WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Case study on visualizing hurricanes using illustration-inspired techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

The devastating power of hurricanes was evident during the 2005 hurricane season, the most active season on record. This has prompted increased efforts by researchers to understand the physical processes that underlie the genesis, intensification, and tracks of hurricanes. This research aims at facilitating an improved understanding into the structure of hurricanes with the aid of visualization techniques. Our approach was developed by a mixed team of visualization and domain experts. To better understand these systems, and to explore their representation in NWP models, we use a variety of illustration-inspired techniques to visualize their structure and time evolution. Illustration-inspired techniques aid in the identification of the amount of vertical wind shear in a hurricane, which can help meteorologists predict dissipation. Illustration-style visualization, in combination with standard visualization techniques, helped explore the vortex rollup phenomena and the mesovortices contained within. We evaluated the effectiveness of our visualization with the help of six hurricane experts. The expert evaluation showed that the illustration-inspired techniques were preferred over existing tools. Visualization of the evolution of structural features is a prelude to a deeper visual analysis of the underlying dynamics. PMID:19590099

Joshi, Alark; Caban, Jesus; Rheingans, Penny; Sparling, Lynn

2009-01-01

2

Quantum Inspired Shape Representation for Content Based Image Retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR is a technique in which images are indexed based on their visual contents and retrieving is only based upon these indexed images contents. Among the visual contents to describe the image details is shape. Shape of object, is considered as the most important distinguishable feature which living things can easily recognize, which is also a fact while this line is being written, and large efforts are currently underway in describing image contents by their shapes. Inspired by the core foundation of quantum mechanics, a new easy shape representation for content based image retrieval is proposed by borrowing the concept of quantum superposition into the basis of distance histogram. Results show better retrieval accuracy of the proposed method when compared with distance histogram.

Rahmeh Jobay

2014-05-01

3

Collective form generation through visual participatory representation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use of the same in the collective form generation session with a set of designers (vehicle design students) where designers use sketching as a tool to discuss, conceptualise and negotiate concepts towards the final vehicle form. Further, this paper attempts to demonstrate how deep and tacit context sensitive information from participatory research takes a form manifestation in collective form conceptualization by a set of designers.

Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant

4

Visual representations of Iranian transgenders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transsexuality in Iran has gained much attention and media coverage in the past few years, particularly in its questionable depiction as a permitted loophole for homosexuality, which is prohibited under Iran's Islamic-inspired legal system. Of course, attention in the West is also encouraged by the “shock” that sex change is available in Iran, a country that Western media and society delights in portraying as monolithically repressive. As a result, Iranian filmmakers inevitably have their own agendas, which are unsurprisingly brought into the film making process—from a desire to sell a product that will appeal to the Western market, to films that endorse specific socio-political agendas. This paper is an attempt to situate sex change and representations of sex change in Iran within a wider theoretical framework than the frequently reiterated conflation with homosexuality, and to open and engage with a wider debate concerning transsexuality in Iran, as well as to specifically analyze the representation of transexuality, in view of its current prominent presence in media. PMID:21910275

Shakerifar, Elhum

2011-01-01

5

A Lambda Term Representation Inspired by Linear Ordered Logic  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a new nameless representation of lambda terms inspired by ordered logic. At a lambda abstraction, number and relative position of all occurrences of the bound variable are stored, and application carries the additional information where to cut the variable context into function and argument part. This way, complete information about free variable occurrence is available at each subterm without requiring a traversal, and environments can be kept exact such that they only assign values to variables that actually occur in the associated term. Our approach avoids space leaks in interpreters that build function closures. In this article, we prove correctness of the new representation and present an experimental evaluation of its performance in a proof checker for the Edinburgh Logical Framework. Keywords: representation of binders, explicit substitutions, ordered contexts, space leaks, Logical Framework.

Abel, Andreas; 10.4204/EPTCS.71.1

2011-01-01

6

Differences between Spatial and Visual Mental Representations.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article investigates the relationship between visual mental representations and spatial mental representations in human visuo-spatial processing. By comparing two common theories of visuo-spatial processing - mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery - we identified two open questions: (1) which representations are modality-specific, and (2) what is the role of the two representations in reasoning. Two experiments examining eye movements and preferences for under-specified problems were conducted to investigate these questions. We found that significant spontaneous eye movements along the processed spatial relations occurred only when a visual mental representation is employed, but not with a spatial mental representation. Furthermore, the preferences for the answers of the under-specified problems differed between the two mental representations. The results challenge assumptions made by mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery. PMID:23761768

Sima, Jan Frederik; Schultheis, Holger; Barkowsky, Thomas

2013-01-01

7

Differences between spatial and visual mental representations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article investigates the relationship between visual mental representations and spatial mental representations in human visuo-spatial processing. By comparing two common theories of visuo-spatial processing - mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery - we identified two open questions: 1 which representations are modality-specific, and 2 what is the role of the two representations in reasoning. Two experiments examining eye movements and preferences for under-specified problems were conducted to investigate these questions. We found that significant spontaneous eye movements along the processed spatial relations occurred only when a visual mental representation is employed, but not with a spatial mental representation. Furthermore, the preferences for the answers of the under-specified problems differed between the two mental representations. The results challenge assumptions made by mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery.

