatment of inspiral sources; mass segregation; resonant relaxation; and alternative routes to EMRI formation such as tidal binary disruptions, stellar formation in disks and tidal capture of massive main sequence stars. The EMRI event rate is estimated to be of order few \\times 10^2/Gyr per MBH, giving excellent prospects for observation by LISA.

Hopman, C

2007-01-01

213

Mapping inspiral rates on population synthesis parameters  

CERN Multimedia

Formation rates of compact-object binaries are often derived from population synthesis calculations. However, such calculations depend sensitively on a relatively large number of model input parameters. Given considerable uncertainty in those model parameters, the predicted inspiral rates for double compact objects relevant to gravitational-wave interferometric detectors have been shown to be are uncertain by several orders of magnitude. Typically, inspiral rates are estimated for only a small set of models with a remarkably poor coverage of the highly multi-dimensional parameter space (primarily because of limited computer resources). Here, using as an example seven population-synthesis model parameters, we show that it is possible to derive fits of double-compact-object inspiral rates dependent simultaneously on all seven parameters. We find these fits to be accurate to 50% for binary black holes and to 40% for binary neutron stars. The availability of such fits implies that (i) depending on the problem of ...

O'Shaughnessy, R; Belczynski, K

2004-01-01

214

Compact Representation of Images by Edge Adapted Multiscale Transforms  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We introduce new multiscale representations for images which incorporate a speci c geometric treatment of edges. The associated transforms are inherently nonlinear and non tensor product in contrast to classical wavelet basis decompositions over which they exhibit visual improvement in terms of compression. This approach can be viewed as a bridge between edge detection and the nonlinear multiresolution representations of Ami Harten.

Albert Cohen; Basarab Matei; Marie Curie

215

Inspired oxygen and Cape Bristol ventilators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Cape Bristol ventilator is a volume-preset machine which utilises oxygen from a flowmeter and air-entrainment attachment to provide a known inspired oxygen level. The level can be calculated from the oxygen flow rate and the patient's minute ventilation using a nomogram supplied by the manufacturers. Serious discrepancies between predicted and measured inspired oxygen levels delivered by these machines can occur and the advisability of using air entrainment devices in high oxygen dependent patients is questioned. Modification to the Cape Bristol ventilator to limit these errors are discussed and the more frequent use of oxygen monitors recommended.

Allt-Graham J; Hart BC

1979-02-01

216

Diquafosol tetrasodium. Inspire/Allergan/Santen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inspire, in collaboration with Allergan and Santen, is developing an eye-drop formulation of diquafosol tetrasodium (INS-365), a second-generation uridine nucleotide analog P2Y, receptor agonist for the potential treatment of dry eye disease. In June 2003, Inspire submitted an NDA for the treatment of dry eye, and in July 2003 the FDA granted the NDA Priority Review status. FDA action is expected in December 2003, and in January 2003 launch was expected in the first half of 2004. PMID:14758778

Fischbarg, Jorge

2003-11-01

217

Diquafosol tetrasodium. Inspire/Allergan/Santen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inspire, in collaboration with Allergan and Santen, is developing an eye-drop formulation of diquafosol tetrasodium (INS-365), a second-generation uridine nucleotide analog P2Y, receptor agonist for the potential treatment of dry eye disease. In June 2003, Inspire submitted an NDA for the treatment of dry eye, and in July 2003 the FDA granted the NDA Priority Review status. FDA action is expected in December 2003, and in January 2003 launch was expected in the first half of 2004.

Fischbarg J

2003-11-01

218

Bio-inspired and nanoscale integrated computing  

CERN Multimedia

Brings the latest advances in nanotechnology and biology to computing This pioneering book demonstrates how nanotechnology can create even faster, denser computing architectures and algorithms. Furthermore, it draws from the latest advances in biology with a focus on bio-inspired computing at the nanoscale, bringing to light several new and innovative applications such as nanoscale implantable biomedical devices and neural networks. Bio-Inspired and Nanoscale Integrated Computing features an expert team of interdisciplinary authors who offer readers the benefit of their own breakthroughs i

Eshaghian-Wilner, Mary

2009-01-01

219

Context-preserving visual links.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evaluating, comparing, and interpreting related pieces of information are tasks that are commonly performed during visual data analysis and in many kinds of information-intensive work. Synchronized visual highlighting of related elements is a well-known technique used to assist this task. An alternative approach, which is more invasive but also more expressive is visual linking in which line connections are rendered between related elements. In this work, we present context-preserving visual links as a new method for generating visual links. The method specifically aims to fulfill the following two goals: first, visual links should minimize the occlusion of important information; second, links should visually stand out from surrounding information by minimizing visual interference. We employ an image-based analysis of visual saliency to determine the important regions in the original representation. A consequence of the image-based approach is that our technique is application-independent and can be employed in a large number of visual data analysis scenarios in which the underlying content cannot or should not be altered. We conducted a controlled experiment that indicates that users can find linked elements in complex visualizations more quickly and with greater subjective satisfaction than in complex visualizations in which plain highlighting is used. Context-preserving visual links were perceived as visually more attractive than traditional visual links that do not account for the context information.

Steinberger M; Waldner M; Streit M; Lex A; Schmalstieg D

2011-12-01

220

Visualizing the human connectome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Innovations in data visualization punctuate the landmark advances in human connectome research since its beginnings. From tensor glyphs for diffusion-weighted imaging, to advanced rendering of anatomical tracts, to more recent graph-based representations of functional connectivity data, many of the ways we have come to understand the human connectome are through the intuitive insight these visualizations enable. Nonetheless, several unresolved problems persist. For example, probabilistic tractography lacks the visual appeal of its deterministic equivalent, multimodal representations require extreme levels of data reduction, and rendering the full connectome within an anatomical space makes the contents cluttered and unreadable. In part, these challenges require compromises between several tensions that determine connectome visualization practice, such as prioritizing anatomic or connectomic information, aesthetic appeal or information content, and thoroughness or readability. To illustrate the ongoing negotiation between these priorities, we provide an overview of various visualization methods that have evolved for anatomical and functional connectivity data. We then describe interactive visualization tools currently available for use in research, and we conclude with concerns and developments in the presentation of connectivity results. PMID:23660027

Margulies, Daniel S; Böttger, Joachim; Watanabe, Aimi; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J

2013-05-06

 
 
 
 
221

Visualizing the human connectome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Innovations in data visualization punctuate the landmark advances in human connectome research since its beginnings. From tensor glyphs for diffusion-weighted imaging, to advanced rendering of anatomical tracts, to more recent graph-based representations of functional connectivity data, many of the ways we have come to understand the human connectome are through the intuitive insight these visualizations enable. Nonetheless, several unresolved problems persist. For example, probabilistic tractography lacks the visual appeal of its deterministic equivalent, multimodal representations require extreme levels of data reduction, and rendering the full connectome within an anatomical space makes the contents cluttered and unreadable. In part, these challenges require compromises between several tensions that determine connectome visualization practice, such as prioritizing anatomic or connectomic information, aesthetic appeal or information content, and thoroughness or readability. To illustrate the ongoing negotiation between these priorities, we provide an overview of various visualization methods that have evolved for anatomical and functional connectivity data. We then describe interactive visualization tools currently available for use in research, and we conclude with concerns and developments in the presentation of connectivity results.

Margulies DS; Böttger J; Watanabe A; Gorgolewski KJ

2013-10-01

222

An Adaptive Quantum-inspired Differential Evolution Algorithm for 0-1 Knapsack Problem  

CERN Multimedia

Differential evolution (DE) is a population based evolutionary algorithm widely used for solving multidimensional global optimization problems over continuous spaces. However, the design of its operators makes it unsuitable for many real-life constrained combinatorial optimization problems which operate on binary space. On the other hand, the quantum inspired evolutionary algorithm (QEA) is very well suitable for handling such problems by applying several quantum computing techniques such as Q-bit representation and rotation gate operator, etc. This paper extends the concept of differential operators with adaptive parameter control to the quantum paradigm and proposes the adaptive quantum-inspired differential evolution algorithm (AQDE). The performance of AQDE is found to be significantly superior as compared to QEA and a discrete version of DE on the standard 0-1 knapsack problem for all the considered test cases.

Hota, Ashish Ranjan

2011-01-01

223

Object-Oriented Design for Graph Visualization. Information Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many applications, from everyday file system browsers to visual programming tools, require the display of network and graph structures. Some applications only require a data representation for such structures. The Graph Visualization Framework (GVF) is an...

M. S. Marshall I. Herman G. Melancon

2000-01-01

224

Biologically Inspired Hierarchical Model for Feature Extraction and Localization  

CERN Multimedia

Feature extraction and matching are among central problems of computer vision. It is inefficent to search features over all locations and scales. Neurophysiological evidence shows that to locate objects in a digital image the human visual system employs visual attention to a specific object while ignoring others. The brain also has a mechanism to search from coarse to fine. In this paper, we present a feature extractor and an associated hierarchical searching model to simulate such processes. With the hierarchical representation of the object, coarse scanning is done through the matching of the larger scale and precise localization is conducted through the matching of the smaller scale. Experimental results justify the proposed model in its effectiveness and efficiency to localize features.

Wu, L

2006-01-01

225

Astrophysical constrains on Ungravity inspired models  

CERN Document Server

We use stellar dynamics arguments to constrain the relevant parameters of ungravity inspired models. We show that resulting bounds do constrain the parameters of the theory of unparticles, as far as its energy scale is higher than $\\Lambda_U > 1 TeV$ and $d_U$ is close to unity.

Bertolami, O; Santos, P

2009-01-01

226

Towards Ecology-Inspired Software Engineering  

CERN Multimedia

Ecosystems are complex and dynamic systems. Over billions of years, they have developed advanced capabilities to provide stable functions, despite changes in their environment. In this paper, we argue that the laws of organization and development of ecosystems provide a solid and rich source of inspiration to lay the foundations for novel software construction paradigms that provide stability as much as openness.

Baudry, Benoit

2012-01-01

227

Membrane computing: traces, neural inspired models, controls  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Membrane Computing:Traces, Neural Inspired Models, ControlsAutor: Armand-Mihai IonescuDirectores: Dr. Victor Mitrana (URV)Dr. Takashi Yokomori (Universidad Waseda, Japón)Resumen Castellano:El presente trabajo está dedicado a una área muy activa del cálculo natural (que intenta descubrir la odalidad ...

Ionescu, Armand-Mihai

228

A Physiologically Inspired Method for Audio Classification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We explore the use of physiologically inspired auditory features with both physiologically motivated and statistical audio classification methods. We use features derived from a biophysically defensible model of the early auditory system for audio classification using a neural network classifier. We...

Sourabh Ravindran; Kristopher Schlemmer; David V. Anderson

229

A hybrid quantum-inspired genetic algorithm for multiobjective flow shop scheduling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper proposes a hybrid quantum-inspired genetic algorithm (HQGA) for the multiobjective flow shop scheduling problem (FSSP), which is a typical NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem with strong engineering backgrounds. On the one hand, a quantum-inspired GA (QGA) based on Q-bit representation is applied for exploration in the discrete 0-1 hyperspace by using the updating operator of quantum gate and genetic operators of Q-bit. Moreover, random-key representation is used to convert the Q-bit representation to job permutation for evaluating the objective values of the schedule solution. On the other hand, permutation-based GA (PGA) is applied for both performing exploration in permutation-based scheduling space and stressing exploitation for good schedule solutions. To evaluate solutions in multiobjective sense, a randomly weighted linear-sum function is used in QGA, and a nondominated sorting technique including classification of Pareto fronts and fitness assignment is applied in PGA with regard to both proximity and diversity of solutions. To maintain the diversity of the population, two trimming techniques for population are proposed. The proposed HQGA is tested based on some multiobjective FSSPs. Simulation results and comparisons based on several performance metrics demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed HQGA.

Li BB; Wang L

2007-06-01

230

A hybrid quantum-inspired genetic algorithm for multiobjective flow shop scheduling.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a hybrid quantum-inspired genetic algorithm (HQGA) for the multiobjective flow shop scheduling problem (FSSP), which is a typical NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem with strong engineering backgrounds. On the one hand, a quantum-inspired GA (QGA) based on Q-bit representation is applied for exploration in the discrete 0-1 hyperspace by using the updating operator of quantum gate and genetic operators of Q-bit. Moreover, random-key representation is used to convert the Q-bit representation to job permutation for evaluating the objective values of the schedule solution. On the other hand, permutation-based GA (PGA) is applied for both performing exploration in permutation-based scheduling space and stressing exploitation for good schedule solutions. To evaluate solutions in multiobjective sense, a randomly weighted linear-sum function is used in QGA, and a nondominated sorting technique including classification of Pareto fronts and fitness assignment is applied in PGA with regard to both proximity and diversity of solutions. To maintain the diversity of the population, two trimming techniques for population are proposed. The proposed HQGA is tested based on some multiobjective FSSPs. Simulation results and comparisons based on several performance metrics demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed HQGA. PMID:17550113

Li, Bin-Bin; Wang, Ling

2007-06-01

231

Visual field  

Science.gov (United States)

Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam: This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

232

Dynamics and representation in the primary visual cortex Dynamics and representation in the primary visual cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bestehende Modelle für Orientierungsselektivität einfacher Zellen in V1 nehmen an, dass durch die Muster der axonalen Projektionen vom Kniekörper zu V1 bereits eine schwache Orientierungsselektivität gegeben ist, die dann intrakortikal verstärkt wird. Als Alternative wurde ein mit experimentelle...

Adorjan, Peter

233

Optic flow estimation on trajectories generated by bio-inspired closed-loop flight.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We generated panoramic imagery by simulating a fly-like robot carrying an imaging sensor, moving in free flight through a virtual arena bounded by walls, and containing obstructions. Flight was conducted under closed-loop control by a bio-inspired algorithm for visual guidance with feedback signals corresponding to the true optic flow that would be induced on an imager (computed by known kinematics and position of the robot relative to the environment). The robot had dynamics representative of a housefly-sized organism, although simplified to two-degree-of-freedom flight to generate uniaxial (azimuthal) optic flow on the retina in the plane of travel. Surfaces in the environment contained images of natural and man-made scenes that were captured by the moving sensor. Two bio-inspired motion detection algorithms and two computational optic flow estimation algorithms were applied to sequences of image data, and their performance as optic flow estimators was evaluated by estimating the mutual information between outputs and true optic flow in an equatorial section of the visual field. Mutual information for individual estimators at particular locations within the visual field was surprisingly low (less than 1 bit in all cases) and considerably poorer for the bio-inspired algorithms that the man-made computational algorithms. However, mutual information between weighted sums of these signals and comparable sums of the true optic flow showed significant increases for the bio-inspired algorithms, whereas such improvement did not occur for the computational algorithms. Such summation is representative of the spatial integration performed by wide-field motion-sensitive neurons in the third optic ganglia of flies.

Shoemaker PA; Hyslop AM; Humbert JS

2011-05-01

234

Overlapping facial expression representations are identity-dependent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Influential cognitive models of face perception posit that facial expression and identity are processed by independent visual systems. Recent research indicates these systems interact and that representations of different expressions also interact. Here we used a visual adaptation paradigm to test whether the overlapping visual representations of anger and disgust expressions are modulated by identity. In Experiment 1, adaptation to a disgust face biased perception away from anger when the adaptation and target face were congruent in identity. When the adaptation and target face were incongruent in identity this effect was significantly smaller, also, the magnitude of identity-dependency was not affected by target expression. Experiment 2 demonstrated the same modulating effect of identity when stimulus-specific effects are controlled. These results indicate that the facial expression system consists of identity-independent and identity-dependent elements within a representational framework supporting overlapping expression representations.

Pell PJ; Richards A

2013-03-01

235

Ordering the representations of S_n using the interchange process  

CERN Multimedia

Inspired by Aldous' conjecture for the spectral gap of the interchange process and its recent resolution by Caputo, Liggett and Richthammer, we define an associated order on the irreducible representations of S_n. Aldous' conjecture is equivalent to certain representations being comparable in this order, and hence determining the "Aldous order" completely is a generalized question. We show a few additional entries in this order.

Alon, Gil

2010-01-01

236

Understanding representations in design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Representing computer applications and their use is an important aspect of design. In various ways, designers need to externalize design proposals and present them to other designers, users, or managers. This article deals with understanding design representations and the work they do in design. The article is based on a series of theoretical concepts coming out of studies of scientific and other work practices and on practical experiences from design of computer applications. The article presents alternatives to the ideas that design representations are mappings of present or future work situations and computer applications. It suggests that representations are primarily containers of ideas and that representation is situated at the same time as representations are crossing boundaries between various design and use activities. As such, representations should be carriers of their own contexts regarding use and design. The article proposes that abstraction, elevating the representation from the situation, is not the only way to do this, and it proposes alternatives.

BØdker, Susanne

1998-01-01

237

Visualizing abstract objects and relations  

CERN Multimedia

Pictorial representations are very useful for humans to understand complicated relations or structures. This is the reason that the user interface of information systems is strongly required to visualize many kinds of information in a wide variety of graphical forms. At present, however, only some very specialized visualization techniques have been developed probably because the generality in the visualization has not been appreciated correctly. This book presents a visualization framework for translating abstract objects and relations, typically represented in textual forms, into pictorial re

Kamada, Tomihisa

1989-01-01

238

Sensitivity of human visual and vestibular cortical regions to egomotion-compatible visual stimulation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The analysis and representation of visual cues to self-motion (egomotion) is primarily associated with cortical areas MST, VIP, and (recently) cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv). Various other areas, including visual areas V6 and V6A, and vestibular areas parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC), put...

