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New contributions in overcomplete image representations inspired from the functional architecture of the primary visual cortex = Nuevas contribuciones en representaciones sobrecompletas de imágenes inspiradas por la arquitectura funcional de la corteza visual primaria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present thesis aims at investigating parallelisms between the functional architecture of primary visual areas and image processing methods. A first objective is to refine existing models of biological vision on the base of information theory statements and a second is to develop original solutions for image processing inspired from natural vision. The available data on visual systems contains physiological and psychophysical studies, Gestalt psychology and statistics on natural images The...

Fischer, Sylvain Gael Frederic

2007-01-01

2

Collective form generation through visual participatory representation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use of the same in the collective form generation session with a set of designers (vehicle design students) where designers use sketching as a tool to discuss, conceptualise and negotiate concepts towards the final vehicle form. Further, this paper attempts to demonstrate how deep and tacit context sensitive information from participatory research takes a form manifestation in collective form conceptualization by a set of designers.

Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant

3

On visual determination of full inspiration on CT images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of experienced thoracic radiologists to assess full inspiration based on two CT slices, one above and one below the carina, in normal subjects. Ten healthy volunteers were studied. Total lung capacity (TLC) was measured with a body plethysmograph. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed in two slices at TLC and at various expired volumes. Mean Hounsfield values (HU) were calculated. Unidentifiable images, stored on a web server, were analysed visually by experienced thoracic radiologists. The results show that the mean lung density at TLC varied by approximately 40 HU between individuals. Within an individual this may correspond to a decrease in lung volume of approximately 25% of TLC. On visual determination of images taken at 65-74% of TLC, more than one-third of the images were assessed as taken at full inspiration; of the images taken at 75-84% of TLC, approximately 50% were assessed as taken at full inspiration. We conclude that visual determination of full inspiration on CT images in normal subjects is highly inaccurate. If quantitative density measurements are to be used in the diagnosis or follow-up of lung disease, thorough control of full inspiration is recommended. (orig.)

4

Differences between spatial and visual mental representations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article investigates the relationship between visual mental representations and spatial mental representations in human visuo-spatial processing. By comparing two common theories of visuo-spatial processing - mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery - we identified two open questions: 1 which representations are modality-specific, and 2 what is the role of the two representations in reasoning. Two experiments examining eye movements and preferences for under-specified problems were conducted to investigate these questions. We found that significant spontaneous eye movements along the processed spatial relations occurred only when a visual mental representation is employed, but not with a spatial mental representation. Furthermore, the preferences for the answers of the under-specified problems differed between the two mental representations. The results challenge assumptions made by mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery.

Jan FrederikSima

2013-05-01

5

Sparse Approximation of Images Inspired from the Functional Architecture of the Primary Visual Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several drawbacks of critically sampled wavelets can be solved by overcomplete multiresolution transforms and sparse approximation algorithms. Facing the difficulty to optimize such nonorthogonal and nonlinear transforms, we implement a sparse approximation scheme inspired from the functional architecture of the primary visual cortex. The scheme models simple and complex cell receptive fields through log-Gabor wavelets. The model also incorporates inhibition and facilitation interactions between neighboring cells. Functionally these interactions allow to extract edges and ridges, providing an edge-based approximation of the visual information. The edge coefficients are shown sufficient for closely reconstructing the images, while contour representations by means of chains of edges reduce the information redundancy for approaching image compression. Additionally, the ability to segregate the edges from the noise is employed for image restoration.

Perrinet Laurent

2007-01-01

6

Visual classification with multitask joint sparse representation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We address the problem of visual classification with multiple features and/or multiple instances. Motivated by the recent success of multitask joint covariate selection, we formulate this problem as a multitask joint sparse representation model to combine the strength of multiple features and/or instances for recognition. A joint sparsity-inducing norm is utilized to enforce class-level joint sparsity patterns among the multiple representation vectors. The proposed model can be efficiently optimized by a proximal gradient method. Furthermore, we extend our method to the setup where features are described in kernel matrices. We then investigate into two applications of our method to visual classification: 1) fusing multiple kernel features for object categorization and 2) robust face recognition in video with an ensemble of query images. Extensive experiments on challenging real-world data sets demonstrate that the proposed method is competitive to the state-of-the-art methods in respective applications. PMID:22736645

Yuan, Xiao-Tong; Liu, Xiaobai; Yan, Shuicheng

2012-10-01

7

Visual texture accurate material appearance measurement, representation and modeling  

CERN Document Server

This book surveys the state of the art in multidimensional, physically-correct visual texture modeling. Features: reviews the entire process of texture synthesis, including material appearance representation, measurement, analysis, compression, modeling, editing, visualization, and perceptual evaluation; explains the derivation of the most common representations of visual texture, discussing their properties, advantages, and limitations; describes a range of techniques for the measurement of visual texture, including BRDF, SVBRDF, BTF and BSSRDF; investigates the visualization of textural info

Haindl, Michal

2013-01-01

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Deep neural networks rival the representation of primate IT cortex for core visual object recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primate visual system achieves remarkable visual object recognition performance even in brief presentations, and under changes to object exemplar, geometric transformations, and background variation (a.k.a. core visual object recognition). This remarkable performance is mediated by the representation formed in inferior temporal (IT) cortex. In parallel, recent advances in machine learning have led to ever higher performing models of object recognition using artificial deep neural networks (DNNs). It remains unclear, however, whether the representational performance of DNNs rivals that of the brain. To accurately produce such a comparison, a major difficulty has been a unifying metric that accounts for experimental limitations, such as the amount of noise, the number of neural recording sites, and the number of trials, and computational limitations, such as the complexity of the decoding classifier and the number of classifier training examples. In this work, we perform a direct comparison that corrects for these experimental limitations and computational considerations. As part of our methodology, we propose an extension of "kernel analysis" that measures the generalization accuracy as a function of representational complexity. Our evaluations show that, unlike previous bio-inspired models, the latest DNNs rival the representational performance of IT cortex on this visual object recognition task. Furthermore, we show that models that perform well on measures of representational performance also perform well on measures of representational similarity to IT, and on measures of predicting individual IT multi-unit responses. Whether these DNNs rely on computational mechanisms similar to the primate visual system is yet to be determined, but, unlike all previous bio-inspired models, that possibility cannot be ruled out merely on representational performance grounds. PMID:25521294

Cadieu, Charles F; Hong, Ha; Yamins, Daniel L K; Pinto, Nicolas; Ardila, Diego; Solomon, Ethan A; Majaj, Najib J; DiCarlo, James J

2014-12-01

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Acoustic Tactile Representation of Visual Information  

Science.gov (United States)

Our goal is to explore the use of hearing and touch to convey graphical and pictorial information to visually impaired people. Our focus is on dynamic, interactive display of visual information using existing, widely available devices, such as smart phones and tablets with touch sensitive screens. We propose a new approach for acoustic-tactile representation of visual signals that can be implemented on a touch screen and allows the user to actively explore a two-dimensional layout consisting of one or more objects with a finger or a stylus while listening to auditory feedback via stereo headphones. The proposed approach is acoustic-tactile because sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used for pointing and kinesthetic feedback. A static overlay of raised-dot tactile patterns can also be added. A key distinguishing feature of the proposed approach is the use of spatial sound (directional and distance cues) to facilitate the active exploration of the layout. We consider a variety of configurations for acoustic-tactile rendering of object size, shape, identity, and location, as well as for the overall perception of simple layouts and scenes. While our primary goal is to explore the fundamental capabilities and limitations of representing visual information in acoustic-tactile form, we also consider a number of relatively simple configurations that can be tied to specific applications. In particular, we consider a simple scene layout consisting of objects in a linear arrangement, each with a distinct tapping sound, which we compare to a ''virtual cane.'' We will also present a configuration that can convey a ''Venn diagram.'' We present systematic subjective experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed display for shape perception, object identification and localization, and 2-D layout perception, as well as the applications. Our experiments were conducted with visually blocked subjects. The results are evaluated in terms of accuracy and speed, and they demonstrate the advantages of spatial sound for guiding the scanning finger or pointer in shape perception, object localization, and layout exploration. We show that these advantages increase with the amount of detail (smaller object size) in the display. Our experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the state of the art in shape perception, including variable friction displays. We also demonstrate that, even though they are currently available only as static overlays, raised dot patterns provide the best shape rendition in terms of both the accuracy and speed. Our experiments with layout rendering and perception demonstrate that simultaneous representation of objects, using the most effective approaches for directionality and distance rendering, approaches the optimal performance level provided by visual layout perception. Finally, experiments with the virtual cane and Venn diagram configurations demonstrate that the proposed techniques can be used effectively in simple but nontrivial real-world applications. One of the most important conclusions of our experiments is that there is a clear performance gap between experienced and inexperienced subjects, which indicates that there is a lot of room for improvement with appropriate and extensive training. By exploring a wide variety of design alternatives and focusing on different aspects of the acoustic-tactile interfaces, our results offer many valuable insights and great promise for the design of future systematic tests visually impaired and visually blocked subjects, utilizing the most effective configurations.

Silva, Pubudu Madhawa

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String-inspired representations of photon/gluon amplitudes  

CERN Document Server

The string-based Bern-Kosower rules provide an efficient way for obtaining parameter integral representations of the one-loop N - photon/gluon amplitudes involving a scalar, spinor or gluon loop, starting from a master formula and using a certain integration-by-parts (`IBP') procedure. Strassler observed that this algorithm also relates to gauge invariance, since it leads to the absorption of polarization vectors into field strength tensors. Here we present a systematic IBP algorithm that works for arbitrary N and leads to an integrand that is not only suitable for the application of the Bern-Kosower rules but also optimized with respect to gauge invariance. In the photon case this means manifest transversality at the integrand level, in the gluon case that a form factor decomposition of the amplitude into transversal and longitudinal parts is generated naturally by the IBP, without the necessity to consider the nonabelian Ward identities. Our algorithm is valid off-shell, and provides an extremely efficient ...

Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Villanueva, Victor M

2012-01-01

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Fundamentals of Guidelines for Visual Representation of Information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information visualization is a computer-assisted method for data representation. By processing the information into a visual framework, it enables the user to observe, browse, receive and understand information. Information visualization is a new research field that concentrates on using visualizing techniques towards helping people understand and analyze data. The fundamentals of visualization includes GUI design, Computer Graphics, HCI, cognitive theories and graphic design. Based on Schnei...

Friborz Doroudi

2008-01-01

12

Constructing visual representations : investigating the use of tangible tokens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations and during their analytic activities. We conclude by suggesting implications for tool design to enable broader support for infovis authoring.

Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne

2014-01-01

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The visual analog: evidence for a preattentive representation across saccades.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earlier research supports the idea that transsaccadic memory involves a relatively sparse and abstract representation with little detail, much like visual short-term memory (VSTM) within a fixation. We examined whether transsaccadic memory is restricted to VSTM representations or whether it also includes a maskable, short-lived, and more detailed representation, referred to as the visual analog. First, a within-fixation change detection experiment is reported, aimed at clarifying the distinction between VSTM and the visual analog, and also the relationship between the two components. We then report 4 transsaccadic change detection experiments that make use of a modified version of the blanking paradigm originally introduced by H. Deubel, W. X. Schneider, and B. Bridgeman (1996). The results support the idea that transsaccadic memory includes a VSTM representation for attended objects (i.e., the saccade target) and a visual analog component for both attended and non-attended objects. PMID:20884474

Germeys, Filip; De Graef, Peter; Van Eccelpoel, Caroline; Verfaillie, Karl

2010-01-01

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Fundamentals of Guidelines for Visual Representation of Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information visualization is a computer-assisted method for data representation. By processing the information into a visual framework, it enables the user to observe, browse, receive and understand information. Information visualization is a new research field that concentrates on using visualizing techniques towards helping people understand and analyze data. The fundamentals of visualization includes GUI design, Computer Graphics, HCI, cognitive theories and graphic design. Based on Schneiderman’s classification, information visualization includes one, two, three ad multidimensional as well as time-based, hierarchical and network data.

Friborz Doroudi

2008-07-01

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Visual Scene Representations: Sufficiency, Minimality, Invariance and Approximations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual representations are functions of visual data that are minimal sufficient statistics for a class of tasks and maximally invariant to nuisance variability. Minimal sufficiency guarantees that we can store the statistic in lieu of the raw data with no performance loss and smallest complexity. Maximal invariance guarantees that the statistic is constant with respect to unwanted transformations of the data, and nothing else. We derive an expression for such representations...

Soatto, Stefano

2014-01-01

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Educating "The Simpsons": Teaching Queer Representations in Contemporary Visual Media  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyzes queer representation in contemporary visual media and examines how the episode "Homer's Phobia" from Matt Groening's animation series "The Simpsons" can be used to deconstruct hetero- and homo-sexual codes of behavior, socialization, articulation, representation and visibility. The analysis is contextualized in the…

Padva, Gilad

2008-01-01

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Visual Attention: from Bio-Inspired Modeling to Real-Time Implementation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual Attention: From Bio-Inspired Modeling to Visual attention is the ability of a vision system, be it biological or artificial, to rapidly select the most salient and thus the most relevant data about the environment in which the system is operating. The main goal of this visual mechanism is to drastically reduce the amount of visual information that must be processed by high level and thus complex tasks, such as object recognition, which leads to a considerable speed up of the entire vis...

Ouerhani, Nabil; Hu?gli, Heinz

2004-01-01

18

Inspire  

CERN Document Server

Inspire is the project name of a new High Energy Physics information system which will integrate present databases and repositories to host the entire corpus of the HEP literature and become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It is a common project between CERN, DESY, FERMILAB and SLAC. It will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research; enable novel text- and data-mining applications; deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the Web2.0 paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences with community-based approaches to the peer-review process.

CERN. Geneva

2008-01-01

19

Visual recognition based on discriminative and collaborative representation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a low computation complexity, yet very efficient representation of image for visual recognition tasks is presented. The collaborative representation and discriminative ingredient are combined in a unified framework. The coefficients of collaborative representation of test samples are sparse and robust to occlusion or other disguises. It is known that in the recognition or classification tasks, the discriminative model is also very important. The proposed model has two-fold advantages. It can represent the test sample well using redundant representation with sparsity and robust to disguises. On the other hand, the representation coefficients are generated with more discriminative information. It is very helpful for visual recognition issues. The point is that the l 2 norm can achieve comparable performance to the l 1 norm with simple implementation. Experimental evaluations on some benchmarks indicate that the proposed method could achieve impressive performances in terms of accuracy and efficiency with other existing works.

Xiang, Fengtao; Wang, Zhengzhi; Liu, Hongfu

2014-11-01

20

Bio-inspired nano-sensor-enhanced CNN visual computer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanotechnology opens new ways to utilize recent discoveries in biological image processing by translating the underlying functional concepts into the design of CNN (cellular neural/nonlinear network)-based systems incorporating nanoelectronic devices. There is a natural intersection joining studies of retinal processing, spatio-temporal nonlinear dynamics embodied in CNN, and the possibility of miniaturizing the technology through nanotechnology. This intersection serves as the springboard for our multidisciplinary project. Biological feature and motion detectors map directly into the spatio-temporal dynamics of CNN for target recognition, image stabilization, and tracking. The neural interactions underlying color processing will drive the development of nanoscale multispectral sensor arrays for image fusion. Implementing such nanoscale sensors on a CNN platform will allow the implementation of device feedback control, a hallmark of biological sensory systems. These biologically inspired CNN subroutines are incorporated into the new world of analog-and-logic algorithms and software, containing also many other active-wave computing mechanisms, including nature-inspired (physics and chemistry) as well as PDE-based sophisticated spatio-temporal algorithms. Our goal is to design and develop several miniature prototype devices for target detection, navigation, tracking, and robotics. This paper presents an example illustrating the synergies emerging from the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and cognitive science. PMID:15194609

Porod, Wolfgang; Werblin, Frank; Chua, Leon O; Roska, Tamas; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel; Roska, Botond; Fay, Patrick; Bernstein, Gary H; Huang, Yih-Fang; Csurgay, Arpad I

2004-05-01

 
 
 
 
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The Perception of Visual Uncertainty Representation by Non-Experts.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested how non-experts judge point probability for seven different visual representations of uncertainty, using a case from an unfamiliar domain. Participants (n=140) rated the probability that the boundary between two earth layers passed through a given point, for seven different visualizations of the positional uncertainty of the boundary. For all types of visualizations, most observers appear to construct an internal model of the uncertainty distribution that closely resembles a normal distribution. However, the visual form of the uncertainty range (i.e., the visualization type) affects this internal model and the internal model relates to participants' numeracy. We conclude that perceived certainty is affected by its visual representation. In a follow-up experiment we found no indications that the absence (or presence) of a prominent center line in the visualization affects the internal model. We discuss if and how our results inform which visual representation is most suitable for representing uncertainty and make suggestions for future work. PMID:24166614

Tak, Susanne; Toet, Alexander; van Erp, Jan

2013-10-25

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Optimizing the representation of orientation preference maps in visual cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The colorful representation of orientation preference maps in primary visual cortex has become iconic. However, the standard representation is misleading because it uses a color mapping to indicate orientations based on the HSV (hue, saturation, value) color space, for which important perceptual features such as brightness, and not just hue, vary among orientations. This means that some orientations stand out more than others, conveying a distorted visual impression. This is particularly problematic for visualizing subtle biases caused by slight overrepresentation of some orientations due to, for example, stripe rearing. We show that displaying orientation maps with a color mapping based on a slightly modified version of the HCL (hue, chroma, lightness) color space, so that primarily only hue varies between orientations, leads to a more balanced visual impression. This makes it easier to perceive the true structure of this seminal example of functional brain architecture. PMID:25380336

Hughes, Nicholas J; Goodhill, Geoffrey J

2015-01-01

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Visual Representation Determines Search Difficulty: Explaining Visual Search Asymmetries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In visual search experiments there exist a variety of experimental paradigms in which a symmetric set of experimental conditions yields asymmetric corresponding task performance. There are a variety of examples of this that currently lack a satisfactory explanation. In this paper, we demonstrate that distinct classes of asymmetries may be explained by virtue of a few simple conditions that are consistent with current thinking surrounding computational modeling of visual search and coding in the primate brain. This includes a detailed look at the role that stimulus familiarity plays in the determination of search performance. Overall, we demonstrate that all of these asymmetries have a common origin, namely, they are a consequence of the encoding that appears in the visual cortex. The analysis associated with these cases yields insight into the problem of visual search in general and predictions of novel search asymmetries.

NeilBruce

2011-07-01

24

Humans and monkeys share visual representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conceptual abilities in animals have been shown at several levels of abstraction, but it is unclear whether the analogy with humans results from convergent evolution or from shared brain mechanisms inherited from a common origin. Macaque monkeys can access “non-similarity–based concepts,” such as when sorting pictures containing a superordinate target category (animal, tree, etc.) among other scenes. However, such performances could result from low-level visual processing based on learn...

Fize, Denis; Cauchoix, Maxime; Fabre-thorpe, Miche?le

2011-01-01

25

Visualizing spin states using the spin coherent state representation  

Science.gov (United States)

Orbital angular momentum eigenfunctions are readily understood in terms of spherical harmonics. However, the quantum mechanical phenomenon of spin is often said to be mysterious and hard to visualize, with no classical analog. Many textbooks give a heuristic and somewhat unsatisfying picture of a precessing spin vector. Here, we show that the spin-coherent-state representation is a striking, elegant, and mathematically meaningful tool for visualizing spin states. We also demonstrate that cartographic projections such as the Hammer projection are useful for visualizing functions defined on spherical surfaces.

Lee Loh, Yen; Kim, Monica

2015-01-01

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Data Representations, Transformations, and Statistics for Visual Reasoning  

CERN Document Server

Analytical reasoning techniques are methods by which users explore their data to obtain insight and knowledge that can directly support situational awareness and decision making. Recently, the analytical reasoning process has been augmented through the use of interactive visual representations and tools which utilize cognitive, design and perceptual principles. These tools are commonly referred to as visual analytics tools, and the underlying methods and principles have roots in a variety of disciplines. This chapter provides an introduction to young researchers as an overview of common visual

Maciejewski, Ross

2011-01-01

27

Learning STEM Through Integrative Visual Representations  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous cognitive models of memory have not comprehensively taken into account the internal cognitive load of chunking isolated information and have emphasized the external cognitive load of visual presentation only. Under the Virk Long Term Working Memory Multimedia Model of cognitive load, drawing from the Cowan model, students presented with integrated animations of the key neural signal transmission subcomponents where the interrelationships between subcomponents are visually and verbally explicit, were hypothesized to perform significantly better on free response and diagram labeling questions, than students presented with isolated animations of these subcomponents. This is because the internal attentional cognitive load of chunking these concepts is greatly reduced and hence the overall cognitive load is less for the integrated visuals group than the isolated group, despite the higher external load for the integrated group of having the interrelationships between subcomponents presented explicitly. Experiment 1 demonstrated that integrating the subcomponents of the neuron significantly enhanced comprehension of the interconnections between cellular subcomponents and approached significance for enhancing comprehension of the layered molecular correlates of the cellular structures and their interconnections. Experiment 2 corrected time on task confounds from Experiment 1 and focused on the cellular subcomponents of the neuron only. Results from the free response essay subcomponent subscores did demonstrate significant differences in favor of the integrated group as well as some evidence from the diagram labeling section. Results from free response, short answer and What-If (problem solving), and diagram labeling detailed interrelationship subscores demonstrated the integrated group did indeed learn the extra material they were presented with. This data demonstrating the integrated group learned the extra material they were presented with provides some initial support for the assertion that chunking mediated the greater gains in learning for the neural subcomponent concepts over the control.

Virk, Satyugjit Singh

28

Lenses – Light, Bodies and Representations. A paper on the optical device that enables visual perception through representation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

I will discuss the many unique lenses available to visual anthropological research and how a nuanced and differentiated view on them can be the key to understanding the complexity of the representations we, as visual anthropologist, are creating.

Rehder, Mads

29

Object class recognition based on compressive sensing with sparse features inspired by hierarchical model in visual cortex  

Science.gov (United States)

According to models of object recognition in cortex, the brain uses a hierarchical approach in which simple, low-level features having high position and scale specificity are pooled and combined into more complex, higher-level features having greater location invariance. At higher levels, spatial structure becomes implicitly encoded into the features themselves, which may overlap, while explicit spatial information is coded more coarsely. In this paper, the importance of sparsity and localized patch features in a hierarchical model inspired by visual cortex is investigated. As in the model of Serre, Wolf, and Poggio, we first apply Gabor filters at all positions and scales; feature complexity and position/scale invariance are then built up by alternating template matching and max pooling operations. In order to improve generalization performance, the sparsity is proposed and data dimension is reduced by means of compressive sensing theory and sparse representation algorithm. Similarly, within computational neuroscience, adding the sparsity on the number of feature inputs and feature selection is critical for learning biologically model from the statistics of natural images. Then, a redundancy dictionary of patch-based features that could distinguish object class from other categories is designed and then object recognition is implemented by the process of iterative optimization. The method is test on the UIUC car database. The success of this approach suggests a proof for the object class recognition in visual cortex.

Lu, Pei; Xu, Zhiyong; Yu, Huapeng; Chang, Yongxin; Fu, Chengyu; Shao, Jianxin

2012-11-01

30

Robust Visual Tracking via Appearance Modeling and Sparse Representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When appearance variation of object, partial occlusion or illumination change in object images occurs, most existing tracking approaches fail to track the target effectively. To deal with the problem, this paper proposed a robust visual tracking method based on appearance modeling and sparse representation. The proposed method exploits two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA with sparse representation theory for constructing appearance model. Then tracking is achieved by Bayesian inference framework, in which a particle filter is applied to evaluate the target state sequentially over time. In addition, to make the observation model more robust, the incremental learning algorithm is used to update the template set. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations on four publicly available benchmark video sequences demonstrate that the proposed visual tracking algorithm performs better than several state-of-the-art algorithms.

Ming Li

2014-07-01

31

Novice Interpretations of Visual Representations of Geosciences Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Past cognition research of individual's perception and comprehension of bar and line graphs are substantive enough that they have resulted in the generation of graph design principles and graph comprehension theories; however, gaps remain in our understanding of how people process visual representations of data, especially of geologic and atmospheric data. This pilot project serves to build on others' prior research and begin filling the existing gaps. The primary objectives of this pilot project include: (i) design a novel data collection protocol based on a combination of paper-based surveys, think-aloud interviews, and eye-tracking tasks to investigate student data handling skills of simple to complex visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data, (ii) demonstrate that the protocol yields results that shed light on student data handling skills, and (iii) generate preliminary findings upon which tentative but perhaps helpful recommendations on how to more effectively present these data to the non-scientist community and teach essential data handling skills. An effective protocol for the combined use of paper-based surveys, think-aloud interviews, and computer-based eye-tracking tasks for investigating cognitive processes involved in perceiving, comprehending, and interpreting visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data is instrumental to future research in this area. The outcomes of this pilot study provide the foundation upon which future more in depth and scaled up investigations can build. Furthermore, findings of this pilot project are sufficient for making, at least, tentative recommendations that can help inform (i) the design of physical attributes of visual representations of data, especially more complex representations, that may aid in improving students' data handling skills and (ii) instructional approaches that have the potential to aid students in more effectively handling visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data that they might encounter in a course, television news, newspapers and magazines, and websites. Such recommendations would also be the potential subject of future investigations and have the potential to impact the design features when data is presented to the public and instructional strategies not only in geoscience courses but also other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses.

Burkemper, L. K.; Arthurs, L.

2013-12-01

32

Reduced representations capacity in visual working memory in trait anxiety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neural processes that support individual differences in trait anxiety and the amount of representations in visual-spatial working memory (WM) are currently unclear. We measured the contralateral delay activity (CDA) in a lateralized change detection task to explore this question. Different levels of memory load were varied within each block. Despite their unimpaired behavioral performance, individuals with high traitanxious(HTA) displayed several changes in the neuronal markers of the memory processes. The CDA amplitudes reached asymptote at loads of three and four items for HTA and low traitanxious(LTA) individuals, respectively. This result indicates that HTA individuals reach the upper limit of representation capacity with a smaller memory load than LTA individuals. Furthermore, the smaller CDA amplitudes in HTA individuals under high memory loads could be attributed to less contralateral cortical activity, which further indicates that HTA individuals are associated with reduced representations of taskrelevantitems in WM. PMID:25157423

Qi, Senqing; Chen, Jie; Hitchman, Glenn; Zeng, Qinghong; Ding, Cody; Li, Hong; Hu, Weiping

2014-12-01

33

Learning Visual Representations for Perception-Action Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We discuss vision as a sensory modality for systems that effect actions in response to perceptions. While the internal representations informed by vision may be arbitrarily complex, we argue that in many cases it is advantageous to link them rather directly to action via learned mappings. These arguments are illustrated by two examples of our own work. First, our RLVC algorithm performs reinforcement learning directly on the visual input space. To make this very large space manageable, RLVC interleaves the reinforcement learner with a supervised classification algorithm that seeks to split perceptual states so as to reduce perceptual aliasing. This results in an adaptive discretization of the perceptual space based on the presence or absence of visual features. Its extension RLJC also handles continuous action spaces. In contrast to the minimalistic visual representations produced by RLVC and RLJC, our second method learns structural object models for robust object detection and pose estimation by probabilistic inference. To these models, the method associates grasp experiences autonomously learned by trial and error. These experiences form a nonparametric representation of grasp success likelihoods over gripper poses, which we call a grasp density. Thus, object detection in a novel scene simultaneously produces suitable grasping options.

Piater, Justus; Jodogne, Sebastien

2011-01-01

34

A neuron-inspired computational architecture for spatiotemporal visual processing: real-time visual sensory integration for humanoid robots.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we present a neurologically motivated computational architecture for visual information processing. The computational architecture's focus lies in multiple strategies: hierarchical processing, parallel and concurrent processing, and modularity. The architecture is modular and expandable in both hardware and software, so that it can also cope with multisensory integrations - making it an ideal tool for validating and applying computational neuroscience models in real time under real-world conditions. We apply our architecture in real time to validate a long-standing biologically inspired visual object recognition model, HMAX. In this context, the overall aim is to supply a humanoid robot with the ability to perceive and understand its environment with a focus on the active aspect of real-time spatiotemporal visual processing. We show that our approach is capable of simulating information processing in the visual cortex in real time and that our entropy-adaptive modification of HMAX has a higher efficiency and classification performance than the standard model (up to ?+6%). PMID:24687170

Holzbach, Andreas; Cheng, Gordon

2014-06-01

35

Visualization Through Knowledge Representation Model for Social Networks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge management is a systematic and organizationally specified process and knowledge management system is all those technological components; software, hardware, people and processes supporting knowledge management initiative. These initiatives includes work flow maps, web sites, portals, document/team management system, data warehouses, data mining processes, databases, contact lists, virtual teams, collaboration tools, customer relationship management, applications and news (Davenport and Prusak 1998, Jashapara 2004). Knowledge is not important per se (Agostini et al 2003) instead the process of knowing, learning and creating knowledge is the relevant aspect (Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995). In this paper knowledge representation is presented in 3D style for the understanding and visualization of dynamics of complex social networks by developing a TANetworkTool (Task Analysis Network Tool). The standard or normal representation of a typical social network is through a graph data structure in 2D. The dynamics of larger social networks is so complex some time it becomes difficult to understand the various levels of interactions and dependencies just by mere representation through a tree or graph. Although, many analytical methods provide relationship dependencies, role of different nodes and their importance in the network. In this paper we are presenting a visualization of networks by rotating the network through various dimensions to provide a more realistic view to understand the dynamics of complex social networks and complimenting the analytical results. This representation can also help authorities not necessarily having specific scientific background to understand and perhaps take preventive actions required in certain specific scenarios for example dealing with terrorist/covert networks.

Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Athar Javed, Muhammad

2011-01-01

36

Sparse representation-based color visualization method for hyperspectral imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we designed a color visualization model for sparse representation of the whole hyperspectral image, in which, not only the spectral information in the sparse representation but also the spatial information of the whole image is retained. After the sparse representation, the color labels of the effective elements of the sparse coding dictionary are selected according to the sparse coefficient and then the mixed images are displayed. The generated images maintain spectral distance preservation and have good separability. For local ground objects, the proposed single-pixel mixed array and improved oriented sliver textures methods are integrated to display the specific composition of each pixel. This avoids the confusion of the color presentation in the mixed-pixel color display and can also be used to reconstruct the original hyperspectral data. Finally, the model effectiveness was proved using real data. This method is promising and can find use in many fields, such as energy exploration, environmental monitoring, disaster warning, and so on.

Wang, Li-Guo; Liu, Dan-Feng; Zhao, Liang

2013-06-01

37

Reading visual representations of 'Ndabeni' in the public realms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay outlines and analyses contemporary image representations of Ndabeni (also called kwa-Ndabeni, a location near Cape Town where a group of people became confined between 1901 and 1936 following an outbreak of the bubonic plague in the city. This location was to shape Cape Town's landscape for a little less that thirty-five years, accommodating people who were forcibly removed from the Cape Town docklands and from District Six. Images representing this place have been produced, archived, recovered, modified, reproduced and circulated in different ways and contexts. Ndabeni has become public knowledge through public visual representations that have been produced across a range of sites in post-apartheid Cape Town. I focus on three sites: the Victoria and Alfred Waterfront, the District Six Museum, and the Eziko Restaurant and Catering School. In each case I analyse the processes through which the Ndabeni images in question have been used and reused over time in changing contexts. I analyse the 'modalities' in which these images have been composed, interpreted and employed and in which knowledge has been mediated. I explore the contents and contexts of the storyboards and exhibition panels that purport to represent Ndabeni. Finally, I discuss potential meanings that could be constructed if the images could be read independent of the texts.

Sipokazi Sambumbu

2010-11-01

38

Reading visual representations of 'Ndabeni' in the public realms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This essay outlines and analyses contemporary image representations of Ndabeni (also called kwa-Ndabeni), a location near Cape Town where a group of people became confined between 1901 and 1936 following an outbreak of the bubonic plague in the city. This location was to shape Cape Town's landscape [...] for a little less that thirty-five years, accommodating people who were forcibly removed from the Cape Town docklands and from District Six. Images representing this place have been produced, archived, recovered, modified, reproduced and circulated in different ways and contexts. Ndabeni has become public knowledge through public visual representations that have been produced across a range of sites in post-apartheid Cape Town. I focus on three sites: the Victoria and Alfred Waterfront, the District Six Museum, and the Eziko Restaurant and Catering School. In each case I analyse the processes through which the Ndabeni images in question have been used and reused over time in changing contexts. I analyse the 'modalities' in which these images have been composed, interpreted and employed and in which knowledge has been mediated. I explore the contents and contexts of the storyboards and exhibition panels that purport to represent Ndabeni. Finally, I discuss potential meanings that could be constructed if the images could be read independent of the texts.

Sipokazi, Sambumbu.

2010-11-01

39

Auto-grouped Sparse Representation for Visual Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In image classification, recognition or retrieval systems, image contents are commonly described by global features. However, the global features generally contain noise from the background, occlusion or irrelevant objects in the images. Thus, only part of the global feature elements are informative for describing the objects of interest and useful for the image analysis tasks. In this work, we propose algorithms to automatically discover the subgroups of highly correlated feature elements within predefined global features. To this end, we first propose a novel mixture sparse regression (MSR) method which groups the elements of a single vector according to the membership conveyed by their sparse regression coefficients. Based on MSR, we proceed to develop the auto-grouped sparse representation (ASR), which groups correlated feature elements together through fusing their individual sparse representations over multiple samples. We apply ASR/MSR in two practical visual analysis tasks: multi-label image classification and motion segmentation. Comprehensive experimental evaluations show that our proposed methods are able to achieve superior performance compared with the stateof- the-arts on these two tasks. PMID:25312925

Feng, Jiashi; Yuan, Xiao-Tong; Wang, Zilei; Xu, Huan; Yan, Shuicheng

2014-10-01

40

A summary statistic representation in peripheral vision explains visual search.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vision is an active process: We repeatedly move our eyes to seek out objects of interest and explore our environment. Visual search experiments capture aspects of this process, by having subjects look for a target within a background of distractors. Search speed often correlates with target-distractor discriminability; search is faster when the target and distractors look quite different. However, there are notable exceptions. A given discriminability can yield efficient searches (where the target seems to "pop-out") as well as inefficient ones (where additional distractors make search significantly slower and more difficult). Search is often more difficult when finding the target requires distinguishing a particular configuration or conjunction of features. Search asymmetries abound. These puzzling results have fueled three decades of theoretical and experimental studies. We argue that the key issue in search is the processing of image patches in the periphery, where visual representation is characterized by summary statistics computed over a sizable pooling region. By quantifying these statistics, we predict a set of classic search results, as well as peripheral discriminability of crowded patches such as those found in search displays. PMID:22523401

Rosenholtz, Ruth; Huang, Jie; Raj, Alvin; Balas, Benjamin J; Ilie, Livia

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Navigation in an autonomous flying robot by using a biologically inspired visual odometer  

Science.gov (United States)

While mobile robots and walking insects can use proprioceptive information (specialized receptors in the insects' leg, or wheel encoders in robots) to estimate distance traveled, flying agents have to rely mainly on visual cues. Experiments with bees provide evidence that flying insects might be using optical flow induced by egomotion to estimate distance traveled. Recently some details of this odometer have been unraveled. In this study, we propose a biologically inspired model of the bee's visual odometer based on Elementary Motion Detectors (EMDs), and present results from goal-directed navigation experiments with an autonomous flying robot platform that we developed specifically for this purpose. The robot is equipped with a panoramic vision system, which is used to provide input to the EMDs of the left and right visual fields. The outputs of the EMDs are in later stage spatially integrated by wide field motion detectors, and their accumulated response is directly used for the odometer. In a set of initial experiments, the robot moves through a corridor on a fixed route, and the outputs of EMDs, the odometer, are recorded. The results show that the proposed model can be used to provide an estimate of the distance traveled, but the performance depends on the route the robot follows, something which is biologically plausible since natural insects tend to adopt a fixed route during foraging. Given these results, we assumed that the optomotor response plays an important role in the context of goal-directed navigation, and we conducted experiments with an autonomous freely flying robot. The experiments demonstrate that this computationally cheap mechanism can be successfully employed in natural indoor environments.

Iida, Fumiya; Lambrinos, Dimitrios

2000-10-01

42

Lewis-inspired representation of dissociable water in clusters and Grotthuss chains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Proton transfer to and from water is critical to the function of water in many settings. However, it has been challenging to model. Here, we present proof-of-principle for an efficient yet robust model based on Lewis-inspired submolecular particles with interactions that deviate from Coulombic at short distances to take quantum effects into account. This “LEWIS” model provides excellent correspondence with experimental structures for water molecules and water clusters in their neutral, pr...

Kale, Seyit; Herzfeld, Judith; Dai, Stacy; Blank, Michael

2011-01-01

43

Occupational therapy intervention to inspire self-efficacy in a patient with spinal ataxia and visual disturbance.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of a patient with severe ataxia and visual disturbance due to vitamin E deficiency, whose self-efficacy was inspired by intervention with an appropriate occupational therapy activity. Before the handloom intervention, her severe neurological deficits decreased her activities of daily living (ADL) ability, which made her feel pessimistic and depressed. The use of a handloom, however, inspired her sense of accomplishment because she could perform the weft movement by using her residual physical function, thereby relieving her pessimistic attitude. This perception of capability motivated her to participate in further rehabilitation. Finally, her eager practice enhanced her ADL ability and quality of life (QOL). The result suggests that it is important to provide an appropriate occupational therapy activity that can inspire self-efficacy in patients with chronic refractory neurological disorders because the perception of capability can enhance the motivation to improve performance in general activities, ADL ability and QOL. PMID:25666249

Tohyama, Satsuki; Usuki, Fusako

2015-01-01

44

Computational intelligence in multi-feature visual pattern recognition hand posture and face recognition using biologically inspired approaches  

CERN Document Server

This book presents a collection of computational intelligence algorithms that addresses issues in visual pattern recognition such as high computational complexity, abundance of pattern features, sensitivity to size and shape variations and poor performance against complex backgrounds. The book has 3 parts. Part 1 describes various research issues in the field with a survey of the related literature. Part 2 presents computational intelligence based algorithms for feature selection and classification. The algorithms are discriminative and fast. The main application area considered is hand posture recognition. The book also discusses utility of these algorithms in other visual as well as non-visual pattern recognition tasks including face recognition, general object recognition and cancer / tumor classification. Part 3 presents biologically inspired algorithms for feature extraction. The visual cortex model based features discussed have invariance with respect to appearance and size of the hand, and provide good...

Pisharady, Pramod Kumar; Poh, Loh Ai

2014-01-01

45

"Radio-Active" Learning: Visual Representation of Radioactive Decay Using Dice  

Science.gov (United States)

The idea of using a dice game to simulate radioactive decay is not new. However, modern pedagogy encourages, if not requires, us to provide multiple representations and visualizations for our students. The advantage of interactive engagement methods also has been made clear. Here we describe a highly visual and interactive use of dice to develop…

Klein, Lynda; Kagan, David

2010-01-01

46

Evaluation of multidimensional visualization techniques for medical patterns representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are many techniques of multidimensional data visualization. Part of them was built for a specific purpose, while another part is very general. In case of the former, the selection of appropriate technique is straight forward, for the latter the selection is not always obvious. In certain simplification, selecting the most appropriated technique depends on the data which are visualized and the task that needs to be performed by the user over the visualization. This study is focused on ev...

Tomasz Rze?niczak

2013-01-01

47

Evaluation of multidimensional visualization techniques for medical patterns representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many techniques of multidimensional data visualization. Part of them was built for a specific purpose, while another part is very general. In case of the former, the selection of appropriate technique is straight forward, for the latter the selection is not always obvious. In certain simplification, selecting the most appropriated technique depends on the data which are visualized and the task that needs to be performed by the user over the visualization. This study is focused on evaluation of known visualization techniques for their applicability to a well-defined task and data set. The data set consist of medical patterns representing human diseases and their symptoms as an object-attribute data model. The task is to facilitate recognition of a disease by visualizing the reference medical patterns and the data of patient’s condition.