Jan FrederikSima

2013-05-01

8

On visual determination of full inspiration on CT images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of experienced thoracic radiologists to assess full inspiration based on two CT slices, one above and one below the carina, in normal subjects. Ten healthy volunteers were studied. Total lung capacity (TLC) was measured with a body plethysmograph. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed in two slices at TLC and at various expired volumes. Mean Hounsfield values (HU) were calculated. Unidentifiable images, stored on a web server, were analysed visually by experienced thoracic radiologists. The results show that the mean lung density at TLC varied by approximately 40 HU between individuals. Within an individual this may correspond to a decrease in lung volume of approximately 25% of TLC. On visual determination of images taken at 65-74% of TLC, more than one-third of the images were assessed as taken at full inspiration; of the images taken at 75-84% of TLC, approximately 50% were assessed as taken at full inspiration. We conclude that visual determination of full inspiration on CT images in normal subjects is highly inaccurate. If quantitative density measurements are to be used in the diagnosis or follow-up of lung disease, thorough control of full inspiration is recommended. (orig.)

9

Bio-inspired visual ego-rotation sensor for MAVs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flies are capable of extraordinary flight maneuvers at very high speeds largely due to their highly elaborate visual system. In this work we present a fly-inspired FPGA based sensor system able to visually sense rotations around different body axes, for use on board micro aerial vehicles (MAVs). Rotation sensing is performed analogously to the fly's VS cell network using zero-crossing detection. An additional key feature of our system is the ease of adding new functionalities akin to the different tasks attributed to the fly's lobula plate tangential cell network, such as object avoidance or collision detection. Our implementation consists of a modified eneo SC-MVC01 SmartCam module and a custom built circuit board, weighing less than 200 g and consuming less than 4 W while featuring 57,600 individual two-dimensional elementary motion detectors, a 185° field of view and a frame rate of 350 frames per second. This makes our sensor system compact in terms of size, weight and power requirements for easy incorporation into MAV platforms, while autonomously performing all sensing and processing on-board and in real time. PMID:22350507

Plett, Johannes; Bahl, Armin; Buss, Martin; Kühnlenz, Kolja; Borst, Alexander

2012-01-01

10

Cross-cultural understanding through visual representation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo analiza los dibujos de los estudiantes internacionales que hicieron de su país natal para su tarea de composición. Estos estudiantes de inglés como segundo idioma a menudo tienen dificultad llenando los requisitos del programa de escritura cuyo enfoque es el discurso argumentativo con [...] tesis y apoyo. Cualquier ensayo considerado irrelevante se censura y se considera estar "fuera del topico". Algunos estudiantes ven esta estructura demasiado directa e irrespetuosa. Mientras que no todos los estudiantes encuentran fácil la representación visual, los dibujos relevan ciertas características multiculturales básicias incrustadas en la escritura que se reflejan en las asignaturas. Primeramente discutimos los dibujos para el contenido retórico y luego lo discutimos utilizando la perspectiva de los estudiantes. Finalmente, analizamos como se formó nuestra propia pedagogía. Abstract in english This article analyzes international students' drawings of their home countries' essay assignments. These English as a Second Language (ESL) students often have difficulty in meeting the local demands of our Writing Program, which centers on argumentative writing with thesis and support. Any part of [...] an essay deemed irrelevant is censured as "off topic;" some students see this structure as too direct or even impolite. While not all students found visual representation easy, the drawings reveal some basic assumptions about writing embodied in their native cultures' assignments. We discuss the drawings first for visual rhetorical content, then in the students' own terms. Last, we consider how our own pedagogy has been shaped.

Kristina, Beckman; Susan N, Smith.

11

String-inspired representations of photon/gluon amplitudes  

CERN Document Server

The string-based Bern-Kosower rules provide an efficient way for obtaining parameter integral representations of the one-loop N - photon/gluon amplitudes involving a scalar, spinor or gluon loop, starting from a master formula and using a certain integration-by-parts (`IBP') procedure. Strassler observed that this algorithm also relates to gauge invariance, since it leads to the absorption of polarization vectors into field strength tensors. Here we present a systematic IBP algorithm that works for arbitrary N and leads to an integrand that is not only suitable for the application of the Bern-Kosower rules but also optimized with respect to gauge invariance. In the photon case this means manifest transversality at the integrand level, in the gluon case that a form factor decomposition of the amplitude into transversal and longitudinal parts is generated naturally by the IBP, without the necessity to consider the nonabelian Ward identities. Our algorithm is valid off-shell, and provides an extremely efficient ...

Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Villanueva, Victor M

2012-01-01

12

String-inspired representations of photon/gluon amplitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

The string-based Bern-Kosower rules provide an efficient way for obtaining parameter integral representations of the one-loop N -photon/gluon amplitudes involving a scalar, spinor or gluon loop, starting from a master formula and using a certain integration-by-parts ("IBP") procedure. Strassler observed that this algorithm also relates to gauge invariance, since it leads to the absorption of polarization vectors into field strength tensors. Here we present a systematic IBP algorithm that works for arbitrary N and leads to an integrand that is not only suitable for the application of the Bern-Kosower rules but also optimized with respect to gauge invariance. In the photon case this means manifest transversality at the integrand level, in the gluon case that a form factor decomposition of the amplitude into transversal and longitudinal parts is generated naturally by the IBP, without the necessity to consider the nonabelian Ward identities. Our algorithm is valid off-shell, and provides an extremely efficient way of calculating the one-loop one-particle-irreducible off-shell Green's functions ("vertices") in QCD. It can also be applied essentially unchanged to the one-loop gauge boson amplitudes in open string theory. In the abelian case, we study the systematics of the IBP also for the practically important case of the one-loop N -photon amplitudes in a constant field.

Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Schubert, Christian; Villanueva, Victor M.

2013-01-01

13

10491 Summary -- Representation, Analysis and Visualization of Moving Objects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This seminar is a successor to the Representation, Analysis and Visualization of Moving Objects seminar in 2008 (seminar 08451). The major goal has been to bring together the diverse and fast growing, research community that is involved in developing better computational techniques for spatio-temporal object representation, data mining, and visualization of massive amounts of moving object data. The participants included experts from fields such as computational geometry, data mining, visual ...