Cardin, V; Smith, AT

239

Canonical Visual Size for Real-World Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

Real-world objects can be viewed at a range of distances and thus can be experienced at a range of visual angles within the visual field. Given the large amount of visual size variation possible when observing objects, we examined how internal object representations represent visual size information. In a series of experiments which required…

Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

2011-01-01

240

Imagery and visual working memory: one and the same?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although visual imagery and visual working memory are both defined by the ability to actively represent and manipulate visual information, it is not known whether they rely on common mechanisms. A recent study by Albers and colleagues directly investigates this issue, finding evidence of common internal representations in early visual areas.

Tong F

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Representation of noncovalent interactions in protein structures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The energetics of solvent-atom and atom-atom nonbonded interactions can be described, for protein structures, in terms of the accessible and the contact atomic surface areas, respectively. This type of description emphasizes the importance of the local environment around groups in the three-dimensional structure of protein molecules. The graphical representation of nonbonded interactions according to this description allows one to visualize the spatial extent and distribution of these interactions and the relative stability of atoms or atomic groups in known or modified protein conformations. Applications of this short range description and of its graphical representation will be discussed.

de la Cruz X; Reverter J; Fita I

1992-06-01

242

Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects related to amino acid enrichment and depletion. Besides allowing input in the format of peptides and MSA, Seq2Logo accepts input as Blast sequence profiles, providing easy access for non-expert end-users to characterize and identify functionally conserved/variable amino acids in any given protein of interest. The output from the server is a sequence logo and a PSSM. Seq2Logo is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/biotools/Seq2Logo (14 May 2012, date last accessed).

Thomsen, Martin Christen FrØlund; Nielsen, Morten

2012-01-01

243

Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects related to amino acid enrichment and depletion. Besides allowing input in the format of peptides and MSA, Seq2Logo accepts input as Blast sequence profiles, providing easy access for non-expert end-users to characterize and identify functionally conserved/variable amino acids in any given protein of interest. The output from the server is a sequence logo and a PSSM. Seq2Logo is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/biotools/Seq2Logo (14 May 2012, date last accessed).

Thomsen MC; Nielsen M

2012-07-01

244

Neurobiologically Inspired Control of Engineered Flapping Flight  

CERN Document Server

This article presents a new control approach and dynamic model for engineered flapping flight with many interacting degrees of freedom. This paper explores the applications of neurobiologically inspired control systems in the form of Central Pattern Generators (CPG) to control flapping flight dynamics. A rigorous mathematical and control theoretic framework to design complex three dimensional wing motions is presented based on phase synchronization and Hopf bifurcation. In particular, we show that tailless aircraft alternating between flapping and gliding can be effectively stabilized by smooth wing motions driven by the CPG network. Furthermore, a novel robotic testbed has been developed to emulate the flight of bats. This model has shoulder and leg joints totaling ten control variables of wing properties. Results of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulation of CPG-based flight control validate the effectiveness of the proposed neurobiologically inspired control approach.

Chung, Soon-Jo; Stoner, Jeremiah R

2009-01-01

245

Biologically inspired water purification through selective transport  

Science.gov (United States)

Biologically inspired systems based on cellular mechanics demonstrate the ability to selectively transport ions across a bilayer membrane. These systems may be observed in nature in plant roots, which remove select nutrients from the surrounding soil against significant concentration gradients. Using biomimetic principles in the design of tailored active materials allows for the development of selective membranes for capturing and filtering targeted ions. Combining this biomimetic transport system with a method for reclaiming the captured ions will allow for increased removal potential. To illustrate this concept, a device for removing nutrients from waterways to aid in reducing eutrophication is outlined and discussed. Presented is a feasibility study of various cellular configurations designed for this purpose, focusing on maximizing nutrient uptake. The results enable a better understanding of the benefits and obstacles when developing these cellularly inspired systems.

Freeman, E. C.; Soncini, R. M.; Weiland, L. M.

2013-01-01

246

Visualizing guided tours  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper identifies several problems with navigating and visualizing guided tours in traditional hypermedia systems. We discuss solutions to these problems, including the representation of guided tours as 3D metro maps with content preview. Issues regarding navigation and disorientation are addressed and we suggest a combination of the metro map and an intuitive navigation system. Finally we present a prototype (Webvise3D) which implements our ideas.

Poulsen, Signe Herbers; Fjord-Larsen, Mads

247

Visual Analysis of Behaviour  

CERN Document Server

This book presents a comprehensive treatment of visual analysis of behaviour from computational-modelling and algorithm-design perspectives. This title: covers learning-group activity models, unsupervised behaviour profiling, hierarchical behaviour discovery, learning behavioural context, modelling rare behaviours, and 'man-in-the-loop' active learning; examines multi-camera behaviour correlation, person re-identification, and 'connecting-the-dots' for abnormal behaviour detection; discusses Bayesian information criterion, Bayesian networks, 'bag-of-words' representation, canonical correlation

Gong, Shaogang

2011-01-01

248

Superstring-inspired E sub 6 phenomenology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, we examine the low energy phenomenological implications of superstring-inspired E6 models. The motivation for such models is reviewed. New particles, including new gauge bosons, exotic fermions, Higgs bosons, and their superpartners are expected to exist in models of this type. Techniques for producing these new particles directly at existing and planned colliders as well as searching for their indirect effects are examined. Other phenomenological implications of such models are also discussed.

Hewett, J.L.

1988-01-01

249

Nature inspired algorithms and artificial intelligence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Artificial intelligence has been very muchinterested in studying the characteristics ofintelligent agent, mainly planning, learning,reasoning (making decisions) and perception.Biological processes and methods have beeninfluencing science from many decades. Naturalsystems have many properties that inspiredapplications - self-organisation, simplicity of basicelements, dynamics, flexibility. This paper is a surveyof nature inspired algorithms, like Particle SwarmOptimization (PSO), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)and Artificial Bee Colony(ABC).

Elisa Valentina Onet; Ecaterina Vladu

2008-01-01

250

Realisation of a practical inspirable dust spectrometer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project set out to develop new instrumentation for dust measurement in mines upon which to base a better understanding of the factors leading to disease and, in turn, improved standards setting and environmental conditions. The general aim has been to bring to practical realisation the dust spectrometer whose potential had been established in a previous CEC-funded project. The resulting instrument (SIDS) is an eight-stage cascade impactor based on the principle of rectangular jets impinging onto rotating drums. It incorporates an entry which aspirates the inspirable fraction of the ambient airborne dust. Thus it can provide the particle aerodynamic size distribution of the inspirable fraction and so enable determination of the particle size distributions and airborne mass concentrations of any subfraction relevant to health (e.g., thoracic, respirable). It can also provide aerodynamically-classified dust samples suitable for mineralogical analysis. As a result of the rotating-drum feature, such information may be obtained for time increments within individual working shifts. The instrument is a static sampler, intended for fixed-point operation. Trials with the instrument were conducted both in the laboratory and underground in a coalmine. It was demonstrated how it could provide the wide range of information about inspirable dust and the various health-related subfractions. After some initial technical difficulties, the instrument performed well. It has since featured in a CEC-funded joint dust sampling project, and the results of this exercise will be reported separately.

Vincent, J.H.; Mark, D.; Botham, R.A.; Lynch, G.; Aitken, R.J.; Gibson, H.; Campbell, S.

1987-12-01

251

Capturing lived experiences in movement educational contexts through videographic participation and visual narratives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explores and reflects upon possibilities and challenges of using “videographic participation” (Svendler Nielsen 2009a) as a research method combining filmic ethnography (Møhl 2003) and phenomenology (van Manen 1990; Todres 2007) in movement educational contexts. The research method helps visualizing and communicating the meaning-making of the participants and emphasizes the role of the researcher’s embodied involvement when ‘looking for lived experiences’. The paper exemplifies the use of videographic participation and presents (audio)visual narratives from two educational contexts: children in a primary school participating in a collaboration with a professional dance company and youngsters ages 18-26 doing contemporary circus training. Both studies use film as a knowledge creating practice (Møhl 2003) in combination with a hermeneutic-phenomenological analysis (van Manen 1990) to cast light on ways of understanding embodied learning. The use of videographic participation in the two contexts of educational practice are explored, compared and discussed. On an overall methodological level it is discussed how it is possible to capture lived experiences in fields of movement education by use of videographic participation and what the challenges of ‘looking for lived experiences’ in movement can be. Inspired by Performative Social Science (Jones et al. 2008; Gergen and Jones 2008) the paper exemplifies and discusses (re)presentation of research data in artistic forms by highlighting the question of how meaning-making of the participants can be captured and disseminated through (audio)visual narratives.

DegerbØl, Stine Mikés; Svendler Nielsen, Charlotte

252

Capturing Lived Experiences in Movement Educational Contexts through Videographic Participation and Visual Narratives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explores and reflects upon possibilities and challenges of using “videographic participation” (Svendler Nielsen 2009a) as a research method combining filmic ethnography (Møhl 2003) and phenomenology (van Manen 1990; Todres 2007) in movement educational contexts. The research method helps visualizing and communicating the meaning-making of the participants and emphasizes the role of the researcher’s embodied involvement when ‘looking for lived experiences’. The paper exemplifies the use of videographic participation and presents (audio)visual narratives from two educational contexts: children in a primary school participating in a collaboration with a professional dance company and youngsters ages 18-26 doing contemporary circus training. Both studies use film as a knowledge creating practice (Møhl 2003) in combination with a hermeneutic-phenomenological analysis (van Manen 1990) to cast light on ways of understanding embodied learning. The use of videographic participation in the two contexts of educational practice are explored, compared and discussed. On an overall methodological level it is discussed how it is possible to capture lived experiences in fields of movement education by use of videographic participation and what the challenges of ‘looking for lived experiences’ in movement can be. Inspired by Performative Social Science (Jones et al. 2008; Gergen and Jones 2008) the paper exemplifies and discusses (re)presentation of research data in artistic forms by highlighting the question of how meaning-making of the participants can be captured and disseminated through (audio)visual narratives.

DegerbØl, Stine Mikés; Svendler Nielsen, Charlotte

253

Large-scale functional models of visual cortex for remote sensing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neuroscience has revealed many properties of neurons and of the functional organization of visual cortex that are believed to be essential to human vision, but are missing in standard artificial neural networks. Equally important may be the sheer scale of visual cortex requiring {approx}1 petaflop of computation. In a year, the retina delivers {approx}1 petapixel to the brain, leading to massively large opportunities for learning at many levels of the cortical system. We describe work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop large-scale functional models of visual cortex on LANL's Roadrunner petaflop supercomputer. An initial run of a simple region VI code achieved 1.144 petaflops during trials at the IBM facility in Poughkeepsie, NY (June 2008). Here, we present criteria for assessing when a set of learned local representations is 'complete' along with general criteria for assessing computer vision models based on their projected scaling behavior. Finally, we extend one class of biologically-inspired learning models to problems of remote sensing imagery.

Brumby, Steven P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kenyon, Garrett [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rasmussen, Craig E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swaminarayan, Sriram [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Landecker, Will [PORTLAND STATE UNIV.

2009-01-01

254

A Novel Quantum Inspired Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Bin Packing Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Bin Packing Problem (BPP) is one of the most known combinatorial optimization problems. This problem consists to pack a set of items into a minimum number of bins. There are several variants of this problem; the most basic problem is the one-dimensional bin packing problem (1-BPP). In this paper, we present a new approach based on the quantum inspired cuckoo search algorithm to deal with the 1-BPP problem. The contribution consists in defining an appropriate quantum representation based on qubit representation to represent bin packing solutions. The second contribution is proposition of a new hybrid quantum measure operation which uses first fit heuristic to pack no filled objects by the standard measure operation. The obtained results are very encouraging and show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Abdesslem Layeb; Seriel Rayene Boussalia

2012-01-01

255

Representation and disconnection in imaginal neglect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with neglect failure to detect, orient, or respond to stimuli from a spatially confined region, usually on their left side. Often, the presence of perceptual input increases left omissions, while sensory deprivation decreases them, possibly by removing attention-catching right-sided stimuli (Bartolomeo, 2007). However, such an influence of visual deprivation on representational neglect was not observed in patients while they were imagining a map of France (Rode et al., 2007). Therefore, these patients with imaginal neglect either failed to generate the left side of mental images (Bisiach & Luzzatti, 1978), or suffered from a co-occurrence of deficits in automatic (bottom-up) and voluntary (top-down) orienting of attention. However, in Rode et al.'s experiment visual input was not directly relevant to the task; moreover, distraction from visual input might primarily manifest itself when representation guides somatomotor actions, beyond those involved in the generation and mental exploration of an internal map (Thomas, 1999). To explore these possibilities, we asked a patient with right hemisphere damage, R.D., to explore visual and imagined versions of a map of France in three conditions: (1) 'imagine the map in your mind' (imaginal); (2) 'describe a real map' (visual); and (3) 'list the names of French towns' (propositional). For the imaginal and visual conditions, verbal and manual pointing responses were collected; the task was also given before and after mental rotation of the map by 180 degrees . R.D. mentioned more towns on the right side of the map in the imaginal and visual conditions, but showed no representational deficit in the propositional condition. The rightward inner exploration bias in the imaginal and visual conditions was similar in magnitude and was not influenced by mental rotation or response type (verbal responses or manual pointing to locations on a map), thus suggesting that the representational deficit was robust and independent of perceptual input in R.D. Structural and diffusion MRI demonstrated damage to several white matter tracts in the right hemisphere and to the splenium of corpus callosum. A second right-brain damaged patient (P.P.), who showed signs of visual but not imaginal neglect, had damage to the same intra-hemispheric tracts, but the callosal connections were spared. Imaginal neglect in R.D. may result from fronto-parietal dysfunction impairing orientation towards left-sided items and posterior callosal disconnection preventing the symmetrical processing of spatial information from long-term memory.

Rode G; Cotton F; Revol P; Jacquin-Courtois S; Rossetti Y; Bartolomeo P

2010-08-01

256

Representation and disconnection in imaginal neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with neglect failure to detect, orient, or respond to stimuli from a spatially confined region, usually on their left side. Often, the presence of perceptual input increases left omissions, while sensory deprivation decreases them, possibly by removing attention-catching right-sided stimuli (Bartolomeo, 2007). However, such an influence of visual deprivation on representational neglect was not observed in patients while they were imagining a map of France (Rode et al., 2007). Therefore, these patients with imaginal neglect either failed to generate the left side of mental images (Bisiach & Luzzatti, 1978), or suffered from a co-occurrence of deficits in automatic (bottom-up) and voluntary (top-down) orienting of attention. However, in Rode et al.'s experiment visual input was not directly relevant to the task; moreover, distraction from visual input might primarily manifest itself when representation guides somatomotor actions, beyond those involved in the generation and mental exploration of an internal map (Thomas, 1999). To explore these possibilities, we asked a patient with right hemisphere damage, R.D., to explore visual and imagined versions of a map of France in three conditions: (1) 'imagine the map in your mind' (imaginal); (2) 'describe a real map' (visual); and (3) 'list the names of French towns' (propositional). For the imaginal and visual conditions, verbal and manual pointing responses were collected; the task was also given before and after mental rotation of the map by 180 degrees . R.D. mentioned more towns on the right side of the map in the imaginal and visual conditions, but showed no representational deficit in the propositional condition. The rightward inner exploration bias in the imaginal and visual conditions was similar in magnitude and was not influenced by mental rotation or response type (verbal responses or manual pointing to locations on a map), thus suggesting that the representational deficit was robust and independent of perceptual input in R.D. Structural and diffusion MRI demonstrated damage to several white matter tracts in the right hemisphere and to the splenium of corpus callosum. A second right-brain damaged patient (P.P.), who showed signs of visual but not imaginal neglect, had damage to the same intra-hemispheric tracts, but the callosal connections were spared. Imaginal neglect in R.D. may result from fronto-parietal dysfunction impairing orientation towards left-sided items and posterior callosal disconnection preventing the symmetrical processing of spatial information from long-term memory. PMID:20621588

Rode, G; Cotton, F; Revol, P; Jacquin-Courtois, S; Rossetti, Y; Bartolomeo, P

2010-06-04

257

The GEANT4 Visualization System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Geant4 Visualization System is a multi-driver graphics system designed to serve the Geant4 Simulation Toolkit. It is aimed at the visualization of Geant4 data, primarily detector descriptions and simulated particle trajectories and hits. It can handle a variety of graphical technologies simultaneously and interchangeably, allowing the user to choose the visual representation most appropriate to requirements. It conforms to the low-level Geant4 abstract graphical user interfaces and introduces new abstract classes from which the various drivers are derived and that can be straightforwardly extended, for example, by the addition of a new driver. It makes use of an extendable class library of models and filters for data representation and selection. The Geant4 Visualization System supports a rich set of interactive commands based on the Geant4 command system. It is included in the Geant4 code distribution and maintained and documented like other components of Geant4.

2007-11-02

258

Flood Visualizations  

Science.gov (United States)

A lengthy listing of all of NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio visualizations that have flood as a keyword. The listing includes many visualizations of specific flood instances, as well as visualizations of floods caused by hurricanes. The visualizations are available in a wide variety of formats.

Svs, Nasa G.; Nasa

259

Representations of rational functions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fast parallel algorithms for various problems in algebraic computation are presented. Two of the algorithms convert the coefficient representation of a rational function into a base representation, and vice versa. Combining them yields an algorithm which converts the representation of a rational function in one base of polynomials into that in another base. The existence question for representations is then discussed. Applications of the general conversion algorithms fast parallel methods to Taylor expansion, partial fraction decomposition, Chinese remainder algorithm, elementary symmetric functions, Pade approximation and various interpolation problems are given. 5 references.

Von Zur Gathen, J.