Tomasz Rze?niczak

2013-04-01

48

Multi-voxel patterns of visual category representation during episodic encoding are predictive of subsequent memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Successful encoding of episodic memories is thought to depend on contributions from prefrontal and temporal lobe structures. Neural processes that contribute to successful encoding have been extensively explored through univariate analyses of neuroimaging data that compare mean activity levels elicited during the encoding of events that are subsequently remembered vs. those subsequently forgotten. Here, we applied pattern classification to fMRI data to assess the degree to which distributed patterns of activity within prefrontal and temporal lobe structures elicited during the encoding of word-image pairs were diagnostic of the visual category (Face or Scene) of the encoded image. We then assessed whether representation of category information was predictive of subsequent memory. Classification analyses indicated that temporal lobe structures contained information robustly diagnostic of visual category. Information in prefrontal cortex was less diagnostic of visual category, but was nonetheless associated with highly reliable classifier-based evidence for category representation. Critically, trials associated with greater classifier-based estimates of category representation in temporal and prefrontal regions were associated with a higher probability of subsequent remembering. Finally, consideration of trial-by-trial variance in classifier-based measures of category representation revealed positive correlations between prefrontal and temporal lobe representations, with the strength of these correlations varying as a function of the category of image being encoded. Together, these results indicate that multi-voxel representations of encoded information can provide unique insights into how visual experiences are transformed into episodic memories. PMID:21925190

Kuhl, Brice A; Rissman, Jesse; Wagner, Anthony D

2012-03-01

49

Population coding of visual space: comparison of spatial representations in the dorsal and ventral pathways  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the representation of space is as fundamental to visual processing as the representation of shape, it has received relatively little attention from neurophysiological investigations. In this study we characterize representations of space within visual cortex, and examine how they differ in a first direct comparison between dorsal and ventral subdivisions of the visual pathways. Neural activities were recorded in anterior inferotemporal cortex (AIT and lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP of awake behaving monkeys, structures associated with the ventral and dorsal visual pathways respectively, as a stimulus was presented at different locations within the visual field. In spatially selective cells, we find greater modulation of cell responses in LIP with changes in stimulus position. Further, using a novel population-based statistical approach (namely, multidimensional scaling, we recover the spatial map implicit within activities of neural populations, allowing us to quantitatively compare the geometry of neural space with physical space. We show that a population of spatially selective LIP neurons, despite having large receptive fields, is able to almost perfectly reconstruct stimulus locations within a low-dimensional representation. In contrast, a population of AIT neurons, despite each cell being spatially selective, provide less accurate low-dimensional reconstructions of stimulus locations. They produce instead only a topologically (categorically correct rendition of space, which nevertheless might be critical for object and scene recognition. Furthermore, we found that the spatial representation recovered from population activity shows greater translation invariance in LIP than in AIT. We suggest that LIP spatial representations may be dimensionally isomorphic with 3D physical space, while in AIT spatial representations may reflect a more categorical representation of space (e.g., “next to” or “above”.

AnneBSereno

2011-02-01

50

Visualization and Rule Validation in Human-Behavior Representation  

Science.gov (United States)

Human behavior representation (HBR) models simulate human behaviors and responses. The Joint Crowd Federate [TM] cognitive model developed by the Virginia Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation Center (VMASC) and licensed by WernerAnderson, Inc., models the cognitive behavior of crowds to provide credible crowd behavior in support of military…

Moya, Lisa Jean; McKenzie, Frederic D.; Nguyen, Quynh-Anh H.

2008-01-01

51

The ALEXIA SYSTEM : The Use of Visual representations to Enhance Vocabulary Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cognition-based arguments in support of using multimedia aids for the learning of vocabulary have so far offered only an imprecise, general framework. CALL experimentalists have also tried to establish the effectiveness of multimedia for vocabulary learning, but their attempts reveal that the underlying representations have not been clearly defined. After reviewing these points, we propose criteria for evaluating the quality of a visual representation in a lexical environment. These criteria ...

Chanier, Thierry; Selva, Thierry

1998-01-01

52

A review of visual memory capacity: Beyond individual items and towards structured representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional memory research has focused on identifying separate memory systems and exploring different stages of memory processing. This approach has been valuable for establishing a taxonomy of memory systems and characterizing their function, but has been less informative about the nature of stored memory representations. Recent research on visual memory has shifted towards a representation-based emphasis, focusing on the contents of memory, and attempting to determine the format and struct...

Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.

2011-01-01

53

Visual Representation of the Numeric Bioenvironmental Data Display of the International Space Station's Flight Surgeon Console  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Certain visual information displays can be better than others in conveying similar information [1,2,3]. Representational analysis was conducted to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the newly designed graphic data display of the numeric bioenvironmental data display currently used by the Biomedical Engineers (BMEs) to monitor the International Space Station's (ISS) environment. Results support the practical application of representational analysis in the design of relational information...

Rinkus, Susan; Gong, Yang

2002-01-01

54

A summary-statistic representation in peripheral vision explains visual crowding  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral vision provides a less faithful representation of the visual input than foveal vision. Nonetheless, we can gain a lot of information about the world from our peripheral vision, for example in order to plan eye movements. The phenomenon of crowding shows that the reduction of information available in the periphery is not merely the result of reduced resolution. Crowding refers to visual phenomena in which identification of a target stimulus is significantly impaired by the presence of nearby stimuli, or flankers. What information is available in the periphery? We propose that the visual system locally represents peripheral stimuli by the joint statistics of responses of cells sensitive to different position, phase, orientation, and scale. This “textural” representation by summary statistics predicts the subjective “jumble” of features often associated with crowding. We show that the difficulty of performing an identification task within a single pooling region using this representation of the stimuli is correlated with peripheral identification performance under conditions of crowding. Furthermore, for a simple stimulus with no flankers, this representation can be adequate to specify the stimulus with some position invariance. This provides evidence that a unified neuronal mechanism may underlie peripheral vision, ordinary pattern recognition in central vision, and texture perception. A key component of our methodology involves creating visualizations of the information available in the summary statistics of a stimulus. We call these visualizations “mongrels” and show that they are highly useful in examining how the early visual system represents the visual input. Mongrels enable one to study the “equivalence classes” of our model, i.e., the sets of stimuli that map to the same representation according to the model. PMID:20053104

Balas, Benjamin; Nakano, Lisa; Rosenholtz, Ruth

2010-01-01

55

Parsed and fixed block representations of visual information for image retrieval  

Science.gov (United States)

The theory of linguistics teaches us the existence of a hierarchical structure in linguistic expressions, from letter to word root, and on to word and sentences. By applying syntax and semantics beyond words, one can further recognize the grammatical relationship between among words and the meaning of a sequence of words. This layered view of a spoken language is useful for effective analysis and automated processing. Thus, it is interesting to ask if a similar hierarchy of representation of visual information does exist. A class of techniques that have a similar nature to the linguistic parsing is found in the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing scheme. Based on a new class of multidimensional incremental parsing algorithms extended from the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing, a new framework for image retrieval, which takes advantage of the source characterization property of the incremental parsing algorithm, was proposed recently. With the incremental parsing technique, a given image is decomposed into a number of patches, called a parsed representation. This representation can be thought of as a morphological interface between elementary pixel and a higher level representation. In this work, we examine the properties of two-dimensional parsed representation in the context of imagery information retrieval and in contrast to vector quantization; i.e. fixed square-block representations and minimum average distortion criteria. We implemented four image retrieval systems for the comparative study; three, called IPSILON image retrieval systems, use parsed representation with different perceptual distortion thresholds and one uses the convectional vector quantization for visual pattern analysis. We observe that different perceptual distortion in visual pattern matching does not have serious effects on the retrieval precision although allowing looser perceptual thresholds in image compression result poor reconstruction fidelity. We compare the effectiveness of the use of the parsed representations, as constructed under the latent semantic analysis (LSA) paradigm so as to investigate their varying capabilities in capturing semantic concepts. The result clearly demonstrates the superiority of the parsed representation.

Bae, Soo Hyun; Juang, Biing-Hwang

2009-02-01

56

07221 Executive Summary - Information Visualization - Human-Centered Issues in Visual Representation, Interaction, and Evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information Visualization (InfoVis) focuses on the use of visualization techniques to help people understand and analyze data. While related fields such as Scientific Visualization involve the presentation of data that has some physical or geometric correspondence, Information Visualization centers on abstract information without such correspondences. One important aim of this seminar was to bring together theoreticians and practitioners from Information Visualization and related fields a...

Kerren, Andreas; Stasko, John T.; Fekete, Jean-daniel; North, Chris

2007-01-01

57

SVEN: Informative Visual Representation of Complex Dynamic Structure  

CERN Document Server

Graphs change over time, and typically variations on the small multiples or animation pattern is used to convey this dynamism visually. However, both of these classical techniques have significant drawbacks, so a new approach, Storyline Visualization of Events on a Network (SVEN) is proposed. SVEN builds on storyline techniques, conveying nodes as contiguous lines over time. SVEN encodes time in a natural manner, along the horizontal axis, and optimizes the vertical placement of storylines to decrease clutter (line crossings, straightness, and bends) in the drawing. This paper demonstrates SVEN on several different flavors of real-world dynamic data, and outlines the remaining near-term future work.

Arendt, Dustin L

2014-01-01

58

North Korea and the politics of visual representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within international discourses on security, North Korea is often associated with risk and danger, emanating paradoxically from what can be called its strengths - particularly military strength, as embodied by its missile and nuclear programs - and its weaknesses - such as its ever-present political, economic, and food crises - which are considered to be imminent threats to international peace and stability. We argue that images play an important role in these representations, and suggest tha...

Shim, David; Nabers, Dirk

2011-01-01

59

Feature Integration and Object Representations along the Dorsal Stream Visual Hierarchy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The visual system is split into two processing streams: a ventral stream that receives color and form information and a dorsal stream that receives motion information. Each stream processes that information hierarchically, with each stage building upon the previous. In the ventral stream this leads to the formation of object representations that ultimately allow for object recognition regardless of changes in the surrounding environment. In the dorsal stream, this hierarchical processing has classically been thought to lead to the computation of complex motion in three dimensions. However, there is evidence to suggest that there is integration of both dorsal and ventral stream information into motion computation processes, giving rise to intermediate object representations, which facilitate object selection and decision making mechanisms in the dorsal stream. First we review the hierarchical processing of motion along the dorsal stream and the building up of object representations along the ventral stream. Then we discuss recent work on the integration of ventral and dorsal stream features that lead to intermediate object representations in the dorsal stream. Finally we propose a framework describing how and at what stage different features are integrated into dorsal visual stream object representations. Determining the integration of features along the dorsal stream is necessary to understand not only how the dorsal stream builds up an object representation but also which computations are performed on object representations instead of local features.

Carolyn Jeane Perry

2014-08-01

60

Visual Representations in Second Graders' Information Book Compositions  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the visuals second grade students included in their own information book compositions during a science unit on weather during which multimodal science trade books on the topic of weather were read aloud. First, the multimodal nature of the information books used in the unit are described. Second, the teacher's talk about…

Coleman, Julianne M.; Bradley, Linda Golson; Donovan, Carol A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Girls' Visual Representations of Literacy in a Rural Ugandan Community  

Science.gov (United States)

This Ugandan-based study examined how visual modes of communication provide insights into girls' perceptions of literacy, and open broader dialogues on literacy, women, and development. Twenty-nine primary school girls used drawing and 15 secondary school girls used photography to depict local literacy practices in relation to their own lives and…

Kendrick, Maureen; Jones, Shelley

2008-01-01

62

Visual Metaphors in the Representation of Communication Technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the role of metaphors (particularly visual metaphors) in communicating social values associated with new communication technology by analyzing magazine advertisements for computing and advanced telecommunications products and services. Finds that the "lever" and the "synthesis of old and new values" metaphors are dominant in both general…

Kaplan, Stuart Jay

1990-01-01

63

Ambiguous Science and the Visual Representation of the Real  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergence of visual media as prominent and even expected forms of communication in nearly all disciplines, including those scientific, has raised new questions about how the art and science of communication epistemologically affect the interpretation of scientific phenomena. In this dissertation I explore how the influence of aesthetics in…

Newbold, Curtis Robert

2012-01-01

64

Hierarchical representation of shapes in visual cortex - from localized features to figural shape segregation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visual structures in the environment are effortlessly segmented into image regions and those combined to a representation of surfaces and prototypical objects. Such a perceptual organization is performed by complex neural mechanisms in the visual cortex of primates. Multiple mutually connected areas in the ventral cortical pathway receive visual input and extract local form features that are subsequently grouped into increasingly complex, more meaningful image elements. At this stage, highly articulated changes in shape boundary as well as very subtle curvature changes contribute to the perception of an object.We propose a recurrent computational network architecture that utilizes a hierarchical distributed representation of shape features to encode boundary features over different scales of resolution. Our model makes use of neural mechanisms that model the processing capabilities of early and intermediate stages in visual cortex, namely areas V1-V4 and IT. We suggest that multiple specialized component representations interact by feedforward hierarchical processing that is combined with feedback from representations generated at higher stages. In so doing, global configurational as well as local information is available to distinguish changes in the object's contour. Once the outline of a shape has been established, contextual contour configurations are used to assign border ownership directions and thus achieve segregation of figure and ground. This combines separate findings about the generation of cortical shape representation using hierarchical representations with figure-ground segregation mechanisms.Our model is probed with a selection of artificial and real world images to illustrate processing results at different processing stages. We especially highlight how modulatory feedback connections contribute to the processing of visual input at various stages in the processing hierarchy.

Stephan Tschechne

2014-08-01

65

Blind Audio-Visual Source Separation Using Sparse Redundant Representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report presents a new method to confront the Blind Audio Source Separation (BASS) problem, by means of audio and visual information. In a given mixture, we are able to locate the video sources first and, posteriorly, recover each source signal, only with one microphone and the associated video. The proposed model is based on the Matching Pursuit (MP) [18] decomposition of both audio and video signals into meaningful structures. Frequency components are extracted from the soundtrack, wit...

Llagostera Casanovas, Anna; Monaci, Gianluca; Vandergheynst, Pierre

2006-01-01

66

Representation of Concurrent Stimuli by Population Activity in Visual Cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

How do neuronal populations represent concurrent stimuli? We measured population responses in cat primary visual cortex (V1) using electrode arrays. Population responses to two superimposed gratings were weighted sums of the individual grating responses. The weights depended strongly on the relative contrasts of the components. When the contrasts were similar the population performed an approximately equal summation. When the contrasts differed markedly, however, the population performed appr...

Busse, L.; Wade, A. R.; Carandini, M.

2009-01-01

67

Dew inspired breathing-based detection of genetic point mutation visualized by naked eye  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel label-free method based on breathing-induced vapor condensation was developed for detection of genetic point mutation. The dew-inspired detection was realized by integration of target-induced DNA ligation with rolling circle amplification (RCA). The vapor condensation induced by breathing transduced the RCA-amplified variances in DNA contents into visible contrast. The image could be recorded by a cell phone for further or even remote analysis. This green assay offers a naked-eye-reading method potentially applied for point-of-care liver cancer diagnosis in resource-limited regions.

Xie, Liping; Wang, Tongzhou; Huang, Tianqi; Hou, Wei; Huang, Guoliang; Du, Yanan

2014-09-01

68

Priming Contour-Deleted Images: Evidence for Immediate Representations in Visual Object Recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Speed and accuracy of identification of pictures of objects are facilitated by prior viewing. Contributions of image features, convex or concave components, and object models in a repetition priming task were explored in 2 studies involving 96 college students. Results provide evidence of intermediate representations in visual object recognition.…

Biederman, Irving; Cooper, Eric E.

1991-01-01

69

Representations of the Moon in Children's Literature: An Analysis of Written and Visual Text  

Science.gov (United States)

This review focused on the written and visual representation of the moon in 80 children's books, including Caldecott Medal and Honor books over the past 20 years. Results revealed that many of these books misrepresent the moon and even reinforce misconceptions about lunar phases. Teachers who use children's literature that misrepresents the moon…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Troland, Thomas H.; Pritchard, T. Gail

2008-01-01

70

Visual Behaviour Based Bio-Inspired Polarization Techniques in Computer Vision and Robotics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For long time, it was thought that the sensing of polarization by animals is invariably related to their behavior, such as navigation and orientation. Recently, it was found that polarization can be part of a high-level visual perception, permitting a wide area of vision applications. Polarization vision can be used for most tasks of color vision including object recognition, contrast enhancement, camouflage breaking, and signal detection and discrimination. The polarization based visual beha...

Shabayek, Abd El Rahman; Morel, Olivier; Fofi, David

2012-01-01

71

The visual language of spatial representation – a barrier, or a crossroad?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with techniques of representation of architectural and urbanistic ideas about space and its changes. It delves into the communication process between co-creators of space and points out the issue of different understanding of visual representation techniques that stem from different levels in capabilities of visual expression and understanding of visual messages. The issue of ignorance of specifics of professional language is emphasised as a consequence of its habitualness. The presented research checks and analyses the effect of abstract/concrete visual representation and their effectiveness in communicating messages to expert and lay publics. Following the discussion about results, numerous new issues arise, concerning possibilities for narrowing the gap between various publics and finding common ground. Amongst different solutions about improving communication between actors in the creation of space, the article emphasises the potential of permanent education. However the quest is not for improvements in general understanding of visual language, but consequentially to devise ways, modes and their positive consequences on the cultural environment and spatial culture.

Tadeja Zupan?i? Strojan

2003-01-01

72

Brain representations for acquiring and recalling visual-motor adaptations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans readily learn and remember new motor skills, a process that likely underlies adaptation to changing environments. During adaptation, the brain develops new sensory-motor relationships, and if consolidation occurs, a memory of the adaptation can be retained for extended periods. Considerable evidence exists that multiple brain circuits participate in acquiring new sensory-motor memories, though the networks engaged in recalling these and whether the same brain circuits participate in their formation and recall have less clarity. To address these issues, we assessed brain activation with functional MRI while young healthy adults learned and recalled new sensory-motor skills by adapting to world-view rotations of visual feedback that guided hand movements. We found cerebellar activation related to adaptation rate, likely reflecting changes related to overall adjustments to the visual rotation. A set of parietal and frontal regions, including inferior and superior parietal lobules, premotor area, supplementary motor area and primary somatosensory cortex, exhibited non-linear learning-related activation that peaked in the middle of the adaptation phase. Activation in some of these areas, including the inferior parietal lobule, intra-parietal sulcus and somatosensory cortex, likely reflected actual learning, since the activation correlated with learning after-effects. Lastly, we identified several structures having recall-related activation, including the anterior cingulate and the posterior putamen, since the activation correlated with recall efficacy. These findings demonstrate dynamic aspects of brain activation patterns related to formation and recall of a sensory-motor skill, such that non-overlapping brain regions participate in distinctive behavioral events. PMID:25019676

Bédard, Patrick; Sanes, Jerome N

2014-11-01

73

Real-time Visual Tracking Using Sparse Representation  

CERN Document Server

The $\\ell_1$ tracker obtains robustness by seeking a sparse representation of the tracking object via $\\ell_1$ norm minimization \\cite{Xue_ICCV_09_Track}. However, the high computational complexity involved in the $ \\ell_1 $ tracker restricts its further applications in real time processing scenario. Hence we propose a Real Time Compressed Sensing Tracking (RTCST) by exploiting the signal recovery power of Compressed Sensing (CS). Dimensionality reduction and a customized Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) algorithm are adopted to accelerate the CS tracking. As a result, our algorithm achieves a real-time speed that is up to $6,000$ times faster than that of the $\\ell_1$ tracker. Meanwhile, RTCST still produces competitive (sometimes even superior) tracking accuracy comparing to the existing $\\ell_1$ tracker. Furthermore, for a stationary camera, a further refined tracker is designed by integrating a CS-based background model (CSBM). This CSBM-equipped tracker coined as RTCST-B, outperforms most state-of-the-a...

Li, Hanxi; Shi, Qinfeng

2010-01-01

74

Visual Tracking Based on Sparse Representation in a Co-training Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visual tracking is an important topic in the field of computer vision and artificial intelligence. The main challenging issue in designing a robust tracking algorithm is the appearance variations caused by numerous factors such as occlusion, background clutter, illumination change and motion blur. In recently years, sparse representation has been extensively studied and applied in visual tracking. The representation has been shown to be robustness to a wide range of image corruptions, especially to an occlusion. However, sparse coding based trackers at a computational expense of the L1 minimization. In this study, we present a novel tracking method based on sparse representation in a co-training framework, exploiting the strength of both holistic representation and local histogram. We first introduce l1 regularization into subspace representation with Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Then, we develop a novel histogram-based tracking method in which we take the spatial information of patches into consideration with an occlusion handling mechanism. Furthermore, we combine them in a novel collaborative model and the update scheme can make the tracker deal with appearance effectively and alleviate the impact of the drift problem. Experimental results on benchmark challenging sequences demonstrate that the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is competitive to the state-of-the-art tracking methods.

Hanling Zhang

2013-01-01

75

Visualization and analysis of modulated pulses in magnetic resonance by joint time-frequency representations  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the utility of joint time-frequency representations for the analysis of shaped or composite pulses for magnetic resonance. Such spectrograms are commonly used for the visualization of shaped laser pulses in optical spectroscopy. This intuitive representation provides additional insight compared to conventional approaches, which exclusively show either temporal or spectral information. We focus on the short-time Fourier transform, which provides not only amplitude but also phase information. The approach is illustrated for broadband inversion pulses, multiple quantum excitation and broadband heteronuclear decoupling. The physical interpretation and validity of the approach is discussed.

Köcher, S. S.; Heydenreich, T.; Glaser, S. J.

2014-12-01

76

Infrared dim and small target detecting and tracking method inspired by Human Visual System  

Science.gov (United States)

Detecting and tracking dim and small target in infrared images and videos is one of the most important techniques in many computer vision applications, such as video surveillance and infrared imaging precise guidance. Recently, more and more algorithms based on Human Visual System (HVS) have been proposed to detect and track the infrared dim and small target. In general, HVS concerns at least three mechanisms including contrast mechanism, visual attention and eye movement. However, most of the existing algorithms simulate only a single one of the HVS mechanisms, resulting in many drawbacks of these algorithms. A novel method which combines the three mechanisms of HVS is proposed in this paper. First, a group of Difference of Gaussians (DOG) filters which simulate the contrast mechanism are used to filter the input image. Second, a visual attention, which is simulated by a Gaussian window, is added at a point near the target in order to further enhance the dim small target. This point is named as the attention point. Eventually, the Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) algorithm is first introduced to predict the attention point of the next frame of an image which simulates the eye movement of human being. Experimental results of infrared images with different types of backgrounds demonstrate the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method to detect and track the dim and small targets.

Dong, Xiabin; Huang, Xinsheng; Zheng, Yongbin; Shen, Lurong; Bai, Shengjian

2014-01-01

77

Experience-driven formation of parts-based representations in a model of layered visual memory  

CERN Document Server

Growing neuropsychological and neurophysiological evidence suggests that the visual cortex uses parts-based representations to encode, store and retrieve relevant objects. In such a scheme, objects are represented as a set of spatially distributed local features, or parts, arranged in stereotypical fashion. To encode the local appearance and to represent the relations between the constituent parts, there has to be an appropriate memory structure formed by previous experience with visual objects. Here, we propose a model how a hierarchical memory structure supporting efficient storage and rapid recall of parts-based representations can be established by an experience-driven process of self-organization. The process is based on the collaboration of slow bidirectional synaptic plasticity and homeostatic unit activity regulation, both running at the top of fast activity dynamics with winner-take-all character. These neural mechanisms lay down the basis for cooperation and competition between the distributed units...

Jitsev, Jenia

2009-01-01

78

A biologically inspired psychometric function for accuracy of visual identification as a function of exposure duration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The psychometric function of letter identification is typically described as a function of stimulus intensity. However, the effect of stimulus exposure duration on letter identification remains poorly described. This is surprising because the effect of exposure duration has played a central role in modelling human performance in whole and partial report tasks in which multiple simultaneously presented letters are to be reported (Shibuya & Bundesen, 1988). Therefore, we investigated visual letter identification as a function of exposure duration. On each trial, a single randomly chosen letter (A-Z) was presented at the centre of the screen. Exposure duration was varied from 5 to 210 milliseconds. The letter was followed by a pattern mask. Three subjects each completed 54,080 trials in a 26-Alternative Forced Choice procedure. We compared the exponential, the gamma and the Weibull psychometric functions, all of these having a temporal offset included, as well as the ex-Gaussian, and finally a new psychometric function, motivated from single-neuron studies by (Albrecht, Geisler, Frazor & Crane, 2002). The new psychometric function stands out by having a nonmonotonous hazard rate which is initially rising from zero, then peaking, and finally decaying to a somewhat sustained plateau, mimicking closely observed instantaneous firing rates of monkey visual cortex neurons. The new psychometric function fits well to experimental data in both the present study and in a previous study of single-letter identification accuracy (Bundesen & Harms, 1999). Also, we conducted a follow-up experiment to test the ability of the psychometric functions to fit single-letter identification data, at different stimulus contrast levels; also in this experiment the new psychometric function prevailed. Further, after insertion into Bundesen’s Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990), the new psychometric function enables closer fits to data from a previous whole and partial report experiment.

Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias

79

Feature integration and object representations along the dorsal stream visual hierarchy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The visual system is split into two processing streams: a ventral stream that receives color and form information and a dorsal stream that receives motion information. Each stream processes that information hierarchically, with each stage building upon the previous. In the ventral stream this leads to the formation of object representations that ultimately allow for object recognition regardless of changes in the surrounding environment. In the dorsal stream, this hierarchical processing has ...

Carolyn Jeane Perry; Mazyar Fallah

2014-01-01

80

Scientific workflows development using both visual-programming and scripted representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we propose to achieve a semantic equivalence between a visual- and a script-based workflow development paradigm. We accomplish this by building a script language which execution semantics matches an existing sophisticated, data-parallel scientific workflow language and its underlying GUI-based core workflow enactor. This development caters to the need of users with different levels of expertise in writing scientific workflows. A two-ways representation translator makes it possib...

Maheshwari, Ketan; Montagnat, Johan

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Brain activity associated with translation from a visual to a symbolic representation in algebra and geometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a small part of a larger interdisciplinary study that investigates brain activity (using event related potential methodology) of male adolescents when solving mathematical problems of different types. The study design links mathematics education research with neurocognitive studies. In this paper we performed a comparative analysis of brain activity associated with the translation from visual to symbolic representations of mathematical objects in algebra and geometry. Algebraic tasks require translation from graphical to symbolic representation of a function, whereas tasks in geometry require translation from a drawing of a geometric figure to a symbolic representation of its property. The findings demonstrate that electrical activity associated with the performance of geometrical tasks is stronger than that associated with solving algebraic tasks. Additionally, we found different scalp topography of the brain activity associated with algebraic and geometric tasks. Based on these results, we argue that problem solving in algebra and geometry is associated with different patterns of brain activity. PMID:24738538

Leikin, Mark; Waisman, Ilana; Shaul, Shelley; Leikin, Roza

2014-03-01

82

Representação visual de estruturas biológicas em materiais de ensino Visual representation of biological structures in teaching material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade de se definir parâmetros de apresentação e tratamento da informação científica em materiais de ensino. Através de consultas a bibliotecas e a especialistas em ciências da saúde e artes gráficas e visuais, fez-se uma pesquisa que resultou na descrição comparativa entre as primeiras manifestações da ilustração científica na anatomia e a trajetória da representação visual do conhecimento sobre a célula. O estudo traz ainda exemplos significativos de ilustrações utilizadas como elementos de análise.Parameters must be defined for presenting and handling scientific information presented in the form of teaching materials. Through library research and consultations with specialists in the health sciences and in graphic arts and design, this study undertook a comparative description of the first examples of scientific illustrations of anatomy and the evolution of visual representations of knowledge on the cell. The study includes significant examples of illustrations which served as elements of analysis.

Marina Azevedo Morato

1998-10-01

83

Transform-invariant visual representations in self-organizing spiking neural networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ventral visual pathway achieves object and face recognition by building transform-invariant representations from elementary visual features. In previous computer simulation studies with rate-coded neural networks, the development of transform invariant representations has been demonstrated using either of two biologically plausible learning mechanisms, Trace learning and Continuous Transformation (CT learning. However, it has not previously been investigated how transform invariant representations may be learned in a more biologically accurate spiking neural network. A key issue is how the synaptic connection strengths in such a spiking network might self-organize through Spike-Time Dependent Plasticity (STDP where the change in synaptic strength is dependent on the relative times of the spikes emitted by the pre- and postsynaptic neurons rather than simply correlated activity driving changes in synaptic efficacy. Here we present simulations with conductance-based integrate-and-fire (IF neurons using a STDP learning rule to address these gaps in our understanding. It is demonstrated that with the appropriate selection of model pa- rameters and training regime, the spiking network model can utilize either Trace-like or CT-like learning mechanisms to achieve transform-invariant representations.

BenjaminEvans

2012-07-01

84

Visual representation of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease and Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network criteria for anaphylaxis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a user-friendly visual representation of The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease and the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network criteria so as to enhance recognition of anaphylaxis and active teaching and learning.

Manivannan, Veena; Decker, Wyatt W.; Stead, Latha G.; Li, James T. C.; Campbell, Ronna L.

2009-01-01

85

Visual representation of fashion at graphic devices ///// A representação visual da moda nos suportes gráficos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tanto a busca de referências criativas quanto a expressão das ideias em desenhos de moda (croquis para o desenvolvimento de uma coleção se dão majoritariamente no plano visual. No mesmo sentido, o design gráfico manipula elementos básicos (ponto, linha, plano e mancha e elementos conceituais (cor, tonalidade e textura de modo a compor textos informativos, ou seja, dotados de significação. A metodologia consistiu em aplicar o repertório teórico de Dondis (2007, Lupton e Phillips (2010 e Perassi (2010 nas expressões visuais de moda. O presente trabalho propôs-se a estudar implicações no surgimento de novas tecnologias e de uma nova sintaxe de expressão visual na transformação da cultura material para uma cultura digital. A linguagem gráfico-digital com suas possibilidades alterou o processo simbólico-referencial da cultura contemporânea, com ideias ou conceitos típicos da cibercultura. ///// Both the search of creative references and the expression of ideas though drawings (croquis to the development of a fashion collection are given, majorly, in the visual canvas. In the same direction, graphic design manipulates basic elements (dot, line, surfaces and blots and conceptual elements (tone, color, texture, etc in order to compose informative texts. Texts with signification. The methodology consisted in applying the theoretical repertory of Dondis (2007, Lupton e Phillips (2010 and Perassi (2010 in fashion visual expressions. This present paper proposed to study the implications of new technology emergence and its implications on a new visual expression syntax in the paradigm shift from a material to a digital culture. The graphicdigital language, and its possibilities, had altered the symbolic-reference process of the contemporary culture, with ideas and concepts typical of the cyber culture.

Richard Perassi Luiz de Sousa

2012-12-01

86

The Effects of Visual Cues and Learners' Field Dependence in Multiple External Representations Environment for Novice Program Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of visual cues in multiple external representations (MER) environment on the learning performance of novices' program comprehension. Program codes and flowchart diagrams were used as dual representations in multimedia environment to deliver lessons on C-Programming. 17 field independent participants and 16 field…

Wei, Liew Tze; Sazilah, Salam

2012-01-01

87

Interference Effects Demonstrate Distinct Roles for Visual and Motor Imagery during the Mental Representation of Human Action  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments were completed to characterize the utilization of visual imagery and motor imagery during the mental representation of human action. In Experiment 1, movement time functions for a motor imagery human locomotion task conformed to a speed-accuracy trade-off similar to Fitts' Law, whereas those for a visual imagery object motion task…

Stevens, J.A.

2005-01-01

88

Direct isosurface visualization of hex-based high-order geometry and attribute representations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present a novel isosurface visualization technique that guarantees the accurate visualization of isosurfaces with complex attribute data defined on (un)structured (curvi)linear hexahedral grids. Isosurfaces of high-order hexahedral-based finite element solutions on both uniform grids (including MRI and CT scans) and more complex geometry representing a domain of interest that can be rendered using our algorithm. Additionally, our technique can be used to directly visualize solutions and attributes in isogeometric analysis, an area based on trivariate high-order NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-splines) geometry and attribute representations for the analysis. Furthermore, our technique can be used to visualize isosurfaces of algebraic functions. Our approach combines subdivision and numerical root finding to form a robust and efficient isosurface visualization algorithm that does not miss surface features, while finding all intersections between a view frustum and desired isosurfaces. This allows the use of view-independent transparency in the rendering process. We demonstrate our technique through a straightforward CPU implementation on both complex-structured and complex-unstructured geometries with high-order simulation solutions, isosurfaces of medical data sets, and isosurfaces of algebraic functions. PMID:22442127

Martin, Tobias; Cohen, Elaine; Kirby, Robert M

2012-05-01

89

Characterizing the information content of a newly hatched chick's first visual object representation.  

Science.gov (United States)

How does object recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, I examined the information content of the first visual object representation built by newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus). In their first week of life, chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object rotating around a single axis. In their second week of life, I tested whether subjects had encoded information about the identity and viewpoint of the virtual object. The results showed that chicks built object representations that contained both object identity information and view-specific information. However, there was a trade-off between these two types of information: subjects who were more sensitive to identity information were less sensitive to view-specific information, and vice versa. This pattern of results is predicted by iterative, hierarchically organized visual processing machinery, the machinery that supports object recognition in adult primates. More generally, this study shows that invariant object recognition is a core cognitive ability that can be operational at the onset of visual object experience. PMID:24980274

Wood, Justin N

2015-03-01

90

Interactive Segmentation and Visualization of DTI Data Using a Hierarchical Watershed Representation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures diffusion of water molecules and is used to characterize orientation of white matter fibers and connectivity of neurological structures. Segmentation and visualization of DT images is challenging, because of low data quality and complexity of anatomical structures. In this paper, we propose an interactive segmentation approach, based on a hierarchical representation of the input DT image through a tree structure. The tree is obtained by successively merging watershed regions, based on the morphological waterfall approach, hence the name watershed tree. Region merging is done according to a combined similarity and homogeneity criterion. We introduce filters that work on the proposed tree representation, and that enable region-based attribute filtering of DTI data. Linked views between the visualizations of the simplified DT image and the tree enable a user to visually explore both data and tree at interactive rates. The coupling of filtering, semiautomatic segmentation by labeling nodes in the tree, and various interaction mechanisms support the segmentation task. Our method is robust against noise, which we demonstrate on synthetic and real DTI data. PMID:25585424

Jalba, Andrei C; Westenberg, Michel A; Roerdink, Jos B T M

2015-03-01

91

Functional organization and visual representations in human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex even in the absence of working memory demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex remain unclear. Further, in a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of lateral prefrontal cortex? What do these findings tell us about the underlying function and organization principles of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex? What is the future direction for investigating visual representations in this cortex? This review focuses on the function, topography, and circuitry of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex to enhance our understanding of the evolution and development of this cortex.

AnnieWai YiuChan

2013-07-01

92

Perceptual geometry of space and form: visual perception of natural scenes and their virtual representation  

Science.gov (United States)

Perceptual geometry is an emerging field of interdisciplinary research whose objectives focus on study of geometry from the perspective of visual perception, and in turn, apply such geometric findings to the ecological study of vision. Perceptual geometry attempts to answer fundamental questions in perception of form and representation of space through synthesis of cognitive and biological theories of visual perception with geometric theories of the physical world. Perception of form and space are among fundamental problems in vision science. In recent cognitive and computational models of human perception, natural scenes are used systematically as preferred visual stimuli. Among key problems in perception of form and space, we have examined perception of geometry of natural surfaces and curves, e.g. as in the observer's environment. Besides a systematic mathematical foundation for a remarkably general framework, the advantages of the Gestalt theory of natural surfaces include a concrete computational approach to simulate or recreate images whose geometric invariants and quantities might be perceived and estimated by an observer. The latter is at the very foundation of understanding the nature of perception of space and form, and the (computer graphics) problem of rendering scenes to visually invoke virtual presence.

Assadi, Amir H.

2001-11-01

93

Representação visual de estruturas biológicas em materiais de ensino / Visual representation of biological structures in teaching material  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade de se definir parâmetros de apresentação e tratamento da informação científica em materiais de ensino. Através de consultas a bibliotecas e a especialistas em ciências da saúde e artes gráficas e visuais, fez-se uma pesquisa que resultou na descrição compa [...] rativa entre as primeiras manifestações da ilustração científica na anatomia e a trajetória da representação visual do conhecimento sobre a célula. O estudo traz ainda exemplos significativos de ilustrações utilizadas como elementos de análise. Abstract in english Parameters must be defined for presenting and handling scientific information presented in the form of teaching materials. Through library research and consultations with specialists in the health sciences and in graphic arts and design, this study undertook a comparative description of the first ex [...] amples of scientific illustrations of anatomy and the evolution of visual representations of knowledge on the cell. The study includes significant examples of illustrations which served as elements of analysis.

Marina Azevedo, Morato; Miriam, Struchiner; Eduardo, Bordoni; Regina Maria Vieira, Ricciardi.

1998-10-01

94

The role of visual representations in the learning and teaching of science: An introduction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Representations are the entities with which all thinking is considered to take place. Hence they are central to the process of learning and consequently to that of teaching. They are therefore important in the conduct and learning of science, given the central commitment of that discipline to providing evidence-based explanations of natural phenomena, in which underlying entities and mechanisms have to be postulated and substantiated on the basis of empirical enquiry. The three generic types of representation and the modes in which they are expressed are presented against the background of an established model of their acquisition, processing and display. The two meanings of ‘visualization’ are discussed as is the key role played by fluency in them in the attainment of expert status in the processes of science. The nature and origins of students’ problems in attaining this ‘metavisual competence’ are derived from a review of the literature. Good practice in the teaching of the conventions of representation is suggested. Specific research and development is needed if this key aspect of knowledge acquisition and display is to be fully recognised in the varied curricula of formal science education and in the provision of opportunities for the informal communication of science.

John K. GILBERT

2010-06-01

95

Using surface imaging and visual coaching to improve the reproducibility and stability of deep-inspiration breath hold for left-breast-cancer radiotherapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Late cardiac complications may arise after left-breast radiation therapy. Deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH) allows reduction of the irradiated heart volume at the same time as it reduces tumor bed motion and increases lung sparing. In the present study, we have evaluated the improvement in reproducibility and stability of the DIBH for left-breast-cancer treatment when visual coaching is provided with the aid of 3D video surface imaging and video goggles. Five left-breast-cancer patients and fifteen healthy volunteers were asked to perform a series of DIBHs without and with visual coaching. Reproducibility and stability of DIBH were measured for each individual with and without visual coaching. The average reproducibility and stability changed from 2.1 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively, without visual feedback to 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm with visual feedback, showing a significant statistical difference (p 2 mm) in reproducibility and stability were observed in 35% and 15% of the subjects, respectively. The average chest wall excursion of the DIBH with respect to the free breathing preceding the DIBH was found to be 11.3 mm. The reproducibility and stability of the DIBH improve significantly from the visual coaching provided to the patient, especially in those patients with poor reproducibility and stability.

Cerviño, Laura I.; Gupta, Sonia; Rose, Mary A.; Yashar, Catheryn; Jiang, Steve B.

2009-11-01

96

Using surface imaging and visual coaching to improve the reproducibility and stability of deep-inspiration breath hold for left-breast-cancer radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Late cardiac complications may arise after left-breast radiation therapy. Deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH) allows reduction of the irradiated heart volume at the same time as it reduces tumor bed motion and increases lung sparing. In the present study, we have evaluated the improvement in reproducibility and stability of the DIBH for left-breast-cancer treatment when visual coaching is provided with the aid of 3D video surface imaging and video goggles. Five left-breast-cancer patients and fifteen healthy volunteers were asked to perform a series of DIBHs without and with visual coaching. Reproducibility and stability of DIBH were measured for each individual with and without visual coaching. The average reproducibility and stability changed from 2.1 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively, without visual feedback to 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm with visual feedback, showing a significant statistical difference (p 2 mm) in reproducibility and stability were observed in 35% and 15% of the subjects, respectively. The average chest wall excursion of the DIBH with respect to the free breathing preceding the DIBH was found to be 11.3 mm. The reproducibility and stability of the DIBH improve significantly from the visual coaching provided to the patient, especially in those patients with poor reproducibility and stability.

