WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Characterizing Interaction with Visual Mathematical Representations  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a characterization of computer-based interactions by which learners can explore and investigate visual mathematical representations (VMRs). VMRs (e.g., geometric structures, graphs, and diagrams) refer to graphical representations that visually encode properties and relationships of mathematical structures and concepts.…

Sedig, Kamran; Sumner, Mark

2006-01-01

2

Visual Imaging of Invisible Hazardous Substances Using Bacterial Inspiration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Providing a visual image of a hazardous substance such as nerve gas or nuclear radiation using multiple robotic agents could be very useful particularly when the substance is invisible. Such visual representation could show where the hazardous substance concentration is highest through the deployment of a higher density of robotic agents to that area enabling humans to avoid such areas. We present an algorithm that is capable of doing the aforementioned with very minimal cost when compared wi...

Oyekan, John; Gu, Dongbing; Hu, Huosheng

2013-01-01

3

A Bio-inspired Fusion Method for Data Visualization  

Science.gov (United States)

This research presents a novel bio-inspired fusion algorithm based on the application of a topology preserving map called Visualization Induced SOM (ViSOM) under the umbrella of an ensemble summarization algorithm, the Weighted Voting Superposition (WeVoS). The presented model aims to obtain more accurate and robust maps, also increasing the models stability by means of the use of an ensemble training schema and a posterior fusion algorithm, been those very suitable for visualization and also classification purposes. This model may be applied alone or under the frame of hybrid intelligent systems, when used for instance in the recovery phase of a case based reasoning system. For the sake of completeness, the comparison of the performance with other topology preserving maps and previous fusion algorithms with several public data set obtained from the UCI repository are also included.

Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio

4

Robust Visual Tracking via Fuzzy Kernel Representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A robust visual kernel tracking approach is presented for solving the problem of existing background pixels in object model. At first, after definition of fuzzy set on image is given, a fuzzy factor is embedded into object model to form the fuzzy kernel representation. Secondly, a fuzzy membership functions are generated by center-surround approach and log likelihood ratio of feature distributions. Thirdly, details about fuzzy kernel tracking algorithm is provided. After that, methods of parameter selection and performance evaluation for tracking algorithm are proposed. At last, a mass of experimental results are done to show our method can reduce the influence of the incomplete representation of object model via integrating both color features and background features.

Zhiqiang Wen

2013-05-01

5

String-inspired representations of photon/gluon amplitudes  

CERN Document Server

The string-based Bern-Kosower rules provide an efficient way for obtaining parameter integral representations of the one-loop N - photon/gluon amplitudes involving a scalar, spinor or gluon loop, starting from a master formula and using a certain integration-by-parts (`IBP') procedure. Strassler observed that this algorithm also relates to gauge invariance, since it leads to the absorption of polarization vectors into field strength tensors. Here we present a systematic IBP algorithm that works for arbitrary N and leads to an integrand that is not only suitable for the application of the Bern-Kosower rules but also optimized with respect to gauge invariance. In the photon case this means manifest transversality at the integrand level, in the gluon case that a form factor decomposition of the amplitude into transversal and longitudinal parts is generated naturally by the IBP, without the necessity to consider the nonabelian Ward identities. Our algorithm is valid off-shell, and provides an extremely efficient ...

Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Villanueva, Victor M

2012-01-01

6

Visual texture accurate material appearance measurement, representation and modeling  

CERN Multimedia

This book surveys the state of the art in multidimensional, physically-correct visual texture modeling. Features: reviews the entire process of texture synthesis, including material appearance representation, measurement, analysis, compression, modeling, editing, visualization, and perceptual evaluation; explains the derivation of the most common representations of visual texture, discussing their properties, advantages, and limitations; describes a range of techniques for the measurement of visual texture, including BRDF, SVBRDF, BTF and BSSRDF; investigates the visualization of textural info

Haindl, Michal

2013-01-01

7

Towards Remote Assessment of User Experiences of Visual Product Representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding consumer experiences of products is becoming increasingly important for producers acting on the global market. This paper presents a pilot study done as part of the development of a VIPET (Visual Internet Product Experience Tool), a future tool for remote user assessment of product experiences. The aim of the tool is to provide users with a convenient and intuitive approach to assess visual representations of products by allowing respondents to place visual representations of pr...

Kristav, Per; Warell, Anders

2009-01-01

8

Constructing Visual Representations: Investigating the Use of Tangible Tokens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participantsâ?? actions during the development of their visual representations and during their analytic activities. We conclude by suggesting implications for tool design to enable broader support for infovis authoring.

Jansen, Yvonne

2014-01-01

9

Inspire  

CERN Document Server

Inspire is the project name of a new High Energy Physics information system which will integrate present databases and repositories to host the entire corpus of the HEP literature and become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It is a common project between CERN, DESY, FERMILAB and SLAC. It will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research; enable novel text- and data-mining applications; deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the Web2.0 paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences with community-based approaches to the peer-review process.

CERN. Geneva

2008-01-01

10

A two-directional 1-gram visual motion sensor inspired by the fly's eye  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Optic flow based autopilots for Micro-Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) need lightweight, low-power sensors to be able to fly safely through unknown environments. The new tiny 6-pixel visual motion sensor presented here meets these demanding requirements in term of its mass, size and power consumption. This 1-gram, low-power, fly-inspired sensor accurately gauges the visual motion using only this 6-pixel array with two different panoramas and illuminance conditions. The new visual motion sensor's output...

Roubieu, Fre?de?ric; Expert, Fabien; Sabiron, Guillaume; Ruffier, Franck

2013-01-01

11

Physiologically Inspired Model for the Visual Recognition of Transitive Hand Actions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The visual recognition of actions is an important visual function that is critical for motor learning and social communication. Action-selective neurons have been found in different cortical regions, including the superior temporal sulcus, parietal and premotor cortex. Among those are mirror neurons, which link visual and motor representations of body movements. While numerous theoretical models for the mirror neuron system have been proposed, the computational basis of the visual processing ...

Fleischer, Falk; Caggiano, Vittorio; Thier, Peter; Giese, Martin A.

2013-01-01

12

Configurable visual representations for business process monitoring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Business processes are one of the most important assets that a company has. The success of the business depends directly on the quality of these processes. This makes business process reengineering and business process improvement the key task of a business analyst. To support monitoring and analysis steps, an advanced approach for process visualization is required. The main problem is that several different professionals have to collaborate in order to prepare an expressive visualization ...

Rapoports, Andrejs

2011-01-01

13

Discoveries from a Reggio-Inspired Classroom: Meeting Developmental Needs through the Visual Arts  

Science.gov (United States)

Educators from Reggio Emilia encourage educators to see children as competent and strong. They persuade educators to acknowledge the children's use of the visual arts as a "language," especially during project work. Inspired by the philosophy from Reggio Emilia, the author initiated a 10-week ethnographic study of young children in a…

Griebling, Susan

2011-01-01

14

Linear demosaicing inspired by the human visual system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is an analogy between single-chip color cameras and the human visual system in that these two systems acquire only one limited wavelength sensitivity band per spatial location. We have exploited this analogy, defining a model that characterizes a one-color per spatial position image as a coding into luminance and chrominance of the corresponding three-colors per spatial position image. Luminance is defined with full spatial resolution while chrominance contains sub-sampled opponent co...

Alleysson, David; Su?sstrunk, Sabine; He?rault, Jeanny

2005-01-01

15

Linear demosaicing inspired by the human visual system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is an analogy between single-chip color cameras and the human visual system in that these two systems acquire only one limited wavelength sensitivity band per spatial location. We have exploited this analogy, defining a model that characterizes a one-color per spatial position image as a coding into luminance and chrominance of the corresponding three-colors per spatial position image. Luminance is defined with full spatial resolution while chrominance contains sub-sampled opponent colo...

Alleysson, David; Su?sstrunk, Sabine; He?rault, Jeanny

2005-01-01

16

A PCA based manifold representation for visual speech recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we discuss a new Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based manifold representation for visual speech recognition. In this regard, the real time input video data is compressed using Principal Component Analysis and the low-dimensional points calculated for each frame define the manifold. Since the number of frames that form the video sequence is dependent on the word complexity, in order to use these manifolds for visual speech classification it is required to re-sample them into...

Yu, Dahai; Ghita, Ovidiu; Sutherland, Alistair; Whelan, Paul F.

2007-01-01

17

Adaptivity of Sensory Representations in the Adult Visual Cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The developing sensory areas of the brain are shaped by a combination of environmental signals imposing their fingerprints on them and genetically pre-determined factors. Experimental studies, however, have shown that they are still surprisingly adaptive even in the adult. We investigate the representation of visual information in the visual cortex of mammals and focus on explaining their adaptivity in the adult. One insight from computer science is that the most efficient algorithms depend o...

Schwabe, Lars

2006-01-01

18

Data Representations, Transformations, and Statistics for Visual Reasoning  

CERN Document Server

Analytical reasoning techniques are methods by which users explore their data to obtain insight and knowledge that can directly support situational awareness and decision making. Recently, the analytical reasoning process has been augmented through the use of interactive visual representations and tools which utilize cognitive, design and perceptual principles. These tools are commonly referred to as visual analytics tools, and the underlying methods and principles have roots in a variety of disciplines. This chapter provides an introduction to young researchers as an overview of common visual

Maciejewski, Ross

2011-01-01

19

Visual processing-inspired Fern-Audio features for Noise-Robust Speaker Verification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we consider the problem of speaker verification as a two-class object detection problem in computer vision, but the object instances are 1-D short-time spectral vectors obtained from the speech signal. More precisely, we investigate the general problem of speaker verification in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise, which we consider as analogous to visual object detection under varying illumination conditions. Inspired by their recent success in illumination-robust ob...

Roy, Anindya; Marcel, Se?bastien

2009-01-01

20

Visual processing-inspired Fern-Audio features for Noise-Robust Speaker Verification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we consider the problem of speaker verification as a two-class object detection problem in computer vision, where the object instances are 1-D short-time spectral vectors obtained from the speech signal. More precisely, we investigate the general problem of speaker verification in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise, which we consider as analogous to visual object detection under varying illumination conditions. Inspired by their recent success in illumination-robust ...

Roy, Anindya; Marcel, Se?bastien

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Prior expectations bias sensory representations in visual cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perception is strongly influenced by expectations. Accordingly, perception has sometimes been cast as a process of inference, whereby sensory inputs are combined with prior knowledge. However, despite a wealth of behavioral literature supporting an account of perception as probabilistic inference, the neural mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. One important question is whether top-down expectation biases stimulus representations in early sensory cortex, i.e., whether the integration of prior knowledge and bottom-up inputs is already observable at the earliest levels of sensory processing. Alternatively, early sensory processing may be unaffected by top-down expectations, and integration of prior knowledge and bottom-up input may take place in downstream association areas that are proposed to be involved in perceptual decision-making. Here, we implicitly manipulated human subjects' prior expectations about visual motion stimuli, and probed the effects on both perception and sensory representations in visual cortex. To this end, we measured neural activity noninvasively using functional magnetic resonance imaging, and applied a forward modeling approach to reconstruct the motion direction of the perceived stimuli from the signal in visual cortex. Our results show that top-down expectations bias representations in visual cortex, demonstrating that the integration of prior information and sensory input is reflected at the earliest stages of sensory processing. PMID:24107959

Kok, Peter; Brouwer, Gijs Joost; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

2013-10-01

22

Lenses â?? Light, Bodies and Representations. A paper on the optical device that enables visual perception through representation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

I will discuss the many unique lenses available to visual anthropological research and how a nuanced and differentiated view on them can be the key to understanding the complexity of the representations we, as visual anthropologist, are creating.

Rehder, Mads

23

Learning Visual Representations for Perception-Action Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We discuss vision as a sensory modality for systems that effect actions in response to perceptions. While the internal representations informed by vision may be arbitrarily complex, we argue that in many cases it is advantageous to link them rather directly to action via learned mappings. These arguments are illustrated by two examples of our own work. First, our RLVC algorithm performs reinforcement learning directly on the visual input space. To make this very large space manageable, RLVC interleaves the reinforcement learner with a supervised classification algorithm that seeks to split perceptual states so as to reduce perceptual aliasing. This results in an adaptive discretization of the perceptual space based on the presence or absence of visual features. Its extension RLJC also handles continuous action spaces. In contrast to the minimalistic visual representations produced by RLVC and RLJC, our second method learns structural object models for robust object detection and pose estimation by probabilistic inference. To these models, the method associates grasp experiences autonomously learned by trial and error. These experiences form a nonparametric representation of grasp success likelihoods over gripper poses, which we call a grasp density. Thus, object detection in a novel scene simultaneously produces suitable grasping options.

Piater, Justus; Jodogne, Sebastien

2011-01-01

24

Altered representation of facial expressions after early visual deprivation  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effects of early visual deprivation on the underlying representation of the six basic emotions. Using multi-dimensional scaling (MDS), we compared the similarity judgments of adults who had missed early visual input because of bilateral congenital cataracts to control adults with normal vision. Participants made similarity judgments of the six basic emotional expressions, plus neutral, at three different intensities. Consistent with previous studies, the similarity judgments of typical adults could be modeled with four underlying dimensions, which can be interpreted as representing pleasure, arousal, potency and intensity of expressions. As a group, cataract-reversal patients showed a systematic structure with dimensions representing pleasure, potency, and intensity. However, an arousal dimension was not obvious in the patient group's judgments. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed a pattern in patients seen in typical 7-year-olds but not typical 14-year-olds or adults. There was also more variability among the patients than among the controls, as evidenced by higher stress values for the MDS fit to the patients' data and more dispersed weightings on the four dimensions. The findings suggest an important role for early visual experience in shaping the later development of the representations of emotions. Since the normal underlying structure for emotion emerges postnatally and continues to be refined until late childhood, the altered representation of emotion in adult patients suggests a sleeper effect.

Gao, Xiaoqing; Maurer, Daphne; Nishimura, Mayu

2013-01-01

25

Altered Representation of Facial Expressions After Early Visual Deprivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated the effects of early visual deprivation on the underlying representation of the six basic emotions. Using multi-dimensional scaling (MDS, we compared the similarity judgments of adults who had missed early visual input because of bilateral congenital cataracts to control adults with normal vision. Participants made similarity judgments of the six basic emotional expressions, plus neutral, at three different intensities. Consistent with previous studies, the similarity judgments of typical adults could be modeled with four underlying dimensions, which can be interpreted as representing pleasure, arousal, potency and intensity of expressions. As a group, cataract-reversal patients showed a systematic structure with dimensions representing pleasure, potency, and intensity. However, an arousal dimension was not obvious in the patient group’s judgments. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed a pattern in patients seen in typical 7-year-olds but not typical 14-year-olds or adults. There was also more variability among the patients than among the controls, as evidenced by higher stress values for the MDS fit to the patients’ data and more dispersed weightings on the four dimensions. The findings suggest an important role for early visual experience in shaping the later development of the representations of emotions. Since the normal underlying structure for emotion emerges postnatally and continues to be refined until late childhood, the altered representation of emotion in adult patients suggests a sleeper effect.

XiaoqingGao

2013-11-01

26

An explorative study of visual servo control with insect-inspired Reichardt-model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, an insect-inspired motion detector (Reichardt-model) is applied to visual servo control to ensure the stability of the system with high gain and time delay in its feedback. A Reichardt-based control scheme is compared with a conventional visual servoing approach. As a consequence of the specific velocity dependence of the Reichardt-model, the stability margin of the visual servo control is increased and high overall gains, thus, better performance are achievable. The response of the Reichardt-model in the experiment and the control performance of velocity control approach with the Reichardt-model in the closed loop are investigated. The velocity control model is tested on a 1-DOF linear motor module with different feedback gain and different time delay in the loop. The results of simulation and realtime experiments demonstrate the stabilizing character of the Reichardt-based approach.

Wu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tianguang

2009-01-01

27

A neuron-inspired computational architecture for spatiotemporal visual processing: real-time visual sensory integration for humanoid robots.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we present a neurologically motivated computational architecture for visual information processing. The computational architecture's focus lies in multiple strategies: hierarchical processing, parallel and concurrent processing, and modularity. The architecture is modular and expandable in both hardware and software, so that it can also cope with multisensory integrations - making it an ideal tool for validating and applying computational neuroscience models in real time under real-world conditions. We apply our architecture in real time to validate a long-standing biologically inspired visual object recognition model, HMAX. In this context, the overall aim is to supply a humanoid robot with the ability to perceive and understand its environment with a focus on the active aspect of real-time spatiotemporal visual processing. We show that our approach is capable of simulating information processing in the visual cortex in real time and that our entropy-adaptive modification of HMAX has a higher efficiency and classification performance than the standard model (up to ?+6%). PMID:24687170

Holzbach, Andreas; Cheng, Gordon

2014-06-01

28

Reading visual representations of 'Ndabeni' in the public realms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This essay outlines and analyses contemporary image representations of Ndabeni (also called kwa-Ndabeni), a location near Cape Town where a group of people became confined between 1901 and 1936 following an outbreak of the bubonic plague in the city. This location was to shape Cape Town's landscape [...] for a little less that thirty-five years, accommodating people who were forcibly removed from the Cape Town docklands and from District Six. Images representing this place have been produced, archived, recovered, modified, reproduced and circulated in different ways and contexts. Ndabeni has become public knowledge through public visual representations that have been produced across a range of sites in post-apartheid Cape Town. I focus on three sites: the Victoria and Alfred Waterfront, the District Six Museum, and the Eziko Restaurant and Catering School. In each case I analyse the processes through which the Ndabeni images in question have been used and reused over time in changing contexts. I analyse the 'modalities' in which these images have been composed, interpreted and employed and in which knowledge has been mediated. I explore the contents and contexts of the storyboards and exhibition panels that purport to represent Ndabeni. Finally, I discuss potential meanings that could be constructed if the images could be read independent of the texts.

Sambumbu, Sipokazi.

29

Exploring Middle School Students' Representational Competence in Science: Development and Verification of a Framework for Learning with Visual Representations  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific knowledge is constructed and communicated through a range of forms in addition to verbal language. Maps, graphs, charts, diagrams, formulae, models, and drawings are just some of the ways in which science concepts can be represented. Representational competence---an aspect of visual literacy that focuses on the ability to interpret, transform, and produce visual representations---is a key component of science literacy and an essential part of science reading and writing. To date, however, most research has examined learning from representations rather than learning with representations. This dissertation consisted of three distinct projects that were related by a common focus on learning from visual representations as an important aspect of scientific literacy. The first project was the development of an exploratory framework that is proposed for use in investigations of students constructing and interpreting multimedia texts. The exploratory framework, which integrates cognition, metacognition, semiotics, and systemic functional linguistics, could eventually result in a model that might be used to guide classroom practice, leading to improved visual literacy, better comprehension of science concepts, and enhanced science literacy because it emphasizes distinct aspects of learning with representations that can be addressed though explicit instruction. The second project was a metasynthesis of the research that was previously conducted as part of the Explicit Literacy Instruction Embedded in Middle School Science project (Pacific CRYSTAL, http://www.educ.uvic.ca/pacificcrystal). Five overarching themes emerged from this case-to-case synthesis: the engaging and effective nature of multimedia genres, opportunities for differentiated instruction using multimodal strategies, opportunities for assessment, an emphasis on visual representations, and the robustness of some multimodal literacy strategies across content areas. The third project was a mixed-methods verification study that was conducted to refine and validate the theoretical framework. This study examined middle school students' representational competence and focused on students' creation of visual representations such as labelled diagrams, a form of representation commonly found in science information texts and textbooks. An analysis of the 31 Grade 6 participants' representations and semistructured interviews revealed five themes, each of which supports one or more dimensions of the exploratory framework: participants' use of color, participants' choice of representation (form and function), participants' method of planning for representing, participants' knowledge of conventions, and participants' selection of information to represent. Together, the results of these three projects highlight the need for further research on learning with rather than learning from representations.

Tippett, Christine Diane

30

Women in Sanaa: Public Appearance and Visual Representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An exponential increase in media usage in the Yemeni capital, Sanaa (foreign satellite channels, Yemeni TV, photography and video changes not only the (media public (Öffentlichkeit, but social spaces in a local setting within a particular global-local framework. In this article I discuss women in the Yemeni capital who use television and other pictorial representations strategically, and, in reworking the frontiers between visibility and invisibility, change the gendered social spaces of their life world (Lebenswelt. Pictures, as parts of the life world open up views into new spaces ([Blick-] Räume and make new relationships ([Blick-] Kontakte possible. Looks and gazes determine social space and play a part in the social construction of bodies and spaces. This is negotiated on the performative as well as on the discursive level. The case study I present is part of a larger research project based on one year of fieldwork, field notes and 45 hours of audio-visual material. Analysis of the discourses of young women about their own image practices reveals how they perceive the endangerment of a social order, how they articulate their interest in change, and their strategies for becoming "visible." Thus, this article refers to culturally different readings of what can be seen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902150

Irina Linke

2009-03-01

31

Parallel representation of stimulus identity and intensity in a dual pathway model inspired by the olfactory system of the honeybee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The honeybee Apis mellifera has a remarkable ability to detect and locate food sources during foraging, and to associate odor cues with food rewards. In the honeybee’s olfactory system, sensory input is first processed in the antennal lobe (AL network. Uniglomerular projection neurons (PNs convey the sensory code from the AL to higher brain regions via two parallel but anatomically distinct pathways, the lateral and the medial antenno-cerebral tract (l- and m-ACT. Neurons innervating either tract show characteristic differences in odor selectivity, concentration dependence, and representation of mixtures. It is still unknown how this differential stimulus representation is achieved within the AL network. In this contribution, we use a computational network model to demonstrate that the experimentally observed features of odor coding in PNs can be reproduced by varying lateral inhibition and gain control in an otherwise unchanged AL network. We show that odor coding in the l-ACT supports detection and accurate identification of weak odor traces at the expense of concentration sensitivity, while odor coding in the m-ACT provides the basis for the computation and following of concentration gradients but provides weaker discrimination power. Both coding strategies are mutually exclusive, which creates a tradeoff between detection accuracy and sensitivity. The development of two parallel systems may thus reflect an evolutionary solution to this problem that enables honeybees to achieve both tasks during bee foraging in their natural environment, and which could inspire the development of artificial chemosensory devices for odor-guided navigation in robots.

MichaelSchmuker

2011-12-01

32

Computational intelligence in multi-feature visual pattern recognition hand posture and face recognition using biologically inspired approaches  

CERN Document Server

This book presents a collection of computational intelligence algorithms that addresses issues in visual pattern recognition such as high computational complexity, abundance of pattern features, sensitivity to size and shape variations and poor performance against complex backgrounds. The book has 3 parts. Part 1 describes various research issues in the field with a survey of the related literature. Part 2 presents computational intelligence based algorithms for feature selection and classification. The algorithms are discriminative and fast. The main application area considered is hand posture recognition. The book also discusses utility of these algorithms in other visual as well as non-visual pattern recognition tasks including face recognition, general object recognition and cancer / tumor classification. Part 3 presents biologically inspired algorithms for feature extraction. The visual cortex model based features discussed have invariance with respect to appearance and size of the hand, and provide good...

Pisharady, Pramod Kumar; Poh, Loh Ai

2014-01-01

33

Interactivity of Visual Mathematical Representations: Factors Affecting Learning and Cognitive Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer-based mathematical cognitive tools (MCTs) are a category of external aids intended to support and enhance learning and cognitive processes of learners. MCTs often contain interactive visual mathematical representations (VMRs), where VMRs are graphical representations that encode properties and relationships of mathematical concepts. In…

Sedig, Kamran; Liang, Hai-Ning

2006-01-01

34

Representation of spatial frequency and orientation in the visual cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge of the response of the primary visual cortex to the various spatial frequencies and orientations in the visual scene should help us understand the principles by which the brain recognizes patterns. Current information about the cortical layout of spatial frequency response is still incomplete because of difficulties in recording and interpreting adequate data. Here, we report results from a study of the cat primary visual cortex in which we employed a new image-analysis method that ...

Everson, R. M.; Prashanth, A. K.; Gabbay, M.; Knight, B. W.; Sirovich, L.; Kaplan, E.

1998-01-01

35

Visualization and Rule Validation in Human-Behavior Representation  

Science.gov (United States)

Human behavior representation (HBR) models simulate human behaviors and responses. The Joint Crowd Federate [TM] cognitive model developed by the Virginia Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation Center (VMASC) and licensed by WernerAnderson, Inc., models the cognitive behavior of crowds to provide credible crowd behavior in support of military…

Moya, Lisa Jean; McKenzie, Frederic D.; Nguyen, Quynh-Anh H.

2008-01-01

36

Chu Culture Modeling Elements and Their Inspiration for Urban Visual Image Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper will concentrate on the artifact culture of Hubei, the cradle of Chu culture. It begins with the analysis of visual elements in ancient Chu culture, including the forms, colors, ornamentations, etc. Based on that, it explores the possibility of adopting the essence of visual art in Chu culture into contemporary urban visual design of Hubei province.

Jianwen LI

2014-04-01

37

Ontological representation of context knowledge for visual data fusion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Context knowledge is essential to achieve successful information fusion, especially at high JDL levels. Context can be used to interpret the perceived situation, which is required for accurate assessment. Both types of knowledge, contextual and perceptual, can be represented with formal languages such as ontologies, which support the creation of readable representations and reasoning with them. In this paper, we present an ontology-based model compliant with JDL to represent knowledge in cogn...

Go?mez Romero, Juan; Patricio Guisado, Miguel A?ngel; Garci?a, Jesu?s; Molina, Jose? M.

2009-01-01

38

North Korea and the politics of visual representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within international discourses on security, North Korea is often associated with risk and danger, emanating paradoxically from what can be called its strengths - particularly military strength, as embodied by its missile and nuclear programs - and its weaknesses - such as its ever-present political, economic, and food crises - which are considered to be imminent threats to international peace and stability. We argue that images play an important role in these representations, and suggest tha...

2011-01-01

39

Visual Representation of the Numeric Bioenvironmental Data Display of the International Space Station's Flight Surgeon Console  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Certain visual information displays can be better than others in conveying similar information [1,2,3]. Representational analysis was conducted to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the newly designed graphic data display of the numeric bioenvironmental data display currently used by the Biomedical Engineers (BMEs) to monitor the International Space Station's (ISS) environment. Results support the practical application of representational analysis in the design of relational information...

Rinkus, Susan; Gong, Yang

2002-01-01

40

Blind Audio-Visual Source Separation Using Sparse Redundant Representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report presents a new method to confront the Blind Audio Source Separation (BASS) problem, by means of audio and visual information. In a given mixture, we are able to locate the video sources first and, posteriorly, recover each source signal, only with one microphone and the associated video. The proposed model is based on the Matching Pursuit (MP) [18] decomposition of both audio and video signals into meaningful structures. Frequency components are extracted from the soundtrack, wit...

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Suppressive lateral interactions at parafoveal representations in primary visual cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The perceptual salience and visibility of image elements is influenced by other elements in their vicinity. The perceptual effect of image elements on an adjacent target element depends on their relative orientation. Collinear flanking elements usually improve sensitivity for the target element while orthogonal elements have a weaker effect. It is believed that the collinear flankers exert these effects through lateral interactions between neurons in the primary visual cortex (area V1), but t...

2010-01-01

42

The role of feedback in shaping neural representations in cat visual cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the primary visual cortex, neurons with similar response preferences are grouped into domains forming continuous maps of stimulus orientation and direction of movement. These properties are widely believed to result from the combination of ascending and lateral interactions in the visual system. We have tested this view by examining the influence of deactivating feedback signals descending from the visuoparietal cortex on the emergence of these response properties and representations in ca...

Galuske, Ralf A. W.; Schmidt, Kerstin E.; Goebel, Rainer; Lomber, Stephen G.; Payne, Bertram R.

2002-01-01

43

Visual Representations by Cortical Somatostatin Inhibitory Neurons - Selective but with Weak and Delayed Responses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Somatostatin-expressing inhibitory (SOM) neurons in the sensory cortex consist mostly of Martinotti cells, which project ascending axons to layer 1. Due to their sparse distribution, the representational properties of these neurons remain largely unknown. By two-photon imaging guided cell-attached recordings, we characterized visual response and receptive field (RF) properties of SOM neurons and parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory (PV) neurons genetically labelled in the mouse primary visual co...

2010-01-01

44

Visual enhancement of the information representation in auditory cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combining information across different sensory modalities can greatly facilitate our ability to detect, discriminate, or recognize sensory stimuli. Although this process of sensory integration has usually been attributed to classical association cortices, recent work has demonstrated that neuronal activity in early sensory cortices can also be influenced by cross-modal inputs. Here we demonstrate that such "early" multisensory influences enhance the information carried by neurons about multisensory stimuli. By recording in auditory cortex of alert monkeys watching naturalistic audiovisual stimuli, we quantified the effect of visual influences on the trial-to-trial response variability and on the amount of information carried by neural responses. We found that firing rates and precisely timed spike patterns of individual units became more reliable across trials and time when multisensory stimuli were presented, leading to greater encoded stimulus information. Importantly, this multisensory information enhancement was much reduced when the visual stimulus did not match the sound. These results demonstrate that multisensory influences enhance information processing already at early stages in cortex, suggesting that sensory integration is a distributed process, commencing in lower sensory areas and continuing in higher association cortices. PMID:20036538

Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Panzeri, Stefano

2010-01-12

45

Emergence of realism: Enhanced visual artistry and high accuracy of visual numerosity representation after left prefrontal damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last two decades, evidence of enhancement of drawing and painting skills due to focal prefrontal damage has accumulated. It is of special interest that most artworks created by such patients were highly realistic ones, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains to be understood. Our hypothesis is that enhanced tendency of realism was associated with accuracy of visual numerosity representation, which has been shown to be mediated predominantly by right parietal functions. Here, we report a case of left prefrontal stroke, where the patient showed enhancement of artistic skills of realistic painting after the onset of brain damage. We investigated cognitive, functional and esthetic characteristics of the patient?s visual artistry and visual numerosity representation. Neuropsychological tests revealed impaired executive function after the stroke. Despite that, the patient?s visual artistry related to realism was rather promoted across the onset of brain damage as demonstrated by blind evaluation of the paintings by professional art reviewers. On visual numerical cognition tasks, the patient showed higher performance in comparison with age-matched healthy controls. These results paralleled increased perfusion in the right parietal cortex including the precuneus and intraparietal sulcus. Our data provide new insight into mechanisms underlying change in artistic style due to focal prefrontal lesion. PMID:24631259

Takahata, Keisuke; Saito, Fumie; Muramatsu, Taro; Yamada, Makiko; Shirahase, Joichiro; Tabuchi, Hajime; Suhara, Tetsuya; Mimura, Masaru; Kato, Motoichiro

2014-05-01

46

Model for the Detection of Moving Targets in Visual Clutter Inspired by Insect Physiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a computational model for target discrimination based on intracellular recordings from neurons in the fly visual system. Determining how insects detect and track small moving features, often against cluttered moving backgrounds, is an intriguin...

D. C. O'Carroll P. A. Shoemarker S. D. Wiederman

2008-01-01

47

Representations of the Moon in Children's Literature: An Analysis of Written and Visual Text  

Science.gov (United States)

This review focused on the written and visual representation of the moon in 80 children's books, including Caldecott Medal and Honor books over the past 20 years. Results revealed that many of these books misrepresent the moon and even reinforce misconceptions about lunar phases. Teachers who use children's literature that misrepresents the moon…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Troland, Thomas H.; Pritchard, T. Gail

2008-01-01

48

Generating and Analyzing Visual Representations of Conic Sections with the Use of Technological Tools  

Science.gov (United States)

Technological tools have the potential to offer students the possibility to represent information and relationships embedded in problems and concepts in ways that involve numerical, algebraic, geometric, and visual approaches. In this paper, the authors present and discuss an example in which an initial representation of a mathematical object…

Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Espinosa-Perez, Hugo; Reyes-Rodriguez, Aaron

2006-01-01

49

Representations of facial identity information in the ventral visual stream investigated with multivoxel pattern analyses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The neural basis of face recognition has been investigated extensively. Using fMRI, several regions have been identified in the human ventral visual stream that seem to be involved in processing and identifying faces, but the nature of the face representations in these regions is not well known. In particular, multivoxel pattern analyses have revealed distributed maps within these regions, but did not reveal the organizing principles of these maps. Here we isolated different types of perceptual and conceptual face properties to determine which properties are mapped in which regions. A set of faces was created with systematic manipulations of featural and configural visual characteristics. In a second part of the study, personal and spatial context information was added to all faces except one. The perceptual properties of faces were represented in face regions and in other regions of interest such as early visual and object-selective cortex. Only representations in early visual cortex were correlated with pixel-based similarities between the stimuli. The representation of nonperceptual properties was less distributed. In particular, the spatial location associated with a face was only represented in the parahippocampal place area. These findings demonstrate a relatively distributed representation of perceptual and conceptual face properties that involves both face-selective/sensitive and non-face-selective cortical regions. PMID:23658192

Goesaert, Elfi; Op de Beeck, Hans P

2013-05-01

50

Representation of the material properties of objects in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information about the material from which objects are made provide rich and useful clues that enable us to categorize and identify those objects, know their state (e.g., ripeness of fruits), and properly act on them. However, despite its importance, little is known about the neural processes that underlie material perception in nonhuman primates. Here we conducted an fMRI experiment in awake macaque monkeys to explore how information about various real-world materials is represented in the visual areas of monkeys, how these neural representations correlate with perceptual material properties, and how they correspond to those in human visual areas that have been studied previously. Using a machine-learning technique, the representation in each visual area was read out from multivoxel patterns of regional activity elicited in response to images of nine real-world material categories (metal, wood, fur, etc.). The congruence of the neural representations with either a measure of low-level image properties, such as spatial frequency content, or with the visuotactile properties of materials, such as roughness, hardness, and warmness, were tested. We show that monkey V1 shares a common representation with human early visual areas reflecting low-level image properties. By contrast, monkey V4 and the posterior inferior temporal cortex represent the visuotactile properties of material, as in human ventral higher visual areas, although there were some interspecies differences in the representational structures. We suggest that, in monkeys, V4 and the posterior inferior temporal cortex are important stages for constructing information about the material properties of objects from their low-level image features. PMID:24523555

Goda, Naokazu; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Okazawa, Gouki; Komatsu, Hidehiko

2014-02-12

51

The visual language of spatial representation – a barrier, or a crossroad?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with techniques of representation of architectural and urbanistic ideas about space and its changes. It delves into the communication process between co-creators of space and points out the issue of different understanding of visual representation techniques that stem from different levels in capabilities of visual expression and understanding of visual messages. The issue of ignorance of specifics of professional language is emphasised as a consequence of its habitualness. The presented research checks and analyses the effect of abstract/concrete visual representation and their effectiveness in communicating messages to expert and lay publics. Following the discussion about results, numerous new issues arise, concerning possibilities for narrowing the gap between various publics and finding common ground. Amongst different solutions about improving communication between actors in the creation of space, the article emphasises the potential of permanent education. However the quest is not for improvements in general understanding of visual language, but consequentially to devise ways, modes and their positive consequences on the cultural environment and spatial culture.

Tadeja Zupan?i? Strojan

2003-01-01

52

Spatializing visual exploration: Transforming interactive visual analysis into spatial representations to aid sensemaking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interactive visual analysis is the process of collecting insights about a dataset, while using one or more interactive data visualization techniques. The process is based on the progressive refinement of an analyst's knowledge about the dataset, while using different interaction and analytical operations. In the presence of large and complex datasets, interactive visual analysis often places a high cognitive load on the analyst in terms of memory, perception, and reasoning. For example, wh...

2013-01-01

53

A Model for the Detection of Moving Targets in Visual Clutter Inspired by Insect Physiology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a computational model for target discrimination based on intracellular recordings from neurons in the fly visual system. Determining how insects detect and track small moving features, often against cluttered moving backgrounds, is an intriguing challenge, both from a physiological and a computational perspective. Previous research has characterized higher-order neurons within the fly brain, known as ‘small target motion detectors’ (STMD), that respond robustly to moving featur...

2008-01-01

54

Experience-driven formation of parts-based representations in a model of layered visual memory  

CERN Document Server

Growing neuropsychological and neurophysiological evidence suggests that the visual cortex uses parts-based representations to encode, store and retrieve relevant objects. In such a scheme, objects are represented as a set of spatially distributed local features, or parts, arranged in stereotypical fashion. To encode the local appearance and to represent the relations between the constituent parts, there has to be an appropriate memory structure formed by previous experience with visual objects. Here, we propose a model how a hierarchical memory structure supporting efficient storage and rapid recall of parts-based representations can be established by an experience-driven process of self-organization. The process is based on the collaboration of slow bidirectional synaptic plasticity and homeostatic unit activity regulation, both running at the top of fast activity dynamics with winner-take-all character. These neural mechanisms lay down the basis for cooperation and competition between the distributed units...

Jitsev, Jenia

2009-01-01

55

Circular representation of human cortical networks for subject and population-level connectomic visualization  

Science.gov (United States)

Cortical network architecture has predominantly been investigated visually using graph theory representations. In the context of human connectomics, such representations are not however always satisfactory because canonical methods for vertex–edge relationship representation do not always offer optimal insight regarding functional and structural neural connectivity. This article introduces an innovative framework for the depiction of human connectomics by employing a circular visualization method which is highly suitable to the exploration of central nervous system architecture. This type of representation, which we name a ‘connectogram’, has the capability of classifying neuroconnectivity relationships intuitively and elegantly. A multimodal protocol for MRI/DTI neuroimaging data acquisition is here combined with automatic image segmentation to (1) extract cortical and non-cortical anatomical structures, (2) calculate associated volumetrics and morphometrics, and (3) determine patient-specific connectivity profiles to generate subject-level and population-level connectograms. The scalability of our approach is demonstrated for a population of 50 adults. Two essential advantages of the connectogram are (1) the enormous potential for mapping and analyzing the human connectome, and (2) the unconstrained ability to expand and extend this analysis framework to the investigation of clinical populations and animal models.

Irimia, Andrei; Chambers, Micah C.; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Van, John D.