1983-01-01

260

Asymptotically adapted adiabatic representation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The equations of the adiabatic representation for a collision problem are rederived in a new and compact way and the kinematic nature of the long-range matrix elements which arise in this representation is shown explicitly. Next, the matrix transformation of the adiabatic representation is introduced which greatly simplifies its asymptotic form. Actually, the asymptotic values of matrix elements are effectively subtracted. The relation of this transformation with the translational factor operator is demonstrated. In the case of one-electron diatomic system the explicit form of matrices introducing asymptotically adapted adiabatic representation is found

1975-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Social representations of women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social Representations is one of the most important theories in contemporary social psychology. Since the social psychologist Serge Moscovici developed his theory of social representations to explain how a scientific theory such as the psychoanalysis turns into a common sense knowledge many studies have been done by different social psychologists. The analysis of the social representations of women as represented in myths and popular beliefs is an excellent opportunity to study how this theory can be applied to this representational field. At the same time it makes possible to understand the formation of attitudes towards women

Álvaro Estramiana, José Luis; Fernández Ruiz, Beatriz

2006-01-01

262

Strongly-Representable Operators  

CERN Document Server

Recently in [1] a new class of maximal monotone operators has been introduced. In this note we study domain range properties as well as connections with other classes and calculus rules for these operators we called strongly-representable. While not every maximal monotone operator is strongly-representable, every maximal monotone NI operator is strongly-representable, and every strongly representable operator is locally maximal monotone, maximal monotone locally, and ANA. As a consequence the conjugate of the Fitzpatrick function of a maximal monotone operator is not necessarily a representative function.

Voisei, M D

2008-01-01

263

A bio-inspired two-layer mixed-signal flexible programmable chip for early vision.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A bio-inspired model for an analog programmable array processor (APAP), based on studies on the vertebrate retina, has permitted the realization of complex programmable spatio-temporal dynamics in VLSI. This model mimics the way in which images are processed in the visual pathway, what renders a feasible alternative for the implementation of early vision tasks in standard technologies. A prototype chip has been designed and fabricated in 0.5 /spl mu/m CMOS. It renders a computing power per silicon area and power consumption that is amongst the highest reported for a single chip. The details of the bio-inspired network model, the analog building block design challenges and trade-offs and some functional tests results are presented in this paper.

Galan RC; Jimenez-Garrido F; Dominguez-Castro R; Espejo S; Roska T; Rekeczky C; Petras I; Rodriguez-Vazquez A

2003-01-01

264

Renormalization of Polyakov loops in fundamental and higher representations  

CERN Multimedia

We compare two renormalization procedures, one based on the short distance behavior of heavy quark-antiquark free energies and the other by using bare Polyakov loops at different temporal entent of the lattice and find that both prescriptions are equivalent, resulting in renormalization constants that depend on the bare coupling. Furthermore these renormalization constants show Casimir scaling for higher representations of the Polyakov loops. The analysis of Polyakov loops in different representations of the color SU(3) group indicates that a simple perturbative inspired relation in terms of the quadratic Casimir operator is realized to a good approximation at temperatures $T \\gsim T_c$ for renormalized as well as bare loops. In contrast to a vanishing Polyakov loop in representations with non-zero triality in the confined phase, the adjoint loops are small but non-zero even for temperatures below the critical one. The adjoint quark-antiquark pairs exhibit screening. This behavior can be related to the bindin...

Kaczmarek, O; Hübner, K

2007-01-01

265

RELEVANCE, MEANING AND CONCEPTUAL REPRESENTATION IN PRINT MODERN ADVERTISING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aims to underline, first of all, the interdependent relation between meaning and relevance, following a cognitive perspective. Secondly, we will determine an exponential relation between meaning comprehension and conceptual representation in print modern advertising.We will start by briefly introducing the Relevance Theory (Wilson and Sperber, 1986). We will examine the central notion of the theory, the relevance as a feature and as a function. Then, we will take into consideration the model of conceptual representation within the relevance theory, which we disagree with, and will propose a space conceptual model instead (inspired by Gärdenfors, 2000). At this level, we can establish the interdependent exponential relation between modern print advertising discourse, treated in terms of space conceptual model of representation, and its meaning comprehension process, emphasizing its optimal relevance.

Ana-Maria Florescu

2011-01-01

266

Flavor: A Language for Media Representation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present the design and implementation of a new programminglanguage for media-intensive applications called Flavor (FormalLanguage for Audio-Visual Object Representation). It is anextension of C++ and Java in which the typing system is extendedto incorporate bitstream representation semantics. This allows todescribe in a single place both the in-memory representation ofdata as well as their bitstream-level (compressed) representationas well. We have developed software tools (www.ee.columbia.edu/flavor) that automatically generate standard C++and Java code from the Flavor source code, so that direct accessto compressed multimedia information by application developerscan be achieved with essentially zero programming.1. IntroductionFlavor originated from the need to simplify and speed up thedevelopment of software that processes coded audiovisual orgeneral multi-media information. This includes encoders anddecoders as well as applications that manipulate such informatio...

Alexandros Eleftheriadis

267

A PUTATIVE MODEL OF MULTISENSORY OBJECT REPRESENTATION  

Science.gov (United States)

This review surveys the recent literature on visuo-haptic convergence in the perception of object form, with particular reference to the lateral occipital complex (LOC) and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and discusses how visual imagery or multisensory representations might underlie this convergence. Drawing on a recent distinction between object- and spatially-based visual imagery, we propose a putative model in which LOtv, a subregion of LOC, contains a modality-independent representation of geometric shape that can be accessed either bottom-up from direct sensory inputs or top-down from frontoparietal regions. We suggest that such access is modulated by object familiarity: spatial imagery may be more important for unfamiliar objects and involve IPS foci in facilitating somatosensory inputs to the LOC; by contrast, object imagery may be more critical for familiar objects, being reflected in prefrontal drive to the LOC.

Lacey, Simon; Tal, Noa; Amedi, Amir; Sathian, K.

2011-01-01

268

A putative model of multisensory object representation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review surveys the recent literature on visuo-haptic convergence in the perception of object form, with particular reference to the lateral occipital complex (LOC) and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and discusses how visual imagery or multisensory representations might underlie this convergence. Drawing on a recent distinction between object- and spatially-based visual imagery, we propose a putative model in which LOtv, a subregion of LOC, contains a modality-independent representation of geometric shape that can be accessed either bottom-up from direct sensory inputs or top-down from frontoparietal regions. We suggest that such access is modulated by object familiarity: spatial imagery may be more important for unfamiliar objects and involve IPS foci in facilitating somatosensory inputs to the LOC; by contrast, object imagery may be more critical for familiar objects, being reflected in prefrontal drive to the LOC.

Lacey S; Tal N; Amedi A; Sathian K

2009-05-01

269

Outlier-preserving focus+context visualization in parallel coordinates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focus+context visualization integrates a visually accentuated representation of selected data items in focus (more details, more opacity, etc.) with a visually deemphasized representation of the rest of the data, i.e., the context. The role of context visualization is to provide an overview of the data for improved user orientation and improved navigation. A good overview comprises the representation of both outliers and trends. Up to now, however, context visualization not really treated outliers sufficiently. In this paper we present a new approach to focus+context visualization in parallel coordinates which is truthful to outliers in the sense that small-scale features are detected before visualization and then treated specially during context visualization. Generally, we present a solution which enables context visualization at several levels of abstraction, both for the representation of outliers and trends. We introduce outlier detection and context generation to parallel coordinates on the basis of a binned data representation. This leads to an output-oriented visualization approach which means that only those parts of the visualization process are executed which actually affect the final rendering. Accordingly, the performance of this solution is much more dependent on the visualization size than on the data size which makes it especially interesting for large datasets. Previous approaches are outperformed, the new solution was successfully applied to datasets with up to 3 million data records and up to 50 dimensions. PMID:17080814

Novotný, Matej; Hauser, Helwig

270

Outlier-preserving focus+context visualization in parallel coordinates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Focus+context visualization integrates a visually accentuated representation of selected data items in focus (more details, more opacity, etc.) with a visually deemphasized representation of the rest of the data, i.e., the context. The role of context visualization is to provide an overview of the data for improved user orientation and improved navigation. A good overview comprises the representation of both outliers and trends. Up to now, however, context visualization not really treated outliers sufficiently. In this paper we present a new approach to focus+context visualization in parallel coordinates which is truthful to outliers in the sense that small-scale features are detected before visualization and then treated specially during context visualization. Generally, we present a solution which enables context visualization at several levels of abstraction, both for the representation of outliers and trends. We introduce outlier detection and context generation to parallel coordinates on the basis of a binned data representation. This leads to an output-oriented visualization approach which means that only those parts of the visualization process are executed which actually affect the final rendering. Accordingly, the performance of this solution is much more dependent on the visualization size than on the data size which makes it especially interesting for large datasets. Previous approaches are outperformed, the new solution was successfully applied to datasets with up to 3 million data records and up to 50 dimensions.

Novotný M; Hauser H

2006-09-01

271

Kakovost podatkov in direktiva inspire : data quality and the inspire directive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available V prispevku so predstavljeni vse ve?ji pomen kakovosti geodetskih in prostorskih podatkov, dolo?be o kakovosti prostorskih informacij v direktivi INSPIRE in predpisih, sprejetih na njeni podlagi, ter zahteve, povezane s kakovostjo prostorskih podatkov in storitev, ki jih pred slovenske ponudnike podatkov in storitev postavlja evropska zakonodaja ; This article presents the growing importance of the quality of geodetic and spatial information. It describes the contents related to the data quality in the INSPIRE Directive, regulations for its implementation and guidelines, as well as the requirements related to the quality of spatial data and services set for Slovenian suppliers of data by European legislation.

Irena Ažman

2011-01-01

272

Visual Impairment  

Science.gov (United States)

... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ... could from 200 feet away. Continue What Causes Visual Impairment? People rarely lose their eyesight during their ...

273

Visualization of Mined Pattern and Its Human Aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Researchers got success in mining the Web usage data effectively and efficiently. But representation of the mined patterns is often not in a form suitable for direct human consumption. Hence mechanisms and tools that can represent mined patterns in easily understandable format are utilized. Different techniques are used for pattern analysis, one of them is visualization. Visualization can provide valuable assistance for data analysis and decision making tasks. In the data visualization process, technical representations of web pages are replaced by user attractive text interpretations. Experiments with the real world problems showed that the visualization can significantly increase the quality and usefulness of web log mining results. However, how decision makers perceive and interact with a visual representation can strongly influence their understanding of the data as well as the usefulness of the visual presentation. Human factors therefore contribute significantly to the visualization process and should play an important role in the design and evaluation of visualization tools.

Ratnesh Kumar Jain; R. S. Kasana; Suresh Jain

2009-01-01

274

Efficient Learning of Sparse Invariant Representations  

CERN Multimedia

We propose a simple and efficient algorithm for learning sparse invariant representations from unlabeled data with fast inference. When trained on short movies sequences, the learned features are selective to a range of orientations and spatial frequencies, but robust to a wide range of positions, similar to complex cells in the primary visual cortex. We give a hierarchical version of the algorithm, and give guarantees of fast convergence under certain conditions.

Gregor, Karol

2011-01-01

275

Superspecies and their representations  

CERN Multimedia

Superspecies are introduced to provide the nice constructions of all finite-dimensional superalgebras. All acyclic superspecies, or equivalently all finite-dimensional (gr-basic) gr-hereditary superalgebras, are classified according to their graded representation types. To this end, graded equivalence, graded representation type and graded species are introduced for finite group graded algebras.

Han, Yang

2007-01-01

276

WB algebra representation theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The determinant of the contravariant form on the highest-weight Verma module representation of extended conformal algebras related to so(2n+1) is calculated by considering explicit formulae for null vectors. The degenerate representation character formulae are conjectured using the determinant formula. The character formulae are related to the branching functions of a proposed coset model for the extended algebra. (orig.).

Watts, G.M.T. (Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP))

1990-07-23

277

Biologically Inspired SNN for Robot Control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper proposes a spiking-neural-network-based robot controller inspired by the control structures of biological systems. Information is routed through the network using facilitating dynamic synapses with short-term plasticity. Learning occurs through long-term synaptic plasticity which is implemented using the temporal difference learning rule to enable the robot to learn to associate the correct movement with the appropriate input conditions. The network self-organizes to provide memories of environments that the robot encounters. A Pioneer robot simulator with laser and sonar proximity sensors is used to verify the performance of the network with a wall-following task, and the results are presented.

Nichols E; McDaid LJ; Siddique N

2012-06-01

278

Oil Price Trackers Inspired by Immune Memory  

CERN Multimedia

We outline initial concepts for an immune inspired algorithm to evaluate and predict oil price time series data. The proposed solution evolves a short term pool of trackers dynamically, with each member attempting to map trends and anticipate future price movements. Successful trackers feed into a long term memory pool that can generalise across repeating trend patterns. The resulting sequence of trackers, ordered in time, can be used as a forecasting tool. Examination of the pool of evolving trackers also provides valuable insight into the properties of the crude oil market.

Wilson, WIlliam; Aickelin, Uwe

2010-01-01

279

A Visual Information Retrieval Tool.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…

Zhang, Jin

2000-01-01

280

Visual detection in monkeys with blindsight.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monkeys with unilateral striate cortical removal show residual visual abilities in their affected hemifield. To learn whether the monkeys, like patients with blindsight, lose the phenomenal representation of the visual stimuli they nevertheless respond to, we first studied their ability to localize ...

Cowey, A; Stoerig, P

 
 
 
 
281

Full Restoration of Visual Encrypted Color Images  

CERN Multimedia

While strictly black and white images have been the basis for visual cryptography, there has been a lack of an easily implemented format for colour images. This paper establishes a simple, yet secure way of implementing visual cryptography with colour, assuming a binary data representation.

Persson, Simeon

2011-01-01

282

Neurally inspired rapid detection of sparse objects in videos  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we describe COGNIVA, a closed-loop Cognitive-Neural method and system for image and video analysis that combines recent technological breakthroughs in bio-vision cognitive algorithms and neural signatures of human visual processing. COGNIVA is an "operational neuroscience" framework for intelligent and rapid search and categorization of Items Of Interest (IOI) in imagery and video. The IOI could be a single object, group of objects, specific image regions, specific spatio-temporal pattern/sequence or even the category that the image itself belongs to (e.g., vehicle or non-vehicle). There are two main types of approach for rapid search and categorization of IOI in imagery and video. The first approach uses conventional machine vision or bio-inspired cognitive algorithms. These usually need a predefined set of IOI and suffer from high false alarm rates. The second class of algorithms is based on neural signatures of target detection. These algorithms usually break the entire image into sub-images and process EEG data from these images and classify them based on it. This approach may suffer from high false alarms and is slow because the entire image is chipped and presented to the human observer. The proposed COGNIVA overcomes the limitations of both methods by combining them resulting in a low false alarm rate and high detection with high throughput making it applicable to both image and video analysis. In the most basic form, COGNIVA first uses bioinspired cognitive algorithms for deciding potential IOI in a sequence of images/video. These potential IOI are then shown to a human and neural signatures of visual detection of IOI are collected and processed. The resulting signatures are used to categorize and provide final IOI. We will present the concept and typical results of COGNIVA for detecting Items of interest in image data.

Khosla, Deepak; Huber, David J.; Bhattacharyya, Rajan; Daily, Mike; Tasinga, Penn

2010-04-01

283

Autobiography: Inspiring new visions of teacher learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this article is to broaden the tradition of autobiography by using it as a way in which teachers can identify sources of inspiration in their educational experience. In the process, my aim is to make explicit the links between autobiography, learning and meta learning. Extending autobiographical inquiry to include different levels at which learning takes place serves to highlight the importance not only of the individual context of learning (the private self), but also the possibility of learning and constructing meaning from autobiography in dialogue with others. This article identifies four levels of learning-how-to-learn from autobiography. These levels are: 1. learning from autobiographical writing; 2. learning through intergenerational dialogues; 3. developmental learning through the career stages; and 4. whole group co-constructive learning. My ultimate goal is two fold. Firstly, to use these levels of learning to identify operational definitions of inspiration based on significant events and experiences in teacher’s personal stories. Secondly to identify a meta research orientation for linking autobiography with learning and meta-learning.

Irene Simon

2006-01-01

284

Testing the LIGO inspiral analysis with hardware injections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Injection of simulated binary inspiral signals into detector hardware provides an excellent test of the inspiral detection pipeline. By recovering the physical parameters of an injected signal, we test our understanding of both instrumental calibration and the data analysis pipeline. We describe an inspiral search code and results from hardware injection tests and demonstrate that injected signals can be recovered by the data analysis pipeline. The parameters of the recovered signals match those of the injected signals

2004-03-07

285

Inspiration Inducement of Pianists in a Subconsciousness Background  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inspiration thinking of pianists lies under their deep thought, and is a product of mutual interaction between consciousness and subconsciousness, closely connected with living experiences, musical environment, and psychological environment of a subject. Piano music, literature poetry, internal rhythm, external rhythm, Nature, environment and impression are significant induction factors to lead inspiration thinking of pianists, while arduous practice, gifted perception, tough exploration and smart capture are preconditions of inspiration happening in pianists.

Changkui Wang

2009-01-01

286

General Relativistic Decompression of Binary Neutron Stars During Inspiral  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate the dynamic stability of inspiraling neutron stars by performing multiple-orbit numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star inspiral process. We find that as the separation between the stars decreases during the inspiral induced by gravitational wave emission, the central rest mass density of each star decreases, thus stabilizing each star against collapse. We compare the amount of decompression observed in our numerical relativity simulations with the amount predicted by post-Newtonian approximations.

Miller, M

2005-01-01

287

Action simulation: time course and representational mechanisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The notion of action simulation refers to the ability to re-enact foreign actions (i.e., actions observed in other individuals). Simulating others' actions implies a mirroring of their activities, based on one's own sensorimotor competencies. Here, we discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to action simulation and the study of its representational underpinnings. One focus of our discussion is on the timing of internal simulation and its relation to the timing of external action, and a paradigm that requires participants to predict the future course of actions that are temporarily occluded from view. We address transitions between perceptual mechanisms (referring to action representation before and after occlusion) and simulation mechanisms (referring to action representation during occlusion). Findings suggest that action simulation runs in real-time; acting on newly created action representations rather than relying on continuous visual extrapolations. A further focus of our discussion pertains to the functional characteristics of the mechanisms involved in predicting other people's actions. We propose that two processes are engaged, dynamic updating and static matching, which may draw on both semantic and motor information. In a concluding section, we discuss these findings in the context of broader theoretical issues related to action and event representation, arguing that a detailed functional analysis of action simulation in cognitive, neural, and computational terms may help to further advance our understanding of action cognition and motor control.