97

Analysis and Determination of Inner Lip texture Descriptors for Visual Speech Representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of visual speech representation for bimodal based speech recognition includes particular challenges in themodeling of the inner lip texture reflecting different pronunciations,such as the appearance of teeth and tongue. This paper proposesand analyzesseveral possible statistical inner lip texture descriptors to determine an effective and discriminantfeature. Simply usinggrayscale without full specification of the underlying colour model tends to loss some significant discriminative information. Therefore thorough exploration on the color space components selection in computing the local inner lip texture is thus a primary goal of the present research. The L channel of Lab color space is finally determined as the basis for the development of the inner lip texture model. Through feature level fusion, the final classification of visual speech is performedbased on the proposed inner lip texture descriptor and standard geometric features. Together with audio speech,this paper furthers the development ofthe CHMM based bimodal Chinese character pronunciationrecognition system. The experimental results show that the local inner texture descriptors, such as the color moment with geometric feature,outperform the holistic inner texture descriptors, such as the statistical histogram, in representing visual speechwith theclose discriminability but low dimensionality. 

Xibin Jia

2014-07-01

98

A Biologically-Inspired Model for Recognition of Overlapped Patterns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper a biologically-inspired model for recognition of overlapped patterns is proposed. Information processing in the two visual information processing pathways, i.e., the dorsal and the ventral pathway, is modeled as a solution to the problem. We hypothesize that dorsal pathway, in addition to encoding the spatial information, learns the shape representation of the patterns and, later uses this knowledge as a top-down guidance signal to segment the bottom-up, image-based saliency map...

Saifullah, Mohammad

2011-01-01

99

Target templates: the precision of mental representations affects attentional guidance and decision-making in visual search  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When people look for things in the environment, they use target templates—mental representations of the objects they are attempting to locate—to guide attention and to assess incoming visual input as potential targets. However, unlike laboratory participants, searchers in the real world rarely have perfect knowledge regarding the potential appearance of targets. In seven experiments, we examined how the precision of target templates affects the ability to conduct visual search. Specifical...

Hout, Michael C.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

2015-01-01

100

Real-world scene representations in high-level visual cortex: it's the spaces more than the places.  

Science.gov (United States)

Real-world scenes are incredibly complex and heterogeneous, yet we are able to identify and categorize them effortlessly. In humans, the ventral temporal parahippocampal place area (PPA) has been implicated in scene processing, but scene information is contained in many visual areas, leaving their specific contributions unclear. Although early theories of PPA emphasized its role in spatial processing, more recent reports of its function have emphasized semantic or contextual processing. Here, using functional imaging, we reconstructed the organization of scene representations across human ventral visual cortex by analyzing the distributed response to 96 diverse real-world scenes. We found that, although individual scenes could be decoded in both PPA and early visual cortex (EVC), the structure of representations in these regions was vastly different. In both regions, spatial rather than semantic factors defined the structure of representations. However, in PPA, representations were defined primarily by the spatial factor of expanse (open, closed) and in EVC primarily by distance (near, far). Furthermore, independent behavioral ratings of expanse and distance correlated strongly with representations in PPA and peripheral EVC, respectively. In neither region was content (manmade, natural) a major contributor to the overall organization. Furthermore, the response of PPA could not be used to decode the high-level semantic category of scenes even when spatial factors were held constant, nor could category be decoded across different distances. These findings demonstrate, contrary to recent reports, that the response PPA primarily reflects spatial, not categorical or contextual, aspects of real-world scenes. PMID:21593316

Kravitz, Dwight J; Peng, Cynthia S; Baker, Chris I

2011-05-18

 
 
 
 
101

Can Verbalisers Learn as well as Visualisers in Simulation-Based CAL with Predominantly Visual Representations? Preliminary Evidence from a Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Simulation-based computer-assisted learning (CAL) is emerging as new technologies are finding a place in mainstream education. Dynamically linked multiple representations (DLMRs) is at the core of simulation-based CAL. DLMRs includes multiple visual representations, and it enables students to manipulate one representation and to immediately…

Liu, Tzu-Chien; Kinshuk; Lin, Yi-Chun; Wang, Ssu-Chin

2012-01-01

102

Representation of verbal pain descriptors on a visual analogue scale by dental patients and dental students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Verbal rating scales (VRS), composed of ranked pain descriptors, are often employed in pain research. Factors that may influence the subjective pain intensity values, however, are not well established. In this study, 5 common pain descriptor adjectives were represented on a visual analogue scale (VAS) by a group of 80 dental students, by a group of 48 patients undergoing periodontal therapy, and by a group of 31 dental phobic patients. It was thought that each group of individuals on conducting the test represented a different degree of apprehension, ranging from a relaxed to a very tense status. There were differences in the interpretation of the pain descriptors between groups. Furthermore, age seemed to influence the interpretation of the pain descriptors. No correlation was found with gender. The descriptors did not divide the analogue scale into equal segments. 71% of all subjects gave the adjective "mild" a lower pain intensity representation than the adjective "weak", while the order was reversed among remaining subjects. Findings cast doubt on the reliability of VRS and the data handling methods commonly adopted in clinical pain research. PMID:9249186

Tammaro, S; Berggren, U; Bergenholtz, G

1997-06-01

103

Dynamic visualization in a developing framework for the representation of geographic data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to translate the characteristics of geographic data into signs and signals that can be perceived from a map, a language consisting of building blocks and a syntax are required. The first language to be developed was a graphic sign language, introduced by Bertin. His framework has been adapted and extended. It now includes languages for other senses, like touch and hearing, and even smell and taste are currently being investigated. In this paper it has been argued that the overall framework is continuously growing under the influence of technological, conceptual and user-oriented developments. Technological developments in particular are rapid. For example, they allow the representation of geographic data in virtual environments, which can be experienced through multiple senses. If cartographers want to play a role here, they should be willing to contribute to further extension of the framework, which may never be complete. In addition, current definitions of the concepts 'cartography' and 'map' have to be adapted. An example of user-oriented developments is the growing awareness of different types of map use, ranging from presentation to analysis/exploration. Application of the sign language may be different for each type of use, so the framework also needs further development in this direction. As an example, research ideas with respect to the use of dynamic visualization variables in cartographic animations for exploration purposes are included.

Connie Blok

2000-11-01

104

Representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud en la discapacidad visual / Social representation of the health service providers in visual disability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el conocimiento de la representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud resulta de suma importancia para la salud pública, debido a su influencia en la calidad de su relación con los pacientes. Objetivo: caracterizar la representación social de los prestadores de servicios [...] de salud acerca de la discapacidad visual. Métodos: estudio de caso realizado en el policlínico "Hermanos Ruíz Aboy" en San Miguel del Padrón en el período de enero a junio de 2012. Participaron 33 informantes clave escogidos por muestreo intencional. Las técnicas de indagación empleadas fueron la asociación libre de palabras y las entrevistas en profundidad. Resultados: el estudio reveló la existencia en los prestadores de una representación angustiosa-conmiserativa-dependiente que configura elementos provenientes de referentes experienciales, componentes afectivos e insumos informacionales relacionados con las personas en situación de discapacidad visual. Conclusiones: los prestadores de servicios de salud investigados tiene en el núcleo de sus representaciones experiencias y conocimientos relacionados con el daño anatómico que condiciona limitación e incapacidad para la participación en la vida social de las personas con discapacidad visual, pero las asociaciones relativas a las necesidades de atención, definen un deficiente reconocimiento de elementos que garantizarían la compensación e integración psicosocial en estas personas. Abstract in english Introduction: knowing the social representation of the health service providers is very important for the public health, due to their influence on the quality of relationship with the patients. Objective: to characterize the social representation of the health service providers on visual disability. [...] Methods: case study performed in "Hermanos Ruiz Aboy" in San Miguel del Padron municipality in the period of January through June, 2012. Thirty three key informants selected by intentional sampling participated. The research techniques were free association of words and in-depth interviews. Results: this study disclosed the existence in health providers of an anguishing-commisserative-dependent representation that shapes elements from experience referents, affective components and informational inputs related to the persons facing visual disability. Conclusions: the health service providers under research have, in the core of their representation, experiences and knowledge linked to the anatomical damage that causes limitation and disability to be involved in the people with visual disability; however, the relative associations with the care requirements define a poor recognition of those elements that would assure compensation and psychosocial integration of these people.

Guillermo, Díaz Llanes; Judith, Prieto Sedano.

2014-03-01

105

Representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud en la discapacidad visual / Social representation of the health service providers in visual disability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el conocimiento de la representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud resulta de suma importancia para la salud pública, debido a su influencia en la calidad de su relación con los pacientes. Objetivo: caracterizar la representación social de los prestadores de servicios [...] de salud acerca de la discapacidad visual. Métodos: estudio de caso realizado en el policlínico "Hermanos Ruíz Aboy" en San Miguel del Padrón en el período de enero a junio de 2012. Participaron 33 informantes clave escogidos por muestreo intencional. Las técnicas de indagación empleadas fueron la asociación libre de palabras y las entrevistas en profundidad. Resultados: el estudio reveló la existencia en los prestadores de una representación angustiosa-conmiserativa-dependiente que configura elementos provenientes de referentes experienciales, componentes afectivos e insumos informacionales relacionados con las personas en situación de discapacidad visual. Conclusiones: los prestadores de servicios de salud investigados tiene en el núcleo de sus representaciones experiencias y conocimientos relacionados con el daño anatómico que condiciona limitación e incapacidad para la participación en la vida social de las personas con discapacidad visual, pero las asociaciones relativas a las necesidades de atención, definen un deficiente reconocimiento de elementos que garantizarían la compensación e integración psicosocial en estas personas. Abstract in english Introduction: knowing the social representation of the health service providers is very important for the public health, due to their influence on the quality of relationship with the patients. Objective: to characterize the social representation of the health service providers on visual disability. [...] Methods: case study performed in "Hermanos Ruiz Aboy" in San Miguel del Padron municipality in the period of January through June, 2012. Thirty three key informants selected by intentional sampling participated. The research techniques were free association of words and in-depth interviews. Results: this study disclosed the existence in health providers of an anguishing-commisserative-dependent representation that shapes elements from experience referents, affective components and informational inputs related to the persons facing visual disability. Conclusions: the health service providers under research have, in the core of their representation, experiences and knowledge linked to the anatomical damage that causes limitation and disability to be involved in the people with visual disability; however, the relative associations with the care requirements define a poor recognition of those elements that would assure compensation and psychosocial integration of these people.

Guillermo, Díaz Llanes; Judith, Prieto Sedano.

2014-03-01

106

The Effect of a Thinking Strategy Approach through Visual Representation on Achievement and Conceptual Understanding in Solving Mathematical Word Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This quasi-experimental study was designed to determine the effect of a thinking strategy approach through visual representation on the achievement and conceptual understanding in solving mathematical word problems in primary school. The experimental group (n = 96) was exposed to the treatment, while the control group (n = 97) received a conventional approach in teaching and learning mathematical problem solving. To control the variable difference, a pretest was given to both groups before te...

Nasarudin Abdullah; Effandi Zakaria; Lilia Halim

2012-01-01

107

How to make a good animation: A grounded cognition model of how visual representation design affects the construction of abstract physics knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual representations play a critical role in teaching physics. However, since we do not have a satisfactory understanding of how visual perception impacts the construction of abstract knowledge, most visual representations used in instructions are either created based on existing conventions or designed according to the instructor's intuition, which leads to a significant variance in their effectiveness. In this paper we propose a cognitive mechanism based on grounded cognition, suggesting that visual perception affects understanding by activating "perceptual symbols": the basic cognitive unit used by the brain to construct a concept. A good visual representation activates perceptual symbols that are essential for the construction of the represented concept, whereas a bad representation does the opposite. As a proof of concept, we conducted a clinical experiment in which participants received three different versions of a multimedia tutorial teaching the integral expression of electric potential. The three versions were only different by the details of the visual representation design, only one of which contained perceptual features that activate perceptual symbols essential for constructing the idea of "accumulation." On a following post-test, participants receiving this version of tutorial significantly outperformed those who received the other two versions of tutorials designed to mimic conventional visual representations used in classrooms.

Chen, Zhongzhou; Gladding, Gary

2014-06-01

108

Visualizing the engram: learning stabilizes odor representations in the olfactory network.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature of memory is a central issue in neuroscience. How does our representation of the world change with learning and experience? Here we use the transcription of Arc mRNA, which permits probing the neural representations of temporally separated events, to address this in a well characterized odor learning model. Rat pups readily associate odor with maternal care. In pups, the lateralized olfactory networks are independent, permitting separate training and within-subject control. We use multiday training to create an enduring memory of peppermint odor. Training stabilized rewarded, but not nonrewarded, odor representations in both mitral cells and associated granule cells of the olfactory bulb and in the pyramidal cells of the anterior piriform cortex. An enlarged core of stable, likely highly active neurons represent rewarded odor at both stages of the olfactory network. Odor representations in anterior piriform cortex were sparser than typical in adult rat and did not enlarge with learning. This sparser representation of odor is congruent with the maturation of lateral olfactory tract input in rat pups. Cortical representations elsewhere have been shown to be highly variable in electrophysiological experiments, suggesting brains operate normally using dynamic and network-modulated representations. The olfactory cortical representations here are consistent with the generalized associative model of sparse variable cortical representation, as normal responses to repeated odors were highly variable (?70% of the cells change as indexed by Arc). Learning and memory modified rewarded odor ensembles to increase stability in a core representational component. PMID:25392506

Shakhawat, Amin M D; Gheidi, Ali; Hou, Qinlong; Dhillon, Sandeep K; Marrone, Diano F; Harley, Carolyn W; Yuan, Qi

2014-11-12

109

Preliminary tests of a possible outdoor light adaptation solution for a fly inspired visual sensor: a biomimetic solution - biomed 2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two previous papers, presented at RMBS in 2009 and 2010, introduced a fly inspired vision sensor that could adapt to indoor light conditions by mimicking the light adaptation process of the commonhousefly, Muscadomestica. A new system has been designed that should allow the sensor to adapt to outdoor light conditions which will enable the sensor?s use inapplications such as: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) obstacle avoidance, UAV landing support, target tracking, wheelchair guidance, large structure monitoring, and many other outdoor applications. A sensor of this type is especially suited for these applications due to features of hyperacuity (or an ability to achieve movement resolution beyond the theoretical limit), extreme sensitivity to motion, and (through software simulation) image edge extraction, motion detection, and orientation and location of a line.Many of these qualities are beyond the ability of traditional computervision sensors such as charge coupled device (CCD) arrays.To achieve outdoor light adaptation, a variety of design obstacles have to be overcome such as infrared interference, dynamic range expansion, and light saturation. The newly designed system overcomes the latter two design obstacles by mimicking the fly?s solution of logarithmic compression followed by removal of the average background light intensity. This paper presents the new design and the preliminary tests that were conducted to determine its effectiveness. PMID:21525612

Dean, Brian K; Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Steven F

2011-01-01

110

Representações visuais para recuperação de informação na BDTD-UFPE / Visual representations to information retrieval in BDTD-UFPE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Analisa a aplicabilidade de visualizações, como interfaces amigáveis para Sistemas de Recuperação de Informação (SRIs), bem como discute a construção de representação visual de informações para o SRI da Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações (BDTD) da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE). A [...] metodologia consiste em estudo de caso, envolvendo análise do uso de visualizações em sites de SRIs e discussão dos caminhos percorridos para construção de visualizações para recuperação de teses e dissertações do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direto da UFPE. Conclui-se que interfaces de SRIs, que disponibilizam visualizações, transmitem informações de forma agradável e interativa, possibilitando a recuperação de documentos relevantes e garantido melhor socialização dos conhecimentos. Entretanto, a escolha da visualização a ser construída para determinado SRI, deve levar em conta não só as vantagens do uso das mesmas pelo usuário, mas, também, o atendimento aos requisitos de organização da informação necessários para construção de cada visualização. Abstract in english This article analyzes the applicability of visualizations as friendly interfaces for Information Retrieval Systems (IRSs) and discusses the construction of visual representation of information to the IRS of the Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (BDTD) at Federal University of Pernambuco (U [...] FPE). The methodology consists of case study involving analysis of the use of visualizations in SRIs sites, and discussion of the paths chosen to build visualizations for retrieval of theses and dissertations of the Law Graduate Program at UFPE. We conclude that SRI interfaces that provide visualizations convey information so enjoyable and interactive, allowing the retrieval of relevant documents and ensuring better socialization of knowledge. However, the choice of one visualization to be built for a specific SRI, should take into account not only the advantages for users of using the same, but also meeting the requirements of information organizing required for construction of each visualization.

Renato Fernandes, Correa; Jessica Monique de Lira, Vieira.

2013-12-01

111

Advancing bag-of-visual-words representations for lesion classification in retinal images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes that can lead to blindness if not readily discovered. Automated screening algorithms have the potential to improve identification of patients who need further medical attention. However, the identification of lesions must be accurate to be useful for clinical application. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) algorithm employs a maximum-margin classifier in a flexible framework that is able to detect the most common DR-related lesions such as microaneurysms, cotton-wool spots and hard exudates. BoVW allows to bypass the need for pre- and post-processing of the retinographic images, as well as the need of specific ad hoc techniques for identification of each type of lesion. An extensive evaluation of the BoVW model, using three large retinograph datasets (DR1, DR2 and Messidor) with different resolution and collected by different healthcare personnel, was performed. The results demonstrate that the BoVW classification approach can identify different lesions within an image without having to utilize different algorithms for each lesion reducing processing time and providing a more flexible diagnostic system. Our BoVW scheme is based on sparse low-level feature detection with a Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) local descriptor, and mid-level features based on semi-soft coding with max pooling. The best BoVW representation for retinal image classification was an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of 97.8% (exudates) and 93.5% (red lesions), applying a cross-dataset validation protocol. To assess the accuracy for detecting cases that require referral within one year, the sparse extraction technique associated with semi-soft coding and max pooling obtained an AUC of 94.2 ± 2.0%, outperforming current methods. Those results indicate that, for retinal image classification tasks in clinical practice, BoVW is equal and, in some instances, surpasses results obtained using dense detection (widely believed to be the best choice in many vision problems) for the low-level descriptors. PMID:24886780

Pires, Ramon; Jelinek, Herbert F; Wainer, Jacques; Valle, Eduardo; Rocha, Anderson

2014-01-01

112

The Concept of Happiness as Conveyed in Visual Representations: Analysis of the Work of Early Childhood Educators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was designed to examine how early-childhood educators pursuing their graduate degrees perceive the concept of happiness, as conveyed in visual representations. The research methodology combines qualitative and quantitative paradigms using the metaphoric collage, a tool used to analyze visual and verbal aspects. The research population included 32 students from various locations in Israel. The findings revealed that the concept of happiness is perceived as love, spirituality and emotions. In their collages, approximately half of the participants represent happiness as a list of separate and fragmented components such as children, health etc., while others attempted to find connections and relations in order to achieve a more profound view of happiness. Although the majority of the participants experience happiness as something intangible, they did not perceive academic studies and learning processes as a component of happiness.

Gila Russo-Zimet

2014-08-01

113

Children's Visual Representations of Food and Meal Time: Towards an Understanding of Nutrition and Educational Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the broad perspective of school and social exclusion, this article pays attention to an important factor of exclusion: overweight and obesity in primary school children. An interdisciplinary research was conducted and aimed at the study of social representations and practices surrounding food which primary school children, their parents and…

Savoie-Zajc, Lorraine

2005-01-01

114

The Impact of Density and Ratio on Object-Ensemble Representation in Human Anterior-Medial Ventral Visual Cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavioral research has demonstrated that observers can extract summary statistics from ensembles of multiple objects. We recently showed that a region of anterior-medial ventral visual cortex, overlapping largely with the scene-sensitive parahippocampal place area (PPA), participates in object-ensemble representation. Here we investigated the encoding of ensemble density in this brain region using fMRI-adaptation. In Experiment 1, we varied density by changing the spacing between objects and found no sensitivity in PPA to such density changes. Thus, density may not be encoded in PPA, possibly because object spacing is not perceived as an intrinsic ensemble property. In Experiment 2, we varied relative density by changing the ratio of 2 types of objects comprising an ensemble, and observed significant sensitivity in PPA to such ratio change. Although colorful ensembles were shown in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 demonstrated that sensitivity to object ratio change was not driven mainly by a change in the ratio of colors. Thus, while anterior-medial ventral visual cortex is insensitive to density (object spacing) changes, it does code relative density (object ratio) within an ensemble. Object-ensemble processing in this region may thus depend on high-level visual information, such as object ratio, rather than low-level information, such as spacing/spatial frequency. PMID:24964917

Cant, Jonathan S; Xu, Yaoda

2014-06-25

115

A Lightweight AV System for Providing a Faithful and Spatially Manipulable Visual Hand Representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper introduces the technical foundations of a system designed to embed a lightweight, faithful and spatially manipulable representation of the user's hand into an otherwise virtual world (aka Augmented Virtuality, AV). A highly intuitive control during pointing-like near space interaction can be provided to the user as well as a very flexible means to experimenters in a variety of non-medical and medical contexts. Our approach essentially relies on stereoscopic video seethrough Augment...

Pusch, Andreas; Martin, Olivier; Coquillart, Sabine

2011-01-01

116

Featural and temporal attention selectively enhance task-appropriate representations in human primary visual cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our perceptions are often shaped by focusing our attention towards specific features or periods of time irrespective of location. Here we explore the physiological bases of these non-spatial forms of attention by imaging brain activity while subjects perform a challenging change-detection task. The task employs a continuously varying visual stimulus that, for any moment in time, selectively activates functionally distinct subpopulations of primary visual cortex (V1) neurons. When subjects are cued to the timing and nature of the change, the mapping of orientation preference across V1 systematically shifts towards the cued stimulus just prior to its appearance. A simple linear model can explain this shift: attentional changes are selectively targeted towards neural subpopulations, representing the attended feature at the times the feature was anticipated. Our results suggest that featural attention is mediated by a linear change in the responses of task-appropriate neurons across cortex during appropriate periods of time. PMID:25501983

Warren, Scott G; Yacoub, Essa; Ghose, Geoffrey M

2014-01-01

117

Representation & Registration of 3D Visual Shapes using Graph Laplacian and Heat Kernel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

3D shape analysis is an extremely active research topic in both computer graphics and computer vision. In computer vision, 3D shape acquisition and modeling are generally the result of complex data processing and data analysis methods. There are many practical situations where a visual shape is modeled by a point cloud observed with a variety of 2D and 3D sensors. Unlike the graphical data, the sensory data are not, in the general case, uniformly distributed across the surfaces of the observe...

Sharma, Avinash

2012-01-01

118

Representation, Segmentation and Matching of 3D Visual Shapes using Graph Laplacian and Heat-Kernel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

3D shape analysis is an extremely active research topic in both computer graphics and computer vision. In computer vision, 3D shape acquisition and modeling are generally the result of complex data processing and data analysis methods. There are many practical situations where a visual shape is modeled by a point cloud observed with a variety of 2D and 3D sensors. Unlike the graphical data, the sensory data are not, in the general case, uniformly distributed across the surfaces of the observe...

Sharma, Avinash

2012-01-01

119

Large Scale Isosurface Bicubic Subdivision-Surface Wavelets for Representation and Visualization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We introduce a new subdivision-surface wavelet transform for arbitrary two-manifolds with boundary that is the first to use simple lifting-style filtering operations with bicubic precision. We also describe a conversion process for re-mapping large-scale isosurfaces to have subdivision connectivity and fair parameterizations so that the new wavelet transform can be used for compression and visualization. The main idea enabling our wavelet transform is the circular symmetrization of the filters in irregular neighborhoods, which replaces the traditional separation of filters into two 1-D passes. Our wavelet transform uses polygonal base meshes to represent surface topology, from which a Catmull-Clark-style subdivision hierarchy is generated. The details between these levels of resolution are quickly computed and compactly stored as wavelet coefficients. The isosurface conversion process begins with a contour triangulation computed using conventional techniques, which we subsequently simplify with a variant edge-collapse procedure, followed by an edge-removal process. This provides a coarse initial base mesh, which is subsequently refined, relaxed and attracted in phases to converge to the contour. The conversion is designed to produce smooth, untangled and minimally-skewed parameterizations, which improves the subsequent compression after applying the transform. We have demonstrated our conversion and transform for an isosurface obtained from a high-resolution turbulent-mixing hydrodynamics simulation, showing the potential for compression and level-of-detail visualization.

Bertram, M.; Duchaineau, M.A.; Hamann, B.; Joy, K.I.

2000-01-05

120

Task dependence of visual and category representations in prefrontal and inferior temporal cortices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual categorization is an essential perceptual and cognitive process for assigning behavioral significance to incoming stimuli. Categorization depends on sensory processing of stimulus features as well as flexible cognitive processing for classifying stimuli according to the current behavioral context. Neurophysiological studies suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the inferior temporal cortex (ITC) are involved in visual shape categorization. However, their precise roles in the perceptual and cognitive aspects of the categorization process are unclear, as the two areas have not been directly compared during changing task contexts. To address this, we examined the impact of task relevance on categorization-related activity in PFC and ITC by recording from both areas as monkeys alternated between a shape categorization and passive viewing tasks. As monkeys viewed the same stimuli in both tasks, the impact of task relevance on encoding in each area could be compared. While both areas showed task-dependent modulations of neuronal activity, the patterns of results differed markedly. PFC, but not ITC, neurons showed a modest increase in firing rates when stimuli were task relevant. PFC also showed significantly stronger category selectivity during the task compared with passive viewing, while task-dependent modulations of category selectivity in ITC were weak and occurred with a long latency. Finally, both areas showed an enhancement of stimulus selectivity during the task compared with passive viewing. Together, this suggests that the ITC and PFC show differing degrees of task-dependent flexibility and are preferentially involved in the perceptual and cognitive aspects of the categorization process, respectively. PMID:25429147

McKee, Jillian L; Riesenhuber, Maximilian; Miller, Earl K; Freedman, David J

2014-11-26

 
 
 
 
121

Visual three-dimensional representation of beat-to-beat electrocardiogram traces during hemodiafiltration.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the usefulness of the three-dimensional representation of electrocardiogram traces (3DECG) to reveal acute and gradual changes during a full session of hemodiafiltration (HDF) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Fifteen ESRD patients were included (six men, nine women, age 46?±?19 years old). Serum electrolytes, blood pressure, heart rate, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured before and after HDF. Continuous electrocardiograms (ECGs) obtained by Holter monitoring during HDF were used to produce the 3DECG. Several major disturbances were identified by 3DECG images: increase in QRS amplitude (47%), decrease in T-wave amplitude (33%), increase in heart rate (33%), and occurrence of arrhythmia (53%). Different arrhythmia types were often concurrent and included isolated supraventricular premature beats (N?=?5), atrial fibrillation or atrial bigeminy (N?=?2), and isolated premature ventricular beats (N?=?6). Patients with decrease in T-wave amplitude had higher potassium and BUN (both before HDF and total removal) than those without decrease in T-wave amplitude (P?

Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Infante, Oscar; Perez-Grovas, Héctor; Hernandez, Erika; Ruiz-Palacios, Patricia; Franco, Martha; Lerma, Claudia

2012-06-01

122

Sobre imagens mentais e representações visuo-espaciais de objectos e ambientes / About mental images and visual-spatial representations of objects and of layouts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O papel funcional das imagens mentais e das representações visuoespaciais na memória tem sido documentado desde o tempo da Grécia antiga. Contudo, só recentemente, através da investigação em psicologia cognitiva, as propriedades das representações visuo-espaciais e os mecanismos pelos quais elas med [...] eiam o desempenho da memória foram elucidados. Uma das conclusões centrais da presente revisão é que as representações visuo-espaciais fornecem um formato muito variado e flexível de codificação da informação sobre o mundo em memória. Mais, essas representações são usadas para levar a cabo diversas actividades cognitivas. A natureza da informação acedida a partir das imagens mentais de objectos difere da natureza da informação que é representada em memória para o reconhecimento de objectos individuais e da que é preservada nas representações das disposições espaciais dos objectos. Abstract in english The functional role of mental images and of visual-spatial representations in memory has been documented since the time of the ancient Greeks. However, the properties of visual-spatial representations and the mechanisms by which they mediate memory performance have been elucidated only recently, by [...] research in cognitive psychology. One of the central conclusions of this review is that visual-spatial representations provide a varied and flexible format for coding information about the world in memory. Moreover, such representations are used to accomplish many cognitive activities. The nature of the information accessed from objects mental images is different from the nature of the visual information represented in memory for purposes of individual object recognition and from information preserved in representations of spatial layouts.

Ana Sofia Correia dos, Santos.

2000-08-01

123

Effects of abstract versus concrete visual representations in an instructional simulation on students' declarative knowledge, learning transfer, and perceptions of the simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Thanks to different multimedia authoring tools and specialized software that facilitate the design and development of computer-based simulations, science teachers and instructional media designers have a variety of simulations to support instructional delivery. However, there is a lack of research on how instructional designers and science teachers can select, design, and implement science simulations most effectively based on the simulations' visual attributes. One of the design principles that play an important part in the simulation design process is the visual representation of on-screen objects used to describe science concepts or principles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abstract and concrete visual representation of electricity concepts and principles in an instructional simulation on students' declarative knowledge, learning transfer, and perceptions of the simulation. The participants in this study were 39 elementary education pre-service teachers who were randomly assigned to either the concrete or the abstract treatment. The educational intervention was conducted over three 100-minute sessions. Since the sample violated the normality assumption, Mann-Whitney tests were conducted to verify whether the independent variable had significant effects on the three dependent variables. The data analysis found no statistically significant difference on learners' declarative knowledge, learning transfer, and perceptions about the simulation's attributes between those assigned to the concrete treatment and those assigned to the abstract treatment (p>.05). This finding did not favor one type of visual representation over the other.

Mejia, William Ernesto

2011-12-01

124

Neuronal representation of visual motion and orientation in the fly medulla  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In insects, the first extraction of motion and direction clues from local brightness modulations is thought to take place in the medulla. However, whether and how these computations are represented in the medulla stills remain widely unknown, because electrical recording of the neurons in the medulla is difficult. As an effort to overcome this difficulty, we employed local electroporation in vivo in the medulla of the blowfly (Calliphora vicina to stain small ensembles of neurons with a calcium-sensitive dye. We studied the responses of these neuronal ensembles to spatial and temporal brightness modulations and found selectivity for grating orientation. In contrast, the responses to the two opposite directions of motion of a grating with the same orientation were similar in magnitude, indicating that strong directional selectivity is either not present in the types of neurons covered by our data set, or that direction-selective signals are too closely spaced to be distinguished by our calcium imaging. The calcium responses also showed a bell-shaped dependency on the temporal frequency of drifting gratings, with an optimum higher than that observed in one of the subsequent processing stages, i.e., the lobula plate. Medulla responses were elicited by on- as well as off-stimuli with some spatial heterogeneity in the sensitivity for “on” and “off”, and in the polarity of the responses. Medulla neurons thus show similarities to some established principles of motion and edge detection in the vertebrate visual system.

RafaelKurtz

2012-10-01

125

Concurrent Dynamic Visualizations With Expressive Petri Net Representations to Enrich the Understanding of Biological and Pathological Processes: an Application to Signaling Pathways  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En biología de sistemas la visualización dinámica y las representaciones expresivas son necesarias para representar interacciones múltiples que ocurren durante los procesos biológicos en bioredes. La visualización dinámica facilita a los usuarios interactuar con modelos de bioredes, mientras que las [...] representaciones deben expresar como se llevan a cabo las interacciones dentro de éstas. A pesar de que diversas bases de datos proveen de redes a los usuarios, generalmente la información y representación contenidas en cada una son diferentes, y la interacción usuario-biored es restringida debido a la visualización estática. Una solución que se ha adoptado es hacer converger varias representaciones para obtener una más completa. Sin embargo, debido al uso de diferentes formatos incompatibles entre ellos y a las múltiples conexiones involucradas en las redes, la integración frecuentemente resulta en modelos erróneos y en una maraña de conexiones representadas en la red que son muy difíciles de analizar y manipular. En este trabajo introducimos la visualización dinámica concurrente (VDC) de una misma vía, la cual es recuperada de diferentes bases de datos y transformada a representaciones en redes de Petri para facilitar el entendimiento de los procesos biológicos y modificar las vías obtenidas interactuando con ellas. Hemos aplicado esta estrategia al análisis de la vía de señalización de Notch, asociada a cáncer cérvicouterino, obteniéndola de tres diferentes fuentes, comparándolas y manipulándolas simultáneamente interactuando con la VDC provista, hasta la generación de una vía personalizada. Abstract in english Dynamic visualizations and expressive representations are needed in systems biology to handle multiple interactions occurring during the biological processes of biopathway representations. Dynamic visualizations allow users an ease of interaction with pathway models. At the same time, representation [...] s of biopathways should express how interactions take place. In spite of the fact that diverse databases provide users with pathways, their information and representation are frequently different from each other and show restricted interactions because of their static visualization. An adopted solution is to merge diverse representations to obtain a richer one. However, due to different formats and the multiple links involved in the pathway representations, the merge results frequently in erroneous models and in a tangle web of relations very hard to be manipulated. Instead, this work introduces a concurrent dynamic visualization (CDV) of the same pathway, which is retrieved from different sites and then transformed into Petri net representations to facilitate the understanding of their biological processes by interacting with them. We applied this approach to the analysis of the Notch signaling pathway, associated with cervical cancer; we obtained it from different sources which we compared and manipulated simultaneously by interacting with the provided CDV until the user generated a personalized pathway.

F., Ramos; C., Hallal; A., Nieto; D., García; J., Berúmen; D., Escárcega.

2012-10-01

126

Visual Anecdote  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The discourse on information visualization often remains limited to the exploratory function — its potential for discovering patterns in the data. However, visual representations also have a rhetorical function: they demonstrate, persuade, and facilitate communication. In observing how visualization is used in presentations and discussions, I often notice the use of what could be called “visual anecdotes.” Small narratives are tied to individual data points in the visualization, giv...

Offenhuber, Dietmar

2010-01-01

127

A robust index of lexical representation in the left occipito-temporal cortex as evidenced by EEG responses to fast periodic visual stimulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite decades of research on reading, including the relatively recent contributions of neuroimaging and electrophysiology, identifying selective representations of whole visual words (in contrast to pseudowords) in the human brain remains challenging, in particular without an explicit linguistic task. Here we measured discrimination responses to written words by means of electroencephalography (EEG) during fast periodic visual stimulation. Sequences of pseudofonts, nonwords, or pseudowords were presented through sinusoidal contrast modulation at a periodic 10Hz frequency rate (F), in which words were interspersed at regular intervals of every fifth item (i.e., F/5, 2Hz). Participants monitored a central cross color change and had no linguistic task to perform. Within only 3min of stimulation, a robust discrimination response for words at 2Hz (and its harmonics, i.e., 4 and 6Hz) was observed in all conditions, located predominantly over the left occipito-temporal cortex. The magnitude of the response was largest for words embedded in pseudofonts, and larger in nonwords than in pseudowords, showing that list context effects classically reported in behavioral lexical decision tasks are due to visual discrimination rather than decisional processes. Remarkably, the oddball response was significant even for the critical words/pseudowords discrimination condition in every individual participant. A second experiment replicated this words/pseudowords discrimination, and showed that this effect is not accounted for by a higher bigram frequency of words than pseudowords. Without any explicit task, our results highlight the potential of an EEG fast periodic visual stimulation approach for understanding the representation of written language. Its development in the scientific community might be valuable to rapidly and objectively measure sensitivity to word processing in different human populations, including neuropsychological patients with dyslexia and other reading difficulties. PMID:25448857

Lochy, Aliette; Van Belle, Goedele; Rossion, Bruno

2015-01-01

128

Improved representation of retinal data acquired with volumetric Fd-OCT: co-registration, visualization, and reconstruction of a large field of view  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (Fd-OCT) permit visualization of three-dimensional morphology of in-vivo retinal structures in a way that promises to revolutionize clinical and experimental imaging of the retina. The relevance of these advances will be further increased by the recent introduction of several commercial Fd-OCT instruments that can be used in clinical practice. However, due to some inherent limitations of current Fd-OCT technology (e.g., lack of spectroscopic information, inability to measure fluorescent signals), it is important to co-register Fd-OCT data with images obtained by other clinical imaging modalities such as fundus cameras and fluorescence angiography to create a more complete interpretation and representation of structures imaged. The co-registration between different imaging platforms becomes even more important if small retinal changes are monitored for early detection and treatment. Despite advances in volume acquisition speed with FD-OCT, eye/head motion artifacts can be still seen on acquired data. Additionally high-sampling density, large field-of-view (FOV) Fd-OCT volumes may also be needed for comparison with conventional imaging. In standard Fd-OCT systems, higher sampling density and larger imaging FOV (with constant sampling densities) lead to longer acquisition time which further increases eye/head motion artifacts. To overcome those problems, we tested 3D stitching of multiple, smaller retinal volumes which can be acquired in a less time (reduction of motion artifacts) and/or when stitched create a larger FOV representation of the retina. Custom visualization software that makes possible manual co-registration and simultaneous visualization of volumetric Fd-OCT data sets is described. Volumetric visualizations of healthy retinas with corresponding fundus pictures are presented followed by examples of retinal volumes of high sampling density that are created from multiple "standard" Fd-OCT volumes.

Zawadzki, Robert J.; Fuller, Alfred R.; Choi, Stacey S.; Wiley, David F.; Hamann, Bernd; Werner, John S.

2008-02-01

129

The Inspirational Leader  

Science.gov (United States)

Amid the focus on improved standardized test scores, differentiated instruction, value-added initiatives and improved teacher evaluation, one must not ignore an education leader's need to inspire and be inspired. But how do education leaders inspire their students and teachers during some of the most difficult economic times the nation has ever…

Benigni, Mark D.; Hughes, Mark A

2012-01-01

130

Sobre a função das representações conceituais simbólicas na gramática do design visual: encaixamento ou subjacência? / On the functions of symbolic conceptual representations in the grammar of visual design: embedded or underlying patterns?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nosso objetivo neste trabalho é discutir a função das categorias gramaticais atributo simbólico e portador na Gramática do Design Visual (KRESS e van LEEUWEN, 2006 [1996]). Para os autores, estes constituintes, pertencentes à metafunção ideacional, poderiam estar presentes ou não em estruturas conce [...] ituais simbólicas, conferindo a um participante um valor que o caracterizaria e/ou o conceituaria. Advogamos aqui que, decorrente dessa função, os atributos simbólicos e os portadores são responsáveis pela realização de inferências por parte dos leitores de imagens e, portanto, estão sempre presentes em quaisquer representações visuais. Em virtude disso, entendemos que as representações conceituais simbólicas não estão no mesmo nível de autonomia que as representações narrativas e conceituais classificatórias e analíticas, e sim num nível de subjacência. Abstract in english Our aim in this article is to discuss the function of the grammatical categories symbolic attribute and carrier in the Grammar of Visual Design (Kress and van Leeuwen, 2006 [1996]). For the authors, these constituents, belonging to the ideational metafunction, could be present or not in symbolic con [...] ceptual structures, giving a participant a value that would characterize and/or conceptualize him. We advocate that, as a result of the ideational function, symbolic attributes and carriers are responsible for the production of inferences by the readers of images and, therefore, are always present in any visual representation. As a result, we believe that symbolic conceptual representations are not at the same level of autonomy as classifying and analytical narrative and conceptual representations, but at the level of underlying patterns.

Bernardete, Biasi-Rodrigues; Kennedy Cabral, Nobre.