Sack, Jo?rg-ru?diger; Speckmann, Bettina; Loon, Emiel; Weibel, Robert

2011-01-01

14

Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneous cortical activity-ongoing activity in the absence of intentional sensory input-has been studied extensively, using methods ranging from EEG (electroencephalography), through voltage sensitive dye imaging, down to recordings from single neurons. Ongoing cortical activity has been shown to play a critical role in development, and must also be essential for processing sensory perception, because it modulates stimulus-evoked activity, and is correlated with behaviour. Yet its role in the processing of external information and its relationship to internal representations of sensory attributes remains unknown. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging, we previously established a close link between ongoing activity in the visual cortex of anaesthetized cats and the spontaneous firing of a single neuron. Here we report that such activity encompasses a set of dynamically switching cortical states, many of which correspond closely to orientation maps. When such an orientation state emerged spontaneously, it spanned several hypercolumns and was often followed by a state corresponding to a proximal orientation. We suggest that dynamically switching cortical states could represent the brain's internal context, and therefore reflect or influence memory, perception and behaviour.

Kenet, Tal; Bibitchkov, Dmitri; Tsodyks, Misha; Grinvald, Amiram; Arieli, Amos

2003-10-01

15

Expertise Reversal for Iconic Representations in Science Visualizations  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of prior knowledge and cognitive development on the effectiveness of iconic representations in science visualizations was examined. Middle and high school students (N = 186) were given narrated visualizations of two chemistry topics: Kinetic Molecular Theory (Day 1) and Ideal Gas Laws (Day 2). For half of the visualizations, iconic…

Homer, Bruce D.; Plass, Jan L.

2010-01-01

16

Constructing Visual Representations: Investigating the Use of Tangible Tokens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations and during their analytic activities. We conclude by suggesting implications for tool design to enable broader support for infovis authoring.

Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne

2014-01-01

17

Shifting attention within memory representations involves early visual areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prior studies have shown that spatial attention modulates early visual cortex retinotopically, resulting in enhanced processing of external perceptual representations. However, it is not clear whether the same visual areas are modulated when attention is focused on, and shifted within a working memory representation. In the current fMRI study participants were asked to memorize an array containing four stimuli. After a delay, participants were presented with a verbal cue instructing them to a...

Munneke, J.; Belopolsky, A. V.; Theeuwes, J.

2012-01-01

18

10491 Abstracts Collection -- Representation, Analysis and Visualization of Moving Objects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From December 5 to December 10, 2010, the Dagstuhl Seminar 10491 ``Representation, Analysis and Visualization of Moving Objects'' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl~--~Leibniz Center for Informatics. The major goal of this seminar has been to bring together the diverse and fast growing, research community that is involved in developing better computational techniques for spatio-temporal object representation, data mining, and visualization massive amounts of moving object data. ...

Sack, Jo?rg-ru?diger; Speckmann, Bettina; Loon, Emiel; Weibel, Robert

2011-01-01

19

Representation, Analysis and Visualization of Moving Objects (Dagstuhl Seminar 12512)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From December 16 to December 21, 2012, the Dagstuhl Seminar 12512 "Representation, Analysis and Visualization of Moving Objects" was held in Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz Center for Informatics. The major goal of this seminar was to bring together the diverse and fast growing, research community that is involved in developing better computational techniques for spatio-temporal object representation, data mining, and visualization of moving object data. The participants included experts from fie...

Gudmundsson, Joachim; Laube, Patrick; Loon, Emiel

2013-01-01

20

Fundamentals of Guidelines for Visual Representation of Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information visualization is a computer-assisted method for data representation. By processing the information into a visual framework, it enables the user to observe, browse, receive and understand information. Information visualization is a new research field that concentrates on using visualizing techniques towards helping people understand and analyze data. The fundamentals of visualization includes GUI design, Computer Graphics, HCI, cognitive theories and graphic design. Based on Schneiderman’s classification, information visualization includes one, two, three ad multidimensional as well as time-based, hierarchical and network data.

Friborz Doroudi

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Revisiting Curriculum Inquiry: The Role of Visual Representations  

Science.gov (United States)

How do visual representations (VRs) in curriculum materials influence theoretical curriculum frameworks? Suggesting that VRs' integration into curriculum materials affords a different lens for perceiving and understanding the curriculum domain, this study draws on a curricular perspective in relation to multi-representations in texts rather than…

Eilam, Billie; Ben-Peretz, Miriam

2010-01-01

22

Bio-inspired nano-sensor-enhanced CNN visual computer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanotechnology opens new ways to utilize recent discoveries in biological image processing by translating the underlying functional concepts into the design of CNN (cellular neural/nonlinear network)-based systems incorporating nanoelectronic devices. There is a natural intersection joining studies of retinal processing, spatio-temporal nonlinear dynamics embodied in CNN, and the possibility of miniaturizing the technology through nanotechnology. This intersection serves as the springboard for our multidisciplinary project. Biological feature and motion detectors map directly into the spatio-temporal dynamics of CNN for target recognition, image stabilization, and tracking. The neural interactions underlying color processing will drive the development of nanoscale multispectral sensor arrays for image fusion. Implementing such nanoscale sensors on a CNN platform will allow the implementation of device feedback control, a hallmark of biological sensory systems. These biologically inspired CNN subroutines are incorporated into the new world of analog-and-logic algorithms and software, containing also many other active-wave computing mechanisms, including nature-inspired (physics and chemistry) as well as PDE-based sophisticated spatio-temporal algorithms. Our goal is to design and develop several miniature prototype devices for target detection, navigation, tracking, and robotics. This paper presents an example illustrating the synergies emerging from the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and cognitive science. PMID:15194609