2012-01-01

56

A model for the detection of moving targets in visual clutter inspired by insect physiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a computational model for target discrimination based on intracellular recordings from neurons in the fly visual system. Determining how insects detect and track small moving features, often against cluttered moving backgrounds, is an intriguing challenge, both from a physiological and a computational perspective. Previous research has characterized higher-order neurons within the fly brain, known as 'small target motion detectors' (STMD), that respond robustly to moving features, even when the velocity of the target is matched to the background (i.e. with no relative motion cues). We recorded from intermediate-order neurons in the fly visual system that are well suited as a component along the target detection pathway. This full-wave rectifying, transient cell (RTC) reveals independent adaptation to luminance changes of opposite signs (suggesting separate ON and OFF channels) and fast adaptive temporal mechanisms, similar to other cell types previously described. From this physiological data we have created a numerical model for target discrimination. This model includes nonlinear filtering based on the fly optics, the photoreceptors, the 1(st) order interneurons (Large Monopolar Cells), and the newly derived parameters for the RTC. We show that our RTC-based target detection model is well matched to properties described for the STMDs, such as contrast sensitivity, height tuning and velocity tuning. The model output shows that the spatiotemporal profile of small targets is sufficiently rare within natural scene imagery to allow our highly nonlinear 'matched filter' to successfully detect most targets from the background. Importantly, this model can explain this type of feature discrimination without the need for relative motion cues. PMID:18665213

Wiederman, Steven D; Shoemaker, Patrick A; O'Carroll, David C

2008-01-01

57

Representação visual de estruturas biológicas em materiais de ensino Visual representation of biological structures in teaching material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade de se definir parâmetros de apresentação e tratamento da informação científica em materiais de ensino. Através de consultas a bibliotecas e a especialistas em ciências da saúde e artes gráficas e visuais, fez-se uma pesquisa que resultou na descrição comparativa entre as primeiras manifestações da ilustração científica na anatomia e a trajetória da representação visual do conhecimento sobre a célula. O estudo traz ainda exemplos significativos de ilustrações utilizadas como elementos de análise.Parameters must be defined for presenting and handling scientific information presented in the form of teaching materials. Through library research and consultations with specialists in the health sciences and in graphic arts and design, this study undertook a comparative description of the first examples of scientific illustrations of anatomy and the evolution of visual representations of knowledge on the cell. The study includes significant examples of illustrations which served as elements of analysis.

Marina Azevedo Morato

1998-10-01

58

Learning shapes the representation of visual categories in the aging human brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to make categorical decisions and interpret sensory experiences is critical for survival and interactions across the lifespan. However, little is known about the human brain mechanisms that mediate the learning and representation of visual categories in aging. Here we combine behavioral measurements and fMRI measurements to investigate the neural processes that mediate flexible category learning in the aging human brain. Our findings show that training changes the decision criterion (i.e., categorical boundary) that young and older observers use for making categorical judgments. Comparing the behavioral choices of human observers with those of a pattern classifier based upon multivoxel fMRI signals, we demonstrate learning-dependent changes in similar cortical areas for young and older adults. In particular, we show that neural signals in occipito-temporal and posterior parietal regions change through learning to reflect the perceived visual categories. Information in these areas about the perceived visual categories is preserved in aging, whereas information content is compromised in more anterior parietal and frontal circuits. Thus, these findings provide novel evidence for flexible category learning in aging that shapes the neural representations of visual categories to reflect the observers' behavioral judgments. PMID:20044888

Mayhew, Stephen D; Li, Sheng; Storrar, Joshua K; Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Kourtzi, Zoe

2010-12-01

59

Visual representation of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease and Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network criteria for anaphylaxis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a user-friendly visual representation of The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease and the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network criteria so as to enhance recognition of anaphylaxis and active teaching and learning.

2009-01-01

60

Automatic frame-centered object representation and integration revealed by iconic memory, visual priming, and backward masking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object identities (“what”) and their spatial locations (“where”) are processed in distinct pathways in the visual system, raising the question of how the what and where information is integrated. Because of object motions and eye movements, the retina-based representations are unstable, necessitating nonretinotopic representation and integration. A potential mechanism is to code and update objects according to their reference frames (i.e., frame-centered representation and integration...

Lin, Zhicheng; He, Sheng

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Social Categories Shape the Neural Representation of Emotion: Evidence from a Visual Face Adaptation Task.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of recent behavioral studies have shown that emotional expressions are differently perceived depending on the race of a face, and that that perception of race cues is influenced by emotional expressions. However, neural processes related to the perception of invariant cues that indicate the identity of a face (such as race are often described to proceed independently of processes related to the perception of cues that can vary over time (such as emotion. Using a visual face adaptation paradigm, we tested whether these behavioral interactions between emotion and race also reflect interdependent neural representation of emotion and race. We compared visual emotion aftereffects when the adapting face and ambiguous test face differed in race or not. Emotion aftereffects were much smaller in different race trials than same race trials, indicating that the neural representation of a facial expression is significantly different depending on whether the emotional face is black or white. It thus seems that invariable cues such as race interact with variable face cues such as emotion not just at a response level, but also at the level of perception and neural representation.

MarteOtten

2012-02-01

62

The representation of conceptual knowledge: visual, auditory, and olfactory imagery compared with semantic processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments comparing imaginative processing in different modalities and semantic processing were carried out to investigate the issue of whether conceptual knowledge can be represented in different format. Participants were asked to judge the similarity between visual images, auditory images, and olfactory images in the imaginative block, if two items belonged to the same category in the semantic block. Items were verbally cued in both experiments. The degree of similarity between the imaginative and semantic items was changed across experiments. Experiment 1 showed that the semantic processing was faster than the visual and the auditory imaginative processing, whereas no differentiation was possible between the semantic processing and the olfactory imaginative processing. Experiment 2 revealed that only the visual imaginative processing could be differentiated from the semantic processing in terms of accuracy. These results showed that the visual and auditory imaginative processing can be differentiated from the semantic processing, although both visual and auditory images strongly rely on semantic representations. On the contrary, no differentiation is possible within the olfactory domain. Results are discussed in the frame of the imagery debate. PMID:24337415

Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Matteo, Rosalia; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

2014-05-01

63

Scene classification based on spatial pyramid representation by superpixel lattices and contextual visual features  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural scene classification is a challenging open problem in computer vision. We present a novel spatial pyramid representation scheme for recognizing scene category. Initially, each image is partitioned into sub-blocks, applying the technology of superpixel lattices segmentation according to a boosted edge learning boundary map, which makes the objects in each sub-block have the integrity--that is, the features in each sub-block are relatively consistent. Then, we extract the dense scale-invariant feature transform features of the images and form the contextual visual feature description. Finally, the image representations are performed by following the methodology of spatial pyramid. The feature descriptions we present include both local structural information and global spatial structural information; therefore, they are more discriminative for scene classification. Experiments demonstrate that the classification rate can achieve about 87.13% on a set of 15 categories of complex scenes.

Gu, Guanghua; Li, Fengcai; Zhao, Yao; Zhu, Zhenfeng

2012-01-01

64

Toward a higher-level visual representation for content-based image retrieval  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Having effective methods to access the desired images is essential nowadays with the availability of a huge amount of digital images. The proposed approach is based on an analogy between content-based image retrieval and text retrieval. The aim of the approach is to build a meaningful mid-level representation of images to be used later on for matching between a query image and other images in the desired database. The approach is based firstly on constructing different visual words using loca...

Elsayad, Ismail; Martinet, Jean; Urruty, Thierry; Djeraba, Chabane

2012-01-01

65

Neural Representations of Contextual Guidance in Visual Search of Real-World Scenes  

Science.gov (United States)

Exploiting scene context and object– object co-occurrence is critical in guiding eye movements and facilitating visual search, yet the mediating neural mechanisms are unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging while observers searched for target objects in scenes and used multivariate pattern analyses (MVPA) to show that the lateral occipital complex (LOC) can predict the coarse spatial location of observers’ expectations about the likely location of 213 different targets absent from the scenes. In addition, we found weaker but significant representations of context location in an area related to the orienting of attention (intraparietal sulcus, IPS) as well as a region related to scene processing (retrosplenial cortex, RSC). Importantly, the degree of agreement among 100 independent raters about the likely location to contain a target object in a scene correlated with LOC’s ability to predict the contextual location while weaker but significant effects were found in IPS, RSC, the human motion area, and early visual areas (V1, V3v). When contextual information was made irrelevant to observers’ behavioral task, the MVPA analysis of LOC and the other areas’ activity ceased to predict the location of context. Thus, our findings suggest that the likely locations of targets in scenes are represented in various visual areas with LOC playing a key role in contextual guidance during visual search of objects in real scenes.

Preston, Tim J.; Guo, Fei; Das, Koel; Giesbrecht, Barry; Eckstein, Miguel P.

2014-01-01

66

Spatial specificity of working memory representations in the early visual cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent fMRI decoding studies have demonstrated that early retinotopic visual areas exhibit similar patterns of activity during the perception of a stimulus and during the maintenance of that stimulus in working memory. These findings provide support for the sensory recruitment hypothesis that the mechanisms underlying perception serve as a foundation for visual working memory. However, a recent study by Ester, Serences, and Awh (2009) found that the orientation of a peripheral grating maintained in working memory could be classified from both the contralateral and ipsilateral regions of the primary visual cortex (V1), implying that, unlike perception, feature-specific information was maintained in a nonretinotopic manner. Here, we evaluated the hypothesis that early visual areas can maintain information in a spatially specific manner and will do so if the task encourages the binding of feature information to a specific location. To encourage reliance on spatially specific memory, our experiment required observers to retain the orientations of two laterally presented gratings. Multivariate pattern analysis revealed that the orientation of each remembered grating was classified more accurately based on activity patterns in the contralateral than in the ipsilateral regions of V1 and V2. In contrast, higher extrastriate areas exhibited similar levels of performance across the two hemispheres. A time-resolved analysis further indicated that the retinotopic specificity of the working memory representation in V1 and V2 was maintained throughout the retention interval. Our results suggest that early visual areas provide a cortical basis for actively maintaining information about the features and locations of stimuli in visual working memory. PMID:24648192

Pratte, Michael S; Tong, Frank

2014-01-01

67

Representação visual de estruturas biológicas em materiais de ensino / Visual representation of biological structures in teaching material  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade de se definir parâmetros de apresentação e tratamento da informação científica em materiais de ensino. Através de consultas a bibliotecas e a especialistas em ciências da saúde e artes gráficas e visuais, fez-se uma pesquisa que resultou na descrição compa [...] rativa entre as primeiras manifestações da ilustração científica na anatomia e a trajetória da representação visual do conhecimento sobre a célula. O estudo traz ainda exemplos significativos de ilustrações utilizadas como elementos de análise. Abstract in english Parameters must be defined for presenting and handling scientific information presented in the form of teaching materials. Through library research and consultations with specialists in the health sciences and in graphic arts and design, this study undertook a comparative description of the first ex [...] amples of scientific illustrations of anatomy and the evolution of visual representations of knowledge on the cell. The study includes significant examples of illustrations which served as elements of analysis.

Marina Azevedo, Morato; Miriam, Struchiner; Eduardo, Bordoni; Regina Maria Vieira, Ricciardi.

68

The role of visual representations in the learning and teaching of science: An introduction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Representations are the entities with which all thinking is considered to take place. Hence they are central to the process of learning and consequently to that of teaching. They are therefore important in the conduct and learning of science, given the central commitment of that discipline to providing evidence-based explanations of natural phenomena, in which underlying entities and mechanisms have to be postulated and substantiated on the basis of empirical enquiry. The three generic types of representation and the modes in which they are expressed are presented against the background of an established model of their acquisition, processing and display. The two meanings of ‘visualization’ are discussed as is the key role played by fluency in them in the attainment of expert status in the processes of science. The nature and origins of students’ problems in attaining this ‘metavisual competence’ are derived from a review of the literature. Good practice in the teaching of the conventions of representation is suggested. Specific research and development is needed if this key aspect of knowledge acquisition and display is to be fully recognised in the varied curricula of formal science education and in the provision of opportunities for the informal communication of science.

John K. GILBERT

2010-06-01

69

Exploiting a Reliable Structural Appearance Model for Visual Tracking with Sparse Representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study proposes a novel approach of exploiting a reliable structural appearance model for visual tracking. The proposed method samples overlapped local image patches within the target region and evaluates the reliabilities of these local patches respectively by introducing a sample based local sparse representation for each local patch. The occluded or deteriorative patches are excluded, only the stable ones are employed to construct a reliable structural appearance model, which is used for likelihood computation. In addition, the reliability evaluation of local patch facilitates our selective update scheme, by which we reduce the influence of the occluded target template and alleviate the drift problem. Experiments on challenging video sequences demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm performs favorably against several state-of-the-art methods.

Hainan Zhao

2013-01-01

70

The effects of a visualization-centered curriculum on conceptual understanding and representational competence in high school biology  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a visualization-centered curriculum, Hemoglobin: A Case of Double Identity, on conceptual understanding and representational competence in high school biology. Sixty-nine students enrolled in three sections of freshman biology taught by the same teacher participated in this study. Online Chemscape Chime computer-based molecular visualizations were incorporated into the 10-week curriculum to introduce students to fundamental structure and function relationships. Measures used in this study included a Hemoglobin Structure and Function Test, Mental Imagery Questionnaire, Exam Difficulty Survey, the Student Assessment of Learning Gains, the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking, the Attitude Toward Science in School Assessment, audiotapes of student interviews, students' artifacts, weekly unit activity surveys, informal researcher observations and a teacher's weekly questionnaire. The Hemoglobin Structure and Function Test, consisting of Parts A and B, was administered as a pre and posttest. Part A used exclusively verbal test items to measure conceptual understanding, while Part B used visual-verbal test items to measure conceptual understanding and representational competence. Results of the Hemoglobin Structure and Function pre and posttest revealed statistically significant gains in conceptual understanding and representational competence, suggesting the visualization-centered curriculum implemented in this study was effective in supporting positive learning outcomes. The large positive correlation between posttest results on Part A, comprised of all-verbal test items, and Part B, using visual-verbal test items, suggests this curriculum supported students' mutual development of conceptual understanding and representational competence. Evidence based on student interviews, Student Assessment of Learning Gains ratings and weekly activity surveys indicated positive attitudes toward the use of Chemscape Chime software and the computer-based molecular visualization activities as learning tools. Evidence from these same sources also indicated that students felt computer-based molecular visualization activities in conjunction with other classroom activities supported their learning. Implications for instructional design are discussed.

Wilder, Anna

71

Developmental dissociation of visual dorsal stream parvo and magnocellular representations and the functional impact of negative retinotopic BOLD responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Localized neurodevelopmental defects provide an opportunity to study structure-function correlations in the human nervous system. This unique multimodal case report of epileptogenic dysplasia in the visual cortex allowed exploring visual function across distinct pathways in retinotopic regions and the dorsal stream, in relation to fMRI retinotopic mapping and spike triggered BOLD responses. Pre-surgical EEG/video monitoring, MRI/DTI, EEG/fMRI, PET and SPECT were performed to characterize structure/function correlations in this patient with a very early lesion onset. In addition, we included psychophysical methods (assessing parvo/konio and magnocellular pathways) and retinotopic mapping. We could identify dorsal stream impairment (with extended contrast sensitivity deficits within the input magno system contrasting with more confined parvocellular deficits) with disrupted active visual field input representations in regions neighboring the lesion. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI identified perilesional and retinotopic bilaterally symmetric BOLD deactivation triggered by interictal spikes, which matched the contralateral spread of magnocellular dysfunction revealed in the psychophysical tests. Topographic changes in retinotopic organization further suggested long term functional effects of abnormal electrical discharges during brain development. We conclude that fMRI based visual field cortical mapping shows evidence for retinotopic dissociation between magno and parvocellular function well beyond striate cortex, identifiable in high level dorsal visual representations around visual area V3A which is consistent with the effects of epileptic spike triggered negative BOLD. PMID:23933589

Duarte, Isabel Catarina; Cunha, Gil; Castelhano, João; Sales, Francisco; Reis, Aldina; Cunha, João Paulo Silva; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

2013-10-01

72

Two independent sources of anisotropy in the visual representation of direction in 2-D space.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that visual direction representation is more accurate for cardinal directions compared to oblique, a phenomenon named the "oblique effect". It has been hypothesized that there are two sources of oblique effect, a low level one confined to vision and a high level one extending to different modalities and corresponding to higher cognitive processes. In this study directional error (DE) was measured when normal individuals tried to align the direction of an arrow presented in the center of a computer monitor to the direction of a peripheral target located in one of 32 directions equally spaced on an imaginary circle of 60 mm radius. Task difficulty was manipulated by varying arrow length (15, 30, 45 and 60 mm). By measuring mean DE and its variance we identified two independent sources of the oblique effect. A low level oblique effect was manifested in higher accuracy or equivalently lower variance of DE in the alignment for cardinal orientations compared to oblique. A second oblique effect was manifested measuring mean DE resulting in space expansion in the vicinity of cardinal directions and space contraction in the vicinity of oblique directions. Only this latter source of oblique effect was modulated by arrow length as predicted from a theoretical model postulating that this oblique effect is produced by a cognitive process of 2-D space categorization. PMID:24696139

Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Mantas, Asimakis; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

2014-07-01

73

The Use of Multiple Representations and Visualizations in Student Learning of Introductory Physics: An Example from Work and Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past three decades, physics education research has primarily focused on student conceptual understanding; little work has been conducted to investigate student difficulties in problem solving. In cognitive science and psychology, however, extensive studies have explored the differences in problem solving between experts and naive students. A major finding indicates that experts often apply qualitative representations in problem solving, but that novices use an equation-centered method. This dissertation describes investigations into the use of multiple representations and visualizations in student understanding and problem solving with the concepts of work and energy.

Zou, Xueli

2006-06-16

74

Discourse-mediation of the mapping between language and the visual world: Eye movements and mental representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two experiments explored the mapping between language and mental representations of visual scenes. In both experiments, participants viewed, for example, a scene depicting a woman, a wine glass and bottle on the floor, an empty table, and various other objects. In Experiment 1, participants concurrently heard either ‘The woman will put the glass on the table’ or ‘The woman is too lazy to put the glass on the table’. Subsequently, with the scene unchanged, participants heard that the w...

Altmann, Gerry T. M.; Kamide, Yuki

2009-01-01

75

Representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud en la discapacidad visual / Social representation of the health service providers in visual disability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el conocimiento de la representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud resulta de suma importancia para la salud pública, debido a su influencia en la calidad de su relación con los pacientes. Objetivo: caracterizar la representación social de los prestadores de servicios [...] de salud acerca de la discapacidad visual. Métodos: estudio de caso realizado en el policlínico "Hermanos Ruíz Aboy" en San Miguel del Padrón en el período de enero a junio de 2012. Participaron 33 informantes clave escogidos por muestreo intencional. Las técnicas de indagación empleadas fueron la asociación libre de palabras y las entrevistas en profundidad. Resultados: el estudio reveló la existencia en los prestadores de una representación angustiosa-conmiserativa-dependiente que configura elementos provenientes de referentes experienciales, componentes afectivos e insumos informacionales relacionados con las personas en situación de discapacidad visual. Conclusiones: los prestadores de servicios de salud investigados tiene en el núcleo de sus representaciones experiencias y conocimientos relacionados con el daño anatómico que condiciona limitación e incapacidad para la participación en la vida social de las personas con discapacidad visual, pero las asociaciones relativas a las necesidades de atención, definen un deficiente reconocimiento de elementos que garantizarían la compensación e integración psicosocial en estas personas. Abstract in english Introduction: knowing the social representation of the health service providers is very important for the public health, due to their influence on the quality of relationship with the patients. Objective: to characterize the social representation of the health service providers on visual disability. [...] Methods: case study performed in "Hermanos Ruiz Aboy" in San Miguel del Padron municipality in the period of January through June, 2012. Thirty three key informants selected by intentional sampling participated. The research techniques were free association of words and in-depth interviews. Results: this study disclosed the existence in health providers of an anguishing-commisserative-dependent representation that shapes elements from experience referents, affective components and informational inputs related to the persons facing visual disability. Conclusions: the health service providers under research have, in the core of their representation, experiences and knowledge linked to the anatomical damage that causes limitation and disability to be involved in the people with visual disability; however, the relative associations with the care requirements define a poor recognition of those elements that would assure compensation and psychosocial integration of these people.

Guillermo, Díaz Llanes; Judith, Prieto Sedano.

76

How to make a good animation: A grounded cognition model of how visual representation design affects the construction of abstract physics knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual representations play a critical role in teaching physics. However, since we do not have a satisfactory understanding of how visual perception impacts the construction of abstract knowledge, most visual representations used in instructions are either created based on existing conventions or designed according to the instructor's intuition, which leads to a significant variance in their effectiveness. In this paper we propose a cognitive mechanism based on grounded cognition, suggesting that visual perception affects understanding by activating "perceptual symbols": the basic cognitive unit used by the brain to construct a concept. A good visual representation activates perceptual symbols that are essential for the construction of the represented concept, whereas a bad representation does the opposite. As a proof of concept, we conducted a clinical experiment in which participants received three different versions of a multimedia tutorial teaching the integral expression of electric potential. The three versions were only different by the details of the visual representation design, only one of which contained perceptual features that activate perceptual symbols essential for constructing the idea of "accumulation." On a following post-test, participants receiving this version of tutorial significantly outperformed those who received the other two versions of tutorials designed to mimic conventional visual representations used in classrooms.

Chen, Zhongzhou; Gladding, Gary

2014-06-01

77

Advancing Bag-of-Visual-Words Representations for Lesion Classification in Retinal Images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes that can lead to blindness if not readily discovered. Automated screening algorithms have the potential to improve identification of patients who need further medical attention. However, the identification of lesions must be accurate to be useful for clinical application. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) algorithm employs a maximum-margin classifier in a flexible framework that is able to detect the most common DR-related lesions such as microaneurysms, cotton-wool spots and hard exudates. BoVW allows to bypass the need for pre- and post-processing of the retinographic images, as well as the need of specific ad hoc techniques for identification of each type of lesion. An extensive evaluation of the BoVW model, using three large retinograph datasets (DR1, DR2 and Messidor) with different resolution and collected by different healthcare personnel, was performed. The results demonstrate that the BoVW classification approach can identify different lesions within an image without having to utilize different algorithms for each lesion reducing processing time and providing a more flexible diagnostic system. Our BoVW scheme is based on sparse low-level feature detection with a Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) local descriptor, and mid-level features based on semi-soft coding with max pooling. The best BoVW representation for retinal image classification was an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of 97.8% (exudates) and 93.5% (red lesions), applying a cross-dataset validation protocol. To assess the accuracy for detecting cases that require referral within one year, the sparse extraction technique associated with semi-soft coding and max pooling obtained an AUC of 94.2[Formula: see text]2.0%, outperforming current methods. Those results indicate that, for retinal image classification tasks in clinical practice, BoVW is equal and, in some instances, surpasses results obtained using dense detection (widely believed to be the best choice in many vision problems) for the low-level descriptors. PMID:24886780

Pires, Ramon; Jelinek, Herbert F; Wainer, Jacques; Valle, Eduardo; Rocha, Anderson

2014-01-01

78

Visualization of carbon dioxide sequestration issues within coal using a molecular representation of Pocahontas No. 3 coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Molecular modeling was employed to both visualize and probe our understanding of carbon dioxide sequestration within a bituminous coal. A large-scale (>20,000 atoms) 3D molecular representation of Pocahontas No. 3 coal was generated. This model was constructed based on a the review data of Stock and Muntean, oxidation and decarboxylation data for aromatic clustersize frequency of Stock and Obeng, and the combination of Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry data with HRTEM, enabled the inclusion of a molecular weight distribution. The model contains 21,931 atoms, with a molecular mass of 174,873 amu, and an average molecular weight of 714 amu, with 201 structural components. The structure was evaluated based on several characteristics to ensure a reasonable constitution (chemical and physical representation). The helium density of Pocahontas No. 3 coal is 1.34 g/cm{sup 3} (dmmf) and the model was 1.27 g/cm{sup 3}. The structure is microporous, with a pore volume comprising 34% of the volume as expected for a coal of this rank. The representation was used to visualize CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} capacity, and the role of moisture in swelling and CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} capacity reduction. Inclusion of 0.68% moisture by mass (ash-free) enabled the model to swell by 1.2% (volume). Inclusion of CO{sub 2} enabled volumetric swelling of 4%. 27 refs., 5 figs.

M.R. Narkiewicz; J.P. Mathews [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States). Department of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering

2005-07-01

79

Representações visuais para recuperação de informação na BDTD-UFPE / Visual representations to information retrieval in BDTD-UFPE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Analisa a aplicabilidade de visualizações, como interfaces amigáveis para Sistemas de Recuperação de Informação (SRIs), bem como discute a construção de representação visual de informações para o SRI da Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações (BDTD) da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE). A [...] metodologia consiste em estudo de caso, envolvendo análise do uso de visualizações em sites de SRIs e discussão dos caminhos percorridos para construção de visualizações para recuperação de teses e dissertações do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direto da UFPE. Conclui-se que interfaces de SRIs, que disponibilizam visualizações, transmitem informações de forma agradável e interativa, possibilitando a recuperação de documentos relevantes e garantido melhor socialização dos conhecimentos. Entretanto, a escolha da visualização a ser construída para determinado SRI, deve levar em conta não só as vantagens do uso das mesmas pelo usuário, mas, também, o atendimento aos requisitos de organização da informação necessários para construção de cada visualização. Abstract in english This article analyzes the applicability of visualizations as friendly interfaces for Information Retrieval Systems (IRSs) and discusses the construction of visual representation of information to the IRS of the Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (BDTD) at Federal University of Pernambuco (U [...] FPE). The methodology consists of case study involving analysis of the use of visualizations in SRIs sites, and discussion of the paths chosen to build visualizations for retrieval of theses and dissertations of the Law Graduate Program at UFPE. We conclude that SRI interfaces that provide visualizations convey information so enjoyable and interactive, allowing the retrieval of relevant documents and ensuring better socialization of knowledge. However, the choice of one visualization to be built for a specific SRI, should take into account not only the advantages for users of using the same, but also meeting the requirements of information organizing required for construction of each visualization.

Correa, Renato Fernandes; Vieira, Jessica Monique de Lira.

80

Preoperational Graphic Representation: From Intellectual Realism to Visual Realism in Draw a House-Tree Task.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a pilot study of children's drawings of "a house with a tree behind it," Piagetian sequence (scribbling, fortuitous realism, failed realism, intellectual realism, and visual realism) was tentatively supported. Children's strategies in decentering from intellectual to visual realism were noted. The study reported in this paper was undertaken to…

Kalyan-Masih, Violet

 
 
 
 
81

The VIPER project (Visualization Integration Platform for Exploration Research): a biologically inspired autonomous reconfigurable robotic platform for diverse unstructured environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade the world has seen numerous autonomous vehicle programs. Wheels and track designs are the basis for many of these vehicles. This is primarily due to four main reasons: a vast preexisting knowledge base for these designs, energy efficiency of power sources, scalability of actuators, and the lack of control systems technologies for handling alternate highly complex distributed systems. Though large efforts seek to improve the mobility of these vehicles, many limitations still exist for these systems within unstructured environments, e.g. limited mobility within industrial and nuclear accident sites where existing plant configurations have been extensively changed. These unstructured operational environments include missions for exploration, reconnaissance, and emergency recovery of objects within reconfigured or collapsed structures, e.g. bombed buildings. More importantly, these environments present a clear and present danger for direct human interactions during the initial phases of recovery operations. Clearly, the current classes of autonomous vehicles are incapable of performing in these environments. Thus the next generation of designs must include highly reconfigurable and flexible autonomous robotic platforms. This new breed of autonomous vehicles will be both highly flexible and environmentally adaptable. Presented in this paper is one of the most successful designs from nature, the snake-eel-worm (SEW). This design implements shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators which allow for scaling of the robotic SEW designs from sub-micron scale to heavy industrial implementations without major conceptual redesigns as required in traditional hydraulic, pneumatic, or motor driven systems. Autonomous vehicles based on the SEW design posses the ability to easily move between air based environments and fluid based environments with limited or no reconfiguration. Under a SEW designed vehicle, one not only achieves vastly improved maneuverability within a highly unstructured environment, but also gains robotic manipulation abilities, normally relegated as secondary add-ons within existing vehicles, all within one small condensed package. The prototype design presented includes a Beowulf style computing system for advanced guidance calculations and visualization computations. All of the design and implementation pertaining to the SEW robot discussed in this paper is the product of a student team under the summer fellowship program at the DOEs INEEL.

Schubert, Oliver J.; Tolle, Charles R.

2004-09-01

82

Developing a Local Instruction Theory for Learning the Concept of Angle through Visual Field Activities and Spatial Representations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports a study on designing and testing an instructional sequence for the teaching and learning of the concept of angle in Indonesian primary schools. The study’s context is employing the current reform movement adopting Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (an Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education. Using a design research approach, a hypothetical learning trajectory was developed and a set of activities was performed to gain a better understanding of how the third grade students’ (aged 8 – 9 years understanding of the concept of angle may be fostered. Theoretical development is driven by an iterative process of designing instructional activities, performing teaching experiments and conducting retrospective analysis in order to contribute to local instruction theory on the concept of angle. The concept of angle emerged and evolved during long term classroom activities of visual field activities involving vision and spatial representations. Classroom events were recorded, group works were video-taped and student materials were collected. Qualitative analysis of a teaching experiment showed that by conducting the visual field activities involving vision and constructing spatial representations, students could develop their understanding of the concept of angle as well as their initial understanding of the notion of vision lines and blind spots.

Bustang B

2013-07-01

83

Neuronal learning of invariant object representation in the ventral visual stream is not dependent on reward  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurons at the top of primate ventral visual stream (inferior temporal cortex, IT) have selectivity for objects that is highly tolerant to variation in the object’s appearance on the retina. Previous non-human primate (Macaca mulatta) studies suggest that this neuronal tolerance is at least partly supported by the natural temporal contiguity of visual experience, because altering that temporal contiguity can robustly alter adult IT position and size tolerance. According to that work, it is ...

Li, Nuo; Dicarlo, James J.

2012-01-01

84

User Interface for 3D Visualization with Emphasis on Combined Voxel and Surface Representation :Design Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis presents a user interface design aimed at the scenario where a dual representation of a volume is desired in order to emphasize certain parts of a volume using surface graphics while the rest of the volume is rendered using direct volume rendering techniques. A typical situation in which this configuration can prove useful is when studying images acquired for medical purposes. Sometimes the user wants to identify and represent an organ using an opaque surface in an otherwise ...

Lyngset, Runar Ylvisa?ker

2006-01-01

85

A modeling language for 3D process plant layout representation, exchange and visualization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the nuclear industry, achieving Long Term Data Preservation is a requirement for nuclear power plants to be safely built, operated over five or six decades and retired. Among them, CAD data suffers from some strong dependencies on the software vendors and its data model thus leading to a possible weakness in the preservation workflow. This paper presents a modeling language, suitable for the 3D representation of a process plant layout, based upon a procedural Constructive Solid Geometry (C...

Paviot, Thomas; Fortineau, Virginie; Lamouri, Samir; Louis-sidney, Ludovic

2012-01-01

86

Body-Representation & the Construction of Visual Meanings: a few interpretations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on the body-image discourses currently present in society as I felt it was important to propose a clear notion of the state of the subject today. Positioned in the interface between culture and body, the emphasis on the meanings of body (re)presentations is important since the ways of representing the body have always been implicitly linked with vision, language, perception, cognition, identity, social and cultural involvement, legitimation, difference and pl...

Pereira, Anabela

2011-01-01

87

Shape similarity, better than semantic membership, accounts for the structure of visual object representations in a population of monkey inferotemporal neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anterior inferotemporal cortex (IT) is the highest stage along the hierarchy of visual areas that, in primates, processes visual objects. Although several lines of evidence suggest that IT primarily represents visual shape information, some recent studies have argued that neuronal ensembles in IT code the semantic membership of visual objects (i.e., represent conceptual classes such as animate and inanimate objects). In this study, we investigated to what extent semantic, rather than purely visual information, is represented in IT by performing a multivariate analysis of IT responses to a set of visual objects. By relying on a variety of machine-learning approaches (including a cutting-edge clustering algorithm that has been recently developed in the domain of statistical physics), we found that, in most instances, IT representation of visual objects is accounted for by their similarity at the level of shape or, more surprisingly, low-level visual properties. Only in a few cases we observed IT representations of semantic classes that were not explainable by the visual similarity of their members. Overall, these findings reassert the primary function of IT as a conveyor of explicit visual shape information, and reveal that low-level visual properties are represented in IT to a greater extent than previously appreciated. In addition, our work demonstrates how combining a variety of state-of-the-art multivariate approaches, and carefully estimating the contribution of shape similarity to the representation of object categories, can substantially advance our understanding of neuronal coding of visual objects in cortex. PMID:23950700

Baldassi, Carlo; Alemi-Neissi, Alireza; Pagan, Marino; Dicarlo, James J; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zoccolan, Davide

2013-01-01

88

Strength of retinotopic representation of visual memories is modulated by strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human visual cortex shows retinotopic organization during both perception and attention, but whether this remains true for visual short-term memory (VSTM) is uncertain. In 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, we separated retinotopic activation during perception, attention, and VSTM maintenance. The 2 experiments differed in whether spatial encoding of the VSTM stimuli and prospective attention to the locations of the remembered items was encouraged or discouraged. Using multivoxel pattern analysis to extract a measure of spatial coding in early visual cortex, we saw sensory and attentional retinotopic coding in both experiments. However, significant spatial coding during memory maintenance was only seen where a spatial strategy was encouraged. Furthermore, individual differences in attentional spatial coding predicted performance in both experiments, while individual differences in maintenance spatial coding predicted performance in neither. We conclude that retinotopic coding in the early visual cortex during VSTM maintenance is not obligatory, that attentional processes during stimulus perception modulate memory performance, and that different attentional strategies are used depending on the task in hand. PMID:23042742

Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; Carlin, Johan D; Cusack, Rhodri

2014-02-01

89

Concurrent Dynamic Visualizations With Expressive Petri Net Representations to Enrich the Understanding of Biological and Pathological Processes: an Application to Signaling Pathways  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dynamic visualizations and expressive representations are needed in systems biology to handle multiple interactionsoccurring during the biological processes of biopathway representations. Dynamic visualizations allow users an easeof interaction with pathway models. At the same time, representations of biopathways should express how interactionstake place. In spite of the fact that diverse databases provide users with pathways, their information andrepresentation are frequently different from each other and show restricted interactions because of their staticvisualization. An adopted solution is to merge diverse representations to obtain a richer one. However, due to differentformats and the multiple links involved in the pathway representations, the merge results frequently in erroneousmodels and in a tangle web of relations very hard to be manipulated. Instead, this work introduces a concurrentdynamic visualization (CDV of the same pathway, which is retrieved from different sites and then transformed intoPetri net representations to facilitate the understanding of their biological processes by interacting with them. Weapplied this approach to the analysis of the Notch signaling pathway, associated with cervical cancer; we obtained itfrom different sources which we compared and manipulated simultaneously by interacting with the provided CDV untilthe user generated a personalized pathway.

F. Ramos

2012-10-01

90

The influence of visual feedback on the mental representation of gait in patients with THR: a new approach for an experimental rehabilitation strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to total hip replacement (THR), patients reveal abnormal gait patterns which post-operative do often not return to "normal". The restoration towards normal gait reduces stress on the adjacent joints which consequently reduces risk of osteoarthrosis development. Motor-performance is related to the structure of the movement in long-term memory, thus it seems to be essential to imprint correct gait patterns in there. Mental representation structures can develop over the course of training and visual feedback presumably helps regaining a better representation of gait in long-term memory. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of visual feedback on mental representation in patients with THR. In a randomized controlled trial, 20 women (57 ± 6 years) with THR have been enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (CG) or intervention group (IG). Additionally to inpatient treatment, all subjects participated in a standardized gait training including either an intervention based on verbal information from a physiotherapist (CG) or an intervention based on real-time visual feedback (IG). Mental representation was measured in pre-test and post-test using the structure-dimensional analysis. Results indicate significant improvements in mental representation of gait in the post-test only in IG, suggesting that beneficial effects were provoked by visual feedback. PMID:24442243

Schega, Lutz; Bertram, Dietrich; Fölsch, Cassandra; Hamacher, Dennis; Hamacher, Daniel

2014-03-01

91

Neural Representation During Visually Guided Reaching in Macaque Posterior Parietal Cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visually guided hand movements in primates require an interconnected network of various cortical areas. Single unit firing rate from area 7a and dorsal prelunate (DP) neurons of macaque posterior parietal cortex (PPC) was recorded during reaching movements to targets at variable locations and under different eye position conditions. In the eye position–varied task, the reach target was always foveated; thus eye position varied with reach target location. In the retinal-varied task, the monk...

Heider, Barbara; Karnik, Anushree; Ramalingam, Nirmala; Siegel, Ralph M.

2010-01-01

92

Atypical cortical representation of peripheral visual space in children with an autism spectrum disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key feature of early visual cortical regions is that they contain discretely organized retinotopic maps. Titration of these maps must occur through experience, and the fidelity of their spatial tuning will depend on the consistency and accuracy of the eye movement system. Anomalies in fixation patterns and the ballistics of eye movements are well documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with off-center fixations a hallmark of the phenotype. We hypothesized that these atypicalities might affect the development of visuo-spatial maps and specifically that peripheral inputs might receive altered processing in ASD. Using high-density recordings of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and a novel system-identification approach known as VESPA (visual evoked spread spectrum analysis), we assessed sensory responses to centrally and peripherally presented stimuli. Additionally, input luminance was varied to bias responsiveness to the magnocellular system, given previous suggestions of magnocellular-specific deficits in ASD. Participants were 22 ASD children (7-17 years of age) and 31 age- and performance-IQ-matched neurotypical controls. Both VEP and VESPA responses to central presentations were indistinguishable between groups. In contrast, peripheral presentations resulted in significantly greater early VEP and VESPA amplitudes in the ASD cohort. We found no evidence that anomalous enhancement was restricted to magnocellular-biased responses. The extent of peripheral response enhancement was related to the severity of stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests, cardinal symptoms of ASD. The current results point to differential visuo-spatial cortical mapping in ASD, shedding light on the consequences of peculiarities in gaze and stereotyped visual behaviors often reported by clinicians working with this population. PMID:23692590

Frey, Hans-Peter; Molholm, Sophie; Lalor, Edmund C; Russo, Natalie N; Foxe, John J

2013-07-01

93

statnet: Software Tools for the Representation, Visualization, Analysis and Simulation of Network Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available statnet is a suite of software packages for statistical network analysis. The packages implement recent advances in network modeling based on exponential-family random graph models (ERGM. The components of the package provide a comprehensive framework for ERGM-based network modeling, including tools for model estimation, model evaluation, model-based network simulation, and network visualization. This broad functionality is powered by a central Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm. The coding is optimized for speed and robustness.

Mark S. Handcock

2007-12-01

94

Social categories shape the neural representation of emotion: evidence from a visual face adaptation task  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of recent behavioral studies have shown that emotional expressions are differently perceived depending on the race of a face, and that perception of race cues is influenced by emotional expressions. However, neural processes related to the perception of invariant cues that indicate the identity of a face (such as race) are often described to proceed independently of processes related to the perception of cues that can vary over time (such as emotion). Using a visual face adaptation p...