2010-04-01

131

Audio-visual synchrony modulates the ventriloquist illusion and its neural/spatial representation in the auditory cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

An essential task of our perceptual systems is to bind together the distinctive features of single objects and events into unitary percepts, even when those features are registered in different sensory modalities. In cases where auditory and visual inputs are spatially incongruent, they may still be perceived as belonging to a single event at the location of the visual stimulus - a phenomenon known as the 'ventriloquist illusion'. The present study examined how audio-visual temporal congruence influences the ventriloquist illusion and characterized its neural underpinnings with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behaviorally, the ventriloquist illusion was reduced for asynchronous versus synchronous audio-visual stimuli, in accordance with previous reports. Neural activity patterns associated with the ventriloquist effect were consistently observed in the planum temporale (PT), with a reduction in illusion-related fMRI-signals ipsilateral to visual stimulation for central sounds perceived peripherally and a contralateral increase in illusion-related fMRI-signals for peripheral sounds perceived centrally. Moreover, it was found that separate but adjacent regions within the PT were preferentially activated for ventriloquist illusions produced by synchronous and asynchronous audio-visual stimulation. We conclude that the left-right balance of neural activity in the PT represents the neural code that underlies the ventriloquist illusion, with greater activity in the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to the direction of the perceived shift of sound location. PMID:24814210

Bonath, Björn; Noesselt, Toemme; Krauel, Kerstin; Tyll, Sascha; Tempelmann, Claus; Hillyard, Steven A

2014-09-01

132

Real-world scene representations in high-level visual cortex -- it’s the spaces more than the places  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Real-world scenes are incredibly complex and heterogeneous, yet we are able to identify and categorize them effortlessly. In humans, the ventral temporal Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA) has been implicated in scene processing, but scene information is contained in many visual areas, leaving their specific contributions unclear. While early theories of PPA emphasized its role in spatial processing, more recent reports of its function have emphasized semantic or contextual processing. Here, us...

Kravitz, Dwight J.; Peng, Cynthia S.; Baker, Chris I.

2011-01-01

133

Bio-inspired vision  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems, if they are to succeed in demanding applications such as autonomous robot navigation, micro-manipulation or high-speed tracking, must exploit the power of the asynchronous, frame-free, biomimetic approach.

134

ProfileGrids as a new visual representation of large multiple sequence alignments: a case study of the RecA protein family  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sequence alignments are a fundamental tool for the comparative analysis of proteins and nucleic acids. However, large data sets are no longer manageable for visualization and investigation using the traditional stacked sequence alignment representation. Results We introduce ProfileGrids that represent a multiple sequence alignment as a matrix color-coded according to the residue frequency occurring at each column position. JProfileGrid is a Java application for computing and analyzing ProfileGrids. A dynamic interaction with the alignment information is achieved by changing the ProfileGrid color scheme, by extracting sequence subsets at selected residues of interest, and by relating alignment information to residue physical properties. Conserved family motifs can be identified by the overlay of similarity plot calculations on a ProfileGrid. Figures suitable for publication can be generated from the saved spreadsheet output of the colored matrices as well as by the export of conservation information for use in the PyMOL molecular visualization program. We demonstrate the utility of ProfileGrids on 300 bacterial homologs of the RecA family – a universally conserved protein involved in DNA recombination and repair. Careful attention was paid to curating the collected RecA sequences since ProfileGrids allow the easy identification of rare residues in an alignment. We relate the RecA alignment sequence conservation to the following three topics: the recently identified DNA binding residues, the unexplored MAW motif, and a unique Bacillus subtilis RecA homolog sequence feature. Conclusion ProfileGrids allow large protein families to be visualized more effectively than the traditional stacked sequence alignment form. This new graphical representation facilitates the determination of the sequence conservation at residue positions of interest, enables the examination of structural patterns by using residue physical properties, and permits the display of rare sequence features within the context of an entire alignment. JProfileGrid is free for non-commercial use and is available from http://www.profilegrid.org. Furthermore, we present a curated RecA protein collection that is more diverse than previous data sets; and, therefore, this RecA ProfileGrid is a rich source of information for nanoanatomy analysis.

Abajian Aaron C

2008-12-01

135

Music and Representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Composers, performers, and music critics in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries frequently distinguished Western music from other forms of art on the basis that it is not representational. In contrast to the focus on representation that characterized theoretical discussions of meaning in the visual arts, writings about music often emphasized and valued music’s abstraction and autonomy from social and historical contexts, and from any other representational genesis of meaning. ...

2012-01-01

136

Virtual visual reminiscing pain stimulation of allodynia patients activates cortical representation of pain and emotions. fMRI study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is widely known that sensation of the pain is derived from sensory-discriminative factor and emotional factor. Especially in chronic pain, emotional factors and psychosocial backgrounds are more likely to contribute for the patients' discomfort. The aim of this study is to investigate how emotional factor of pain participates in intractable pain. We employed functional MRI (fMRI) to compare the brain activations occurring in the orthopaedic neuropathic pain patients with allodynia and normal individuals in response to the visual virtual painful experience. During fMRI scanning, a video demonstrating an actual tactile stimulation of the palm and its imitation were shown to participants. In contrast to normal individuals, allodynia patients also displayed activation of the areas reflecting emotions: frontal lobe and anterior cingulate. These findings suggest that brain have important role in the development and maintaining of peripheral originated chronic painful condition. (author)

137

Physicists get INSPIREd  

CERN Multimedia

Particle physicists thrive on information. They first create information by performing experiments or elaborating theoretical conjectures and then they share it through publications and various web tools. The INSPIRE service, just released, will bring state of the art information retrieval to the fingertips of researchers.   Keeping track of the information shared within the particle physics community has long been the task of libraries at the larger labs, such as CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, as well as the focus of indispensible services like arXiv and those of the Particle Data Group. In 2007, many providers of information in the field came together for a summit at SLAC to see how physics information resources could be enhanced, and the INSPIRE project emerged from that meeting. The vision behind INSPIRE was built by a survey launched by the four labs to evaluate the real needs of the community. INSPIRE responds to these directives from the community by combining the most successful aspe...

CERN Bulletin

2010-01-01

138

99% (Biological) Inspiration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Greater understanding of biology in modern times has enabled significant breakthroughs in improving healthcare, quality of life, and eliminating many diseases and congenital illnesses. Simultaneously there is a move towards emulating nature and copying many of the wonders uncovered in biology, resulting in “biologically inspired” systems. Significant results have been reported in a wide range of areas, with systems inspired by nature enabling exploration, communication, and advances that ...

Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy

2006-01-01

139

Quantum-inspired teleportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. A special class of situations when such transmissions are useful is outlined. Application of such a quantum-inspired teleportation, i.e. instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances for security of communications is discussed. Similarities and differences between quantum systems and quantum-classical hybrids are emphasized.

Zak, Michail [Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)], E-mail: michail.zak@gmail.com

2009-10-15

140

Inspiration is "Mission Critical"  

Science.gov (United States)

In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

Which infrastructure support for visual data creation, archiving and visualization?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual data are nowadays a basic component of the massive data gathered in archaeology. With the term visual data we mean any visual representation that could be associated to an artwork, architecture or site, to describe its shape in terms of visual and geometric elements. Therefore, different representations are included: 2D images (standard images, panoramic images, Reflection Transformation Images - RTI), 2D graphical representations such as maps or drawings (usually represented by standa...

Scopigno, Roberto; Dellepiane, Matteo

2013-01-01

142

An eye for inspiration  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery that the eye of a particular mantis shrimp has an achromatic quarter-waveplate that is superior to modern-day devices could be a source of inspiration to those designing optical components. Nature Photonics spoke to Nicholas Roberts, one of the researchers involved in the study.

2009-11-01

143

On Krammer's Representation of the Braid Group  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A connection is made between the Krammer representation and the Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebra. Inspired by a dimension argument, a basis is found for a certain irrep of the algebra, and relations which generate the matrices are found. Following a rescaling and change of parameters, the matrices are found to be identical to those of the Krammer representation. The two representations are thus the same, proving the irreducibility of one and the faithfulness of the other.

Zinno, Matthew G.

2000-01-01

144

Perceptual Image Representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a rarity-based visual attention model working on both still images and video sequences. Applications of this kind of models are numerous and we focus on a perceptual image representation which enhances the perceptually important areas and uses lower resolution for perceptually less important regions. Our aim is to provide an approximation of human perception by visualizing its gradual discovery of the visual environment. Comparisons with classical methods for visual attention show that the proposed algorithm is well adapted to anisotropic filtering purposes. Moreover, it has a high ability to preserve perceptually important areas as defects or abnormalities from an important loss of information. High accuracy on low-contrast defects and scalable real-time video compression may be some practical applications of the proposed image representation.

Matei Mancas

2007-09-01

145

Nanotechnology: Inspiration from Nature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nanotechnology is molecular manipulation. Any branch of technology that results from our ability to control and manipulate matter on length scales of 1-100 nm can be treated as nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is not new to nature. Nature has been doing molecular manipulation to build its systems like plants and animals. After observing and understanding the fundamental design principles of natural products, one gets inspiration to build his own nanoproducts. This paper stimulates a nanotechnic...

Sheeparamatti B; Sheeparamatti R; Kadadevaramath J

2007-01-01

146

Astronomy. Inspiration. Art  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazi? (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maleti? (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djuki?, Nenad Jeremi?, Olivera Obradovi?, Romana Vujasinovi?, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.

Stanic, N.

2008-10-01

147

Inspiring a generation  

CERN Multimedia

The motto of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is ‘Inspire a generation’ so it was particularly pleasing to see science, the LHC and Higgs bosons featuring so strongly in the opening ceremony of the Paralympics last week.   It’s a sign of just how far our field has come that such a high-profile event featured particle physics so strongly, and we can certainly add our support to that motto. If the legacy of London 2012 is a generation inspired by science as well as sport, then the games will have more than fulfilled their mission. Particle physics has truly inspiring stories to tell, going well beyond Higgs and the LHC, and the entire community has played its part in bringing the excitement of frontier research in particle physics to a wide audience. Nevertheless, we cannot rest on our laurels: maintaining the kind of enthusiasm for science we witnessed at the Paralympic opening ceremony will require constant vigilance, and creative thinking about ways to rea...

2012-01-01

148

Quantum-Inspired Maximizer  

Science.gov (United States)

A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

Zak, Michail

2008-01-01

149

Tree-inspired piezoelectric energy harvesting  

Science.gov (United States)

We design and test micro-watt energy-harvesters inspired by tree trunks swaying in the wind. A uniform flow vibrates a linear array of four cylinders affixed to piezoelectric energy transducers. Particular attention is paid to measuring the energy generated as a function of cylinder spacing, flow speed, and relative position of the cylinder within the array. Peak power is generated using cylinder center-to-center spacings of 3.3 diameters and flow speeds in which the vortex shedding frequency is 1.6 times the natural frequency of the cylinders. Using these flow speeds and spacings, the power generated by downstream cylinders can exceed that of leading cylinders by more than an order of magnitude. We visualize the flow in this system by studying the behavior of a dynamically matched flowing soap film with imbedded styrofoam disks. Our qualitative visualizations suggest that peak energy harvesting occurs under conditions in which vortices have fully detached from the leading cylinder.

Hobbs, William B.; Hu, David L.

2012-01-01

150

Biologically-Inspired Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

A Web site from Michigan State University (1) is a useful starting point for learning about biologically inspired technologies. In addition to briefly discussing the natural processes that are most commonly studied in the development of such technologies, there is a large collection of links to other research efforts and related material. The Ant Colony Optimization project (2) uses the behavior of ants as a model to solve optimization problems, such as how to minimize Internet traffic congestion. Several downloadable research papers are included on the project's homepage, as well as links to news stories, radio broadcasts, and conference proceedings about ant algorithms. A seminar course at the University of Virginia (3) in spring 2003 considered aspects of biologically-inspired computing. The course homepage has links to journal articles and research papers that range in topic from evolutionary programming to spacecraft designs based on living cells. Biomimetics is the focus of work being done at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (4). One of the selected publications available on the Web site will be presented at an international conference in July 2003. The paper discusses the use of artificial muscles in intelligent robots. A research group at the California Institute of Technology (5) is studying the capability of DNA and other biomolecules to process information and implement algorithms. A general overview of the group's purpose and motivation is provided, as well as a number of publications. An excellent background of some of the most significant developments in artificial life and intelligence is given in a 56-page paper from Hewlett-Packard Laboratories (6). The author discusses many different issues, including neural networks and software agents, and concludes by alluding to future application areas. Cutting edge, biologically-inspired robots are the topic of a June 2003 news article from The Boston Globe (7). These robots include RoboLobster and BigDog, the latter of which is said will be able to run at fifteen miles per hour when it is finished around the beginning of 2005. Finally, a NASA technology brief from May 2003 (8) discusses efforts to combine characteristics of several different species into one artificial creation to optimally serve the purposes of a mission.

Leske, Cavin.

151

How does sense emerge in the visual system? The cognitive visual system explored from categories to consciousness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

How does sense emerges in the visual system? In this thesis we will be focused on the visual system of human and non-human primates and their large capacity of extract and represent visual information. We studied several levels of visual representations from those related to the extraction of coarse visual features to the emergence of conscious visual representations. This manuscript presents six works in which we explored: (1) the visual features necessary to perform ultra-rapid visual categ...

Koenig, Roger

2012-01-01

152

Meaning-focused and Quantum-inspired Information Retrieval  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, quantum-based methods have promisingly integrated the traditional procedures in information retrieval (IR) and natural language processing (NLP). Inspired by our research on the identification and application of quantum structures in cognition, more specifically our work on the representation of concepts and their combinations, we put forward a 'quantum meaning based' framework for structured query retrieval in text corpora and standardized testing corpora. ...

Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas

2013-01-01

153

ELVIS: Extensible Log VISualization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, we propose ELVIS, a security-oriented log visualization tool that allows security experts to visually explore numerous types of log files through relevant representations. When a log file is loaded into ELVIS, a summary view is displayed. This view is the starting point for exploring the log. The analyst can then choose to explore certain fields or sets of fields from the dataset. To that end, ELVIS selects relevant representations according to the fields chosen by the analys...

Humphries, Christopher; Prigent, Nicolas; Bidan, Christophe; Majorczyk, Fre?de?ric

2013-01-01

154

Immuno-inspired robotic applications: a review  

CERN Document Server

Artificial immune systems primarily mimic the adaptive nature of biological immune functions. Their ability to adapt to varying pathogens makes such systems a suitable choice for various robotic applications. Generally, AIS-based robotic applications map local instantaneous sensory information into either an antigen or a co-stimulatory signal, according to the choice of representation schema. Algorithms then use relevant immune functions to output either evolved antibodies or maturity of dendritic cells, in terms of actuation signals. It is observed that researchers, in an attempt to solve the problem in hand, do not try to replicate the biological immunity but select necessary immune functions instead, resulting in an ad-hoc manner these applications are reported. Authors, therefore, present a comprehensive review of immuno-inspired robotic applications in an attempt to categorize them according to underlying immune definitions. Implementation details are tabulated in terms of corresponding mathematical expr...

Raza, Ali

2012-01-01

155

Biologically inspired emotion recognition from speech  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Emotion recognition has become a fundamental task in human-computer interaction systems. In this article, we propose an emotion recognition approach based on biologically inspired methods. Specifically, emotion classification is performed using a long short-term memory (LSTM recurrent neural network which is able to recognize long-range dependencies between successive temporal patterns. We propose to represent data using features derived from two different models: mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC and the Lyon cochlear model. In the experimental phase, results obtained from the LSTM network and the two different feature sets are compared, showing that features derived from the Lyon cochlear model give better recognition results in comparison with those obtained with the traditional MFCC representation.

Buscicchio Cosimo

2011-01-01

156

LAS CONEXIONES ENTRE EL PENSAMIENTO DE ALEJANDRO MALASPINA Y LA REPRESENTACIÓN VISUAL DE LA EXPEDICIÓN EN LA PATAGONIA (1789-1794) THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE THOUGHT OF ALEJANDRO MALASPINA AND VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF THE EXPEDITION IN PATAGONIA (1789-1794)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El objetivo del trabajo es estudiar la expedición al mando de Alejandro Malaspina (1789-1794) específicamente, su paso por la Patagonia. Observar cómo coincide la formación profesional del capitán con el imaginario dieciochesco en España, y aventurar una explicación al trabajo visual de José del Pozo sobre los indígenas del sur. Revisar qué elementos del arte neoclásico están presentes en sus registros visuales, además de verificar los nexos con el pensamiento malaspiniano, en lo...

Gabriela A?lvarez, S. G.

2010-01-01

157

Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modulates the parameters of the locomotor central pattern generators. We present phonotactic performance results of the simulated lizard-salamander hybrid robot.

Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John

158

[Medicine inspired by poverty].  

Science.gov (United States)

Since his arrival in Egypt in 1994 the author joined a number of archaeological expeditions as a surveyor and part-time physician. During this latter activity he came into contact with the beliefs and practices of the local workmen and those of the Ababda Bedouin in particular. Living a harsh life in the southern part of the Egyptian Eastern Desert, their medicine seems to be inspired by poverty. Widely used for all internal disorders are 'kaya bil-naar': oval scars made with red-hot metal instruments. Another, less common, form of scarification is 'mi'ah-hed'asher', three parallel lines carved deeply into the cheek of the patient. 'Muhawy' is the bite of a snake into the earlobe of the patient, to prevent snake-bites. Another prophylactic is the 'higab', a small leather pouch containing a magical object or text. Therapies for less serious disorders include the use of herbs, spices and foodstuffs, often prepared in special ways. Externally, car fuel and axle grease are widely used. With the development of the Red Sea coast for tourism, the life of the Ababda Bedouin will change fundamentally. The above practices are likely to be replaced by Western medicine, probably a change for the better for these people. PMID:10827851

Barnard, H

2000-05-13

159

Automated objective characterization of visual field defects in 3D  

Science.gov (United States)

A method and apparatus for electronically performing a visual field test for a patient. A visual field test pattern is displayed to the patient on an electronic display device and the patient's responses to the visual field test pattern are recorded. A visual field representation is generated from the patient's responses. The visual field representation is then used as an input into a variety of automated diagnostic processes. In one process, the visual field representation is used to generate a statistical description of the rapidity of change of a patient's visual field at the boundary of a visual field defect. In another process, the area of a visual field defect is calculated using the visual field representation. In another process, the visual field representation is used to generate a statistical description of the volume of a patient's visual field defect.

Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor)

2006-01-01

160

Intrathalamic Mechanisms of Visual Attention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The classical model of visual processing emphasizes the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) as the major intermediary between the retina and visual cortex. Yet, anatomical findings inspired Francis Crick to suggest an alternative model in which the thalamic reticular nucleus, which envelops the LGN, acts as the “guardian” of visual cortex by modulating LGN activity. Recent work by McAlonan and colleagues supports Crick's hypothesis, thereby enhancing our understanding of the early stages of ...

Mayo, J. Patrick

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Nature-inspired optimization algorithms  

CERN Document Server

Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

Yang, Xin-She

2014-01-01

162

Inspiration, anyone? (Editorial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I have to admit that writing an editorial for this issue was a struggle. Trying to sit down and write when the sun was shining outside and most of my colleagues were on vacation was, to say the least, difficult. Add to that research projects and conferences…let’s just say that I found myself less than inspired. A pitiful plea for ideas to a colleague resulted in the reintroduction to a few recent evidence based papers and resources which inspired further searching and reading. Though I generally find myself surrounded (more like buried in research papers and EBLIP literature, somehow I had missed the great strides that have been made of late in the world of evidence based library and information practice. I realize now that I am inspired by the researchers, authors and innovators who are putting EBLIP on the proverbial map. My biggest beef with library literature in general has been the plethora of articles highlighting what we should be doing. Take a close look at the evidence based practitioners in the information professions: these are some of the people who are actively practicing what has been preached for the past few years. Take, for example, the about?to?be released Libraries using Evidence Toolkit by Northern Sydney Central Coast Health and The University of Newcastle, Australia (see their announcement in this issue. An impressive advisory group is responsible for maintaining the currency and relevancy of the site as well as promoting the site and acting as a steering committee for related projects. This group is certainly doing more than “talking the talk”: they took their experience at the 3rd International Evidence Based Librarianship Conference and did something with the information they obtained by implementing solutions that worked in their environment. The result? The creation of a collection of tools for all of us to use. This toolkit is just what EBLIP needs: a portal to resources aimed at supporting the information specialists who want to adopt the evidence based model of practice. I have already got it bookmarked and set up an RSS feed. Even before the official toolkit launch, a wealth of information is available on the website including presentations, project and events information, and a blog containing site updates. There has been much discussion on increasing the knowledge base from which to draw evidence for library and information practitioners. Original research needs to be published so that we can use it as evidence to support our decision making. The literature is lacking the significant numbers of publication types widely considered to be the highest level of evidence: systematic reviews, meta?analyses and randomized controlled trials. This issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice proudly boasts both a systematic review/meta?analysis and a randomized controlled trial. Denise Koufogiannakis and Natasha Wiebe, in their systematic review/meta?analysis, provide evidence that shows that computer assisted instruction is as effective as traditional instruction for students at an introductory, undergraduate level. Nicola Pearce?Smith compared the effectiveness of self?directed, web?based learning with a classroom?based, interactive workshop in her randomized controlled trial. I am looking forward to reading and utilizing more and more of these in the future. Another example is even closer to home. I recently attended a strategic planning meeting at my institution where new services and procedures were discussed. Unlike the past, when new initiatives were implemented and later evaluated, all librarians instinctively indicated that the literature should be searched first to see if there was any evidence either for or against changing or adding new services or procedures. The evidence based model of practice is catching on. I know that there are numerous examples of information practitioners taking a proactive role in putting research into practice, and many research papers that are worth mentioning. To highlight them all would be a task muc

Lindsay Glynn

2006-09-01

163

Visualizing the analysis process: CZSaw's History View  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Capturing and visualizing the data analysis process is a growing research domain. Visual Analytics tool designers try to understand the analysis process in order to provide better tools. Existing research in process visualization suggests that capturing and visualizing the history of the analysis process is an effective form of process visualization. CZSaw is a Visual Analytics tool that provides visual representations of both data and the analysis process. In this thesis, we discuss the desi...

Kadivar, Nazanin

2011-01-01

164

Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

2011-12-01

165

LAS CONEXIONES ENTRE EL PENSAMIENTO DE ALEJANDRO MALASPINA Y LA REPRESENTACIÓN VISUAL DE LA EXPEDICIÓN EN LA PATAGONIA (1789-1794) / THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE THOUGHT OF ALEJANDRO MALASPINA AND VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF THE EXPEDITION IN PATAGONIA (1789-1794)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del trabajo es estudiar la expedición al mando de Alejandro Malaspina (1789-1794) específicamente, su paso por la Patagonia. Observar cómo coincide la formación profesional del capitán con el imaginario dieciochesco en España, y aventurar una explicación al trabajo visual de José del Poz [...] o sobre los indígenas del sur. Revisar qué elementos del arte neoclásico están presentes en sus registros visuales, además de verificar los nexos con el pensamiento malaspiniano, en lo que respecta a la evaluación de la situación colonial en América. Abstract in english The aim of this work is to study the expedition led by Alejandro Malaspina (1789-1794) and specifically its passage through Patagonia. See how his professional training coincides with the imaginary predominant in Spain during the XVIIIth century, and adventure an explanation for the visual work of J [...] osé del Pozo on the indigenous people of the south. Check which neoclassical art elements are present in their visual records, in addition to the links with the thought of Malaspina, regarding the evaluation of the colonial situation in America.

GABRIELA S, ÁLVAREZ G.

166

Matroids, hereditary collections and simplicial complexes having boolean representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inspired by the work of Izakhian and Rhodes, a theory of representation of hereditary collections by boolean matrices is developed. This corresponds to representation by finite $\\vee$-generated lattices. The lattice of flats, defined for hereditary collections, lattices and matrices, plays a central role in the theory. The representations constitute a lattice and the minimal and strictly join irreducible elements are studied, as well as various closure operators.

Rhodes, John; Silva, Pedro V.

2012-01-01

167

Bio-Inspired Antifouling Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofouling is a complex, dynamic problem that globally impacts both the economy and environment. Interdisciplinary research in marine biology, polymer science, and engineering has led to the implementation of bio-inspired strategies for the development of the next generation of antifouling marine coatings. Natural fouling defense mechanisms have been mimicked through chemical, physical, and/or stimuli-responsive strategies. This review outlines the detrimental effects associated with biofouling, describes the theoretical basis for antifouling coating design, and highlights prominent advances in bio-inspired antifouling technologies.

Kirschner, Chelsea M.; Brennan, Anthony B.

2012-08-01

168

Linear Classifiers Based on Binary Distributed Representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Binary distributed representations of vector data (numerical, textual, visual) are investigated in classification tasks. A comparative analysis of results for various methods and tasks using artificial and real-world data is given.

Rachkovskij, Dmitri

2007-01-01

169

The Molecule Cloud - compact visualization of large collections of molecules  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis and visualization of large collections of molecules is one of the most frequent challenges cheminformatics experts in pharmaceutical industry are facing. Various sophisticated methods are available to perform this task, including clustering, dimensionality reduction or scaffold frequency analysis. In any case, however, viewing and analyzing large tables with molecular structures is necessary. We present a new visualization technique, providing basic information about the composition of molecular data sets at a single glance. Summary A method is presented here allowing visual representation of the most common structural features of chemical databases in a form of a cloud diagram. The frequency of molecules containing particular substructure is indicated by the size of respective structural image. The method is useful to quickly perceive the most prominent structural features present in the data set. This approach was inspired by popular word cloud diagrams that are used to visualize textual information in a compact form. Therefore we call this approach “Molecule Cloud”. The method also supports visualization of additional information, for example biological activity of molecules containing this scaffold or the protein target class typical for particular scaffolds, by color coding. Detailed description of the algorithm is provided, allowing easy implementation of the method by any cheminformatics toolkit. The layout algorithm is available as open source Java code. Conclusions Visualization of large molecular data sets using the Molecule Cloud approach allows scientists to get information about the composition of molecular databases and their most frequent structural features easily. The method may be used in the areas where analysis of large molecular collections is needed, for example processing of high throughput screening results, virtual screening or compound purchasing. Several example visualizations of large data sets, including PubChem, ChEMBL and ZINC databases using the Molecule Cloud diagrams are provided.

Ertl Peter

2012-07-01

170

Hyperspectral Imagery Super-Resolution by Compressive Sensing Inspired Dictionary Learning and Spatial-Spectral Regularization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the instrumental and imaging optics limitations, it is difficult to acquire high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery (HSI. Super-resolution (SR imagery aims at inferring high quality images of a given scene from degraded versions of the same scene. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral imagery super-resolution (HSI-SR method via dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization. The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, inspired by the compressive sensing (CS framework, for learning the high resolution dictionary, we encourage stronger sparsity on image patches and promote smaller coherence between the learned dictionary and sensing matrix. Thus, a sparsity and incoherence restricted dictionary learning method is proposed to achieve higher efficiency sparse representation. Second, a variational regularization model combing a spatial sparsity regularization term and a new local spectral similarity preserving term is proposed to integrate the spectral and spatial-contextual information of the HSI. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recover spatial information and better preserve spectral information. The high spatial resolution HSI reconstructed by the proposed method outperforms reconstructed results by other well-known methods in terms of both objective measurements and visual evaluation.

Wei Huang

2015-01-01

171

Hyperspectral imagery super-resolution by compressive sensing inspired dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the instrumental and imaging optics limitations, it is difficult to acquire high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Super-resolution (SR) imagery aims at inferring high quality images of a given scene from degraded versions of the same scene. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral imagery super-resolution (HSI-SR) method via dictionary learning and spatial-spectral regularization. The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, inspired by the compressive sensing (CS) framework, for learning the high resolution dictionary, we encourage stronger sparsity on image patches and promote smaller coherence between the learned dictionary and sensing matrix. Thus, a sparsity and incoherence restricted dictionary learning method is proposed to achieve higher efficiency sparse representation. Second, a variational regularization model combing a spatial sparsity regularization term and a new local spectral similarity preserving term is proposed to integrate the spectral and spatial-contextual information of the HSI. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recover spatial information and better preserve spectral information. The high spatial resolution HSI reconstructed by the proposed method outperforms reconstructed results by other well-known methods in terms of both objective measurements and visual evaluation. PMID:25608212

Huang, Wei; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Hongyi; Wei, Zhihui

2015-01-01

172

Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ra giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

173

VisualLISA: a visual environment to develop attribute grammars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The focus of this paper is on crafting a new visual language for attribute grammars (AGs), and on the development of the associated programming environment. We present a solution for rapid development of VisualLISA editor using DEViL. DEViL uses traditional attribute grammars, to specify the language’s syntax and semantics, extended by visual representations to be associated with grammar symbols. From these specifications a visual programming environment is automatically generated. ...

Oliveira, Nuno; Pereira, Maria Joa?o; Henriques, Pedro; Cruz, Daniela; Cramer, Bastian

2010-01-01

174

Measuring visual abilities and visual knowledge of aviation security screeners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A central aspect of airport security is reliable detection of forbidden objects in passenger bags using X-ray screening equipment. Human recognition involves visual processing of the X-ray image and matching items with object representations stored in visual memory. Thus, without knowing which objects are forbidden and what they look like, prohibited items are difficult to recognize (aspect of visual knowledge). In order to measure whether a screener has acquired the necessary visual knowledg...

Schwaninger, Adrian; Hardmeier, Diana; Hofer, Franziska

2004-01-01

175

London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration  

Science.gov (United States)

Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

Guhin, Paula

2012-01-01

176

Novel locomotion via biological inspiration  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal behavioral, physiological and neurobiological studies are providing a wealth of inspirational data for robot design and control. Several very different biologically inspired mobile robots will be reviewed. A robot called DIGbot is being developed that moves independent of the direction of gravity using Distributed Inward Gripping (DIG) as a rapid and robust attachment mechanism observed in climbing animals. DIGbot is an 18 degree of freedom hexapod with onboard power and control systems. Passive compliance in its feet, which is inspired by the flexible tarsus of the cockroach, increases the robustness of the adhesion strategy and enables DIGbot to execute large steps and stationary turns while walking on mesh screens. A Whegs™ robot, inspired by insect locomotion principles, is being developed that can be rapidly reconfigured between tracks and wheel-legs and carry GeoSystems Zipper Mast. The mechanisms that cause it to passively change its gait on irregular terrain have been integrated into its hubs for a compact and modular design. The robot is designed to move smoothly on moderately rugged terrain using its tracks and run on irregular terrain and stairs using its wheel-legs. We are also developing soft bodied robots that use peristalsis, the same method of locomotion earthworms use. We present a technique of using a braided mesh exterior to produce fluid waves of motion along the body of the robot that increase the robot's speed relative to previous designs. The concept is highly scalable, for endoscopes to water, oil or gas line inspection.

Quinn, Roger D.; Boxerbaum, Alexander; Palmer, Luther; Chiel, Hillel; Diller, Eric; Hunt, Alexander; Bachmann, Richard

2011-05-01

177

Towards Ecology Inspired Software Engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecosystems are complex and dynamic systems. Over billions of years, they have developed advanced capabilities to provide stable functions, despite changes in their environment. In this paper, we argue that the laws of organization and development of ecosystems provide a solid and rich source of inspiration to lay the foundations for novel software construction paradigms that provide stability as much as openness.

Baudry, Benoit; Monperrus, Martin

2012-01-01

178

Exploring Linear Functions: Representational Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

This "series of explorations based on two linked representations of linear functions" allows students to manipulate the values of m and b in linear function f(x) = mx + b and get a visual understanding of the results. This particular site guides student through this exploration by asking them to perform five different manipulations and describe the changes that occur.

2010-07-22

179

Supporting Polyrepresentation in a Quantum-inspired geometrical Retrieval Framework  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The relevance of a document has many facets, going beyond the usual topical one, which have to be considered to satisfy a user's information need. Multiple representations of documents, like user-given reviews or the actual document content, can give evidence towards certain facets of relevance. In this respect polyrepresentation of documents, where such evidence is combined, is a crucial concept to estimate the relevance of a document. In this paper, we discuss how a geometrical retrieval framework inspired by quantum mechanics can be extended to support polyrepresentation. We show by example how different representations of a document can be modelled in a Hilbert space, similar to physical systems known from quantum mechanics. We further illustrate how these representations are combined by means of the tensor product to support polyrepresentation, and discuss the case that representations of documents are not independent from a user point of view. Besides giving a principled framework for polyrepresentation, the potential of this approach is to capture and formalise the complex interdependent relationships that the different representations can have between each other.

Frommholz, Ingo; Larsen, Birger

2010-01-01

180

INSPIRE 2012 da Istanbul a Firenze  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DURING THE CONFERENCE HELD IN  ISTANBUL IN  2012 INSPIRE  THE  NEWS  THAT  MOST  IMPRESSED ITALIANS PRESENT,  EVEN THOSE IN THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION , WAS THAT THE NEXT  INSPIRE CONFERENCE WILL TAKE PLACE IN  FLORENCEDurante la conferenza INSPIRE 2012 svoltasi ad Istanbul la notizia che ha maggiormente colpito gli italiani presenti, anche quelli della pubblica amministrazione , è stata che la prossima Conferenza INSPIRE si svolgerà a Firenze dal 23 al 27 giugno 2013...

Mauro Salvemini

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Digital models for architectonical representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital instruments and technologies enrich architectonical representation and communication opportunities. Computer graphics is organized according the two phases of visualization and construction, that is modeling and rendering, structuring dichotomy of software technologies. Visualization modalities give different kinds of representations of the same 3D model and instruments produce a separation between drawing and image’s creation. Reverse modeling can be related to a synthesis process, ‘direct modeling’ follows an analytic procedure. The difference between interactive and not interactive applications is connected to the possibilities offered by informatics instruments, and relates to modeling and rendering. At the same time the word ‘model’ describes different phenomenon (i.e. files: mathematical model of the building and of the scene; raster representation and post-processing model. All these correlated different models constitute the architectonical interpretative model, that is a simulation of reality made by the model for improving the knowledge.

Stefano Brusaporci

2011-12-01

182

Ventral-stream-like shape representation: from pixel intensity values to trainable object-selective COSFIRE models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The remarkable abilities of the primate visual cortex have inspired the construction of computational models of some visual neurons. We propose a trainable hierarchical object recognition model, which we call S-COSFIRE (S stands for Shape and COSFIRE stands for Combination Of Shifted FIlter REsponses and use it to localize and recognize objects of interests embedded in complex scenes. It is inspired by the visual processing in the ventral stream (V1/V2 -> V4 -> TEO. Recognition and localization of objects embedded in complex scenes is important for many computer vision applications. Most existing methods require prior segmentation of the objects from the background which on its turn requires recognition. A S-COSFIRE filter is automatically configured to be selective for an arrangement of contour-based features that belong to a prototype shape specified by an example. The configuration comprises selecting relevant vertex detectors and determining certain blur and shift parameters. The response is computed as the weighted geometric mean of the blurred and shifted responses of the selected vertex detectors. S-COSFIRE filters share similar properties with some neurons in inferotemporal cortex, which provided inspiration for this work. We demonstrate the effectiveness of S-COSFIRE filters in two applications: letter and keyword spotting in handwritten manuscripts and object spotting in complex scenes for the computer vision system of a domestic robot. S-COSFIRE filters are effective to recognize and localize (deformable objects in images of complex scenes without requiring prior segmentation. They are versatile trainable shape detectors, conceptually simple and easy to implement. The presented hierarchical shape representation contributes to a better understanding of the brain and to more robust computer vision algorithms.

George Azzopardi

2014-07-01

183

A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

O' Connell, Heath B.; /Fermilab

2010-04-01

184

ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF MATCHING INSPIRED LUNG VOLUME  

Science.gov (United States)

Three questions were asked: How accurately can lung volumes be reproduced. Do the underlying sensory continua of inspired lung volume subscribe to Weber's law. Are planned inspirations more accurately reproduced than constrained inspirations. The ability to match inspired lung vo...

185

Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters from their eye-centred (i.e., retinal locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Conversely, there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words – which was the model’s learning objective – is largely based on letter-level information.

Maria GraziaDi Bono

2013-09-01

186

Decrypting $SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis  

CERN Document Server

Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of $SO(10)$-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry $N^{\\rm p,i}_{B-L}$, the strong thermal (ST) condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the {\\rm ST}-$SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analy...

Di Bari, Pasquale; Fiorentin, Michele Re

2014-01-01

187

Bio-Inspired Computing and Networking  

CERN Document Server

In seeking new methods to cope with greater communication demands, researchers are finding inspiration in examples presented by nature. Considering a range of sources from insect to primate communication, leading researches present state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for developing bio-inspired models. They cover mathematical models and present experimental studies of bio-inspired computing and communications. They explore bio-inspired topology control and reconfiguration methods, as well as bio-inspired localization, synchronization, and mobility approaches. They also delve int

Xiao, Yang

2011-01-01

188

Elasticity of fractal inspired interconnects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of fractal-inspired geometric designs in electrical interconnects represents an important approach to simultaneously achieve large stretchability and high aerial coverage of active devices for stretchable electronics. The elastic stiffness of fractal interconnects is determined analytically in this paper. Specifically, the elastic energy and the tensile stiffness for an order n fractal interconnect of arbitrary shape are obtained, and are verified by the finite element analysis and experiments. PMID:25183293

Su, Yewang; Wang, Shuodao; Huang, YongAn; Luan, Haiwen; Dong, Wentao; Fan, Jonathan A; Yang, Qinglin; Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang

2015-01-01

189

Inspiring Student Self-Motivation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While normally appreciative of the invitation to join colleagues in a discussion of pedagogy and what “works” in the classroom, I have in most instances reluctantly participated in discussion of student motivation. I dip my toe into this philosophical quagmire only if permitted license to substitute the phrase student inspiration in place of student motivation. I also find it helpful to turn the rhetorical tables, as it were, and consider self-motivation on the part of students. The conce...

Virginia Brackett

2007-01-01

190

Bio-inspired functional materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis shows strategies how to learn from Mother Nature to make functional materials. Firstly, inspired by lotus leaf and water strider, superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surfaces are prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels. Furthermore, we explore potential applications of the superhydrophobic and superoleophobic materials for carrying cargo on liquid surfaces and continuous propulsion. Interestingly, the self-propelled locomotion has constant velocity and can last for prolon...

Jin, Hua

2012-01-01

191

Biologically-inspired machine vision  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis summarises research on the improved design, integration and expansion of past cortex-like computer vision models, following biologically-inspired methodologies. By adopting early theories and algorithms as a building block, particular interest has been shown for algorithmic parameterisation, feature extraction, invariance properties and classification. Overall, the major original contributions of this thesis have been: 1. The incorporation of a salient feature-based method for sem...

Tsitiridis, A.

2013-01-01

192

Quiver representations  

CERN Document Server

This book is intended to serve as a textbook for a course in Representation Theory of Algebras at the beginning graduate level. The text has two parts. In Part I, the theory is studied in an elementary way using quivers and their representations. This is a very hands-on approach and requires only basic knowledge of linear algebra. The main tool for describing the representation theory of a finite-dimensional algebra is its Auslander-Reiten quiver, and the text introduces these quivers as early as possible. Part II then uses the language of algebras and modules to build on the material developed before. The equivalence of the two approaches is proved in the text. The last chapter gives a proof of Gabriel’s Theorem. The language of category theory is developed along the way as needed.

Schiffler, Ralf

2014-01-01

193

Visualization of Complex Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Complex systems are difficult to understand. To aid understanding of complex dynamic systems the field of system dynamics has developed a set of visualization methods for graphic representation of the simulation models of complex systems. The resulting visualizations, however, may sometimes be difficult to understand for audiences without a background in the scientific investigation of complex dynamic systems. It is therefore necessary to find new ways of representing complex s...

Viste, Magnhild

2008-01-01

194

The Visual Math Institute  

Science.gov (United States)

The Visual Math Project was founded in 1975 by Professor Ralph Abraham from the University of California at Santa Cruz. Ralph Abraham, who is now retired, formed a nonprofit organization called the Visual Math Institute (VMI) and continues to maintain its website. In the FAQ section, Abraham explains that Visual Math (VM) "refers to the coordination of multiple modes of intelligence and representation, cognitive styles, for the purpose of communication of mathematics." The FAQ section also includes information on Math Anxiety as well as an overview of mathematics, Euclid, and chaos theory. VMI's research, which is described further in the Research section, "is devoted to visual math research and education, including computation math, computer graphics, and interactive environments." The visual projects on Chaos, Euclid and Kepler provide overviews of related topics, information on useful references, and some visual demonstrations of the topics.