Porod, Wolfgang; Werblin, Frank; Chua, Leon O; Roska, Tamas; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel; Roska, Botond; Fay, Patrick; Bernstein, Gary H; Huang, Yih-Fang; Csurgay, Arpad I

2004-05-01

23

Visual Representation Determines Search Difficulty: Explaining Visual Search Asymmetries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In visual search experiments there exist a variety of experimental paradigms in which a symmetric set of experimental conditions yields asymmetric corresponding task performance. There are a variety of examples of this that currently lack a satisfactory explanation. In this paper, we demonstrate that distinct classes of asymmetries may be explained by virtue of a few simple conditions that are consistent with current thinking surrounding computational modeling of visual search and coding in the primate brain. This includes a detailed look at the role that stimulus familiarity plays in the determination of search performance. Overall, we demonstrate that all of these asymmetries have a common origin, namely, they are a consequence of the encoding that appears in the visual cortex. The analysis associated with these cases yields insight into the problem of visual search in general and predictions of novel search asymmetries.

NeilBruce

2011-07-01

24

Dynamics and representation in the primary visual cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the processing and representation of static visual patterns in the early visual system of mammals (especially cats and primates). We demonstrate that neurophysiological and anatomical findings can motivate theoretical considerations about the neural processing and vice versa. We explore How?'' and Why?'' questions in a close connection to each other. Methodologically this means using biologically detailed bottom-up'' computational models and abstract top-down'' models in parall...

Adorjan, Peter

2001-01-01

25

Drawing Connections Across Conceptually Related Visual Representations in Science  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation explored beliefs about learning from multiple related visual representations in science, and compared beliefs to learning outcomes. Three research questions were explored: 1) What beliefs do pre-service teachers, non-educators and children have about learning from visual representations? 2) What format of presenting those representations is most effective for learning? And, 3) Can children's ability to process conceptually related science diagrams be enhanced with added support? Three groups of participants, 89 pre-service teachers, 211 adult non-educators, and 385 middle school children, were surveyed about whether they felt related visual representations presented serially or simultaneously would lead to better learning outcomes. Two experiments, one with adults and one with child participants, explored the validity of these beliefs. Pre-service teachers did not endorse either serial or simultaneous related visual representations for their own learning. They were, however, significantly more likely to indicate that children would learn better from serially presented diagrams. In direct contrast to the educators, middle school students believed they would learn better from related visual representations presented simultaneously. Experimental data indicated that the beliefs adult non-educators held about their own learning needs matched learning outcomes. These participants endorsed simultaneous presentation of related diagrams for their own learning. When comparing learning from related diagrams presented simultaneously to learning from the same diagrams presented serially indicate that those in the simultaneously condition were able to create more complex mental models. A second experiment compared children's learning from related diagrams across four randomly-assigned conditions: serial, simultaneous, simultaneous with signaling, and simultaneous with structure mapping support. Providing middle school students with simultaneous related diagrams with support for structure mapping led to a lessened reliance on surface features, and a better understanding of the science concepts presented. These findings suggest that presenting diagrams serially in an effort to reduce cognitive load may not be preferable for learning if making connections across representations, and by extension across science concepts, is desired. Instead, providing simultaneous diagrams with structure mapping support may result in greater attention to the salient relationships between related visual representations as well as between the representations and the science concepts they depict.

Hansen, Janice

26

Learning STEM Through Integrative Visual Representations  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous cognitive models of memory have not comprehensively taken into account the internal cognitive load of chunking isolated information and have emphasized the external cognitive load of visual presentation only. Under the Virk Long Term Working Memory Multimedia Model of cognitive load, drawing from the Cowan model, students presented with integrated animations of the key neural signal transmission subcomponents where the interrelationships between subcomponents are visually and verbally explicit, were hypothesized to perform significantly better on free response and diagram labeling questions, than students presented with isolated animations of these subcomponents. This is because the internal attentional cognitive load of chunking these concepts is greatly reduced and hence the overall cognitive load is less for the integrated visuals group than the isolated group, despite the higher external load for the integrated group of having the interrelationships between subcomponents presented explicitly. Experiment 1 demonstrated that integrating the subcomponents of the neuron significantly enhanced comprehension of the interconnections between cellular subcomponents and approached significance for enhancing comprehension of the layered molecular correlates of the cellular structures and their interconnections. Experiment 2 corrected time on task confounds from Experiment 1 and focused on the cellular subcomponents of the neuron only. Results from the free response essay subcomponent subscores did demonstrate significant differences in favor of the integrated group as well as some evidence from the diagram labeling section. Results from free response, short answer and What-If (problem solving), and diagram labeling detailed interrelationship subscores demonstrated the integrated group did indeed learn the extra material they were presented with. This data demonstrating the integrated group learned the extra material they were presented with provides some initial support for the assertion that chunking mediated the greater gains in learning for the neural subcomponent concepts over the control.

Virk, Satyugjit Singh

27

Preserved Visual Representations despite Change Blindness in Infants  

Science.gov (United States)

Combining theoretical hypotheses of infant cognition and adult perception, we present evidence that infants can maintain visual representations despite their failure to detect a change. Infants under 12 months typically fail to notice a change to an object's height in a covering event. The present experiments demonstrated that 11-month-old infants…

Wang, Su-hua; Mitroff, Stephen R.