2012-01-01

95

'Investigating gender-based visual representations on the websites of entry-level occupational therapy programmes in Ireland and the United Kingdom.’  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives - The purpose of this research is to gain an insight into the online visual marketing of the occupational therapy undergraduate and graduate entry-level courses within Ireland and the United Kingdom. This study examines the specific characteristics of the current visual representations that exist across these university websites. As there are a small proportion of men within the occupational therapy profession, it has become imperative to explore the current practices presented in ...

2013-01-01

96

A hexagonal orthogonal-oriented pyramid as a model of image representation in visual cortex  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal ganglion cells represent the visual image with a spatial code, in which each cell conveys information about a small region in the image. In contrast, cells of the primary visual cortex use a hybrid space-frequency code in which each cell conveys information about a region that is local in space, spatial frequency, and orientation. A mathematical model for this transformation is described. The hexagonal orthogonal-oriented quadrature pyramid (HOP) transform, which operates on a hexagonal input lattice, uses basis functions that are orthogonal, self-similar, and localized in space, spatial frequency, orientation, and phase. The basis functions, which are generated from seven basic types through a recursive process, form an image code of the pyramid type. The seven basis functions, six bandpass and one low-pass, occupy a point and a hexagon of six nearest neighbors on a hexagonal lattice. The six bandpass basis functions consist of three with even symmetry, and three with odd symmetry. At the lowest level, the inputs are image samples. At each higher level, the input lattice is provided by the low-pass coefficients computed at the previous level. At each level, the output is subsampled in such a way as to yield a new hexagonal lattice with a spacing square root of 7 larger than the previous level, so that the number of coefficients is reduced by a factor of seven at each level. In the biological model, the input lattice is the retinal ganglion cell array. The resulting scheme provides a compact, efficient code of the image and generates receptive fields that resemble those of the primary visual cortex.

Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.

1989-01-01

97

Unsupervised Natural Visual Experience Rapidly Reshapes Size Invariant Object Representation in Inferior Temporal Cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We easily recognize objects and faces across a myriad of retinal images produced by each object. One hypothesis is that this tolerance (a.k.a. “invariance”) is learned by relying on the fact that object identities are temporally stable. While we previously found neuronal evidence supporting this idea at the top of the non-human primate ventral visual stream (inferior temporal cortex, IT), we here test if this is a general tolerance learning mechanism. First, we found that the same type of...

Li, Nuo; Dicarlo, James J.

2010-01-01

98

Retrieval of Brain Tumors with Region-Specific Bag-of-Visual-Words Representations in Contrast-Enhanced MRI Images  

Science.gov (United States)

A content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system is proposed for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images of brain tumors. In this CBIR system, spatial information in the bag-of-visual-words model and domain knowledge on the brain tumor images are considered for the representation of brain tumor images. A similarity metric is learned through a distance metric learning algorithm to reduce the gap between the visual features and the semantic concepts in an image. The learned similarity metric is then used to measure the similarity between two images and then retrieve the most similar images in the dataset when a query image is submitted to the CBIR system. The retrieval performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain CE-MRI dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). The experimental results demonstrate that the mean average precision values of the proposed method range from 90.4% to 91.5% for different views (transverse, coronal, and sagittal) with an average value of 91.0%.

Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Yu, Mei; Lu, Zhentai; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

2012-01-01

99

Investigating representations of facial identity in human ventral visual cortex with transcranial magnetic stimulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occipital face area (OFA is face-selective. This enhanced activation to faces could reflect either generic face and shape-related processing or high-level conceptual processing of identity. Here we examined these two possibilities using a state-dependent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS paradigm. The lateral occipital (LO cortex which is activated non-selectively by various types of objects served as a control site. We localized OFA and LO on a per-participant basis using functional MRI. We then examined whether TMS applied to either of these regions affected the ability of participants to decide whether two successively presented and physically different face images were of the same famous person or different famous people. TMS was applied during the delay between first and second face presentations to investigate whether neuronal populations in these regions played a causal role in mediating the behavioral effects of identity repetition. Behaviorally we found a robust identity repetition effect, with shorter reaction times when identity was repeated, regardless of the fact that the pictures were physically different. Surprisingly, TMS applied over LO (but not OFA modulated overall reaction times, compared to the No TMS condition. But critically, we found no effects of TMS to either area that were modulated by identity repetition. Thus, we found no evidence to suggest that OFA or LO contain neuronal representations selective for the identity of famous faces which play a causal role in identity processing. Instead, these brain regions may be involved in the processing of more generic features of their preferred stimulus categories.

JuhaSilvanto

2010-06-01

100

Neuronal representation of visual motion and orientation in the fly medulla  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In insects, the first extraction of motion and direction clues from local brightness modulations is thought to take place in the medulla. However, whether and how these computations are represented in the medulla stills remain widely unknown, because electrical recording of the neurons in the medulla is difficult. As an effort to overcome this difficulty, we employed local electroporation in vivo in the medulla of the blowfly (Calliphora vicina to stain small ensembles of neurons with a calcium-sensitive dye. We studied the responses of these neuronal ensembles to spatial and temporal brightness modulations and found selectivity for grating orientation. In contrast, the responses to the two opposite directions of motion of a grating with the same orientation were similar in magnitude, indicating that strong directional selectivity is either not present in the types of neurons covered by our data set, or that direction-selective signals are too closely spaced to be distinguished by our calcium imaging. The calcium responses also showed a bell-shaped dependency on the temporal frequency of drifting gratings, with an optimum higher than that observed in one of the subsequent processing stages, i.e., the lobula plate. Medulla responses were elicited by on- as well as off-stimuli with some spatial heterogeneity in the sensitivity for “on” and “off”, and in the polarity of the responses. Medulla neurons thus show similarities to some established principles of motion and edge detection in the vertebrate visual system.

RafaelKurtz

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
101

Induced alpha rhythms track the content and quality of visual working memory representations with high temporal precision.  

Science.gov (United States)

Past work has suggested that neuronal oscillations coordinate the cellular assemblies that represent items in working memory (WM). In line with this hypothesis, we show that the spatial distribution of power in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz) can be used to decode the content and quality of the representations stored in visual WM. We acquired EEG data during an orientation WM task, and used a forward encoding model of orientation selectivity to reconstruct orientation-specific response profiles (termed channel tuning functions, or CTFs) that tracked the orientation of the memorandum during both encoding and delay periods of the trial. Critically, these EEG-based CTFs were robust predictors of both between- and within-subject differences in mnemonic precision, showing that EEG-based CTFs provide a sensitive measure of the quality of sensory population codes. Experiments 2 and 3 established that these EEG-based CTFs are contingent on the voluntary storage goals of the observer. When observers were given a postsample cue to store or drop the memorandum, the resulting CTF was sustained in the "store" condition and rapidly eliminated following the "drop" cue. When observers were instructed to store one of two simultaneously presented stimuli, only the stored item was represented in a sustained fashion throughout the delay period. These findings suggest that the oscillatory activity in the alpha frequency band plays a central role in the active storage of information in visual WM, and demonstrate a powerful approach for tracking the precision of on-line memories with high temporal resolution. PMID:24872563

Anderson, David E; Serences, John T; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

2014-05-28

102

A novel biologically inspired local feature descriptor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local feature descriptor is a fundamental representation for image patch which has been extensively used in many computer vision applications. In this paper, different from state-of-the-art features, a novel biologically inspired local descriptor (BILD) is proposed based on the visual information processing mechanism of ventral pathway in human brain. The local features used for constructing BILD are extracted by a two-layer network, which corresponds to the simple-to-complex cell hierarchy in the primary visual cortex (V1). It works in a similar way as the simple cell and complex cell do to get responses by applying the lateral inhibition from different orientations and operating an improved cortical pooling. To enhance the distinctiveness of BILD, we combine the local features from different orientations. Extensive evaluations have been performed for image matching and object recognition. Experimental results reveal that our proposed BILD outperforms many widely used descriptors such as SIFT and SURF, which demonstrate its efficiency for representing local regions. PMID:24677037

Zhang, Yun; Tian, Tian; Tian, Jinwen; Gong, Junbin; Ming, Delie

2014-06-01

103

Object representations in ventral and dorsal visual streams: fMRI repetition effects depend on attention and part–whole configuration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of attention and object configuration on the neural responses to short-lag visual image repetition were investigated with fMRI. Attention to one of two object images in a prime display was cued spatially. The images were either intact or split vertically; a manipulation that negates the influence of view-based representations. A subsequent single intact probe image was named covertly. Behavioural priming observed as faster button presses was found for attended primes in both intac...

2011-01-01

104

The State of the Art in Topology-based Visualization of Unsteady Flow  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vector fields are a common concept for the representation of many different kinds of flow phenomena in science and engineering. Methods based on vector field topology are known for their convenience for visualizing and analyzing steady flows, but a counterpart for unsteady flows is still missing. However, a lot of good and relevant work aiming at such a solution is available. We give an overview of previous research leading towards topologybased and topology-inspired visualization of unsteady...

Pobitzer, Armin; Peikert, Ronald; Fuchs, Raphael; Schindler, Benjamin; Kuhn, Alexander; Theisel, Holger; Matkovic?, Kres?imir; Hauser, Helwig

2011-01-01

105

Women in Sanaa: Public Appearance and Visual Representation Frauen in Sanaa: öffentliche Präsenz und mediale Repräsentation Mujeres en Sanaa: Apariencia pública y representación visual  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An exponential increase in media usage in the Yemeni capital, Sanaa (foreign satellite channels, Yemeni TV, photography and video changes not only the (media public (Öffentlichkeit, but social spaces in a local setting within a particular global-local framework. In this article I discuss women in the Yemeni capital who use television and other pictorial representations strategically, and, in reworking the frontiers between visibility and invisibility, change the gendered social spaces of their life world (Lebenswelt. Pictures, as parts of the life world open up views into new spaces ([Blick-] Räume and make new relationships ([Blick-] Kontakte possible. Looks and gazes determine social space and play a part in the social construction of bodies and spaces. This is negotiated on the performative as well as on the discursive level. The case study I present is part of a larger research project based on one year of fieldwork, field notes and 45 hours of audio-visual material. Analysis of the discourses of young women about their own image practices reveals how they perceive the endangerment of a social order, how they articulate their interest in change, and their strategies for becoming "visible." Thus, this article refers to culturally different readings of what can be seen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902150El aumento exponencial en el uso de medios en Sanaa, capital de la República de Yemen, (canales extranjeros vía satélite, TV yemenita, fotografía y video torna no solamente lo público (Öffentlichkeit, sino también los espacios sociales en un escenario local con un marco global-local particular. En este artículo discuto acerca de las mujeres en la capital yemenita que usan estratégicamente la televisión y otras representaciones ilustradas y, al reelaborar las fronteras entre visibilidad e invisibilidad, cambian los espacios sociales basados en el género en sus mundos de vida (Lebenswelt. Las imágenes, como partes del mundo de vida abre perspectivas hacia nuevos espacios ([Blick-] Räume y hace posible nuevas relaciones ([Blick-] Kontakte posible. Las vistas y las miradas fijas determinan el espacio social y juegan una parte en la construcción social de cuerpos y espacios. Lo cual se negocia tanto a nivel performativo como discursivo. El estudio de caso que presento es parte de un proyecto de investigación más grande basado e un año de trabajo de campo, notas de campo y 45 horas de material audiovisual. El análisis de los discursos de mujeres jóvenes acerca de sus propias prácticas de imagen revela la forma en que ellas perciben la puesta en peligro de un orden social, cómo articulan sus intereses al cambiar y sus estrategias al hacerse "visibles". Así, este artículo se refiere a lecturas culturalmente de lo que se puede ver. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902150Ein explosionsartiger Anstieg der Mediennutzung (ausländisches Satellitenfernsehen, ein eigener nationaler Satellitenkanal sowie Foto- und Videopraxen verändert nicht nur die "Öffentlichkeit", sondern den lokalen sozialen Raum in einem speziellen global-lokalen Spannungsfeld insgesamt. In diesem Artikel wird gezeigt, wie Frauen in der Hauptstadt des Jemen Fernsehen und andere Bildmedien strategisch nutzen, indem sie entlang der Grenzen von Sichtbarkeit und Unsichtbarkeit die geschlechterspezifischen sozialen Räume ihrer Lebenswelt verändern. Medienbilder eröffnen als Teil der Lebenswelt der Akteure (Blick- Räume und ermöglichen (Blick- Kontakte. Die Blicke prägen den sozialen Raum und spielen bei der wechselseitigen Konstitution von Räumen und Körpern eine Rolle. Dies wird sowohl auf der performativen als auch auf der diskursiven Ebene verhandelt. Die vorgestellte Fallstudie ist Teil eines Forschungsprojekts, das auf einem einjährigen Feldaufenthalt, Feldnotizen und 45 Stunden audiovisuellem Material beruht. Anhand der Diskurse der jungen Frauen über eigene Bilderpraxen wird nachvollzogen, wie sie die "Gefährdung" einer gesellschaftlichen Ordnung durchbuchstabieren, wie sie

Irina Linke

2009-03-01

106

On the self-organization of a hierarchical memory for compositional object representation in the visual cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At present, there is a huge lag between the artificial and the biological information processing systems in terms of their capability to learn. This lag could be certainly reduced by gaining more insight into the higher functions of the brain like learning and memory. For instance, primate visual cortex is thought to provide the long-term memory for the visual objects acquired by experience. The visual cortex handles effortlessly arbitrary complex objects by decomposing them rapidly into cons...

Jitsev, Evgueni

2011-01-01

107

Towards a visual social psychology of identity and representation: photographing the self, weaving the family in a multicultural British community  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This comprehensive volume provides an unprecedented illustration of the potential for visual methods in psychology. Each chapter explores the set of theoretical, methodological, as well as ethical and analytical issues that shape the ways in which visual qualitative research is conducted in psychology. Using a variety of forms of visual data, including photography, documentary film-making, drawing, internet media, model making, walking and map drawing, video recording and collages, each autho...

Howarth, Caroline

2011-01-01

108

Visual perception from the perspective of a representational, non-reductionistic, level-dependent account of perception and conscious awareness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article proposes a new model to interpret seemingly conflicting evidence concerning the correlation of consciousness and neural processes. Based on an analysis of research of blindsight and subliminal perception, the reorganization of elementary functions and consciousness framework suggests that mental representations consist of functions at several different levels of analysis, including truly localized perceptual elementary functions and perceptual algorithmic modules, which are interconnections of the elementary functions. We suggest that conscious content relates to the â??top levelâ?? of analysis in a â??situational algorithmic strategyâ?? that reflects the general state of an individual. We argue that conscious experience is intrinsically related to representations that are available to guide behaviour. From this perspective, we find that blindsight and subliminal perception can be explained partly by too coarse-grained methodology, and partly by top-down enhancing of representations that normally would not be relevant to action.

Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

2014-01-01

109

Eesti õpetaja pälvis Inspiration Software'i stipendiumi / Ave Lauringson  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

USA tarkvarafirma Inspiration Software tegi teatavaks 30 õpetaja nimed üle maailma, kes saavad 2007. aasta haridusstipendiumi (Inspired Teacher Scholarships for Visual Learning). Nende seas on ka Lasnamäe Lasteaia-Algkooli õpetaja, Tiigrihüppe SA ekspert ja koolitaja ning Tiigri Tegija 2007 auhinnasaaja Ingrid Maadvere

Lauringson, Ave

2007-01-01

110

Migration und Abgrenzungen: Gedanken zur (Anti- Narrativität von visuellen Repräsentationen mobiler Menschen Migration and Divisions: Thoughts on (Anti- Narrativity in Visual Representations of Mobile People Migración y divisiones: Pensamientos en (anti- narratividad en las representaciones visuales de gente en movimiento  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag ist aus einem Dialog heraus entstanden. Ausgangspunkt war die Reaktion von Carol MARLEY nach einer Präsentation von Chris GILLIGAN im Rahmen einer Veranstaltung. Um der Art seiner Entstehung gerecht zu werden, haben wir die Dialog-Form gewahrt. Der Beitrag fokussiert zwei Bilder-Sets – das eines Fotojournalisten und eines von Chris GILLIGAN. Wir nutzen diese Fotos, um der Frage nachzugehen, was den narrativen Gehalt eines Bildes ausmacht und um Möglichkeiten einer positiven visuellen Repräsentation zu generieren, die die Idee offener Grenzen unterstützt. Wir greifen dabei auf linguistische Theorien zurück, um uns der Grammatik visueller Narrative zu nähern, und verbinden diese mit dem Themenfeld visueller Repräsentationen von Immigration im zeitgenössischen Europa. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002326This article developed as part of a dialogue between the two authors. The dialogue was sparked off by MARLEY's response to a seminar presentation by GILLIGAN. In keeping with its origins we have retained the dialogue format. The article focuses on two sets of images—one a still image taken by a photojournalist, the other a sequence of stills taken by one of the authors. The authors use these images to explore the question "what imbues an image with narrative content?" and to explore the possibilities for developing a positive visual representation which promotes the idea of open borders. The article draws on linguistic theory to explore the grammar of visual narrative and relates this to the issue of the visual representation of immigration in contemporary Europe. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002326Este artículo se desarrolló como parte de un diálogo entre los dos autores. El diálogo se inició por la respuesta de MARLEY a una presentación en seminario hecha por GILLIGAN. Manteniendo sus orígenes, hemos conservado el formato del diálogo. El artículo se centra en dos grupos de imágenes: el de una imagen fija tomada por un periodista gráfico y, el otro, una secuencia de imágenes tomada por uno de los autores. Los autores utilizan estas imágenes para explorar la pregunta "¿qué le imbuye a una imagen el contenido narrativo?" y para explorar también las posibilidades de desarrollar una representación visual positiva que promueva la idea de las fronteras abiertas. El artículo se fundamenta en la teoría lingüística para explorar la gramática de la narrativa visual y relacionarla al tema de la representación visual de la inmigración en la Europa contemporánea. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002326

Chris Gilligan

2010-03-01

111

Surface-Based Information Mapping Reveals Crossmodal Vision–Action Representations in Human Parietal and Occipitotemporal Cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many lines of evidence point to a tight linkage between the perceptual and motoric representations of actions. Numerous demonstrations show how the visual perception of an action engages compatible activity in the observer's motor system. This is seen for both intransitive actions (e.g., in the case of unconscious postural imitation) and transitive actions (e.g., grasping an object). Although the discovery of “mirror neurons” in macaques has inspired explanations of these processes in hum...

Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.; Wiggett, Alison J.; Diedrichsen, Jörn; Tipper, Steven P.; Downing, Paul E.

2010-01-01

112

Sparse representations-based super-resolution of key-frames extracted from frames-sequences generated by a visual sensor network.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual sensor networks (VSNs) usually generate a low-resolution (LR) frame-sequence due to energy and processing constraints. These LR-frames are not very appropriate for use in certain surveillance applications. It is very important to enhance the resolution of the captured LR-frames using resolution enhancement schemes. In this paper, an effective framework for a super-resolution (SR) scheme is proposed that enhances the resolution of LR key-frames extracted from frame-sequences captured by visual-sensors. In a VSN, a visual processing hub (VPH) collects a huge amount of visual data from camera sensors. In the proposed framework, at the VPH, key-frames are extracted using our recent key-frame extraction technique and are streamed to the base station (BS) after compression. A novel effective SR scheme is applied at BS to produce a high-resolution (HR) output from the received key-frames. The proposed SR scheme uses optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (OOMP) for sparse-representation recovery in SR. OOMP does better in terms of detecting true sparsity than orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP). This property of the OOMP helps produce a HR image which is closer to the original image. The K-SVD dictionary learning procedure is incorporated for dictionary learning. Batch-OMP improves the dictionary learning process by removing the limitation in handling a large set of observed signals. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and show its superiority over other state-of-the-art schemes. PMID:24566632

Sajjad, Muhammad; Mehmood, Irfan; Baik, Sung Wook

2014-01-01

113

Sparse Representations-Based Super-Resolution of Key-Frames Extracted from Frames-Sequences Generated by a Visual Sensor Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visual sensor networks (VSNs usually generate a low-resolution (LR frame-sequence due to energy and processing constraints. These LR-frames are not very appropriate for use in certain surveillance applications. It is very important to enhance the resolution of the captured LR-frames using resolution enhancement schemes. In this paper, an effective framework for a super-resolution (SR scheme is proposed that enhances the resolution of LR key-frames extracted from frame-sequences captured by visual-sensors. In a VSN, a visual processing hub (VPH collects a huge amount of visual data from camera sensors. In the proposed framework, at the VPH, key-frames are extracted using our recent key-frame extraction technique and are streamed to the base station (BS after compression. A novel effective SR scheme is applied at BS to produce a high-resolution (HR output from the received key-frames. The proposed SR scheme uses optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (OOMP for sparse-representation recovery in SR. OOMP does better in terms of detecting true sparsity than orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP. This property of the OOMP helps produce a HR image which is closer to the original image. The K-SVD dictionary learning procedure is incorporated for dictionary learning. Batch-OMP improves the dictionary learning process by removing the limitation in handling a large set of observed signals. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and show its superiority over other state-of-the-art schemes.

Muhammad Sajjad

2014-02-01

114

Sparse Representations-Based Super-Resolution of Key-Frames Extracted from Frames-Sequences Generated by a Visual Sensor Network  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual sensor networks (VSNs) usually generate a low-resolution (LR) frame-sequence due to energy and processing constraints. These LR-frames are not very appropriate for use in certain surveillance applications. It is very important to enhance the resolution of the captured LR-frames using resolution enhancement schemes. In this paper, an effective framework for a super-resolution (SR) scheme is proposed that enhances the resolution of LR key-frames extracted from frame-sequences captured by visual-sensors. In a VSN, a visual processing hub (VPH) collects a huge amount of visual data from camera sensors. In the proposed framework, at the VPH, key-frames are extracted using our recent key-frame extraction technique and are streamed to the base station (BS) after compression. A novel effective SR scheme is applied at BS to produce a high-resolution (HR) output from the received key-frames. The proposed SR scheme uses optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (OOMP) for sparse-representation recovery in SR. OOMP does better in terms of detecting true sparsity than orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP). This property of the OOMP helps produce a HR image which is closer to the original image. The K-SVD dictionary learning procedure is incorporated for dictionary learning. Batch-OMP improves the dictionary learning process by removing the limitation in handling a large set of observed signals. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and show its superiority over other state-of-the-art schemes.

Sajjad, Muhammad; Mehmood, Irfan; Baik, Sung Wook

2014-01-01

115

Bio-inspired vision  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems, if they are to succeed in demanding applications such as autonomous robot navigation, micro-manipulation or high-speed tracking, must exploit the power of the asynchronous, frame-free, biomimetic approach.

2012-01-01

116

Bio-inspired vision  

Science.gov (United States)

Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems, if they are to succeed in demanding applications such as autonomous robot navigation, micro-manipulation or high-speed tracking, must exploit the power of the asynchronous, frame-free, biomimetic approach.

Posch, C.

2012-01-01

117

Representations of modality-specific affective processing for visual and auditory stimuli derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging data.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is converging evidence that people rapidly and automatically encode affective dimensions of objects, events, and environments that they encounter in the normal course of their daily routines. An important research question is whether affective representations differ with sensory modality. This research examined the nature of the dependency of affect and sensory modality at a whole-brain level of analysis in an incidental affective processing paradigm. Participants were presented with picture and sound stimuli that differed in positive or negative valence in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Global statistical tests, applied at a level of the individual, demonstrated significant sensitivity to valence within modality, but not valence across modalities. Modality-general and modality-specific valence hypotheses predict distinctly different multidimensional patterns of the stimulus conditions. Examination of lower dimensional representation of the data demonstrated separable dimensions for valence processing within each modality. These results provide support for modality-specific valence processing in an incidental affective processing paradigm at a whole-brain level of analysis. Future research should further investigate how stimulus-specific emotional decoding may be mediated by the physical properties of the stimuli. Hum Brain Mapp 35:3558-3568, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24302696

Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Wang, Jing; Kim, Jongwan; Facciani, Matthew J; Baucom, Laura B; Wedell, Douglas H

2014-07-01

118

Real-world scene representations in high-level visual cortex -- it’s the spaces more than the places  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Real-world scenes are incredibly complex and heterogeneous, yet we are able to identify and categorize them effortlessly. In humans, the ventral temporal Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA) has been implicated in scene processing, but scene information is contained in many visual areas, leaving their specific contributions unclear. While early theories of PPA emphasized its role in spatial processing, more recent reports of its function have emphasized semantic or contextual processing. Here, us...

2011-01-01

119

Representation of behaviourally relevant information by blowfly motion-sensitive visual interneurons requires precise compensatory head movements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flying blowflies shift their gaze by saccadic turns of body and head, keeping their gaze basically fixed between saccades. For the head, this results in almost pure translational optic flow between saccades, enabling visual interneurons in the fly motion pathway to extract information about translation of the animal and thereby about the spatial layout of the environment. There are noticeable differences between head and body movements during flight. Head saccades are faster and shorter than ...

Kern, Roland; Hateren, J. H.; Egelhaaf, Martin

2006-01-01

120

Physicists get INSPIREd  

CERN Multimedia

Particle physicists thrive on information. They first create information by performing experiments or elaborating theoretical conjectures and then they share it through publications and various web tools. The INSPIRE service, just released, will bring state of the art information retrieval to the fingertips of researchers.   Keeping track of the information shared within the particle physics community has long been the task of libraries at the larger labs, such as CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, as well as the focus of indispensible services like arXiv and those of the Particle Data Group. In 2007, many providers of information in the field came together for a summit at SLAC to see how physics information resources could be enhanced, and the INSPIRE project emerged from that meeting. The vision behind INSPIRE was built by a survey launched by the four labs to evaluate the real needs of the community. INSPIRE responds to these directives from the community by combining the most successful aspe...

CERN Bulletin

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Creative Inspiration in Composers  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussed are sources of creative inspiration noted by composers such as Wagner, Strauss, and Puccini; and charted are discrete steps in creativity common to composers seen as producing works of genius. (IM)

Gowan, John Curtis

1977-01-01

122

ProfileGrids as a new visual representation of large multiple sequence alignments: a case study of the RecA protein family  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sequence alignments are a fundamental tool for the comparative analysis of proteins and nucleic acids. However, large data sets are no longer manageable for visualization and investigation using the traditional stacked sequence alignment representation. Results We introduce ProfileGrids that represent a multiple sequence alignment as a matrix color-coded according to the residue frequency occurring at each column position. JProfileGrid is a Java application for computing and analyzing ProfileGrids. A dynamic interaction with the alignment information is achieved by changing the ProfileGrid color scheme, by extracting sequence subsets at selected residues of interest, and by relating alignment information to residue physical properties. Conserved family motifs can be identified by the overlay of similarity plot calculations on a ProfileGrid. Figures suitable for publication can be generated from the saved spreadsheet output of the colored matrices as well as by the export of conservation information for use in the PyMOL molecular visualization program. We demonstrate the utility of ProfileGrids on 300 bacterial homologs of the RecA family – a universally conserved protein involved in DNA recombination and repair. Careful attention was paid to curating the collected RecA sequences since ProfileGrids allow the easy identification of rare residues in an alignment. We relate the RecA alignment sequence conservation to the following three topics: the recently identified DNA binding residues, the unexplored MAW motif, and a unique Bacillus subtilis RecA homolog sequence feature. Conclusion ProfileGrids allow large protein families to be visualized more effectively than the traditional stacked sequence alignment form. This new graphical representation facilitates the determination of the sequence conservation at residue positions of interest, enables the examination of structural patterns by using residue physical properties, and permits the display of rare sequence features within the context of an entire alignment. JProfileGrid is free for non-commercial use and is available from http://www.profilegrid.org. Furthermore, we present a curated RecA protein collection that is more diverse than previous data sets; and, therefore, this RecA ProfileGrid is a rich source of information for nanoanatomy analysis.

Abajian Aaron C

2008-12-01

123

Virtual visual reminiscing pain stimulation of allodynia patients activates cortical representation of pain and emotions. fMRI study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is widely known that sensation of the pain is derived from sensory-discriminative factor and emotional factor. Especially in chronic pain, emotional factors and psychosocial backgrounds are more likely to contribute for the patients' discomfort. The aim of this study is to investigate how emotional factor of pain participates in intractable pain. We employed functional MRI (fMRI) to compare the brain activations occurring in the orthopaedic neuropathic pain patients with allodynia and normal individuals in response to the visual virtual painful experience. During fMRI scanning, a video demonstrating an actual tactile stimulation of the palm and its imitation were shown to participants. In contrast to normal individuals, allodynia patients also displayed activation of the areas reflecting emotions: frontal lobe and anterior cingulate. These findings suggest that brain have important role in the development and maintaining of peripheral originated chronic painful condition. (author)

2004-07-01

124

Translation-Invariant Representation for Cumulative Foot Pressure Images  

CERN Multimedia

Human can be distinguished by different limb movements and unique ground reaction force. Cumulative foot pressure image is a 2-D cumulative ground reaction force during one gait cycle. Although it contains pressure spatial distribution information and pressure temporal distribution information, it suffers from several problems including different shoes and noise, when putting it into practice as a new biometric for pedestrian identification. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical translation-invariant representation for cumulative foot pressure images, inspired by the success of Convolutional deep belief network for digital classification. Key contribution in our approach is discriminative hierarchical sparse coding scheme which helps to learn useful discriminative high-level visual features. Based on the feature representation of cumulative foot pressure images, we develop a pedestrian recognition system which is invariant to three different shoes and slight local shape change. Experiments are conducted on...

Zheng, Shuai; Tan, Tieniu

2010-01-01

125

Dynamic visualization in a developing framework for the representation of geographic data Des variables de visualisation dynamique de structure en développement pour la représentation des données géographiques.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to translate the characteristics of geographic data into signs and signals that can be perceived from a map, a language consisting of building blocks and a syntax are required. The first language to be developed was a graphic sign language, introduced by Bertin. His framework has been adapted and extended. It now includes languages for other senses, like touch and hearing, and even smell and taste are currently being investigated. In this paper it has been argued that the overall framework is continuously growing under the influence of technological, conceptual and user-oriented developments. Technological developments in particular are rapid. For example, they allow the representation of geographic data in virtual environments, which can be experienced through multiple senses. If cartographers want to play a role here, they should be willing to contribute to further extension of the framework, which may never be complete. In addition, current definitions of the concepts 'cartography' and 'map' have to be adapted. An example of user-oriented developments is the growing awareness of different types of map use, ranging from presentation to analysis/exploration. Application of the sign language may be different for each type of use, so the framework also needs further development in this direction. As an example, research ideas with respect to the use of dynamic visualization variables in cartographic animations for exploration purposes are included.

Connie Blok

2000-11-01

126

Integrating visual information across camera movements with a visual-motor calibration map  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Facing the competing demands for wider field of view and higher spatial resolution, computer vision will evolve toward greater use of foveal sensors and frequent camera movements. Integration of visual information across movements becomes a fundamental problem. We show that integration is possible using a biologically-inspired representation we call the visual-motor calibration map. The map is a memory-based model of the relationship between camera movements and corresponding pixel locations before and after any movement. The map constitutes a self-calibration that can compensate for non-uniform sampling, lens distortion, mechanical misalignments, and arbitrary pixel reordering. Integration takes place entirely in a retinotopic frame, using a short-term, predictive visual memory.

Prokopowicz, P.N. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Cooper, P.R. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

127

Biologically-Inspired Computing  

Science.gov (United States)

A seminar course at the University of Virginia in Spring 2003 considered aspects of biologically-inspired computing. The course homepage has links to journal articles and research papers that range in topic from evolutionary programming to spacecraft designs based on living cells. There is also a page of links that connect users to further information about topics explored on the CS851 page.

Cohoon, James P.; Evans, David

2008-01-03

128

Technology: A Tool for Knowledge Construction in a Reggio Emilia Inspired Teacher Education Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the application of technology in Reggio Emilia inspired early childhood and teacher education programs at the University of Michigan-Dearborn. We have found that technology used in a Reggio inspired program can be a valuable tool for the representation and organization of ideas, collaboration among a specific learning…

Hong, Seong B.; Trepanier-Street, Mary

2004-01-01

129

Inspiring a generation  

CERN Multimedia

The motto of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is ‘Inspire a generation’ so it was particularly pleasing to see science, the LHC and Higgs bosons featuring so strongly in the opening ceremony of the Paralympics last week.   It’s a sign of just how far our field has come that such a high-profile event featured particle physics so strongly, and we can certainly add our support to that motto. If the legacy of London 2012 is a generation inspired by science as well as sport, then the games will have more than fulfilled their mission. Particle physics has truly inspiring stories to tell, going well beyond Higgs and the LHC, and the entire community has played its part in bringing the excitement of frontier research in particle physics to a wide audience. Nevertheless, we cannot rest on our laurels: maintaining the kind of enthusiasm for science we witnessed at the Paralympic opening ceremony will require constant vigilance, and creative thinking about ways to rea...

2012-01-01

130

Quantum-Inspired Maximizer  

Science.gov (United States)

A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

Zak, Michail

2008-01-01

131

Spatial representation in blindness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of previous visual experience in relation to spatial representation is investigated by comparing the performance of the congenitally blind, the late-blinded and the sighted blindfolded on a number, of near-space tasks involving mental rotation, mental manipulation and scale transformation, and a far-space task involving the representation of two routes by means of pointing, drawing and the making of spatial inferences.

1980-01-01

132

Strategy for Uncertainty Visualization Design.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visualizing uncertainty can be a challenging endeavour. In an attempt to minimize the challenges, this paper defines a systematic approach to designing a visual representation of uncertainty called the Uncertainty Visualization Development Strategy (UVDS)...

A. S. Lapinski

2009-01-01

133

Fear Selectively Modulates Visual Mental Imagery and Visual Perception  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Emotions have been shown to modulate low-level visual processing of simple stimuli. In this study, we investigate whether emotions only modulate processing of visual representations created from direct visual inputs or whether they also modulate representations that underlie visual mental images. Our results demonstrate that when participants visualize or look at the global shape of written words (low-spatial-frequency visual information), the prior brief presentation of fearful faces enhance...

Kosslyn, Stephen Michael; Borst, Gre?goire

2010-01-01

134

String-inspired cosmology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I discuss cosmological models either derived from, or inspired by, string theory or M-theory. In particular, I discuss solutions in the low-energy effective theory and the role of the dilaton, moduli and antisymmetric form fields in the dimensionally reduced effective action. The pre-big-bang model is an attempt to use cosmological solutions to make observational predictions. I then discuss the effective theory of gravity found in recent braneworld models where we live on a 3-brane embedded in a five-dimensional spacetime and how the study of cosmological perturbations may enable us to test these ideas

2002-07-07

135

String-inspired cosmology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I discuss cosmological models either derived from, or inspired by, string theory or M-theory. In particular, I discuss solutions in the low-energy effective theory and the role of the dilaton, moduli and antisymmetric form fields in the dimensionally reduced effective action. The pre-big-bang model is an attempt to use cosmological solutions to make observational predictions. I then discuss the effective theory of gravity found in recent braneworld models where we live on a 3-brane embedded in a five-dimensional spacetime and how the study of cosmological perturbations may enable us to test these ideas.

Wands, David [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Mercantile House, Portsmouth PO1 2EG (United Kingdom)

2002-07-07

136

Combinatorial representations  

CERN Multimedia

This paper introduces combinatorial representations, which generalise the notion of linear representations of matroids. We show that any family of subsets of the same cardinality has a combinatorial representation via matrices. We then prove that any graph is representable over all alphabets of size larger than some number depending on the graph. We also provide a characterisation of families representable over a given alphabet. Then, we associate a rank function and a rank operator to any representation which help us determine some criteria for the functions used in a representation. While linearly representable matroids can be viewed as having representations via matrices with only one row, we conclude this paper by an investigation of representations via matrices with only two rows.

Cameron, Peter J; Riis, Søren

2011-01-01

137

When science inspires art  

CERN Multimedia

On Tuesday 18 January 2011, artist Pipilotti Rist came to CERN to find out how science could provide her with a source of inspiration for her art and perhaps to get ideas for future work. Pipilotti, who is an eclectic artist always on the lookout for an original source of inspiration, is almost as passionate about physics as she is about art.   Ever Is Over All, 1997, audio video installation by Pipilotti Rist.  View of the installation at the National Museum for Foreign Art, Sofia, Bulgaria. © Pipilotti Rist. Courtesy the artist and Hauser & Wirth. Photo by Angel Tzvetanov. Swiss video-maker Pipilotti Rist (her real name is Elisabeth Charlotte Rist), who is well-known in the international art world for her highly colourful videos and creations, visited CERN for the first time on Tuesday 18 January 2011.  Her visit represented a trip down memory lane, since she originally studied physics before becoming interested in pursuing a career as an artist and going on to de...

Anaïs Vernède

2011-01-01

138

Biologically-Inspired Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

A Web site from Michigan State University (1) is a useful starting point for learning about biologically inspired technologies. In addition to briefly discussing the natural processes that are most commonly studied in the development of such technologies, there is a large collection of links to other research efforts and related material. The Ant Colony Optimization project (2) uses the behavior of ants as a model to solve optimization problems, such as how to minimize Internet traffic congestion. Several downloadable research papers are included on the project's homepage, as well as links to news stories, radio broadcasts, and conference proceedings about ant algorithms. A seminar course at the University of Virginia (3) in spring 2003 considered aspects of biologically-inspired computing. The course homepage has links to journal articles and research papers that range in topic from evolutionary programming to spacecraft designs based on living cells. Biomimetics is the focus of work being done at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (4). One of the selected publications available on the Web site will be presented at an international conference in July 2003. The paper discusses the use of artificial muscles in intelligent robots. A research group at the California Institute of Technology (5) is studying the capability of DNA and other biomolecules to process information and implement algorithms. A general overview of the group's purpose and motivation is provided, as well as a number of publications. An excellent background of some of the most significant developments in artificial life and intelligence is given in a 56-page paper from Hewlett-Packard Laboratories (6). The author discusses many different issues, including neural networks and software agents, and concludes by alluding to future application areas. Cutting edge, biologically-inspired robots are the topic of a June 2003 news article from The Boston Globe (7). These robots include RoboLobster and BigDog, the latter of which is said will be able to run at fifteen miles per hour when it is finished around the beginning of 2005. Finally, a NASA technology brief from May 2003 (8) discusses efforts to combine characteristics of several different species into one artificial creation to optimally serve the purposes of a mission.

Leske, Cavin.

139

Illustrative Visualization of Anatomical Structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Illustrative visualization is a term for visualization techniques inspired by traditional technical and medical illustration. These techniques are based on knowledge of the human perception and provide effective visual abstraction to make the visualizations more understandable. Within volume rendering these expressive visualizations can be achieved using non-photorealistic rendering that combines different levels of abstraction to convey the most important information to the viewer. In this t...