195

Group representations  

CERN Document Server

This third volume can be roughly divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the investigation of various properties of projective characters. Special attention is drawn to spin representations and their character tables and to various correspondences for projective characters. Among other topics, projective Schur index and projective representations of abelian groups are covered. The last topic is investigated by introducing a symplectic geometry on finite abelian groups. The second part is devoted to Clifford theory for graded algebras and its application to the corresponding theory

Karpilovsky, G

1994-01-01

196

Pose-Independent Face Recognition Using Biologically Inspired Feature Set and Mixture of Experts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Automatic face recognition system has received significant attention during the last decades due to its wide range of applications, such as security, human-computer interaction, visual surveillance, and so on. In this paper, a new and efficient face recognition method, based on features inspired by the human’s visual cortex and applying mixture of experts’ architecture on the extracted feature set is proposed. A feature set is extracted by means of a feed-forward model, which contains a v...

Reza Azad

2014-01-01

197

Representational learning for sonar ATR  

Science.gov (United States)

Learned representations have been shown to give hopeful results for solving a multitude of novel learning tasks, even though these tasks may be unknown when the model is being trained. A few notable examples include the techniques of topic models, deep belief networks, deep Boltzmann machines, and local discriminative Gaussians, all inspired by human learning. This self-learning of new concepts via rich generative models has emerged as a promising area of research in machine learning. Although there has been recent progress, existing computational models are still far from being able to represent, identify and learn the wide variety of possible patterns and struc- ture in real-world data. An important issue for further consideration is the use of unsupervised representations for novel underwater target recognition applications. This work will discuss and demonstrate the use of latent Dirichlet allocation and autoencoders for learning unsupervised representations of objects in sonar imagery. The objective is to make these representations more abstract and invariant to noise in the training distribution and improve performance.

Isaacs, Jason C.

2014-06-01

198

A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor  

CERN Document Server

Biological systems are a source of inspiration in the development of small autonomous sensor nodes. The two major types of optical vision systems found in nature are the single aperture human eye and the compound eye of insects. The latter are among the most compact and smallest vision sensors. The eye is a compound of individual lenses with their own photoreceptor arrays.  The visual system of insects allows them to fly with a limited intelligence and brain processing power. A CMOS image sensor replicating the perception of vision in insects is discussed and designed in this book for industrial (machine vision) and medical applications. The CMOS metal layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer able to sense polarization information. This polarization information is shown to be useful in applications like real time material classification and autonomous agent navigation. Further the sensor is equipped with in pixel analog and digital memories which allow variation of the dynamic range and in-pixel b...

Sarkar, Mukul

2013-01-01

199

OBJECT AND SPATIAL IMAGERY DIMENSIONS IN VISUO-HAPTIC REPRESENTATIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual imagery comprises object and spatial dimensions. Both types of imagery encode shape but a key difference is that object imagers are more likely to encode surface properties than spatial imagers. Since visual and haptic object representations share many characteristics, we investigated whether haptic and multisensory representations also share an object-spatial continuum. Experiment 1 involved two tasks in both visual and haptic within-modal conditions, one requiring discrimination of s...

Lacey, Simon; Lin, Jonathan B.; Sathian, K.

2011-01-01

200

Visual Mining of Epidemic Networks  

CERN Document Server

We show how an interactive graph visualization method based on maximal modularity clustering can be used to explore a large epidemic network. The visual representation is used to display statistical tests results that expose the relations between the propagation of HIV in a sexual contact network and the sexual orientation of the patients.

Clémençon, Stéphan; Rossi, Fabrice; Tran, Viet Chi; 10.1007/978-3-642-21498-1_35

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Representations of content: psychological foundations and didactical background  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This theoretical study concerns the issue of representations. Representation is a concept used when analysing and explaining human perception, cognition, communication, and learning. Firstly, we introduce the psychological foundations of the concept. Secondly, we clarify the concept of representations and its division in cognitive psychology. We define two basic forms of external representations - verbal and visual. In social psychology, the concept is used for explaining of how much individual cognition is determined by socio-cultural factors. Further, we mention the concept of representations that draws on the Theory of social representations (Moscovici and Vygotsky's ideas. The author seeks to develop a concept of representations usable in didactic discourse. The importance of representations for content-oriented didactics is clarified. We also define the levels on which a teacher reasons when using representations during instruction. Representations of curricular content, which are believed to play an important role when presenting the content to students, are also mentioned.

Tomáš Janko

2012-03-01

202

Jungle Photos: Inspiration, Education, Conservation  

Science.gov (United States)

This gallery provides photographs and information on natural history, ecology, and conservation; its mission is to inspire people to support wilderness conversation and education. The gallery emphasizes the Amazon region of South America, the Galapagos Islands, and Africa. The collections feature images of plants and animals, people, scenery, environmental impacts such as deforestation, satellite imagery, and many other subjects. Each collection includes a teacher's page with quizzes, lesson plans, and links to other resources. The site also features an online forum and a Wiki where users can contribute their own content.

Roger Harris

203

Supersymmetry Inspired QCD Beta Function  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We propose an all orders beta function for ordinary Yang-Mills theories with or without fermions inspired by the Novikov-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov beta function of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. The beta function allows us to bound the conformal window. When restricting to one adjoint Weyl fermion we show how the proposed beta function matches the one of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The running of the pure Yang-Mills coupling is computed and the deviation from the two loop result is presented. We then compare the deviation with the one obtained from lattice data also with respect to the two loop running.

Ryttov, Thomas; Sannino, Francesco

2007-01-01

204

Visual Programming of Subsumption - Based Reactive Behaviour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

General purpose visual programming languages (VPLs) promote the construction of programs that are more comprehensible, robust, and maintainable by enabling programmers to directly observe and manipulate algorithms and data. However, they usually do not exploit the visual representation of entities in the problem domain, even if those entities and their interactions have obvious visual representations, as is the case in the robot control domain. We present a formal control model for autonomous...

Cox, Philip T.; Omid Banyasad

2008-01-01

205

Dissociation Between Visual Attention and Visual Mental Imagery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual mental imagery (which involves generating and transforming visual mental representations, i.e., seeing with the mind's eye) and visual attention appear to be distinct processes. However, some researchers have claimed that imagery effects can be explained by appeal to attention (and thus, that imagery is nothing more than a form of attention). In this study, we used a size manipulation to demonstrate that imagery and attention are distinct processes. We reasoned that if participants are...

Thompson, William L.; Hsiao, Yaling; Kosslyn, Stephen Michael

2010-01-01

206

VisualLISA: visual programming environment for attribute grammars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The benefits of using visual languages and graphical editors are well known. In some specific domain it is really crucial to program with graphical representations, icons, geometric objects, colors and so on. Nowadays it is possible to easily implement a visual language, constructing, automatically, visual editors for it. In this paper we want to emphasize how it is possible to easily specify a huge amount of complex information, associated with an attribute grammar, using graphical object...

Oliveira, Nuno; Henriques, Pedro; Cruz, Daniela; Pereira, Maria Joa?o

2009-01-01

207

A Survey of Bio Inspired Optimization Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nature is of course a great and immense source of inspiration for solving hard and complex problems in computer science since it exhibits extremely diverse, dynamic, robust, complex and fascinating phenomenon. It always finds the optimal solution to solve its problem maintaining perfect balance among its components. This is the thrust behind bio inspired computing. Nature inspired algorithms are meta heuristics that mimics the nature for solving optimization problems opening a new era in computation .For the past decades ,numerous research efforts has been concentrated in this particular area. Still being young and the results being very amazing, broadens the scope and viability of Bio Inspired Algorithms (BIAs exploring new areas of application and more opportunities in computing. This paper presents a broad overview of biologically inspired optimization algorithms, grouped by the biological field that inspired each and the areas where these algorithms have been most successfully applied.

Binitha S

2012-05-01

208

Representations of content: psychological foundations and didactical background  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This theoretical study concerns the issue of representations. Representation is a concept used when analysing and explaining human perception, cognition, communication, and learning. Firstly, we introduce the psychological foundations of the concept. Secondly, we clarify the concept of representations and its division in cognitive psychology. We define two basic forms of external representations - verbal and visual. In social psychology, the concept is used for explaining of how ...

Tomáš Janko

2012-01-01

209

GPU-accelerated affordance cueing based on visual attention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work focuses on the relevance of visual attention in affordance-inspired robotics. Among all approaches in robotics related to Gibson's concept of affordances the dealing with attention cues is only rudimentary. We are introducing this concept within the perception layer of our affordance-inspired robotic framework. In this context we present a high-performance visual attention system handling invariants in the optical array. This layer builds the base of higher-sophisticated tasks, like...

May, S.; Klodt, M.; Rome, E.; Breithaupt, R.

2007-01-01

210

Bio-inspired framework for automatic image quality enhancement  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a bio-inspired framework for automatic image quality enhancement. Restoration algorithms usually have fixed parameters whose values are not easily settable and depend on image content. In this study, we show that it is possible to correlate no-reference visual quality values to specific parameter settings such that the quality of an image could be effectively enhanced through the restoration algorithm. In this paper, we chose JPEG blockiness distortion as a case study. As for the restoration algorithm, we used either a bilateral filter, or a total variation denoising detexturer. The experimental results on the LIVE database will be reported. These results will demonstrate that a better visual quality is achieved through the optimized parameters over the entire range of compression, with respect to the algorithm default parameters.

Ceresi, Andrea; Gasparini, Francesca; Marini, Fabrizio; Schettini, Raimondo

2012-01-01

211

Pose estimation through cue integration: a neuroscience-inspired approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to improve the skills of robotic systems in their interaction with nearby objects. The basic idea is to enhance visual estimation of objects in the world through the merging of different visual estimators of the same stimuli. A neuroscience-inspired model of stereoptic and perspective orientation estimators, merged according to different criteria, is implemented on a robotic setup and tested in different conditions. Experimental results suggest that the integration of multiple monocular and binocular cues can make robot sensory systems more reliable and versatile. The same results, compared with simulations and data from human studies, show that the model is able to reproduce some well-recognized neuropsychological effects. PMID:22027389

Chinellato, Eris; Grzyb, Beata J; del Pobil, Angel P

2012-04-01

212

Visualization of Social Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

With the ubiquitous characteristic of the Internet, today many online social environments are provided to connect people. Various social relationships are thus created, connected, and migrated from our real lives to the Internet environment from different social groups. Many social communities and relationships are also quickly constructed and connected via instant personal messengers, blogs, Twitter, Facebook, and a great variety of online social services. Since social network visualizations can structure the complex relationships between different groups of individuals or organizations, they are helpful to analyze the social activities and relationships of actors, particularly over a large number of nodes. Therefore, many studies and visualization tools have been investigated to present social networks with graph representations. In this chapter, we will first review the background of social network analysis and visualization methods, and then introduce various novel visualization applications for social networks. Finally, the challenges and the future development of visualizing online social networks are discussed.

Chen, Ing-Xiang; Yang, Cheng-Zen

213

POR UNA NUEVA IMAGEN DE CIUDAD. LA REPRESENTACIÓN GRÁFICO-VISUAL DEL PAISAJE ARBÓREO DE SANTIAGO DE CALI: EL RESCATE DE UN NUEVO IMAGINARIO URBANO / TOWARDS A NEW IMAGE OF THE CITY THE GRAPHIC- VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF THE ARBOREAL LANDSCAPE OF SANTIAGO DE CALI: THE RESCUE OF A NEW URBAN IMAGINARY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se busca posicionar un imaginario urbano en la ciudad de Cali (Colombia) mediante el reconocimiento del potencial paisajístico arbóreo que la identifica en su singularidad. La representación gráfico-visual es parte de la metodología que permite el reconocimiento de componentes sintácticos, semántico [...] s y pragmáticos que, unida a la metodología de incursión urbana diseñada para la agnición del espacio, se alimenta con el método de creación de imaginarios para proponer y desarrollar uno nuevo a nivel social. Se obtiene un proyecto que desarrolla la metodología de incursión urbana y proyecta la etapa siguiente que determina el genius loci de las configuraciones verdes; en otra etapa, constituirá rutas virtuales on line y rutas presenciales en pro de la cualificación estética de los sujetos que las realizan y el imaginario social previsto. Abstract in english This paper seeks to establish a new urban imaginary of the city of Call by recognizing its tree landscape potential that identifies the city in its singularity. Graphic-visual representation is the methodology that allows sintaxtic, semantic and pragmatic components, that together with an Urban incu [...] rsión methodology, designed by this research project that incorporates the method of imagery creation for the purpose of developing a proposing a new one at the social level. A Project is obtained, that develops urban incursión methods and towards a second part that determines the genius-loci of green areas. In a following stage, on-line virtual routes, as well as others are developed in search of an esthetic qualification of the actors that define them as well as the social imagery that results.

RICARDO, CASTRO RAMOS.

2008-01-01

214

Institutionalizing New Ideas Through Visualization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How do visualization and visual forms of communication influence the process of transforming a novel idea into established organizational practice? In this paper, we build theory with regard to the role of visuals in manifesting and giving form to an innovative idea as it proceeds through various stages of institutionalization. Ideas become institutionalized not merely through widespread diffusion in a cognitive-discursive form but eventually through their translation into concrete activities and transformation into specific patterns of organizational practice. We argue that visualization plays a pivotal and unique role in this process. Visualization bridges the ideational with the practical realm by providing representations of ideas, connecting them to existing knowledge, and illustrating the specific actions that instantiate them. Similar to verbal discourse, and often in tandem, visual representations diffuse more rapidly and further than the practices themselves. Consolidating the relationship between abstract ideas and specific practice, such visual or multi-modal representations facilitate the implementation of novel ideas, reinforce particular translations, and imbue associated organizational practice with legitimacy – and thus solidify the coupling of innovative ideas and organizational practice. Extending existing research, we develop a set of propositions linking dimensions of visuality and visualization to the different stages of institutionalization in order to explain the institutional trajectory of new ideas. Our analysis advances insight into a core dimension of institutionalization: the transformation of an idea into practice.

Meyer, Renate; Jancsary, Dennis

215

Collide@CERN: sharing inspiration  

CERN Multimedia

Late last year, Julius von Bismarck was appointed to be CERN's first "artist in residence" after winning the Collide@CERN Digital Arts award. He’ll be spending two months at CERN starting this March but, to get a flavour of what’s in store, he visited the Organization last week for a crash course in its inspiring activities.   Julius von Bismarck, taking a closer look... When we arrive to interview German artist Julius von Bismarck, he’s being given a presentation about antiprotons’ ability to kill cancer cells. The whiteboard in the room contains graphs and equations that might easily send a non-scientist running, yet as Julius puts it, “if I weren’t interested, I’d be asleep”. Given his numerous questions, he must have been fascinated. “This ‘introduction’ week has been exhilarating,” says Julius. “I’ve been able to interact ...

Katarina Anthony

2012-01-01

216

Representational Inquiry Competences in Science Games  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter concerns the enactment of competences in a particular science learning game Homicide, which is played in lower secondary schools. Homicide is a forensic investigation game in which pupils play police experts solving criminal cases in the space of one week. The game is designed to support work with genuine scientific inquiry and to meet the seventh- to tenth grade curriculum objectives for science and Danish education in Danish schools. This paper comprises a presentation of the results of a long-term empirical study done of four school classes who have played the game. The chapter includes studies of how students construct visual representations of the cases they investigate and how they use these representations to establish hypotheses and evidence. The term ‘Representational Inquiry Competences' is developed; it refers to the students' ability to construct, productively use, transform and criticize visual representations as an integrated part of conducting an inquiry in the science game

Magnussen, Rikke

2009-01-01

217

New Inspirations in Nature: A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the past few decades, the studies on algorithms inspired by nature have shown that these methods can be efficiently used to eliminate most of the difficulties of classical methods. Nature inspired algorithms are widely used to solve optimization problems with complex nature. Various research works are carried out and algorithms are presented based on that during last few decades. Recently, some new algorithms inspired from nature are proposed to further improve the solutions obtained by the algorithms presented before. In this paper, a survey of five recently introduced Nature inspired algorithms is carried out. They include Firefly algorithm (FA, Cuckoo Search (CS, and Bat Inspired Algorithm (BA. Each of these algorithms are introduced and applied on various numerical optimization functions by various authors. We have tried to review and study the papers published by the authors and present a conclusion of this survey based on the results obtained.

Nitesh Maganlal Sureja

2012-11-01

218

Discriminative image representations using spatial and color information for category-level classification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Image representation is in the heart of many computer vision algorithms. Different computer vision tasks (e.g. classification, detection) require discriminative image representations to recognize visual categories. In a nutshell, the bag-of-visual-words image representation is the most successful approach for object and scene recognition. In this thesis, we mainly revolve around this model and search for discriminative image representations. In the first part, we present a novel approach to i...

Khan, Rahat

2013-01-01

219

Find your inspiration: Exploring different levels of abstraction in textual stimuli:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The selection of inspirational sources is a crucial step while designing, which potentially can enhance creativity. However, empirical investigations have demonstrated a dual-effect that some stimuli might have during idea generation. Therefore, it is valid to discuss whether designers are disregarding other stimuli, such as textual representations. To test the impact of different textual stimuli during ideation phases, we exposed novice designers to three types of written stimuli, with diffe...

Guerreiro Goncalves, M.; Coimbra Cardoso, C. M.; Badke-schaub, P. G.

2012-01-01

220

Visual field  

Science.gov (United States)

Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam: This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

 
 
 
 
221

Neural pathways for visual speech perception.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the questions, what levels of speech can be perceived visually, and how is visual speech represented by the brain? Review of the literature leads to the conclusions that every level of psycholinguistic speech structure (i.e., phonetic features, phonemes, syllables, words, and prosody) can be perceived visually, although individuals differ in their abilities to do so; and that there are visual modality-specific representations of speech qua speech in higher-level vision brain areas. That is, the visual system represents the modal patterns of visual speech. The suggestion that the auditory speech pathway receives and represents visual speech is examined in light of neuroimaging evidence on the auditory speech pathways. We outline the generally agreed-upon organization of the visual ventral and dorsal pathways and examine several types of visual processing that might be related to speech through those pathways, specifically, face and body, orthography, and sign language processing. In this context, we examine the visual speech processing literature, which reveals widespread diverse patterns of activity in posterior temporal cortices in response to visual speech stimuli. We outline a model of the visual and auditory speech pathways and make several suggestions: (1) The visual perception of speech relies on visual pathway representations of speech qua speech. (2) A proposed site of these representations, the temporal visual speech area (TVSA) has been demonstrated in posterior temporal cortex, ventral and posterior to multisensory posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). (3) Given that visual speech has dynamic and configural features, its representations in feedforward visual pathways are expected to integrate these features, possibly in TVSA. PMID:25520611

Bernstein, Lynne E; Liebenthal, Einat

2014-01-01

222

Learning sparse discriminative representations for land cover classification in the Arctic  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroscience-inspired machine vision algorithms are of current interest in the areas of detection and monitoring of climate change impacts, and general Land Use/Land Cover classification using satellite image data. We describe an approach for automatic classification of land cover in multispectral satellite imagery of the Arctic using sparse representations over learned dictionaries. We demonstrate our method using DigitalGlobe Worldview-2 8-band visible/near infrared high spatial resolution imagery of the MacKenzie River basin. We use an on-line batch Hebbian learning rule to build spectral-textural dictionaries that are adapted to this multispectral data. We learn our dictionaries from millions of overlapping image patches and then use a pursuit search to generate sparse classification features. We explore unsupervised clustering in the sparse representation space to produce land-cover category labels. This approach combines spectral and spatial textural characteristics to detect geologic, vegetative, and hydrologic features. We compare our technique to standard remote sensing algorithms. Our results suggest that neuroscience-based models are a promising approach to practical pattern recognition problems in remote sensing, even for datasets using spectral bands not found in natural visual systems.

Moody, Daniela I.; Brumby, Steven P.; Rowland, Joel C.; Gangodagamage, Chandana

2012-10-01

223

Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement: Implementation  

Science.gov (United States)

Method and system for enhancing or extending visual representation of a selected region of a visual image, where visual representation is interfered with or distorted, by supplementing a visual signal with at least one audio signal having one or more audio signal parameters that represent one or more visual image parameters, such as vertical and/or horizontal location of the region; region brightness; dominant wavelength range of the region; change in a parameter value that characterizes the visual image, with respect to a reference parameter value; and time rate of change in a parameter value that characterizes the visual image. Region dimensions can be changed to emphasize change with time of a visual image parameter.

Maluf, A. David (Inventor)

2011-01-01

224

Canonical Visual Size for Real-World Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

Real-world objects can be viewed at a range of distances and thus can be experienced at a range of visual angles within the visual field. Given the large amount of visual size variation possible when observing objects, we examined how internal object representations represent visual size information. In a series of experiments which required…

Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

2011-01-01

225

Nature Inspired Target Reacquisition Strategies for Autonomous Vehicles in a Search Role  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research by the authors has investigated the application of nature inspired search strategies and particle swarm optimisation to the guidance of autonomous vehicles in search roles. Findings suggest that nature inspired search strategies are beneficial under a wide range of search conditions. However, that research did not consider the potential for reacquisition of lost targets, which is especially of interest where the targets are travelling faster than the searching agents or in environments that allow for some means of visual or other sensory occlusion. This work investigates whether behaviours observed in nature can be applied to scenarios where target detection is lost. Through employing a variety of reacquisition strategies against a range of target movement types it is demonstrated that the overall effectiveness of the system can be improved in a variety of scenarios by incorporating nature inspired reacquisition strategies.

Banks, Alec; Vincent, Jonathan

226

Means of multichannel systems of visualization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Multichannel system soft hardware of visualization referenced to aircraft industry is considered in this issue. System components, their general characteristics and CAD data visualization requirements for high tech production designing are included. Application of multichannel system of visualization allows CAD data large screen visualizing in stereo image mode, which provides real-time, three-dimensional high-quality project representation to users.

?.?. ???????????

2005-03-01

227

Augmented Segmentation and Visualization for Presentation Videos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate methods of segmenting, visualizing, and indexing presentation videos by separately considering audio and visual data. The audio track is segmented by speaker, and augmented with key phrases which are extracted using an Automatic Speech Recognizer (ASR). The video track is segmented by visual dissimilarities and augmented by representative key frames. An interactive user interface combines a visual representation of audio, video, text, and key frames, and allow...

Haubold, Alexander; Kender, John R.

2005-01-01

228

Visualizing abstract objects and relations  

CERN Document Server

Pictorial representations are very useful for humans to understand complicated relations or structures. This is the reason that the user interface of information systems is strongly required to visualize many kinds of information in a wide variety of graphical forms. At present, however, only some very specialized visualization techniques have been developed probably because the generality in the visualization has not been appreciated correctly. This book presents a visualization framework for translating abstract objects and relations, typically represented in textual forms, into pictorial re

Kamada, Tomihisa

1989-01-01

229

AER synthetic generation in hardware for bio-inspired spiking systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) to read AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualize it on screen, and (b) convert conventional frame-based video stream in the computer into AER and inject it at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for test and debugging of complex AER systems. This paper addresses the problem of converting, in a computer, a conventional frame-based video stream into the spike event based representation AER. There exist several proposed software methods for synthetic generation of AER for bio-inspired systems. This paper presents a hardware implementation for one method, which is based on Linear-Feedback-Shift-Register (LFSR) pseudo-random number generation. The sequence of events generated by this hardware, which follows a Poisson distribution like a biological neuron, has been reconstructed using two AER integrator cells. The error of reconstruction for a set of images that produces different traffic loads of event in the AER bus is used as evaluation criteria. A VHDL description of the method, that includes the Xilinx PCI Core, has been implemented and tested using a general purpose PCI-AER board. This PCI-AER board has been developed by authors, and uses a Spartan II 200 FPGA. This system for AER Synthetic Generation is capable of transforming frames of 64x64 pixels, received through a standard computer PCI bus, at a frame rate of 25 frames per second, producing spike events at a peak rate of 107 events per second.

Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Civit-Balcells, Anton

2005-06-01

230

Biologically Inspired Phosphino Platinum Complexes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Platinum complexes containing phosphino amino acid and amino acid ester ligands, built upon the PPhNR’2 platform, have been synthesized and characterized (PPhNR’2= [1,3-diaza]-5-phenyl phosphacyclohexane, R’=glycine or glycine ester). These complexes were characterized by 31P, 13C, 1H, 195Pt NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the complexes, [PtCl2(PPhNGlyester 2)2], is also reported. These biologically inspired ligands have potential use in homogeneous catalysis, with special applications in chiral chemistry and water soluble chemistry. These complexes also provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached, to allow the introduction of enzyme-like features onto small molecule catalysts. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Jain, Avijita; Helm, Monte L.; Linehan, John C.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2012-08-01

231

Future scenarios to inspire innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In recent years, accelerated by the economic and financial crisis, complex global issues have moved to the forefront of policy-making. These grand challenges require policy-makers to address a variety of interrelated issues, which are built upon yet uncoordinated and dispersed bodies of knowledge. Due to the social dynamics of innovation, new socio-technical subsystems are emerging, however there is lack of exploitation of novel ideas and sustainable solutions to address these grand challenges. In this paper we argue that issues of how knowledge is represented can have a part in this lack of exploitation. For example, when drivers of change are not only multiple but also mutable, it is not sensible to extrapolate the future from data and relationships of the past. This paper investigates ways in which futures thinking can be used as a tool for inspiring actions and structures that address the grand challenges. By analyzing several scenario cases, elements of good practices and principles on how to strengthen innovation systems through future scenarios are identified. This is needed because innovation itself needs to be oriented along more sustainable pathways enabling transformations of socio-technical systems. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

De Smedt, Peter; Borch, Kristian

2013-01-01

232

Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded. PMID:24684339

Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

2014-04-01

233

Inspired at a book fair  

CERN Multimedia

During the Frankfurt book fair last October, the CERN stand drew quite the crowd. Director-General Rolf Heuer was there to promote CERN’s mission and the "LHC: the Large Hadron Collider" book. He met a lot of visitors and for one of them there was also a nice follow-up…   Marcus and his father visiting the LINAC facility. Fifteen year-old Marcus lives in Lauterecken near Frankfurt. The popular book fair last autumn was for him a nice opportunity to get in touch with the CERN environment. Inspired by the stand and what the CERN people were describing, he started to ask more and more questions… So many, that Rolf Heuer decided to invite him to come to CERN and find out some of the answers for himself. A few weeks later, while recovering from an exciting visit to the ATLAS underground cavern and other CERN installations with a cup of tea in Restaurant 1, Marcus shared his enthusiasm about the Organization: “When I was younger, my moth...

Anaïs Schaeffer

2012-01-01

234

Fracture Mechanics: Inspirations from Nature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Nature there are many examples of materials performing structural functions. Nature requires materials which are stiff and strong to provide support against various forces, including self-weight, the dynamic forces involved in movement, and external loads such as wind or the actions of a predator. These materials and structures have evolved over millions of years; the science of Biomimetics seeks to understand Nature and, as a result, to find inspiration for the creation of better engineering solutions. There has been relatively little fundamental research work in this area from a fracture mechanics point of view. Natural materials are quite brittle and, as a result, they have evolved several interesting strategies for preventing failure by crack propagation. Fatigue is also a major problem for many animals and plants. In this paper, several examples will be given of recent work in the Bioengineering Research Centre at Trinity College Dublin, investigating fracture and fatigue in such diverse materials as bamboo, the legs and wings of insects, and living cells.

David Taylor

2014-10-01

235

Using 3D in Visualization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The notion of three-dimensionality is applied to five stages of the visualization pipeline. While 3D visulization is most often associated with the visual mapping and representation of data, this chapter also identifies its role in the management and assembly of data, and in the media used to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry is discussed with particular reference to the 3D geovisualization.

Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine

2005-01-01

236

INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

2012-08-31

237

Contested Urbanism : Struggles About Representation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Iconic architecture plays a crucial role in cities' interurban competition. This is also the case with Copenhagen which has used iconic architecture as part of its boosterism to gain investment, to increase tourism and to attract the creative class. This battle over the symbolic representation of city dynamism, architectural identity and market competitiveness is expressed in discourses and visual signs in space—be it cyberspace, on location, in newspapers or debates. The articulation of representations and meaning can produce conflicts which show the voids, ruptures, and rational generatives at play. This article will exemplify how actors' use of a specific spatial dispositif of visibility and legibility may be intertwined with particular discourses on community, architectural heritage and identity of place. Two cases are chosen, the first concerns resistance towards high-rise buildings and the second concerns a current debate about the development of a 'metropol-zone'. Both cases concern Copenhagen. The signifying dispositifs (content, argument, rationality) in each case will be identified and the paper will emphasise how certain dispositifs of the visible and the arguable become strategically intertwined through symbolic, visual and virtual representations of the wrongs of current urban planning

PlØger, John

2010-01-01

238

Arbitrary waveform generator biologically inspired  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • A system biologically inspired that produces arbitrary analog signals is studied. • The proposed system is based in the BVAM biological model. • The system is analyzed with a discrete equivalent system defined by a Poincaré map. • The operation regimes of the system are identified changing the control parameter. • The system functionality is shown by the simulations obtained from SIMULINK™. -- Abstract: This work shows and analyzes a system that produces arbitrary waveforms, which is a simplification, based on spatial discretization, of the BVAM model proposed by Barrio et al. in 1999 [1] to model the biological pattern formation. Since the analytical treatment of non-linear terms of this system is often prohibitive, its dynamic has been analyzed using a discrete equivalent system defined by a Poincaré map. In this analysis, the bifurcation diagrams and the Lyapunov exponent are the tools used to identify the different operating regimes of the system and to provide evidence of the periodicity and randomness of the generated waveforms. Also, it is shown that the analyzed system presents the period doubling phenomenon, the values of its bifurcation points are related by the Feigenbaum constant and they converge to the onset of chaos. It is shown that, the analyzed system can be electronically implemented using operational amplifiers to produce arbitrary waveforms when varying a single control parameter. The functionality and behavior of the ideal electronic implementation of the analyzed system is shown by the simulations obtained from the MatLab–Simulink™ toolbox. Finally, some problems related to a real electronic implementation are discussed. This paper gives a brief overview of how ideas from biology can be used to design new systems that produce arbitrary waveforms

239

Flood Visualizations  

Science.gov (United States)

A lengthy listing of all of NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio visualizations that have flood as a keyword. The listing includes many visualizations of specific flood instances, as well as visualizations of floods caused by hurricanes. The visualizations are available in a wide variety of formats.

Svs, Nasa G.; Nasa

240

Visual Analysis of Behaviour  

CERN Document Server

This book presents a comprehensive treatment of visual analysis of behaviour from computational-modelling and algorithm-design perspectives. This title: covers learning-group activity models, unsupervised behaviour profiling, hierarchical behaviour discovery, learning behavioural context, modelling rare behaviours, and 'man-in-the-loop' active learning; examines multi-camera behaviour correlation, person re-identification, and 'connecting-the-dots' for abnormal behaviour detection; discusses Bayesian information criterion, Bayesian networks, 'bag-of-words' representation, canonical correlation

Gong, Shaogang

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Multi-Field Visualization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modern science utilizes advanced measurement and simulation techniques to analyze phenomena from fields such as medicine, physics, or mechanics. The data produced by application of these techniques takes the form of multi-dimensional functions or fields, which have to be processed in order to provide meaningful parts of the data to domain experts. Definition and implementation of such processing techniques with the goal to produce visual representations of portions of the data are topic of re...

Obermaier, Harald

2011-01-01

242

Multi-field visualization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modern science utilizes advanced measurement and simulation techniques to analyze phenomena from fields such as medicine, physics, or mechanics. The data produced by application of these techniques takes the form of multi-dimensional functions or fields, which have to be processed in order to provide meaningful parts of the data to domain experts. Definition and implementation of such processing techniques with the goal to produce visual representations of portions of the data are topic of re...

Obermaier, H.

2011-01-01

243

Think Spatial: The Representation in Mental Rotation Is Nonvisual  

Science.gov (United States)

For mental rotation, introspection, theories, and interpretations of experimental results imply a certain type of mental representation, namely, visual mental images. Characteristics of the rotated representation can be examined by measuring the influence of stimulus characteristics on rotational speed. If the amount of a given type of information…

Liesefeld, Heinrich R.; Zimmer, Hubert D.

2013-01-01

244

Orienting Attention to Sound Object Representations Attenuates Change Deafness  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the object-based account of attention, multiple objects coexist in short-term memory (STM), and we can selectively attend to a particular object of interest. Although there is evidence that attention can be directed to visual object representations, the assumption that attention can be oriented to sound object representations has yet…

Backer, Kristina C.; Alain, Claude

2012-01-01

245

A bio-inspired image coder with temporal scalability  

CERN Document Server

We present a novel bio-inspired and dynamic coding scheme for static images. Our coder aims at reproducing the main steps of the visual stimulus processing in the mammalians retina taking into account its time behavior. The main novelty of this work is to show how to exploit the time behavior of the retina cells to ensure, in a simple way, scalability and bit allocation. To do so, our main source of inspiration will be the biologically plausible retina model called Virtual Retina. Following a similar structure, our model has two stages. The first stage is an image transform which is performed by the outer layers in the retina. Here it is modelled by filtering the image with a bank of difference of Gaussians with time-delays. The second stage is a time-dependent analog-to-digital conversion which is performed by the inner layers in the retina. Thanks to its conception, our coder enables scalability and bit allocation across time. Also, compared to the JPEG standards, our decoded images do not show annoying art...

Masmoudi, Khaled; Kornprobst, Pierre

2011-01-01

246

Autonomous UAV persistent surveillance using bio-inspired strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Army Research Laboratory, the Engineer Research and Development Center, and IBM UK is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bioinspired techniques for autonomous search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data from heterogeneous sensor networks. The bio-inspired algorithm is based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. Field tests of a bio-inspired system that routed UAVs were conducted in June 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that such a system can autonomously detect and locate the source of terrestrial events with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In June 2011, field tests of the system were completed and include the use of multiple autonomously controlled UAVs, detection and disambiguation of multiple acoustic events occurring in short time frames, optimal sensor placement based on local phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA) Sensor Network Fabric. The system demonstrated TRL 6 performance in the field at Camp Roberts.

Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

2012-06-01

247

Real-Time Illumination Invariant Face Detection Using Biologically Inspired Feature Set and BP Neural Network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, face detection has been thoroughly studied due to its wide potential applications, including face recognition, human-computer interaction, video surveillance, etc.In this paper, a new and illumination invariant face detection method, based on features inspired by the human's visual cortexand applying BP neural network on the extracted featureset is proposed.A feature set is extracted from face and non-face images, by means of a feed-forward model, which contains a view and il...

Reza Azad

2014-01-01

248

Cultural representation and self-representation of dagongmei in contemporary China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the 1980s, working women migrant labourers, known as the dagongmei or “working sisters,” emerged as an object of interest in popular films and television dramas. These initial visual representations have since been reiterated in sequels adjusted to fit best the current rhetoric of the party-state. Concurrent to the mass media is the less-widespread phenomenon of labourer’s literature (dagong wenxue), through which we can read the dagongmei’s own (self-) representations. Eventually,...

Jaguscik, J.

2011-01-01

249

Large-scale functional models of visual cortex for remote sensing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neuroscience has revealed many properties of neurons and of the functional organization of visual cortex that are believed to be essential to human vision, but are missing in standard artificial neural networks. Equally important may be the sheer scale of visual cortex requiring {approx}1 petaflop of computation. In a year, the retina delivers {approx}1 petapixel to the brain, leading to massively large opportunities for learning at many levels of the cortical system. We describe work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop large-scale functional models of visual cortex on LANL's Roadrunner petaflop supercomputer. An initial run of a simple region VI code achieved 1.144 petaflops during trials at the IBM facility in Poughkeepsie, NY (June 2008). Here, we present criteria for assessing when a set of learned local representations is 'complete' along with general criteria for assessing computer vision models based on their projected scaling behavior. Finally, we extend one class of biologically-inspired learning models to problems of remote sensing imagery.

Brumby, Steven P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kenyon, Garrett [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rasmussen, Craig E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swaminarayan, Sriram [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Landecker, Will [PORTLAND STATE UNIV.

2009-01-01

250

Capturing lived experiences in movement educational contexts through videographic participation and visual narratives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explores and reflects upon possibilities and challenges of using “videographic participation” (Svendler Nielsen 2009a) as a research method combining filmic ethnography (Møhl 2003) and phenomenology (van Manen 1990; Todres 2007) in movement educational contexts. The research method helps visualizing and communicating the meaning-making of the participants and emphasizes the role of the researcher’s embodied involvement when ‘looking for lived experiences’. The paper exemplifies the use of videographic participation and presents (audio)visual narratives from two educational contexts: children in a primary school participating in a collaboration with a professional dance company and youngsters ages 18-26 doing contemporary circus training. Both studies use film as a knowledge creating practice (Møhl 2003) in combination with a hermeneutic-phenomenological analysis (van Manen 1990) to cast light on ways of understanding embodied learning. The use of videographic participation in the two contexts of educational practice are explored, compared and discussed. On an overall methodological level it is discussed how it is possible to capture lived experiences in fields of movement education by use of videographic participation and what the challenges of ‘looking for lived experiences’ in movement can be. Inspired by Performative Social Science (Jones et al. 2008; Gergen and Jones 2008) the paper exemplifies and discusses (re)presentation of research data in artistic forms by highlighting the question of how meaning-making of the participants can be captured and disseminated through (audio)visual narratives.

DegerbØl, Stine Mikés; Svendler Nielsen, Charlotte

251

Outlier-preserving focus+context visualization in parallel coordinates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focus+context visualization integrates a visually accentuated representation of selected data items in focus (more details, more opacity, etc.) with a visually deemphasized representation of the rest of the data, i.e., the context. The role of context visualization is to provide an overview of the data for improved user orientation and improved navigation. A good overview comprises the representation of both outliers and trends. Up to now, however, context visualization not really treated outliers sufficiently. In this paper we present a new approach to focus+context visualization in parallel coordinates which is truthful to outliers in the sense that small-scale features are detected before visualization and then treated specially during context visualization. Generally, we present a solution which enables context visualization at several levels of abstraction, both for the representation of outliers and trends. We introduce outlier detection and context generation to parallel coordinates on the basis of a binned data representation. This leads to an output-oriented visualization approach which means that only those parts of the visualization process are executed which actually affect the final rendering. Accordingly, the performance of this solution is much more dependent on the visualization size than on the data size which makes it especially interesting for large datasets. Previous approaches are outperformed, the new solution was successfully applied to datasets with up to 3 million data records and up to 50 dimensions. PMID:17080814

Novotný, Matej; Hauser, Helwig

2006-01-01

252

VisualLISA: a domain specific visual language for attribute grammars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The focus of this paper is on the translation of AG formalisms into a new visual language, and on the development of the associated programming environment. We present a solution for rapid development of VisualLISA editor using DEViL . This tool uses traditional attribute grammars, to specify the language’s syntax and semantics, extended by visual representations to be associated with grammar symbols. From these specifications a visual programming environment is automatically generated. ...

Oliveira, Nuno; Pereira, Maria Joa?o; Henriques, Pedro; Cruz, Daniela

2009-01-01

253

Kittens! Inspired by Kittens! Undergraduate Theorists Inspired by YouTube  

Science.gov (United States)

A professor and students in an undergraduate honors research seminar were inspired to playfully link old and contemporary literacy theories to a 2.0 media artifact, the popular YouTube video Kittens! Inspired by Kittens! (KIbK) starring 6 year-old Maddie. In this article KIbK is theorized drawing on frames of school-based reading instruction,…

Anderson, Diane Downer; Lewis, Mark; Peterson, Sarah; Griggs, Samantha; Grubb, Gina; Singer, Nicole; Fried, Simone; Krone, Elizabeth; Elko, Leigh; Narang, Jasmine

2010-01-01

254

Evaluating the Efficacy of Clustered Visualization in Exploratory Search Tasks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information visualization has the potential to improve the quality of Web search results representation providing more context and novel ways to see relationships among items in a result set. The key objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of graphical visualization for representation of Web search results especially for exploratory search tasks.^ This is achieved by comparing the commonly used technique of ranked list representation of search results with the novel techniq...

Kothari, Sarika S.