Springer A; Parkinson J; Prinz W

2013-01-01

288

Cortical representation of the horizon in V1 and peripheral scaling in mammals with lateral eyes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available n the present investigation we mapped the primary visual area of the South American diurnal rodent, Dasyprocta aguti, by standardized electrophysiological mapping techniques. In particular, we performed a series of mapping experiments of the visual streak in the primary visual cortex. We found that the representation of the visual streak in V1 is greatly expanded, the nasal 10 degrees of the visual streak representation occupies ten times more cortical area than equivalent areas in the central or temporal representation. Comparison of these data with those on the density of ganglion cells in the retina at corresponding locations in the visual feld reveal a signifcant mismatch between these two variables. The nasal representation is greatly expanded along the horizontal meridian in V1 as compared to the central and temporal regions whereas the density of ganglion cells decreases with progression along the visual streak from central region towards the nasal or temporal visual feld. A review of the available data reveals that all lateral-eyed mammals exhibit a similar mismatch between the retinal and cortical representation of the visual feld, and this mismatches is greater in those species with well defned visual streaks such as rabbit and agouti.

Cristovam W. Picanço-Diniz; Emiliana G. Rocha; Luiz Carlos L. Silveira; Guy Elston; Eduardo Oswaldo-Cruz

2011-01-01

289

Cortical representation of the horizon in V1 and peripheral scaling in mammals with lateral eyes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In the present investigation we mapped the primary visual area of the South American diurnal rodent, Dasyprocta aguti, by standardized electrophysiological mapping techniques. In particular, we performed a series of mapping experiments of the visual streak in the primary visual cortex. We found that the representation of the visual streak in V1 is greatly expanded, the nasal 10 degrees of the visual streak representation occupies ten times more cortical area than equivale (more) nt areas in the central or temporal representation. Comparison of these data with those on the density of ganglion cells in the retina at corresponding locations in the visual field reveal a significant mismatch between these two variables. The nasal representation is greatly expanded along the horizontal meridian in V1 as compared to the central and temporal regions whereas the density of ganglion cells decreases with progression along the visual streak from central region towards the nasal or temporal visual field. A review of the available data reveals that all lateral-eyed mammals exhibit a similar mismatch between the retinal and cortical representation of the visual field, and this mismatches is greater in those species with well defined visual streaks such as rabbit and agouti.

Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam W.; Rocha, Emiliana G.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.; Elston, Guy; Oswaldo-Cruz, Eduardo

2011-06-01

290

Visual Programming of Subsumption - Based Reactive Behaviour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available General purpose visual programming languages (VPLs) promote the construction of programs that are more comprehensible, robust, and maintainable by enabling programmers to directly observe and manipulate algorithms and data. However, they usually do not exploit the visual representation of entities in the problem domain, even if those entities and their interactions have obvious visual representations, as is the case in the robot control domain. We present a formal control model for autonomous robots, based on subsumption, and use it as the basis for a VPL in which reactive behaviour is programmed via interactions with a simulation.

Omid Banyasad; Philip T. Cox

2008-01-01

291

Software Project Visualization Using Task Oriented Metaphors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents T-Cube and MetroMap, two new graphical representation models for controlling and managing the processes of software project development. They both use metaphors and visual representation techniques to address typical project management tasks. T-Cube uses a metaphor with the Rubik-Cube whereas MetroMap uses a metaphor with a metro map. The tools have been tested on real project data and a qualitative assessment shows the results of testing the visualizations with users attempting several information retrieval tasks. The utility of the tools has been positively evaluated and the article demonstrates the possibilities of visual approaches in project management.

Amaia Aguirregoitia; José Javier Dolado Cosín; Concepción Presedo

2010-01-01

292

Representational neglect for words as revealed by bisection tasks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, we showed that a representational disorder for words can dissociate from both representational neglect for objects and neglect dyslexia. This study involved 14 brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect and a group of normal subjects. Patients were divided into four groups based on presence of left neglect dyslexia and representational neglect for non-verbal material, as evaluated by the Clock Drawing test. The patients were presented with bisection tasks for words and lines. The word bisection tasks (with words of five and seven letters) comprised the following: (1) representational bisection: the experimenter pronounced a word and then asked the patient to name the letter in the middle position; (2) visual bisection: same as (1) with stimuli presented visually; and (3) motor bisection: the patient was asked to cross out the letter in the middle position. The standard line bisection task was presented using lines of different length. Consistent with the literature, long lines were bisected to the right and short lines, rendered comparable in length to the words of the word bisection test, deviated to the left (crossover effect). Both patients and controls showed the same leftward bias on words in the visual and motor bisection conditions. A significant difference emerged between the groups only in the case of the representational bisection task, whereas the group exhibiting neglect dyslexia associated with representational neglect for objects showed a significant rightward bias, while the other three patient groups and the controls showed a leftward bisection bias. Neither the presence of neglect alone nor the presence of visual neglect dyslexia was sufficient to produce a specific disorder in mental imagery. These results demonstrate a specific representational neglect for words independent of both representational neglect and neglect dyslexia.

Arduino LS; Marinelli CV; Pasotti F; Ferrè ER; Bottini G

2012-03-01

293

Representational neglect for words as revealed by bisection tasks.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we showed that a representational disorder for words can dissociate from both representational neglect for objects and neglect dyslexia. This study involved 14 brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect and a group of normal subjects. Patients were divided into four groups based on presence of left neglect dyslexia and representational neglect for non-verbal material, as evaluated by the Clock Drawing test. The patients were presented with bisection tasks for words and lines. The word bisection tasks (with words of five and seven letters) comprised the following: (1) representational bisection: the experimenter pronounced a word and then asked the patient to name the letter in the middle position; (2) visual bisection: same as (1) with stimuli presented visually; and (3) motor bisection: the patient was asked to cross out the letter in the middle position. The standard line bisection task was presented using lines of different length. Consistent with the literature, long lines were bisected to the right and short lines, rendered comparable in length to the words of the word bisection test, deviated to the left (crossover effect). Both patients and controls showed the same leftward bias on words in the visual and motor bisection conditions. A significant difference emerged between the groups only in the case of the representational bisection task, whereas the group exhibiting neglect dyslexia associated with representational neglect for objects showed a significant rightward bias, while the other three patient groups and the controls showed a leftward bisection bias. Neither the presence of neglect alone nor the presence of visual neglect dyslexia was sufficient to produce a specific disorder in mental imagery. These results demonstrate a specific representational neglect for words independent of both representational neglect and neglect dyslexia. PMID:22257574

Arduino, Lisa S; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Pasotti, Fabrizio; Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Bottini, Gabriella

2011-06-06

294

Students' Responses To Different Representations Of A Vector Addition Question  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate if the visual representation of vectors can affect which methods students use to add them. We gave students one of four questions with different graphical representations, asking students to add the same two vectors. For students in an algebra-based class the arrangement of the vectors had a statistically significant effect on the vector addition method chosen while the addition or removal of a grid did not.

Hawkins, Jeffrey M; Wittmann, Michael C; Sayre, Eleanor C; Frank, Brian W

2010-01-01

295

Studentsâ Responses to Different Representations of a Vector Addition Question  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate if the visual representation of vectors can affect which methods students use to add them. We gave students one of four questions with different graphical representations, asking students to add the same two vectors. For students in an algebra-based class the arrangement of the vectors had a statistically significant effect on the vector addition method chosen while the addition or removal of a grid did not.

Hawkins, Jeffrey M.; Thompson, John R.; Wittmann, Michael C.; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Frank, Brian W.

2011-01-01

296

Comparing the inspiral of irrotational and corotational binary neutron stars  

CERN Document Server

We model the adiabatic inspiral of relativistic binary neutron stars in a quasi-equilibrium (QE) approximation, and compute the gravitational wavetrain from the late phase of the inspiral. We compare corotational and irrotational sequences and find a significant difference in the inspiral rate, which is almost entirely caused by differences in the binding energy. We also compare our results with those of a point-mass post-Newtonian calculation. We illustrate how the late inspiral wavetrain computed with our QE numerical scheme can be matched to the subsequent plunge and merger waveform calculated with a fully relativistic hydrodynamics code.

Duez, M D; Shapiro, S L; Shibata, M; Uryu, K; Duez, Matthew D.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Shibata, Masaru; Uryu, Koji

2002-01-01

297

Information Theory in Scientific Visualization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, there is an emerging direction that leverages information theory to solve many challenging problems in scientific data analysis and visualization. In this article, we review the key concepts in information theory, discuss how the principles of information theory can be useful for visualization, and provide specific examples to draw connections between data communication and data visualization in terms of how information can be measured quantitatively. As the amount of digital data available to us increases at an astounding speed, the goal of this article is to introduce the interested readers to this new direction of data analysis research, and to inspire them to identify new applications and seek solutions using information theory.

Chaoli Wang; Han-Wei Shen

2011-01-01

298

Deforming semistable Galois representations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Let V be a p-adic representation of Gal(Q/Q). One of the ideas of Wiles's proof of FLT is that, if V is the representation associated to a suitable autromorphic form (a modular form in his case) and if V' is another p-adic representation of Gal(Q/Q) "closed enough" to V, then V' is also associated to an automorphic form. In this paper we discuss which kind of local condition at p one should require on V and V' in order to be able to extend this part of Wiles's methods.

Fontaine JM

1997-10-01

299

Deforming semistable Galois representations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Let V be a p-adic representation of Gal(Q/Q). One of the ideas of Wiles's proof of FLT is that, if V is the representation associated to a suitable autromorphic form (a modular form in his case) and if V' is another p-adic representation of Gal(Q/Q) "closed enough" to V, then V' is also associated to an automorphic form. In this paper we discuss which kind of local condition at p one should require on V and V' in order to be able to extend this part of Wiles's methods. PMID:11607758

Fontaine, J M

1997-10-14

300

Digital Art Wonderland Creative Techniques for Inspirational Journaling and Beautiful Blogging  

CERN Multimedia

Headline: Set out on a digital adventure!Come inside Digital Art Wonderland where digital art and art journaling embark together on a luscious visual journey. The daring crew of Angi Sullins and Silas Toball give you a personal tour through a digital art journaling world, showing you how to make your own wonderous creations through instruction, design concepts and lots of inspiration.In Digital Art Wonderland, you'll find:- 8 tutorials with techniques, tricks and trips for the intermediate Adobe Photoshop user to enhance physical art as well as create digital art from scratch.- Instructions a

Sullins, Angi

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Jenseits konventioneller Begrenzungen sozialwissenschaftlicher Forschungsmethodik: Die Bedeutung visueller Repräsentation Interrogating the Conventional Boundaries of Research Methods in Social Sciences: The Role of Visual Representation in Ethnography Cuestionando los límites convencionales de los métodos de investigación en las Ciencias Sociales: El papel de la representación  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wie ich in diesem Beitrag zeigen werde, beinhaltet performative Sozialwissenschaft die Chance, lang dauernde Konventionen etablierter Forschung bewusst zu hinterfragen. Hierzu werde ich die innovative Rolle des Visuellen für die Datensammlung und -analyse und für die Beschäftigung von Öffentlichkeit mit Forschung diskutieren. Beispiele entnehme ich aus zwei postmodernen, feministisch-ethnografischen Untersuchungen, die sich mit akademischer Aus- und Weiterbildung, Belastbarkeit, Hoffnung und Optimismus in Großbritannien, den USA, Australien und Neuseeland zwischen 1997-2005 befassten. In diesen Studien wurde visuelles Material für die Datenerhebung und für die Präsentation der Ergebnisse eingesetzt, um die Stimmen der Forschungsteilnehmer/innen, der Forschenden und der Betrachter und Betrachterinnen dieser Arbeiten zu validieren. Forschungsteilnehmende und Publikum erhielten die Möglichkeit, sich aktiv an dieser Visualierungsarbeit zu beteiligen. Neben den Illustrationen kamen zwei weitere Methoden zum Einsatz: kritische Konversationsanalyse und reflexives Tagebuchschreiben. Im Beitrag skizziere ich, in welcher Weise der Einsatz Kunstbasierter Methoden zu einer vertieften Repräsentation und Datenanalyse beigetragen hat. Das Erstellen von und die Beschäftigung mit visuellem Material bedeutete einen stärkenden und dynamischen Prozess für alle an der Forschung Beteiligten, ein innovatives Potenzial für Intersubjektivität und Reziprozität. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802509The author will propose that the use of performative social science is a means to deliberately interrogate long held conventions of established research. The innovative role of visual art representation in data collection, analysis and public engagement with research will be discussed. Examples will be drawn from two postmodern feminist ethnographic research which investigated academic professional development, resilience, hope and optimism in the UK, US, Australia and New Zealand from 1997-2005. Artwork was initially created as data collection and digitalised as representation to intentionally validate the voices of research participants, the researcher and viewers of the work. The research participants and viewers were given opportunities to actively engage with the visual work. Artwork complimented two additional research methods: critical conversational interviewing and reflective journaling. This paper will address the ways inclusion of art methods contributed and deepened data representation. The role of crafting artwork in the field, the artistic changes that represented the complexity of data analysis and engagement with the work will be explored. It will be argued that the creation and engagement with artwork in research is an empowering and dynamic process for researchers and participants. It is an innovative means of representing intersubjectivity that results in reciprocity. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802509El autor plantea que el uso de la ciencia social performativa es un medio para interrogar deliberadamente a las grandes convenciones, durante mucho tiempo mantenidas, de la investigación establecida. Se discutirá el papel innovador de la representación del arte visual en la recopilación de datos, el análisis y el compromiso público de la investigación. Se presentan dos ejemplos procedentes de la investigación etnográfica feminista postmoderna que investigaron el desarrollo profesional académico, la reslencia, la esperanza y el optimismo en el Reino Unido, Estados Unidos, Australia y Nueva Zelanda entre 1997 y 2005. Inicialmente, la obra de arte fue creada como una recopilación de datos y digitalizada como una representación con el fin de confirmar intencionalmente las voces de los participantes en la investigación, los investigadores y los observadores del trabajo. Los participantes en la investigación y los observadores tuvieron la oportunidad de ocuparse activamente del trabajo visual. La obra de arte fue completada con dos métodos de investigación adicionales: la entrevista conversa

Nel Glass

2008-01-01

302

Processing of coherent visual motion in topographically organized visual areas in human cerebral cortex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent imaging studies in human subjects have demonstrated representations of global visual motion in medial parieto-occipital cortex (area V6) and posterior parietal cortex, the latter containing at least seven topographically organized areas along the intraparietal sulcus (IPS0-IPS5, SPL1). In this fMRI study we used topographic mapping procedures to delineate a total of 18 visual areas in human cerebral cortex and tested their responsiveness to coherent visual motion under conditions of controlled attention and fixation. Preferences for coherent visual motion as compared to motion noise as well as hemispheric asymmetries were assessed for contralateral, ipsilateral, and bilateral visual motion presentations. Except for areas V1-V4 and IPS3-5, all other areas showed stronger responses to coherent motion with the most significant activations found in V6, followed by MT/MST, V3A, IPS0-2 and SPL1. Hemispheric differences were negligible altogether suggesting that asymmetries in parietal cortex observed in cognitive tasks do not reflect differences in basic visual response properties. Interestingly, areas V6, MST, V3A, and areas along the intraparietal sulcus showed specific representations of coherent visual motion not only when presented in the hemifield primarily covered by the given visual representation but also when presented in the ipsilateral visual field. This finding suggests that coherent motion induces a switch in spatial representation in specialized motion areas from contralateral to full-field coding.

Helfrich RF; Becker HG; Haarmeier T

2013-04-01

303

Looking, language, and memory: bridging research from the visual world and visual search paradigms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the visual world paradigm as used in psycholinguistics, eye gaze (i.e. visual orienting) is measured in order to draw conclusions about linguistic processing. However, current theories are underspecified with respect to how visual attention is guided on the basis of linguistic representations. In the visual search paradigm as used within the area of visual attention research, investigators have become more and more interested in how visual orienting is affected by higher order representations, such as those involved in memory and language. Within this area more specific models of orienting on the basis of visual information exist, but they need to be extended with mechanisms that allow for language-mediated orienting. In the present paper we review the evidence from these two different - but highly related - research areas. We arrive at a model in which working memory serves as the nexus in which long-term visual as well as linguistic representations (i.e. types) are bound to specific locations (i.e. tokens or indices). The model predicts that the interaction between language and visual attention is subject to a number of conditions, such as the presence of the guiding representation in working memory, capacity limitations, and cognitive control mechanisms.

Huettig F; Olivers CN; Hartsuiker RJ

2011-06-01

304

Visualization of Mined Pattern and Its Human Aspects  

CERN Multimedia

Researchers got success in mining the Web usage data effectively and efficiently. But representation of the mined patterns is often not in a form suitable for direct human consumption. Hence mechanisms and tools that can represent mined patterns in easily understandable format are utilized. Different techniques are used for pattern analysis, one of them is visualization. Visualization can provide valuable assistance for data analysis and decision making tasks. In the data visualization process, technical representations of web pages are replaced by user attractive text interpretations. Experiments with the real world problems showed that the visualization can significantly increase the quality and usefulness of web log mining results. However, how decision makers perceive and interact with a visual representation can strongly influence their understanding of the data as well as the usefulness of the visual presentation. Human factors therefore contribute significantly to the visualization process and should p...