Jonsson, Erik

2011-01-01

140

Tree-inspired piezoelectric energy harvesting  

Science.gov (United States)

We design and test micro-watt energy-harvesters inspired by tree trunks swaying in the wind. A uniform flow vibrates a linear array of four cylinders affixed to piezoelectric energy transducers. Particular attention is paid to measuring the energy generated as a function of cylinder spacing, flow speed, and relative position of the cylinder within the array. Peak power is generated using cylinder center-to-center spacings of 3.3 diameters and flow speeds in which the vortex shedding frequency is 1.6 times the natural frequency of the cylinders. Using these flow speeds and spacings, the power generated by downstream cylinders can exceed that of leading cylinders by more than an order of magnitude. We visualize the flow in this system by studying the behavior of a dynamically matched flowing soap film with imbedded styrofoam disks. Our qualitative visualizations suggest that peak energy harvesting occurs under conditions in which vortices have fully detached from the leading cylinder.

Hobbs, William B.; Hu, David L.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Perceptions of Talented Students in Their Visual Representations about the Future World and Technology (Üstün Yetenekli Ö?rencilerin Görsel Anlat?mlar?nda Gelece?in Dünyas?na ve Teknolojisine ?li?kin Alg?lar?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose and significance: The present study aimed at investigating talented students’ artistic representations and perceptions regarding the future world and technology through their animated designs according to their design-based representations. A learning environment which allows talented students to use their ability, thoughts and creativity in the process of design-based instructional activities is of great interest for them. It is important for talented students to have instructional experiences which provide independent and unique learning opportunities and special application areas that allow these students to show their abilities (CfBT, 2008. Results: The participants of the study were talented elementary school students attending the Education Programs for Talented Students (EPTS at Anadolu University. The criterion sampling method was used to select the research participants. The criterion for selecting the participants was attendance in the course of ‘Computer-Aided Graphics Design’ offered in the EPTS. The participants included a total of 35 elementary school 6th, 7th and 8th grade talented students. The study was conducted in three phases: instruction process, design process and evaluation process. Some preliminary preparations related to the design program were carried out considering that the students would use them while doing animated designs through the instruction process. The instruction phase involved an animated representation study during which the students designed their own animations. In the last phase, all the animate designs of the talented students were analyzed. The thematic analysis based on qualitative research method along with art-based inquiry was used. The thematic coding system for analyzing concepts revealed from the research data was implemented. The visual language used in pictorial representations produce messages, with its specialized codes. The degree of students’ understanding and explaining their perceptions of technology in future composes the visual codes in this research. The results obtained in the study were grouped under two themes: talented elementary school students’ ways of perception of the future world and talented elementary school students’ ways of perception of future technology.Discussion: Students’ perceptions about the future world in their visual representations and in the interview forms based on their visual representations were mostly classified under the theme of the extinction of the world, nature and universe. Students had quite unusual and original ideas about future technology. It was seen that the students put forward such subthemes as voyages between planets and space cars, flying cars, aliens’ visit to the world, street air-conditioners, voyage to the moon by space rockets and voyage via teleportation. The students who generally had negative views about the future world considered technology as a way of solution to the awaiting problems in future. In the research process, based on the researcher’s observations, it could be stated that the students taking design education were in the process of making design-related decisions and testing and discussing their knowledge about a certain goal; that they revised their needs, efficacies and creative potentials regarding the goal determined; and that they experimented, evaluated, developed and associated their decisions with the design process.Conclusions: Depending on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that students’ perceptions of the future world and technology reveal quite a negative picture in general. There could be a number of reasons for this negative picture; however, considering the technology and media interaction involving students, it could be stated that there are negative reflections of such environments and the popular culture within this context. In addition, the themes regarding the extinction of the world and collision of the planets envisaged by the talented students for the future world as well as the students’ visual repr

S. Duygu Eri?ti

2012-12-01

142

Recovering Inspiration in the Spaces of Creative Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper emerges from a project conducted between academics in literary studies and geography that explored the creative process amongst writers who write for pleasure. It seeks to understand writing as creative process as well as simply representation, recovering process as a part of creative making. Building on a long tradition of theorising process and creativity in literary studies, which has cumulatively discredited the idea of inspiration, this paper asks whether a fresh engagement be...

Brace, C.; Johns-putra, A.

2010-01-01

143

Microflyers: inspiration from nature  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, there has been considerable interest in miniaturizing aircraft to create a class of extremely small, robotic vehicles with a gross mass on the order of tens of grams and a dimension on the order of tens of centimeters. These are collectively refered to as micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) or microflyers. Because the size of microflyers is on the same order as that of small birds and large insects, engineers are turning to nature for inspiration. Bioinspired concepts make use of structural or aerodynamic mechanisms that are observed in insects and birds, such as elastic energy storage and unsteady aerodynamics. Biomimetic concepts attempt to replicate the form and function of natural flyers, such as flapping-wing propulsion and external appearance. This paper reviews recent developments in the area of man-made microflyers. The design space for microflyers will be described, along with fundamental physical limits to miniaturization. Key aerodynamic phenomena at the scale of microflyers will be highlighted. Because the focus is on bioinspiration and biomimetics, scaled-down versions of conventional aircraft, such as fixed wing micro air vehicles and microhelicopters will not be addressed. A few representative bioinspired and biomimetic microflyer concepts developed by researchers will be described in detail. Finally, some of the sensing mechanisms used by natural flyers that are being implemented in man-made microflyers will be discussed.

Sirohi, Jayant

2013-04-01

144

Biologically inspired emotion recognition from speech  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Emotion recognition has become a fundamental task in human-computer interaction systems. In this article, we propose an emotion recognition approach based on biologically inspired methods. Specifically, emotion classification is performed using a long short-term memory (LSTM recurrent neural network which is able to recognize long-range dependencies between successive temporal patterns. We propose to represent data using features derived from two different models: mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC and the Lyon cochlear model. In the experimental phase, results obtained from the LSTM network and the two different feature sets are compared, showing that features derived from the Lyon cochlear model give better recognition results in comparison with those obtained with the traditional MFCC representation.

Buscicchio Cosimo

2011-01-01

145

An active system for visually-guided reaching in 3D across binocular fixations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the importance of relative disparity between objects for accurate hand-eye coordination, this paper presents a biological approach inspired by the cortical neural architecture. So, the motor information is coded in egocentric coordinates obtained from the allocentric representation of the space (in terms of disparity) generated from the egocentric representation of the visual information (image coordinates). In that way, the different aspects of the visuomotor coordination are integrated: an active vision system, composed of two vergent cameras; a module for the 2D binocular disparity estimation based on a local estimation of phase differences performed through a bank of Gabor filters; and a robotic actuator to perform the corresponding tasks (visually-guided reaching). The approach's performance is evaluated through experiments on both simulated and real data. PMID:24672295

Martinez-Martin, Ester; del Pobil, Angel P; Chessa, Manuela; Solari, Fabio; Sabatini, Silvio P

2014-01-01

146

Inspiring Student Self-Motivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While normally appreciative of the invitation to join colleagues in a discussion of pedagogy and what “works” in the classroom, I have in most instances reluctantly participated in discussion of student motivation. I dip my toe into this philosophical quagmire only if permitted license to substitute the phrase student inspiration in place of student motivation. I also find it helpful to turn the rhetorical tables, as it were, and consider self-motivation on the part of students. The concept of individuals who hold some sense of self that a classroom mentor may nurture through student inspiration is one in which I place a modicum of trust. To “inspire” is literally to “breathe in,” to actively pull sustenance from a proffered external source. Active student determination based on some sense of self may couple with instructor inspiration to promote academic success.

Virginia Brackett

2007-01-01

147

Bio-inspired Political Systems  

CERN Document Server

In this paper I consider the necessity and the possibilities of engineering bio-inspired political systems. Systems capable of harnessing the complexity of the human social systems and their increasingly growing and diversifying interactions.

Mezza-Garcia, Nathalie

2012-01-01

148

Modulation of magnitude representations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study aims to answer two main questions. First, is there a difference between the representations of the numerical and the physical properties of visually presented numbers? Second, can the relevancy of the dimension change its representation? In a numerical Stroop task, participants were asked to indicate either the physically or the numerically larger value of two numerals. The ratio between the physical sizes and the numerical values changed orthogonally from 0.1 (the largest difference to 0.8. Reaction times were plotted as a function of both physical and numerical ratios. Trend analysis revealed that while the numerical dimension followed Weber's law regardless of task demands, the physical ratio deviated from linearity. Our results suggest that discrete and continuous magnitudes are represented by different yet interactive systems rather than by a shared representation.

TaliLeibovich

2013-06-01

149

Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

2011-12-01

150

A Neuro-inspired Adaptive Motion Detector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a novel motion detector is proposed to perceive the weak changes in a image sequence. This is inspired by the mechanism of fixational eye movement and dynamics of vertebrate’s cortex. We realized respectively an artificial model of visual attention selection, called dual-probe adaptive model (DPAM, and an active tremor operation (ATO approach. It is found that between them there exists a resonance phenomenon. The phenomenon is enhanced when the ATO and the DPAM are in-phase and is suppressed when they are anti-phase. Based on this, we construct a novel motion detector combined by the ATO and the DPAM to resonate with the motion direction. This allows capturing moving edges even in the image sequences with lighting change and noisy background. Simulation and Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness.

Xiaopin Zhong

2013-06-01

151

Sparse Image Representation by Directionlets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the success of the standard wavelet transform (WT) in image processing in recent years, the efficiency and sparsity of its representation are limited by the spatial symmetry and separability of its basis functions built in the horizontal and vertical directions. One-dimensional discontinuities in images (edges or contours), which are important elements in visual perception, intersect too many wavelet basis functions and lead to a non-sparse representation. To capture efficiently these...

Hawkes, Peter W.; Velisavljevic, Vladan; Vetterli, Martin; Beferull-lozano, Baltasar; Dragotti, Pier Luigi

2010-01-01

152

Human vision inspired framework for facial expressions recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a novel human vision inspired framework that can recognize facial expressions very efficiently and accurately. We propose to computationally process small, salient region of the face to extract features as it happens in human vision. To determine which facial region(s) is perceptually salient for a particular expression, we conducted a psycho-visual experimental study with an eye-tracker. A novel feature space conducive for recognition task is proposed, which is created by extracti...

Khan, R. A.; Meyer, A.; Konik, Hubert; Bouakaz, Sai?da

2013-01-01

153

Visual Servoing from Lines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present a new approach to visual servoing using lines. It is based on a theoretical and geometrical study of the main line representations which allows us to define a new representation, the so-called binormalized Pl ?cker coordinates. They are particularly u well suited for visual servoing. Indeed, they allow the definition of an image line alignment concept. Moreover, the control law which realizes such an alignment has several properties: partial decoupling between rotati...

Andreff, Nicolas; Espiau, Bernard; Horaud, Radu

2002-01-01

154

Madrid and Burgos, 1936-1939: visual representation of the women in the spanish civil war through the national library's photograph archive Madrid y Burgos, 1936-1939: representación visual de las mujeres a través del fondo fotográfico de la guerra civil española de la biblioteca nacional  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the need to analyze the photo from all prisms possible, including your front and back, and the argument that photography is primarily an iconic act that requiresthe questioning, this article has sought to discuss the representation visual of womenthrough the photographic collection of the Spanish Civil War. To achieve this objective, the paper has presented some visual examples of photographs that portray the activity of women who lived through the war in Madrid and Burgos and the result of researchsuggests that, Despite that the messages have different utterances, the fact is that the images are preserved show that the activity of women on both sides was the same, although these images have different characteristics. Basado en la necesidad de analizar la fotografía desde todos los prismas posibles, incluyendo su anverso y reverso, y en el argumento de que la fotografía es, ante todo, un acto icónico que requiere que se la interrogue, este artículo ha buscado discutir la representación visual de las mujeres a través del fondo fotográfico de la guerra civil española. Para lograr este objetivo, el artículo ha presentado algunos ejemplos visuales de las fotografías que retrataron la actividad de las mujeres que vivieron la guerra en Madrid y Burgos y El resultado de la investigación apunta a que, a pesar de que los mensajes lanzados tienen enunciación diferente, lo cierto es que las imágenes que se conservan muestran que la actividad de las mujeres de ambos lados fue la misma, aunque esas imágenes presentan características diferenciadas.

Beatriz de las Heras Herrero

2011-08-01

155

London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration  

Science.gov (United States)

Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

Guhin, Paula

2012-01-01

156

Towards Ecology Inspired Software Engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecosystems are complex and dynamic systems. Over billions of years, they have developed advanced capabilities to provide stable functions, despite changes in their environment. In this paper, we argue that the laws of organization and development of ecosystems provide a solid and rich source of inspiration to lay the foundations for novel software construction paradigms that provide stability as much as openness.

Baudry, Benoit; Monperrus, Martin

2012-01-01

157

From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology  

Science.gov (United States)

The conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' (1-5 June 2009, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) that myself and two former presidents of the American Biophysical Society—Wilma Olson (Rutgers University) and Adrian Parsegian (NIH), with the support of an ICTP team (Ralf Gebauer (Local Organizer) and Doreen Sauleek (Conference Secretary)), have organized was intended to establish stronger links between the biology and physics communities on the DNA front. The relationships between them were never easy. In 1997, Adrian published a paper in Physics Today ('Harness the Hubris') summarizing his thoughts about the main obstacles for a successful collaboration. The bottom line of that article was that physicists must seriously learn biology before exploring it and even having an interpreter, a friend or co-worker, who will be cooperating with you and translating the problems of biology into a physical language, may not be enough. He started his story with a joke about a physicist asking a biologist: 'I want to study the brain. Tell me something about it!' Biologist: 'First, the brain consists of two parts, and..' Physicist: 'Stop. You have told me too much.' Adrian listed a few direct avenues where physicists' contributions may be particularly welcome. This gentle and elegantly written paper caused, however, a stormy reaction from Bob Austin (Princeton), published together with Adrian's notes, accusing Adrian of forbidding physicists to attack big questions in biology straightaway. Twelve years have passed and many new developments have taken place in the biologist-physicist interaction. This was something I addressed in my opening conference speech, with my position lying somewhere inbetween Parsegian's and Austin's, which is briefly outlined here. I will first recall certain precepts or 'dogmas' that fly in the air like Valkyries, poisoning those relationships. Since the early seventies when I was a first year PhD student at the Frumkin Institute in Moscow attending hot theoretical seminars chaired by Benjamin Levich (1917-1986, a pupil of Landau and the founding father of physical-chemical hydrodynamics), I particularly remember one of his many jokes he used to spice up his seminar. When some overly enthusiastic speaker was telling us with 100% confidence how the electron transfers between atomic moieties in a solvent near an electrode, and what the molecules exactly do to promote the transfer, he used to ask the speaker: 'How do you know it? Have you been there?' Today this is no longer a question or even a joke. We have plenty of experimental tools to 'get there'. The list of such techniques is too long to cover fully, I may just refer to FIONA (fluorescence imaging with nanometer accuracy) which allows us to trace the motion of myosin on actin or kinesin on microtubules and similar aspects of protein motility in vivo and in vitro (fluorescence methods were at the center of the Biological and Molecular Machine Program at Kavli ITP, Santa Barbara, where the founders of those techniques taught us what we can learn using them) or visualizing the positions of adsorbed counterions on DNA by synchrotron radiation. Therefore, the following dogmas can be given: Dogma 1: 'Seeing is believing'. Once, I asked an Assistant Professor from one of the top US universities, who was preaching such methods, had he tried to plot his data in some coordinates, where I would have expected his data to lie on a straight line. The answer was, 'Come on, what you speak about is 20th century science; it's no longer interesting!' I am afraid he was not unique in his generation, voting for what I would call 'MTV-science'. This science does make you dance, but on its own is not sufficient without a deep theoretical analysis of what you actually see. Otherwise, 'what you see is what you get' and not more. Dogma 2: 'A theory must contain not more than exponential functions, logarithms and alike. Otherwise the job should be left with computers. No Bessel functions, please!' This point of view was advocat

Kornyshev, Alexei A.

2010-10-01

158

Representational pseudoneglect: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudoneglect, the tendency to be biased towards the left-hand side of space, is a robust and consistent behavioural observation best demonstrated on the task of visuospatial line bisection, where participants are asked to centrally bisect visually presented horizontal lines at the perceived centre. A number of studies have revealed that a representational form of pseudoneglect exists, occurring when participants are asked to either mentally represent a stimulus or explore a stimulus using touch in the complete absence of direct visuospatial processing. Despite the growing number of studies that have demonstrated representational pseudoneglect there exists no current and comprehensive review of these findings and no discussion of a theoretical framework into which these findings may fall. An important gap in the current representational pseudoneglect literature is a discussion of the developmental trajectory of the bias. The focus of the current review is to outline studies that have observed representational pseudoneglect in healthy participants, consider a theoretical framework for these observations, and address the impact of lifespan factors such as cognitive ageing on the phenomenon. PMID:24414221

Brooks, Joanna L; Della Sala, Sergio; Darling, Stephen

2014-06-01

159

A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

O' Connell, Heath B.; /Fermilab

2010-04-01

160

A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

2010-02-15

 
 
 
 
161

Intrathalamic Mechanisms of Visual Attention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The classical model of visual processing emphasizes the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) as the major intermediary between the retina and visual cortex. Yet, anatomical findings inspired Francis Crick to suggest an alternative model in which the thalamic reticular nucleus, which envelops the LGN, acts as the “guardian” of visual cortex by modulating LGN activity. Recent work by McAlonan and colleagues supports Crick's hypothesis, thereby enhancing our understanding of the early stages of ...

Mayo, J. Patrick

2009-01-01

162

Guard Cell and Tropomyosin Inspired Chemical Sensor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sensors are an integral part of many engineered products and systems. Biological inspiration has the potential to improve current sensor designs as well as inspire innovative ones. This paper presents the design of an innovative, biologically-inspired chemical sensor that performs “up-front” processing through mechanical means. Inspiration from the physiology (function) of the guard cell coupled with the morphology (form) and physiology of tropomyosin resulted in two concept variants for ...

2013-01-01

163

Group representations  

CERN Multimedia

This third volume can be roughly divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the investigation of various properties of projective characters. Special attention is drawn to spin representations and their character tables and to various correspondences for projective characters. Among other topics, projective Schur index and projective representations of abelian groups are covered. The last topic is investigated by introducing a symplectic geometry on finite abelian groups. The second part is devoted to Clifford theory for graded algebras and its application to the corresponding theory

Karpilovsky, G

1994-01-01

164

Parts, Cavities, and Object Representation in Infancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Part representation is not only critical to object perception but also plays a key role in a number of basic visual cognition functions, such as figure-ground segregation, allocation of attention, and memory for shapes. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the development of part representation. If parts are fundamental components of object shape…

Hayden, Angela; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Kangas, Ashley; Zieber, Nicole

2011-01-01

165

Bio-inspired functional materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis shows strategies how to learn from Mother Nature to make functional materials. Firstly, inspired by lotus leaf and water strider, superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surfaces are prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels. Furthermore, we explore potential applications of the superhydrophobic and superoleophobic materials for carrying cargo on liquid surfaces and continuous propulsion. Interestingly, the self-propelled locomotion has constant velocity and can last for prolon...

Jin, Hua

2012-01-01

166

Inspiring Student Self-Motivation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While normally appreciative of the invitation to join colleagues in a discussion of pedagogy and what “works” in the classroom, I have in most instances reluctantly participated in discussion of student motivation. I dip my toe into this philosophical quagmire only if permitted license to substitute the phrase student inspiration in place of student motivation. I also find it helpful to turn the rhetorical tables, as it were, and consider self-motivation on the part of students. The conce...

2007-01-01

167

ESQUEMAS VISUALES Y EMPLAZAMIENTO DE LAS REPRESENTACIONES RUPESTRES DE CAMÉLIDOS DEL LOA SUPERIOR EN TIEMPOS INCAICOS: ¿UNA NUEVA ESTRATEGIA DE INCORPORACIÓN DE ESTE TERRITORIO AL TAWANTINSUYU? VISUAL OUTLINES AND LOCATION OF CAMELIDS REPRESENTATIONS OF THE UPPER LOA DURING THE INCA TIMES: A NEW STRATEGY OF THE TAWANTINSUYU TO INCORPORATE THIS TERRITORY?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos del estudio del arte rupestre adscrito al período Tardío (1.450- 1.540 d.C., correspondiente a la presencia Inka en la región del Loa Superior. En particular, se analizan las representaciones de camélidos de varios sitios de la cuenca del río Salado, en comparación con algunas del Alto Loa. Este trabajo expone, por un lado, un análisis de las formas anatómicas representadas, definidas como esquemas visuales; y, por otro, algunas observaciones acerca de los emplazamientos de estas manifestaciones rupestres, ligados a distintas actividades de la vida cotidiana. Las características enunciadas para el arte rupestre del período Tardío sugieren una estrecha relación con la expansión incaica en la región. A modo de hipótesis, se amplía una de las interpretaciones anteriores planteadas en la cuenca del río Salado, que considera que el arte rupestre sería utilizado por el Inka como una estrategia de dominación e integración al Tawantinsuyu, ejercida de modo diferencial en el Loa SuperiorI present the results of study rock art dated to the Late period (1.450- 1.540 A.D., which corresponds to the Inka presence in the upper Loa region. Particularly, I analized camelid representations from several sites of the Salado river basin and compared them with representation from the upper Loa river. I present an analysis of anatomical forms defined as visual schemaes, along with observations about the location of the rock art, related to different activities of everyday life. The described characteristics of Late period rock art suggest a tight relation to the Inka expansion in the region. My hypothesis, expands on previous interpretations, for the Salado river basin, which consider that the rock art was used by the Inka as a strategy for domination and integration into Tawantinsuyu, carried out in a different fashion in the upper Loa basin

Marcela A. Sepúlveda R.

2004-07-01

168

ESQUEMAS VISUALES Y EMPLAZAMIENTO DE LAS REPRESENTACIONES RUPESTRES DE CAMÉLIDOS DEL LOA SUPERIOR EN TIEMPOS INCAICOS: ¿UNA NUEVA ESTRATEGIA DE INCORPORACIÓN DE ESTE TERRITORIO AL TAWANTINSUYU? / VISUAL OUTLINES AND LOCATION OF CAMELIDS REPRESENTATIONS OF THE UPPER LOA DURING THE INCA TIMES: A NEW STRATEGY OF THE TAWANTINSUYU TO INCORPORATE THIS TERRITORY?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan los resultados obtenidos del estudio del arte rupestre adscrito al período Tardío (1.450- 1.540 d.C.), correspondiente a la presencia Inka en la región del Loa Superior. En particular, se analizan las representaciones de camélidos de varios sitios de la cuenca del río Salado, en compara [...] ción con algunas del Alto Loa. Este trabajo expone, por un lado, un análisis de las formas anatómicas representadas, definidas como esquemas visuales; y, por otro, algunas observaciones acerca de los emplazamientos de estas manifestaciones rupestres, ligados a distintas actividades de la vida cotidiana. Las características enunciadas para el arte rupestre del período Tardío sugieren una estrecha relación con la expansión incaica en la región. A modo de hipótesis, se amplía una de las interpretaciones anteriores planteadas en la cuenca del río Salado, que considera que el arte rupestre sería utilizado por el Inka como una estrategia de dominación e integración al Tawantinsuyu, ejercida de modo diferencial en el Loa Superior Abstract in english I present the results of study rock art dated to the Late period (1.450- 1.540 A.D.), which corresponds to the Inka presence in the upper Loa region. Particularly, I analized camelid representations from several sites of the Salado river basin and compared them with representation from the upper Loa [...] river. I present an analysis of anatomical forms defined as visual schemaes, along with observations about the location of the rock art, related to different activities of everyday life. The described characteristics of Late period rock art suggest a tight relation to the Inka expansion in the region. My hypothesis, expands on previous interpretations, for the Salado river basin, which consider that the rock art was used by the Inka as a strategy for domination and integration into Tawantinsuyu, carried out in a different fashion in the upper Loa basin

Marcela A., Sepúlveda R..

169

E6 inspired supersymmetric models with exact custodial symmetry  

Science.gov (United States)

The breakdown of E6 gauge symmetry at high energies may lead to supersymmetric models based on the standard model gauge group together with extra U(1)? and U(1)? gauge symmetries. To ensure anomaly cancellation the particle content of these E6 inspired models involves extra exotic states that generically give rise to nondiagonal flavor transitions and rapid proton decay. We argue that a single discrete Z˜2H symmetry can be used to forbid tree-level flavor changing transitions, as well as the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. We present 5D and 6D orbifold grand unified theory constructions that lead to the E6 inspired supersymmetric models of this type. The breakdown of U(1)? and U(1)? gauge symmetries that preserves E6 matter parity assignment guarantees that ordinary quarks and leptons and their superpartners, as well as the exotic states which originate from 27 representations of E6, survive to low energies. These E6 inspired models contain two dark matter candidates and must also include additional TeV scale vectorlike lepton or vectorlike down-type quark states to render the lightest exotic quark unstable. We examine gauge coupling unification in these models and discuss their implications for collider phenomenology and cosmology.

Nevzorov, Roman

2013-01-01

170

Perspective of an Artist Inspired by Physics  

Science.gov (United States)

Using digital images and video I will be presenting thirty years of my science based artwork. Beginning in the late 1970's my gallery and museum installations used lodestones and suspended compasses to reveal the earths' magnetic field. Through the 1980's my work included these compass installations and geologically inspired tableaux that had one thing in common, they were designed to expose the invisible forces of nature. Tectonics, the Coriolis force, and magnetism were among the subjects of study. In 1988, on the basis of my work with invisible forces, I was selected for a commission from the General Services Administration for the new Central Intelligence Agency headquarters in Langley Virginia. This work titled Kryptos included a large cryptographic component that remains undeciphered twenty years after its installation. In the 1990's Kryptos inspired several of my museum and gallery installations using cryptography and secrecy as their main themes. From 1995-1998 I completed a series of large format projections on the landscape in the western US and Ireland. These projections and the resulting series of photographs emulated the 19th century cartographers hired by the United States Government to map the western landscape. In 1998 I began my project titled Atomic Time. This installation shown for the first time in 2004 at the Corcoran Gallery in Washington DC, then again in the Gwangju Biennale in South Korea was a recreation of the 1944 Manhattan Project laboratory that built the first Atomic Bomb. This installation used original equipment and prototypes from the Los Alamos Lab and was an extremely accurate representation of the laboratory and the first nuclear bomb called the ``Trinity Device.'' I began my current project Terrestrial Physics in 2005. This installation to be shown in June 2010 at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Denver is a recreation of the large particle accelerator and the experiment that fissioned Uranium in 1939 at the Carnegie Institution in Washington DC. This was the first time uranium had been fissioned using a particle accelerator and it was demonstrated for an audience including, Enrico Fermi, Niels Bohr and Merle Tuve. )

Sanborn, Jim

2010-02-01

171

BINARY WAVELET TRANSFORM FOR IMAGE REPRESENTATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The MRA (Multi resolution analysis for an image provides specific information localized in space or frequency domain .In this paper an efficient representation of the visual information is presented using Binary wavelet Transform for both color and gray level image. Analytical results shows that this method proves to be more efficient in representing the visual information than the earlier

ASHOK.M

2011-08-01

172

Supersymmetry Inspired QCD Beta Function  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We propose an all orders beta function for ordinary Yang-Mills theories with or without fermions inspired by the Novikov-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov beta function of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. The beta function allows us to bound the conformal window. When restricting to one adjoint Weyl fermion we show how the proposed beta function matches the one of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The running of the pure Yang-Mills coupling is computed and the deviation from the two loop result is presented. We then compare the deviation with the one obtained from lattice data also with respect to the two loop running.

Ryttov, Thomas; Sannino, Francesco

2007-01-01

173

A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor  

CERN Document Server

Biological systems are a source of inspiration in the development of small autonomous sensor nodes. The two major types of optical vision systems found in nature are the single aperture human eye and the compound eye of insects. The latter are among the most compact and smallest vision sensors. The eye is a compound of individual lenses with their own photoreceptor arrays.  The visual system of insects allows them to fly with a limited intelligence and brain processing power. A CMOS image sensor replicating the perception of vision in insects is discussed and designed in this book for industrial (machine vision) and medical applications. The CMOS metal layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer able to sense polarization information. This polarization information is shown to be useful in applications like real time material classification and autonomous agent navigation. Further the sensor is equipped with in pixel analog and digital memories which allow variation of the dynamic range and in-pixel b...

Sarkar, Mukul

2013-01-01

174

Guard Cell and Tropomyosin Inspired Chemical Sensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sensors are an integral part of many engineered products and systems. Biological inspiration has the potential to improve current sensor designs as well as inspire innovative ones. This paper presents the design of an innovative, biologically-inspired chemical sensor that performs “up-front” processing through mechanical means. Inspiration from the physiology (function of the guard cell coupled with the morphology (form and physiology of tropomyosin resulted in two concept variants for the chemical sensor. Applications of the sensor design include environmental monitoring of harmful gases, and a non-invasive approach to detect illnesses including diabetes, liver disease, and cancer on the breath.

Jacquelyn K.S. Nagel

2013-10-01

175

Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters from their eye-centred (i.e., retinal locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Conversely, there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words – which was the model’s learning objective – is largely based on letter-level information.

Maria GraziaDi Bono

2013-09-01

176

Representations of content: psychological foundations and didactical background  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This theoretical study concerns the issue of representations. Representation is a concept used when analysing and explaining human perception, cognition, communication, and learning. Firstly, we introduce the psychological foundations of the concept. Secondly, we clarify the concept of representations and its division in cognitive psychology. We define two basic forms of external representations - verbal and visual. In social psychology, the concept is used for explaining of how much individual cognition is determined by socio-cultural factors. Further, we mention the concept of representations that draws on the Theory of social representations (Moscovici and Vygotsky's ideas. The author seeks to develop a concept of representations usable in didactic discourse. The importance of representations for content-oriented didactics is clarified. We also define the levels on which a teacher reasons when using representations during instruction. Representations of curricular content, which are believed to play an important role when presenting the content to students, are also mentioned.

TomᚠJanko

2012-03-01

177

Collide@CERN: sharing inspiration  

CERN Multimedia

Late last year, Julius von Bismarck was appointed to be CERN's first "artist in residence" after winning the Collide@CERN Digital Arts award. He’ll be spending two months at CERN starting this March but, to get a flavour of what’s in store, he visited the Organization last week for a crash course in its inspiring activities.   Julius von Bismarck, taking a closer look... When we arrive to interview German artist Julius von Bismarck, he’s being given a presentation about antiprotons’ ability to kill cancer cells. The whiteboard in the room contains graphs and equations that might easily send a non-scientist running, yet as Julius puts it, “if I weren’t interested, I’d be asleep”. Given his numerous questions, he must have been fascinated. “This ‘introduction’ week has been exhilarating,” says Julius. “I’ve been able to interact ...

Katarina Anthony

2012-01-01

178

[Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions. PMID:23307357

Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

2013-01-16

179

Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?  

Science.gov (United States)

Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

2012-01-01

180

Sobre lo visual en la historia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article considers the contribution of visual representations to thediscipline of History. It refers specifically to the cognitive richness inherent to the use of new historical interpretations to approach the Information Era. The use of visual representations must be understood as complementary to the written word and as an expansion of the traditional sphere of written history.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Computer aided surface representation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

Barnhill, R.E.

1990-02-19

182

Representational Inquiry Competences in Science Games  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter concerns the enactment of competences in a particular science learning game Homicide, which is played in lower secondary schools. Homicide is a forensic investigation game in which pupils play police experts solving criminal cases in the space of one week. The game is designed to support work with genuine scientific inquiry and to meet the seventh- to tenth grade curriculum objectives for science and Danish education in Danish schools. This paper comprises a presentation of the results of a long-term empirical study done of four school classes who have played the game. The chapter includes studies of how students construct visual representations of the cases they investigate and how they use these representations to establish hypotheses and evidence. The term â??Representational Inquiry Competences' is developed; it refers to the students' ability to construct, productively use, transform and criticize visual representations as an integrated part of conducting an inquiry in the science game

Magnussen, Rikke

2009-01-01

183

Representations up to homotopy of Lie algebroids  

CERN Document Server

This is the first in a series of papers devoted to the study of the cohomology of classifying spaces. The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the notion of representation up to homotopy and to make sense of the adjoint representation of a Lie algebroid. Our construction is inspired by Quillen's notion of superconnection and fits into the general theory of structures up to homotopy. The advantage of considering such representations is that they are flexible and general enough to contain interesting examples which are the correct generalization of the corresponding notions for Lie algebras. They also allow one to identify seemingly ad-hoc constructions and cohomology theories as instances of the cohomology with coefficients in representations (up to homotopy). In particular, we show that the adjoint representation of a Lie algebroid makes sense as a representation up to homotopy and that, similar to the case of Lie algebras, the resulting cohomology controls the deformations of the Lie algebroid (i.e. i...

Abad, Camilo Arias

2009-01-01

184

Suggestions for a biologically inspired spiking retina using order-based coding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses some new suggestions for designing hardware vision systems that take inspiration from spike-based biological image processing. The key idea is to modify already existing Address Event Representation (AER) designs so that there is a periodic reset signal that can be generated every time some predefined proportion of "neurons" has emitted a spike. Each "neuron" only emits at most one spike per processing cycle, but the most strongly activated neurons fire first, ensuring th...

Thorpe, Simon J.; Brilhault, A.; Perez-carrasco, J. A.

2010-01-01

185

Bio-inspired dental fillings  

Science.gov (United States)

Human teeth are anisotropic composites. Dentin as the core material of the tooth consists of nanometer-sized calcium phosphate crystallites embedded in collagen fiber networks. It shows its anisotropy on the micrometer scale by its well-oriented microtubules. The detailed three-dimensional nanostructure of the hard tissues namely dentin and enamel, however, is not understood, although numerous studies on the anisotropic mechanical properties have been performed and evaluated to explain the tooth function including the enamel-dentin junction acting as effective crack barrier. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with a spatial resolution in the 10 ?m range allows determining the size and orientation of the constituents on the nanometer scale with reasonable precision. So far, only some dental materials, i.e. the fiber reinforced posts exhibit anisotropic properties related to the micrometer-size glass fibers. Dental fillings, composed of nanostructures oriented similar to the natural hard tissues of teeth, however, do not exist at all. The current X-ray-based investigations of extracted human teeth provide evidence for oriented micro- and nanostructures in dentin and enamel. These fundamental quantitative findings result in profound knowledge to develop biologically inspired dental fillings with superior resistance to thermal and mechanical shocks.

Deyhle, Hans; Bunk, Oliver; Buser, Stefan; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Beckmann, Felix; Pfeiffer, Franz; Weiger, Roland; Müller, Bert

2009-08-01

186

Biologically Inspired Phosphino Platinum Complexes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Platinum complexes containing phosphino amino acid and amino acid ester ligands, built upon the PPhNR’2 platform, have been synthesized and characterized (PPhNR’2= [1,3-diaza]-5-phenyl phosphacyclohexane, R’=glycine or glycine ester). These complexes were characterized by 31P, 13C, 1H, 195Pt NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the complexes, [PtCl2(PPhNGlyester 2)2], is also reported. These biologically inspired ligands have potential use in homogeneous catalysis, with special applications in chiral chemistry and water soluble chemistry. These complexes also provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached, to allow the introduction of enzyme-like features onto small molecule catalysts. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Jain, Avijita; Helm, Monte L.; Linehan, John C.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2012-08-01

187

Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded. PMID:24684339

Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

2014-04-01

188

Inspired at a book fair  

CERN Multimedia

During the Frankfurt book fair last October, the CERN stand drew quite the crowd. Director-General Rolf Heuer was there to promote CERN’s mission and the "LHC: the Large Hadron Collider" book. He met a lot of visitors and for one of them there was also a nice follow-up…   Marcus and his father visiting the LINAC facility. Fifteen year-old Marcus lives in Lauterecken near Frankfurt. The popular book fair last autumn was for him a nice opportunity to get in touch with the CERN environment. Inspired by the stand and what the CERN people were describing, he started to ask more and more questions… So many, that Rolf Heuer decided to invite him to come to CERN and find out some of the answers for himself. A few weeks later, while recovering from an exciting visit to the ATLAS underground cavern and other CERN installations with a cup of tea in Restaurant 1, Marcus shared his enthusiasm about the Organization: “When I was younger, my moth...

Anaïs Schaeffer

2012-01-01

189

Sparse Representation-based Image Quality Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A successful approach to image quality assessment involves comparing the structural information between a distorted and its reference image. However, extracting structural information that is perceptually important to our visual system is a challenging task. This paper addresses this issue by employing a sparse representation-based approach and proposes a new metric called the \\emph{sparse representation-based quality} (SPARQ) \\emph{index}. The proposed method learns the inh...

Guha, Tanaya; Nezhadarya, Ehsan; Ward, Rabab K.

2013-01-01

190

Gravitational radiation timescales for extreme mass ratio inspirals  

CERN Multimedia

The capture and inspiral of compact stellar masses into massive black holes is an important source of low-frequency gravitational waves (with frequencies of ~1-100mHz), such as those that might be detected by the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Simulations of stellar clusters designed to study this problem typically rely on simple treatments of the black hole encounter which neglect some important features of orbits around black holes, such as the minimum radii of stable, non-plunging orbits. Incorporating an accurate representation of the orbital dynamics near a black hole has been avoided due to the large computational overhead. This paper provides new, more accurate, expressions for the energy and angular momentum lost by a compact object during a parabolic encounter with a non-spinning black hole, and the subsequent inspiral lifetime. These results improve on the Keplerian expressions which are now commonly used and will allow efficient computational simulations to be performed that acc...

Gair, J R; Larson, S L; Gair, Jonathan R; Kennefick, Daniel J; Larson, Shane L

2006-01-01

191

Spatiotopic neural representations develop slowly across saccades.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the long-standing unsolved mysteries of visual neuroscience is how the world remains apparently stable in the face of continuous movements of eyes, head and body. Many factors seem to contribute to this stability, including rapid updating mechanisms that temporarily remap the visual input to compensate for the impending saccade. However, there is also a growing body of evidence pointing to more long-lasting spatiotopic neural representations, which remain solid in external rather than retinal coordinates. In this study, we show that these spatiotopic representations take hundreds of milliseconds to build up robustly. PMID:23473558

Zimmermann, Eckart; Morrone, Maria Concetta; Fink, Gereon R; Burr, David

2013-03-01

192

VRML metabolic network visualizer.  