2010-01-01

255

Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information. PMID:24720802

Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B

2015-01-01

256

Biologically Inspired Hierarchical Model for Feature Extraction and Localization  

CERN Document Server

Feature extraction and matching are among central problems of computer vision. It is inefficent to search features over all locations and scales. Neurophysiological evidence shows that to locate objects in a digital image the human visual system employs visual attention to a specific object while ignoring others. The brain also has a mechanism to search from coarse to fine. In this paper, we present a feature extractor and an associated hierarchical searching model to simulate such processes. With the hierarchical representation of the object, coarse scanning is done through the matching of the larger scale and precise localization is conducted through the matching of the smaller scale. Experimental results justify the proposed model in its effectiveness and efficiency to localize features.

Wu, L

2006-01-01

257

Adaptive color image compression based on visual attention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports an adaptive still color image compression method which produces automatically selected ROI with a higher reconstruction quality with respect to the rest of the input image. The ROI are generated on-the fly with a purely data-driven technique based on visual attention. Inspired from biological vision, the multicue visual attention algorithm detects the most visually salient regions of an image. Thus, when operating in systems with low bit rate constraints, the adaptive codin...

Ouerhani, Nabil; Bracamonte, Javier; Hu?gli, Heinz; Ansorge, Michael; Pellandini, Fausto

2006-01-01

258

Visual Training for Sustainable Forest Management  

Science.gov (United States)

It is increasingly important for timber companies to train managers in the principles and practices of sustainable forest management. One of the most effective ways to conduct such training is through use of visual training methods. This is partly because visual representations encode large amounts of information and help learners to grasp…

Aik, Chong-Tek; Tway, Duane C.

2004-01-01

259

Visual and Figural Elaboration in Preadolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relationship between the visual elaboration characteristic of paired-associate learning and figural elaboration as found in the graphic representations of preadolescents (ages 8-12) and as measured by nonverbal creativity measures. Significant correlations between figural variables and one or both visual variables were…

Colbert, Cynthia

1980-01-01

260

Multiple representations and mechanisms for visuomotor adaptation in young children.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we utilized transformed spatial mappings to perturb visuomotor integration in 5-yr-old children and adults. The participants were asked to perform pointing movements under five different conditions of visuomotor rotation (from 0° to 180°), which were designed to reveal explicit vs. implicit representations as well as the mechanisms underlying the visual-motor mapping. Several tests allowed us to separately evaluate sensorimotor (i.e., the dynamic dimension of movement) and cognitive (i.e., the explicit representations of target position and the strategies used by the participants) representations of visuo-proprioceptive distortion. Our results indicate that children do not establish representations in the same manner as adults and that children exhibit multiple visuomotor representations. Sensorimotor representations were relatively precise, presumably due to the recovery of proprioceptive information and efferent copy. Furthermore, a bidirectional mechanism was used to re-map visual and motor spaces. In contrast, cognitive representations were supplied with visual information and followed a unidirectional visual-motor mapping. Therefore, it appears that sensorimotor mechanisms develop before the use of explicit strategies during development, and young children showed impaired visuomotor adaptation when confronted with large distortions. PMID:22704964

Tahej, Pierre-Karim; Ferrel-Chapus, Carole; Olivier, Isabelle; Ginhac, Dominique; Rolland, Jean-Pierre

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Biologically inspired technologies in NASA's morphing project  

Science.gov (United States)

For centuries, biology has provided fertile ground for hypothesis, discovery, and inspiration. Time-tested methods used in nature are being used as a basis for several research studies conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center as a part of Morphing Project, which develops and assesses breakthrough vehicle technologies. These studies range from low drag airfoil design guided by marine and avian morphologies to soaring techniques inspired by birds and the study of small flexible wing vehicles. Biology often suggests unconventional yet effective approaches such as non-planar wings, dynamic soaring, exploiting aeroelastic effects, collaborative control, flapping, and fibrous active materials. These approaches and other novel technologies for future flight vehicles are being studied in NASA's Morphing Project. This paper will discuss recent findings in the aeronautics-based, biologically-inspired research in the project.

McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Cox, David E.; Lazos, Barry S.; Waszak, Martin R.; Raney, David L.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Pao, S. Paul

2003-07-01

262

Hybrid-Image Visualization for Large Viewing Environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a first investigation into hybrid-image visualization for data analysis in large-scale viewing environments. Hybrid-image visualizations blend two different visual representations into a single static view, such that each representation can be perceived at a different viewing distance. Our work is motivated by data analysis scenarios that incorporate one or more displays with sufficiently large size and resolution to be comfortably viewed by different people from various distances....

Isenberg, Petra; Dragicevic, Pierre; Willett, Wesley; Bezerianos, Anastasia; Fekete, Jean-daniel

2013-01-01

263

BIOCHEMISTRY: A Postgenomic Visual Icon  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. A decade of experience in visualizing large-scale genotypic and phenotypic data as graphical representations called "clustered heat maps" has illuminated the strengths and limitations of the approach.

John N. Weinstein (M. D. Anderson Cancer Center;Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology)

2008-03-28

264

A Visual Information Retrieval Tool.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…

Zhang, Jin

2000-01-01

265

Disambiguating multi-modal scene representations using perceptual grouping constraints.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In its early stages, the visual system suffers from a lot of ambiguity and noise that severely limits the performance of early vision algorithms. This article presents feedback mechanisms between early visual processes, such as perceptual grouping, stereopsis and depth reconstruction, that allow the system to reduce this ambiguity and improve early representation of visual information. In the first part, the article proposes a local perceptual grouping algorithm that — in addition to common...

Pugeault, Nicolas; Wo?rgo?tter, Florentin; Kru?ger, Norbert

2010-01-01

266

An investigation of the effective aspects of multiple external representations for students learning chemistry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine how students used various multiple visual and auditory external representations to develop their understanding of limiting reagents. Specifically I sought to identify the representations that were useful, and then the particular characteristics that made those representations effective in helping students create their understanding. The investigation used the Synchronized Multiple Visualizations of Chemistry (SMV Chem) program. SMV Chem allow...

Postek, Brian

2008-01-01

267

Bio-inspired and nanoscale integrated computing  

CERN Document Server

Brings the latest advances in nanotechnology and biology to computing This pioneering book demonstrates how nanotechnology can create even faster, denser computing architectures and algorithms. Furthermore, it draws from the latest advances in biology with a focus on bio-inspired computing at the nanoscale, bringing to light several new and innovative applications such as nanoscale implantable biomedical devices and neural networks. Bio-Inspired and Nanoscale Integrated Computing features an expert team of interdisciplinary authors who offer readers the benefit of their own breakthroughs i

Eshaghian-Wilner, Mary

2009-01-01

268

The importance of visual features in generic vs. specialized object recognition: a computational study.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is debated whether the representation of objects in inferior temporal (IT) cortex is distributed over activities of many neurons or there are restricted islands of neurons responsive to a specific set of objects. There are lines of evidence demonstrating that fusiform face area (FFA-in human) processes information related to specialized object recognition (here we say within category object recognition such as face identification). Physiological studies have also discovered several patches in monkey ventral temporal lobe that are responsible for facial processing. Neuronal recording from these patches shows that neurons are highly selective for face images whereas for other objects we do not see such selectivity in IT. However, it is also well-supported that objects are encoded through distributed patterns of neural activities that are distinctive for each object category. It seems that visual cortex utilize different mechanisms for between category object recognition (e.g., face vs. non-face objects) vs. within category object recognition (e.g., two different faces). In this study, we address this question with computational simulations. We use two biologically inspired object recognition models and define two experiments which address these issues. The models have a hierarchical structure of several processing layers that simply simulate visual processing from V1 to aIT. We show, through computational modeling, that the difference between these two mechanisms of recognition can underlie the visual feature and extraction mechanism. It is argued that in order to perform generic and specialized object recognition, visual cortex must separate the mechanisms involved in within category from between categories object recognition. High recognition performance in within category object recognition can be guaranteed when class-specific features with intermediate size and complexity are extracted. However, generic object recognition requires a distributed universal dictionary of visual features in which the size of features does not have significant difference. PMID:25202259

Ghodrati, Masoud; Rajaei, Karim; Ebrahimpour, Reza

2014-01-01

269

Image Representation Using EPANECHNIKOV Density Feature Points Estimator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In image retrieval most of the existing visual content based representation methods are usually applicationdependent or non robust, making them not suitable for generic applications. These representation methodsuse visual contents such as colour, texture, shape,size etc. Human image recognition is largely basedonshape, thus making it very appealing for image representation algorithms in computer vision.In this paper we propose a generic image representation algorithm using Epanechnikov Density FeaturePoints Estimator (EDFPE. It is invariant to rotation, scale and translation. The image density featurepoints within defined rectangular rings around thegravitational centre of the image are obtained in theform of a vector. The EDFPE is applied to the vector representation of the image. The Cosine AngleDistance (CAD algorithm is used to measure similarity of the images in the database. Quantitativeevaluation of the performance of the system and comparison with other algorithms was done

Tranos Zuva

2013-03-01

270

An Adaptive Quantum-inspired Differential Evolution Algorithm for 0-1 Knapsack Problem  

CERN Document Server

Differential evolution (DE) is a population based evolutionary algorithm widely used for solving multidimensional global optimization problems over continuous spaces. However, the design of its operators makes it unsuitable for many real-life constrained combinatorial optimization problems which operate on binary space. On the other hand, the quantum inspired evolutionary algorithm (QEA) is very well suitable for handling such problems by applying several quantum computing techniques such as Q-bit representation and rotation gate operator, etc. This paper extends the concept of differential operators with adaptive parameter control to the quantum paradigm and proposes the adaptive quantum-inspired differential evolution algorithm (AQDE). The performance of AQDE is found to be significantly superior as compared to QEA and a discrete version of DE on the standard 0-1 knapsack problem for all the considered test cases.

Hota, Ashish Ranjan

2011-01-01

271

Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and other cephalopods exhibit exceptional capabilities for visually adapting to or differentiating from the coloration and texture of their surroundings, for the purpose of concealment, communication, predation, and reproduction. Long-standing interest in and emerging understanding of the underlying ultrastructure, physiological control, and photonic interactions has recently led to efforts in the construction of artificial systems that have key attributes found in the skins of these organisms. Despite several promising options in active materials for mimicking biological color tuning, existing routes to integrated systems do not include critical capabilities in distributed sensing and actuation. Research described here represents progress in this direction, demonstrated through the construction, experimental study, and computational modeling of materials, device elements, and integration schemes for cephalopod-inspired flexible sheets that can autonomously sense and adapt to the coloration of their surroundings. These systems combine high-performance, multiplexed arrays of actuators and photodetectors in laminated, multilayer configurations on flexible substrates, with overlaid arrangements of pixelated, color-changing elements. The concepts provide realistic routes to thin sheets that can be conformally wrapped onto solid objects to modulate their visual appearance, with potential relevance to consumer, industrial, and military applications. PMID:25136094

Yu, Cunjiang; Li, Yuhang; Zhang, Xun; Huang, Xian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Wang, Shuodao; Shi, Yan; Gao, Li; Su, Yewang; Zhang, Yihui; Xu, Hangxun; Hanlon, Roger T; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

2014-09-01

272

A hybrid quantum-inspired genetic algorithm for multiobjective flow shop scheduling.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a hybrid quantum-inspired genetic algorithm (HQGA) for the multiobjective flow shop scheduling problem (FSSP), which is a typical NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem with strong engineering backgrounds. On the one hand, a quantum-inspired GA (QGA) based on Q-bit representation is applied for exploration in the discrete 0-1 hyperspace by using the updating operator of quantum gate and genetic operators of Q-bit. Moreover, random-key representation is used to convert the Q-bit representation to job permutation for evaluating the objective values of the schedule solution. On the other hand, permutation-based GA (PGA) is applied for both performing exploration in permutation-based scheduling space and stressing exploitation for good schedule solutions. To evaluate solutions in multiobjective sense, a randomly weighted linear-sum function is used in QGA, and a nondominated sorting technique including classification of Pareto fronts and fitness assignment is applied in PGA with regard to both proximity and diversity of solutions. To maintain the diversity of the population, two trimming techniques for population are proposed. The proposed HQGA is tested based on some multiobjective FSSPs. Simulation results and comparisons based on several performance metrics demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed HQGA. PMID:17550113

Li, Bin-Bin; Wang, Ling

2007-06-01

273

Information Theory in Scientific Visualization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, there is an emerging direction that leverages information theory to solve many challenging problems in scientific data analysis and visualization. In this article, we review the key concepts in information theory, discuss how the principles of information theory can be useful for visualization, and provide specific examples to draw connections between data communication and data visualization in terms of how information can be measured quantitatively. As the amount of digital data available to us increases at an astounding speed, the goal of this article is to introduce the interested readers to this new direction of data analysis research, and to inspire them to identify new applications and seek solutions using information theory.

Chaoli Wang

2011-01-01

274

Visualizing structures of speech expressiveness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Speech is both beautiful and informative. In this work, a conceptual study of the speech, through investigation of the tower of Babel, the archetypal phonemes, and a study of the reasons of uses of language is undertaken in order to create an artistic work investigating the nature of speech. The Babel myth speaks about distance created when aspiring to the heaven as the reason for language division. Meanwhile, Locquin states through thorough investigations that only a few phonemes are present throughout history. Our interpretation is that a system able to recognize archetypal phonemes through vowels and consonants, and which converts the speech energy into visual particles that form complex visual structures, provides us with a mean to present the expressiveness of speech into a visual mode. This system is presented in an artwork whose scenario is inspired from the reasons of language. The artwork is presented at the Re:New festival in May 2008.

Herbelin, Bruno; Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

2008-01-01

275

Visualization of Mined Pattern and Its Human Aspects  

CERN Document Server

Researchers got success in mining the Web usage data effectively and efficiently. But representation of the mined patterns is often not in a form suitable for direct human consumption. Hence mechanisms and tools that can represent mined patterns in easily understandable format are utilized. Different techniques are used for pattern analysis, one of them is visualization. Visualization can provide valuable assistance for data analysis and decision making tasks. In the data visualization process, technical representations of web pages are replaced by user attractive text interpretations. Experiments with the real world problems showed that the visualization can significantly increase the quality and usefulness of web log mining results. However, how decision makers perceive and interact with a visual representation can strongly influence their understanding of the data as well as the usefulness of the visual presentation. Human factors therefore contribute significantly to the visualization process and should p...

Jain, Ratnesh Kumar; Kasana, Dr R S

2009-01-01

276

String inspired effective Lagrangian and Inflationary Universe  

CERN Document Server

We consider a string inspired effective Lagrangian for the graviton and dilaton, containing Einstein gravity at the zero slope limit. The numerical solution of the problem shows asymptotically an inflationary universe. The time is measured by the dilaton, as one expects. The result is independent of the introduction of ad-hoc self interactions for the dilaton field.

Abdalla, Elcio

1993-01-01

277

Finding Inspiration in Middle School General Music  

Science.gov (United States)

Middle school general music programs can be vibrant, exciting places, where students are inspired to learn more about music and themselves. In this article, the author discusses how to work with rather than against adolescents' age-appropriate characteristics when planning "content", "process", "assessment", and "classroom environment". Then, she…

McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

2011-01-01

278

Water Treatment Technologies Inspire Healthy Beverages  

Science.gov (United States)

Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.

2013-01-01

279

A biologically-inspired improved MAXNET.  

Science.gov (United States)

A biologically-inspired modification to MAXNET is proposed. Unlike the original net where the weights are constant, the weights in the new net are dynamically changed. Consequently, the modified net achieves a drastic improvement in convergence rate. A simple hardware implementation for the modified net is presented. PMID:18263360

Yadid-Pecht, O; Gur, M

1995-01-01

280

Biologically Inspired Nanomaterials: A Conference Report  

CERN Document Server

The understanding of the nanoscale physical properties of biomolecules and biomaterials will ultimately promote the research in the biological sciences. In this review, we focused on theory, simulation, and experiments involving nanoscale materials inspired by biological systems. Specifically, self-assembly in living and synthetic materials, bio-functionalized nanomaterials and probing techniques that use nanomaterials are discussed.

Demirel, Melik; Crespi, Vincent; Reed, Scott

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Pop Art--Inspired Self-Portraits  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author describes an art lesson that was inspired by Andy Warhol's mass-produced portraits. Warhol began his career as a graphic artist and illustrator. His artwork was a response to the redundancy of the advertising images put in front of the American public. Celebrities and famous people in magazines and newspapers were seen…

Goodwin, Donna J.

2011-01-01

282

Inspired by Athletes, Myths, and Poets  

Science.gov (United States)

Tales of love and hate, of athleticism, heroism, devotion to gods and goddesses that influenced myth and culture are a way of sharing ancient Greece's rich history. In this article, the author describes how her students created their own Greek-inspired clay vessels as artifacts of their study. (Contains 6 online resources.)

Melvin, Samantha

2010-01-01

283

Symbol Systems and Pictorial Representations  

Science.gov (United States)

All problem-solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -- limitations on space, time, and materials (Minsky, 1985). He introduces two principles: (1) Economics: Every intelligence must develop symbol-systems for representing objects, causes and goals, and (2) Sparseness: Every evolving intelligence will eventually encounter certain very special ideas -- e.g., about arithmetic, causal reasoning, and economics -- because these particular ideas are very much simpler than other ideas with similar uses. An extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) would have developed symbol systems to express these ideas and would have the capacity of multi-modal processing. Vakoch (1998) states that ...``ETI may rely significantly on other sensory modalities (than vision). Particularly useful representations would be ones that may be intelligible through more than one sensory modality. For instance, the information used to create a three-dimensional representation of an object might be intelligible to ETI heavily reliant on either visual or tactile sensory processes.'' The cross-modal representations Vakoch (1998) describes and the symbol systems Minsky (1985) proposes are called ``metaphors'' when combined. Metaphors allow for highly efficient communication. Metaphors are compact, condensed ways of expressing an idea: words, sounds, gestures or images are used in novel ways to refer to something they do not literally denote. Due to the importance of Minsky's ``economics'' principle, it is therefore possible that a message heavily relies on metaphors.

Diederich, Joachim; Wright, Susan

284

Developing a Psychologically Inspired Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Control: The Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the ongoing development of a robotic control architecture that was inspired by computational cognitive architectures from the discipline of cognitive psychology. The robotic control architecture combines symbolic and subsymbolic representations of knowledge into a unified control structure. The architecture is organized as a goal driven, serially executing, production system at the highest symbolic level; and a multiple algorithm, parallel executing, simple collection of ...

Troy Dale Kelley

2008-01-01

285

Are visual dictionaries generalizable?  

CERN Document Server

Mid-level features based on visual dictionaries are today a cornerstone of systems for classification and retrieval of images. Those state-of-the-art representations depend crucially on the choice of a codebook (visual dictionary), which is usually derived from the dataset. In general-purpose, dynamic image collections (e.g., the Web), one cannot have the entire collection in order to extract a representative dictionary. However, based on the hypothesis that the dictionary reflects only the diversity of low-level appearances and does not capture semantics, we argue that a dictionary based on a small subset of the data, or even on an entirely different dataset, is able to produce a good representation, provided that the chosen images span a diverse enough portion of the low-level feature space. Our experiments confirm that hypothesis, opening the opportunity to greatly alleviate the burden in generating the codebook, and confirming the feasibility of employing visual dictionaries in large-scale dynamic environ...

Penatti, Otavio A B; Torres, Ricardo da S

2012-01-01

286

Report on the First National Conference on Knowledge Representation and Inference in Sanskrit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report is a review of the First National Conference on Knowledge Representation and Inference in Sanskrit, Bangalore, India, 20 through 22 December, 1986. The conference was inspired by an article that appeared in the Spring 1987 issue of AI Magazine -- "Knowledge Representation in Sanskrit and Artificial Intelligence." A working group has been created to pursue the goals of the conference and to possibly arrange another conference for 1987 and 1988.

Briggs, Rick

1987-01-01

287

An investigation of the effective aspects of multiple external representations for students learning chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine how students used various multiple visual and auditory external representations to develop their understanding of limiting reagents. Specifically I sought to identify the representations that were useful, and then the particular characteristics that made those representations effective in helping students create their understanding. The investigation used the Synchronized Multiple Visualizations of Chemistry (SMV Chem) program. SMV Chem allowed learners to use five external representations (4 visual, 1 auditory) of a given chemistry topic in any order or combination that they chose. The four visual external representations consisted of a real time video of a chemical reaction (macroscopic level of understanding), a computer animation of the reaction (microscopic symbolic level), a graphical representation (macroscopic symbolic level), and a text representation (verbal text level) of a mathematical problem concerning limiting reagents. Each visual external representation had an accompanying audio track (verbal auditory level) to narrate the action that occurred during the representation that could be selected or not, according to the user's choice. This module was chosen because the topic of limiting reagents as presented in this module provided students with the opportunity to explore the various levels as presented by the representations in developing their understanding of the chemistry. Through interviews with 12 participants, several trends emerged in terms of the representations and their use. Each representation was found be helpful for creating understanding about a certain part of the overall concept of limiting reagents. Difficulties arose for the participants in terms of cognitive constraints; when cognitive functions were overloaded, due to complexity or the amount of information presented, they were not able to create an understanding. Conversely, specific combinations and aspects of the representations supported cognitive functions and the creation of an understanding. Overall, the participants felt that the use of computer visualizations was beneficial.

Postek, Brian

288

Wetland Visualizations  

Science.gov (United States)

Compiled by Suzanne Savanick at SERC. Find wetland images and visualizations that illustrate wetland loss or wetland function. Browse the complete set of Visualization Collections. National Estuary Program Habitat ...

289

Visual Impairment  

Science.gov (United States)

... Other simple tests an ophthalmologist may perform include: Visual acuity test. A person reads an eye chart to measure ... well he or she sees at various distances. Visual field test. Ophthalmologists use this test to measure side, or ...

290

The Inspiration of Hope in Substance Abuse Counseling  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used a grounded theory method to explore how counselors inspire hope in clients struggling with substance abuse. Findings from 10 participants revealed that hope inspiration occurred in 3 phases and consisted of several categories of hope-inspiring processes. Implications for counseling practice, counselor education, and research are…

Koehn, Corinne; Cutcliffe, John R.

2012-01-01

291

A bio-inspired two-layer mixed-signal flexible programmable chip for early vision.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bio-inspired model for an analog programmable array processor (APAP), based on studies on the vertebrate retina, has permitted the realization of complex programmable spatio-temporal dynamics in VLSI. This model mimics the way in which images are processed in the visual pathway, what renders a feasible alternative for the implementation of early vision tasks in standard technologies. A prototype chip has been designed and fabricated in 0.5 /spl mu/m CMOS. It renders a computing power per silicon area and power consumption that is amongst the highest reported for a single chip. The details of the bio-inspired network model, the analog building block design challenges and trade-offs and some functional tests results are presented in this paper. PMID:18244580

Galan, R C; Jimenez-Garrido, F; Dominguez-Castro, R; Espejo, S; Roska, T; Rekeczky, C; Petras, I; Rodriguez-Vazquez, A

2003-01-01

292

Cortical representation of the horizon in V1 and peripheral scaling in mammals with lateral eyes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available n the present investigation we mapped the primary visual area of the South American diurnal rodent, Dasyprocta aguti, by standardized electrophysiological mapping techniques. In particular, we performed a series of mapping experiments of the visual streak in the primary visual cortex. We found that the representation of the visual streak in V1 is greatly expanded, the nasal 10 degrees of the visual streak representation occupies ten times more cortical area than equivalent areas in the central or temporal representation. Comparison of these data with those on the density of ganglion cells in the retina at corresponding locations in the visual feld reveal a signifcant mismatch between these two variables. The nasal representation is greatly expanded along the horizontal meridian in V1 as compared to the central and temporal regions whereas the density of ganglion cells decreases with progression along the visual streak from central region towards the nasal or temporal visual feld. A review of the available data reveals that all lateral-eyed mammals exhibit a similar mismatch between the retinal and cortical representation of the visual feld, and this mismatches is greater in those species with well defned visual streaks such as rabbit and agouti.

Cristovam W. Picanço-Diniz

2011-01-01

293

Data visualization  

CERN Document Server

Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

Azzam, Tarek

2013-01-01

294

A Novel Quantum Inspired Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Bin Packing Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Bin Packing Problem (BPP is one of the most known combinatorial optimization problems. This problem consists to pack a set of items into a minimum number of bins. There are several variants of this problem; the most basic problem is the one-dimensional bin packing problem (1-BPP. In this paper, we present a new approach based on the quantum inspired cuckoo search algorithm to deal with the 1-BPP problem. The contribution consists in defining an appropriate quantum representation based on qubit representation to represent bin packing solutions. The second contribution is proposition of a new hybrid quantum measure operation which uses first fit heuristic to pack no filled objects by the standard measure operation. The obtained results are very encouraging and show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Abdesslem Layeb

2012-05-01

295

Visual imagery without visual perception?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be us...

Helder Bértolo

2005-01-01

296

Solar Image Analysis and Visualization  

CERN Document Server

This volume presents a selection of papers on the state of the art of image enhancement, automated feature detection, machine learning, and visualization tools in support of solar physics that focus on the challenges presented by new ground-based and space-based instrumentation. The articles and topics were inspired by the Third Solar Image Processing Workshop, held at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland but contributions from other experts have been included as well. This book is mainly aimed at researchers and graduate students working on image processing and compter vision in astronomy and solar physics.

Ireland, J

2009-01-01

297

Visual Analysis of Weblog Content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

2007-03-26

298

Modelling and visualizing morphology in the fungus Alternaria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alternaria is one of the most cosmopolitan fungal genera encountered and impacts humans and human activities in areas of material degradation, phytopathology, food toxicology, and respiratory disease. Contemporary methods of taxon identification rely on assessments of morphology related to sporulation, which are critical for accurate diagnostics. However, the morphology of Alternaria is quite complex, and precise characterization can be laborious, time-consuming, and often restricted to experts in this field. To make morphology characterization easier and more broadly accessible, a generalized statistical model was developed for the three-dimensional geometric structure of the sporulation apparatus. The model is inspired by the widely used grammar-based models for plants, Lindenmayer-systems, which build structure by repeated application of rules for growth. Adjusting the parameters of the underlying probability distributions yields variations in the morphology, and thus the approach provides an excellent tool for exploring the morphology of Alternaria under different assumptions, as well as understanding how it is largely the consequence of local rules for growth. Further, different choices of parameters lead to different model groups, which can then be visually compared to published descriptions or microscopy images to validate parameters for species-specific models. The approach supports automated analysis, as the models can be fit to image data using statistical inference, and the explicit representation of the geometry allows the accurate computation of any morphological quantity. Furthermore, because the model can encode the statistical variation of geometric parameters for different species, it will allow automated species identification from microscopy images using statistical inference. In summary, the approach supports visualization of morphology, automated quantification of phenotype structure, and identification based on form. PMID:22036294

Taralova, Ekaterina H; Schlecht, Joseph; Barnard, Kobus; Pryor, Barry M

2011-11-01

299

Neurobiologically Inspired Control of Engineered Flapping Flight  

CERN Document Server

This article presents a new control approach and dynamic model for engineered flapping flight with many interacting degrees of freedom. This paper explores the applications of neurobiologically inspired control systems in the form of Central Pattern Generators (CPG) to control flapping flight dynamics. A rigorous mathematical and control theoretic framework to design complex three dimensional wing motions is presented based on phase synchronization and Hopf bifurcation. In particular, we show that tailless aircraft alternating between flapping and gliding can be effectively stabilized by smooth wing motions driven by the CPG network. Furthermore, a novel robotic testbed has been developed to emulate the flight of bats. This model has shoulder and leg joints totaling ten control variables of wing properties. Results of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulation of CPG-based flight control validate the effectiveness of the proposed neurobiologically inspired control approach.

Chung, Soon-Jo; Stoner, Jeremiah R

2009-01-01

300

String Inspired QCD and $E_6$ Models  

CERN Document Server

The work in this thesis consists of two distinct parts: A class of models called, ``String-flip potential models,'' (SFP's) are studied as a possible candidate for modeling nuclear matter in terms of constituent quarks. These models are inspired from lattice quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) and are nonperturbative in nature. It is shown that they are viable candidates for modeling nuclear matter since they reproduce most of the bulk properties except for nuclear binding. Their properties are studied in nuclear and mesonic matter. A new class of models is developed, called ``flux-bubble potential models,'' which allows for the SFP's to be extended to include perturbative QCD interactions. Attempts to obtain nuclear binding is not successful, but valuable insight was gained towards possible future directions to pursue. The possibility of studying Superstring inspired $E_6$ phenomenology at high energy hadron colliders is investigated. The production of heavy lepton pairs parton level cross-section is expected due t...

Boyce, M M

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Radiation-balanced simulations for binary inspiral  

CERN Document Server

The late stage of the inspiral of two black holes may have important non-Newtonian effects that are unrelated to radiation reaction. To understand these effects we approximate a slowly inspiralling binary by a stationary solution to Einstein's equations in which the holes orbit eternally. Radiation reaction is nullified by specifying a boundary condition at infinity containing equal amounts of ingoing and outgoing radiation. The computational problem is then converted from an evolution problem with initial data to a boundary value problem. In addition to providing an approximate inspiral waveform via extraction of the outgoing modes, our approximation can give alternative initial data for numerical relativity evolution. We report results on simplified models and on progress in building 3D numerical solutions.

Whelan, J T; Landry, W; Price, R H; Whelan, John T; Beetle, Christopher; Landry, Walter; Price, Richard H

2002-01-01

302

Visual Language in Visual Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In visual communication the design information is mainly communicated by visual language, the correct use of which is the standard of evaluation of a graphic design composition. Therefore it is necessary to understand and percept visual language properly. It will be helpful for viewers to percept the desired information from the designer as well as the significance within the work.

Jia Wang

2009-02-01

303

A perception module for car drivers visual strategies modeling and visual distraction effect simulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this research is to develop and implement a computational model able to simulate drivers' visual strategies in dual-task conditions and to investigate visual distraction effects. The modeling approach supporting this research is based on a cognitive model of the car driver so-called COSMODRIVE, focused on mental representations simulation (i.e. situational awareness) and implemented on a virtual platform (so-called SiVIC). In this framework, a module of the visual perception is nee...

Bornard, Jean-charles; Bellet, Thierry; Mayenobe, Pierre; Gruyer, Dominique; Claverie, Bernard

2011-01-01

304

Audio-Visual Speech Recognition Using MPEG-4 Compliant Visual Features  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe an audio-visual automatic continuous speech recognition system, which significantly improves speech recognition performance over a wide range of acoustic noise levels, as well as under clean audio conditions. The system utilizes facial animation parameters (FAPs) supported by the MPEG-4 standard for the visual representation of speech. We also describe a robust and automatic algorithm we have developed to extract FAPs from visual data, which does not require hand labeling ...

Aleksic, Petar S.; Williams, Jay J.; Zhilin Wu; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.

2002-01-01

305

Eye fixation determined by the visual shape and semantic matches in language-mediated visual search  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When participants are presented simultaneously a visual display with spoken input, eye fixation could be determined by a match between representations from spoken input and visual objects. Previous studies found that eye fixation on the semantic-related object and the shape competitor could be determined by the semantic match and the visual match (Huettig & Altmann, 2007). However, two matches could not be substituted by each other. Huettig and McQueen (2007) claimed the co-existence of the v...

Shi, Lei

2007-01-01

306

Price Trackers Inspired by Immune Memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we outline initial concepts for an immune inspired algorithm to evaluate price time series data. The proposed solution evolves a short term pool of trackers dynamically through a process of proliferation and mutation, with each member attempting to map to trends in price movements. Successful trackers feed into a long term memory pool that can generalise across repeating trend patterns. Tests are performed to examine the algorithm's ability to successfully iden...

Wilson, William; Birkin, Phil; Aickelin, Uwe

2006-01-01

307

Autobiography: Inspiring new visions of teacher learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to broaden the tradition of autobiography by using it as a way in which teachers can identify sources of inspiration in their educational experience. In the process, my aim is to make explicit the links between autobiography, learning and meta learning. Extending autobiographical inquiry to include different levels at which learning takes place serves to highlight the importance not only of the individual context of learning (the private self), but als...

Irene Simon

2006-01-01

308

Nature inspired algorithms and artificial intelligence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Artificial intelligence has been very muchinterested in studying the characteristics ofintelligent agent, mainly planning, learning,reasoning (making decisions and perception.Biological processes and methods have beeninfluencing science from many decades. Naturalsystems have many properties that inspiredapplications - self-organisation, simplicity of basicelements, dynamics, flexibility. This paper is a surveyof nature inspired algorithms, like Particle SwarmOptimization (PSO, Ant Colony Optimization (ACOand Artificial Bee Colony(ABC.

Elisa Valentina Onet

2008-05-01

309

Inspirational catalogue of Master Thesis proposals 2014  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project. If you have an idea for a project which is not covered by the catalogue you are more than welcome to contact any of the supervisors.

2014-01-01

310

Binary inspiral, gravitational radiation, and cosmology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Observations of binary inspiral in a single interferometric gravitational wave detector can be cataloged according to signal-to-noise ratio $\\rho$ and chirp mass $\\cal M$. The distribution of events in a catalog composed of observations with $\\rho$ greater than a threshold $\\rho_0$ depends on the Hubble expansion, deceleration parameter, and cosmological constant, as well as the distribution of component masses in binary systems and evolutionary effects. In this paper I find...

Finn, Lee Samuel

1996-01-01

311

Humidification of Inspiration Gas in a Ventilator  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long term treatment with mechanical ventilation without proper humidification can dry a patient’s airways which causes various complications. The aim of this Master’s thesis was to develop a new technique to humidify and heat the inspired gas. The scope was limited to the design of a new working concept and the creation of a prototype as proof-of-concept. The ventilator humidifier market was studied, and the most prevalent humidification techniques used today were assessed to identify the...

Larsson, Christian; Yang, David

2009-01-01

312

The Role of the Human Extrastriate Visual Cortex in Mirror Symmetry Discrimination: A TMS-Adaptation Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The human visual system is able to efficiently extract symmetry information from the visual environment. Prior neuroimaging evidence has revealed symmetry-preferring neuronal representations in the dorsolateral extrastriate visual cortex; the objective of the present study was to investigate the necessity of these representations in symmetry…

Cattaneo, Zaira; Mattavelli, Giulia; Papagno, Costanza; Herbert, Andrew; Silvanto, Juha

2011-01-01

313

Biologically inspired coupled antenna beampattern design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose to design a small-size transmission-coupled antenna array, and corresponding radiation pattern, having high performance inspired by the female Ormia ochracea's coupled ears. For reproduction purposes, the female Ormia is able to locate male crickets' call accurately despite the small distance between its ears compared with the incoming wavelength. This phenomenon has been explained by the mechanical coupling between the Ormia's ears, which has been modeled by a pair of differential equations. In this paper, we first solve these differential equations governing the Ormia ochracea's ear response, and convert the response to the pre-specified radio frequencies. We then apply the converted response of the biological coupling in the array factor of a uniform linear array composed of finite-length dipole antennas, and also include the undesired electromagnetic coupling due to the proximity of the elements. Moreover, we propose an algorithm to optimally choose the biologically inspired coupling for maximum array performance. In our numerical examples, we compute the radiation intensity of the designed system for binomial and uniform ordinary end-fire arrays, and demonstrate the improvement in the half-power beamwidth, sidelobe suppression and directivity of the radiation pattern due to the biologically inspired coupling.

314

PREFACE: From DNA-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From DNA-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology  

Science.gov (United States)

This special issue was inspired by a conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' held on 1-5 June 2009 at the International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste-Miramare, Italy. More than 100 physicists and biologists attended the meeting and the programme consisted of 60 invited presentations and posters (further information can be found on its website, http://cdsagenda5.ictp.trieste.it/full_display.php?ida=a08164), as well as in the first, preamble paper in this issue. The issue itself, with its seven original, refereed articles can in no way represent what really happened at this exciting meeting, because many of the original contributions have already been published or submitted elsewhere. However, all articles in this special issue are related to the basic theme of the meeting, and it, therefore, seemed expedient to go ahead with this project because the theme itself is highly relevant for Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. The Guest Editors wish to thank all contributors to this issue for their patience and dedicated response to the referee comments, as well as the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter team for their continued support of this project. We also wish to acknowledge the sponsorship of the conference by the ICTP IAEA-UNESCO and Wellcome Trust.

Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Olson, Wilma

2010-10-01

315

Dynamic Bayesian Networks for Audio-Visual Speech Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of visual features in audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR) is justified by both the speech generation mechanism, which is essentially bimodal in audio and visual representation, and by the need for features that are invariant to acoustic noise perturbation. As a result, current AVSR systems demonstrate significant accuracy improvements in environments affected by acoustic noise. In this paper, we describe the use of two statistical models for audio-visual integration, the co...

Nefian, Ara V.; Luhong Liang; Xiaobo Pi; Xiaoxing Liu; Kevin Murphy

2002-01-01

316

Augmented Segmentation and Visualization for Presentation Videos  

CERN Document Server

We investigate methods of segmenting, visualizing, and indexing presentation videos by separately considering audio and visual data. The audio track is segmented by speaker, and augmented with key phrases which are extracted using an Automatic Speech Recognizer (ASR). The video track is segmented by visual dissimilarities and augmented by representative key frames. An interactive user interface combines a visual representation of audio, video, text, and key frames, and allows the user to navigate a presentation video. We also explore clustering and labeling of speaker data and present preliminary results.

Haubold, A; Haubold, Alexander; Kender, John R.

2005-01-01

317

Solar System Visualization (SSV) Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The Solar System Visualization (SSV) project aims at enhancing scientific and public understanding through visual representations and modeling procedures. The SSV project's objectives are to (1) create new visualization technologies, (2) organize science observations and models, and (3) visualize science results and mission Plans. The SSV project currently supports the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and Cassini. In support of the these missions, the SSV team has produced pan and zoom animations of large mosaics to reveal details of surface features and topography, created 3D animations of science instruments and procedures, formed 3-D anaglyphs from left and right stereo pairs, and animated registered multi-resolution mosaics to provide context for microscopic images.

Todd, Jessida L.

2005-01-01

318

Representation Sharing for Prolog  

CERN Document Server

Representation sharing can reduce the memory footprint of a program by sharing one representation between duplicate terms. The most common implementation of representation sharing in functional programming systems is known as hash-consing. In the context of Prolog, representation sharing has been given little attention. Some current techniques that deal with representation sharing are reviewed. The new contributions are: (1) an easy implementation of {\\em input sharing} for {\\em findall/3}; (2) a description of a {\\em sharer} module that introduces representation sharing at runtime. Their realization is shown in the context of the WAM as implemented by hProlog. Both can be adapted to any WAM-like Prolog implementation. The sharer works independently of the garbage collector, but it can be made to cooperate with the garbage collector. Benchmark results show that the sharer has a cost comparable to the heap garbage collector, that its effectiveness is highly application dependent, and that its policy must be tu...

Nguyen, Phuong-Lan

2011-01-01

319

Students' Responses To Different Representations Of A Vector Addition Question  

CERN Document Server

We investigate if the visual representation of vectors can affect which methods students use to add them. We gave students one of four questions with different graphical representations, asking students to add the same two vectors. For students in an algebra-based class the arrangement of the vectors had a statistically significant effect on the vector addition method chosen while the addition or removal of a grid did not.

Hawkins, Jeffrey M; Wittmann, Michael C; Sayre, Eleanor C; Frank, Brian W

2010-01-01

320

Topographic representation of the human body in the occipitotemporal cortex.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large-scale topographic representations of the body have long been established in the somatosensory and motor cortices. Using functional imaging, we identified a topographically organized body part map within the occipitotemporal cortex (OTC), with distinct clusters of voxels showing clear preference for different visually presented body parts. This representation was consistent both across hemispheres and participants. Using converging methods, the preference for specific body parts was demo...