2009-01-01

28

Knowledge Representation of the Visual Image of a Title Page.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on a study of 203 title pages as the source of information for descriptive cataloging, and bibliographic data on title pages as written artifacts having their own visual characteristics. Frame structure representations at various levels of abstraction are suggested for a prototype title page, and expert systems for descriptive cataloging…

Jeng, Ling Hwey

1991-01-01

29

Mechanisms and representations of language-mediated visual attention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experimental investigation of language-mediated visual attention is a promising way to study the interaction of the cognitive systems involved in language, vision, attention, and memory. Here we review recent research addressing three key issues with regard to how this oculomotor behavior is instantiated: levels of representation at which language-derived and vision-derived representations are integrated; attentional mechanisms; and types of memory. Central points in our discussion are (a the possibility that local microcircuitries involving feedforward and feedback loops instantiate a common representational substrate of linguistic and non-linguistic information and attention; and (b that an explicit working memory may be central to explaining interactions between language and visual attention. We conclude by discussing future directions; in particular the merits of testing distinct, non-student, participant populations.

FalkHuettig

2012-01-01

30

Perceptual learning selectively refines orientation representations in early visual cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although practice has long been known to improve perceptual performance, the neural basis of this improvement in humans remains unclear. Using fMRI in conjunction with a novel signal detection-based analysis, we show that extensive practice selectively enhances the neural representation of trained orientations in the human visual cortex. Twelve observers practiced discriminating small changes in the orientation of a laterally presented grating over 20 or more daily 1 h training sessions. Training on average led to a twofold improvement in discrimination sensitivity, specific to the trained orientation and the trained location, with minimal improvement found for untrained orthogonal orientations or for orientations presented in the untrained hemifield. We measured the strength of orientation-selective responses in individual voxels in early visual areas (V1-V4) using signal detection measures, both before and after training. Although the overall amplitude of the BOLD response was no greater after training, practice nonetheless specifically enhanced the neural representation of the trained orientation at the trained location. This training-specific enhancement of orientation-selective responses was observed in the primary visual cortex (V1) as well as higher extrastriate visual areas V2-V4, and moreover, reliably predicted individual differences in the behavioral effects of perceptual learning. These results demonstrate that extensive training can lead to targeted functional reorganization of the human visual cortex, refining the cortical representation of behaviorally relevant information. PMID:23175828

Jehee, Janneke F M; Ling, Sam; Swisher, Jascha D; van Bergen, Ruben S; Tong, Frank

2012-11-21

31

Lenses – Light, Bodies and Representations. A paper on the optical device that enables visual perception through representation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

I will discuss the many unique lenses available to visual anthropological research and how a nuanced and differentiated view on them can be the key to understanding the complexity of the representations we, as visual anthropologist, are creating.

Rehder, Mads

32

08451 Abstracts Collection -- Representation, Analysis and Visualization of Moving Objects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From 02.11. to 07.11.2008, the Dagstuhl Seminar 08451 ``Representation, Analysis and Visualization of Moving Objects '' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl~--~Leibniz Center for Informatics. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the...

Bitterlich, Wolfgang; Sack, Jo?rg-ru?diger; Sester, Monika; Weibel, Robert

2009-01-01

33

Exercise your visual thinking. [Graphic representation in publishing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Figures and tables are a means of presenting high-density information in a pleasing manner. Editors who exercise their visual thinking can improve dense, uninviting reports by suggesting meaningful illustrations for an author's approval. Illustrations can clarify descriptive passages or even replace them. Editors are urged to sketch what they think is needed. Examples of selecting information for graphic representation are given and the appropriateness of a photograph, illustration, graph, or logic diagram is discussed.

Amsden, D.C.

1982-01-01

34

Altered Representation of Facial Expressions After Early Visual Deprivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated the effects of early visual deprivation on the underlying representation of the six basic emotions. Using multi-dimensional scaling (MDS, we compared the similarity judgments of adults who had missed early visual input because of bilateral congenital cataracts to control adults with normal vision. Participants made similarity judgments of the six basic emotional expressions, plus neutral, at three different intensities. Consistent with previous studies, the similarity judgments of typical adults could be modeled with four underlying dimensions, which can be interpreted as representing pleasure, arousal, potency and intensity of expressions. As a group, cataract-reversal patients showed a systematic structure with dimensions representing pleasure, potency, and intensity. However, an arousal dimension was not obvious in the patient group’s judgments. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed a pattern in patients seen in typical 7-year-olds but not typical 14-year-olds or adults. There was also more variability among the patients than among the controls, as evidenced by higher stress values for the MDS fit to the patients’ data and more dispersed weightings on the four dimensions. The findings suggest an important role for early visual experience in shaping the later development of the representations of emotions. Since the normal underlying structure for emotion emerges postnatally and continues to be refined until late childhood, the altered representation of emotion in adult patients suggests a sleeper effect.

XiaoqingGao

2013-11-01

35

An explorative study of visual servo control with insect-inspired Reichardt-model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, an insect-inspired motion detector (Reichardt-model) is applied to visual servo control to ensure the stability of the system with high gain and time delay in its feedback. A Reichardt-based control scheme is compared with a conventional visual servoing approach. As a consequence of the specific velocity dependence of the Reichardt-model, the stability margin of the visual servo control is increased and high overall gains, thus, better performance are achievable. The response of the Reichardt-model in the experiment and the control performance of velocity control approach with the Reichardt-model in the closed loop are investigated. The velocity control model is tested on a 1-DOF linear motor module with different feedback gain and different time delay in the loop. The results of simulation and realtime experiments demonstrate the stabilizing character of the Reichardt-based approach.