Jain, Ratnesh Kumar; Kasana, Dr R S

2009-01-01

305

Intermediate representations exclude embodiment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Given that Pickering & Garrod's (P&G's) account integrates language production and comprehension, it is reasonable to ask whether it is compatible with embodied cognition. I argue that its dependence on rich intermediate representations of linguistic structure excludes embodiment. Two options are available to supporters of embodied cognition: They can adopt a more liberal notion of embodiment or they can attempt to replace these intermediate representations with robustly embodied ones. Both of these options face challenges.

Dove G

2013-08-01

306

Representations of logmodular algebras  

CERN Multimedia

We study the question of whether or not contractive representations of logmodular algebras are completely contractive. We prove that a 2-contractive representation of a logmodular algebra extends to a positive map on the enveloping C*-algebra, which we show generalizes a result of Foias and Suciu on uniform logmodular algebras. Our proof uses non-commutative operator space generalizations of classical results on 2-summing maps and semispectral measures. We establish some matrix factorization results for uniform logmodular algebras

Paulsen, Vern I

2008-01-01

307

Multisensory object representation: insights from studies of vision and touch.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Behavioral studies show that the unisensory representations underlying within-modal visual and haptic object recognition are strikingly similar in terms of view- and size-sensitivity, and integration of structural and surface properties. However, the basis for these attributes differs in each modality, indicating that while these representations are functionally similar, they are not identical. Imaging studies reveal bisensory, visuo-haptic object selectivity, notably in the lateral occipital complex and the intraparietal sulcus, that suggests a shared representation of objects. Such a multisensory representation could underlie visuo-haptic cross-modal object recognition. In this chapter, we compare visual and haptic within-modal object recognition and trace a progression from functionally similar but separate unisensory representations to a shared multisensory representation underlying cross-modal object recognition as well as view-independence, regardless of modality. We outline, and provide evidence for, a model of multisensory object recognition in which representations are flexibly accessible via top-down or bottom-up processing, the choice of route being influenced by object familiarity and individual preference along the object-spatial continuum of mental imagery.

Lacey S; Sathian K

2011-01-01

308

CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition  

CERN Multimedia

Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

2001-01-01

309

Electronic cigarette capable of automatically inducing inspiration  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An electronic cigarette capable of automatically inducing inspiration comprises a cigarette holder, a cigarette end, a cigarette body shell, a battery, an atomizer and a smoke bomb. An air flow sensor is arranged in the cigarette body shell which is arranged between an electronic control plate and an air inlet hole, and a one-way valve is arranged in the cigarette body shell which is arranged between the atomizer and the air inlet hole. The signal output end of the air flow sensor is connected with the electronic control plate. The utility model adopts the air flow sensor to control the work states of the electronic cigarette, preferably simulates the real smoking states, and meets the dependence of the larger smoking addiction patients on physiological smoking needs. The utility model is provided with the one-way valve, so the smoke generated by the electronic cigarette can be prevented from flowing backwards outside the air inlet hole.

WENYI LIU

310

Vibration driven vehicle inspired from grass spike.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Searching and detecting in some harsh environments such as collapsed buildings, pipes, small cracks are crucial for human rescue and industrial detection, military surveillance etc. However, the drawbacks of traditional moving modes of current vehicles make them difficult to perform such tasks. So developing some new vehicles is urgent. Here, we report a Setaria viridis spike's interesting behavior on a vibrating track, and inspired by that phenomena we develop a concept for cargo delivery, and give a detailed discussion about its working mechanism. This vehicle can move on a wide range of smooth and rough surfaces. Moreover, its climbing capability in tilted and even vertical smooth pipe is also outstanding. These features make it suitable for search-rescue, military reconnaissance, etc. Finally, this vehicle can be reduced into micro/nano-scale, which makes it would play an important role in target-drug delivery, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS).

Bai S; Xu Q; Qin Y

2013-01-01

311

Aurelia aurita bio-inspired tilt sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

The quickly expanding field of mobile robots, unmanned underwater vehicles, and micro-air vehicles urgently needs a cheap and effective means for measuring vehicle inclination. Commonly, tilt or inclination has been mathematically derived from accelerometers; however, there is inherent error in any indirect measurement. This paper reports a bio-inspired tilt sensor that mimics the natural balance organ of jellyfish, called the ‘statocyst’. Biological statocysts from the species Aurelia aurita were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the morphology and size of the natural sensor. An artificial tilt sensor was then developed by using printed electronics that incorporates a novel voltage divider concept in conjunction with small surface mount devices. This sensor was found to have minimum sensitivity of 4.21° with a standard deviation of 1.77°. These results open the possibility of developing elegant tilt sensor architecture for both air and water based platforms.

Smith, Colin; Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank

2012-10-01

312

Tough, bio-inspired hybrid materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The notion of mimicking natural structures in the synthesis of new structural materials has generated enormous interest but has yielded few practical advances. Natural composites achieve strength and toughness through complex hierarchical designs extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. Here we emulate Nature's toughening mechanisms through the combination of two ordinary compounds, aluminum oxide and polymethylmethacrylate, into ice-templated structures whose toughness can be over 300 times (in energy terms) that of their constituents. The final product is a bulk hybrid ceramic material whose high yield strength and fracture toughness ({approx}200 MPa and {approx}30 MPa{radical}m) provide specific properties comparable to aluminum alloys. These model materials can be used to identify the key microstructural features that should guide the synthesis of bio-inspired ceramic-based composites with unique strength and toughness.

Munch, Etienne; Launey, Maximimilan E.; Alsem, Daan H.; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

2008-10-06

313

Motif Detection Inspired by Immune Memory  

CERN Multimedia

The search for patterns or motifs in data represents an area of key interest to many researchers. In this paper we present the Motif Tracking Algorithm, a novel immune inspired pattern identification tool that is able to identify variable length unknown motifs which repeat within time series data. The algorithm searches from a completely neutral perspective that is independent of the data being analysed and the underlying motifs. In this paper we test the flexibility of the motif tracking algorithm by applying it to the search for patterns in two industrial data sets. The algorithm is able to identify a population of motifs successfully in both cases, and the value of these motifs is discussed.

Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

2010-01-01

314

A Physiologically Inspired Method for Audio Classification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We explore the use of physiologically inspired auditory features with both physiologically motivated and statistical audio classification methods. We use features derived from a biophysically defensible model of the early auditory system for audio classification using a neural network classifier. We also use a Gaussian-mixture-model (GMM)-based classifier for the purpose of comparison and show that the neural-network-based approach works better. Further, we use features from a more advanced model of the auditory system and show that the features extracted from this model of the primary auditory cortex perform better than the features from the early auditory stage. The features give good classification performance with only one-second data segments used for training and testing.

Sourabh Ravindran; Kristopher Schlemmer; David V. Anderson

2005-01-01

315

Detection Strategies for Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals  

CERN Document Server

The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime. The gravitational radiation produced by these Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major science driver for the LISA observatory. The waveforms produced are very complex, and the signals need to be coherently tracked for hundreds to thousands of cycles to produce a detection, making EMRI signals one of the most challenging data analysis problems in all of gravitational wave astronomy. Estimates for the number of templates required to perform an optimal matched-filter search for these signals are astronomically large, and far out of reach of current computational resources. Here a sub-optimal, hierarchical approach to the EMRI detection problem is developed that employs a directed-stochastic search technique. The algorithm, dubbed Metropolis Hasti...

Cornish, N J

2008-01-01

316

Compact stars in Eddington inspired gravity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new, Eddington inspired theory of gravity was recently proposed by Bañados and Ferreira. It is equivalent to general relativity in vacuum, but differs from it inside matter. This viable, one-parameter theory was shown to avoid cosmological singularities and turns out to lead to many other exciting new features that we report here. First, for a positive coupling parameter, the field equations have a dramatic impact on the collapse of dust, and do not lead to singularities. We further find that the theory supports stable, compact pressureless stars made of perfect fluid, which provide interesting models of self-gravitating dark matter. Finally, we show that the mere existence of relativistic stars imposes a strong, near optimal constraint on the coupling parameter, which can even be improved by observations of the moment of inertia of the double pulsar.

Pani P; Cardoso V; Delsate T

2011-07-01

317

Quasi-Stationary Binary Inspiral Project Overview  

CERN Multimedia

I describe the current status of a collaboration with J.D. Romano, R.H. Price, and W. Krivan to model the geometry of and gravitational radiation emitted by a binary system of compact objects in the regime where non-perturbative gravitational effects exist, but the rate of inspiral is still small relative to the orbital frequency. The method of looking for a stationary spacetime which approximates the evolving solution is initially being tested on a simpler model with an additional translational symmetry. This report consists of a general description of the method, followed by summaries of three techniques in varying stages of development: the simplification of the Einstein equations in the presence of two commuting Killing vectors which form a non-orthogonally-transitive symmetry group, the boundary conditions appropriate to the balance of ingoing and outgoing radiation needed to reconcile a stationary radiating solution with conservation of energy, and the treatment of gravitational waves far from the sourc...

Whelan, J T

1999-01-01

318

Bio-inspired Ant Algorithms: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ant Algorithms are techniques for optimizing which were coined in the early 1990’s by M. Dorigo. The techniques were inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants in the nature. The focus of ant algorithms is to find approximate optimized problem solutions using artificial ants and their indirect decentralized communications using synthetic pheromones. In this paper, at first ant algorithms are described in details, then transforms to computational optimization techniques: the ACO metaheuristics and developed ACO algorithms. A comparative study of ant algorithms also carried out, followed by past and present trends in AAs applications. Future prospect in AAs also covered in this paper. Finally a comparison between AAs with well-established machine learning techniques were focused, so that combining with machine learning techniques hybrid, robust, novel algorithms could be produces for outstanding result in future.

Sangita Roy; heli Sinha Chaudhuri

2013-01-01

319

AN AIS INSPIRED ALERT REDUCTION MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most important topics in the field of intrusion detection systems is to find a solution to reduce the overwhelming alerts generated by IDSs in the network. Inspired by danger theory which is one of the most important theories in artificial immune system (AIS) we proposed a complementary subsystem for IDS which can be integrated into any existing IDS models to aggregate the alerts in order to reduce them, and subsequently reduce false alarms among the alerts. After evaluation using different datasets and attack scenarios and also different set of rules, in best case our model managed to aggregate the alerts by the average rate of 97.5 percent.

Mohammad Mahboubian; Nur Izura Udzir; Shamala Subramaniam; Nor Asila Wati Abdul Hamid

2012-01-01

320

Impaired response to deep inspiration in obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deep inspirations modulate airway caliber and airway closure and their effects are impaired in asthma. The association between asthma and obesity raises the question whether the deep inspiration (DI) effect is also impaired in the latter condition. We assessed the DI effects in obese and nonobese nonasthmatics. Thirty-six subjects (17 obese, 19 nonobese) underwent routine methacholine (Mch) challenge and 30 of them also had a modified bronchoprovocation in the absence of DIs. Lung function was monitored with spirometry and forced oscillation (FO) [resistance (R) at 5 Hz (R5), at 20 Hz (R20), R5-R20 and the integrated area of low-frequency reactance (AX)]. The response to Mch, assessed with area under the dose-response curves (AUC), was consistently greater in the routine challenge in the obese (mean ± SE, obese vs. nonobese AUC: R5: 15.7 ± 2.3 vs. 2.4 ± 2.0, P < 0.0005; R20: 5.6 ± 1.4 vs. 1.4 ± 1.2, P = 0.027; R5-R20: 10.2 ± 1.6 vs. 0.9 ± 0.1.4, P < 0.0005; AX: 115.6 ± 22.0 vs. 1.5 ± 18.9, P < 0.0005), but differences between groups in the modified challenge were smaller, indicating reduced DI effects in obesity. Given that DI has bronchodilatory and bronchoprotective effects, we further assessed these components separately. In the obese subjects, DI prior to Mch enhanced Mch-induced bronchoconstriction, but DI after Mch resulted in bronchodilation that was of similar magnitude as in the nonobese. We conclude that obesity is characterized by increased Mch responsiveness, predominantly of the small airways, due to a DI effect that renders the airways more sensitive to the stimulus.

Skloot G; Schechter C; Desai A; Togias A

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Impaired response to deep inspiration in obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Deep inspirations modulate airway caliber and airway closure and their effects are impaired in asthma. The association between asthma and obesity raises the question whether the deep inspiration (DI) effect is also impaired in the latter condition. We assessed the DI effects in obese and nonobese nonasthmatics. Thirty-six subjects (17 obese, 19 nonobese) underwent routine methacholine (Mch) challenge and 30 of them also had a modified bronchoprovocation in the absence of DIs. Lung function was monitored with spirometry and forced oscillation (FO) [resistance (R) at 5 Hz (R5), at 20 Hz (R20), R5-R20 and the integrated area of low-frequency reactance (AX)]. The response to Mch, assessed with area under the dose-response curves (AUC), was consistently greater in the routine challenge in the obese (mean ± SE, obese vs. nonobese AUC: R5: 15.7 ± 2.3 vs. 2.4 ± 2.0, P < 0.0005; R20: 5.6 ± 1.4 vs. 1.4 ± 1.2, P = 0.027; R5-R20: 10.2 ± 1.6 vs. 0.9 ± 0.1.4, P < 0.0005; AX: 115.6 ± 22.0 vs. 1.5 ± 18.9, P < 0.0005), but differences between groups in the modified challenge were smaller, indicating reduced DI effects in obesity. Given that DI has bronchodilatory and bronchoprotective effects, we further assessed these components separately. In the obese subjects, DI prior to Mch enhanced Mch-induced bronchoconstriction, but DI after Mch resulted in bronchodilation that was of similar magnitude as in the nonobese. We conclude that obesity is characterized by increased Mch responsiveness, predominantly of the small airways, due to a DI effect that renders the airways more sensitive to the stimulus.

Schechter, Clyde; Desai, Alpa; Togias, Alkis

2011-01-01

322

An acetylcholinesterase-inspired biomimetic toxicity sensor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work demonstrates the ability of an acetylcholinesterase-inspired biomimetic sensor to accurately predict the toxicity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. In surface waters used for municipal drinking water supplies, numerous pesticides and other anthropogenic chemicals have been found that inhibit AChE; however, there is currently no portable toxicity assay capable of determining the potential neurotoxicity of water samples and complex mixtures. Biological assays have been developed to determine the toxicity of unknown samples, but the short shelf-life of cells and other biological materials often make them undesirable for use in portable assays. Chemical methods and structure-activity-relationships, on the other hand, require prior knowledge on the compounds of interest that is often unavailable when analyzing environmental samples. In the toxicity assay presented here, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme has been replaced with 1-phenyl-1,2,3-butanetrione 2-oxime (PBO) a biomimetic compound that is structurally similar to the AChE active site. Using a biomimetic compound in place of the native enzyme allows for a longer shelf-life while maintaining the selective and kinetic ability of the enzyme itself. Previous work has shown the success of oxime-based sensors in the selective detection of AChE inhibitors and this work highlights the ability of an AChE-inspired biomimetic sensor to accurately predict the toxicity (LD50 and LC50) for a range of AChE inhibitors. The biomimetic assay shows strong linear correlations to LD50 (oral, rat) and LC50 (fish) values. Using a test set of eight AChE inhibitors, the biomimetic assay accurately predicted the LC50 value for 75% of the inhibitors within one order of magnitude.

Wujcik EK; Londoño NJ; Duirk SE; Monty CN; Masel RI

2013-05-01

323

Think spatial: the representation in mental rotation is nonvisual.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For mental rotation, introspection, theories, and interpretations of experimental results imply a certain type of mental representation, namely, visual mental images. Characteristics of the rotated representation can be examined by measuring the influence of stimulus characteristics on rotational speed. If the amount of a given type of information influences rotational speed, one can infer that it was contained in the rotated representation. In Experiment 1, rotational speed of university students (10 men, 11 women) was found to be influenced exclusively by the amount of represented orientation-dependent spatial-relational information but not by orientation-independent spatial-relational information, visual complexity, or the number of stimulus parts. As information in mental-rotation tasks is initially presented visually, this finding implies that at some point during each trial, orientation-dependent information is extracted from visual information. Searching for more direct evidence for this extraction, we recorded the EEG of another sample of university students (12 men, 12 women) during mental rotation of the same stimuli. In an early time window, the observed working memory load-dependent slow potentials were sensitive to the stimuli's visual complexity. Later, in contrast, slow potentials were sensitive to the amount of orientation-dependent information only. We conclude that only orientation-dependent information is contained in the rotated representation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Liesefeld HR; Zimmer HD

2013-01-01

324

L’iconographie de l’Indien dans le cinéma américain : de la manipulation de l’image à sa reconquête The Visual Representation of the Indian in American Cinema: from the Manipulation of Image to its Conquest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Native American ethnic group has always been used and abused, not to say manipulated, by the medium of cinema. Such an exploitation of the image of the Indian responded to the demands of a new form of artistic expression which was extremely graphic and violent, as were graphic and visually violent the first western movies. As an artistic genre, cinema really manipulated the classical stereotypes related to the Indian in order to use him as a « character » detached from any historical reality. It is not surprising though to see that the evolution over time of this widely exploited « character » can be equated to a long wandering from exaggeration to understatement, to eventually reach the political expression of the Indians themselves. All this turmoil and agitation did correspond to the modus operandi of the Hollywoodian « system ».