Science.gov (United States)

A successful date collection visualization should satisfy a set of many requirements: unification of diverse data formats, support for serendipity research, support of hierarchical structures, algorithmizability, vast information density, Internet-readiness, and other. Recently, virtual reality has made significant progress in engineering, architectural design, entertainment and communication. We experiment with the possibility of using the immersive abstract three-dimensional visualizations of the metabolic networks. We present the trial Metabolic Network Visualizer software, which produces graphical representation of a metabolic network as a VRML world from a formal description written in a simple SGML-type scripting language. PMID:12565729

Rojdestvenski, Igor

2003-03-01

193

Arbitrary waveform generator biologically inspired  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • A system biologically inspired that produces arbitrary analog signals is studied. • The proposed system is based in the BVAM biological model. • The system is analyzed with a discrete equivalent system defined by a Poincaré map. • The operation regimes of the system are identified changing the control parameter. • The system functionality is shown by the simulations obtained from SIMULINK™. -- Abstract: This work shows and analyzes a system that produces arbitrary waveforms, which is a simplification, based on spatial discretization, of the BVAM model proposed by Barrio et al. in 1999 [1] to model the biological pattern formation. Since the analytical treatment of non-linear terms of this system is often prohibitive, its dynamic has been analyzed using a discrete equivalent system defined by a Poincaré map. In this analysis, the bifurcation diagrams and the Lyapunov exponent are the tools used to identify the different operating regimes of the system and to provide evidence of the periodicity and randomness of the generated waveforms. Also, it is shown that the analyzed system presents the period doubling phenomenon, the values of its bifurcation points are related by the Feigenbaum constant and they converge to the onset of chaos. It is shown that, the analyzed system can be electronically implemented using operational amplifiers to produce arbitrary waveforms when varying a single control parameter. The functionality and behavior of the ideal electronic implementation of the analyzed system is shown by the simulations obtained from the MatLab–Simulink™ toolbox. Finally, some problems related to a real electronic implementation are discussed. This paper gives a brief overview of how ideas from biology can be used to design new systems that produce arbitrary waveforms

2013-06-01

194

Development of OA Abroad and Its Inspirations  

Science.gov (United States)

This study introduces the concept and characteristics of open access (OA), analyses the status quo and development of OA in foreign countries, and discusses its inspiration to its future development in China.

Bi, Jing

2010-01-01

195

Cognition Inspired Object Oriented Knowledge Warehouse Architecture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An adaptive knowledge system needs massive knowledge. But massive knowledge can handicap the speed of searching and reasoning. Good structure can considerably enhance the expressive power and efficiency of a knowledge system. Inspired by the structure of h...

Xixu Fu; Hui Wei

2010-01-01

196

INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

2012-08-31

197

Learning sparse discriminative representations for land cover classification in the Arctic  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroscience-inspired machine vision algorithms are of current interest in the areas of detection and monitoring of climate change impacts, and general Land Use/Land Cover classification using satellite image data. We describe an approach for automatic classification of land cover in multispectral satellite imagery of the Arctic using sparse representations over learned dictionaries. We demonstrate our method using DigitalGlobe Worldview-2 8-band visible/near infrared high spatial resolution imagery of the MacKenzie River basin. We use an on-line batch Hebbian learning rule to build spectral-textural dictionaries that are adapted to this multispectral data. We learn our dictionaries from millions of overlapping image patches and then use a pursuit search to generate sparse classification features. We explore unsupervised clustering in the sparse representation space to produce land-cover category labels. This approach combines spectral and spatial textural characteristics to detect geologic, vegetative, and hydrologic features. We compare our technique to standard remote sensing algorithms. Our results suggest that neuroscience-based models are a promising approach to practical pattern recognition problems in remote sensing, even for datasets using spectral bands not found in natural visual systems.

Moody, Daniela I.; Brumby, Steven P.; Rowland, Joel C.; Gangodagamage, Chandana

2012-10-01

198

Visual Signs of Ageing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumer culture has placed the ageing body in a dilemma of representation. Physical appearance has become increasingly important as a symbol of identity, and at the same time society idealizes youth. This study explores visual ageing empirically. By using photographs of older persons (70+ as starting point, it is explored how visual age is assessed and interpreted. It is shown that informants read age in a spread of stages and categories. Main age indicators are biological markers: skin, eyes, and hair colour, but supplemented by vigour, style, and grooming. Furthermore, in-depth interviews indicate that visual age is mainly interpreted into categories and moral regulations rooted in early modernity. Subsequently the question of a postmodern perspective of visual ageing is discussed in this article. The empirical findings in the study question a postmodern fluidity of visual signs – at least when the concern is signs of ageing.

Helle Rexbye

2007-07-01

199

AER synthetic generation in hardware for bio-inspired spiking systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) to read AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualize it on screen, and (b) convert conventional frame-based video stream in the computer into AER and inject it at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for test and debugging of complex AER systems. This paper addresses the problem of converting, in a computer, a conventional frame-based video stream into the spike event based representation AER. There exist several proposed software methods for synthetic generation of AER for bio-inspired systems. This paper presents a hardware implementation for one method, which is based on Linear-Feedback-Shift-Register (LFSR) pseudo-random number generation. The sequence of events generated by this hardware, which follows a Poisson distribution like a biological neuron, has been reconstructed using two AER integrator cells. The error of reconstruction for a set of images that produces different traffic loads of event in the AER bus is used as evaluation criteria. A VHDL description of the method, that includes the Xilinx PCI Core, has been implemented and tested using a general purpose PCI-AER board. This PCI-AER board has been developed by authors, and uses a Spartan II 200 FPGA. This system for AER Synthetic Generation is capable of transforming frames of 64x64 pixels, received through a standard computer PCI bus, at a frame rate of 25 frames per second, producing spike events at a peak rate of 107 events per second.

Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Civit-Balcells, Anton

2005-06-01

200

Representations of $asl_2$  

CERN Document Server

We study representations of the simple Lie antialgebra $asl_2$ introduced by Ovsienko. We show that representations of $asl_2$ are closely related to the famous ghost Casimir element of the universal enveloping algebra $osp(1|2)$. We prove that $asl_2$ has no non-trivial finite-dimensional representations; we define and classify some particular infinite-dimensional representations that we call weighted representations.

Morier-Genoud, Sophie

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Neural Schematics as a unified formal graphical representation of large-scale Neural Network Structures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the major outcomes of neuroscientific research are models of Neural Network Structures. Descriptions of these models usually consist of a non-standardized mixture of text, figures, and other means of visual information communication in print media. However, as neuroscience is an interdisciplinary domain by nature, a standardized way of consistently representing models of Neural Network Structures is required. While generic descriptions of such models in textual form have recently been developed, a formalized way of schematically expressing them does not exist to date. Hence, in this paper we present Neural Schematics as a concept inspired by similar approaches from other disciplines for a generic two dimensional representation of said structures. After introducing Neural Network Structures in general, a set of current visualizations of models of Neural Network Structures is reviewed and analyzed for what information they convey and how their elements are rendered. This analysis then allows for the definition of general items and symbols to consistently represent these models as Neural Schematics on a two dimensional plane. We will illustrate the possibilities an agreed upon standard can yield on sampled diagrams transformed into Neural Schematics and an example application for the design and modeling of large-scale Neural Network Structures.

MatthiasEhrlich

2013-10-01

202

EXPRESSION-INDEPENDENT FACE RECOGNITION USING BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED FEATURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an effective two-dimensional Expression-Independent face recognition method, based on features inspired by thehuman’s visual ventral stream. A feature set is extracted by means of a feed-forward model, which contains illumination and view invariantC2 features from all images in the dataset. Then, these C2 feature vectors which derived from a cortex-like mechanism passed to a standard Nearest Neighbor classifier. We evaluated the proposed approach on JAFEE database. The results show that this model is an efficient and high accurate face recognition algorithm that is robust to facial expressions. Experiments indicate that the proposed approach maintains high recognition rate and outperforms the other alternative methods such as PCA and 2DPCA. The improvement in performance than PCA and 2DPCA based methods is about 5% and 4.5% respectively.

REZA EBRAHIMPOUR

2011-06-01

203

Bio-inspired Approach for the Recognition of Goal-Directed Hand Actions  

Science.gov (United States)

The recognition of transitive, goal-directed actions requires a sensible balance between the representation of specific shape details of effector and goal object and robustness with respect to image transformations. We present a biologically-inspired architecture for the recognition of transitive actions from video sequences that integrates an appearance-based recognition approach with a simple neural mechanism for the representation of the effector-object relationship. A large degree of position invariance is obtained by nonlinear pooling in combination with an explicit representation of the relative positions of object and effector using neural population codes. The approach was tested on real videos, demonstrating successful invariant recognition of grip types on unsegmented video sequences. In addition, the algorithm reproduces and predicts the behavior of action-selective neurons in parietal and prefrontal cortex.

Fleischer, Falk; Casile, Antonino; Giese, Martin A.

204

A Deep Representation for Invariance And Music Classification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Representations in the auditory cortex might be based on mechanisms similar to the visual ventral stream; modules for building invariance to transformations and multiple layers for compositionality and selectivity. In this paper we propose the use of such computational modules for extracting invariant and discriminative audio representations. Building on a theory of invariance in hierarchical architectures, we propose a novel, mid-level representation for acoustical signals,...

Zhang, Chiyuan; Evangelopoulos, Georgios; Voinea, Stephen; Rosasco, Lorenzo; Poggio, Tomaso

2014-01-01

205

Visual Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

An increasingly visual culture is affecting work and training. Achievement of visual literacy means acquiring competence in critical analysis of visual images and in communicating through visual media. (SK)

Kirrane, Diane E.

1992-01-01

206

Visual field  

Science.gov (United States)

Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam: This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

207

Self-Adaptive Image Reconstruction Inspired by Insect Compound Eye Mechanism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inspired by the mechanism of imaging and adaptation to luminosity in insect compound eyes (ICE), we propose an ICE-based adaptive reconstruction method (ARM-ICE), which can adjust the sampling vision field of image according to the environment light intensity. The target scene can be compressive, sampled independently with multichannel through ARM-ICE. Meanwhile, ARM-ICE can regulate the visual field of sampling to control imaging according to the environment light intensity. Based on the com...

Zhang, Jiahua; Shi, Aiye; Wang, Xin; Bian, Linjie; Huang, Fengchen; Xu, Lizhong

2012-01-01

208

Astrophysics of extreme mass ratio inspiral sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Compact remnants on orbits with peri-apses close to the Schwarzschild radius of a massive black hole (MBH) lose orbital energy by emitting gravitational waves (GWs) and spiral in. Scattering with other stars allows successful inspiral of such extreme mass ratio inspiral sources (EMRIs) only within small distances, a < few \\times 0.01 pc from the MBH. The event rate of EMRIs is therefore dominated by the stellar dynamics and content in the inner few \\times 0.01 pc. I discuss ...

Hopman, Clovis

2006-01-01

209

Vetoes for Inspiral Triggers in LIGO Data  

CERN Document Server

Presented is a summary of studies by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration's Inspiral Analysis Group on the development of possible vetoes to be used in evaluation of data from the first two LIGO science data runs. Numerous environmental monitor signals and interferometer control channels have been analyzed in order to characterize the interferometers' performance. The results of studies on selected data segments are provided in this paper. The vetoes used in the compact binary inspiral analyses of LIGO's S1 and S2 science data runs are presented and discussed.

Christensen, N; González, G; Christensen, Nelson; Shawhan, Peter; Gonz\\'alez, Gabriela

2004-01-01

210

Bio-inspired and nanoscale integrated computing  

CERN Document Server

Brings the latest advances in nanotechnology and biology to computing This pioneering book demonstrates how nanotechnology can create even faster, denser computing architectures and algorithms. Furthermore, it draws from the latest advances in biology with a focus on bio-inspired computing at the nanoscale, bringing to light several new and innovative applications such as nanoscale implantable biomedical devices and neural networks. Bio-Inspired and Nanoscale Integrated Computing features an expert team of interdisciplinary authors who offer readers the benefit of their own breakthroughs i

Eshaghian-Wilner, Mary

2009-01-01

211

Vetoes for inspiral triggers in LIGO data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presented is a summary of studies by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration's Inspiral Analysis Group on the development of possible vetoes to be used in the evaluation of data from the first two LIGO science data runs. Numerous environmental monitor signals and interferometer control channels have been analysed in order to characterize the interferometers' performance. The results of studies on selected data segments are provided in this paper. The vetoes used in the compact binary inspiral analyses of LIGO's S1 and S2 science data runs are presented and discussed.

Christensen, Nelson [Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); Shawhan, Peter [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gonzalez, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

2004-10-21

212

X-33 Flight Visualization  

Science.gov (United States)

The X-33 flight visualization effort has resulted in the integration of high-resolution terrain data with vehicle position and attitude data for planned flights of the X-33 vehicle from its launch site at Edwards AFB, California, to landings at Michael Army Air Field, Utah, and Maelstrom AFB, Montana. Video and Web Site representations of these flight visualizations were produced. In addition, a totally new module was developed to control viewpoints in real-time using a joystick input. Efforts have been initiated, and are presently being continued, for real-time flight coverage visualizations using the data streams from the X-33 vehicle flights. The flight visualizations that have resulted thus far give convincing support to the expectation that the flights of the X-33 will be exciting and significant space flight milestones... flights of this nation's one-half scale predecessor to its first single-stage-to-orbit, fully-reusable launch vehicle system.

Laue, Jay H.

1998-01-01

213

Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement: Implementation  

Science.gov (United States)

Method and system for enhancing or extending visual representation of a selected region of a visual image, where visual representation is interfered with or distorted, by supplementing a visual signal with at least one audio signal having one or more audio signal parameters that represent one or more visual image parameters, such as vertical and/or horizontal location of the region; region brightness; dominant wavelength range of the region; change in a parameter value that characterizes the visual image, with respect to a reference parameter value; and time rate of change in a parameter value that characterizes the visual image. Region dimensions can be changed to emphasize change with time of a visual image parameter.

Maluf, A. David (Inventor)

2011-01-01

214

Integrable quantum chains combining site states in different representations of $su(3)$  

CERN Document Server

The general expression for the local matrix $L(\\theta)$ of a quantum chain with the site space in any representation of $su(3)$ is obtained. This is made by generalizing $L(\\theta)$ from the fundamental representation and imposing the fulfilment of the Yang-Baxter equation. Then, a non-homogeneous spin chain combining different representations of $su(3)$ is solved by a method inspired in the nested Bethe ansatz. The solution for the eigenvalues of the trace of the monodromy matrix is given as two coupled Bethe equations. A conjecture about the solution of a chain with the site states in different representations of $su(n)$ is presented.

Abad, J J

1996-01-01

215

Integrable $su(3)$ spin chain combining different representations  

CERN Document Server

The general expression for the local matrix $t(\\theta)$ of a quantum chain with the site space in any representation of $su(3)$ is obtained. This is made by generalizing $t(\\theta)$ from the fundamental representation and imposing the fulfillment of the Yang-Baxter equation. Then, a non-homogeneous spin chain combining different representations of $su(3)$ is solved by developing a method inspired in the nested Bethe ansatz. The solution for the eigenvalues of the trace of the monodromy matrix is given as two coupled Bethe equations. A conjecture about the solution of a chain with the site states in different representations of $su(n)$ is presented. The thermodynamic limit of the ground state is calculated.

Abad, J J

1997-01-01

216

Visualizing abstract objects and relations  

CERN Document Server

Pictorial representations are very useful for humans to understand complicated relations or structures. This is the reason that the user interface of information systems is strongly required to visualize many kinds of information in a wide variety of graphical forms. At present, however, only some very specialized visualization techniques have been developed probably because the generality in the visualization has not been appreciated correctly. This book presents a visualization framework for translating abstract objects and relations, typically represented in textual forms, into pictorial re

Kamada, Tomihisa

1989-01-01

217

Biologically Inspired Hierarchical Model for Feature Extraction and Localization  

CERN Multimedia

Feature extraction and matching are among central problems of computer vision. It is inefficent to search features over all locations and scales. Neurophysiological evidence shows that to locate objects in a digital image the human visual system employs visual attention to a specific object while ignoring others. The brain also has a mechanism to search from coarse to fine. In this paper, we present a feature extractor and an associated hierarchical searching model to simulate such processes. With the hierarchical representation of the object, coarse scanning is done through the matching of the larger scale and precise localization is conducted through the matching of the smaller scale. Experimental results justify the proposed model in its effectiveness and efficiency to localize features.

Wu, L

2006-01-01

218

A unique polar representation of the hyperanalytic signal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hyperanalytic signal is the straight forward generalization of the classical analytic signal. It is defined by a complexification of two canonical complex signals, which can be considered as an inverse operation of the Cayley-Dickson form of the quaternion. Inspired by the polar form of an analytic signal where the real instantaneous envelope and phase can be determined, this paper presents a novel method to generate a polar representation of the hyperanalytic signal, in...

Huang, Boqiang; Kunoth, Angela

2014-01-01

219

Means of multichannel systems of visualization ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Multichannel system soft hardware of visualization referenced to aircraft industry is considered in this issue. System components, their general characteristics and CAD data visualization requirements for high tech production designing are included. Application of multichannel system of visualization allows CAD data large screen visualizing in stereo image mode, which provides real-time, three-dimensional high-quality project representation to users. ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ????????????????,  ?? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????????????. ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????. ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????????????, ??? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????. ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????????, ???? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????????. ????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????. ???????????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????????????, ?? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ? ????????? ?????? ????.

?.?. ???????????

2005-03-01

220

Water Treatment Technologies Inspire Healthy Beverages  

Science.gov (United States)

Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Inspire: A Mars Network Science Mission  

Science.gov (United States)

INSPIRE is a Mars Network Science mission which is been studied by ESA in the frame of its Mars Robotic Exploration Program. It consists of three probes performing a direct entry on Mars for geophysics and meteorology science over one full martian year.

Voirin, T.; Larranaga, J.; Taylor, G.; Sanchez Perez, J. M.; Prost, J. P.; Cavel, C.; Falkner, P.

2014-06-01

222

Finding Inspiration in Middle School General Music  

Science.gov (United States)

Middle school general music programs can be vibrant, exciting places, where students are inspired to learn more about music and themselves. In this article, the author discusses how to work with rather than against adolescents' age-appropriate characteristics when planning "content", "process", "assessment", and "classroom environment". Then, she…

McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

2011-01-01

223

Towards a Pedagogy of Inspirational Parables  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper seeks to present a rationale for a learning and assessment activity involving students in the construction of inspirational parables for diversity management within a university business studies programme. The paper reviews processes from teacher and student perspectives, describes initial outcomes and foreshadows further…

Pio, Edwina; Haigh, Neil

2007-01-01

224

Using "1 = 2" to Inspire and Learn  

Science.gov (United States)

Mathematical fallacies have an embedded sense of awe and mystery that can be used effectively in a classroom to inspire students to tackle a fallacy and find the "hidden" violation. In doing so, the student may discover the consequence of a rule violation in a stimulating manner, thus making a lasting impact of the rule as well as providing the…

Premadasa, Kirthi; Samaranayake, Geetha

2012-01-01

225

Towards Ecology-Inspired Software Engineering  

CERN Document Server

Ecosystems are complex and dynamic systems. Over billions of years, they have developed advanced capabilities to provide stable functions, despite changes in their environment. In this paper, we argue that the laws of organization and development of ecosystems provide a solid and rich source of inspiration to lay the foundations for novel software construction paradigms that provide stability as much as openness.

Baudry, Benoit

2012-01-01

226

Canonical Visual Size for Real-World Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

Real-world objects can be viewed at a range of distances and thus can be experienced at a range of visual angles within the visual field. Given the large amount of visual size variation possible when observing objects, we examined how internal object representations represent visual size information. In a series of experiments which required…

Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

2011-01-01

227

Confidence, Visual Research, and the Aesthetic Function  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this article is to identify and describe one of the primary purposes of aesthetic quality in the design of computer interfaces and visualization tools. We suggest that humanists can derive advantages in visual research by acknowledging by their efforts to advance aesthetic quality that a significant function of aesthetics in this context is to inspire the user’s confidence. This confidence typically serves to create a sense of trust in the provider of the interface or tool. In t...

Stan Ruecker; Stéfan Sinclair; Milena Radzikowska

2007-01-01

228

Towards Dense Visual SLAM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) is concerned with simultaneously estimating the pose of a camera and a map of the environment from a sequence of images. Traditionally, sparse maps comprising isolated point features have been employed, which facilitate robust localisation but are not well suited to advanced applications. In this thesis, we present map representations that allow a more dense description of the environment. In one approach, planar features are used to repr...

Pietzsch, Tobias

2011-01-01

229

Visualization in Medieval Alchemy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores major trends in visualization of medieval theories of natural and artificial transformation of substances in relation to their philosophical and theological bases. The function of pictorial forms is analyzed in terms of the prevailing conceptions of science and methods of transmitting knowledge. The documents under examination date from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century. In these, pictorial representations include lists and tables, geometrical figures, depictions of ...

Barbara Obrist

2003-01-01

230

Flood Visualizations  

Science.gov (United States)

A lengthy listing of all of NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio visualizations that have flood as a keyword. The listing includes many visualizations of specific flood instances, as well as visualizations of floods caused by hurricanes. The visualizations are available in a wide variety of formats.

Svs, Nasa G.; Nasa

231

Bio-inspired motion estimation – From modelling to evaluation, can biology be a source of inspiration?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a bio-inspired approach to motion estimation based on recent neuroscience findings concerning the motion pathway. Our goal is to identify the key biological features in order to reach a good compromise between bio-inspiration and computational efficiency. Here we choose the neural field formalism which provides a sound mathematical framework to describe the model at a macroscopic scale. Within this framework we define the cortical activity as coupled integro-differential equations ...

Tlapale, E?milien; Kornprobst, Pierre; Masson, Guillaume; Faugeras, Olivier; Bouecke, Jan; Neumann, Heiko

2010-01-01

232

NodeTrix: Hybrid Representation for Analyzing Social Networks  

CERN Document Server

The need to visualize large social networks is growing as hardware capabilities make analyzing large networks feasible and many new data sets become available. Unfortunately, the visualizations in existing systems do not satisfactorily answer the basic dilemma of being readable both for the global structure of the network and also for detailed analysis of local communities. To address this problem, we present NodeTrix, a hybrid representation for networks that combines the advantages of two traditional representations: node-link diagrams are used to show the global structure of a network, while arbitrary portions of the network can be shown as adjacency matrices to better support the analysis of communities. A key contribution is a set of interaction techniques. These allow analysts to create a NodeTrix visualization by dragging selections from either a node-link or a matrix, flexibly manipulate the NodeTrix representation to explore the dataset, and create meaningful summary visualizations of their findings....

Henry, Nathalie; Mcguffin, Michael

2007-01-01

233

Cortical representations of bodies and faces are strongest in their commonly experienced configurations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Faces and bodies are perhaps the most salient and evolutionarily important visual stimuli and here we show with human functional imaging that the strength of their representations depends on long-term experience. Representations were strongest for stimuli in their typical combinations of visual field and side (e.g. left-field, right-body), though all conditions were simply reflections and translations of one another. Thus, high-level representations reflect the statistics with which stimuli o...

Chan, A. W-y; Kravitz, D. J.; Truong, S.; Arizpe, J.; Baker, C. I.

2010-01-01

234

A Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based PID Motor Controller for Multi-Motor Robots with Low Cost FPGAs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN), which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and s...

Angel Jimenez-Fernandez; Gabriel Jimenez-Moreno; Alejandro Linares-Barranco; Dominguez-morales, Manuel J.; Rafael Paz-Vicente; Anton Civit-Balcells

2012-01-01

235

Constructive Visualization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

If visualization is to be democratized, we need to provide means for non-experts to create visualizations that allow them to engage directly with datasets. We present constructive visualization a new paradigm for the simple creation of flexible, dynamic visualizations. Constructive visualization is simple--in that the skills required to build and manipulate the visualizations are akin to kindergarten play; it is expressive-- in that one can build within the constraints of the chosen environme...

2014-01-01

236

Capturing lived experiences in movement educational contexts through videographic participation and visual narratives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explores and reflects upon possibilities and challenges of using â??videographic participationâ? (Svendler Nielsen 2009a) as a research method combining filmic ethnography (Møhl 2003) and phenomenology (van Manen 1990; Todres 2007) in movement educational contexts. The research method helps visualizing and communicating the meaning-making of the participants and emphasizes the role of the researcherâ??s embodied involvement when â??looking for lived experiencesâ??. The paper exemplifies the use of videographic participation and presents (audio)visual narratives from two educational contexts: children in a primary school participating in a collaboration with a professional dance company and youngsters ages 18-26 doing contemporary circus training. Both studies use film as a knowledge creating practice (Møhl 2003) in combination with a hermeneutic-phenomenological analysis (van Manen 1990) to cast light on ways of understanding embodied learning. The use of videographic participation in the two contexts of educational practice are explored, compared and discussed. On an overall methodological level it is discussed how it is possible to capture lived experiences in fields of movement education by use of videographic participation and what the challenges of â??looking for lived experiencesâ?? in movement can be. Inspired by Performative Social Science (Jones et al. 2008; Gergen and Jones 2008) the paper exemplifies and discusses (re)presentation of research data in artistic forms by highlighting the question of how meaning-making of the participants can be captured and disseminated through (audio)visual narratives.

Degerbøl, Stine Mikés; Svendler Nielsen, Charlotte

237

Atlas of INSPIRE: Evaluating SDI Development through an Inventory of INSPIRE Experiences of European National Mapping Agencies:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper describes how practice of INSPIRE implementation are affecting Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) development. It contains the results of a EuroSDR (European Spatial Data Research) project ‘Atlas of INSPIRE implementation methods’. Aim of the project was to make an inventory of experiences when implementing INSPIRE, in order to share exemplary practices and solutions among national mapping agencies and national INSPIRE contact points. This inventory formed the basis for the gener...

Vries, W. T.; Crompvoets, J.; Stoter, J.; Vandenberghe, I.

2011-01-01

238

Neurobiologically Inspired Control of Engineered Flapping Flight  

CERN Document Server

This article presents a new control approach and dynamic model for engineered flapping flight with many interacting degrees of freedom. This paper explores the applications of neurobiologically inspired control systems in the form of Central Pattern Generators (CPG) to control flapping flight dynamics. A rigorous mathematical and control theoretic framework to design complex three dimensional wing motions is presented based on phase synchronization and Hopf bifurcation. In particular, we show that tailless aircraft alternating between flapping and gliding can be effectively stabilized by smooth wing motions driven by the CPG network. Furthermore, a novel robotic testbed has been developed to emulate the flight of bats. This model has shoulder and leg joints totaling ten control variables of wing properties. Results of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulation of CPG-based flight control validate the effectiveness of the proposed neurobiologically inspired control approach.

Chung, Soon-Jo; Stoner, Jeremiah R

2009-01-01

239

String Inspired QCD and $E_6$ Models  

CERN Document Server

The work in this thesis consists of two distinct parts: A class of models called, ``String-flip potential models,'' (SFP's) are studied as a possible candidate for modeling nuclear matter in terms of constituent quarks. These models are inspired from lattice quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) and are nonperturbative in nature. It is shown that they are viable candidates for modeling nuclear matter since they reproduce most of the bulk properties except for nuclear binding. Their properties are studied in nuclear and mesonic matter. A new class of models is developed, called ``flux-bubble potential models,'' which allows for the SFP's to be extended to include perturbative QCD interactions. Attempts to obtain nuclear binding is not successful, but valuable insight was gained towards possible future directions to pursue. The possibility of studying Superstring inspired $E_6$ phenomenology at high energy hadron colliders is investigated. The production of heavy lepton pairs parton level cross-section is expected due t...

Boyce, M M

1996-01-01

240

Voros product and noncommutative inspired black holes  

CERN Document Server

We emphasize the importance of the Voros product in defining noncommutative inspired black holes. The computation of entropy for both the noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black holes show that the area law holds upto order $\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{\\theta}}e^{-M^2/\\theta}$. The leading correction to the entropy (computed in the tunneling formalism) is shown to be logarithmic. The Komar energy $E$ for these black holes is then obtained and a deviation from the standard identity $E=2ST_H$ is found at the order $\\sqrt{\\theta}e^{-M^2/\\theta}$. This deviation leads to a nonvanishing Komar energy at the extremal point $T_{H}=0$ of these black holes. The Smarr formula is finally worked out for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole. Similar features also exist for a deSitter--Schwarzschild geometry.

Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

AN AIS INSPIRED ALERT REDUCTION MODEL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most important topics in the field of intrusion detection systems is to find a solution to reduce the overwhelming alerts generated by IDSs in the network. Inspired by danger theory which is one of the most important theories in artificial immune system (AIS) we proposed a complementary subsystem for IDS which can be integrated into any existing IDS models to aggregate the alerts in order to reduce them, and subsequently reduce false alarms among the alerts. After evaluation using ...

Mohammad Mahboubian; Nur Izura Udzir; Shamala Subramaniam; Nor Asila Wati Abdul Hamid

2012-01-01

242

Swarm intelligence in bio-inspired robotics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this report, we have explored swarm intelligence through a box-pushing taskwith physical robots called e-pucks. Research on social insects has been presentedtogether with dierent ways of controlling autonomous robots, where combiningthis knowledge has been essential in our quest to make a biological plausible antretrieving system.Inspired by ants and behavior-based robotics, we have created the system CRABS.It is based on Brooks' subsumption architecture to control six dierent behavio...

Berg, Jannik; Karud, Camilla Haukenes

2011-01-01

243

Membrane computing: traces, neural inspired models, controls  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Membrane Computing:Traces, Neural Inspired Models, ControlsAutor: Armand-Mihai IonescuDirectores: Dr. Victor Mitrana (URV)Dr. Takashi Yokomori (Universidad Waseda, Japón)Resumen Castellano:El presente trabajo está dedicado a una área muy activa del cálculo natural (que intenta descubrir la odalidad en la cual la naturaleza calcula, especialmente al nivel biológico), es decir el cálculo con membranas, y más preciso, a los modelos de membranas inspirados de la funcionalidad biológica de...

Ionescu, Armand-mihai

2008-01-01

244

Neurobiologically Inspired Control of Engineered Flapping Flight  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents a new control approach and a dynamic model for engineered flapping flight with many interacting degrees of freedom. This paper explores the applications of neurobiologically inspired control systems in the form of Central Pattern Generators (CPG) to control flapping flight dynamics. A rigorous mathematical and control theoretic framework to design complex three dimensional wing motions is presented based on phase synchronization of nonlinear oscillators...

Chung, Soon-jo; Dorothy, Michael

2009-01-01

245

Sea-cucumber skin inspires new material  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists have long been amazed by the skin of a sea cucumber, which can switch from stiff to floppy, or vice versa, in mere seconds in order to help the animal defend itself against predators. Inspired by this quick-change act, researchers have developed a new material that can also switch between rigid and flexible states. They hope that this material, or one like it, might someday be used as part of medical devices that are implanted inside the body.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-03-06

246

Enhancing Innovation Through Biologically Inspired Design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mixing upper level undergraduates majoring in engineering with those majoring in biology, we have devised a course on biologically-inspired design (BID) that provides practical training in methods and techniques that facilitate the identification and translation of biological principles into solutions for human challenges. The challenges of interdisciplinary courses generally, and the specific challenges of fostering exchange among biologists and engineers lead us to define these learning goa...

Marc Weissburg; Craig Tovey Craig Tovey; Jeannette Yen

2010-01-01

247

Biological Inspiration for Agile Autonomous Air Vehicles  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

The ease with which flying insects, birds and bats negotiate confined, obstacle-cluttered airspace has long inspired us with visions of human-designed aerial machines with similar performance. Flying animals exhibit capabilities for aerial acrobatics, insensitivity to wind gusts, avoiding collision with or intercepting fixed and moving objects, landing and take off from small perches, and numerous other feats of flight agility that are beyond those of human-engineered vehicles. Although we are naturally tempted to look to biological organisms for inspiration or as design templates, the performance of the resulting bio-inspired or biomimetic engineered devices rarely approaches that of the living organisms. Among several possible reasons for this, two important issues motivate and provide a focus for this paper: it is nearly impossible to correlate biological processes with engineering design principles; biological systems possess sensing-computation-actuation response architectures and processes that appear to differ from those of engineered systems in fundamental ways, those differences are poorly understood and their importance little appreciated. These issues provide rich opportunities for research to produce genuine advancements in our understanding of biological and artificial autonomy. The research will necessarily involve biologists, engineers, and mathematicians. As with any research endeavor involving multiple mature disciplines, long term research collaborations are necessary for establishing the foundation of fundamentally new science. Unfortunately, without an objective understanding of these two issues and their implications for guiding autonomous air vehicle research and development, the real promise for biology-inspired or biomimetic concepts to achieve breakthroughs in vehicle capabilities may remain an elusive dream.

2007-01-01

248

Inspirational catalogue of Master Thesis proposals 2014  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project. If you have an idea for a project which is not covered by the catalogue you are more than welcome to contact any of the supervisors.

2014-01-01

249

Development of Biomimetic Squid-Inspired Suckers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biomechanical properties of squid suckers were studied to provide inspiration for the development of sucker artefacts for a robotic octopus. Mechanical support of the rings found inside squid suckers was studied by bending tests. Tensile tests were carried out to study the maximum possible sucking force produced by squid suckers based on the strength of sucker stalks, normalized by the sucking areas. The squid suckers were also directly tested to obtain sucking forces by a special testing arr...

2012-01-01

250

Humidification of Inspiration Gas in a Ventilator  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long term treatment with mechanical ventilation without proper humidification can dry a patient’s airways which causes various complications. The aim of this Master’s thesis was to develop a new technique to humidify and heat the inspired gas. The scope was limited to the design of a new working concept and the creation of a prototype as proof-of-concept. The ventilator humidifier market was studied, and the most prevalent humidification techniques used today were assessed to identify the...

2009-01-01

251

Social representations of women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social Representations is one of the most important theories in contemporary social psychology. Since the social psychologist Serge Moscovici developed his theory of social representations to explain how a scientific theory such as the psychoanalysis turns into a common sense knowledge many studies have been done by different social psychologists. The analysis of the social representations of women as represented in myths and popular beliefs is an excellent opportunity to study how this theory can be applied to this representational field. At the same time it makes possible to understand the formation of attitudes towards women

Álvaro Estramiana, José Luis

2006-05-01

252

Strongly-Representable Operators  

CERN Document Server

Recently in [1] a new class of maximal monotone operators has been introduced. In this note we study domain range properties as well as connections with other classes and calculus rules for these operators we called strongly-representable. While not every maximal monotone operator is strongly-representable, every maximal monotone NI operator is strongly-representable, and every strongly representable operator is locally maximal monotone, maximal monotone locally, and ANA. As a consequence the conjugate of the Fitzpatrick function of a maximal monotone operator is not necessarily a representative function.

Voisei, M D

2008-01-01

253

Biologically inspired coupled antenna beampattern design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose to design a small-size transmission-coupled antenna array, and corresponding radiation pattern, having high performance inspired by the female Ormia ochracea's coupled ears. For reproduction purposes, the female Ormia is able to locate male crickets' call accurately despite the small distance between its ears compared with the incoming wavelength. This phenomenon has been explained by the mechanical coupling between the Ormia's ears, which has been modeled by a pair of differential equations. In this paper, we first solve these differential equations governing the Ormia ochracea's ear response, and convert the response to the pre-specified radio frequencies. We then apply the converted response of the biological coupling in the array factor of a uniform linear array composed of finite-length dipole antennas, and also include the undesired electromagnetic coupling due to the proximity of the elements. Moreover, we propose an algorithm to optimally choose the biologically inspired coupling for maximum array performance. In our numerical examples, we compute the radiation intensity of the designed system for binomial and uniform ordinary end-fire arrays, and demonstrate the improvement in the half-power beamwidth, sidelobe suppression and directivity of the radiation pattern due to the biologically inspired coupling.

Akcakaya, Murat; Nehorai, Arye, E-mail: makcak2@ese.wustl.ed, E-mail: nehorai@ese.wustl.ed [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

2010-12-15

254

ETSI EN 319 142 Part 6 (Draft): "Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI); PDF Advanced Electronic Signature Profiles; Part 6: Visual Representations of Electronic Signatures" v0.0.2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sexta parte del borrador del nuevo estándar europeo que especifica el formato de firmas electrónicas avanzadas para documentos PDF (PAdES). Esta especifica requisitos y recomendaciones para la representación visual de los contenidos de las firmas PAdES incluidas en un documento PDF, y del resultado del proceso de validación de cualquier firma presente en un documento PDF. Este borrador se ha hecho público con el fin de permitir a la comunidad de investigadores, desarrolladores, implem...

Rizzo, Luigi; Funk, Alexander; Cruellas Ibarz, Juan Carlos; Ro?ck, Andrea; Caccia, Andrea

2013-01-01

255

VACS : Visual Analytics Suite for Cyber Security - Visual Exploration of Cyber Security Datasets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual exploration of cyber security datasets is an important and highly relevant field of research. To address the cyber security challenge of the VAST Challenge 2013, we utilized our novel Visual Analytics Suite for Cyber Security (VACS) to visually explore the given datasets using a combination of different visual representations. VACS primarily provides a dashboard view, host-based thumbnail overview and a querying interface to retrieve and drill down to investigate s...

Fischer, Fabian; Keim, Daniel

2013-01-01

256

Developing PFC representations using reinforcement learning  

Science.gov (United States)

From both functional and biological considerations, it is widely believed that action production, planning, and goal-oriented behaviors supported by the frontal cortex are organized hierarchically (Fuster, 1990, Koechlin, Ody, & Kouneiher, 2003, & Miller, Galanter, & Pribram, 1960) However, the nature of the different levels of the hierarchy remains unclear, and little attention has been paid to the origins of such a hierarchy. We address these issues through biologically-inspired computational models that develop representations through reinforcement learning. We explore several different factors in these models that might plausibly give rise to a hierarchical organization of representations within the PFC, including an initial connectivity hierarchy within PFC, a hierarchical set of connections between PFC and subcortical structures controlling it, and differential synaptic plasticity schedules. Simulation results indicate that architectural constraints contribute to the segregation of different types of representations, and that this segregation facilitates learning. These findings are consistent with the idea that there is a functional hierarchy in PFC, as captured in our earlier computational models of PFC function and a growing body of empirical data.

Reynolds, Jeremy R.; O'Reilly, Randall C.

2009-01-01

257

A Novel Quantum Inspired Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Bin Packing Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Bin Packing Problem (BPP is one of the most known combinatorial optimization problems. This problem consists to pack a set of items into a minimum number of bins. There are several variants of this problem; the most basic problem is the one-dimensional bin packing problem (1-BPP. In this paper, we present a new approach based on the quantum inspired cuckoo search algorithm to deal with the 1-BPP problem. The contribution consists in defining an appropriate quantum representation based on qubit representation to represent bin packing solutions. The second contribution is proposition of a new hybrid quantum measure operation which uses first fit heuristic to pack no filled objects by the standard measure operation. The obtained results are very encouraging and show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Abdesslem Layeb

2012-05-01

258

A Visual Information Retrieval Tool.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…

Zhang, Jin

2000-01-01

259

The DynAlloy Visualizer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present an extension to the DynAlloy tool to navigate DynAlloy counterexamples: the DynAlloy Visualizer. The user interface mimics the functionality of a programming language debugger. Without this tool, a DynAlloy user is forced to deal with the internals of the Alloy intermediate representation in order to debug a flaw in her model.