Wu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tianguang

2009-01-01

36

On-chip visual perception of motion: a bio-inspired connectionist model on FPGA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual motion provides useful information to understand the dynamics of a scene to allow intelligent systems interact with their environment. Motion computation is usually restricted by real time requirements that need the design and implementation of specific hardware architectures. In this paper, the design of hardware architecture for a bio-inspired neural model for motion estimation is presented. The motion estimation is based on a strongly localized bio-inspired connectionist model with a particular adaptation of spatio-temporal Gabor-like filtering. The architecture is constituted by three main modules that perform spatial, temporal, and excitatory-inhibitory connectionist processing. The biomimetic architecture is modeled, simulated and validated in VHDL. The synthesis results on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device show the potential achievement of real-time performance at an affordable silicon area. PMID:16102939

Torres-Huitzil, César; Girau, Bernard; Castellanos-Sánchez, Claudio

2005-01-01

37

Visualization Through Knowledge Representation Model for Social Networks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge management is a systematic and organizationally specified process and knowledge management system is all those technological components; software, hardware, people and processes supporting knowledge management initiative. These initiatives includes work flow maps, web sites, portals, document/team management system, data warehouses, data mining processes, databases, contact lists, virtual teams, collaboration tools, customer relationship management, applications and news (Davenport and Prusak 1998, Jashapara 2004). Knowledge is not important per se (Agostini et al 2003) instead the process of knowing, learning and creating knowledge is the relevant aspect (Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995). In this paper knowledge representation is presented in 3D style for the understanding and visualization of dynamics of complex social networks by developing a TANetworkTool (Task Analysis Network Tool). The standard or normal representation of a typical social network is through a graph data structure in 2D. The dynamics of larger social networks is so complex some time it becomes difficult to understand the various levels of interactions and dependencies just by mere representation through a tree or graph. Although, many analytical methods provide relationship dependencies, role of different nodes and their importance in the network. In this paper we are presenting a visualization of networks by rotating the network through various dimensions to provide a more realistic view to understand the dynamics of complex social networks and complimenting the analytical results. This representation can also help authorities not necessarily having specific scientific background to understand and perhaps take preventive actions required in certain specific scenarios for example dealing with terrorist/covert networks.

Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Athar Javed, Muhammad

2011-01-01

38

Robust image analysis with sparse representation on quantized visual features.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent techniques based on sparse representation (SR) have demonstrated promising performance in high-level visual recognition, exemplified by the highly accurate face recognition under occlusion and other sparse corruptions. Most research in this area has focused on classification algorithms using raw image pixels, and very few have been proposed to utilize the quantized visual features, such as the popular bag-of-words feature abstraction. In such cases, besides the inherent quantization errors, ambiguity associated with visual word assignment and misdetection of feature points, due to factors such as visual occlusions and noises, constitutes the major cause of dense corruptions of the quantized representation. The dense corruptions can jeopardize the decision process by distorting the patterns of the sparse reconstruction coefficients. In this paper, we aim to eliminate the corruptions and achieve robust image analysis with SR. Toward this goal, we introduce two transfer processes (ambiguity transfer and mis-detection transfer) to account for the two major sources of corruption as discussed. By reasonably assuming the rarity of the two kinds of distortion processes, we augment the original SR-based reconstruction objective with l(0) norm regularization on the transfer terms to encourage sparsity and, hence, discourage dense distortion/transfer. Computationally, we relax the nonconvex l(0) norm optimization into a convex l(1) norm optimization problem, and employ the accelerated proximal gradient method to optimize the convergence provable updating procedure. Extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, Caltech-101, Caltech-256, Corel-5k, and CMU pose, illumination, and expression, manifest the necessity of removing the quantization corruptions and the various advantages of the proposed framework. PMID:23014746

Bao, Bing-Kun; Zhu, Guangyu; Shen, Jialie; Yan, Shuicheng

2013-03-01

39

A neuron-inspired computational architecture for spatiotemporal visual processing: real-time visual sensory integration for humanoid robots.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we present a neurologically motivated computational architecture for visual information processing. The computational architecture's focus lies in multiple strategies: hierarchical processing, parallel and concurrent processing, and modularity. The architecture is modular and expandable in both hardware and software, so that it can also cope with multisensory integrations - making it an ideal tool for validating and applying computational neuroscience models in real time under real-world conditions. We apply our architecture in real time to validate a long-standing biologically inspired visual object recognition model, HMAX. In this context, the overall aim is to supply a humanoid robot with the ability to perceive and understand its environment with a focus on the active aspect of real-time spatiotemporal visual processing. We show that our approach is capable of simulating information processing in the visual cortex in real time and that our entropy-adaptive modification of HMAX has a higher efficiency and classification performance than the standard model (up to ?+6%). PMID:24687170

Holzbach, Andreas; Cheng, Gordon

2014-06-01

40

Teaching with Concrete and Abstract Visual Representations: Effects on Students' Problem Solving, Problem Representations, and Learning Perceptions  

Science.gov (United States)

In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students' problem-solving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that…

Moreno, Roxana; Ozogul, Gamze; Reisslein, Martin

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

A unified data representation theory for network visualization, ordering and coarse-graining  

CERN Document Server

Representation of large data sets became a key question of many scientific disciplines in the last decade. Several approaches for network visualization, data ordering and coarse-graining accomplished this goal. However, there was no underlying theoretical framework linking these problems. Here we show an elegant, information theoretic data representation approach as a unified solution of network visualization, data ordering and coarse-graining. The optimal representation is the hardest to distinguish from the original data matrix, measured by the relative entropy. The representation of network nodes as probability distributions provides an efficient visualization method and, in one dimension, an ordering of network nodes and edges. Coarse-grained representations of the input network enable both efficient data compression and hierarchical visualization to achieve high quality representations of larger data sets. Our unified data representation theory will help the analysis of huge data sets in science, by reve...