Anne Garrait-Bourrier

2009-01-01

325

Visual field.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is dedicated to main information about visual field, monocular and binocular ranges of visual field including their defects. Visual field loss may occur to disease of the eye, optic nerve or brain. Typical changes are present at glaucoma and macular degeneration. Visual pathway is also mentioned. The basic medical examinations of visual fields are Amsler grid, kinetic and static perimetry and the other. Newer method is microperimetry which detects the changes directly on the retina. The aim of this poster is importance and determination of visual field as a preventive ophthalmologic and optometric examination. PMID:23837228

Sidlová, Jana Sokolová; Benes, Pavel; Holoubková, Zuzana

2013-04-01

326

Visual field.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article is dedicated to main information about visual field, monocular and binocular ranges of visual field including their defects. Visual field loss may occur to disease of the eye, optic nerve or brain. Typical changes are present at glaucoma and macular degeneration. Visual pathway is also mentioned. The basic medical examinations of visual fields are Amsler grid, kinetic and static perimetry and the other. Newer method is microperimetry which detects the changes directly on the retina. The aim of this poster is importance and determination of visual field as a preventive ophthalmologic and optometric examination.

Sidlová JS; Benes P; Holoubková Z

2013-04-01

327

An Immunology-inspired Fault Detection and Identification System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a fault detection and identification (FDI) approach inspired by the immune system. The salient features of the immune system, such as adaptability, robustness, flexibility, archival memory and distributed cognition abilities, have been the valuable source of inspiration for funda...

Liguo Weng; Min Xia; Qingshan Liu; Wei Wang

328

The operation of the visual system in relation to action.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neurophysiologists studying the visual representation of the world in the parietal lobe generally find that it is based in a gaze-centred (retinotopic) frame. Students of orientation, however, find that the brain also contains a more panoramic egocentric representation that allows appropriate motor actions to take place independent of the orientation of the eyes and head. This representation can operate temporarily without visual input, but is updated from the vestibular system and from other modalities. In this minireview, I shall consider how these two representations are kept aligned with each other, and how they relate to the organisation of motor actions and to the phenomenal world that we see.

Land MF

2012-09-01

329

Bio-Inspired Political Systems. Opening a Field  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we highlight the scopes of engineering bio-inspired political systems, which are political systems based on the properties of life that self-organize the increasing complexity of human social systems. We describe bio-inspired political systems and conjecture about various ways to get to them, most notably, metaheuristics, modeling and simulation and complexified topologies. Bio-inspired political systems operate with nature-based dynamics, inspired on the knowledge that has been acquired about complexity from natural social systems and life. Bio-inspired political systems are presented as the best alternative for organizing human sociopolitical interactions as computation and microelectronics-based technology profoundly modify the ways in which humans decide. Therefore, weakening classical political systems. For instance, dwindling top-down power structures, modifying the notion of geographical spatiality and augmenting the political granularity. We also argue that, more than a new theoretical p...

Mezza-Garcia, Nathalie

2012-01-01

330

Learning slow features with reservoir computing for biologically-inspired robot localization.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work proposes a hierarchical biologically-inspired architecture for learning sensor-based spatial representations of a robot environment in an unsupervised way. The first layer is comprised of a fixed randomly generated recurrent neural network, the reservoir, which projects the input into a high-dimensional, dynamic space. The second layer learns instantaneous slowly-varying signals from the reservoir states using Slow Feature Analysis (SFA), whereas the third layer learns a sparse coding on the SFA layer using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). While the SFA layer generates non-localized activations in space, the ICA layer presents high place selectivity, forming a localized spatial activation, characteristic of place cells found in the hippocampus area of the rodent's brain. We show that, using a limited number of noisy short-range distance sensors as input, the proposed system learns a spatial representation of the environment which can be used to predict the actual location of simulated and real robots, without the use of odometry. The results confirm that the reservoir layer is essential for learning spatial representations from low-dimensional input such as distance sensors. The main reason is that the reservoir state reflects the recent history of the input stream. Thus, this fading memory is essential for detecting locations, mainly when locations are ambiguous and characterized by similar sensor readings. PMID:21945043

Antonelo, Eric; Schrauwen, Benjamin

2011-09-01

331

Learning slow features with reservoir computing for biologically-inspired robot localization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work proposes a hierarchical biologically-inspired architecture for learning sensor-based spatial representations of a robot environment in an unsupervised way. The first layer is comprised of a fixed randomly generated recurrent neural network, the reservoir, which projects the input into a high-dimensional, dynamic space. The second layer learns instantaneous slowly-varying signals from the reservoir states using Slow Feature Analysis (SFA), whereas the third layer learns a sparse coding on the SFA layer using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). While the SFA layer generates non-localized activations in space, the ICA layer presents high place selectivity, forming a localized spatial activation, characteristic of place cells found in the hippocampus area of the rodent's brain. We show that, using a limited number of noisy short-range distance sensors as input, the proposed system learns a spatial representation of the environment which can be used to predict the actual location of simulated and real robots, without the use of odometry. The results confirm that the reservoir layer is essential for learning spatial representations from low-dimensional input such as distance sensors. The main reason is that the reservoir state reflects the recent history of the input stream. Thus, this fading memory is essential for detecting locations, mainly when locations are ambiguous and characterized by similar sensor readings.

Antonelo E; Schrauwen B

2012-01-01

332

Visualizing Second Order Tensor Fields with Hyperstreamlines  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hyperstreamlines are a generalization to second order tensor fields of the conventionalstreamlines used in vector field visualization. As opposed to point icons commonlyused in visualizing tensor fields, hyperstreamlines form a continuous representation ofthe complete tensor information along a three-dimensional path. This technique is usefulin visualizing both symmetric and unsymmetric three-dimensional tensor data. Severalexamples of tensor field visualization in solid materials and fluid flows are provided.keywords - scientific visualization, multivariate data visualization, tensor field visualization,flow visualization.Copyright (c) 1993 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Reprinted fromIEEE Computer Graphics and Applications; Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 25-33; July 1993.This material is posted here with permission of the IEEE. Internal or personal useof this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material foradvertising or promotion...

Thierry Delmarcelle; Lambertus Hesselink

333

Visualizing Second Order Tensor Fields with Hyperstreamlines  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hyperstreamlines are a generalization to second order tensor fields of the conventionalstreamlines used in vector field visualization. As opposed to point icons commonlyused in visualizing tensor fields, hyperstreamlines form a continuous representation ofthe complete tensor information along a three-dimensional path. This technique is usefulin visualizing both symmetric and unsymmetric three-dimensional tensor data. Severalexamples of tensor field visualization in solid materials and fluid flows are provided.keywords - scientific visualization, multivariate data visualization, tensor field visualization,flow visualization.Copyright (c) 1993 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Reprinted fromIEEE Computer Graphics and Applications; Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 25-33; July 1993.This material is posted here with permission of the IEEE. Internal or personal useof this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material foradvertising or ...

Thierry Delmarcelle; Lambertus Hesselink

334

Visual Analysis of Weblog Content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

2007-03-26

335

Eye fixation determined by the visual shape and semantic matches in language-mediated visual search  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When participants are presented simultaneously a visual display with spoken input, eye fixation could be determined by a match between representations from spoken input and visual objects. Previous studies found that eye fixation on the semantic-related object and the shape competitor could be deter...

Shi, Lei

336

Neural pathways conveying novisual information to the visual cortex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The visual cortex has been traditionally considered as a stimulus-driven, unimodal system with a hierarchical organization. However, recent animal and human studies have shown that the visual cortex responds to non-visual stimuli, especially in individuals with visual deprivation congenitally, indicating the supramodal nature of the functional representation in the visual cortex. To understand the neural substrates of the cross-modal processing of the non-visual signals in the visual cortex, we firstly showed the supramodal nature of the visual cortex. We then reviewed how the nonvisual signals reach the visual cortex. Moreover, we discussed if these non-visual pathways are reshaped by early visual deprivation. Finally, the open question about the nature (stimulus-driven or top-down) of non-visual signals is also discussed.

Qin W; Yu C

2013-01-01

337

Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis  

CERN Multimedia

Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

Mahadevan, Sridhar

2008-01-01

338

The Trade-offs with Space Time Cube Representation of Spatiotemporal Patterns  

CERN Document Server

Space time cube representation is an information visualization technique where spatiotemporal data points are mapped into a cube. Fast and correct analysis of such information is important in for instance geospatial and social visualization applications. Information visualization researchers have previously argued that space time cube representation is beneficial in revealing complex spatiotemporal patterns in a dataset to users. The argument is based on the fact that both time and spatial information are displayed simultaneously to users, an effect difficult to achieve in other representations. However, to our knowledge the actual usefulness of space time cube representation in conveying complex spatiotemporal patterns to users has not been empirically validated. To fill this gap we report on a between-subjects experiment comparing novice users error rates and response times when answering a set of questions using either space time cube or a baseline 2D representation. For some simple questions the error rat...

Kristensson, Per Ola; Anundi, Daniel; Bjornstad, Marius; Gillberg, Hanna; Haraldsson, Jonas; Martensson, Ingrid; Nordvall, Matttias; Stahl, Josefin

2007-01-01

339

Stimulus-response compatibility in representational space.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spatial stimulus response (S-R) compatibility designates the observation that speeded reactions to unilateral stimuli are faster for the hand ipsilateral than for the hand contralateral to the sensory hemifield containing the stimulus. In two experiments involving presentation of the numbers 1 to 11 in the center of the visual field we show (1) a left-hand reaction time (RT) advantage for numerals < 6 and a right-hand advantage for those > 6 for subjects who conceive of the numbers as distances on a ruler, and (2) a reversal of this RT advantage for subjects who conceive of them as hours on a clock face. While the results in the first task (RULER) replicate a robust finding from the neuropsychology of number processing (the "SNARC effect") those in the second task (CLOCK) show that extension of the number scale from left to right in representational space cannot be the decisive factor for the observed interaction between hand and number size. Taken together, the findings in the two tasks are best accounted for in terms of an interaction between lateralized mental representations and lateralized motor outputs (i.e. an analog of traditional spatial S-R compatibility effects in representational space). We discuss potential clinical applications of the two tasks in patients with neglect of representational space.

Bächtold D; Baumüller M; Brugger P

1998-08-01

340

Stimulus-response compatibility in representational space.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial stimulus response (S-R) compatibility designates the observation that speeded reactions to unilateral stimuli are faster for the hand ipsilateral than for the hand contralateral to the sensory hemifield containing the stimulus. In two experiments involving presentation of the numbers 1 to 11 in the center of the visual field we show (1) a left-hand reaction time (RT) advantage for numerals 6 for subjects who conceive of the numbers as distances on a ruler, and (2) a reversal of this RT advantage for subjects who conceive of them as hours on a clock face. While the results in the first task (RULER) replicate a robust finding from the neuropsychology of number processing (the "SNARC effect") those in the second task (CLOCK) show that extension of the number scale from left to right in representational space cannot be the decisive factor for the observed interaction between hand and number size. Taken together, the findings in the two tasks are best accounted for in terms of an interaction between lateralized mental representations and lateralized motor outputs (i.e. an analog of traditional spatial S-R compatibility effects in representational space). We discuss potential clinical applications of the two tasks in patients with neglect of representational space. PMID:9751438

Bächtold, D; Baumüller, M; Brugger, P

1998-08-01

 
 
 
 
341

The Representational Dynamics of Remembered Projectile Locations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When people are instructed to locate the vanishing location of a moving target, systematic errors forward in the direction of motion (M-displacement) and downward in the direction of gravity (O-displacement) are found. These phenomena came to be linked with the notion that physical invariants are embedded in the dynamic representations generated by the perceptual system. We explore the nature of these invariants that determine the representational mechanics of projectiles. By manipulating the retention intervals between the target's disappearance and the participant's responses, while measuring both M- and O-displacements, we were able to uncover a representational analogue of the trajectory of a projectile. The outcomes of three experiments revealed that the shape of this trajectory is discontinuous. Although the horizontal component of such trajectory can be accounted for by perceptual and oculomotor factors, its vertical component cannot. Taken together, the outcomes support an internalization of gravity in the visual representation of projectiles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

De Sá Teixeira NA; Hecht H; Oliveira AM

2013-02-01

342

Irrational Numbers Can "In-Spiral" You  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the instructional process of helping students visualize irrational numbers. Students learn to create a spiral, called "the wheel of Theodorus," which demonstrates irrational and rational lengths. Examples of student work help the reader appreciate the delightful possibilities of this project. (Contains 4 figures.)

Lewis, Leslie D.

2007-01-01

343

Towards Multimodal Content Representation  

CERN Multimedia

Multimodal interfaces, combining the use of speech, graphics, gestures, and facial expressions in input and output, promise to provide new possibilities to deal with information in more effective and efficient ways, supporting for instance: - the understanding of possibly imprecise, partial or ambiguous multimodal input; - the generation of coordinated, cohesive, and coherent multimodal presentations; - the management of multimodal interaction (e.g., task completion, adapting the interface, error prevention) by representing and exploiting models of the user, the domain, the task, the interactive context, and the media (e.g. text, audio, video). The present document is intended to support the discussion on multimodal content representation, its possible objectives and basic constraints, and how the definition of a generic representation framework for multimodal content representation may be approached. It takes into account the results of the Dagstuhl workshop, in particular those of the informal working group...

Bunt, Harry

2009-01-01

344

The Role of the Human Extrastriate Visual Cortex in Mirror Symmetry Discrimination: A TMS-Adaptation Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The human visual system is able to efficiently extract symmetry information from the visual environment. Prior neuroimaging evidence has revealed symmetry-preferring neuronal representations in the dorsolateral extrastriate visual cortex; the objective of the present study was to investigate the necessity of these representations in symmetry…

Cattaneo, Zaira; Mattavelli, Giulia; Papagno, Costanza; Herbert, Andrew; Silvanto, Juha

2011-01-01

345

XML Based Representation of DFD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the world of Information Technology, the working of a information system is well explained with the use of Data Flow Diagrams (DFD). DFDs are one of the three essential perspectives of the Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM). [3]The sponsor of a project and the end users are briefed and consulted throughout all stages of a system's evolution. With a data flow diagram, users are able to visualize how the system will operate, what the system will accomplish, and how the system will be implemented. But, various practical problems exist with the representation of DFDs. Different tools are available in the market for representing the DFDs. These tools are user friendly and based on the object oriented features. The diagrams drawn using these tools can be sent over the network for communicating with others. On the other hand, the XML is platform independent, textual information and is totally extensible. XML is structured and is an excellent way to transfer the information along with the metadata over the network. XML can be used to transfer the information related to DFDs, there by removing the problems related to understanding the diagrammatic notations and concentrating more on the information flow in the system. This paper is aimed at understanding the problems related to DFDs and representing it in XML[4] format for their storage and communication over the network. The discussion is divided into four main topics – introduction to XML and DFD, problems related to DFD, an XML representation for DFDs and finally the conclusion.

Swapna Salil Kolhatkar

2011-01-01

346

Developing a Psychologically Inspired Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Control: The Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the ongoing development of a robotic control architecture that was inspired by computational cognitive architectures from the discipline of cognitive psychology. The robotic control architecture combines symbolic and subsymbolic representations of knowledge into a unified control structure. The architecture is organized as a goal driven, serially executing, production system at the highest symbolic level; and a multiple algorithm, parallel executing, simple collection of algorithms at the lowest subsymbolic level. The goal is to create a system that will progress through the same cognitive developmental milestones as do human infants. Common robotics problems of localization, object recognition, and object permanence are addressed within the specified framework.

Troy Dale Kelley

2008-01-01

347

A new image representation for compact and secure communication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In many areas of nuclear materials management there is a need for communication, archival, and retrieval of annotated image data between heterogeneous platforms and devices to effectively implement safety, security, and safeguards of nuclear materials. Current image formats such as JPEG are not ideally suited in such scenarios as they are not scalable to different viewing formats, and do not provide a high-level representation of images that facilitate automatic object/change detection or annotation. The new Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) open standard for representing graphical information, recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is designed to address issues of image scalability, portability, and annotation. However, until now there has been no viable technology to efficiently field images of high visual quality under this standard. Recently, LANL has developed a vectorized image representation that is compatible with the SVG standard and preserves visual quality. This is based on a new geometric framework for characterizing complex features in real-world imagery that incorporates perceptual principles of processing visual information known from cognitive psychology and vision science, to obtain a polygonal image representation of high fidelity. This representation can take advantage of all textual compression and encryption routines unavailable to other image formats. Moreover, this vectorized image representation can be exploited to facilitate automated object recognition that can reduce time required for data review. The objects/features of interest in these vectorized images can be annotated via animated graphics to facilitate quick and easy display and comprehension of processed image content.

Prasad, Lakshman; Skourikhine, A. N. (Alexei N.)

2004-01-01

348

INSPIRE: A new scientific information system for HEP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project - a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the 'Web 2.0' paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences, with community-based approaches to scientific publishing. INSPIRE represents a natural evolution of scholarly communication built on successful community-based information systems, and it provides a vision for information management in other fields of science. Inspired by the needs of HEP, we hope that the INSPIRE project will be inspiring for other communities.

Ivanov, R; Raae, L, E-mail: Radoslav.Ivanov@cern.c, E-mail: Lars.Christian.Raae@cern.c [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2010-04-01

349

Bio-inspired Design Approached Antifouling Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofouling exists as the undesirable accumulation of flora and fauna on a given substrate when immersed into an aquatic media. Its presence causes a range of deleterious effects for anyone faced in tackling the problem, which is more than often financially testing. Generally, the initial biofouling stage is stochastic and the attachment of microorganisms held fast in biofilm matrices is irreversible. Stability of the biofilm occurs when exopolymeric substances (EPS) are produced forming a protective surrounding, allowing the cohered microorganisms to colonise and thrive upon the surface. Therefore, if this initial stage of biofilm development can be prevented then it could be possible to prevent subsequent macro events that ensue. Environmental monitoring is one area that faces this challenge and forms the impetus of the work presented herein. In order to improve a monitoring device's lifetime, surface coatings with biocidal agents are applied to counteract these steps. This work shows the development of a range of novel materials, which demonstrate the ability to counteract and inhibit the initial stages of biofouling for monitoring devices. Natural bio-inspired surfaces have been developed using nano-functionalised coatings. All materials are tested in the field and positive results in reducing the biofouling challenge are demonstrated. The results from the deployment of antifouling materials, together with real-time, long-term water quality data from the test site are also shown.