Orlov, T.; Makin, Tr; Zohary, E.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Supergroups and their representations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discusses the mathematical aspects of the representations of supergroups and superalgebras. Topics considered include applications of supergroups and superalgebras in physics, the superalgebra SU(N/M), fermions and Grassmann numbers, the supergroup SU(N/M), the fundamental basis or module, supertrace and superdeterminant, complex conjugate representation, harmonic oscillator representation, the Tilde operator, higher representations from tensor products and supertableaux, the invariant characters, dimensions, eigenvalues of Casimir operators, branching rules, and Kac-Dynkin diagrams and supertableaux. The analysis concentrates only on SU(N/M), which is the compact form of SL

322

Graph-based clustering and data visualization algorithms  

CERN Document Server

This work presents a data visualization technique that combines graph-based topology representation and dimensionality reduction methods to visualize the intrinsic data structure in a low-dimensional vector space. The application of graphs in clustering and visualization has several advantages. A graph of important edges (where edges characterize relations and weights represent similarities or distances) provides a compact representation of the entire complex data set. This text describes clustering and visualization methods that are able to utilize information hidden in these graphs, based on

Vathy-Fogarassy, Ágnes

2013-01-01

323

Quivers with potentials associated to triangulated surfaces, Part II: Arc representations  

CERN Document Server

This paper is a representation-theoretic extension of Part I. It has been inspired by three recent developments: surface cluster algebras studied by Fomin-Shapiro-Thurston, the mutation theory of quivers with potentials initiated by Derksen-Weyman-Zelevinsky, and string modules associated to arcs on unpunctured surfaces by Assem-Brustle-Charbonneau-Plamondon. Modifying the latter construction, to each arc and each ideal triangulation of a bordered marked surface we associate in an explicit way a representation of the quiver with potential constructed in Part I, so that whenever two ideal triangulations are related by a flip, the associated representations are related by the corresponding mutation.

Labardini-Fragoso, Daniel

2009-01-01

324

VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is about Visual Cryptography. Visual Cryptography is a method that permits data (pictures, content, graphs etc.) to be scrambled utilizing an encoding framework that can be decoded by the eyes. It doesn't oblige a machine to interpret. Visual Cryptography utilizes two transparent pictures. One picture contains arbitrary pixels and the other picture contains the mystery data. It is difficult to recover the mystery data from one of the pictures. Both transparent...

Jadhav, C. M.; Vaitla Rupali

2014-01-01

325

Acoustic visualizations using surface mapping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sound visualizations have been an integral part of room acoustics studies for more than a century. As acoustic measurement techniques and knowledge of hearing evolve, acousticians need more intuitive ways to represent increasingly complex data. Microphone array processing now allows accurate measurement of spatio-temporal acoustic properties. However, the multidimensional data can be a challenge to display coherently. This letter details a method of mapping visual representations of acoustic reflections from a receiver position to the surfaces from which the reflections originated. The resulting animations are presented as a spatial acoustic analysis tool. PMID:24907844

Siltanen, Samuel; Robinson, Philip W; Saarelma, Jukka; Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Savioja, Lauri; Lokki, Tapio

2014-06-01

326

Digital Art Wonderland Creative Techniques for Inspirational Journaling and Beautiful Blogging  

CERN Document Server

Headline: Set out on a digital adventure!Come inside Digital Art Wonderland where digital art and art journaling embark together on a luscious visual journey. The daring crew of Angi Sullins and Silas Toball give you a personal tour through a digital art journaling world, showing you how to make your own wonderous creations through instruction, design concepts and lots of inspiration.In Digital Art Wonderland, you'll find:- 8 tutorials with techniques, tricks and trips for the intermediate Adobe Photoshop user to enhance physical art as well as create digital art from scratch.- Instructions a

Sullins, Angi

2011-01-01

327

VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is about Visual Cryptography. Visual Cryptography is a method that permits data (pictures, content, graphs etc. to be scrambled utilizing an encoding framework that can be decoded by the eyes. It doesn't oblige a machine to interpret. Visual Cryptography utilizes two transparent pictures. One picture contains arbitrary pixels and the other picture contains the mystery data. It is difficult to recover the mystery data from one of the pictures. Both transparent pictures and layers are obliged to uncover the data. The most straightforward approach to actualize Visual Cryptography is to print the two layers onto a transparent sheet.

C. M. Jadhav

2014-10-01

328

Kakovost podatkov in direktiva inspire : data quality and the inspire directive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available V prispevku so predstavljeni vse ve?ji pomen kakovosti geodetskih in prostorskih podatkov, dolo?be o kakovosti prostorskih informacij v direktivi INSPIRE in predpisih, sprejetih na njeni podlagi, ter zahteve, povezane s kakovostjo prostorskih podatkov in storitev, ki jih pred slovenske ponudnike podatkov in storitev postavlja evropska zakonodaja ; This article presents the growing importance of the quality of geodetic and spatial information. It describes the contents related to the data quality in the INSPIRE Directive, regulations for its implementation and guidelines, as well as the requirements related to the quality of spatial data and services set for Slovenian suppliers of data by European legislation.

Irena Ažman

2011-01-01

329

Destination visual image and expectation of experiences  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A unique experience is the essence of tourism sought by tourists. The most effective way to communicate the notion of a tourism experience at a destination is to provide visual cues that stimulate the imagination and connect with potential tourists in a personal way. This study aims at understanding how a visual image is relevant to the expectation of experiences by deconstructing images of a destination and interpreting visitors' perceptions of these images and the experiences associated with them. The results suggest that tourists with different understandings of desirable experiences found different contents and notions of images inspired them to visit a destination. Several managerial implications are discussed. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Ye, H.; Tussyadiah, Iis

2011-01-01

330

Performance of visual tasks from contour information  

Science.gov (United States)

A recently proposed visual aid for patients with a restricted visual field (tunnel vision) combines a see-through head-mounted display (HMD) and a simultaneous minified contour view of the wide field image of the environment. Such a widening of the effective visual field is helpful for tasks such as visual search, mobility and orientation. The sufficiency of contours (outlines of the objects in the image) for performing everyday visual tasks by human observers is of major importance for this application, as well as for other applications, and for basic understanding of human vision. Due to their efficient properties as good object descriptors, contours are widely used in computer vision applications, and therefore many methods have been developed for automatic extraction of them from the image. The purpose of this research is to examine and compare the use of different types of automatically created contours, and contour representations, for practical everyday visual operations using commonly observed images. The visual operations include visual searching for items such as keys, remote control, etc. Considering different recognition levels, identification of an object is distinguished from detection (when it is not clearly identified). Some new non-conventional visual-based contour representations were developed for this purpose. Experiments were performed with normal vision subjects, by superposing contours of the wide-field of the scene, over a narrow field (see-through) background. Results show that about 85% success is obtained by for searched object identification when the best contour versions are employed.

Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Itan, Liron

2010-08-01

331

Action simulation: Time course and representational mechanisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The notion of action simulation refers to the ability to re-enact foreign actions (i.e., actions observed in other individuals. Simulating others’ actions implies a 'mirroring' of their activities, based on one’s own sensorimotor competencies. Here, we discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to action simulation and the study of its representational underpinnings. One focus of our discussion is on the timing of internal simulation and its relation to the timing of external action, and a paradigm that requires participants to predict the future course of actions that are temporarily occluded from view. We address transitions between perceptual mechanisms (referring to action representation before and after occlusion and simulation mechanisms (referring to action representation during occlusion. Findings suggest that action simulation runs in real-time; acting on newly created action representations rather than relying on continuous visual extrapolations. A further focus of our discussion pertains to the functional characteristics of the mechanisms involved in predicting other people’s actions. We propose that two processes are engaged, dynamic updating and static matching, which may draw on both semantic and motor information. In a concluding section, we discuss these findings in the context of broader theoretical issues related to action and event representation, arguing that a detailed functional analysis of action simulation in cognitive, neural, and computational terms may help to further advance our understanding of action cognition and motor control.

AnneSpringer

2013-07-01

332

Unifying Geometrical Representations of Gauge Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

We unify three approaches within the vast body of gauge-theory research that have independently developed distinct representations of a geometrical surface-like structure underlying the vector-potential. The three approaches that we unify are: those who use the compactified dimensions of Kaluza-Klein theory, those who use Grassmannian models (also called gauge theory embedding or models) to represent gauge fields, and those who use a hidden spatial metric to replace the gauge fields. In this paper we identify a correspondence between the geometrical representations of the three schools. Each school was mostly independently developed, does not compete with other schools, and attempts to isolate the gauge-invariant geometrical surface-like structures that are responsible for the resulting physics. By providing a mapping between geometrical representations, we hope physicists can now isolate representation-dependent physics from gauge-invariant physical results and share results between each school. We provide visual examples of the geometrical relationships between each school for electric and magnetic fields. We highlight a first new result: in all three representations a static electric field (electric field from a fixed ring of charge or a sphere of charge) has a hidden gauge-invariant time dependent surface that is underlying the vector potential.

Alsid, Scott; Serna, Mario

2015-01-01

333

Using n-grams models for visual semantic place recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to present a new method for visual place recognition. Our system combines global image characterization and visual words, which allows to use efficient Bayesian filtering methods to integrate several images. More precisely, we extend the classical HMM model with techniques inspired by the field of Natural Language Processing. This paper presents our system and the Bayesian filtering algorithm. The performance of our system and the influence of the ma...

Dubois, Mathieu; Emmanuelle, Frenoux; Tarroux, Philippe

2014-01-01

334

A toolbox for representational similarity analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuronal population codes are increasingly being investigated with multivariate pattern-information analyses. A key challenge is to use measured brain-activity patterns to test computational models of brain information processing. One approach to this problem is representational similarity analysis (RSA), which characterizes a representation in a brain or computational model by the distance matrix of the response patterns elicited by a set of stimuli. The representational distance matrix encapsulates what distinctions between stimuli are emphasized and what distinctions are de-emphasized in the representation. A model is tested by comparing the representational distance matrix it predicts to that of a measured brain region. RSA also enables us to compare representations between stages of processing within a given brain or model, between brain and behavioral data, and between individuals and species. Here, we introduce a Matlab toolbox for RSA. The toolbox supports an analysis approach that is simultaneously data- and hypothesis-driven. It is designed to help integrate a wide range of computational models into the analysis of multichannel brain-activity measurements as provided by modern functional imaging and neuronal recording techniques. Tools for visualization and inference enable the user to relate sets of models to sets of brain regions and to statistically test and compare the models using nonparametric inference methods. The toolbox supports searchlight-based RSA, to continuously map a measured brain volume in search of a neuronal population code with a specific geometry. Finally, we introduce the linear-discriminant t value as a measure of representational discriminability that bridges the gap between linear decoding analyses and RSA. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the toolbox, we apply it to both simulated and real fMRI data. The key functions are equally applicable to other modalities of brain-activity measurement. The toolbox is freely available to the community under an open-source license agreement (http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/methods-and-resources/toolboxes/license/). PMID:24743308

Nili, Hamed; Wingfield, Cai; Walther, Alexander; Su, Li; Marslen-Wilson, William; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

2014-04-01

335

Beyond Control Panels: Direct Manipulation for Visual Analytics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information Visualization strives to provide visual representations through which users can think about and gain insight into information. By leveraging the visual and cognitive systems of humans, complex relationships and phenomena occurring within datasets can be uncovered by exploring information visually. Interaction metaphors for such visualizations are designed to enable users direct control over the filters, queries, and other parameters controlling how the data is visually represented. Through the evolution of information visualization, more complex mathematical and data analytic models are being used to visualize relationships and patterns in data – creating the field of Visual Analytics. However, the expectations for how users interact with these visualizations has remained largely unchanged – focused primarily on the direct manipulation of parameters of the underlying mathematical models. In this article we present an opportunity to evolve the methodology for user interaction from the direct manipulation of parameters through visual control panels, to interactions designed specifically for visual analytic systems. Instead of focusing on traditional direct manipulation of mathematical parameters, the evolution of the field can be realized through direct manipulation within the visual representation – where users can not only gain insight, but also interact. This article describes future directions and research challenges that fundamentally change the meaning of direct manipulation with regards to visual analytics, advancing the Science of Interaction.

Endert, Alexander; Bradel, Lauren; North, Chris

2013-07-19

336

Superspecies and their representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Superspecies are introduced to provide the nice constructions of all finite-dimensional superalgebras. All acyclic superspecies, or equivalently all finite-dimensional (gr-basic) gr-hereditary superalgebras, are classified according to their graded representation types. To this end, graded equivalence, graded representation type and graded species are introduced for finite group graded algebras.

Han, Yang; Zhao, Deke

2007-01-01

337

Representations and Rafts  

Science.gov (United States)

To build on prior knowledge and mathematical understanding, middle school students need to be given the opportunity to make connections among a variety of representations. Graphs, tables, algebraic formulas, and models are just a few examples of representations that can help students explore quantitative relationships. As a mathematics educator,…

Hartweg, Kimberly Sipes

2011-01-01

338

Visualization Software for Molecular Assemblies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Software for viewing three-dimensional models and maps of viruses, ribosomes, filaments and other molecular assemblies is advancing on many fronts. New developments include molecular representations that offer better control over level of detail, lighting that improves the perception of depth, and two-dimensional projections that simplify data interpretation. Programmable graphics processors offer quality, speed and visual effects not previously possible, while 3D printers, haptic interaction...

Goddard, Thomas D.; Ferrin, Thomas E.

2007-01-01

339

LHC studies inspired by warped extra dimensions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The framework of a warped extra dimension with the Standard Model (SM) fields propagating in it is a very well-motivated extension of the SM since it can address both the Planck-Weak and flavor hierarchy problems of the SM. We consider processes at the large hadron collider (LHC) inspired by signals for new particles in this framework. Our studies include identification of boosted top quarks and W/Z, production of a particle called radion with Higgs-like properties and effects of flavor violating tc Higgs coupling. (authors)

Agashe, K.; Basso, L.; Brooijmans, G.; Das, S.P.; Gray, H.; Guchait, M.; Jackson, J.; Karagoz, M.; Lee, S.J.; Rosenfeld, R.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Vos, M.

2009-07-01

340

Biologically inspired achromatic waveplates for visible light.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waveplates are planar devices used in optics and optoelectronics to change the polarization state of light. Made of anisotropic dielectric materials such as crystals and thin films, waveplates are not known to exhibit achromatic performance over the visible regime. Inspired by the microvillar structure of R8 cells functioning as polarization converters in the eyes of stomatopod crustaceans, we conceived, designed, fabricated and tested periodically multilayered structures comprising two different types of arrays of nanorods. Morphologically analogous to the ocular cells, here we show that the periodically multilayered structures can function as achromatic waveplates over the visible regime. PMID:21694711

Jen, Yi-Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Yu, Ching-Wei; Lin, Chia-Feng; Lin, Meng-Jie; Wang, Shih-Hao; Lai, Jyun-Rong

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

The "Biologically-Inspired Computing" Column  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-managing systems, whether viewed from the perspective of Autonomic Computing, or from that of another initiative, offers a holistic vision for the development and evolution of biologically-inspired computer-based systems. It aims to bring new levels of automation and dependability to systems, while simultaneously hiding their complexity and reducing costs. A case can certainly be made that all computer-based systems should exhibit autonomic properties [6], and we envisage greater interest in, and uptake of, autonomic principles in future system development.

Hinchey, Mike

2007-01-01

342

Quick data evaluation inspired by human vision  

Science.gov (United States)

In environmental monitoring, small differences are expected in data allowing the discrimination of harmless from dangerous, e.g. discern passing trucks from an earth quake. For conventional data analysis it is a challenging problem to identify these signals in noisy data. Electronic data processing consumes extra time, or much energy when processed in parallel. This is not suitable for quick automatic decisions nor useful in nearly autonomous systems with very low energy budget. This paper presents methods inspired by human vision, applied to quickly determine the content of signals collected by a monitoring system. It is shown that the system is capable to distinguish different signals, using a simple filter-set.

Meinert, Dieter

2014-05-01

343

Hybrid-image visualization for large viewing environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a first investigation into hybrid-image visualization for data analysis in large-scale viewing environments. Hybrid-image visualizations blend two different visual representations into a single static view, such that each representation can be perceived at a different viewing distance. Our work is motivated by data analysis scenarios that incorporate one or more displays with sufficiently large size and resolution to be comfortably viewed by different people from various distances. Hybrid-image visualizations can be used, in particular, to enhance overview tasks from a distance and detail-in-context tasks when standing close to the display. By using a perception-based blending approach, hybrid-image visualizations make two full-screen visualizations accessible without tracking viewers in front of a display. We contribute a design space, discuss the perceptual rationale for our work, provide examples, and introduce a set of techniques and tools to aid the design of hybrid-image visualizations. PMID:24051801

Isenberg, Petra; Dragicevic, Pierre; Willett, Wesley; Bezerianos, Anastasia; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

2013-12-01

344

Time to imagine space: a chronometric exploration of representational neglect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When describing known places from memory, patients with left spatial neglect may mention more right- than left-sided items, thus showing representational, or imaginal, neglect. This suggests that these patients cannot either build or explore left locations in visual mental imagery. However, in place description there is no guarantee that patients are really employing visual mental imagery abilities, rather than verbal-propositional knowledge. Thus, patients providing symmetrical descriptions ...

Bartolomeo, Paolo; Bachoud-le?vi, Anne-catherine; Azouvi, Philippe; Chokron, Sylvie

2005-01-01

345

Modality-specific organization in the representation of sensorimotor sequences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sensorimotor representations of movement sequences are hierarchically organized. Here we test the effects of different stimulus modalities on such organizations. In the visual group, participants responded to a repeated sequence of visually presented stimuli by depressing spatially compatible keys on a response pad. In the auditory group, learners were required to respond to auditorily presented stimuli, which had no direct spatial correspondence with the response keys: the lowest pitch corre...

ArnaudBoutin

2013-01-01

346

NodeTrix: Hybrid Representation for Analyzing Social Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The need to visualize large social networks is growing as hardware capabilities make analyzing large networks feasible and many new data sets become available. Unfortunately, the visualizations in existing systems do not satisfactorily answer the basic dilemma of being readable both for the global structure of the network and also for detailed analysis of local communities. To address this problem, we present NodeTrix, a hybrid representation for networks that combines the a...

Henry, Nathalie; Fekete, Jean-daniel; Mcguffin, Michael

2007-01-01

347

Neural representation of feature synergy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactive non-linear cooperation of different feature dimensions, feature synergy, has been studied in psychophysics, but the neural mechanism is unknown. The present study investigated the neural representation of feature synergy of two second-order visual features by combining electroencephalography (EEG) with the signal detection theory (SDT). Two kinds of a 27-by-27 array of Gabor patches were presented in a random order; a reference stimulus which has no segregated region, and a target stimulus whose inner region differed in spatial frequency, orientation, or both from the surround. Subjects performed a Yes-No discrimination of whether the inner region was different from the surround, while EEG signals were recorded from 62 locations. When the SDT measure showed feature synergy, EEG activity showed a long-lasting enhancement starting at 130 ms around the inferior temporal region. In contrast, no EEG modulation was observed when feature synergy was not present. Thus, our combined approach demonstrates that non-linear cooperation between different features is represented by neural activity starting at 130 ms post-stimulus in the ventral visual stream. PMID:21111826

Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Emi; Takeshima, Yasuyuki; Kakigi, Ryusuke

2011-03-15

348

General Relativistic Decompression of Binary Neutron Stars During Inspiral  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the dynamic stability of inspiraling neutron stars by performing multiple-orbit numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star inspiral process. We find that as the separation between the stars decreases during the inspiral induced by gravitational wave emission, the central rest mass density of each star decreases, thus stabilizing each star against collapse. We compare the amount of decompression observed in our numerical relativity simulations with the amount predicted by post-Newtonian approximations.

Miller, M

2005-01-01

349

Big data in medical informatics: improving education through visual analytics.  

Science.gov (United States)

A continuous effort to improve healthcare education today is currently driven from the need to create competent health professionals able to meet healthcare demands. Limited research reporting how educational data manipulation can help in healthcare education improvement. The emerging research field of visual analytics has the advantage to combine big data analysis and manipulation techniques, information and knowledge representation, and human cognitive strength to perceive and recognise visual patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to explore novel ways of representing curriculum and educational data using visual analytics. Three approaches of visualization and representation of educational data were presented. Five competencies at undergraduate medical program level addressed in courses were identified to inaccurately correspond to higher education board competencies. Different visual representations seem to have a potential in impacting on the ability to perceive entities and connections in the curriculum data. PMID:25160372

Vaitsis, Christos; Nilsson, Gunnar; Zary, Nabil

2014-01-01

350

Insect-Inspired Flight Control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Science.gov (United States)

Flight-control and navigation systems inspired by the structure and function of the visual system and brain of insects have been proposed for a class of developmental miniature robotic aircraft called "biomorphic flyers" described earlier in "Development of Biomorphic Flyers" (NPO-30554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 54. These form a subset of biomorphic explorers, which, as reported in several articles in past issues of NASA Tech Briefs ["Biomorphic Explorers" (NPO-20142), Vol. 22, No. 9 (September 1998), page 71; "Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems" (NPO-21142), Vol. 27, No. 5 (May 2003), page 54; and "Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration" (NPO-30286), Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 36], are proposed small robots, equipped with microsensors and communication systems, that would incorporate crucial functions of mobility, adaptability, and even cooperative behavior. These functions are inherent to biological organisms but are challenging frontiers for technical systems. Biomorphic flyers could be used on Earth or remote planets to explore otherwise difficult or impossible to reach sites. An example of an exploratory task of search/surveillance functions currently being tested is to obtain high-resolution aerial imagery, using a variety of miniaturized electronic cameras. The control functions to be implemented by the systems in development include holding altitude, avoiding hazards, following terrain, navigation by reference to recognizable terrain features, stabilization of flight, and smooth landing. Flying insects perform these and other functions remarkably well, even though insect brains contains fewer than 10(exp -4) as many neurons as does the human brain. Although most insects have immobile, fixed-focus eyes and lack stereoscopy (and hence cannot perceive depth directly), they utilize a number of ingenious strategies for perceiving, and navigating in, three dimensions. Despite their lack of stereoscopy, insects infer distances to potential obstacles and other objects from image motion cues that result from their own motions in the environment. The concept of motion of texture in images as a source of motion cues is denoted generally as the concept of optic or optical flow. Computationally, a strategy based on optical flow is simpler than is stereoscopy for avoiding hazards and following terrain. Hence, this strategy offers the potential to design vision-based control computing subsystems that would be more compact, would weigh less, and would demand less power than would subsystems of equivalent capability based on a conventional stereoscopic approach.

Thakoor, Sarita; Stange, G.; Srinivasan, M.; Chahl, Javaan; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

2005-01-01

351

Indecomposable representations for parabose algebra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general study of the representations of the graded Lie algebra of parabose oscillators is given. Besides realizing the standard representations, we also find some interesting indecomposable (not fully reducible) representations. (author)

352

Coherent Bayesian analysis of inspiral signals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present a Bayesian parameter estimation method for the analysis of interferometric gravitational wave observations of an inspiral of binary compact objects using data recorded simultaneously by a network of several interferometers at different sites. We consider neutron star or black hole inspirals that are modeled to 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order in phase and 2.5 PN in amplitude. Inference is facilitated using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods that are adapted in order to efficiently explore the particular parameter space. Examples are shown to illustrate how and what information about the different parameters can be derived from the data. This study uses simulated signals and data with noise characteristics that are assumed to be defined by the LIGO and Virgo detectors operating at their design sensitivities. Nine parameters are estimated, including those associated with the binary system plus its location on the sky. We explain how this technique will be part of a detection pipeline for binary systems of compact objects with masses up to20Mo, including cases where the ratio of the individual masses can be extreme

353

From biomimetic apatites to biologically inspired composites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroxyapatite is an elective material for bone substitution. In this outline of our recent activity the crucial role of nanostructured ceramics in the design and preparation of ceramic scaffolds will be described, focussing on our more recent interest in biomimetic apatites, in particular apatites containing HPO42- CO32- and Mg2+ which are similar to the mineral component of bone. The paper describes such nanostructured products and, in particular, innovative synthetic techniques capable of yielding powders with higher reactivity and bioactivity. However, so far the characteristics of artificial bone tissues have been shown to be very different from those of natural bone, mainly because of the absence of the peculiar self-organizing interaction between apatites and the protein component. This causes modification of the structure of apatites and of the features of the overall composite forming human bone tissue. Therefore, attempts to mimic the features and structure of natural bone tissue, leading toward so-called bio-inspired materials, will be speculated upon. New techniques used to reproduce a composite in which a nanosize blade-like crystal of hydroxyapatite (HA) grows in contact with self-assembling fibres of natural polymer will be presented. In this specific case, the amazing ability of biological systems to store and process information at the molecular level, nucleating nanosize apatites (bio-inspired material), is exploited. PMID:15696277

Tampieri, A; Celotti, G; Landi, E

2005-02-01

354

Autobiography: Inspiring new visions of teacher learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this article is to broaden the tradition of autobiography by using it as a way in which teachers can identify sources of inspiration in their educational experience. In the process, my aim is to make explicit the links between autobiography, learning and meta learning. Extending autobiographical inquiry to include different levels at which learning takes place serves to highlight the importance not only of the individual context of learning (the private self, but also the possibility of learning and constructing meaning from autobiography in dialogue with others. This article identifies four levels of learning-how-to-learn from autobiography. These levels are: 1. learning from autobiographical writing; 2. learning through intergenerational dialogues; 3. developmental learning through the career stages; and 4. whole group co-constructive learning. My ultimate goal is two fold. Firstly, to use these levels of learning to identify operational definitions of inspiration based on significant events and experiences in teacher’s personal stories. Secondly to identify a meta research orientation for linking autobiography with learning and meta-learning.

Irene Simon

2006-05-01

355

Junction Type Representations of the Temperley-Lieb Algebra and Associated Symmetries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inspired by earlier works on representations of the Temperley-Lieb algebra we introduce a novel family of representations of the algebra. This may be seen as a generalization of the so called asymmetric twin representation. The underlying symmetry algebra is also examined and it is shown that in addition to certain obvious exact quantum symmetries non trivial quantum algebraic realizations that exactly commute with the representation also exist. Non trivial representations of the boundary Temperley-Lieb algebra as well as the related residual symmetries are also discussed. The corresponding novel R and K matrices solutions of the Yang-Baxter and reflection equations are identified, the relevant quantum spin chain is also constructed and its exact symmetries are studied.

Anastasia Doikou

2010-12-01

356

Wave Representations Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ejs Wave Representations model displays two representations of a sinusoidal wave on a string. One shows a movie of the wave traveling along a string - you can think of this representation as a sequence of photographs. The second representation is a plot of the displacement as a function of time for two points on the string (you can select which two points to use). Using only these two representations, you can determine the values of many different parameters that describe the wave. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Wave Representations model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_Wave_representations.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for physics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-07-12

357

A Real Time Implementation of the Saliency-Based Model of Visual Attention on a SIMD Architecture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual attention is the ability to rapidly detect the visually salient parts of a given scene. Inspired by biological vision, the saliency-based algorithm efficiently models the visual attention process. Due to its complexity, the saliency-based model of visual attention needs, for a real time implementation, higher computation resources than available in conventional processors. This work reports a real time implementation of this attention model on a highly parallel Single Instruction Multi...

Ouerhani, Nabil; Hu?gli, Heinz; Burgi, Pierre-yves; Ruedi, Pierre-franc?ois

2008-01-01

358

Bio-inspired classifier for road extraction from remote sensing imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

An adaptive approach for road extraction inspired by the mechanism of primary visual cortex (V1) is proposed. The motivation is originated by the characteristics in the receptive field from V1. It has been proved that human or primate visual systems can distinguish useful cues from real scenes effortlessly while traditional computer vision techniques cannot accomplish this task easily. This idea motivates us to design a bio-inspired model for road extraction from remote sensing imagery. The proposed approach is an improved support vector machine (SVM) based on the pooling of feature vectors, using an improved Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) kernel with tuning on synaptic gains. The synaptic gains comprise the feature vectors through an iterative optimization process representing the strength and width of Gaussian RBF kernel. The synaptic gains integrate the excitation and inhibition stimuli based on internal connections from V1. The summation of synaptic gains contributes to pooling of feature vectors. The experimental results verify the correlation between the synaptic gain and classification rules, and then show better performance in comparison with hidden Markov model, SVM, and fuzzy classification approaches. Our contribution is an automatic approach to road extraction without prelabeling and postprocessing work. Another apparent advantage is that our method is robust for images taken even under complex weather conditions such as snowy and foggy weather.

Xu, Jiawei; Wang, Ruisheng; Yue, Shigang

2014-01-01

359

Graphical Representation of Complex Solutions of the Quadratic Equation in the "xy" Plane  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a visual representation of complex solutions of quadratic equations in the xy plane. Rather than moving to the complex plane, students are able to experience a geometric interpretation of the solutions in the xy plane. I am also working on these types of representations with higher order polynomials with some success.

McDonald, Todd

2006-01-01

360

A new image representation for compact and secure communication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In many areas of nuclear materials management there is a need for communication, archival, and retrieval of annotated image data between heterogeneous platforms and devices to effectively implement safety, security, and safeguards of nuclear materials. Current image formats such as JPEG are not ideally suited in such scenarios as they are not scalable to different viewing formats, and do not provide a high-level representation of images that facilitate automatic object/change detection or annotation. The new Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) open standard for representing graphical information, recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is designed to address issues of image scalability, portability, and annotation. However, until now there has been no viable technology to efficiently field images of high visual quality under this standard. Recently, LANL has developed a vectorized image representation that is compatible with the SVG standard and preserves visual quality. This is based on a new geometric framework for characterizing complex features in real-world imagery that incorporates perceptual principles of processing visual information known from cognitive psychology and vision science, to obtain a polygonal image representation of high fidelity. This representation can take advantage of all textual compression and encryption routines unavailable to other image formats. Moreover, this vectorized image representation can be exploited to facilitate automated object recognition that can reduce time required for data review. The objects/features of interest in these vectorized images can be annotated via animated graphics to facilitate quick and easy display and comprehension of processed image content.

Prasad, Lakshman; Skourikhine, A. N. (Alexei N.)

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Topologizations of Chiral Representations  

CERN Document Server

Recently, two different families of topologies have been proposed for representation spaces of chiral algebras. We prove a theorem that compares the two types of topologies and show that in one of them chiral blocks are continuous functionals.

Conrady, F; Conrady, Florian; Schweigert, Christoph

2004-01-01

362

Ordering ambiguity versus representation  

CERN Document Server

In this work we show that the ordering ambiguity on quantization depends on the representation choice. This property is then used to solve unambiguously some particular systems. Finally, we speculate on the consequences for more involved cases.

Dutra, Alvaro de Souza

2006-01-01

363

Obstructions to determinantal representability  

CERN Document Server

There has recently been ample interest in the question of which sets can represented by linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A necessary condition is that the set is rigidly convex, and it has been conjectured that convex rigidity is also sufficient. To this end Helton and Vinnikov conjectured that any real zero polynomial admits a determinantal representation with symmetric matrices. We disprove this conjecture. By relating the question of finding LMI representations to the problem of determining whether a polymatroid is representable over the complex numbers, we find a real zero polynomial such that no power of it admits a determinantal representation. The proof uses recent results of Wagner and Wei on matroids with the half-plane property.

Brändén, Petter

2010-01-01

364

The Representation of Discourse in the Two Hemispheres: An Individual Differences Investigation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two experiments were conducted to investigate discourse representation in the two cerebral hemispheres as a function of reading skill. We used a lateralized visual-field procedure to compare left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) sensitivity to different discourse relations in readers with varying skill levels. In Experiment 1, we investigated two levels of discourse representation in memory: (a) the propositional representation and (b) the discourse model. We found that all readers w...

Prat, Chantel S.; Long, Debra L.; Baynes, Kathleen

2006-01-01

365

Visual cognition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

Pinker, S.

1985-01-01

366

The Influence of Different Pictorial Representations during Idea Generation  

Science.gov (United States)

During creative problem-solving, designers frequently come across a variety of rich visual displays. While browsing for different sources of information, pictorial representations of existing concepts take prominence. However, once designers start generating new solution ideas to design problems, they often become too attached to some of the…

Cardoso, Carlos; Badke-Schaub, Petra

2011-01-01

367

Kicking Calculators: Contribution of Embodied Representations to Sentence Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

Evocation of motor representations during sentence comprehension was examined by training subjects to make a hand action in response to a visual cue while listening to a sentence. Sentences referred to manipulable objects that were either related or unrelated to the cued action. Related actions pertained either to the function of the object or to…

Masson, Michael E. J.; Bub, Daniel N.; Warren, Christopher M.

2008-01-01

368

Concurrent data representation synthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe an approach for synthesizing data representations for concurrent programs. Our compiler takes as input a program written using concurrent relations and synthesizes a representation of the relations as sets of cooperating data structures as well as the placement and acquisition of locks to synchronize concurrent access to those data structures. The resulting code is correct by construction: individual relational operations are implemented correctly and the aggregate set of operatio...

Hawkins, Peter; Aiken, Alex; Fisher, Kathleen; Rinard, Martin C.; Sagiv, Mooly

2012-01-01

369

Varieties of Numerical Representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A growing amount of evidence supports the hypothesis that humans are able, from the earliest age, to process numerical information in the absence of language. This work addresses the question of the nature of the internal representation for processing numerosities from three perspective: developmental, adults' skilled performance, and the peculiar case of synaesthesia. In our studies with children we addressed the development of the mental representation for numbers. In the first experimen...

Berteletti, Ilaria A.

2008-01-01

370

Function, anticipation, representation  

Science.gov (United States)

Function emerges in certain kinds of far-from-equilibrium systems. One important kind of function is that of interactive anticipation, an adaptedness to temporal complexity. Interactive anticipation is the locus of the emergence of normative representational content, and, thus, of representation in general: interactive anticipation is the naturalistic core of the evolution of cognition. Higher forms of such anticipation are involved in the subsequent macro-evolutionary sequence of learning, emotions, and reflexive consciousness.

Bickhard, Mark. H.

2001-06-01

371

Climate change in EIA - Inspiration from practice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Climate change integration has been a topic of much interest in the field of impact assessment for a period, and thus far quite some emphasis has been put on discussions of purpose, relevance and overall approaches in both Environmental Impact Assessment of projects (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessments of plans and programmes (SEA). However, EIAs and SEAs are already being made, which integrate climate change, and for some aspects this practice has evolved over a long period. This paper seeks to explore this practice and find inspiration from the work with climate change already taking place. For exploring the praxis of integrating climate change in practice a document study of 100 Danish EIA reports is carried out. From these reports, statistics and examples are drawn. The study shows an emphasis on integration of climate change mitigation, using various quantitative tools, but also examples of different variations of climate change adaptation.

Larsen, Sanne Vammen

2013-01-01

372

Tough, bio-inspired hybrid materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The notion of mimicking natural structures in the synthesis of new structural materials has generated enormous interest but has yielded few practical advances. Natural composites achieve strength and toughness through complex hierarchical designs extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. Here we emulate Nature's toughening mechanisms through the combination of two ordinary compounds, aluminum oxide and polymethylmethacrylate, into ice-templated structures whose toughness can be over 300 times (in energy terms) that of their constituents. The final product is a bulk hybrid ceramic material whose high yield strength and fracture toughness ({approx}200 MPa and {approx}30 MPa{radical}m) provide specific properties comparable to aluminum alloys. These model materials can be used to identify the key microstructural features that should guide the synthesis of bio-inspired ceramic-based composites with unique strength and toughness.

Munch, Etienne; Launey, Maximimilan E.; Alsem, Daan H.; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

2008-10-06

373

A superstring-inspired standard model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis is presented of an E8 x E8 superstring-inspired ten-dimensional supergravity model following from compactification on a particular Calabi-Yau manifold which gives rise to three generations. The multiplet structure and discrete symmetries after compactification are determined. It is shown that the model has flat directions which allow for breaking of the gauge group to the standard SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) model at a high scale. The resulting low-energy theory has a realistic spectrum and, remarkably, the discrete symmetries predict a reasonable structure for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix. Without unnatural adjustments, proton decay is inhibited and neutrino masses consistent with experimental limits are obtained. (orig.)

374

Tough, Bio-Inspired Hybrid Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The notion of mimicking natural structures in the synthesis of new structural materials has generated enormous interest but has yielded few practical advances. Natural composites achieve strength and toughness through complex hierarchical designs that are extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. We emulate nature’s toughening mechanisms by combining two ordinary compounds, aluminum oxide and polymethyl methacrylate, into ice-templated structures whose toughness can be more than 300 times (in energy terms) that of their constituents. The final product is a bulk hybrid ceramic-based material whose high yield strength and fracture toughness [~200 megapascals (MPa) and ~30 MPa·m1/2] represent specific properties comparable to those of aluminum alloys. These model materials can be used to identify the key microstructural features that should guide the synthesis of bio-inspired ceramic-based composites with unique strength and toughness.

Munch, E.; Launey, M. E.; Alsem, D. H.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A. P.; Ritchie, R. O.

2008-12-01

375

Biologically Inspired Mushroom-Shaped Adhesive Microstructures  

Science.gov (United States)

Adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon with great importance in technology, in our everyday life, and in nature. In this article, we review physical interactions that resist the separation of two solids in contact. By using examples of biological attachment systems, we summarize and categorize various principles that contribute to the so-called gecko effect. Emphasis is placed on the contact geometry and in particular on the mushroom-shaped geometry, which is observed in long-term biological adhesive systems. Furthermore, we report on artificial model systems with this bio-inspired geometry and demonstrate that surface microstructures with this geometry are promising candidates for technical applications, in which repeatable, reversible, and residue-free adhesion under different environmental conditions—such as air, fluid, and vacuum—is required. Various applications in robotic systems and in industrial pick-and-place processes are discussed.

Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N.

2014-07-01

376

Hamiltonian Hydrodynamics and Irrotational Binary Inspiral  

CERN Document Server

Gravitational waves from neutron-star and black-hole binaries carry valuable information on their physical properties and probe physics inaccessible to the laboratory. Although development of black-hole gravitational-wave templates in the past decade has been revolutionary, the corresponding work for double neutron-star systems has lagged. Neutron stars can be well-modelled as simple barotropic fluids during the part of binary inspiral most relevant to gravitational wave astronomy, but the crucial geometric and mathematical consequences of this simplification have remained computationally unexploited. In particular, Carter and Lichnerowicz have described barotropic fluid motion via classical variational principles as conformally geodesic. Moreover, Kelvin's circulation theorem implies that initially irrotational flows remain irrotational. Applied to numerical relativity, these concepts lead to novel Hamiltonian or Hamilton-Jacobi schemes for evolving relativistic fluid flows. Hamiltonian methods can conserve ...

Markakis, Charalampos M

2014-01-01

377

Revisiting No-Scale Supergravity Inspired Scenarios  

CERN Document Server

We consider no-scale supergravity inspired scenarios, emphasizing the possible dynamical determination of the soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters as triggered by the radiative corrections that lift an essentially flat tree-level potential in the hidden sector. We (re)emphasize the important role played by the scale-dependent vacuum energy contribution to the effective potential for the occurrence of consistent no-scale minima. The most relevant input parameters are introduced as $B_0$ (the soft breaking mixing Higgs parameter) and $\\eta_0$ (the cosmological constant value at high energy) instead of $\\mhalf$ and $\\tan \\beta$, the latter being determined through a (generalized) potential minimization at electroweak scales. We examine the theoretical and phenomenological viability of such a mechanism when confronted with up-to-date calculations of the low energy sparticle spectrum and with present constraints from the LHC and other observables. The tight dark matter relic density constraint for a neutralino L...

Benhenni, Amine; Moultaka, Gilbert; Bailly, Sean

2011-01-01

378

Bio-inspired Computing for Robots  

Science.gov (United States)

Living creatures may provide algorithms to enable active sensing/control systems in robots. Active sensing could enable planetary rovers to feel their way in unknown environments. The surface of Jupiter's moon Europa consists of fractured ice over a liquid sea that may contain microbes similar to those on Earth. To explore such extreme environments, NASA needs robots that autonomously survive, navigate, and gather scientific data. They will be too far away for guidance from Earth. They must sense their environment and control their own movements to avoid obstacles or investigate a science opportunity. To meet this challenge, CICT's Information Technology Strategic Research (ITSR) Project is funding neurobiologists at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and selected universities to search for biologically inspired algorithms that enable robust active sensing and control for exploratory robots. Sources for these algorithms are living creatures, including rats and electric fish.