Bendersky, Pablo; Galeotti, Juan Pablo; Garbervetsky, Diego

2014-01-01

260

Representation of heading direction in far and near head space.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manipulation of objects around the head requires an accurate and stable internal representation of their locations in space, also during movements such as that of the eye or head. For far space, the representation of visual stimuli for goal-directed arm movements relies on retinal updating, if eye movements are involved. Recent neurophysiological studies led us to infer that a transformation of visual space from retinocentric to a head-centric representation may be involved for visual objects in close proximity to the head. The first aim of this study was to investigate if there is indeed such a representation for remembered visual targets of goal-directed arm movements. Participants had to point toward an initially foveated central target after an intervening saccade. Participants made errors that reflect a bias in the visuomotor transformation that depends on eye displacement rather than any head-centred variable. The second issue addressed was if pointing toward the centre of a wide-field expanding motion pattern involves a retinal updating mechanism or a transformation to a head-centric map and if that process is distance dependent. The same pattern of pointing errors in relation to gaze displacement was found independent of depth. We conclude that for goal-directed arm movements, representation of the remembered visual targets is updated in a retinal frame, a mechanism that is actively used regardless of target distance, stimulus characteristics or the requirements of the task. PMID:12830343

Poljac, Ervin; van den Berg, A V

2003-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Automatic landing on aircraft carrier by visual servoing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The landing on carrier is a very difficult task even for trained pilots. This paper presents a method to land automatically using aircraft sensors and three visual features inspired by visual cues used by pilots. These features whose link with the aircraft state is established, are introduced in a control scheme using a linearized aircraft model. The control law demonstrates a large convergence domain using simulated visual features and a 3D tracker applied on synthetic images.

Coutard, L.; Chaumette, F.; Pflimlin, J. -m

2011-01-01

262

An investigation of the effective aspects of multiple external representations for students learning chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine how students used various multiple visual and auditory external representations to develop their understanding of limiting reagents. Specifically I sought to identify the representations that were useful, and then the particular characteristics that made those representations effective in helping students create their understanding. The investigation used the Synchronized Multiple Visualizations of Chemistry (SMV Chem) program. SMV Chem allowed learners to use five external representations (4 visual, 1 auditory) of a given chemistry topic in any order or combination that they chose. The four visual external representations consisted of a real time video of a chemical reaction (macroscopic level of understanding), a computer animation of the reaction (microscopic symbolic level), a graphical representation (macroscopic symbolic level), and a text representation (verbal text level) of a mathematical problem concerning limiting reagents. Each visual external representation had an accompanying audio track (verbal auditory level) to narrate the action that occurred during the representation that could be selected or not, according to the user's choice. This module was chosen because the topic of limiting reagents as presented in this module provided students with the opportunity to explore the various levels as presented by the representations in developing their understanding of the chemistry. Through interviews with 12 participants, several trends emerged in terms of the representations and their use. Each representation was found be helpful for creating understanding about a certain part of the overall concept of limiting reagents. Difficulties arose for the participants in terms of cognitive constraints; when cognitive functions were overloaded, due to complexity or the amount of information presented, they were not able to create an understanding. Conversely, specific combinations and aspects of the representations supported cognitive functions and the creation of an understanding. Overall, the participants felt that the use of computer visualizations was beneficial.

Postek, Brian

263

Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons’ responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene.

NikosKLogothetis

2010-04-01

264

Pathway Preserving Representation of Metabolic Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Improvements in biological data acquisition and genomes sequencing now allow to reconstruct entire metabolic networks of many living organisms. The size and complexity of these networks prohibit manual drawing and thereby urge the need of dedicated visualization techniques. An ef?cient representation of such a network should preserve the topological information of metabolic pathways while respecting biological drawing conventions. These constraints complicate the automatic generation of suc...

Lambert, Antoine; Dubois, Jonathan; Bourqui, Romain

2011-01-01

265

Representation Sharpening Can Explain Perceptual Priming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Perceiving and identifying an object is improved by prior exposure to the object. This perceptual priming phenomenon is accompanied by reduced neural activity. But whether suppression of neuronal activity with priming is responsible for the improvement in perception is unclear. To address this problem, we developed a rate-based network model of visual processing. In the model, decreased neural activity following priming was due to stimulus-specific sharpening of representations taking place i...

Moldakarimov, Samat; Bazhenov, Maxim; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

2010-01-01

266

Inscriptions Becoming Representations in Representational Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyze the interaction of 3 students working on mathematics problems over several days in a virtual math team. Our analysis traces out how successful collaboration in a later session is contingent upon the work of prior sessions and shows how the development of representational practices is an important aspect of these participants' problem…

Medina, Richard; Suthers, Daniel

2013-01-01

267

I feel who I see: visual body identity affects visual-tactile integration in peripersonal space  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies have shown the importance of integrating multisensory information in the body representation for constituting self-consciousness. However, one idea that has received only scant attention is that our body representation is also constituted by knowledge of bodily visual characteristics (i.e. 'what I look like'). Here in two experiments we used a full body crossmodal congruency task in which visual distractors were presented on a photograph of the participant, another person, who ...

Salomon, R.; Elk, M.; Aspell, J. E.; Blanke, O.

2012-01-01

268

Visualizing Flat Spacetime: Viewing Optical versus Special Relativistic Effects  

CERN Document Server

A simple visual representation of Minkowski spacetime appropriate for a student with a background in geometry and algebra is presented. Minkowski spacetime can be modeled with a Euclidean 4-space to yield accurate visualizations as predicted by special relativity theory. The contributions of relativistic aberration as compared to classical pre-relativistic aberration to the geometry are discussed in the context of its visual representation.

Black, Don V; Wessel, F; Pajarola, R; Kuester, F

2012-01-01

269

Representation theory of finite groups  

CERN Document Server

Concise, graduate-level exposition of the theory of finite groups, including the theory of modular representations. Topics include representation theory of rings with identity, representation theory of finite groups, applications of the theory of characters, construction of irreducible representations and modular representations. Rudiments of linear algebra and knowledge of group theory helpful prerequisites.

Burrow, Martin

2011-01-01

270

Visualizing structures of speech expressiveness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Speech is both beautiful and informative. In this work, a conceptual study of the speech, through investigation of the tower of Babel, the archetypal phonemes, and a study of the reasons of uses of language is undertaken in order to create an artistic work investigating the nature of speech. The Babel myth speaks about distance created when aspiring to the heaven as the reason for language division. Meanwhile, Locquin states through thorough investigations that only a few phonemes are present throughout history. Our interpretation is that a system able to recognize archetypal phonemes through vowels and consonants, and which converts the speech energy into visual particles that form complex visual structures, provides us with a mean to present the expressiveness of speech into a visual mode. This system is presented in an artwork whose scenario is inspired from the reasons of language. The artwork is presented at the Re:New festival in May 2008.

Herbelin, Bruno; Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

2008-01-01

271

Synthesis and characterization of diatom inspired nanocomposites  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation addresses the investigation of two novel methods to synthesize composite nanomaterials inspired by marine microalgae called diatoms. Diatoms are inspirational sources of silica structures, ordered at micro- to nanoscale, that possess unique optical properties. The fabrication of nanomaterials with well-defined and controllable micro-to nanoscale features has been of great interest for chemical, optical, electronic, catalytic, environmental, and medical applications. While bottom-up and top-down approaches have been extensively used to fabricate two-dimensional structures and devices, there is a need for inexpensive methods to mass-produce complex micro- to nanoscale structures with a variety of three-dimensional (3D) morphologies at high degrees of precision, reproducibility, and chemical tailorability. To explore the fabrication of 3D nanostructures, this study harnessed the biomineralization capacity of diatom cell cultures to fabricate Si-Ge oxide nanocomposites on one hand and the chemical bath deposition on the other hand. A two-stage photobioreactor strategy was used to metabolically insert nanostructured germanium into the silica microstructure of diatom of diatom Pinnularia sp. In the first stage, diatom cells were grown to the point of silicon starvation. In the second stage, a pulse of silicon and germanium solution was added to the silicon-starved cells. Various electron microscopy techniques were utilized to validate the extent of the insertion and the subsequent incorporation of germanium into the diatom silica matrix. In the second method to form diatom inspired nanocomposites, we utilize a simple, inexpensive chemical bath deposition technique to deposit a cadmium sulfide nanocrystals on the patterned surface of diatom biosilica. A parametric investigation of the factors affecting the chemical bath process was carried out. The morphology, structural and compositional properties of the composites were characterized by electron microscopy. Absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the properties of the deposited CdS thin films.

Gutu, Timothy

272

Bio-inspired optofluidic lasers with luciferin  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors demonstrate a bio-inspired optofluidic laser with luciferin, a class of light-emitting compounds synthesized by many different organisms, as the gain medium. The laser characteristics under various conditions such as solution pH value and luciferin concentration are investigated. The authors demonstrate an optofluidic fluorescence resonance energy transfer laser by using luciferin and Rhodamine 6G as the donor and the acceptor, respectively, which takes advantage of the large Stokes shift of luciferin to avoid potential cross excitation of the acceptor. Their work leads to the photonic devices using biosynthesized materials as the gain medium and optofluidic intra-cavity bio/chemical sensing.

Wu, Xiang; Chen, Qiushu; Sun, Yuze; Fan, Xudong

2013-05-01

273

Wormhole inspired by non-commutative geometry  

CERN Document Server

In the present work we search for a new wormhole solution inspired by noncommutative geometry with the additional condition of allowing conformal Killing vectors (CKV). A special aspect of noncommutative geometry is that it replaces point-like structures of gravitational sources with smeared objects under Gaussian distribution. However, the purpose of this paper is to obtain wormhole solutions with noncommutative geometry as a background where we consider a point-like structure of gravitational object without smearing effect. It is found through this investigation that wormhole solutions exist in this Lorentzian distribution with viable physical properties.

Rahaman, Farook; Karmakar, Sreya; Ray, Saibal

2014-01-01

274

The "Biologically-Inspired Computing" Column  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-managing systems, whether viewed from the perspective of Autonomic Computing, or from that of another initiative, offers a holistic vision for the development and evolution of biologically-inspired computer-based systems. It aims to bring new levels of automation and dependability to systems, while simultaneously hiding their complexity and reducing costs. A case can certainly be made that all computer-based systems should exhibit autonomic properties [6], and we envisage greater interest in, and uptake of, autonomic principles in future system development.

Hinchey, Mike

2007-01-01

275

Visual field.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is dedicated to main information about visual field, monocular and binocular ranges of visual field including their defects. Visual field loss may occur to disease of the eye, optic nerve or brain. Typical changes are present at glaucoma and macular degeneration. Visual pathway is also mentioned. The basic medical examinations of visual fields are Amsler grid, kinetic and static perimetry and the other. Newer method is microperimetry which detects the changes directly on the retina. The aim of this poster is importance and determination of visual field as a preventive ophthalmologic and optometric examination. PMID:23837228

Sidlová, Jana Sokolová; Benes, Pavel; Holoubková, Zuzana

2013-04-01

276

Indecomposable representations for parabose algebra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general study of the representations of the graded Lie algebra of parabose oscillators is given. Besides realizing the standard representations, we also find some interesting indecomposable (not fully reducible) representations. (author)

1982-01-01

277

Neurally inspired rapid detection of sparse objects in videos  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we describe COGNIVA, a closed-loop Cognitive-Neural method and system for image and video analysis that combines recent technological breakthroughs in bio-vision cognitive algorithms and neural signatures of human visual processing. COGNIVA is an "operational neuroscience" framework for intelligent and rapid search and categorization of Items Of Interest (IOI) in imagery and video. The IOI could be a single object, group of objects, specific image regions, specific spatio-temporal pattern/sequence or even the category that the image itself belongs to (e.g., vehicle or non-vehicle). There are two main types of approach for rapid search and categorization of IOI in imagery and video. The first approach uses conventional machine vision or bio-inspired cognitive algorithms. These usually need a predefined set of IOI and suffer from high false alarm rates. The second class of algorithms is based on neural signatures of target detection. These algorithms usually break the entire image into sub-images and process EEG data from these images and classify them based on it. This approach may suffer from high false alarms and is slow because the entire image is chipped and presented to the human observer. The proposed COGNIVA overcomes the limitations of both methods by combining them resulting in a low false alarm rate and high detection with high throughput making it applicable to both image and video analysis. In the most basic form, COGNIVA first uses bioinspired cognitive algorithms for deciding potential IOI in a sequence of images/video. These potential IOI are then shown to a human and neural signatures of visual detection of IOI are collected and processed. The resulting signatures are used to categorize and provide final IOI. We will present the concept and typical results of COGNIVA for detecting Items of interest in image data.

Khosla, Deepak; Huber, David J.; Bhattacharyya, Rajan; Daily, Mike; Tasinga, Penn

2010-04-01

278

A toolbox for representational similarity analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuronal population codes are increasingly being investigated with multivariate pattern-information analyses. A key challenge is to use measured brain-activity patterns to test computational models of brain information processing. One approach to this problem is representational similarity analysis (RSA), which characterizes a representation in a brain or computational model by the distance matrix of the response patterns elicited by a set of stimuli. The representational distance matrix encapsulates what distinctions between stimuli are emphasized and what distinctions are de-emphasized in the representation. A model is tested by comparing the representational distance matrix it predicts to that of a measured brain region. RSA also enables us to compare representations between stages of processing within a given brain or model, between brain and behavioral data, and between individuals and species. Here, we introduce a Matlab toolbox for RSA. The toolbox supports an analysis approach that is simultaneously data- and hypothesis-driven. It is designed to help integrate a wide range of computational models into the analysis of multichannel brain-activity measurements as provided by modern functional imaging and neuronal recording techniques. Tools for visualization and inference enable the user to relate sets of models to sets of brain regions and to statistically test and compare the models using nonparametric inference methods. The toolbox supports searchlight-based RSA, to continuously map a measured brain volume in search of a neuronal population code with a specific geometry. Finally, we introduce the linear-discriminant t value as a measure of representational discriminability that bridges the gap between linear decoding analyses and RSA. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the toolbox, we apply it to both simulated and real fMRI data. The key functions are equally applicable to other modalities of brain-activity measurement. The toolbox is freely available to the community under an open-source license agreement (http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/methods-and-resources/toolboxes/license/). PMID:24743308

Nili, Hamed; Wingfield, Cai; Walther, Alexander; Su, Li; Marslen-Wilson, William; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

2014-04-01

279

Visualization of Mined Pattern and Its Human Aspects  

CERN Multimedia

Researchers got success in mining the Web usage data effectively and efficiently. But representation of the mined patterns is often not in a form suitable for direct human consumption. Hence mechanisms and tools that can represent mined patterns in easily understandable format are utilized. Different techniques are used for pattern analysis, one of them is visualization. Visualization can provide valuable assistance for data analysis and decision making tasks. In the data visualization process, technical representations of web pages are replaced by user attractive text interpretations. Experiments with the real world problems showed that the visualization can significantly increase the quality and usefulness of web log mining results. However, how decision makers perceive and interact with a visual representation can strongly influence their understanding of the data as well as the usefulness of the visual presentation. Human factors therefore contribute significantly to the visualization process and should p...

Jain, Ratnesh Kumar; Kasana, Dr R S

2009-01-01

280

Implicit body representations and the conscious body image.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies have revealed that somatosensory processing relies on a class of implicit body representations showing large distortions of size and shape. The relation between these representations and the conscious body image remains unclear. Dissociations have been reported in the clinical literature on eating disorders between different body image measures, with larger and more consistent distortions found with depictive measures, in which participants compare their body to a visual depict...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Dualgrid : a closed representation space for consistent spatial databases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[Abstract] In the past decades, much effort has been devoted to the integration of spatial information within more traditional information systems. To support such integration, spatial data representation technology has been intensively improved, from conceptual and discrete models for data representation and query languages, to indexing and visualization technologies and interoperability standards. As a result of all these efforts, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are nowadays a widely u...

Cotelo Lema, Jose? Antonio

2012-01-01

282

Signal- and Symbol-based Representations in Computer Vision  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We discuss problems of signal-- and symbol based representations in terms of three dilemmas which are faced in the design of each vision system. Signal- and symbol-based representations are opposite ends of a spectrum of conceivable design decisions caught at opposite sides of the dilemmas. We make inherent problems explicit and describe potential design decisions for artificial visual systems to deal with the dilemmas.

Krüger, Norbert; Felsberg, Michael

2004-01-01

283

Coherent Bayesian analysis of inspiral signals  

CERN Multimedia

We present in this paper a Bayesian parameter estimation method for the analysis of interferometric gravitational wave observations of an inspiral of binary compact objects using data recorded simultaneously by a network of several interferometers at different sites. We consider neutron star or black hole inspirals that are modeled to 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order in phase and 2.5 PN in amplitude. Inference is facilitated using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods that are adapted in order to efficiently explore the particular parameter space. Examples are shown to illustrate how and what information about the different parameters can be derived from the data. This study uses simulated signals and data with noise characteristics that are assumed to be defined by the LIGO and Virgo detectors operating at their design sensitivities. Nine parameters are estimated, including those associated with the binary system, plus its location on the sky. We explain how this technique will be part of a detection pipeline for bi...

Röver, Christian; Guidi, Gianluca M; Viceré, Andrea; Christensen, Nelson

2007-01-01

284

Autobiography: Inspiring new visions of teacher learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this article is to broaden the tradition of autobiography by using it as a way in which teachers can identify sources of inspiration in their educational experience. In the process, my aim is to make explicit the links between autobiography, learning and meta learning. Extending autobiographical inquiry to include different levels at which learning takes place serves to highlight the importance not only of the individual context of learning (the private self, but also the possibility of learning and constructing meaning from autobiography in dialogue with others. This article identifies four levels of learning-how-to-learn from autobiography. These levels are: 1. learning from autobiographical writing; 2. learning through intergenerational dialogues; 3. developmental learning through the career stages; and 4. whole group co-constructive learning. My ultimate goal is two fold. Firstly, to use these levels of learning to identify operational definitions of inspiration based on significant events and experiences in teacher’s personal stories. Secondly to identify a meta research orientation for linking autobiography with learning and meta-learning.

Irene Simon

2006-05-01

285

Efficient image representations and features  

Science.gov (United States)

Interdisciplinary research in human vision and electronic imaging has greatly contributed to the current state of the art in imaging technologies. Image compression and image quality are prominent examples and the progress made in these areas relies on a better understanding of what natural images are and how they are perceived by the human visual system. A key research question has been: given the (statistical) properties of natural images, what are the most efficient and perceptually relevant image representations, what are the most prominent and descriptive features of images and videos? We give an overview of how these topics have evolved over the 25 years of HVEI conferences and how they have influenced the current state of the art. There are a number of striking parallels between human vision and electronic imaging. The retina does lateral inhibition, one of the early coders was using a Laplacian pyramid; primary visual cortical areas have orientation- and frequency-selective neurons, the current JPEG standard defines similar wavelet transforms; the brain uses a sparse code, engineers are currently excited about sparse coding and compressed sensing. Some of this has indeed happened at the HVEI conferences and we would like to distill that.

Dorr, Michael; Vig, Eleonora; Barth, Erhardt

2013-03-01

286

What inspires South African student teachers for their future profession?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The need for an inspired professional teacher corps to haul South African school education out of its current low level of quality was the driving force behind this project. Its aim was to determine what counted as sources of inspiration for student teachers and hence for future teachers. Based on a conceptual-theoretical study, a questionnaire that could probe student teachers' sources of inspiration was completed by a sample of student teachers (n = 1,683). A factor analysis of their respon...

Charl Wolhuter; Hannes van der Walt; Ferdinand Potgieter; Louisa Meyer; Thapelo Mamiala

2012-01-01

287

Inspiration Inducement of Pianists in a Subconsciousness Background  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inspiration thinking of pianists lies under their deep thought, and is a product of mutual interaction between consciousness and subconsciousness, closely connected with living experiences, musical environment, and psychological environment of a subject. Piano music, literature poetry, internal rhythm, external rhythm, Nature, environment and impression are significant induction factors to lead inspiration thinking of pianists, while arduous practice, gifted perception, tough exploration and smart capture are preconditions of inspiration happening in pianists.

Changkui Wang

2009-05-01

288

Ordering ambiguity versus representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work we show that the ordering ambiguity on quantization depends on the representation choice. This property is then used to solve unambiguously some particular systems. Finally, we speculate on the consequences for more involved cases.

Dutra, Alvaro Souza

2007-01-01

289

Ordering ambiguity versus representation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work we show that the ordering ambiguity on quantization depends on the representation choice. This property is then used to solve unambiguously some particular systems. Finally, we speculate on the consequences for more involved cases

2006-01-06

290

Morphological shape representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new approach for shape representation is described, which provides a general scheme for object description and unifies some of the existing representation techniques. The proposed method has the advantage that it is based on the use of simple geometric objects which are intuitively used by humans in their perception of shapes. Furthermore, its unifying framework can be used both in computer graphics and computer vision, thus providing a tool to close the existing gap between object modeling...

Pitas, I.; Venetsanopoulos, A. N.

2010-01-01

291

Algebraic representation of continua  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using the duality between the category whose objects are the representations of Hausdorff quotients of Cantor spaces and the category whose objects are the Cantor ring endowed with a link relation (this duality is a particular case of an extension of the Stone duality obtained in [3]), we obtain algebraic representations of the following continua: the unit interval I=[0,1], the unit circle S¹, the Sierpínski triangular curve and the simple triod.Usando la dualidad entre la categoría cu...

2007-01-01

292

External Representations in the Teaching and Learning of Introductory Chemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This manuscript describes the role that external representations, such as diagrams and sketches, can play in organizing and learning concepts presented in a one-semester chemistry course (general, organic and biochemistry designed for nursing students. Although external representations are typically found in chemistry textbooks and instructor-drawn notes, students are usually not taught or prompted to use various types of external representations to promote learning. Representations created by an instructor and a student are discussed to highlight effective ways to foster student participation in creating various diagrams. In addition, a student provides a perspective on the educational value of creating external representations and the roles of visual thinking and creativity in learning introductory chemistry. Although the model for this approach has been an introductory chemistry course, this approach can be widely applied across disciplines.

James R. Cox

2011-12-01

293

Visualization in Medieval Alchemy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores major trends in visualization of medieval theories of natural and artificial transformation of substances in relation to their philosophical and theological bases. The function of pictorial forms is analyzed in terms of the prevailing conceptions of science and methods of transmitting knowledge. The documents under examination date from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century. In these, pictorial representations include lists and tables, geometrical figures, depictions of furnaces and apparatus, and figurative elements mainly from the vegetable and animal realms. An effort is made to trace the earliest evidence of these differing pictorial types.

Barbara Obrist

2003-10-01

294

Visual Analysis of Weblog Content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

2007-03-26

295

Solar Image Analysis and Visualization  

CERN Multimedia

This volume presents a selection of papers on the state of the art of image enhancement, automated feature detection, machine learning, and visualization tools in support of solar physics that focus on the challenges presented by new ground-based and space-based instrumentation. The articles and topics were inspired by the Third Solar Image Processing Workshop, held at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland but contributions from other experts have been included as well. This book is mainly aimed at researchers and graduate students working on image processing and compter vision in astronomy and solar physics.

Ireland, J

2009-01-01

296

Insect-Inspired Flight Control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Science.gov (United States)

Flight-control and navigation systems inspired by the structure and function of the visual system and brain of insects have been proposed for a class of developmental miniature robotic aircraft called "biomorphic flyers" described earlier in "Development of Biomorphic Flyers" (NPO-30554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 54. These form a subset of biomorphic explorers, which, as reported in several articles in past issues of NASA Tech Briefs ["Biomorphic Explorers" (NPO-20142), Vol. 22, No. 9 (September 1998), page 71; "Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems" (NPO-21142), Vol. 27, No. 5 (May 2003), page 54; and "Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration" (NPO-30286), Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 36], are proposed small robots, equipped with microsensors and communication systems, that would incorporate crucial functions of mobility, adaptability, and even cooperative behavior. These functions are inherent to biological organisms but are challenging frontiers for technical systems. Biomorphic flyers could be used on Earth or remote planets to explore otherwise difficult or impossible to reach sites. An example of an exploratory task of search/surveillance functions currently being tested is to obtain high-resolution aerial imagery, using a variety of miniaturized electronic cameras. The control functions to be implemented by the systems in development include holding altitude, avoiding hazards, following terrain, navigation by reference to recognizable terrain features, stabilization of flight, and smooth landing. Flying insects perform these and other functions remarkably well, even though insect brains contains fewer than 10(exp -4) as many neurons as does the human brain. Although most insects have immobile, fixed-focus eyes and lack stereoscopy (and hence cannot perceive depth directly), they utilize a number of ingenious strategies for perceiving, and navigating in, three dimensions. Despite their lack of stereoscopy, insects infer distances to potential obstacles and other objects from image motion cues that result from their own motions in the environment. The concept of motion of texture in images as a source of motion cues is denoted generally as the concept of optic or optical flow. Computationally, a strategy based on optical flow is simpler than is stereoscopy for avoiding hazards and following terrain. Hence, this strategy offers the potential to design vision-based control computing subsystems that would be more compact, would weigh less, and would demand less power than would subsystems of equivalent capability based on a conventional stereoscopic approach.

Thakoor, Sarita; Stange, G.; Srinivasan, M.; Chahl, Javaan; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

2005-01-01

297

How visual is visual culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

If we admit that, with the exception of language, human perception is predominantly visual, it is reasonable to think that all phenomena conveyed by the visual senses have something in common, but then visual semiotics/visual culture will comprehend much more than painting, sculpture, and architecture. The double coding hypotheses of cognitive psychology, as well as Lessing’s classical opposition between language and painting, tell us something about this basic opposition. But to understand...

Sonesson, Go?ran

2007-01-01

298

Junction Type Representations of the Temperley-Lieb Algebra and Associated Symmetries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inspired by earlier works on representations of the Temperley-Lieb algebra we introduce a novel family of representations of the algebra. This may be seen as a generalization of the so called asymmetric twin representation. The underlying symmetry algebra is also examined and it is shown that in addition to certain obvious exact quantum symmetries non trivial quantum algebraic realizations that exactly commute with the representation also exist. Non trivial representations of the boundary Temperley-Lieb algebra as well as the related residual symmetries are also discussed. The corresponding novel R and K matrices solutions of the Yang-Baxter and reflection equations are identified, the relevant quantum spin chain is also constructed and its exact symmetries are studied.

Anastasia Doikou

2010-12-01

299

Letter-Matrix of Compact Representation of two-Dimensional Data Multitude for Visualization of Modal Parameters' Time-History With Implication to Seismic Survey of Life-Time and Characteristics of Excited Modal States of a Wide Range of Dynamic Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

The PSWT technique assumes definition of modal parameters on the basis of modal differential equation by processing of a segment of seismic response with stationary properties by a set of modulate functions. Thus, calculating necessary convolution integrals in the limits of the time-window with a modulate function and its claimed derivatives fixed within the window with zero values on its edges and having a limited transparent spectral window, a system of algebraic equation regard to looking for parameters can be formed. Leading correct conception of moving window analysis, total parametric scanning of the records in both time and frequency domains when the time-window should be moving by a certain step while varying its width in some boundaries that corresponds to shifting the spectral window in frequency domain allowing to find dominant filtration of the fundamental mode, should be proceeded. Revealed time segments with steady series of parameters' estimations are evidence of stationary of the modal state and that trial estimations are true, otherwise, non-stationary of dynamic properties and, or ill-filtration on some segments are the cause of the series of estimations to be dispersed. Final numeric output of the scanning require a vast storage paper space and it is time consuming of its graphic representation and interpretation. But the following idea allows the representation to be a completely formalized one. Thus, the numeric multitude of estimations should be grouping for each parameter and represented by corresponding compact symbolic, letter fields. Symbolic conform representation can be accomplished by assuming a quantum symbolic scale limited by accepted set of 53 symbols: +ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789!?#$%&@(/{})*- which is coherent to appropriate domain of continuous numeric measure scale of each parameter estimations' multitude. A certain step is admitted for quantization, and a respective symbol is assigned in sequence to each quantum unit. All numbers which fall within particular unit of the scale should be represented by the unit's symbol, numbers out of scale by + -. Therefore, the output would be a Letter-Matrix of Parametric Scanning of Seismogram, accompanying with deciphering formula, the means of visualization of life-time of stationary states. Zaurov 1977, 1994, 2011.

Zaurov, D.

2013-12-01

300

AN AIS INSPIRED ALERT REDUCTION MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most important topics in the field of intrusion detection systems is to find a solution to reduce the overwhelming alerts generated by IDSs in the network. Inspired by danger theory which is one of the most important theories in artificial immune system (AIS we proposed a complementary subsystem for IDS which can be integrated into any existing IDS models to aggregate the alerts in order to reduce them, and subsequently reduce false alarms among the alerts. After evaluation using different datasets and attack scenarios and also different set of rules, in best case our model managed to aggregate the alerts by the average rate of 97.5 percent.

Mohammad Mahboubian

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Aurelia aurita bio-inspired tilt sensor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quickly expanding field of mobile robots, unmanned underwater vehicles, and micro-air vehicles urgently needs a cheap and effective means for measuring vehicle inclination. Commonly, tilt or inclination has been mathematically derived from accelerometers; however, there is inherent error in any indirect measurement. This paper reports a bio-inspired tilt sensor that mimics the natural balance organ of jellyfish, called the ‘statocyst’. Biological statocysts from the species Aurelia aurita were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the morphology and size of the natural sensor. An artificial tilt sensor was then developed by using printed electronics that incorporates a novel voltage divider concept in conjunction with small surface mount devices. This sensor was found to have minimum sensitivity of 4.21° with a standard deviation of 1.77°. These results open the possibility of developing elegant tilt sensor architecture for both air and water based platforms. (paper)

2012-10-01

302

Aurelia aurita bio-inspired tilt sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

The quickly expanding field of mobile robots, unmanned underwater vehicles, and micro-air vehicles urgently needs a cheap and effective means for measuring vehicle inclination. Commonly, tilt or inclination has been mathematically derived from accelerometers; however, there is inherent error in any indirect measurement. This paper reports a bio-inspired tilt sensor that mimics the natural balance organ of jellyfish, called the ‘statocyst’. Biological statocysts from the species Aurelia aurita were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the morphology and size of the natural sensor. An artificial tilt sensor was then developed by using printed electronics that incorporates a novel voltage divider concept in conjunction with small surface mount devices. This sensor was found to have minimum sensitivity of 4.21° with a standard deviation of 1.77°. These results open the possibility of developing elegant tilt sensor architecture for both air and water based platforms.

Smith, Colin; Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank

2012-10-01

303

Detection Strategies for Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals  

CERN Document Server

The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime. The gravitational radiation produced by these Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major science driver for the LISA observatory. The waveforms produced are very complex, and the signals need to be coherently tracked for hundreds to thousands of cycles to produce a detection, making EMRI signals one of the most challenging data analysis problems in all of gravitational wave astronomy. Estimates for the number of templates required to perform an optimal matched-filter search for these signals are astronomically large, and far out of reach of current computational resources. Here a sub-optimal, hierarchical approach to the EMRI detection problem is developed that employs a directed-stochastic search technique. The algorithm, dubbed Metropolis Hasti...

Cornish, N J

2008-01-01

304

Motif Detection Inspired by Immune Memory  

CERN Multimedia

The search for patterns or motifs in data represents an area of key interest to many researchers. In this paper we present the Motif Tracking Algorithm, a novel immune inspired pattern identification tool that is able to identify variable length unknown motifs which repeat within time series data. The algorithm searches from a completely neutral perspective that is independent of the data being analysed and the underlying motifs. In this paper we test the flexibility of the motif tracking algorithm by applying it to the search for patterns in two industrial data sets. The algorithm is able to identify a population of motifs successfully in both cases, and the value of these motifs is discussed.

Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

2010-01-01

305

Tough, bio-inspired hybrid materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The notion of mimicking natural structures in the synthesis of new structural materials has generated enormous interest but has yielded few practical advances. Natural composites achieve strength and toughness through complex hierarchical designs extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. Here we emulate Nature's toughening mechanisms through the combination of two ordinary compounds, aluminum oxide and polymethylmethacrylate, into ice-templated structures whose toughness can be over 300 times (in energy terms) that of their constituents. The final product is a bulk hybrid ceramic material whose high yield strength and fracture toughness ({approx}200 MPa and {approx}30 MPa{radical}m) provide specific properties comparable to aluminum alloys. These model materials can be used to identify the key microstructural features that should guide the synthesis of bio-inspired ceramic-based composites with unique strength and toughness.

Munch, Etienne; Launey, Maximimilan E.; Alsem, Daan H.; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

2008-10-06

306

Vibration driven vehicle inspired from grass spike  

Science.gov (United States)

Searching and detecting in some harsh environments such as collapsed buildings, pipes, small cracks are crucial for human rescue and industrial detection, military surveillance etc. However, the drawbacks of traditional moving modes of current vehicles make them difficult to perform such tasks. So developing some new vehicles is urgent. Here, we report a Setaria viridis spike's interesting behavior on a vibrating track, and inspired by that phenomena we develop a concept for cargo delivery, and give a detailed discussion about its working mechanism. This vehicle can move on a wide range of smooth and rough surfaces. Moreover, its climbing capability in tilted and even vertical smooth pipe is also outstanding. These features make it suitable for search-rescue, military reconnaissance, etc. Finally, this vehicle can be reduced into micro/nano-scale, which makes it would play an important role in target-drug delivery, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS).

Bai, Suo; Xu, Qi; Qin, Yong

2013-05-01

307

Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry  

Science.gov (United States)

When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

Balcerak, Ernie

2011-08-01

308

Bio-inspired Ant Algorithms: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ant Algorithms are techniques for optimizing which were coined in the early 1990’s by M. Dorigo. The techniques were inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants in the nature. The focus of ant algorithms is to find approximate optimized problem solutions using artificial ants and their indirect decentralized communications using synthetic pheromones. In this paper, at first ant algorithms are described in details, then transforms to computational optimization techniques: the ACO metaheuristics and developed ACO algorithms. A comparative study of ant algorithms also carried out, followed by past and present trends in AAs applications. Future prospect in AAs also covered in this paper. Finally a comparison between AAs with well-established machine learning techniques were focused, so that combining with machine learning techniques hybrid, robust, novel algorithms could be produces for outstanding result in future.

Sangita Roy

2013-05-01

309

Integrated bio-inspired fluidic imaging system  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a new type of optical lens device that can change its curvature like crystalline lens in human eye. The curvature changing capability of the lens allows for a tremendous tuning range in its optical power and subsequently enables miniaturized imaging systems that can perform autofocus, optical zoom, and other advanced functions. In this paper, we study the physical properties of bio-inspired fluidic lenses and demonstrate the optical functionality through miniaturized optical systems constructed with such lenses. We report an auto-focusing optical system that can turn from a camera to a microscope, and demonstrate more than 4X optical zoom with a very short total track length. Finally, we demonstrate the benefits of fluidic lens zoom camera through minimally invasive gallbladder removal surgery.

Tsai, Frank S.; Johnson, Daniel; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Arianpour, Ashkan; Francis, Cameron S.; Kim, Nam-Hyong; Lo, Yu-Hwa

2010-02-01

310

CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition  

CERN Multimedia

Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

2001-01-01

311

NodeTrix: Hybrid Representation for Analyzing Social Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The need to visualize large social networks is growing as hardware capabilities make analyzing large networks feasible and many new data sets become available. Unfortunately, the visualizations in existing systems do not satisfactorily answer the basic dilemma of being readable both for the global structure of the network and also for detailed analysis of local communities. To address this problem, we present NodeTrix, a hybrid representation for networks that combines the advantages of two t...

2007-01-01

312

Time to imagine space: a chronometric exploration of representational neglect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When describing known places from memory, patients with left spatial neglect may mention more right- than left-sided items, thus showing representational, or imaginal, neglect. This suggests that these patients cannot either build or explore left locations in visual mental imagery. However, in place description there is no guarantee that patients are really employing visual mental imagery abilities, rather than verbal-propositional knowledge. Thus, patients providing symmetrical descriptions ...

2005-01-01

313

NASA Missions Inspire Online Video Games  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast forward to 2035. Imagine being part of a community of astronauts living and working on the Moon. Suddenly, in the middle of just another day in space, a meteorite crashes into the surface of the Moon, threatening life as you know it. The support equipment that provides oxygen for the entire community has been compromised. What would you do? While this situation is one that most people will never encounter, NASA hopes to place students in such situations - virtually - to inspire, engage, and educate about NASA technologies, job opportunities, and the future of space exploration. Specifically, NASA s Learning Technologies program, part of the Agency s Office of Education, aims to inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines through interactive technologies. The ultimate goal of these educational programs is to support the growth of a pool of qualified scientific and technical candidates for future careers at places like NASA. STEM education has been an area of concern in the United States; according to the results of the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment, 23 countries had higher average scores in mathematics literacy than the United States. On the science literacy scale, 18 countries had higher average scores. "This is part of a much bigger picture of trying to grow skilled graduates for places like NASA that will want that technical expertise," says Daniel Laughlin, the Learning Technologies project manager at Goddard Space Flight Center. "NASA is trying to increase the number of students going into those fields, and so are other government agencies."

2012-01-01

314

Inspiration Inducement of Pianists in a Subconsciousness Background  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inspiration thinking of pianists lies under their deep thought, and is a product of mutual interaction between consciousness and subconsciousness, closely connected with living experiences, musical environment, and psychological environment of a subject. Piano music, literature poetry, internal rhythm, external rhythm, Nature, environment and impression are significant induction factors to lead inspiration thinking of pianists, while arduous practice, gifted perception, tough exploration and ...

Changkui Wang

2009-01-01

315

A perception module for car drivers visual strategies modeling and visual distraction effect simulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this research is to develop and implement a computational model able to simulate drivers' visual strategies in dual-task conditions and to investigate visual distraction effects. The modeling approach supporting this research is based on a cognitive model of the car driver so-called COSMODRIVE, focused on mental representations simulation (i.e. situational awareness) and implemented on a virtual platform (so-called SiVIC). In this framework, a module of the visual perception is nee...