Fitzsimons, L.; Chapman, J.; Lawlor, A.; Regan, F.

2012-04-01

350

D-brane inspired fermion mass textures  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the issues of the quark mass hierarchies and the Cabbibo Kobayashi Maskawa mixing are analyzed in a class of intersecting D-brane configurations with Standard Model gauge symmetry. The relevant mass matrices are constructed taking into account the constraints imposed by extra abelian symmetries and anomaly cancelation conditions. Possible mass generating mechanisms including perturbative as well as non-perturbative effects are discussed and specific patterns of mass textures are found characterized by the hierarchies of the scales where the various sources contribute. It is argued that the Cholesky decomposition of the mass matrices is the most appropriate way to determine the properties of these fermion mass patterns, while the associated triangular mass matrix form provides a unified description of all phenomenologically equivalent symmetric and non-symmetric mass matrices. An elegant analytic formula is derived for the Cholesky triangular form of the mass matrices where the entries are given as simple functions of the mass eigenstates and the diagonalizing transformation entries. Finally, motivated by the possibility of vanishing zero Yukawa mass entries in several D-brane and F-theory constructions due to the geometry of the internal space, we analyze in detail all possible texture-zeroes mass matrices within the proposed new context. These new texture-zeroes are compared to those existing in the literature while D-brane inspired cases are worked out in detail.

Leontaris, G. K.; Vlachos, N. D.

2010-01-01

351

Medical Imaging Inspired Vertex Reconstruction at LHC  

Science.gov (United States)

Three-dimensional image reconstruction in medical applications (PET or X-ray CT) utilizes sophisticated filter algorithms to linear trajectories of coincident photon pairs or x-rays. The goal is to reconstruct an image of an emitter density distribution. In a similar manner, tracks in particle physics originate from vertices that need to be distinguished from background track combinations. In this study it is investigated if vertex reconstruction in high energy proton collisions may benefit from medical imaging methods. A new method of vertex finding, the Medical Imaging Vertexer (MIV), is presented based on a three-dimensional filtered backprojection algorithm. It is compared to the open-source RAVE vertexing package. The performance of the vertex finding algorithms is evaluated as a function of instantaneous luminosity using simulated LHC collisions. Tracks in these collisions are described by a simplified detector model which is inspired by the tracking performance of the LHC experiments. At high luminosities (25 pileup vertices and more), the medical imaging approach finds vertices with a higher efficiency and purity than the RAVE “Adaptive Vertex Reconstructor” algorithm. It is also much faster if more than 25 vertices are to be reconstructed because the amount of CPU time rises linearly with the number of tracks whereas it rises quadratically for the adaptive vertex fitter AVR.

Hageböck, S.; von Toerne, E.

2012-12-01

352

Medical Imaging Inspired Vertex Reconstruction at LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Three-dimensional image reconstruction in medical applications (PET or X-ray CT) utilizes sophisticated filter algorithms to linear trajectories of coincident photon pairs or x-rays. The goal is to reconstruct an image of an emitter density distribution. In a similar manner, tracks in particle physics originate from vertices that need to be distinguished from background track combinations. In this study it is investigated if vertex reconstruction in high energy proton collisions may benefit from medical imaging methods. A new method of vertex finding, the Medical Imaging Vertexer (MIV), is presented based on a three-dimensional filtered backprojection algorithm. It is compared to the open-source RAVE vertexing package. The performance of the vertex finding algorithms is evaluated as a function of instantaneous luminosity using simulated LHC collisions. Tracks in these collisions are described by a simplified detector model which is inspired by the tracking performance of the LHC experiments. At high luminosities (25 pileup vertices and more), the medical imaging approach finds vertices with a higher efficiency and purity than the RAVE “Adaptive Vertex Reconstructor” algorithm. It is also much faster if more than 25 vertices are to be reconstructed because the amount of CPU time rises linearly with the number of tracks whereas it rises quadratically for the adaptive vertex fitter AVR.

2012-12-13

353

Coaching som inspiration til dialogbaseret lederskab  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

I erkendelse af, at lederen meget vanskeligt kan fungere som coach i rendyrket form, vil forfatteren diskutere de særlige udfordringer, der ligger i at være leder og coach på én gang. Som fundament til forståelse af coaching og lederskab tages udgangspunkt i en beskrivelse af coachingens tre generationer, tilgange, der kredser om forskellige grundperspektiv. Den første generations coaching er fx særligt optaget på konkrete mål, som coachee’en ønsker at opfylde. Der fremhæves den særlige mulighed, der åbner sig for ledere i tredje generations coaching tilgang, som forfatteren har udviklet (Stelter, 2012) og som også udfolder sig i protreptiske samtaler (Kirkeby, Hede, Mejlhede & Larsen, 2008), en særlig form for tredje generations coaching. Her sættes særlig fokus på værdirefleksion. I kapitlet sættes fokus på lederens muligheder til at gå i dialog med lederkolleger og medarbejdere på et plan, hvor mening og værdiskabende processer er i centrum. De centrale grunddimensioner for denne form for coachende dialog ligger i et fokus på værdier, i muligheder for meningsskabelse og i det narrativ-samskabende perspektiv. På dette grundlag kan tredje generations coaching være inspiration i forhold til den stigende nødvendighed i, at lederen kan fungere dialogorienteret og mod udvikling af den relationsskabte organisation (jf. Helth i denne bog).

Stelter, Reinhard

2013-01-01

354

Metamaterial-Inspired Efficient Electrically Small Antenna  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Planar two-dimensional (2D) and volumetric three-dimensional (3D) metamaterial-inspired efficient electrically-small antennas that are easy to design; are easy and inexpensive to build; and are easy to test; are reported, i.e., the EZ antenna systems. The proposed 2D and 3D electrical- and magnetic-based EZ antennas are shown to be naturally matched to a 50 source, i.e., without the introduction of a matching network. It is demonstrated numerically that these EZ antennas have high radiation efficiencies with very good impedance matching between the source and the antenna and, hence, that they have high overall efficiencies. The reported 2D and 3D EZ antenna designs are linearly scalable to a wide range of frequencies and yet maintain their easy-to-build characteristics. Several versions of the 2D EZ antennas were fabricated and tested. The measurement results confirm the performance predictions. The EZ antennas systems may provide attractive alternatives to existing electrically-small antennas.

Erentok, Aycan; Ziolkowski, R. W.

2008-01-01

355

Six aspects to inspirational green roof design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Green roofs have been categorized as a technology that is not initially faster, better or cheaper, and may even under perform established products. However, green roofs have features and values that early adopters are ready to experiment with in small markets, thereby creating awareness of the technology. Termed as disruptive technologies, green roofs can become competitive within the mainstream market against established products. The challenge in green roof construction is to find the correct balance between idealistic principles and leading edge design. This paper presented case studies to examine the following 6 aspects of design fundamentals to the creation of inspirational green roofs: the use of colour; experimentation with materials and technology; incorporation of texture, form, and pattern; definition of space; engagement of vistas; and, principles of bio-regionalism. It was concluded that good design is not enough to lead to widespread green roof implementation. It was emphasized that change will occur primarily because of the benefits acquired through implementation. 11 refs., 7 figs.

Kiers, H. [SWA Group, Sausalito, CA (United States)

2004-07-01

356

Continuum robot arms inspired by cephalopods  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we describe our recent results in the development of a new class of soft, continuous backbone ("continuum") robot manipulators. Our work is strongly motivated by the dexterous appendages found in cephalopods, particularly the arms and suckers of octopus, and the arms and tentacles of squid. Our ongoing investigation of these animals reveals interesting and unexpected functional aspects of their structure and behavior. The arrangement and dynamic operation of muscles and connective tissue observed in the arms of a variety of octopus species motivate the underlying design approach for our soft manipulators. These artificial manipulators feature biomimetic actuators, including artificial muscles based on both electro-active polymers (EAP) and pneumatic (McKibben) muscles. They feature a "clean" continuous backbone design, redundant degrees of freedom, and exhibit significant compliance that provides novel operational capacities during environmental interaction and object manipulation. The unusual compliance and redundant degrees of freedom provide strong potential for application to delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. Our aim is to endow these compliant robotic mechanisms with the diverse and dexterous grasping behavior observed in octopuses. To this end, we are conducting fundamental research into the manipulation tactics, sensory biology, and neural control of octopuses. This work in turn leads to novel approaches to motion planning and operator interfaces for the robots. The paper describes the above efforts, along with the results of our development of a series of continuum tentacle-like robots, demonstrating the unique abilities of biologically-inspired design.

Walker, Ian D.; Dawson, Darren M.; Flash, Tamar; Grasso, Frank W.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kier, William M.; Pagano, Christopher C.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Qiming M.

2005-05-01

357

Noncommutative Inspired Black Holes in Extra Dimensions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a recent string theory motivated paper, Nicolini, Smailagic and Spallucci (NSS) presented an interesting model for a noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like black hole solution in 4-dimensions. The essential effect of having noncommutative co-ordinates in this approach is to smear out matter distributions on a scale associated with the turn-on of noncommutativity which was taken to be near the 4-d Planck mass. In particular, NSS assumed that this smearing was essentially Gaussian. This energy scale is sufficiently large that in 4-d such effects may remain invisible indefinitely. Extra dimensional models which attempt to address the gauge hierarchy problem, however, allow for the possibility that the effective fundamental scale may not be far from {approx} 1 TeV, an energy regime that will soon be probed by experiments at both the LHC and ILC. In this paper we generalize the NSS model to the case where flat, toroidally compactified extra dimensions are accessible at the TeV-scale and examine the resulting modifications in black hole properties due to the existence of noncommutativity. We show that while many of the noncommutativity-induced black hole features found in 4-d by NSS persist, in some cases there can be significant modifications due the presence of extra dimensions. We also demonstrate that the essential features of this approach are not particularly sensitive to the Gaussian nature of the smearing assumed by NSS.

Rizzo, Thomas G.

2006-06-07

358

Statistical-mechanics-inspired optimization of sensor field configuration for detection of mobile targets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a statistical-mechanics-inspired procedure for optimization of the sensor field configuration to detect mobile targets. The key idea is to capture the low-dimensional behavior of the sensor field configurations across the Pareto front in a multiobjective scenario for optimal sensor deployment, where the nondominated points are concentrated within a small region of the large-dimensional decision space. The sensor distribution is constructed using location-dependent energy-like functions and intensive temperature-like parameters in the sense of statistical mechanics. This low-dimensional representation is shown to permit rapid optimization of the sensor field distribution on a high-fidelity simulation test bed of distributed sensor networks.

Mukherjee K; Gupta S; Ray A; Wettergren TA

2011-06-01

359

Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not.

Vickers P; Faith J; Rossiter N

2013-06-01

360

Understanding Visualization: A Formal Approach using Category Theory and Semiotics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This article generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not.

Vickers P; Faith J; Rossiter N

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not. PMID:23559513

Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick

2013-06-01

362

Music alters visual perception.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

Jolij J; Meurs M

2011-01-01

363

Cortical and subcortical contributions to the representation of temporal information.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Converging evidence suggests that temporal representations of brief durations are derived subcortically. We tested split-brain patient JW in order to investigate whether these representations project bilaterally or unilaterally to cortex. Using visual stimuli to signal time intervals, JW was asked to compare the duration of a pair of standard stimuli that were presented bilaterally with a comparison stimulus that was presented to either the left or right visual field. Assuming the hand of response is controlled by the contralateral cerebral hemisphere, a hand by visual field interaction was predicted if the representation of stimulus duration was restricted to the cerebral hemisphere receiving the lateralized stimulus. However, we failed to observe this interaction for two different ranges of stimulus durations, both in the hundred (Experiment 2) to hundreds (Experiment 1) of milliseconds range. Instead, there was a consistent right hemisphere advantage in task performance. When the task then required a discrimination based on the physical size of the stimuli rather than their duration, an interaction between response hand and visual field was obtained (Experiment 3). Taken together, these results suggest that (1) even though the comparison stimulus was presented unilaterally, the representation of its duration was available to both cerebral hemispheres, and (2) a right hemisphere advantage in psychophysical tasks requiring the comparison of successive stimuli is observed for temporal and non-temporal judgments.

Handy TC; Gazzaniga MS; Ivry RB

2003-01-01

364

INSPIRE - The Next-Generation HEP Information System  

CERN Document Server

CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC have joined forces to build INSPIRE, the next-generation HEP information platform offering innovative tools for information discovery and communication. Representing a natural community-based evolution of SPIRES, INSPIRE provides fast access to the entire body of HEP literature. As a subject repository it will host fulltexts of preprints, Open Access journal articles and supplementary material like conference slides and multimedia, enabling novel text- and data mining applications. In the spirit of Web2.0 INSPIRE will also supply tools for collaboration and user-enriched content.

Holtkamp, Annette

2010-01-01

365

Advances in bio-inspired computing for combinatorial optimization problems  

CERN Document Server

Advances in Bio-inspired Combinatorial Optimization Problems' illustrates several recent bio-inspired efficient algorithms for solving NP-hard problems.Theoretical bio-inspired concepts and models, in particular for agents, ants and virtual robots are described. Large-scale optimization problems, for example: the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem and the Railway Traveling Salesman Problem, are solved and their results are discussed.Some of the main concepts and models described in this book are: inner rule to guide ant search - a recent model in ant optimization, heterogeneous sensitive a

Pintea, Camelia-Mihaela

2013-01-01

366

Motion-dependent representation of space in area MT+.  

Science.gov (United States)

How is visual space represented in cortical area MT+? At a relatively coarse scale, the organization of MT+ is debated; retinotopic, spatiotopic, or mixed representations have all been proposed. However, none of these representations entirely explain the perceptual localization of objects at a fine spatial scale--a scale relevant for tasks like navigating or manipulating objects. For example, perceived positions of objects are strongly modulated by visual motion; stationary flashes appear shifted in the direction of nearby motion. Does spatial coding in MT+ reflect these shifts in perceived position? We performed an fMRI experiment employing this "flash-drag" effect and found that flashes presented near motion produced patterns of activity similar to physically shifted flashes in the absence of motion. This reveals a motion-dependent change in the neural representation of object position in human MT+, a process that could help compensate for perceptual and motor delays in localizing objects in dynamic scenes. PMID:23664618

Maus, Gerrit W; Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

2013-05-01

367

Human vision, visual processing, and digital display; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 18-20, 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various papers on human vision, visual processing, and digital display are presented. The general topics considered include: physics and psychophysics of displayed information; visual performance and image quality; vision-based algorithms for image processing; visual sampling, compression, and representation; texture, pattern, and motion; color perception, coding, and representation. Some individual topics discussed are: respective fields and visual representations; psychophysical rating of image compression techniques; new paradigm for testing human and machine motion perception; motion perception model with interactions between spatial frequency channels; application of visual psychophysics to the design of video systems for use in space; unified model for human color perception and visual adaptation.

Rogowitz, B.E.

1989-01-01

368

Augmented Segmentation and Visualization for Presentation Videos  

CERN Document Server

We investigate methods of segmenting, visualizing, and indexing presentation videos by separately considering audio and visual data. The audio track is segmented by speaker, and augmented with key phrases which are extracted using an Automatic Speech Recognizer (ASR). The video track is segmented by visual dissimilarities and augmented by representative key frames. An interactive user interface combines a visual representation of audio, video, text, and key frames, and allows the user to navigate a presentation video. We also explore clustering and labeling of speaker data and present preliminary results.

Haubold, A; Haubold, Alexander; Kender, John R.

2005-01-01

369

High-Speed Visual Imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

High-Speed Visual Imaging (HiViz) provides "information and inspiration especially for students, teachers and hobbyists." Their goal is to dispel common misconceptions about high-speed photography, in particular that it is only for experts and requires specialized and expensive equipment. They provide tools for setting up and using a high-speed imaging system, numerous activities for teachers and an FAQ section that addresses questions about cameras, flash units, and timing systems. The Galleries section, which include portfolios of exemplary student work, and the Projects section provide a glimpse into what is possible using in high-speed visual imaging. They have also sell kits for students, teachers and hobbyists interested in starting their own project and provide links to relate websites for more information on related resources.

370

Representations of quantum orders  

CERN Multimedia

We study finite dimensional algebras that appear as fibers of quantum orders over a given point of variety of center. We present the formula for the number of irreducible representations and check it for it for the algebra of twisted polynomials, the quantum Weyl algebra and the algebra of regular functions on quantum group.

Panov, A N

2010-01-01

371

Women and political representation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women. PMID:12295761

Rathod, P B

372

Boundary representation modelling techniques  

CERN Document Server

Boundary representation is the principle solid modelling method used in modern CAD/CAM systems. This book includes: data structures algorithms and other related techniques, including non-manifold modelling, product modelling, graphics, disc files and data exchange, and some application related topics.