Kovács, István A; Csermely, Peter

2014-01-01

42

Reading visual representations of 'Ndabeni' in the public realms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This essay outlines and analyses contemporary image representations of Ndabeni (also called kwa-Ndabeni), a location near Cape Town where a group of people became confined between 1901 and 1936 following an outbreak of the bubonic plague in the city. This location was to shape Cape Town's landscape [...] for a little less that thirty-five years, accommodating people who were forcibly removed from the Cape Town docklands and from District Six. Images representing this place have been produced, archived, recovered, modified, reproduced and circulated in different ways and contexts. Ndabeni has become public knowledge through public visual representations that have been produced across a range of sites in post-apartheid Cape Town. I focus on three sites: the Victoria and Alfred Waterfront, the District Six Museum, and the Eziko Restaurant and Catering School. In each case I analyse the processes through which the Ndabeni images in question have been used and reused over time in changing contexts. I analyse the 'modalities' in which these images have been composed, interpreted and employed and in which knowledge has been mediated. I explore the contents and contexts of the storyboards and exhibition panels that purport to represent Ndabeni. Finally, I discuss potential meanings that could be constructed if the images could be read independent of the texts.

Sipokazi, Sambumbu.

43

Exploring Middle School Students' Representational Competence in Science: Development and Verification of a Framework for Learning with Visual Representations  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific knowledge is constructed and communicated through a range of forms in addition to verbal language. Maps, graphs, charts, diagrams, formulae, models, and drawings are just some of the ways in which science concepts can be represented. Representational competence---an aspect of visual literacy that focuses on the ability to interpret, transform, and produce visual representations---is a key component of science literacy and an essential part of science reading and writing. To date, however, most research has examined learning from representations rather than learning with representations. This dissertation consisted of three distinct projects that were related by a common focus on learning from visual representations as an important aspect of scientific literacy. The first project was the development of an exploratory framework that is proposed for use in investigations of students constructing and interpreting multimedia texts. The exploratory framework, which integrates cognition, metacognition, semiotics, and systemic functional linguistics, could eventually result in a model that might be used to guide classroom practice, leading to improved visual literacy, better comprehension of science concepts, and enhanced science literacy because it emphasizes distinct aspects of learning with representations that can be addressed though explicit instruction. The second project was a metasynthesis of the research that was previously conducted as part of the Explicit Literacy Instruction Embedded in Middle School Science project (Pacific CRYSTAL, http://www.educ.uvic.ca/pacificcrystal). Five overarching themes emerged from this case-to-case synthesis: the engaging and effective nature of multimedia genres, opportunities for differentiated instruction using multimodal strategies, opportunities for assessment, an emphasis on visual representations, and the robustness of some multimodal literacy strategies across content areas. The third project was a mixed-methods verification study that was conducted to refine and validate the theoretical framework. This study examined middle school students' representational competence and focused on students' creation of visual representations such as labelled diagrams, a form of representation commonly found in science information texts and textbooks. An analysis of the 31 Grade 6 participants' representations and semistructured interviews revealed five themes, each of which supports one or more dimensions of the exploratory framework: participants' use of color, participants' choice of representation (form and function), participants' method of planning for representing, participants' knowledge of conventions, and participants' selection of information to represent. Together, the results of these three projects highlight the need for further research on learning with rather than learning from representations.

Tippett, Christine Diane

44

Mental representation in visual/haptic crossmodal memory: evidence from interference effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments used visual-, verbal-, and haptic-interference tasks during encoding (Experiment 1) and retrieval (Experiment 2) to examine mental representation of familiar and unfamiliar objects in visual/haptic crossmodal memory. Three competing theories are discussed, which variously suggest that these representations are: (a) visual; (b) dual-code-visual for unfamiliar objects but visual and verbal for familiar objects; or (c) amodal. The results suggest that representations of unfamiliar objects are primarily visual but that crossmodal memory for familiar objects may rely on a network of different representations. The pattern of verbal-interference effects suggests that verbal strategies facilitate encoding of unfamiliar objects regardless of modality, but only haptic recognition regardless of familiarity. The results raise further research questions about all three theoretical approaches. PMID:16618639

Lacey, Simon; Campbell, Christine

2006-02-01

45

Introducing memory and association mechanism into a biologically inspired visual model.  

Science.gov (United States)

A famous biologically inspired hierarchical model (HMAX model), which was proposed recently and corresponds to V1 to V4 of the ventral pathway in primate visual cortex, has been successfully applied to multiple visual recognition tasks. The model is able to achieve a set of position- and scale-tolerant recognition, which is a central problem in pattern recognition. In this paper, based on some other biological experimental evidence, we introduce the memory and association mechanism into the HMAX model. The main contributions of the work are: 1) mimicking the active memory and association mechanism and adding the top down adjustment to the HMAX model, which is the first try to add the active adjustment to this famous model and 2) from the perspective of information, algorithms based on the new model can reduce the computation storage and have a good recognition performance. The new model is also applied to object recognition processes. The primary experimental results show that our method is efficient with a much lower memory requirement. PMID:24184793

Qiao, Hong; Li, Yinlin; Tang, Tang; Wang, Peng

2014-09-01

46

Parallel representation of stimulus identity and intensity in a dual pathway model inspired by the olfactory system of the honeybee.  