Laufenberg, Larry

2003-01-01

379

Compact stars in Eddington inspired gravity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new, Eddington inspired theory of gravity was recently proposed by Bañados and Ferreira. It is equivalent to general relativity in vacuum, but differs from it inside matter. This viable, one-parameter theory was shown to avoid cosmological singularities and turns out to lead to many other exciting new features that we report here. First, for a positive coupling parameter, the field equations have a dramatic impact on the collapse of dust, and do not lead to singularities. We further find that the theory supports stable, compact pressureless stars made of perfect fluid, which provide interesting models of self-gravitating dark matter. Finally, we show that the mere existence of relativistic stars imposes a strong, near optimal constraint on the coupling parameter, which can even be improved by observations of the moment of inertia of the double pulsar. PMID:21838345

Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Delsate, Térence

2011-07-15

380

Bio-inspired Ant Algorithms: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ant Algorithms are techniques for optimizing which were coined in the early 1990’s by M. Dorigo. The techniques were inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants in the nature. The focus of ant algorithms is to find approximate optimized problem solutions using artificial ants and their indirect decentralized communications using synthetic pheromones. In this paper, at first ant algorithms are described in details, then transforms to computational optimization techniques: the ACO metaheuristics and developed ACO algorithms. A comparative study of ant algorithms also carried out, followed by past and present trends in AAs applications. Future prospect in AAs also covered in this paper. Finally a comparison between AAs with well-established machine learning techniques were focused, so that combining with machine learning techniques hybrid, robust, novel algorithms could be produces for outstanding result in future.

Sangita Roy

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
381

Bio-inspired networks for optoelectronic applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern optoelectronics needs development of new materials characterized not only by high optical transparency and electrical conductivity, but also by mechanical strength, and flexibility. Recent advances employ grids of metallic micro- and nanowires, but the overall performance of the resulting material composites remains unsatisfactory. In this work, we propose a new strategy: application of natural scaffoldings perfected by evolution. In this context, we study two bio-inspired networks for two specific optoelectronic applications. The first network, intended for solar cells, light sources and similar devices, has a quasi-fractal structure and is derived directly from a chemically extracted leaf venation system. The second network is intended for touch screens and flexible displays, and is obtained by metalizing a spider’s silk web. We demonstrate that each of these networks attain an exceptional optoelectonic and mechanical performance for its intended purpose, providing a promising direction in the development of more efficient optoelectronic devices.

Han, Bing; Huang, Yuanlin; Li, Ruopeng; Peng, Qiang; Luo, Junyi; Pei, Ke; Herczynski, Andrzej; Kempa, Krzysztof; Ren, Zhifeng; Gao, Jinwei

2014-11-01

382

Bio-inspired speed detection and discrimination  

CERN Document Server

In the field of computer vision, a crucial task is the detection of motion (also called optical flow extraction). This operation allows analysis such as 3D reconstruction, feature tracking, time-to-collision and novelty detection among others. Most of the optical flow extraction techniques work within a finite range of speeds. Usually, the range of detection is extended towards higher speeds by combining some multiscale information in a serial architecture. This serial multi-scale approach suffers from the problem of error propagation related to the number of scales used in the algorithm. On the other hand, biological experiments show that human motion perception seems to follow a parallel multiscale scheme. In this work we present a bio-inspired parallel architecture to perform detection of motion, providing a wide range of operation and avoiding error propagation associated with the serial architecture. To test our algorithm, we perform relative error comparisons between both classical and proposed techniqu...

Cerda, Mauricio; Girau, Bernard

2009-01-01

383

Aurelia aurita bio-inspired tilt sensor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quickly expanding field of mobile robots, unmanned underwater vehicles, and micro-air vehicles urgently needs a cheap and effective means for measuring vehicle inclination. Commonly, tilt or inclination has been mathematically derived from accelerometers; however, there is inherent error in any indirect measurement. This paper reports a bio-inspired tilt sensor that mimics the natural balance organ of jellyfish, called the ‘statocyst’. Biological statocysts from the species Aurelia aurita were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the morphology and size of the natural sensor. An artificial tilt sensor was then developed by using printed electronics that incorporates a novel voltage divider concept in conjunction with small surface mount devices. This sensor was found to have minimum sensitivity of 4.21° with a standard deviation of 1.77°. These results open the possibility of developing elegant tilt sensor architecture for both air and water based platforms. (paper)

384

A Bio-Inspired Spatial Patterning Circuit  

Science.gov (United States)

Lateral Inhibition (LI) is a widely conserved patterning mechanism in biological systems across species. Distinct from better-known Turing patterns, LI depend on cell-cell contact rather than diffusion. We built an in silico genetic circuit model to analyze the dynamic properties of LI. The model revealed that LI amplifies differences between neighboring cells to push them into opposite states, hence forming stable 2-D patterns. Inspired by this insight, we designed and implemented an electronic circuit that recapitulates LI patterning dynamics. This biomimetic system serve as a physical model to elucidate the design principle of generating robust patterning through spatial feedback, regardless of the underlying devices being biological or electrical. PMID:25569903

Chen, Kai-Yuan; Joe, Danial J.; Shealy, James B.; Land, Bruce R.; Shen, Xiling

2015-01-01

385

CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition  

CERN Multimedia

Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

2001-01-01

386

Image Retrieval as Linguistic and Nonlinguistic Visual Model Matching.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews research on how people use mental models of images in information retrieval. Discusses cognitive and social processes that give rise the visual models shaped by indexers and searchers. Examines the representation of objects and shapes in visual mental models and how both content-based and concept-based indexes capture aspects of these…

Heidorn, P. Bryan

1999-01-01

387

A Core Knowledge Architecture of Visual Working Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual working memory (VWM) is widely thought to contain specialized buffers for retaining spatial and object information: a "spatial-object architecture." However, studies of adults, infants, and nonhuman animals show that visual cognition builds on core knowledge systems that retain more specialized representations: (1) spatiotemporal…

Wood, Justin N.

2011-01-01

388

Supporting STEM Teachers to Inspire through Everyday Innovation  

Science.gov (United States)

Science teachers inspire in part by their constant adaptation to the learning needs of their students and to evolving content, curriculum, technology, and student populations. Innovation--bringing novel things to a situation to confer a benefit--is an integral part of teaching overall, and in especially inspired science teaching. While innovation…

Bienkowski, Marie; Shechtman, Nicole; Remold, Julie; Knudsen, Jennifer

2014-01-01

389

Inspiration Inducement of Pianists in a Subconsciousness Background  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inspiration thinking of pianists lies under their deep thought, and is a product of mutual interaction between consciousness and subconsciousness, closely connected with living experiences, musical environment, and psychological environment of a subject. Piano music, literature poetry, internal rhythm, external rhythm, Nature, environment and impression are significant induction factors to lead inspiration thinking of pianists, while arduous practice, gifted perception, tough exploration and ...

Changkui Wang

2009-01-01

390

NASA Missions Inspire Online Video Games  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast forward to 2035. Imagine being part of a community of astronauts living and working on the Moon. Suddenly, in the middle of just another day in space, a meteorite crashes into the surface of the Moon, threatening life as you know it. The support equipment that provides oxygen for the entire community has been compromised. What would you do? While this situation is one that most people will never encounter, NASA hopes to place students in such situations - virtually - to inspire, engage, and educate about NASA technologies, job opportunities, and the future of space exploration. Specifically, NASA s Learning Technologies program, part of the Agency s Office of Education, aims to inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines through interactive technologies. The ultimate goal of these educational programs is to support the growth of a pool of qualified scientific and technical candidates for future careers at places like NASA. STEM education has been an area of concern in the United States; according to the results of the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment, 23 countries had higher average scores in mathematics literacy than the United States. On the science literacy scale, 18 countries had higher average scores. "This is part of a much bigger picture of trying to grow skilled graduates for places like NASA that will want that technical expertise," says Daniel Laughlin, the Learning Technologies project manager at Goddard Space Flight Center. "NASA is trying to increase the number of students going into those fields, and so are other government agencies."

2012-01-01

391

Engaging Generation Now, Inspiring Generation Next  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2008, the Education and Public Outreach Committee of the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) initiated several new strategies for disseminating accurate, stimulating, engaging information on general astronomy and variable star science to thousands of students, parents, and amateur astronomers each year through astronomy clubs, societies, and star party events. We are initiating contact with astronomy clubs and organizations to offer qualified speakers from the AAVSO Speakers Bureau for their meetings and activities. The current roster of speakers include, professional astronomers, doctors, engineers, teachers and some of the world's leading variable star observers. Request information is available on the AAVSO website. For organizations and individuals unable to engage one of our speakers due to time, distance or financial constraints, we have made PowerPoint presentations used in previous talks available free for download from the same web pages. Thousands of amateur astronomers and their children attend star parties each year. As an extension of our speakers’ bureau, our goal is to have an AAVSO representative at each of the major star parties each year giving an enthusiastic talk on variable stars or related astronomical subject and supplying inspirational printed materials on astronomy and amateur contributions to science. The nation's largest astronomy clubs have monthly newsletters they distribute to their membership. Newsletter editors are constantly in need of quality, interesting content to fill out their issues each month. We are offering a `writers’ bureau’ service to newsletter editors, similar to the news wire services used by newspapers. We will supply up to a half dozen articles on astronomy and variable star science each month for editors to use at their discretion in their publications. Our goal is to provide information, inspiration and encourage participation among amateur astronomers and their kids, our next generation of astronomers.

Simonsen, Mike; Gay, P.

2008-05-01

392

Cortical Visual Impairment  

Science.gov (United States)

Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ... in children from developed countries. What is delayed visual maturation (DVM)? Delayed visual maturation is similar to ...

393

Learning slow features with reservoir computing for biologically-inspired robot localization.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work proposes a hierarchical biologically-inspired architecture for learning sensor-based spatial representations of a robot environment in an unsupervised way. The first layer is comprised of a fixed randomly generated recurrent neural network, the reservoir, which projects the input into a high-dimensional, dynamic space. The second layer learns instantaneous slowly-varying signals from the reservoir states using Slow Feature Analysis (SFA), whereas the third layer learns a sparse coding on the SFA layer using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). While the SFA layer generates non-localized activations in space, the ICA layer presents high place selectivity, forming a localized spatial activation, characteristic of place cells found in the hippocampus area of the rodent's brain. We show that, using a limited number of noisy short-range distance sensors as input, the proposed system learns a spatial representation of the environment which can be used to predict the actual location of simulated and real robots, without the use of odometry. The results confirm that the reservoir layer is essential for learning spatial representations from low-dimensional input such as distance sensors. The main reason is that the reservoir state reflects the recent history of the input stream. Thus, this fading memory is essential for detecting locations, mainly when locations are ambiguous and characterized by similar sensor readings. PMID:21945043

Antonelo, Eric; Schrauwen, Benjamin

2012-01-01

394

Modality-specific organization in the representation of sensorimotor sequences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sensorimotor representations of movement sequences are hierarchically organized. Here we test the effects of different stimulus modalities on such organizations. In the visual group, participants responded to a repeated sequence of visually presented stimuli by depressing spatially compatible keys on a response pad. In the auditory group, learners were required to respond to auditorily presented stimuli, which had no direct spatial correspondence with the response keys: the lowest pitch corresponded to the leftmost key and the highest pitch to the rightmost key. We demonstrate that hierarchically and auto-organised sensorimotor representations are developed through practice, which are specific both to individuals and stimulus modalities. These findings highlight the dynamic and sensory-specific modulation of chunk processing during sensorimotor learning – sensorimotor chunking – and provide evidence that modality-specific mechanisms underlie the hierarchical organization of sequence representations.

ArnaudBoutin

2013-12-01

395

Cortical networks for visual self-recognition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper briefly reviews recent developments regarding the brain mechanisms of visual self-recognition. A special cognitive mechanism for visual self-recognition has been postulated based on behavioral and neuropsychological evidence, but its neural substrate remains controversial. Recent functional imaging studies suggest that multiple cortical mechanisms play self-specific roles during visual self-recognition, reconciling the existing controversy. Respective roles for the left occipitotemporal, right parietal, and frontal cortices in symbolic, visuospatial, and conceptual aspects of self-representation have been proposed. (author)

396

Graph-Based Visualization of Ontology-Based Competence Profiles for Research Collaboration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information visualization can be valuable in a wide range of applications, it deals with abstract, non-spatial data and with the representation of data elements in a meaningful form irrespective of the size of the data, because sometimes visualization itself focuses on the certain key aspects of the data in the representation and thus it helps by providing ease for the goal oriented interpretation. Information visualization focuses on providing a spontaneous and deeper level of the understand...

Afzal, Mansoor

2012-01-01

397

A decoupled image space approach to visual servo control of a robotic manipulator.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An image-based visual servo control is presented for a robotic manipulator. The proposed control design ad- dresses visual servo of 'eye-in-hand' type systems. Us- ing a novel representation of the visual error based on a spherical representation of target centroid information along with a measure of the rotation between the camera and the target, the control of the position and orientation is decoupled. A non-linear gain introduced into the ori- entation feedback kinematics prevents the targ...

Mahony, R.; Hamel, Tarek; Chaumette, Franc?ois

2002-01-01

398

Transitive Closure based visual words for point matching in video sequence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present Transitive Closure based visual word formation technique for obtaining robust object representations from smoothly varying multiple views. Each one of our visual words is represented by a set of feature vectors which is obtained by performing transitive closure operation on SIFT features. We also present range-reducing tree structure to speed up the transitive closure operation. The robustness of our visual word representation is demonstrated for Structure from Motion (SfM) and loc...

Bhat, Srikrishna; Berger, Marie-odile; Simon, Gilles; Sur, Fre?de?ric

2010-01-01

399

Visual Priming of Inverted and Rotated Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

Object images are identified more efficiently after prior exposure. Here, the authors investigated shape representations supporting object priming. The dependent measure in all experiments was the minimum exposure duration required to correctly identify an object image in a rapid serial visual presentation stream. Priming was defined as the change…

Knowlton, Barbara J.; McAuliffe, Sean P.; Coelho, Chase J.; Hummel, John E.

2009-01-01

400

Knowledge Representations for Planning Manipulation Tasks  

CERN Document Server

In this book, the capability map, a novel general representation of the kinematic capabilities of a robot arm, is introduced. The capability map allows to determine how well regions of the workspace are reachable for the end effector in different orientations. It is a representation that can be machine processed as well as intuitively visualized for the human. The capability map and the derived algorithms are a valuable source of information for high- and low-level planning processes. The versatile applicability of the capability map is shown by examples from several distinct application domains. In human-robot interaction, a bi-manual interface for tele-operation is objectively evaluated. In low-level geometric planning, more human-like motion is planned for a humanoid robot while also reducing the computation time. And in high-level task reasoning, the suitability of a robot for a task is evaluated.    

Zacharias, Franziska

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Polymer representations and geometric quantization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polymer representations of the Weyl algebra of linear systems provide the simplest analogues of the representation used in loop quantum gravity. The construction of these representations is algebraic, based on the Gelfand-Naimark-Segal construction. Is it possible to understand these representations from a Geometric Quantization point of view? We address this question for the case of a two dimensional phase space.

Campiglia, Miguel

2011-01-01

402

XML Based Representation of DFD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the world of Information Technology, the working of a information system is well explained with the use of Data Flow Diagrams (DFD. DFDs are one of the three essential perspectives of the Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM. [3]The sponsor of a project and the end users are briefed and consulted throughout all stages of a system's evolution. With a data flow diagram, users are able to visualize how the system will operate, what the system will accomplish, and how the system will be implemented. But, various practical problems exist with the representation of DFDs. Different tools are available in the market for representing the DFDs. These tools are user friendly and based on the object oriented features. The diagrams drawn using these tools can be sent over the network for communicating with others. On the other hand, the XML is platform independent, textual information and is totally extensible. XML is structured and is an excellent way to transfer the information along with the metadata over the network. XML can be used to transfer the information related to DFDs, there by removing the problems related to understanding the diagrammatic notations and concentrating more on the information flow in the system. This paper is aimed at understanding the problems related to DFDs and representing it in XML[4] format for their storage and communication over the network. The discussion is divided into four main topics – introduction to XML and DFD, problems related to DFD, an XML representation for DFDs and finally the conclusion.

Swapna Salil Kolhatkar

2011-08-01

403

Learning deep hierarchical visual feature coding.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we propose a hybrid architecture that combines the image modeling strengths of the bag of words framework with the representational power and adaptability of learning deep architectures. Local gradient-based descriptors, such as SIFT, are encoded via a hierarchical coding scheme composed of spatial aggregating restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM). For each coding layer, we regularize the RBM by encouraging representations to fit both sparse and selective distributions. Supervised fine-tuning is used to enhance the quality of the visual representation for the categorization task. We performed a thorough experimental evaluation using three image categorization data sets. The hierarchical coding scheme achieved competitive categorization accuracies of 79.7% and 86.4% on the Caltech-101 and 15-Scenes data sets, respectively. The visual representations learned are compact and the model's inference is fast, as compared with sparse coding methods. The low-level representations of descriptors that were learned using this method result in generic features that we empirically found to be transferrable between different image data sets. Further analysis reveal the significance of supervised fine-tuning when the architecture has two layers of representations as opposed to a single layer. PMID:25420244

Goh, Hanlin; Thome, Nicolas; Cord, Matthieu; Lim, Joo-Hwee

2014-12-01

404

Intact reading in patients with profound early visual dysfunction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite substantial neuroscientific evidence for a region of visual cortex dedicated to the processing of written words, many studies continue to reject explanations of letter-by-letter (LBL) reading in terms of impaired word form representations or parallel letter processing in favour of more general deficits of visual function. In the current paper, we demonstrate that whilst LBL reading is often associated with general visual deficits, these deficits are not necessarily sufficient to cause...

Yong, Keir X. X.; Warren, Jason D.; Warrington, Elizabeth K.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

2013-01-01

405

Decoding Working Memory of Stimulus Contrast in Early Visual Cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most studies of the early stages of visual analysis (V1-V3) have focused on the properties of neurons that support processing of elemental features of a visual stimulus or scene, such as local contrast, orientation, or direction of motion. Recent evidence from electrophysiology and neuroimaging studies, however, suggests that early visual cortex may also play a role in retaining stimulus representations in memory for short periods. For example, fMRI responses obtained during the delay period ...

Xing, Yue; Ledgeway, Tim; Mcgraw, Paul V.; Schluppeck, Denis

2013-01-01

406

Decoding working memory of stimulus contrast in early visual cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most studies of the early stages of visual analysis (V1-V3) have focused on the properties of neurons that support processing of elemental features of a visual stimulus or scene, such as local contrast, orientation, or direction of motion. Recent evidence from electrophysiology and neuroimaging studies, however, suggests that early visual cortex may also play a role in retaining stimulus representations in memory for short periods. For example, fMRI responses obtained during the delay period ...

Xing, Yue; Ledgeway, Tim; Mcgraw, Paul V.; Schluppeck, Denis

2013-01-01

407

Iterative Fragmentation of Cognitive Maps in a Visual Imagery Task  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It remains unclear whether spontaneous eye movements during visual imagery reflect the mental generation of a visual image (i.e. the arrangement of the component parts of a mental representation). To address this specificity, we recorded eye movements in an imagery task and in a phonological fluency (non-imagery) task, both consisting in naming French towns from long-term memory. Only in the condition of visual imagery the spontaneous eye positions reflected the geographic position of the tow...

Fourtassi, Maryam; Hajjioui, Abderrazak; Urquizar, Christian; Rossetti, Yves; Rode, Gilles; Pisella, Laure

2013-01-01

408

Shape representation by a network of V4-like cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cells in extrastriate visual cortex have been reported to be selective for various configurations of local contour shape [Pasupathy, A., & Connor, C. E. (2001). Shape representation in area V4: Position-specific tuning for boundary conformation. The Journal of Neurophysiology, 86 (5), 2505-2519; Hegdé, J., & Van Essen, D. C. (2003). Strategies of shape representation in macaque visual area V2. Visual Neuroscience, 20 (3), 313-328]. Specifically, Pasupathy and Connor found that in area V4 most cells are strongly responsive to a particular local contour conformation located at a specific position on the object's boundary. We used a population of "V4-like cells"-units sensitive to multiple shape features modeled after V4 cell behavior-to generate representations of different shapes. Standard classification algorithms (earth mover's distance, support vector machines) applied to this population representation demonstrate high recognition accuracies classifying handwritten digits in the MNIST database and objects in the MPEG-7 Shape Silhouette database. We compare the performance of the V4-like unit representation to the "shape context" representation of Belongie et al. [Belongie, S., Malik, J., & Puzicha, J. (2002). Shape matching and object recognition using shape contexts. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 24 (24), 509-522]. Results show roughly comparable recognition accuracies using the two representations when tested on portions of the MNIST database. We analyze the relative contributions of various V4-like feature sensitivities to recognition accuracy and robustness to noise - feature sensitivities include curvature magnitude, direction of curvature, global orientation of the contour segment, distance of the contour segment from object center, and modulatory effect of adjacent contour regions. Among these, local curvature appears to be the most informative variable for shape recognition. Our results support the hypothesis that V4 cells function as robust shape descriptors in the early stages of object recognition. PMID:17884335

Murphy, Thomas M; Finkel, Leif H

2007-10-01

409

Evidence for highly selective neuronal tuning to whole words in the "visual word form area".  

Science.gov (United States)

Theories of reading have posited the existence of a neural representation coding for whole real words (i.e., an orthographic lexicon), but experimental support for such a representation has proved elusive. Using fMRI rapid adaptation techniques, we provide evidence that the human left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (specifically the "visual word form area," VWFA) contains a representation based on neurons highly selective for individual real words, in contrast to current theories that posit a sublexical representation in the VWFA. PMID:19409265

Glezer, Laurie S; Jiang, Xiong; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

2009-04-30

410

Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis  

CERN Document Server

Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

Mahadevan, Sridhar

2008-01-01

411

How Category Learning Affects Object Representations: Not All Morphspaces Stretch Alike  

Science.gov (United States)

How does learning to categorize objects affect how people visually perceive them? Behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies have tested the degree to which category learning influences object representations, with conflicting results. Some studies have found that objects become more visually discriminable along dimensions relevant…

Folstein, Jonathan R.; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

412

Visual cognition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

Pinker, S.

1985-01-01

413

A Graphic Representation of States for Quantum Copying Machines  

CERN Document Server

The aim of this paper is to introduce a new graphic representation of quantum states by means of a specific application: the analysis of two models of quantum copying machines. The graphic representation by diagrams of states offers a clear and detailed visualization of quantum information's flow during the unitary evolution of not too complex systems. The diagrams of states are exponentially more complex in respect to the standard representation and this clearly illustrates the discrepancy of computational power between quantum and classical systems. After a brief introductive exposure of the general theory, we present a constructive procedure to illustrate the new representation by means of concrete examples. Elementary diagrams of states for single-qubit and two-qubit systems and a simple scheme to represent entangled states are presented. Quantum copying machines as imperfect cloners of quantum states are introduced and the quantum copying machines of Griffiths and Niu and of Buzek and Hillery are analyze...

Felloni, S; Felloni, Sara; Strini, Giuliano

2006-01-01

414

Formal Verification and Visualization of Security Policies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Verified and validated security policies are essential components of high assurance computer systems. The design and implementation of security policies are fundamental processes in the development, deployment, and maintenance of such systems. In this paper, we introduce an expert system that helps with the design and implementation of security policies. We show how Prolog is used to verify system correctness with respect to policies using a theorem prover. Managing and visualizing information in high assurance computer systems are challenging tasks. To simplify these tasks, we show how a graph-based visualization tool is used to validate policies and provide system security managers with a process that enables policy reviews and visualizes interactions between the system’s entities. The tool provides not only a representation of the formal model, but also its execution. The introduced executable model is a formal specification and knowledge representation method.

Luay A. Wahsheh

2008-06-01

415

From Idea to Organizational Practice : Institutionalizing Innovative Ideas Through Visualization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How do visualization and visual forms of communication influence the process of transforming a novel idea into established organizational practice? In this paper, we build theory with regard to the role of visuals in manifesting and giving form to an innovative idea as it proceeds through various stages of institutionalization. Ideas become institutionalized not merely through widespread diffusion in a cognitive-discursive form but eventually through their translation into concrete activities and transformation into specific patterns of organizational practice. We argue that visualization plays a pivotal and unique role in this process. Visualization bridges the ideational with the practical realm by providing representations of ideas, connecting them to existing knowledge, and illustrating the specific actions that instantiate them. Similar to verbal discourse, and often in tandem, visual representations diffuse more rapidly and further than the practices themselves. Consolidating the relationship between abstract ideas and specific practice, such visual or multi-modal representations facilitate the implementation of novel ideas, reinforce particular translations, and imbue associated organizational practice with legitimacy – and thus solidify the coupling of innovative ideas and organizational practice. Extending existing research, we develop a set of propositions linking dimensions of visuality and visualization to the different stages of institutionalization in order to explain the institutional trajectory of new ideas. Our analysis advances insight into a core dimension of institutionalization: the transformation of an idea into practice.

Meyer, Renate E.; Jancsary, Dennis

416

Towards adiabatic waveforms for inspiral into Kerr black holes. II. Dynamical sources and generic orbits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the second in a series of papers whose aim is to generate adiabatic gravitational waveforms from the inspiral of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes. In earlier work, we presented an accurate (2+1)D finite-difference time-domain code to solve the Teukolsky equation, which evolves curvature perturbations near rotating (Kerr) black holes. The key new ingredient there was a simple but accurate model of the singular source term based on a discrete representation of the Dirac-delta function and its derivatives. Our earlier work was intended as a proof of concept, using simple circular, equatorial geodesic orbits as a test bed. Such a source is effectively static, in that the smaller body remains at the same coordinate radius and orbital inclination over an orbit. (It of course moves through axial angle, but we separate that degree of freedom from the problem. Our numerical grid has only radial, polar, and time coordinates.) We now extend the time-domain code so that it can accommodate dynamic sources that move on a variety of physically interesting world lines. We validate the code with extensive comparison to frequency-domain waveforms for cases in which the source moves along generic (inclined and eccentric) bound geodesic orbits. We also demonstrate the ability of the time-domain code to accommodate sources moving on interesting nongeodesic worldlines. We do this by computing the waveform produced by a test mass following a kludged inspiral tratest mass following a kludged inspiral trajectory, made of bound geodesic segments driven toward merger by an approximate radiation loss formula.

417

Functional relationship between cognitive representations of movement directions and visuomotor adaptation performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of our study was to explore whether or not different types of learners in a sensorimotor task possess characteristically different cognitive representations. Participants' sensorimotor adaptation performance was measured with a pointing paradigm which used a distortion of the visual feedback in terms of a left-right reversal. The structure of cognitive representations was assessed using a newly established experimental method, the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions. A post hoc analysis revealed inter-individual differences in participants' adaptation performance, and three different skill levels (skilled, average, and poor adapters) have been defined. These differences in performance were correlated with the structure of participants' cognitive representations of movement directions. Analysis of these cognitive representations revealed performance advantages for participants possessing a global cognitive representation of movement directions (aligned to cardinal movement axes), rather than a local representation (aligned to each neighboring direction). Our findings are evidence that cognitive representation structures play a functional role in adaptation performance. PMID:23007723

Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

2012-12-01

418

Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration Through Accomplishment  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition is designed to promote the development of interest in space activities and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields. The competition uses excavation, a necessary first step towards extracting resources from the regolith and building bases on the moon. The unique physical properties of lunar regolith and the reduced 1/6th gravity, vacuum environment make excavation a difficult technical challenge. Advances in lunar regolith mining have the potential to significantly contribute to our nation's space vision and NASA space exploration operations. The competition is conducted annually by NASA at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The teams that can use telerobotic or autonomous operation to excavate a lunar regolith geotechnical simulant, herein after referred to as Black Point-1 (or BP-1) and score the most points (calculated as an average of two separate 10-minute timed competition attempts) will eam points towards the Joe Kosmo Award for Excellence and the scores will reflect ranking in the on-site mining category of the competition. The minimum excavation requirement is 10.0 kg during each competition attempt and the robotic excavator, referred to as the "Lunabot", must meet all specifications. This paper will review the achievements of the Lunabotics Mining Competition in 2010 and 2011, and present the new rules for 2012. By providing a framework for robotic design and fabrication, which culminates in a live competition event, university students have been able to produce sophisticated lunabots which are tele-operated. Multi-disciplinary teams are encouraged and the extreme sense of accomplishment provides a unique source of inspiration to the participating students, which has been shown to translate into increased interest in STEM careers. Our industrial sponsors (Caterpillar, Newmont Mining, Harris, Honeybee Robotics) have all stated that there is a strong need for skills in the workforce related to robotics and automated machines. In 2010, 22 United States (US) universities competed, and in May 2011 the competition was opened to international participation, with 46 Universities attending. There were 12 international teams and 34 US teams. This combined total directly inspired an estimated 544 university students. More students and the public were engaged via internet broadcasting and social networking media. This is expected to be of value for actual future space missions, as knowledge is gained from testing many innovative prototypes in simulated lunar regolith. More information is available at www.nasa.gov/lunabotics/.

Mueller, Robert P.

2011-01-01

419

Understanding Visual and Intertextual Approaches in Pedagogical and Curriculum Research: A Pretext  

Science.gov (United States)

In our globalised and hypertexual world, representations of curriculum reform are highly visual. The material world of these practices can be analysed through visual research methods. This paper is a pretext developed to explain the elements of the visual and intertextual approaches that can be applied in researching inclusive education through a…

Moss, Julianne

2011-01-01

420

INSPIRE: A new scientific information system for HEP  

Science.gov (United States)

The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project - a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the "Web 2.0" paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences, with community-based approaches to scientific publishing. INSPIRE represents a natural evolution of scholarly communication built on successful community-based information systems, and it provides a vision for information management in other fields of science. Inspired by the needs of HEP, we hope that the INSPIRE project will be inspiring for other communities.

Ivanov, R.; Raae, L.

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
421

INSPIRE: A new scientific information system for HEP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project - a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the 'Web 2.0' paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences, with community-based approaches to scientific publishing. INSPIRE represents a natural evolution of scholarly communication built on successful community-based information systems, and it provides a vision for information management in other fields of science. Inspired by the needs of HEP, we hope that the INSPIRE project will be inspiring for other communities.or other communities.

422

Towards Multimodal Content Representation  

CERN Document Server

Multimodal interfaces, combining the use of speech, graphics, gestures, and facial expressions in input and output, promise to provide new possibilities to deal with information in more effective and efficient ways, supporting for instance: - the understanding of possibly imprecise, partial or ambiguous multimodal input; - the generation of coordinated, cohesive, and coherent multimodal presentations; - the management of multimodal interaction (e.g., task completion, adapting the interface, error prevention) by representing and exploiting models of the user, the domain, the task, the interactive context, and the media (e.g. text, audio, video). The present document is intended to support the discussion on multimodal content representation, its possible objectives and basic constraints, and how the definition of a generic representation framework for multimodal content representation may be approached. It takes into account the results of the Dagstuhl workshop, in particular those of the informal working group...

Bunt, Harry

2009-01-01

423

Vector coherent state representations, induced representations and geometric quantization: I. Scalar coherent state representations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coherent state theory is shown to reproduce three categories of representations of the spectrum generating algebra for an algebraic model: (i) classical realizations which are the starting point for geometric quantization, (ii) induced unitary representations corresponding to prequantization and (iii) irreducible unitary representations obtained in geometric quantization by choice of a polarization. These representations establish an intimate relation between coherent state theory and geometric quantization in the context of induced representations. (author)

424

Analyzing and Visualizing Whole Program Architectures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes our work to develop new tool support for analyzing and visualizing the architecture of complete large-scale (millions or more lines of code) programs. Our approach consists of (i) creating a compact, accurate representation of a whole C or C++ program, (ii) analyzing the program in this representation, and (iii) visualizing the analysis results with respect to the program's architecture. We have implemented our approach by extending and combining a compiler infrastructure and a program visualization tool, and we believe our work will be of broad interest to those engaged in a variety of program understanding and transformation tasks. We have added new whole-program analysis support to ROSE [15, 14], a source-to-source C/C++ compiler infrastructure for creating customized analysis and transformation tools. Our whole-program work does not rely on procedure summaries; rather, we preserve all of the information present in the source while keeping our representation compact. In our representation, a million-line application fits in well less than 1 GB of memory. Because whole-program analyses can generate large amounts of data, we believe that abstracting and visualizing analysis results at the architecture level is critical to reducing the cognitive burden on the consumer of the analysis results. Therefore, we have extended Vizz3D [19], an interactive program visualization tool, with an appropriate metaphor and layout algorithm for representing a program's architecture. Our implementation provides developers with an intuitive, interactive way to view analysis results, such as those produced by ROSE, in the context of the program's architecture. The remainder of this paper summarizes our approach to whole-program analysis (Section 2) and provides an example of how we visualize the analysis results (Section 3).

Panas, T; Quinlan, D; Vuduc, R

2007-05-10

425

Advances in bio-inspired computing for combinatorial optimization problems  

CERN Document Server

Advances in Bio-inspired Combinatorial Optimization Problems' illustrates several recent bio-inspired efficient algorithms for solving NP-hard problems.Theoretical bio-inspired concepts and models, in particular for agents, ants and virtual robots are described. Large-scale optimization problems, for example: the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem and the Railway Traveling Salesman Problem, are solved and their results are discussed.Some of the main concepts and models described in this book are: inner rule to guide ant search - a recent model in ant optimization, heterogeneous sensitive a

Pintea, Camelia-Mihaela

2013-01-01

426

Quad Tree-based Level-of-details Representation of Digital Globe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three-dimensional visualization of the geographic data using a digital globe model has been an integral part of a modern GIS system. The visualization of the digital globe model presents many challenges not found in traditional terrain visualization system. The representation of the digital earth (globe model is important to efficiently render the geographical data without any distortion either at equator or Polar Regions. This paper presents a uniform scheme for efficient quad tree based level-of-details (LOD representation of the digital globe to minimize the distortion at Polar Regions and meets the requirement of fast frame rate rendering.

Sudhir Porwal

2013-01-01

427

Noncommutative Inspired Black Holes in Extra Dimensions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a recent string theory motivated paper, Nicolini, Smailagic and Spallucci (NSS) presented an interesting model for a noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like black hole solution in 4-dimensions. The essential effect of having noncommutative co-ordinates in this approach is to smear out matter distributions on a scale associated with the turn-on of noncommutativity which was taken to be near the 4-d Planck mass. In particular, NSS assumed that this smearing was essentially Gaussian. This energy scale is sufficiently large that in 4-d such effects may remain invisible indefinitely. Extra dimensional models which attempt to address the gauge hierarchy problem, however, allow for the possibility that the effective fundamental scale may not be far from {approx} 1 TeV, an energy regime that will soon be probed by experiments at both the LHC and ILC. In this paper we generalize the NSS model to the case where flat, toroidally compactified extra dimensions are accessible at the TeV-scale and examine the resulting modifications in black hole properties due to the existence of noncommutativity. We show that while many of the noncommutativity-induced black hole features found in 4-d by NSS persist, in some cases there can be significant modifications due the presence of extra dimensions. We also demonstrate that the essential features of this approach are not particularly sensitive to the Gaussian nature of the smearing assumed by NSS.

Rizzo, Thomas G.

2006-06-07

428

Catalytic applications of bio-inspired nanomaterials  

Science.gov (United States)

The biomimetic synthesis of Pd nanoparticles was presented using the Pd4 peptide, TSNAVHPTLRHL, isolated from combinatorial phage display library. Using this approach, nearly monodisperse and spherical Pd nanoparticles were generated with an average diameter of 1.9 +/- 0.4 nm. The peptide-based nanocatalyst were employed in the Stille coupling reaction under energy-efficient and environmentally friendly reaction conditions of aqueous solvent, room temperature and very low catalyst loading. To this end, the Pd nanocatalyst generated high turnover frequency (TOF) value and quantitative yields using ? 0.005 mol% Pd as well as catalytic activities with different aryl halides containing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups. The Pd4-capped Pd nanoparticles followed the atom-leaching mechanism and were found to be selective with respect to substrate identity. On the other hand, the naturally-occurring R5 peptide (SSKKSGSYSGSKGSKRRIL) was employed in the synthesis of biotemplated Pd nanomaterials which showed morphological changes as a function of Pd:peptide ratio. TOF analysis for hydrogenation of olefinic alcohols showed similar catalytic activity regardless of nanomorphology. Determination of catalytic properties of these bio-inspired nanomaterials are important as they serve as model system for alternative green catalyst with applications in industrially important transformations.

Pacardo, Dennis Kien Balaong

429

Detection strategies for extreme mass ratio inspirals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near-horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime, or possible departures from general relativity if the central cores prove not to be black holes. The gravitational radiation produced by these extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major scientific goal for the LISA mission. The waveforms produced are very complex, and the signals need to be coherently tracked for tens of thousands of cycles to produce a detection, making EMRI signals one of the most challenging data analysis problems in all of gravitational wave astronomy. Estimates for the number of templates required to perform an exhaustive grid-based matched-filter search for these signals are astronomically large, and far out of reach of current computational resources. Here I describe an alternative approach that employs a hybrid between genetic algorithms and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques, along with several time-saving techniques for computing the likelihood function. This approach has proven effective at the blind extraction of relatively weak EMRI signals from simulated LISA data sets.

430

Biologically Inspired Purification and Dispersion of SWCNTs  

Science.gov (United States)

A biologically inspired method has been developed for (1) separating single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from other materials (principally, amorphous carbon and metal catalysts) in raw production batches and (2) dispersing the SWCNTs as individual particles (in contradistinction to ropes and bundles) in suspension, as required for a number of applications. Prior methods of purification and dispersal of SWCNTs involve, variously, harsh physical processes (e.g., sonication) or harsh chemical processes (e.g., acid reflux). These processes do not completely remove the undesired materials and do not disperse bundles and ropes into individual suspended SWCNTs. Moreover, these processes cut long SWCNTs into shorter pieces, yielding typical nanotube lengths between 150 and 250 nm. In contrast, the present method does not involve harsh physical or chemical processes. The method involves the use of biologically derived dispersal agents (BDDAs) in an aqueous solution that is mechanically homogenized (but not sonicated) and centrifuged. The dense solid material remaining after centrifugation is resuspended by vortexing in distilled water, yielding an aqueous suspension of individual, separated SWCNTs having lengths from about 10 to about 15 microns.

Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S.; Nikolaev, Pavel

2009-01-01

431

Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class Arachnida and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters.We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order Araneae. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

2014-12-01

432

String field theory inspired phantom model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exact solution to the Friedmann equations with a stringy inspired phantom field is constructed. The Universe is considered as a slowly decaying D3-brane, which is described in the string field theory framework. The notable features of the concerned exactly solvable stringy dark energy (DE) model are a ghost sign of the kinetic term and a special polynomial form of the effective tachyon potential. Cosmological consequences of adding the cold dark matter (CDM) to this model are investigated as well. Solutions with large initial value of the CDM energy density attracted by the exact solution without the CDM are constructed numerically. In contrast to the ACDM model the Hubble parameter in our model is not a monotonic function of time. For specific initial data the DE state parameter UJDE is also not monotonic function of time. For these cases there are two separate domains of time where U'DE being less than - 1 is close to - 1. Stability conditions, under which the constructed solution is stable with respect to small fluctuations of the initial conditions, including the CDM energy density, are found. Keywords: string field theory, cosmology, tachyon, phantom, dark energy, cold dark matter, Big Rip (authors)

433

Coaching som inspiration til dialogbaseret lederskab  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

I erkendelse af, at lederen meget vanskeligt kan fungere som coach i rendyrket form, vil forfatteren diskutere de særlige udfordringer, der ligger i at være leder og coach på én gang. Som fundament til forståelse af coaching og lederskab tages udgangspunkt i en beskrivelse af coachingens tre generationer, tilgange, der kredser om forskellige grundperspektiv. Den første generations coaching er fx særligt optaget på konkrete mål, som coachee’en ønsker at opfylde. Der fremhæves den særlige mulighed, der åbner sig for ledere i tredje generations coaching tilgang, som forfatteren har udviklet (Stelter, 2012) og som også udfolder sig i protreptiske samtaler (Kirkeby, Hede, Mejlhede & Larsen, 2008), en særlig form for tredje generations coaching. Her sættes særlig fokus på værdirefleksion. I kapitlet sættes fokus på lederens muligheder til at gå i dialog med lederkolleger og medarbejdere på et plan, hvor mening og v