Bornard, Jean-charles; Bellet, Thierry; Mayenobe, Pierre; Gruyer, Dominique; Claverie, Bernard

2011-01-01

316

Introduction to computer data representation  

CERN Multimedia

Introduction to Computer Data Representation introduces readers to the representation of data within computers. Starting from basic principles of number representation in computers, the book covers the representation of both integer and floating point numbers, and characters or text. It comprehensively explains the main techniques of computer arithmetic and logical manipulation. The book also features chapters covering the less usual topics of basic checksums and 'universal' or variable length representations for integers, with additional coverage of Gray Codes, BCD codes and logarithmic repre

Fenwick, Peter

2014-01-01

317

A mock metaplectic representation  

CERN Document Server

We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the admissible vectors of a new unitary non irreducible representation $U$. The group $G$ is an arbitrary semidirect product whose normal factor $A$ is abelian and whose homogeneous factor $H$ is a locally compact second countable group acting on a Riemannian manifold $M$. The key ingredient in the construction of $U$ is a $C^1$ intertwining map between the actions of $H$ on the dual group $\\hat A$ and on $M$. The representation $U$ generalizes the restriction of the metaplectic representation to triangular subgroups of $Sp(d,\\R)$, whence the name "mock metaplectic". For simplicity, we content ourselves with the case where $A=\\R^n$ and $M=\\R^d$. The main technical point is the decomposition of $U$ as direct integral of its irreducible components. This theory is motivated by some recent developments in signal analysis, notably shearlets. Many related examples are discussed.

De Mari, Filippo

2011-01-01

318

Nonlinear spinor representations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A systematic method for the construction of nonlinear carrier spaces for a class of nonlinear spinor representations of complex and pseudo-orthogonal rotation groups is presented. It is shown that Cartan pure spinors, which satisfy quadratic constraints, are special cases of our construction. A class of new nonlinear spinor representations is discovered, which is particularly interesting in the case of generalized conformal groups SO(?+1,?-1), ? = 3,4,... . The nonlinearity condition considerably diminishes the number of independent spinor components and therefore the corresponding spinor fields are the most natural building blocks for grand unified field theories. The method presented here is universal and can be applied for the construction of new nonlinear representations of other higher-symmetry groups

1985-01-01

319

Bio-Inspired Political Systems. Opening a Field  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we highlight the scopes of engineering bio-inspired political systems, which are political systems based on the properties of life that self-organize the increasing complexity of human social systems. We describe bio-inspired political systems and conjecture about various ways to get to them, most notably, metaheuristics, modeling and simulation and complexified topologies. Bio-inspired political systems operate with nature-based dynamics, inspired on the knowledge that has been acquired about complexity from natural social systems and life. Bio-inspired political systems are presented as the best alternative for organizing human sociopolitical interactions as computation and microelectronics-based technology profoundly modify the ways in which humans decide. Therefore, weakening classical political systems. For instance, dwindling top-down power structures, modifying the notion of geographical spatiality and augmenting the political granularity. We also argue that, more than a new theoretical p...

Mezza-Garcia, Nathalie

2012-01-01

320

Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not. PMID:23559513

Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

The Role of the Human Extrastriate Visual Cortex in Mirror Symmetry Discrimination: A TMS-Adaptation Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The human visual system is able to efficiently extract symmetry information from the visual environment. Prior neuroimaging evidence has revealed symmetry-preferring neuronal representations in the dorsolateral extrastriate visual cortex; the objective of the present study was to investigate the necessity of these representations in symmetry…

Cattaneo, Zaira; Mattavelli, Giulia; Papagno, Costanza; Herbert, Andrew; Silvanto, Juha

2011-01-01

322

XML Based Representation of DFD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the world of Information Technology, the working of a information system is well explained with the use of Data Flow Diagrams (DFD. DFDs are one of the three essential perspectives of the Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM. [3]The sponsor of a project and the end users are briefed and consulted throughout all stages of a system's evolution. With a data flow diagram, users are able to visualize how the system will operate, what the system will accomplish, and how the system will be implemented. But, various practical problems exist with the representation of DFDs. Different tools are available in the market for representing the DFDs. These tools are user friendly and based on the object oriented features. The diagrams drawn using these tools can be sent over the network for communicating with others. On the other hand, the XML is platform independent, textual information and is totally extensible. XML is structured and is an excellent way to transfer the information along with the metadata over the network. XML can be used to transfer the information related to DFDs, there by removing the problems related to understanding the diagrammatic notations and concentrating more on the information flow in the system. This paper is aimed at understanding the problems related to DFDs and representing it in XML[4] format for their storage and communication over the network. The discussion is divided into four main topics – introduction to XML and DFD, problems related to DFD, an XML representation for DFDs and finally the conclusion.

Swapna Salil Kolhatkar

2011-08-01

323

DL Visualize  

Science.gov (United States)

DL Visualize is designed to provide an integrated environment for data visualization and analysis. It supports the creation and visualization of molecules and atomic structures periodic in 2 or 3 dimensions. It can display calculated results as graphs, contours and isosurfaces depending on the data type. It currently provides a graphical user interface to CRYSTAL98 and will be extended to support other programs from the CCP3 library in the near future.

Searle, B. G.

2001-06-01

324

ESQUEMAS VISUALES Y EMPLAZAMIENTO DE LAS REPRESENTACIONES RUPESTRES DE CAMÉLIDOS DEL LOA SUPERIOR EN TIEMPOS INCAICOS: ¿UNA NUEVA ESTRATEGIA DE INCORPORACIÓN DE ESTE TERRITORIO AL TAWANTINSUYU? VISUAL OUTLINES AND LOCATION OF CAMELIDS REPRESENTATIONS OF THE UPPER LOA DURING THE INCA TIMES: A NEW STRATEGY OF THE TAWANTINSUYU TO INCORPORATE THIS TERRITORY?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se presentan los resultados obtenidos del estudio del arte rupestre adscrito al período Tardío (1.450- 1.540 d.C.), correspondiente a la presencia Inka en la región del Loa Superior. En particular, se analizan las representaciones de camélidos de varios sitios de la cuenca del río Salado, en comparación con algunas del Alto Loa. Este trabajo expone, por un lado, un análisis de las formas anatómicas representadas, definidas como esquemas visuales; y, por otro, algunas observaciones ace...

2004-01-01

325

Knowledge Representations for Planning Manipulation Tasks  

CERN Document Server

In this book, the capability map, a novel general representation of the kinematic capabilities of a robot arm, is introduced. The capability map allows to determine how well regions of the workspace are reachable for the end effector in different orientations. It is a representation that can be machine processed as well as intuitively visualized for the human. The capability map and the derived algorithms are a valuable source of information for high- and low-level planning processes. The versatile applicability of the capability map is shown by examples from several distinct application domains. In human-robot interaction, a bi-manual interface for tele-operation is objectively evaluated. In low-level geometric planning, more human-like motion is planned for a humanoid robot while also reducing the computation time. And in high-level task reasoning, the suitability of a robot for a task is evaluated.    

Zacharias, Franziska

2012-01-01

326

Multi-layer illustrative dense flow visualization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a dense visualization of vector fields on multi-layered surfaces. The method is based on the illustration buffer, which provides a screen space representation of the surface, where each pixel stores a list of all surface layers. This representation is implemented on the GPU using shaders and leads to a fast output sensitive technique. In our approach, we first use procedural noise to create an initial spot pattern on the surface that has both an almost constant screen space frequen...

Carnecky, R.; Schindler, B.; Fuchs, R.; Peikert, R.

2012-01-01

327

Learning Distance for Arbitrary Visual Features  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a method for learning distance functions of arbitrary feature representations that is based on the concept of wormholes. We introduce wormholes and describe how it provides a method for warping the topology of visual representation spaces such that a meaningful distance between examples is available. Additionally, we show how a more general distance function can be learnt through the combination of many wormholes via an inter-wormhole network. We then demonstrate the appli...

Ong, E-j; Bowden, R.

2006-01-01

328

A new image representation for compact and secure communication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In many areas of nuclear materials management there is a need for communication, archival, and retrieval of annotated image data between heterogeneous platforms and devices to effectively implement safety, security, and safeguards of nuclear materials. Current image formats such as JPEG are not ideally suited in such scenarios as they are not scalable to different viewing formats, and do not provide a high-level representation of images that facilitate automatic object/change detection or annotation. The new Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) open standard for representing graphical information, recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is designed to address issues of image scalability, portability, and annotation. However, until now there has been no viable technology to efficiently field images of high visual quality under this standard. Recently, LANL has developed a vectorized image representation that is compatible with the SVG standard and preserves visual quality. This is based on a new geometric framework for characterizing complex features in real-world imagery that incorporates perceptual principles of processing visual information known from cognitive psychology and vision science, to obtain a polygonal image representation of high fidelity. This representation can take advantage of all textual compression and encryption routines unavailable to other image formats. Moreover, this vectorized image representation can be exploited to facilitate automated object recognition that can reduce time required for data review. The objects/features of interest in these vectorized images can be annotated via animated graphics to facilitate quick and easy display and comprehension of processed image content.

Prasad, Lakshman; Skourikhine, A. N. (Alexei N.)

2004-01-01

329

A new image representation for compact and secure communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many areas of nuclear materials management there is a need for communication, archival, and retrieval of annotated image data between heterogeneous platforms and devices to effectively implement safety, security, and safeguards of nuclear materials. Current image formats such as JPEG are not ideally suited in such scenarios as they are not scalable to different viewing formats, and do not provide a high-level representation of images that facilitate automatic object/change detection or annotation. The new Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) open standard for representing graphical information, recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is designed to address issues of image scalability, portability, and annotation. However, until now there has been no viable technology to efficiently field images of high visual quality under this standard. Recently, LANL has developed a vectorized image representation that is compatible with the SVG standard and preserves visual quality. This is based on a new geometric framework for characterizing complex features in real-world imagery that incorporates perceptual principles of processing visual information known from cognitive psychology and vision science, to obtain a polygonal image representation of high fidelity. This representation can take advantage of all textual compression and encryption routines unavailable to other image formats. Moreover, this vectorized image representation can be exploited to facilitate automated object recognition that can reduce time required for data review. The objects/features of interest in these vectorized images can be annotated via animated graphics to facilitate quick and easy display and comprehension of processed image content.

2004-07-18

330

Visualization of Complex Three-Dimensional Flow Structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The visualization of numerical fluid flow datasets is essential to the engineering processes that motivate their computational simulation. To address the need for visual representations that convey meaningful relations and enable a deep understanding of flow structures, the discipline of Flow Visualization has produced many methods and schemes that are tailored to a variety of visualization tasks. The ever increasing complexity of modern flow simulations, however, puts an enormous demand on t...

Garth, Christoph

2007-01-01

331

"Darkly as through a Veil": Reading Representations of Algerian Women  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores representations of Algerian women in colonial, decolonizing and postcolonial contexts, drawing in interdisciplinary fashion on written and visual texts by Malek Alloula, Frantz Fanon, Assia Djebar and Zineb Sedira. It problematizes hegemonic constructions of Algerian women, and cites commentators affiliated to Algeria who…

Moore, Lindsey

2007-01-01

332

Multiple topological representation self-organized by spike-timing-dependent synaptic learning rule  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Position-and-scale-free representations of shapes are acquired by neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex. So each neuron receives information from the whole visual field. Familiar shapes are extremely restricted from all the possible shapes on the whole visual field. So they must be clustered in the shape space to have mixed structure of continuity and discreteness. We demonstrate that multiple representation can be acquired in a spike-based model for topological maps based on the spike...

Sakai, Yutaka; Wada, Koji

2009-01-01

333

Graph-based clustering and data visualization algorithms  

CERN Document Server

This work presents a data visualization technique that combines graph-based topology representation and dimensionality reduction methods to visualize the intrinsic data structure in a low-dimensional vector space. The application of graphs in clustering and visualization has several advantages. A graph of important edges (where edges characterize relations and weights represent similarities or distances) provides a compact representation of the entire complex data set. This text describes clustering and visualization methods that are able to utilize information hidden in these graphs, based on

Vathy-Fogarassy, Ágnes

2013-01-01

334

Women and the Discourses of the Visual: Where Are Women in This Picture?  

Science.gov (United States)

The place of women in the existing and emergent discourses of the visual and spatial is explored. When gender and the visual-spatial emerge together, the visual and spatial are almost always associated with the masculine perspective. The social construction of women is tied to visual-spatial representations in diverse domains. Within the…

Condron, Linda; And Others

335

Elements of Automorphic Representations  

CERN Document Server

This is an attempt at a practical and essentially self-contained theory of automorphic representations in the framework $$\\hbox{$L^2(\\varGamma\\backslash\\r{G})$ with $\\r{G}=\\r{PSL}(2,\\B{R})$ and $\\varGamma=\\r{PSL}(2,\\B{Z})$.}$$

Motohashi, Yoichi

2011-01-01

336

Completely Representable Lattices  

CERN Multimedia

It is known that a lattice is representable as a ring of sets iff the lattice is distributive. CRL is the class of bounded distributive lattices (DLs) which have representations preserving arbitrary joins and meets. jCRL is the class of DLs which have representations preserving arbitrary joins, mCRL is the class of DLs which have representations preserving arbitrary meets, and biCRL is defined to be the intersection of jCRL and mCRL. We prove CRL is a strict subset of biCRL which is a strict subset of both jCRL and mCRL. Let L be a DL. Then L is in mCRL iff L has a distinguishing set of complete, prime filters. Similarly, L is in jCRL iff L has a distinguishing set of completely prime filters, and L is in CRL iff L has a distinguishing set of complete, completely prime filters. Each of the classes above is shown to be pseudo-elementary and hence closed under ultraproducts. The class CRL is not closed under elementary equivalence, hence it is not elementary.

Egrot, Robert

2012-01-01

337

Boundary representation modelling techniques  

CERN Document Server

Boundary representation is the principle solid modelling method used in modern CAD/CAM systems. This book includes: data structures algorithms and other related techniques, including non-manifold modelling, product modelling, graphics, disc files and data exchange, and some application related topics.

Stroud, I

2006-01-01

338

Deciphering Cluster Representations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of the use of search output clustering as an alternative representation method to ranked output focuses on difficulties involved in representing clusters for Internet users' evaluation in a concise and easily interpretable form. Describes findings and user feedback from a user study that investigated the effectiveness of search output…

Kural, Yasemin; Robertson, Steve; Jones, Susan

2001-01-01

339

Moment graphs and representations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie algebras and of simple algebraic groups. The first section contains some background on equivariant cohomology.

Jantzen, Jens Carsten

2012-01-01

340

Human Object-Similarity Judgments Reflect and Transcend the Primate-IT Object Representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Primate inferior temporal (IT) cortex is thought to contain a high-level representation of objects at the interface between vision and semantics. This suggests that the perceived similarity of real-world objects might be predicted from the IT representation. Here we show that objects that elicit similar activity patterns in human IT (hIT) tend to be judged as similar by humans. The IT representation explained the human judgments better than early visual cortex, other ventral-stream regions, a...

Mur, Marieke; Meys, Mirjam; Bodurka, Jerzy; Goebel, Rainer; Bandettini, Peter A.; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

On the Association between Modes of Mental Representation and Mathematics Experience in Teacher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines one aspect of the cognitive development of preservice education students, the ability to utilize different modes of mental representation. Finds associations between the level of mathematics experience and both the ability to utilize three different modes of mental representation (enactive, visual, and verbal) and the overall use of…

Gurney, Penelope J.

1998-01-01

342

Visual Theorems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues for a mathematics education that interprets the word "theorem" in a sense that is wide enough to include the visual aspects of mathematical intuition and reasoning. Defines the term "visual theorems" and illustrates the concept using the Marigold of Theodorus. (Author/MDH)

Davis, Philip J.

1993-01-01

343

Software Project Visualization Using Task Oriented Metaphors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents T-Cube and MetroMap, two new graphical representation models for controlling and managing the processes of software project development. They both use metaphors and visual representation techniques to address typical project management tasks. T-Cube uses a metaphor with the Rubik-Cube whereas MetroMap uses a metaphor with a metro map. The tools have been tested on real project data and a qualitative assessment shows the results of testing the visualizations with users atte...

Amaia Aguirregoitia; José Javier Dolado Cosín; Concepción Presedo

2010-01-01

344

Specifying Structural Properties and Their Constraints Formally, Visually and Modularly Using VCL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The value of visual representations in software engineering is widely recognised. This paper addresses the problem of formality and rigour in visual-based descriptions of software systems. It proposes a new language, VCL, designed to be visual, formal and modular, targeting abstract specification at level of requirements, and that aims at expressing visually what is not visually expressible using mainstream visual languages, such as UML. This paper presents and illustrates VCL's approach to ...

2010-01-01

345

Specifying structural properties and their constraints formally, visually and modularly using VCL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The value of visual representations in software engineering is widely recognised. This paper addresses the problem of formality and rigour in visual-based descriptions of software systems. It proposes a new language, VCL, designed to be visual, formal and modular, targeting abstract specification at level of requirements, and that aims at expressing visually what is not visually expressible using mainstream visual languages, such as UML. This paper presents and illustrates VCL's approach to ...

2010-01-01

346

Performance of visual tasks from contour information  

Science.gov (United States)

A recently proposed visual aid for patients with a restricted visual field (tunnel vision) combines a see-through head-mounted display (HMD) and a simultaneous minified contour view of the wide field image of the environment. Such a widening of the effective visual field is helpful for tasks such as visual search, mobility and orientation. The sufficiency of contours (outlines of the objects in the image) for performing everyday visual tasks by human observers is of major importance for this application, as well as for other applications, and for basic understanding of human vision. Due to their efficient properties as good object descriptors, contours are widely used in computer vision applications, and therefore many methods have been developed for automatic extraction of them from the image. The purpose of this research is to examine and compare the use of different types of automatically created contours, and contour representations, for practical everyday visual operations using commonly observed images. The visual operations include visual searching for items such as keys, remote control, etc. Considering different recognition levels, identification of an object is distinguished from detection (when it is not clearly identified). Some new non-conventional visual-based contour representations were developed for this purpose. Experiments were performed with normal vision subjects, by superposing contours of the wide-field of the scene, over a narrow field (see-through) background. Results show that about 85% success is obtained by for searched object identification when the best contour versions are employed.

Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Itan, Liron

2010-08-01

347

Viscous pumping inspired by flexible propulsion  

CERN Document Server

Fluid-suspended microorganisms have evolved different swimming and feeding strategies in order to cope with an environment dominated by viscous effects. For instance ciliated organisms rely on the collective motion of flexible appendices to move and feed. By performing a non-reciprocal motion, flexible filaments can produce a net propulsive force, or pump fluid, in the absence of inertia. Inspired by such fundamental concept, we propose a strategy to produce macroscopic pumping and mixing in creeping flow. We measure experimentally the net motion of a Newtonian viscous fluid induced by the reciprocal motion of a flapper. When the flapper is rigid no net motion is induced. In contrast, when the flapper is made of a flexible material, a net fluid pumping is measured. We quantify the effectiveness of this pumping strategy and show that optimal pumping is achieved when the length of the flapper is on the same order as the elasto-hydrodynamic penetration length. We finally discuss the possible applications of flex...

Arco, Roger M; Lauga, Eric; Zenit, Roberto

2014-01-01

348

Biologically Inspired Purification and Dispersion of SWCNTs  

Science.gov (United States)

A biologically inspired method has been developed for (1) separating single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from other materials (principally, amorphous carbon and metal catalysts) in raw production batches and (2) dispersing the SWCNTs as individual particles (in contradistinction to ropes and bundles) in suspension, as required for a number of applications. Prior methods of purification and dispersal of SWCNTs involve, variously, harsh physical processes (e.g., sonication) or harsh chemical processes (e.g., acid reflux). These processes do not completely remove the undesired materials and do not disperse bundles and ropes into individual suspended SWCNTs. Moreover, these processes cut long SWCNTs into shorter pieces, yielding typical nanotube lengths between 150 and 250 nm. In contrast, the present method does not involve harsh physical or chemical processes. The method involves the use of biologically derived dispersal agents (BDDAs) in an aqueous solution that is mechanically homogenized (but not sonicated) and centrifuged. The dense solid material remaining after centrifugation is resuspended by vortexing in distilled water, yielding an aqueous suspension of individual, separated SWCNTs having lengths from about 10 to about 15 microns.

Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S.; Nikolaev, Pavel

2009-01-01

349

Biology-inspired Architecture for Situation Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Situation Management is a rapidly developing science combining new techniques for data collection with advanced methods of data fusion to facilitate the process leading to correct decisions prescribing action. Current research focuses on reducing increasing amounts of diverse data to knowledge used by decision makers and on reducing time between observations, decisions and actions. No new technology is more promising for increasing the diversity and fidelity of observations than sensor networks. However, current research on sensor networks concentrates on a centralized network architecture. We believe this trend will not realize the full potential of situation management. We propose a new architecture modeled after biological ecosystems where motes are autonomous and intelligent, yet cooperate with local neighborhoods. Providing a layered approach, they sense and act independently when possible, and cooperate with neighborhoods when necessary. The combination of their local actions results in global effects. While situation management research is currently dominated by military applications, advances envisioned for industrial and business applications have similar requirements. NASA has requirements for intelligent and autonomous systems in future missions that can benefit from advances in situation management. We describe requirements for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management program where our biology-inspired architecture provides a layered approach and decisions can be made at the proper level to improve safety, reduce costs, and improve efficiency in making diagnostic and prognostic assessments of the structural integrity, aerodynamic characteristics, and operation of aircraft.

Jones, Kennie H.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Olariu, Stephan; Wilson, Larry; Xin, Chunsheng

2006-01-01

350

Development of a biologically inspired hydrobot tail  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been hypothesized that Europa, one of the moons of Jupiter, has a large ocean underneath a thick layer of ice. In order to determine whether life exists, it has been proposed that an underwater glider (hydrobot) capable of propulsion could be sent to explore the vast ocean. In this research, we considered various smart materials to create a propulsion device inspired by dolphin tails. Dolphins are highly efficient and excellent gliders, which makes them the ideal candidate for ocean exploration. In order to select the best dolphin species, we began by reviewing literature and then utilized the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the different species. Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-Sided Dolphin) was found to be the best choice for creating a bioinspired hydrobot. We then conducted literature review of various smart materials and using this knowledge constructed a hydrobot tail prototype. This prototype demonstrates that smart materials can be fashioned into suitable actuators to control a tail fashioned after a dolphin.

Moore, Danielle; Janneh, Alhaji; Philen, Michael

2014-04-01

351

Bio-inspired Design Approached Antifouling Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofouling exists as the undesirable accumulation of flora and fauna on a given substrate when immersed into an aquatic media. Its presence causes a range of deleterious effects for anyone faced in tackling the problem, which is more than often financially testing. Generally, the initial biofouling stage is stochastic and the attachment of microorganisms held fast in biofilm matrices is irreversible. Stability of the biofilm occurs when exopolymeric substances (EPS) are produced forming a protective surrounding, allowing the cohered microorganisms to colonise and thrive upon the surface. Therefore, if this initial stage of biofilm development can be prevented then it could be possible to prevent subsequent macro events that ensue. Environmental monitoring is one area that faces this challenge and forms the impetus of the work presented herein. In order to improve a monitoring device's lifetime, surface coatings with biocidal agents are applied to counteract these steps. This work shows the development of a range of novel materials, which demonstrate the ability to counteract and inhibit the initial stages of biofouling for monitoring devices. Natural bio-inspired surfaces have been developed using nano-functionalised coatings. All materials are tested in the field and positive results in reducing the biofouling challenge are demonstrated. The results from the deployment of antifouling materials, together with real-time, long-term water quality data from the test site are also shown.

Fitzsimons, L.; Chapman, J.; Lawlor, A.; Regan, F.

2012-04-01

352

Noncommutative inspired black holes in extra dimensions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a recent string theory motivated paper, Nicolini, Smailagic and Spallucci (NSS) presented an interesting model for a noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like black hole solution in 4-dimensions. The essential effect of having noncommutative co-ordinates in this approach is to smear out matter distributions on a scale associated with the turn-on of noncommutativity which was taken to be near the 4-d Planck mass. In particular, NSS took this smearing to be essentially Gaussian. This energy scale is sufficiently large that in 4-d such effects may remain invisible indefinitely. Extra dimensional models which attempt to address the gauge hierarchy problem, however, allow for the possibility that the effective fundamental scale may not be far from ? 1 TeV, an energy regime that will soon be probed by experiments at both the LHC and ILC. In this paper we generalize the NSS model to the case where flat, toroidally compactified extra dimensions are accessible at the Terascale and examine the resulting modifications in black hole properties due to the existence of noncommutativity. We show that while many of the noncommutativity-induced black hole features found in 4-d by NSS persist, in some cases there can be significant modifications due the presence of extra dimensions. We also demonstrate that the essential features of this approach are not particularly sensitive to the Gaussian nature of the smearing employed by NSS

2006-09-01

353

Bio-inspired hemispherical compound eye camera  

Science.gov (United States)

Compound eyes in arthropods demonstrate distinct imaging characteristics from human eyes, with wide angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and infinite depth of field. Artificial imaging systems with similar geometries and properties are of great interest for many applications. However, the challenges in building such systems with hemispherical, compound apposition layouts cannot be met through established planar sensor technologies and conventional optics. We present our recent progress in combining optics, materials, mechanics and integration schemes to build fully functional artificial compound eye cameras. Nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees) with densely packed artificial ommatidia were realized. The number of ommatidia (180) is comparable to those of the eyes of fire ants and bark beetles. The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors, which were fabricated in the planar geometries and then integrated and elastically transformed to hemispherical shapes. Imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).

Xiao, Jianliang; Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

2014-03-01

354

Catalytic applications of bio-inspired nanomaterials  

Science.gov (United States)

The biomimetic synthesis of Pd nanoparticles was presented using the Pd4 peptide, TSNAVHPTLRHL, isolated from combinatorial phage display library. Using this approach, nearly monodisperse and spherical Pd nanoparticles were generated with an average diameter of 1.9 +/- 0.4 nm. The peptide-based nanocatalyst were employed in the Stille coupling reaction under energy-efficient and environmentally friendly reaction conditions of aqueous solvent, room temperature and very low catalyst loading. To this end, the Pd nanocatalyst generated high turnover frequency (TOF) value and quantitative yields using ? 0.005 mol% Pd as well as catalytic activities with different aryl halides containing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups. The Pd4-capped Pd nanoparticles followed the atom-leaching mechanism and were found to be selective with respect to substrate identity. On the other hand, the naturally-occurring R5 peptide (SSKKSGSYSGSKGSKRRIL) was employed in the synthesis of biotemplated Pd nanomaterials which showed morphological changes as a function of Pd:peptide ratio. TOF analysis for hydrogenation of olefinic alcohols showed similar catalytic activity regardless of nanomorphology. Determination of catalytic properties of these bio-inspired nanomaterials are important as they serve as model system for alternative green catalyst with applications in industrially important transformations.

Pacardo, Dennis Kien Balaong

355

Invisible queers : investigating the 'other' Other in gay visual cultures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The apparent ‘invisibility’, or lack of representation of black men in contemporary mainstream gay visual cultures is the primary critical issue that the study engages with. The study presupposes that the frequency with which white men appear in popular representations of ‘gayness’ prevails over that of black men. In order to substantiate this assumption, this study analyses selected issues of the South African queer men’s lifestyle magazine Gay Pages. Gay visual cultures appear to ...

2009-01-01

356

Advances in bio-inspired computing for combinatorial optimization problems  

CERN Document Server

Advances in Bio-inspired Combinatorial Optimization Problems' illustrates several recent bio-inspired efficient algorithms for solving NP-hard problems.Theoretical bio-inspired concepts and models, in particular for agents, ants and virtual robots are described. Large-scale optimization problems, for example: the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem and the Railway Traveling Salesman Problem, are solved and their results are discussed.Some of the main concepts and models described in this book are: inner rule to guide ant search - a recent model in ant optimization, heterogeneous sensitive a

Pintea, Camelia-Mihaela

2013-01-01

357

Machine Learning Emulation in Nature-inspired Computation Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The whole frame of nature_inspired computation systems is inquired into, the characteristics of machine learning in nature_inspired computation systems are researched, and a particular scheme on machine learning in nature_inspired computation systems is designed with environment being gathe...

Jianhao Tan; Jing Zhang; Fu Guo

2009-01-01

358

A Graphic Representation of States for Quantum Copying Machines  

CERN Document Server

The aim of this paper is to introduce a new graphic representation of quantum states by means of a specific application: the analysis of two models of quantum copying machines. The graphic representation by diagrams of states offers a clear and detailed visualization of quantum information's flow during the unitary evolution of not too complex systems. The diagrams of states are exponentially more complex in respect to the standard representation and this clearly illustrates the discrepancy of computational power between quantum and classical systems. After a brief introductive exposure of the general theory, we present a constructive procedure to illustrate the new representation by means of concrete examples. Elementary diagrams of states for single-qubit and two-qubit systems and a simple scheme to represent entangled states are presented. Quantum copying machines as imperfect cloners of quantum states are introduced and the quantum copying machines of Griffiths and Niu and of Buzek and Hillery are analyze...

Felloni, S; Felloni, Sara; Strini, Giuliano

2006-01-01

359

Making memories: the development of long-term visual knowledge in children with visual agnosia.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are few reports about the effects of perinatal acquired brain lesions on the development of visual perception. These studies demonstrate nonseverely impaired visual-spatial abilities and preserved visual memory. Longitudinal data analyzing the effects of compromised perceptions on long-term visual knowledge in agnosics are limited to lesions having occurred in adulthood. The study of children with focal lesions of the visual pathways provides a unique opportunity to assess the development of visual memory when perceptual input is degraded. We assessed visual recognition and visual memory in three children with lesions to the visual cortex having occurred in early infancy. We then explored the time course of visual memory impairment in two of them at 2 ?years and 3.7 ?years from the initial assessment. All children exhibited apperceptive visual agnosia and visual memory impairment. We observed a longitudinal improvement of visual memory modulated by the structural properties of objects. Our findings indicate that processing of degraded perceptions from birth results in impoverished memories. The dynamic interaction between perception and memory during development might modulate the long-term construction of visual representations, resulting in less severe impairment. PMID:24319599

Metitieri, Tiziana; Barba, Carmen; Pellacani, Simona; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Guerrini, Renzo

2013-01-01

360

Wavelet Representations for Digital Mammograph.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a novel approach for accomplishing mammographic feature analysis by overcomplete multiresolution representations. We show that efficient representations may be identified within a continuum of scale-space and used to enhance features...

A. F. Laine

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in maximal inspiration CT images of subjects without airflow limitation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in voluntary inspiration breath-hold examinations. METHODS: 961 subjects with normal spirometry were selected from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. Subjects were examined annually for five years with low-dose CT. Automated software was utilized to segment lungs and airways, identify segmental bronchi, and match airway branches in all images of the same subject. Inspiration level was defined as segmented total lung volume (TLV) divided by predicted total lung capacity (pTLC). Mixed-effects models were used to predict relative change in lumen diameter (ALD) and wall thickness (AWT) in airways of generation 0 (trachea) to 7 and segmental bronchi (R1-R10 and L1-L10) from relative changes in inspiration level. RESULTS: Relative changes in ALD were related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC, and this distensibility increased with generation (pâ??<â??0.001). Relative changes in AWT were inversely related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC ingeneration 3--7 (pâ??<â??0.001). Segmental bronchi were widely dispersed in terms of ALD (5.7â??±â??0.7 mm), AWT (0.86â??±â??0.07 mm), and distensibility (23.5â??±â??7.7 %). CONCLUSIONS: Subjects who inspire more deeply prior to imaging have larger ALD and smaller AWT. This effect is more pronounced in higher-generation airways. Therefore, adjustment of inspiration level is necessary to accurately assess airway dimensions. KEY POINTS: â?¢ Airway lumen diameter increases and wall thickness decreases with inspiration â?¢ The effect of inspiration is greater in higher-generation (more peripheral) airways â?¢ Airways of generation 5 and beyond are as distensible as lung parenchyma â?¢ Airway dimensions measured from CT should be adjusted for inspiration level.

Petersen, Jens; Wille, Mathilde M W

2014-01-01

362

Visual topological SLAM and global localization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual localization and mapping for mobile robots has been achieved with a large variety of methods. Among them, topological navigation using vision has the advantage of offering a scalable representation, and of relying on a common and affordable sensor. In previous work, we developed such an incremental and real-time topological mapping and localization solution, without using any metrical information, and by relying on a Bayesian visual loop-closure detection algorithm. In this paper, we p...

2009-01-01

363

Evaluation of Filesystem Provenance Visualization Tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Having effective visualizations of filesystem provenance data is valuable for understanding its complex hierarchical structure. The most common visual representation of provenance data is the node-link diagram. While effective for understanding local activity, the node-link diagram fails to offer a high-level summary of activity and inter-relationships within the data. We present a new tool, InProv, which displays filesystem provenance with an interactive radial-based tree layout. The tool al...

Borkin, Michelle Anne; Yeh, Chelsea S.; Boyd, Madelaine; Macko, Peter; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.; Seltzer, Margo I.; Pfister, Hanspeter

2013-01-01

364

Beyond Control Panels: Direct Manipulation for Visual Analytics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information Visualization strives to provide visual representations through which users can think about and gain insight into information. By leveraging the visual and cognitive systems of humans, complex relationships and phenomena occurring within datasets can be uncovered by exploring information visually. Interaction metaphors for such visualizations are designed to enable users direct control over the filters, queries, and other parameters controlling how the data is visually represented. Through the evolution of information visualization, more complex mathematical and data analytic models are being used to visualize relationships and patterns in data – creating the field of Visual Analytics. However, the expectations for how users interact with these visualizations has remained largely unchanged – focused primarily on the direct manipulation of parameters of the underlying mathematical models. In this article we present an opportunity to evolve the methodology for user interaction from the direct manipulation of parameters through visual control panels, to interactions designed specifically for visual analytic systems. Instead of focusing on traditional direct manipulation of mathematical parameters, the evolution of the field can be realized through direct manipulation within the visual representation – where users can not only gain insight, but also interact. This article describes future directions and research challenges that fundamentally change the meaning of direct manipulation with regards to visual analytics, advancing the Science of Interaction.

Endert, Alexander; Bradel, Lauren; North, Chris

2013-07-19

365

Loop Spaces and Representations  

CERN Document Server

We introduce loop spaces (in the sense of derived algebraic geometry) into the representation theory of reductive groups. In particular, we apply the theory developed in our previous paper arXiv:1002.3636 to flag varieties, and obtain new insights into fundamental categories in representation theory. First, we show that one can recover finite Hecke categories (realized by D-modules on flag varieties) from affine Hecke categories (realized by coherent sheaves on Steinberg varieties) via S^1-equivariant localization. Similarly, one can recover D-modules on the nilpotent cone from coherent sheaves on the commuting variety. We also show that the categorical Langlands parameters for real groups studied by Adams-Barbasch-Vogan and Soergel arise naturally from the study of loop spaces of flag varieties and their Jordan decomposition (or in an alternative formulation, from the study of local systems on a Moebius strip). This provides a unifying framework that overcomes a discomforting aspect of the traditional approa...

Ben-Zvi, David

2010-01-01

366

Algebraic representation of continua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using the duality between the category whose objects are the representations of Hausdorff quotients of Cantor spaces and the category whose objects are the Cantor ring endowed with a link relation (this duality is a particular case of an extension of the Stone duality obtained in [3], we obtain algebraic representations of the following continua: the unit interval I=[0,1], the unit circle S¹, the Sierpínski triangular curve and the simple triod.Usando la dualidad entre la categoría cuyos objetos son las representaciones de cocientes Hausdorff de espacios de Cantor y la categoría cuyos objetos son el anillo de Cantor dotado con una relación de ligazón (esta dualidad es un caso particular de una extensión de la dualidad de Stone obtenida en [3], obtenemos representaciones algebraicas de los siguientes continuos: el intervalo unidad I=[0,1], el círculo unitario S¹, la curva triangular de Sierpínski y el triodo simple.

SONIA M. SABOGAL P.

367

Higher Representations Duals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We uncover novel solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for scalarless gauge theories with matter transforming according to higher dimensional representations of the underlying gauge group. We argue that, if the duals exist, they are gauge theories with fermions transforming according to the defining representation of the dual gauge group. The resulting conformal windows match the one stemming from the all-orders beta function results when taking the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass to be unity which are also very close to the ones obtained using the Schwinger-Dyson approximation. We use the solutions to gain useful insight on the conformal window of the associated electric theory. A consistent picture emerges corroborating previous results obtained via different analytic methods and in agreement with first principle lattice explorations.

Sannino, Francesco

2010-01-01

368

The complex volume of SL(n,C)-representations of 3-manifolds  

CERN Document Server

For a compact 3-manifold M with arbitrary (possibly empty) boundary, we give a parametrization of the set of conjugacy classes of boundary-unipotent representations of the fundamental group of M into SL(n,C). Our parametrization uses Ptolemy coordinates, which are inspired by coordinates on higher Teichmueller spaces due to Fock and Goncharov. We show that a boundary-unipotent representation determines an element in Neumann's extended Bloch group, and use this to obtain an efficient formula for the Cheeger-Chern-Simons invariant, and in particular for the volume. Computations for the census manifolds show that boundary-unipotent representations are abundant, and numerical comparisons with census volumes, suggest that the volume of a representation is an integral linear combination of volumes of hyperbolic 3-manifolds. This is in agreement with a conjecture of Walter Neumann, stating that the Bloch group is generated by hyperbolic manifolds.

Garoufalidis, Stavros; Zickert, Christian K

2011-01-01

369

Biologically Inspired Flagella-Templated Silica Nanotubes  

Science.gov (United States)

The desire and need for various types of nanostructures have been met with challenges of feasibility, reproducibility, and long fabrication time. To work towards improved bottom-up methods of nanofabrication, bacterial flagella are particularly attractive bio-templates for nanotubes due to their tubular structures and small inner and outer diameters. In this work, flagella isolated from Salmonella typhimurium are used as bio-templates to fabricate silica mineralized nanotubes. The process involves as well-controlled hydrolysis and condensation reaction with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), followed by the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). By controlling the concentration of TEOS and the reaction time, a simple and precise method is developed for creating silica-mineralized flagella nanotubes (SMFNs) with various thicknesses of the silica layer. In addition, the SMFNs are further modified to multifunctional nanotubes by coating metal nanoparticles (NPs) or metal oxide NPs such as gold, palladium, and iron oxide. The metallized SMFNs are achieved through reactions including reductive metallization or oxidative hydrolysis. The results from these studies provide evidence for the complete coating of SMFNs with uniform metal NP sizes and high surface area coverage. The metallized SMFNs are found to be electrically conductive along their network structures. The current-voltage characteristics show remarkably improved electrical conductivities depending on the types of metal NPs loading and SMFN networks concentration. The biologically inspired SMFNs with metal loading will allow have controlled electrical properties that can lead to the potential of creating unique and precise nanoelectronic materials. Lastly, the randomly entangled SMFNs are characterized to demonstrate their capabilities for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface applications.