Stroud, I

2006-01-01

373

Destination visual image and expectation of experiences  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A unique experience is the essence of tourism sought by tourists. The most effective way to communicate the notion of a tourism experience at a destination is to provide visual cues that stimulate the imagination and connect with potential tourists in a personal way. This study aims at understanding how a visual image is relevant to the expectation of experiences by deconstructing images of a destination and interpreting visitors' perceptions of these images and the experiences associated with them. The results suggest that tourists with different understandings of desirable experiences found different contents and notions of images inspired them to visit a destination. Several managerial implications are discussed. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Ye, H.; Tussyadiah, Iis

2011-01-01

374

Graph-based clustering and data visualization algorithms  

CERN Multimedia

This work presents a data visualization technique that combines graph-based topology representation and dimensionality reduction methods to visualize the intrinsic data structure in a low-dimensional vector space. The application of graphs in clustering and visualization has several advantages. A graph of important edges (where edges characterize relations and weights represent similarities or distances) provides a compact representation of the entire complex data set. This text describes clustering and visualization methods that are able to utilize information hidden in these graphs, based on

Vathy-Fogarassy, Ágnes

2013-01-01

375

Reference frames in visual selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

We review neuropsychological evidence for visual selection operating in different reference frames. There is general agreement that there may be a separation of coding space near to and farther from the body, and that deficits in selecting stimuli within each form of spatial representation may be impaired in patients with unilateral neglect. However, there remains a lack of consensus about whether all forms of spatial representation relate to the body or whether there are spatial representations based on reference frames abstracted from the body (allocentric and object-centered spatial codes). Here we will review the evidence for spatial coding in these more abstracted reference frames (allocentric and object-centered but also environmental) and argue for the psychological reality of (at least) allocentric spatial coding. We discuss computational accounts of how such codes may be created as objects are selected. PMID:23991639

Humphreys, Glyn W; Gillebert, Celine R; Chechlacz, Magda; Riddoch, M Jane

2013-08-01

376

GPU-accelerated affordance cueing based on visual attention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work focuses on the relevance of visual attention in affordance-inspired robotics. Among all approaches in robotics related to Gibson's concept of affordances the dealing with attention cues is only rudimentary. We are introducing this concept within the perception layer of our affordance-inspi...

May, S.; Klodt, M.; Rome, E.; Breithaupt, R.

377

Modelling Cell Cycle using Different Levels of Representation  

CERN Multimedia

Understanding the behaviour of biological systems requires a complex setting of in vitro and in vivo experiments, which attracts high costs in terms of time and resources. The use of mathematical models allows researchers to perform computerised simulations of biological systems, which are called in silico experiments, to attain important insights and predictions about the system behaviour with a considerably lower cost. Computer visualisation is an important part of this approach, since it provides a realistic representation of the system behaviour. We define a formal methodology to model biological systems using different levels of representation: a purely formal representation, which we call molecular level, models the biochemical dynamics of the system; visualisation-oriented representations, which we call visual levels, provide views of the biological system at a higher level of organisation and are equipped with the necessary spatial information to generate the appropriate visualisation. We choose Spati...

Basuki, Thomas Anung; Carvalho, Rafael V; 10.4204/EPTCS.11.4

2009-01-01

378

Cyclin-dependent kinase Inhibitors Inspired by Roscovitine: Purine Bioisosteres.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

inhibitorKód oboru RIV: ED - FyziologieImpakt faktor: 3.311, rok: 2012http://www.benthamdirect.org/pages/article/1/3177382/cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitors-inspired-by-roscovitine-purine-bioisosteres.html

Jorda, RadekG; Paruch, K.; Kryštof, Vladimír

379

What inspires South African student teachers for their future profession?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need for an inspired professional teacher corps to haul South African school education out of its current low level of quality was the driving force behind this project. Its aim was to determine what counted as sources of inspiration for student teachers and hence for future teachers. Based on a conceptual-theoretical study, a questionnaire that could probe student teachers' sources of inspiration was completed by a sample of student teachers (n = 1,683). A factor analysis of their responses revealed the following as their sources of inspiration, from most to least important: (extended) family, religion, the teacher education institution, teaching practice, friends, and personal life. A comparison with similar research elsewhere revealed that, in this sample of respondents, considerations, such as education being the only accessible profession or being forced to enter the teaching profession because of economic circumstances, did not figure at all.

Charl Wolhuter; Hannes van der Walt; Ferdinand Potgieter; Louisa Meyer; Thapelo Mamiala

2012-01-01

380

Ontology Alignment using Biologically-inspired Optimisation Algorithms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Identifying overlaps between ontologies is a problem tackled by the discipline of ontology alignment. This thesis presents an evolutionary algorithm and a particle swarm optimisation algorithm for aligning ontologies. The application of these biologically-inspired optimisation techniques demonstrate...

Bock, Jürgen

 
 
 
 
381

The Role of INSPIRE in HEP Data Preservation Efforts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

INSPIRE is a new community resource for HEP literature and associated information. It is based on the combination of SPIRES content and features and the powerful Invenio software developed at CERN. The INSPIRE service will come online in fall of 2009, and be run by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. Data preservation, to be successful, must not only preserve the data, but must also organize it and allow it to be found by those who would make use of it, and resources such as INSPIRE are ideally positioned and ready to provide this organization and context. In addition, INSPIRE will soon be ready to provide storage of smaller datasets, such as high-level analysis objects, as stand-alone objects placed in the repository or as objects associated with an analysis paper. This small project could pave the way towards the context and organization which is one piece of the infrastructure needed for all levels of data preservation.

Brooks, Travis C.; /SLAC

2010-06-11

382

Biologically-Inspired Hexapod Robot Design and Simulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The design and construction of a biologically-inspired hexapod robot is presented. A previously developed simulation is modified to include models of the DC drive motors, the motor driver circuits and their transmissions. The application of this simulatio...

K. S. Espenschied R. D. Quinn

1994-01-01

383

Bio Inspired Approach To Secure Routing In MANETs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the author explore the challenges with respect to the security aspect in MANETs and proposea new approach which makes use of a bio-inspired methodology. This paper elaborates various attackswhich can be perpetrated on MANETs and current solutions to the aforementioned problems, and then itdescribes a Bio-Inspired Method which could be a possible solution to security issues in MANETs.

V. Venkata Ramana; A. Rama Mohan Reddy; K. Chandra Sekaran

2012-01-01

384

Representations of solvable Lie algebras with filtrations  

CERN Document Server

We construct representation theory of Lie algebras with filtrations. In this framework a classification of irreducible representations is obtained and spectra of some reducible representations are found.

Panov, A N

2012-01-01

385

INSPIRE State of Play: problemi per Italia, Cipro e Malta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al fine di monitorare e valutare lo stato di sviluppo delle NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructures), la Commissione Europea ha deciso sin dal 2002 di avviare uno studio, il cosiddetto INSPIRE State of Play.INSPIRE State of play: problems for Italy, Cyprus and MaltaThe objective of the INSPIRE State of Play study is to describe, analyze and assess the status of INSPIRE and National SDI (NSDI) implementation in 32 countries in Europe: 27 Member States, 4 EFTA countries and 1 Candidate Country (Turkey). In 2009 it was decided to add also FYROM (Republic of Macedonia)  and  Croatia  both  EU  Candi-date Countries. The aim is to better under-stand the status of the NSDI and INSPIRE implementation  and  their  development over time. The European Commission also wanted  to  know  if  one  can  speak  about different  types  of  SDI  in  the  European context. Based on these objectives, an ap-proach and methodology was elaborated in 2002 and fine-tuned in 2006 and 2009 by Spatial Applications Division of the Katho-lieke Universiteit of Leuven, Belgium with collaboration of some experts.http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu

Mauro Salvemini

2012-01-01

386

Hemifield-specific visual recognition memory impairments in patients with unilateral temporal lobe removals.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent evidence on visual neglect suggests that each hemisphere maintains a retinotopically organized representation of the visual world contralateral to the current fixation point and that this representation is based not only on analysis of the current retinal input but, equally importantly, on in...

Hornak, J; Oxbury, S; Oxbury, J; Iversen, SD; Gaffan, D

387

Higher Representations Duals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We uncover novel solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for scalarless gauge theories with matter transforming according to higher dimensional representations of the underlying gauge group. We argue that, if the duals exist, they are gauge theories with fermions transforming according to the defining representation of the dual gauge group. The resulting conformal windows match the one stemming from the all-orders beta function results when taking the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass to be unity which are also very close to the ones obtained using the Schwinger-Dyson approximation. We use the solutions to gain useful insight on the conformal window of the associated electric theory. A consistent picture emerges corroborating previous results obtained via different analytic methods and in agreement with first principle lattice explorations.

Sannino, Francesco

2010-01-01

388

Infinitely ramified Galois representations  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we show how to construct, for most p >= 5, two types of surjective representations \\rho:G_Q=Gal(\\bar{Q}/Q) -> GL_2(Z_p) that are ramified at an infinite number of primes. The image of inertia at almost all of these primes will be torsion-free. The first construction is unconditional. The catch is that we cannot say whether \\rho|_{G_p=Gal(\\bar{Q_p}/Q_p) is crystalline or even potentially semistable. The second construction assumes the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH). With this assumption we can further arrange that \\rho|_{G_p} is crystalline at p. We remark that infinitely ramified *reducible* representations have been previously constructed by more elementary means.

Ramakrishna, R

2000-01-01

389

The Effect of Information Visualization and Structure on Mobile Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine information visualization and structured learning content in a mobile learning environment. It compared learning from three different representations of content on a PDA system – traditional text (non-structured, non-visual), structured text without visuals, and structured text with visuals. Learner comprehension of the content was tested during the session. Results showed that structured text with visuals was more effective in supporting the development of learner understanding than either structured or non-structured text. The results suggest that to overcome the limitations of learning with mobile devices, ways of structuring text and visualizing content are required.

Hyungsung Park

2008-01-01

390

Hybrid-image visualization for large viewing environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a first investigation into hybrid-image visualization for data analysis in large-scale viewing environments. Hybrid-image visualizations blend two different visual representations into a single static view, such that each representation can be perceived at a different viewing distance. Our work is motivated by data analysis scenarios that incorporate one or more displays with sufficiently large size and resolution to be comfortably viewed by different people from various distances. Hybrid-image visualizations can be used, in particular, to enhance overview tasks from a distance and detail-in-context tasks when standing close to the display. By using a perception-based blending approach, hybrid-image visualizations make two full-screen visualizations accessible without tracking viewers in front of a display. We contribute a design space, discuss the perceptual rationale for our work, provide examples, and introduce a set of techniques and tools to aid the design of hybrid-image visualizations. PMID:24051801

Isenberg, Petra; Dragicevic, Pierre; Willett, Wesley; Bezerianos, Anastasia; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

2013-12-01

391

Cortical representation of medial axis structure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The identity of an object is not only specified by its parts but also by the relations among the parts. Rearranging parts can produce a completely different object, in the same manner as rearranging the phonemes in "fur" can yield "rough." How does the visual system represent the relative positions of parts? Between-part relations can be characterized by specifying the relations between the medial axes (imaginary lines through the centers) of an object's parts. A functional magnetic resonance imaging multivoxel classification study tested whether the medial axis structure is represented in the human visual system independent of part identity and overall object orientation. Stimuli were line drawings of novel 3-part geometrical objects, which differed in the relations between their parts' medial axes (i.e., in their medial axis structures), the geons that composed each object, and the objects' orientations in plane and in depth. In regions of interest throughout visual cortex, a support vector machine classifier was trained to distinguish objects that shared either the same medial axis structures or the same orientations. By the level of V3, different medial axis structures were more accurately classified than different orientations, indicating a change in the representation of shape compared with earlier visual areas.

Lescroart MD; Biederman I

2013-03-01

392

CA Based Path Planning Method for Mobile Robots Enhanced by ant Colony Inspired Mechanis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In path planning of mobile robots dealing with concave obstacles is a major challenge. More specifically in real-time planning where there is no complete representation of the environment, this challenge would be much more problematic. In such cases local minimums and high computations cost are the most important problems. In this paper, in order to reduce computational cost, cellular automata as a distributed computational method with parallel processing properties is employed as tool for path planning purposes. The environment of the robot is modeled as a two dimensional cellular automata with four states. Evolutionary rules of the automata are proposed to perform the planning task. The proposed method is appropriate for single robot systems as well as multi robot systems. The proposed method is afterwards extended to be employed for concave obstacles using a ant colony inspired technique. The most superior advantage of the proposed method is its capability of real-time path planning of mobile robots with no need to prior representation of the environment.

Adel Akbarimajd; Akbar Hassan Zadeh

2011-01-01

393

Fock Representations and Quantum Matrices  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we study the Fock representation of a certain $*$-algebra which appears naturally in the framework of quantum group theory. It is also a generalization of the twisted CCR-algebra introduced by W. Pusz and S.~Woronowicz. We prove that the Fock representation is a faithful irreducible representation of the algebra by bounded operators in a Hilbert space, and, moreover, it is the only (up to unitary equivalence) representation possessing these properties. Keywords and phrases: Fock representation, quantum groups, bounded symmetric domain, non-compact Hermitian symmetric spaces

Shklyarov, D; Vaksman, L

2004-01-01

394

Graph-representation of oxidative folding pathways  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of oxidative folding combines the formation of native disulfide bond with conformational folding resulting in the native three-dimensional fold. Oxidative folding pathways can be described in terms of disulfide intermediate species (DIS) which can also be isolated and characterized. Each DIS corresponds to a family of folding states (conformations) that the given DIS can adopt in three dimensions. Results The oxidative folding space can be represented as a network of DIS states interconnected by disulfide interchange reactions that can either create/abolish or rearrange disulfide bridges. We propose a simple 3D representation wherein the states having the same number of disulfide bridges are placed on separate planes. In this representation, the shuffling transitions are within the planes, and the redox edges connect adjacent planes. In a number of experimentally studied cases (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, insulin-like growth factor and epidermal growth factor), the observed intermediates appear as part of contiguous oxidative folding pathways. Conclusions Such networks can be used to visualize folding pathways in terms of the experimentally observed intermediates. A simple visualization template written for the Tulip package http://www.tulip-software.org/ can be obtained from V.A.

Ágoston Vilmos; Cemazar Masa; Kaján László; Pongor Sándor

2005-01-01

395

Visual long-term memory has the same limit on fidelity as visual working memory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Visual long-term memory can store thousands of objects with surprising visual detail, but just how detailed are these representations, and how can one quantify this fidelity? Using the property of color as a case study, we estimated the precision of visual information in long-term memory, and compared this with the precision of the same information in working memory. Observers were shown real-world objects in random colors and were asked to recall the colors after a delay. We quantified two parameters of performance: the variability of internal representations of color (fidelity) and the probability of forgetting an object's color altogether. Surprisingly, the fidelity of color information in long-term memory was comparable to the asymptotic precision of working memory. These results suggest that long-term memory and working memory may be constrained by a common limit, such as a bound on the fidelity required to retrieve a memory representation.

Brady TF; Konkle T; Gill J; Oliva A; Alvarez GA

2013-06-01

396

Contrast-independent biologically inspired motion detection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Optic flow, i.e., retinal image movement resulting from ego-motion, is a crucial source of information used for obstacle avoidance and course control in flying insects. Optic flow analysis may prove promising for mobile robotics although it is currently not among the standard techniques. Insects have developed a computationally cheap analysis mechanism for image motion. Detailed computational models, the so-called elementary motion detectors (EMDs), describe motion detection in insects. However, the technical application of EMDs is complicated by the strong effect of local pattern contrast on their motion response. Here we present augmented versions of an EMD, the (s)cc-EMDs, which normalise their responses for contrast and thereby reduce the sensitivity to contrast changes. Thus, velocity changes of moving natural images are reflected more reliably in the detector response. The (s)cc-EMDs can easily be implemented in hardware and software and can be a valuable novel visual motion sensor for mobile robots.

Babies B; Lindemann JP; Egelhaaf M; Möller R

2011-01-01

397

Contrast-independent biologically inspired motion detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optic flow, i.e., retinal image movement resulting from ego-motion, is a crucial source of information used for obstacle avoidance and course control in flying insects. Optic flow analysis may prove promising for mobile robotics although it is currently not among the standard techniques. Insects have developed a computationally cheap analysis mechanism for image motion. Detailed computational models, the so-called elementary motion detectors (EMDs), describe motion detection in insects. However, the technical application of EMDs is complicated by the strong effect of local pattern contrast on their motion response. Here we present augmented versions of an EMD, the (s)cc-EMDs, which normalise their responses for contrast and thereby reduce the sensitivity to contrast changes. Thus, velocity changes of moving natural images are reflected more reliably in the detector response. The (s)cc-EMDs can easily be implemented in hardware and software and can be a valuable novel visual motion sensor for mobile robots. PMID:22163800

Babies, Birthe; Lindemann, Jens Peter; Egelhaaf, Martin; Möller, Ralf

2011-03-18

398

Impact of mental representational systems on design interface.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory is to understand the impact mental representational systems have in identifying how user comfort parameters influence how information is to best be presented. By understanding how each individual perceives information based on the three representational systems (visual, auditory and kinesthetic modalities), it has been found that a different approach must be taken in the design of interfaces resulting in an outcome that is much more effective and representative of the users mental model. This paper will present current findings and future theories to be explored.

Brown-VanHoozer, S. A.

1998-02-25

399

Spatial visualization, visual imagery, and mathematical problem solving of students with varying abilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate students' use of visual imagery and its relationship to spatial visualization ability while solving mathematical word problems. Students with learning disabilities (LD), average achievers, and gifted students in sixth grade (N = 66) participated in this study. Students were assessed on measures of mathematical problem solving, visual imagery representation, and spatial visualization ability. The results indicated that gifted students performed better on both spatial visualization measures than students with LD and average-achieving students. Use of visual images was positively correlated with higher mathematical word-problem-solving performance. Furthermore, the use of schematic imagery was significantly and positively correlated with higher performance on each spatial visualization measure; conversely, it was negatively correlated with the use of pictorial images. PMID:17165617

van Garderen, Delinda

400

Spatial visualization, visual imagery, and mathematical problem solving of students with varying abilities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to investigate students' use of visual imagery and its relationship to spatial visualization ability while solving mathematical word problems. Students with learning disabilities (LD), average achievers, and gifted students in sixth grade (N = 66) participated in this study. Students were assessed on measures of mathematical problem solving, visual imagery representation, and spatial visualization ability. The results indicated that gifted students performed better on both spatial visualization measures than students with LD and average-achieving students. Use of visual images was positively correlated with higher mathematical word-problem-solving performance. Furthermore, the use of schematic imagery was significantly and positively correlated with higher performance on each spatial visualization measure; conversely, it was negatively correlated with the use of pictorial images.

van Garderen D

2006-11-01