Jo, Wonjin

370

Supercuspidal representations: an exhaustion theorem  

CERN Document Server

Let $G$ be a reductive $p$-adic group. We prove that all supercuspidal representations of $G$ arise through Yu's construction subject to certain hypotheses on $k$ (depending on $G$). As a corollary, under the same hypotheses, we see that any supercuspidal representation is compactly induced from a representation of an open subgroup which is compact modulo the center.

Kim, J L

2006-01-01

371

MENTAL STATE REPRESENTATION: SPATIOTEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the time of statement of the problem of states in psychology, the study of â??sensuousâ? tissue â?? the mental state representation-takes a fundamental meaning. The problem is concluded in the following questions: â??How is mental state represented in the consciousness of an individual?â?, â??What is the specificity of the mental state representation as distinguished from the subject-matter representation?â?, â??What are the mechanisms of the mental state representation occurrence and the peculiarities of its dynamics? The study of the mental state representation will allow to explain its specificity and difference from the figurative representation, the peculiarities of state explication as a representation in the consciousness and its relation with other elements of consciousness, will allow to show the regularities of the mental state representation development and its dynamics, factors, which influence the specificity of its occurrence, the regulatory role of the state representation in the vital function. From these perspectives, the article presents the results of the study of spatiotemporal characteristics of the mental state representation; reveals the peculiar features of the spatiotemporal organization of mental state representations: Relieves, specificity, magnitude, variability of indicators, changes of structural characteristics in time spans; considers the age-specific peculiar features of the spatiotemporal organization of mental state representations in terms of organization, stability, coherence and differentiated nature of spatiotemporal structures with the representatives of certain age groups.

Alexander Oktyabrinovich Prokhorov

2014-01-01

372

SQR: a simple quantum representation of infrared images  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple quantum representation (SQR) of infrared images is proposed based on the characteristic that infrared images reflect infrared radiation energy of objects. The proposed SQR model is inspired from the Qubit Lattice representation for color images. Instead of the angle parameter of a qubit to store a color as in Qubit Lattice representation, probability of projection measurement is used to store the radiation energy value of each pixel for the first time in this model. Since the relationship between radiation energy values and probability values can be quantified for the limited radiation energy values, it makes the proposed model more clear. In the process of image preparation, only simple quantum gates are used, and the performance comparison with the latest flexible representation of quantum images reveals that SQR can achieve a quadratic speedup in quantum image preparation. Meanwhile, quantum infrared image operations can be performed conveniently based on SQR, including both the global operations and local operations. This paper provides a basic way to express infrared images in quantum computer.

Yuan, Suzhen; Mao, Xia; Xue, Yuli; Chen, Lijiang; Xiong, Qingxu; Compare, Angelo

2014-06-01

373

Representations of BRS algebra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the canonical formulation of gauge theories the BRS transformation plays a fundamental role. The generator of this transformation along with the ghost number forms an algebra called the BRS algebra. Certain properties of this algebra are essential to the proof of unitarity of the S matrix in the physical sector and also to the discussion of color confinement. In the present paper we present all the possible representations of the BRS algebra in the light of indefinite metric. (orig.)

1984-06-18

374

Representations of reflection algebras  

CERN Multimedia

We study a class of algebras B(n,l) associated with integrable models with boundaries. These algebras can be identified with coideal subalgebras in the Yangian for gl(n). We construct an analog of the quantum determinant and show that its coefficients generate the center of B(n,l). We develop an analog of Drinfeld's highest weight theory for these algebras and give a complete description of their finite-dimensional irreducible representations.

Molev, A I

2001-01-01

375

Rights of Representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This doctoral thesis proposes an ethics of intercultural theatre, offering a materially engaged framework through which to approach both the problematics and positive potential of intercultural practice. Framing intercultural debates in terms of rights of representation, it suggests that the right to represent Othered people and cultures can be strengthened through 1) involvement of members of all represented cultures, 2) equality and creative agency of all collaborators, 3) advantageousness ...

2012-01-01

376

Motif representation and discovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An important part of gene regulation is mediated by specific proteins, called transcription factors, which influence the transcription of a particular gene by binding to specific sites on DNA sequences, called transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) or, simply, motifs. Such binding sites are relatively short segments of DNA, normally 5 to 25 nucleotides long, over- represented in a set of co-regulated DNA sequences. There are two different problems in this setup: motif representation, accou...

Carvalho, A. M.

2011-01-01

377

Cyclin-dependent kinase Inhibitors Inspired by Roscovitine: Purine Bioisosteres.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

inhibitorKód oboru RIV: ED - FyziologieImpakt faktor: 3.311, rok: 2012http://www.benthamdirect.org/pages/article/1/3177382/cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitors-inspired-by-roscovitine-purine-bioisosteres.html

Jorda, Radek; Paruch, K.; Kryštof, Vladimír

378

The Role of INSPIRE in HEP Data Preservation Efforts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

INSPIRE is a new community resource for HEP literature and associated information. It is based on the combination of SPIRES content and features and the powerful Invenio software developed at CERN. The INSPIRE service will come online in fall of 2009, and be run by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. Data preservation, to be successful, must not only preserve the data, but must also organize it and allow it to be found by those who would make use of it, and resources such as INSPIRE are ideally positioned and ready to provide this organization and context. In addition, INSPIRE will soon be ready to provide storage of smaller datasets, such as high-level analysis objects, as stand-alone objects placed in the repository or as objects associated with an analysis paper. This small project could pave the way towards the context and organization which is one piece of the infrastructure needed for all levels of data preservation.

Brooks, Travis C.; /SLAC

2010-06-11

379

Fabiola Gianotti is one of The Guardian's "most inspirational women"  

CERN Document Server

Fabiola Gianotti, spokesperson for the ATLAS experiment, was named one of the world’s 100 most inspirational women by The Guardian newspaper. The list was drawn up in celebration of the International Women’s Day on 8 March.    

CERN Bulletin

2011-01-01

380

Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization (NICSO 2011)  

CERN Multimedia

Biological and other natural processes have always been a source of inspiration for computer science and information technology. Many emerging problem solving techniques integrate advanced evolution and cooperation strategies, encompassing a range of spatio-temporal scales for visionary conceptualization of evolutionary computation. The previous editions of NICSO were held in Granada, Spain (2006), Acireale, Italy (2007), Tenerife, Spain (2008), and again in Granada in 2010. NICSO evolved to be one of the most interesting and profiled workshops in nature inspired computing. NICSO 2011 has offered an inspiring environment for debating the state of the art ideas and techniques in nature inspired cooperative strategies and a comprehensive image on recent applications of these ideas and techniques. The topics covered by this volume include Swarm Intelligence (such as Ant and Bee Colony Optimization), Genetic Algorithms, Multiagent Systems, Coevolution and Cooperation strategies, Adversarial Models, Synergic Build...

Krasnogor, Natalio; Dumitrescu, Dan; Chira, Camelia; Lung, Rodica

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Biomimetics - using nature as an inspiring model for innovation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this presentation, various aspects of the field of biomimetics will be reviewed, examples of inspiring biological models and practical applications will be described, and challenges and potential direction of the field will be discussed.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

2006-01-01

382

Bio-inspired computation in unmanned aerial vehicles  

CERN Document Server

Bio-inspired Computation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles focuses on the aspects of path planning, formation control, heterogeneous cooperative control and vision-based surveillance and navigation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from the perspective of bio-inspired computation. It helps readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of control-related problems in UAVs, presenting the latest advances in bio-inspired computation. By combining bio-inspired computation and UAV control problems, key questions are explored in depth, and each piece is content-rich while remaining accessible. With abundant illustrations of simulation work, this book links theory, algorithms and implementation procedures, demonstrating the simulation results with graphics that are intuitive without sacrificing academic rigor. Further, it pays due attention to both the conceptual framework and the implementation procedures. The book offers a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and graduate students in the field of Control, Aeros...

Duan, Haibin

2014-01-01

383

What inspires South African student teachers for their future profession?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need for an inspired professional teacher corps to haul South African school education out of its current low level of quality was the driving force behind this project. Its aim was to determine what counted as sources of inspiration for student teachers and hence for future teachers. Based on a conceptual-theoretical study, a questionnaire that could probe student teachers' sources of inspiration was completed by a sample of student teachers (n = 1,683. A factor analysis of their responses revealed the following as their sources of inspiration, from most to least important: (extended family, religion, the teacher education institution, teaching practice, friends, and personal life. A comparison with similar research elsewhere revealed that, in this sample of respondents, considerations, such as education being the only accessible profession or being forced to enter the teaching profession because of economic circumstances, did not figure at all.

Charl Wolhuter

2012-01-01

384

Visualizing Logistics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Logistics processes can be divided into two categories: deployment and sustainment. Both categories generate huge and dynamic datasets that are difficult to comprehend without visualization products. My remarks will address deployment because that is wher...

W. Cunningham

2002-01-01

385

Organ visualization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advantages of selenium-75-labelled cholesterol derivatives for the visualization of the adren in nuclear medicine are outlined. Selenium-75 is a sole gamma emitter; its chemical preparation is described

1974-02-20

386

STOCK MARKET PREDICTION USING BIO-INSPIRED COMPUTING: A SURVEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bio-inspired evolutionary algorithms are probabilistic search methods that mimic natural biological evolution. They show the behavior of the biological entities interacting locally with one another or with their environment to solve complex problems. This paper aims to analyze the most predominantly used bio-inspired optimization techniques that have been used for stock market prediction and hence present a comparative study between them.

PUSPANJALI MOHAPATRA

2013-04-01

387

Visual Inductosyn  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is a project where modern visualization techniques are used to create an interactive and animated technical illustration of how the position measuring product Inductosyn works. The project is made on behalf of Inductosyn International, an engineering company in Valhalla, New York. The visualization is focused on the operating principle of the product and the technical benefits of using the product in the two application areas Air Surveillance Radar and Air Defence Systems. The purpose wi...

Lindberg, Erik

2005-01-01

388

Invariant Visual Object and Face Recognition: Neural and Computational Bases, and a Model, VisNet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurophysiological evidence for invariant representations of objects and faces in the primate inferior temporal visual cortex is described. Then a computational approach to how invariant representations are formed in the brain is described that builds on the neurophysiology. A feature hierarchy model in which invariant representations can be built by self-organizing learning based on the temporal and spatial statistics of the visual input produced by objects as they transform in the world is ...

Rolls, Edmund T.

2012-01-01

389

Lateral occipitotemporal cortex and action representation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Representation of body and body movements is essential for identifying others intentions or actions or for learning from them. Over the last 10 years, a large collection of research has demonstrated that body representations are distributed across a widely distributed brain network. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we focus on lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC), a recently identified brain region that could represent the body in a multisensory and dynamic manner. We addressed the question of LOTC involvement in visual processing of others? actions through a factorial analysis that manipulated the meaning of an observed action, completed by a psychophysiological interaction analysis. The results show that only left LOTC was significantly activated in relation to others? actions meaning. In addition, only left LOTC was activated during both action observation and action production but it was more dorsal than the activation related to the meaning of observed actions. Furthermore, the psychophysiological interaction analysis showed that when watching meaningless actions, the more dorsal part of the LOTC (the area active during both action production and action observation) had higher functional connectivity with primary visual areas while the more ventral part (that responded to action meaning) had higher correlation with anterior cingulate and medioprefrontal cortices. Taken together these results plead in favour of a strong implication of left LOTC in action observation and understanding, with a possible functional specialisation between the more ventral and the more dorsal parts of LOTC. PMID:24467888

Romaiguère, Patricia; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Anton, Jean-Luc; Felician, Olivier

2014-04-01

390

Bio-inspired optical rotation sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional approaches to calculating self-motion from visual information in artificial devices have generally relied on object identification and/or correlation of image sections between successive frames. Such calculations are computationally expensive and real-time digital implementation requires powerful processors. In contrast flies arrive at essentially the same outcome, the estimation of self-motion, in a much smaller package using vastly less power. Despite the potential advantages and a few notable successes, few neuromorphic analog VLSI devices based on biological vision have been employed in practical applications to date. This paper describes a hardware implementation in aVLSI of our recently developed adaptive model for motion detection. The chip integrates motion over a linear array of local motion processors to give a single voltage output. Although the device lacks on-chip photodetectors, it includes bias circuits to use currents from external photodiodes, and we have integrated it with a ring-array of 40 photodiodes to form a visual rotation sensor. The ring configuration reduces pattern noise and combined with the pixel-wise adaptive characteristic of the underlying circuitry, permits a robust output that is proportional to image rotational velocity over a large range of speeds, and is largely independent of either mean luminance or the spatial structure of the image viewed. In principle, such devices could be used as an element of a velocity-based servo to replace or augment inertial guidance systems in applications such as mUAVs.

O'Carroll, David C.; Shoemaker, Patrick A.; Brinkworth, Russell S. A.

2007-01-01

391

Software tangible: metáforas, representaciones visuales y actividades de apoyo didáctico para la enseñanza en construcción de software / Tangible software: metaphors, visual representations and didactic support activities for teaching in software construction / Software tangível: metáforas, representações visuais e atividades de apoio didático para o ensino em construção de software  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Resumo Introdução. Desde a experiência no processo de ensino aprendizagem dos primeiros níveis de análises, desenho, construção e execução de algoritmos se detectou que realmente é complicado ilustrar e compreender conceitos de caráter intangível. Resulta ser uma meta para os professores gerar analo [...] gias ou outro tipo de ajudas conceituais que de alguma maneira contribuam à imaginação ou abstração que devem fundar os estudantes no momento de entender os conceitos básicos de programação. Objetivo. Definir um conjunto de representações visuais e metáforas que permitam estabelecer uma base para o desenvolvimento de materiais didáticos, aplicações de software e atividades pertinentes que brindem suporte ao ensino e aprendizagem em programação. Materiais e métodos. Com base em algumas teorias da área da pedagogia e a revisão de projetos semelhantes, definiram-se várias propostas de representação, metáforas e atividades de aprendizagem significativa, a partir de uma primeira seleção de conceitos de programação. Resultados. Compartilharam-se experiências docentes e se formalizaram várias atividades que foram desenvolvidas diretamente em classe por parte dos professores envolvidos na linha de trabalho denominada Software Tangível. Gerou-se e se utilizou um conjunto de instrumentos físicos e ferramentas de software de apoio didático relacionadas e integradas sob uma consistente definição de representações visuais comuns. Conclusão. O uso das representações visuais, metáforas, instrumentos e atividades de aprendizagem significativa permite apoiar a geração das abstrações necessárias que contribuem a compreender os conceitos intangíveis próprios da programação e execução de algoritmos. Abstract in spanish Resumen Introducción. Desde la experiencia en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de los primeros niveles de análisis, diseño, construcción y ejecución de algoritmos se ha detectado que realmente es complicado ilustrar y comprender conceptos de carácter intangible. Resulta ser un reto para los profe [...] sores generar analogías u otro tipo de ayudas conceptuales que de alguna manera aporten a la imaginación o abstracción que deben fundar los estudiantes en el momento de entender los conceptos básicos de programación. Objetivo. Definir un conjunto de representaciones visuales y metáforas que permitan establecer una base para el desarrollo de materiales didácticos, aplicaciones de software y actividades pertinentes que brinden soporte a la enseñanza y aprendizaje en programación. Materiales y métodos. Con base en algunas teorías del área de la pedagogía y la revisión de proyectos semejantes, se definieron varias propuestas de representación, metáforas y actividades de aprendizaje significativo, a partir de una primera selección de conceptos de programación. Resultados. Se compartieron experiencias docentes y se formalizaron varias actividades que fueron desarrolladas directamente en clase por parte de los profesores involucrados en la línea de trabajo denominada Software Tangible. Se generó y se utilizó un conjunto de instrumentos físicos y herramientas de software de apoyo didáctico relacionadas e integradas bajo una consistente definición de representaciones visuales comunes. Conclusión. El uso de las representaciones visuales, metáforas, instrumentos y actividades de aprendizaje significativo permite apoyar la generación de las abstracciones necesarias que contribuyen a comprender los conceptos intangibles propios de la programación y ejecución de algoritmos. Abstract in english Abstract Introduction. From the experience in the teachinglearning process of the first levels of analysis, design, construction and execution of algorithms, the difficulty of illustrating and understanding intangible concepts has been detected. Generating analogies or other kinds of conceptual reso [...] urces to contribute to the imagination or the abstraction students re

Díaz Chaparro, Luis Carlos; Torres Moreno, Miguel Eduardo; Hurtado Rojas, José Hernando; Chavarro Flórez, Germán Alberto; Ruiz García, Edgar Enrique.

392

Body as Crisis. Representation of Pain in Visual Arts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pain is a highly problematic concept for a scholarly dissertation. It is thought to shatter consciousness and identity; it is often claimed that intense pain cannot be processed and that it escapes language. Pain has become a sort of acquired incapacity to communicate across the border between two worlds - the painless one and the one of pain. My argument, however, is that the making (as opposed to unmaking) aspect of pain can serve as one of the elements of subjectivity. I see the presence o...

Zarzycka, M. J.

2007-01-01

393

Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration through Accomplishment  

Science.gov (United States)

Space Mining for resources such as water ice, and regolith, which contain many elements in the form of metals, minerals, volatiles and other compounds, is a necessary step in Space Resource Utilization. One of the primary goals is to extract propellants from the regolith such as oxygen and hydrogen which could then be used for in-space transportation. In addition, the space mining system can be used for various construction tasks that can benefit human and robotic exploration as well as scientific investigations based on the exposed topography. The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Lunabotics Mining Competition is a university-level competition designed to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). NASA will directly benefit from the competition by encouraging the development of innovative lunar excavation concepts from universities which may result in clever ideas and solutions which could be applied to an actual lunar excavation device or payload. The challenge is for students to design and build a remote controlled or autonomous excavator, called a lunabot, that can collect and deposit a minimum of 10 kilograms of lunar simulant within 15 minutes. The complexities of the challenge include the abrasive characteristics of the lunar simulant, the weight and size limitations of the lunabot, and the ability to control the lunabot from a remote control center or operate autonomously. This paper will present an update of the results and lessons learned during the first and second annual Lunabotics Mining Competitions held in May 2010 and May 2011. It will also preview the 2012 competition with a review of the revised rules. In 2010,22 United States (US) universities competed, and in May 2011 the competition was opened to international participation. In 2011, 36 teams actually competed from 26 USA states and 4 foreign countries (India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Canada). This combined total directly inspired an estimated 653 university students. In 2012 more students and the public will be engaged via internet broadcasting and social networking media. The various designs will be cataloged and categorized to provide information to future Lunabotics mining robot designers and competitors. It is also expected to be of value for actual future space missions, as knowledge is gained from testing many innovative prototypes in simulated lunar regolith.

Mueller, Robert P.

2012-01-01

394

Walking the Path—A New Journey to Explore and Discover through Visual Analytics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Visual representations are essential aids to human cognitive tasks and are valued to the extent that they provide stable and external reference points upon which dynamic activities and thought processes may be calibrated and upon which models and theories can be tested and confirmed. The active use and manipulation of visual representations makes many complex and intensive cognitive tasks feasible. As described in the recently published ''Illuminating the Path'', visual analytics is ''the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces''. We describe research and development at PNNL focused on improving the value that interactive visual representations provide to persons engaged in complex cognitive tasks. We describe work at PNNL that carries forward research from multiple disciplines with a goal to improve the capability of visual representations and present examples whose aim is to improve the extraction, and reasoning about information, knowledge, and data.

Wong, Pak C.; Rose, Stuart J.; Chin, George; Frincke, Deb; May, Richard A.; Posse, Christian; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Thomas, James J.

2006-12-01

395

Quad Tree-based Level-of-details Representation of Digital Globe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three-dimensional visualization of the geographic data using a digital globe model has been an integral part of a modern GIS system. The visualization of the digital globe model presents many challenges not found in traditional terrain visualization system. The representation of the digital earth (globe model is important to efficiently render the geographical data without any distortion either at equator or Polar Regions. This paper presents a uniform scheme for efficient quad tree based level-of-details (LOD representation of the digital globe to minimize the distortion at Polar Regions and meets the requirement of fast frame rate rendering.

Sudhir Porwal

2013-01-01

396

A Core Knowledge Architecture of Visual Working Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual working memory (VWM) is widely thought to contain specialized buffers for retaining spatial and object information: a "spatial-object architecture." However, studies of adults, infants, and nonhuman animals show that visual cognition builds on core knowledge systems that retain more specialized representations: (1) spatiotemporal…

Wood, Justin N.

2011-01-01

397

Putting science first: distinguishing visualizations from pretty pictures.  

Science.gov (United States)

How do we tell whether a proposed visualization is a valid pictorial representation of the truth or just an accidental but appealing image? Art and science can work brilliantly together in visualization science, but we must know when, and how, to distinguish them. PMID:25051571

Hanson, Andrew J

2014-01-01

398

Coverage, Continuity and Visual Cortical Architecture  

CERN Multimedia

The primary visual cortex of many mammals contains a continuous representation of visual space, with an aperiodic map of orientation preferences superimposed. It was recently found that orientation preference maps (OPMs) obey statistical laws which are apparently invariant among species widely separated in eutherian evolution. Here, we ask whether one of the most prominent models for the optimization of cortical maps, the elastic net (EN) model can reproduce these universal statistics. The EN model generates representations which optimally trade off stimulus space coverage and map continuity. While this model has been used in numerous numerical studies, no analytical results about its optimal solutions have been obtained so far. We present a mathematical approach to analytically calculate the optimal cortical representations predicted by the EN model for the joint mapping of stimulus position and orientation. We find that in all previously studied regimes, optimal OPM layouts are perfectly periodic. An unbias...

Keil, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

399

Discourse Representation Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Discourse Representation Theory, or DRT, is one of a number of theories of dynamic semantics, which have come upon the scene in the course of the past twenty years. The central concern of these theories is to account for the context dependence of meaning. It is a ubiquitous feature of natural languages that utterances are interpretable only when the interpreter takes account of the contexts in which they are made - utterance meaning depends on context. Moreover, the interaction between context and utterance is reciprocal.

Kamp, Hans; van Genabith, Josef; Reyle, Uwe

400

Residual Representations of Spacetime  

CERN Multimedia

Spacetime is modelled by binary relations - by the classes of the automorphisms $\\GL(\\C^2)$ of a complex 2-dimensional vector space with respect to the definite unitary subgroup $\\U(2)$. In extension of Feynman propagators for particle quantum fields representing only the tangent spacetime structure, global spacetime representations are given, formulated as residues using energy-momentum distributions with the invariants as singularities. The associatated quantum fields are characterized by two invariant masses - for time and position - supplementing the one mass for the definite unitary particle sector with another mass for the indefinite unitary interaction sector without asymptotic particle interpretation.

Saller, H

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Appendix VII: Knowledge representation and modeling at GRS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge representation as a scientific domain has gained strong momentum, particularly in view of the 'Semantic Net' proposed by Tim Berners-Lee (the 'father' of the Internet) as the next 'intelligent' Internet. Several methods such as Topic Maps, Concept Maps or Ontologies are available, differing in the degree of formalization. In general, they offer a systematic approach to knowledge representation and a controlled vocabulary set up by experts to describe the domain as well as visualization and search facilities to navigate the maps. In more formal cases such as ontologies, the domain may be 'understood' by machines to e.g. draw inferences or check consistency

2006-10-01

402

Calibrating Bayesian Network Representations of Social-Behavioral Models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While human behavior has long been studied, recent and ongoing advances in computational modeling present opportunities for recasting research outcomes in human behavior. In this paper we describe how Bayesian networks can represent outcomes of human behavior research. We demonstrate a Bayesian network that represents political radicalization research – and show a corresponding visual representation of aspects of this research outcome. Since Bayesian networks can be quantitatively compared with external observations, the representation can also be used for empirical assessments of the research which the network summarizes. For a political radicalization model based on published research, we show this empirical comparison with data taken from the Minorities at Risk Organizational Behaviors database.

Whitney, Paul D.; Walsh, Stephen J.

2010-04-08

403

CA Based Path Planning Method for Mobile Robots Enhanced by ant Colony Inspired Mechanis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In path planning of mobile robots dealing with concave obstacles is a major challenge. More specifically in real-time planning where there is no complete representation of the environment, this challenge would be much more problematic. In such cases local minimums and high computations cost are the most important problems. In this paper, in order to reduce computational cost, cellular automata as a distributed computational method with parallel processing properties is employed as tool for path planning purposes. The environment of the robot is modeled as a two dimensional cellular automata with four states. Evolutionary rules of the automata are proposed to perform the planning task. The proposed method is appropriate for single robot systems as well as multi robot systems. The proposed method is afterwards extended to be employed for concave obstacles using a ant colony inspired technique. The most superior advantage of the proposed method is its capability of real-time path planning of mobile robots with no need to prior representation of the environment.

Adel Akbarimajd

2011-05-01

404

Representations lisses de GL(m,D), IV representations supercuspidales  

CERN Multimedia

Let F be a non Archimedean locally compact field and let D be a central F-division algebra. We prove that any positive level supercuspidal irreducible representation of the group GL(m,D) is compactly induced from a representation of a compact mod center open subgroup of GL(m,D). More precisely, we prove that such representations contain a maximal simple type.

Secherre, V; Secherre, Vincent; Stevens, Shaun

2006-01-01

405

A decoupled image space approach to visual servo control of a robotic manipulator.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An image-based visual servo control is presented for a robotic manipulator. The proposed control design ad- dresses visual servo of 'eye-in-hand' type systems. Us- ing a novel representation of the visual error based on a spherical representation of target centroid information along with a measure of the rotation between the camera and the target, the control of the position and orientation is decoupled. A non-linear gain introduced into the ori- entation feedback kinematics prevents the targ...

Mahony, R.; Hamel, Tarek; Chaumette, Franc?ois

2002-01-01

406

Algebraic representation of continua  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Usando la dualidad entre la categoría cuyos objetos son las representaciones de cocientes Hausdorff de espacios de Cantor y la categoría cuyos objetos son el anillo de Cantor dotado con una relación de ligazón (esta dualidad es un caso particular de una extensión de la dualidad de Stone obtenida en [...] [3]), obtenemos representaciones algebraicas de los siguientes continuos: el intervalo unidad I=[0,1], el círculo unitario S¹, la curva triangular de Sierpínski y el triodo simple. Abstract in english Using the duality between the category whose objects are the representations of Hausdorff quotients of Cantor spaces and the category whose objects are the Cantor ring endowed with a link relation (this duality is a particular case of an extension of the Stone duality obtained in [3]), we obtain alg [...] ebraic representations of the following continua: the unit interval I=[0,1], the unit circle S¹, the Sierpínski triangular curve and the simple triod.

SABOGAL P., SONIA M..

407

Scale-invariance of receptive field properties in primary visual cortex; Research article  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Our visual system enables us to recognize visual objects across a wide range of spatial scales. The neural mechanisms underlying these abilities are still poorly understood. Size- or scale-independent representation of visual objects might be supported by processing in primary visual cortex (V1). Neurons in V1 are selective for spatial frequency and thus represent visual information in specific spatial wavebands. We tested whether different receptive field properties of neurons in...

Teichert, Tobias; Wachtler, Thomas; Michler, Frank; Gail, Alexander; Eckhorn, Reinhard

2007-01-01

408

Census of transient orbital resonances encountered during binary inspiral  

Science.gov (United States)

Transient orbital resonances have recently been identified as potentially important to the inspiral of small bodies into large black holes. These resonances occur as the inspiral evolves through moments in which two fundamental orbital frequencies, ?? and ?r, are in a small integer ratio to one another. Previous work has demonstrated that a binary's parameters are "kicked" each time the inspiral passes through a resonance, changing the orbit's characteristics relative to a model that neglects resonant effects. In this paper, we use exact Kerr geodesics coupled to an accurate but approximate model of inspiral to survey orbital parameter space and estimate how commonly one encounters long-lived orbital resonances. We find that the most important resonances last for a few hundred orbital cycles at mass ratio 10-6, and that resonances are almost certain to occur during the time that a large-mass-ratio binary would be a target of gravitational wave observations. Resonances appear to be ubiquitous in large-mass-ratio inspiral, and to last long enough that they are likely to affect binary evolution in observationally important ways.

Ruangsri, Uchupol; Hughes, Scott A.

2014-04-01

409

Machine Learning Emulation in Nature-inspired Computation Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The whole frame of nature_inspired computation systems is inquired into, the characteristics of machine learning in nature_inspired computation systems are researched, and a particular scheme on machine learning in nature_inspired computation systems is designed with environment being gathered present data; study unit adopting fuzzy optimizatio algorithm based on genetic algorithm; knowledge base adopting fuzzy optimization BP neural networks; executive unit being complicated industry process. The fuzzy optimizatio learning algorithm of fuzzy optimization BP neural networks is built, the flow chart of the algorithm is constructed, and the emulation test is made. At last, the design criteria of flash metal comsuption are obtained, and the stability of the algorithm is verified through this example. The result shows that machine learning makes nature_inspired computation systems be able to gain know; edge automatically, their quality improved, their intelligent level advanced, and machine learning will greatly influence the memory mode, information input mode and system structures of nature_inspired computation systems.

Jianhao Tan

2009-07-01

410

Symbolic Representations of Iterated Maps  

CERN Multimedia

This paper presents a general and systematic discussion of various symbolic representations of iterated maps through subshifts. We give a unified model for all continuous maps on a metric space, by representing a map through a general subshift over usually an uncountable alphabet. It is shown that at most the second order representation is enough for a continuous map. In particular, it is shown that the dynamics of one-dimensional continuous maps to a great extent can be transformed to the study of subshift structure of a general symbolic dynamics system. By introducing distillations, partial representations of some general continuous maps are obtained. Finally, partitions and representations of a class of discontinuous maps, piecewise continuous maps are discussed, and as examples, a representation of the Gauss map via a full shift over a countable alphabet and representations of interval exchange transformations as subshifts of infinite type are given.

Fu Xin Chu; Ashwin, P; Duan, J; Fu, Xin-Chu; Lu, Weiping; Ashwin, Peter; Duan, Jinqiao

2000-01-01

411

ERNN: a biologically inspired feedforward neural network to discriminate emotion from EEG signal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emotions play an important role in human cognition, perception, decision making, and interaction. This paper presents a six-layer biologically inspired feedforward neural network to discriminate human emotions from EEG. The neural network comprises a shift register memory after spectral filtering for the input layer, and the estimation of coherence between each pair of input signals for the hidden layer. EEG data are collected from 57 healthy participants from eight locations while subjected to audio-visual stimuli. Discrimination of emotions from EEG is investigated based on valence and arousal levels. The accuracy of the proposed neural network is compared with various feature extraction methods and feedforward learning algorithms. The results showed that the highest accuracy is achieved when using the proposed neural network with a type of radial basis function. PMID:24807454

Khosrowabadi, Reza; Quek, Chai; Ang, Kai Keng; Wahab, Abdul

2014-03-01

412

An FPGA implementation of insect-inspired motion detector for high-speed vision systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, an array of biologically inspired elementary motion detectors (EMDs) is implemented on an FPGA (field programmable gate array) platform. The well-known Reichardt-type EMD, modeling the insect's visual signal processing system, is very sensitive to motion direction and has low computational cost. A modified structure of EMD is used to detect local optical flow. Six templates of receptive fields, according to the fly's vision system, are designed for simple ego-motion estimation. The results of several typical experiments demonstrate local detection of optical flow and simple motion estimation under specific backgrounds. The performance of the real-time implementation is sufficient to deal with a video frame rate of 350 fps at 256 times 256 pixels resolution. The execution of the motion detection algorithm and the resulting time delay is only 0.25 mus. This hardware is suited for obstacle detection, motion estimation and UAV/MAV attitude control.

Zhang, Tianguang; Wu, Haiyan

2008-01-01

413

Graphical Visualization in the Knowledge Management System Atanor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interaction between a knowledge management systems and the users requires well-adapted visualization tools with graphical formalization of knowledge. The formalization is often theoretically based on graph-models. Yet, the best associated visual representations use trees but may be more limited than those with graphs. This paper gives an introduction to Atanor, a knowledge management system, whose graphical model for visualizing knowledge is tree-based. However this approach entails verte...

Pinaud, Bruno; Kuntz, Pascale; Guillet, Fabrice; Philippe?, Vincent

2006-01-01

414

Mapping striate and extrastriate visual areas in human cerebral cortex.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify and map the representation of the visual field in seven areas of human cerebral cortex and to identify at least two additional visually responsive regions. The cortical locations of neurons responding to stimulation along the vertical or horizontal visual field meridia were charted on three-dimensional models of the cortex and on unfolded maps of the cortical surface. These maps were used to identify the borders among areas tha...

Deyoe, E. A.; Carman, G. J.; Bandettini, P.; Glickman, S.; Wieser, J.; Cox, R.; Miller, D.; Neitz, J.

1996-01-01

415

Inequalities Based on Sobolev Representations  

CERN Multimedia

Inequalities based on Sobolev Representations deals exclusively with very general tight integral inequalities of Chebyshev-Gruss, Ostrowski types and of integral means, all of which depend upon the Sobolev integral representations of functions. Applications illustrate inequalities that engage in ordinary and weak partial derivatives of the involved functions. This book also derives important estimates for the averaged Taylor polynomials and remainders of Sobolev integral representations. The results are examined in all directions and through both univariate and multivariate cases. This book is

Anastassiou, George A

2011-01-01

416

Representation fields for commutative orders  

CERN Multimedia

A representation field for a non-maximal order $\\Ha$ in a central simple algebra is a subfield of the spinor class field of maximal orders which determines the set of spinor genera of maximal orders containing a copy of $\\Ha$. Not every non-maximal order has a representation field. In this work we prove that every commutative order has a representation field and give a formula for it. The main result is proved for central simple algebras over arbitrary global fields.

Arenas-Carmona, Luis

2011-01-01

417

Maximal volume representations are fuchsian  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We prove a volume-rigidity theorem for fuchsian representations of fundamental groups of hyperbolic k-manifolds into Isom(H^n). Namely, we show that if M is a complete hyperbolic k-manifold with finite volume, then the volume of any representation of its fundamental group into Isom(H^n), 3 <= k <= n, is less than the volume of M, and the volume is maximal if and only if the representation is discrete, faithful and ``k-fuchsian''.

Francaviglia, S.; Klaff, B.

2004-01-01

418

Good Representations and Homogeneous Spaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Let G be a real or complex linear algebraic reductive group. Let H and F be reductive subgroups. We study the natural H action on G/F. The main theorem of this note shows that generic H orbits are closed. This theorem is then applied to study representations of G, representations of H which are induced from representations of G, and intersections of reductive subgroups of G.

Jablonski, M.

2008-01-01

419

Induced representations of Uqso(5)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the reduction of the left regular representation of the quantum algebra Uqso(5). This yields induced representations of Uqso(5) on some quotient space of the matrix quantum group SOq(5). To facilitate the construction of a suitable basis the Gauss decomposition of SOq(5) is worked out explicitly. We then investigate the behavior of these representations for a generic q as well as when q is an Nth root of unity leading to some finite dimensional irreducible representations of Uqso(5). Two basic intertwining operators are also constructed via the right action

2003-02-01

420

Representations of the Renner Monoid  

CERN Multimedia

We describe irreducible representations and character formulas of the Renner monoids for reductive monoids, which generalizes the Munn-Solomon representation theory of rook monoids to any Renner monoids. The type map and polytope associated with reductive monoids play a crucial role in our work. It turns out that the irreducible representations of certain parabolic subgroups of the Weyl groups determine the complete set of irreducible representations of the Renner monoids. An analogue of the Munn-Solomon formula for calculating the character of the Renner monoids, in terms of the characters of the parabolic subgroups, is shown.

Li, Zhuo; Cao, You'an

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Spinfoams in the holomorphic representation  

CERN Document Server

We study a holomorphic representation for spinfoams. The representation is obtained via the Ashtekar-Lewandowski-Marolf-Mour\\~ao-Thiemann coherent state transform. We derive the expression of the 4d spinfoam vertex for Euclidean and for Lorentzian gravity in the holomorphic representation. The advantage of this representation rests on the fact that the variables used have a clear interpretation in terms of a classical intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of space. We show how the peakedness on the extrinsic geometry selects a single exponential of the Regge action in the semiclassical large-scale asymptotics of the spinfoam vertex.

Bianchi, Eugenio; Perini, Claudio

2010-01-01

422

Geometric representations for minimalist grammars  

CERN Document Server

We reformulate minimalist grammars as partial functions acting on minimalist expressions such as feature arrays and trees. Using filler/role bindings and tensor product representations, these data structures are mapped onto vectors in geometric spaces. We prove that the structure-building functions as well as minimalist bottom-up parsers can be realized by piecewise linear operators in representation space. We also propose harmony, i.e. the distance of an intermediate processing step from the final well-formed state in representation space, as a measure of processing complexity. Finally, we illustrate our findings by means of two particular arithmetic and fractal representations.

Graben, Peter beim

2011-01-01

423

Biomimetics as a Model for Inspiring Human Innovation  

Science.gov (United States)

Electroactive polymers (EAP) are human made actuators that are the closest to mimic biological muscles. Technology was advanced to the level that biologically inspired robots are taking increasing roles in the world around us and making science fiction ideas a closer engineering reality. Artificial technologies (AI, AM, and others) are increasingly becoming practical tools for making biologically inspired devices and instruments with enormous potential for space applications. Polymer materials are used to produce figures that resemble human and animals. These materials are widely employed by the movie industry for making acting figures and by the orthopedic industry to construct cyborg components. There are still many challenges ahead that are critical to making such possibilities practical. The annual armwrestling contest is providing an exciting measure of how well advances in EAP are implemented to address the field challenges. There is a need to document natures inventions in an engineering form to possibly inspire new capabilities.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

2006-01-01

424

MEMBRANE COMPUTING INSPIRED GENETIC ALGORITHM ON MULTI-CORE PROCESSORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Membrane computing is a branch of natural computing. Several studies have recently attempted to utilize the structure of membrane computing to improve intelligent algorithms. These studies have applied communication rules in membrane models to facilitate information exchange between membranes, thereby improving the performance of those algorithms. However, parallel membrane computing has not yet been considered. This study proposes a membrane computing-inspired genetic algorithm. Similar to previous studies, the algorithm also uses communication rules to facilitate information exchange. In this study, an appropriate membrane computing-inspired genetic algorithm is defined, in which each membrane can be executed over different cores in a parallel manner. The proposed algorithm can be executed over different cores and uses multi-core processing to implement parallel membrane computation. Simulation with a Colville minimization problem shows that the membrane computing inspired genetic algorithm has improved performance, with a mean error of the solution 61.9 times better than genetic algorithm.

Ali Maroosi

2013-01-01

425

INSPIRE: a new scientific information system for HEP  

CERN Document Server

The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project – a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was