Science.gov (United States)

The honeybee Apis mellifera has a remarkable ability to detect and locate food sources during foraging, and to associate odor cues with food rewards. In the honeybee's olfactory system, sensory input is first processed in the antennal lobe (AL) network. Uniglomerular projection neurons (PNs) convey the sensory code from the AL to higher brain regions via two parallel but anatomically distinct pathways, the lateral and the medial antenno-cerebral tract (l- and m-ACT). Neurons innervating either tract show characteristic differences in odor selectivity, concentration dependence, and representation of mixtures. It is still unknown how this differential stimulus representation is achieved within the AL network. In this contribution, we use a computational network model to demonstrate that the experimentally observed features of odor coding in PNs can be reproduced by varying lateral inhibition and gain control in an otherwise unchanged AL network. We show that odor coding in the l-ACT supports detection and accurate identification of weak odor traces at the expense of concentration sensitivity, while odor coding in the m-ACT provides the basis for the computation and following of concentration gradients but provides weaker discrimination power. Both coding strategies are mutually exclusive, which creates a tradeoff between detection accuracy and sensitivity. The development of two parallel systems may thus reflect an evolutionary solution to this problem that enables honeybees to achieve both tasks during bee foraging in their natural environment, and which could inspire the development of artificial chemosensory devices for odor-guided navigation in robots. PMID:22232601

Schmuker, Michael; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nawrot, Martin Paul; Menzel, Randolf

2011-01-01

47

Computational intelligence in multi-feature visual pattern recognition hand posture and face recognition using biologically inspired approaches  

CERN Document Server

This book presents a collection of computational intelligence algorithms that addresses issues in visual pattern recognition such as high computational complexity, abundance of pattern features, sensitivity to size and shape variations and poor performance against complex backgrounds. The book has 3 parts. Part 1 describes various research issues in the field with a survey of the related literature. Part 2 presents computational intelligence based algorithms for feature selection and classification. The algorithms are discriminative and fast. The main application area considered is hand posture recognition. The book also discusses utility of these algorithms in other visual as well as non-visual pattern recognition tasks including face recognition, general object recognition and cancer / tumor classification. Part 3 presents biologically inspired algorithms for feature extraction. The visual cortex model based features discussed have invariance with respect to appearance and size of the hand, and provide good...

Pisharady, Pramod Kumar; Poh, Loh Ai

2014-01-01

48

"Radio-Active" Learning: Visual Representation of Radioactive Decay Using Dice  

Science.gov (United States)

The idea of using a dice game to simulate radioactive decay is not new. However, modern pedagogy encourages, if not requires, us to provide multiple representations and visualizations for our students. The advantage of interactive engagement methods also has been made clear. Here we describe a highly visual and interactive use of dice to develop…

Klein, Lynda; Kagan, David

2010-01-01

49

A Historical Review of the Representation of the Visual Field in Primary Visual Cortex with Special Reference to the Neural Mechanisms Underlying Macular Sparing  

Science.gov (United States)

This article comprises a historical review of the literature pertaining to the representation of the visual field in human primary visual cortex. A brief survey of the anatomy of the visual system is followed by a critical evaluation of the key studies that have informed both the issue of the disproportionate representation of central vision…

Leff, Alexander

2004-01-01

50

Population coding of visual space: comparison of spatial representations in the dorsal and ventral pathways  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the representation of space is as fundamental to visual processing as the representation of shape, it has received relatively little attention from neurophysiological investigations. In this study we characterize representations of space within visual cortex, and examine how they differ in a first direct comparison between dorsal and ventral subdivisions of the visual pathways. Neural activities were recorded in anterior inferotemporal cortex (AIT and lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP of awake behaving monkeys, structures associated with the ventral and dorsal visual pathways respectively, as a stimulus was presented at different locations within the visual field. In spatially selective cells, we find greater modulation of cell responses in LIP with changes in stimulus position. Further, using a novel population-based statistical approach (namely, multidimensional scaling, we recover the spatial map implicit within activities of neural populations, allowing us to quantitatively compare the geometry of neural space with physical space. We show that a population of spatially selective LIP neurons, despite having large receptive fields, is able to almost perfectly reconstruct stimulus locations within a low-dimensional representation. In contrast, a population of AIT neurons, despite each cell being spatially selective, provide less accurate low-dimensional reconstructions of stimulus locations. They produce instead only a topologically (categorically correct rendition of space, which nevertheless might be critical for object and scene recognition. Furthermore, we found that the spatial representation recovered from population activity shows greater translation invariance in LIP than in AIT. We suggest that LIP spatial representations may be dimensionally isomorphic with 3D physical space, while in AIT spatial representations may reflect a more categorical representation of space (e.g., “next to” or “above”.

AnneBSereno

2011-02-01

51

North Korea and the politics of visual representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within international discourses on security, North Korea is often associated with risk and danger, emanating paradoxically from what can be called its strengths - particularly military strength, as embodied by its missile and nuclear programs - and its weaknesses - such as its ever-present political, economic, and food crises - which are considered to be imminent threats to international peace and stability. We argue that images play an important role in these representations, and suggest tha...

Shim, David; Nabers, Dirk

2011-01-01

52

Less is more: expectation sharpens representations in the primary visual cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior expectations about the visual world facilitate perception by allowing us to quickly deduce plausible interpretations from noisy and ambiguous data. The neural mechanisms of this facilitation remain largely unclear. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) techniques to measure both the amplitude and representational content of neural activity in the early visual cortex of human volunteers. We find that while perceptual expectation reduces the neural response amplitude in the primary visual cortex (V1), it improves the stimulus representation in this area, as revealed by MVPA. This informational improvement was independent of attentional modulations by task relevance. Finally, the informational improvement in V1 correlated with subjects' behavioral improvement when the expected stimulus feature was relevant. These data suggest that expectation facilitates perception by sharpening sensory representations. PMID:22841311

Kok, Peter; Jehee, Janneke F M; de Lange, Floris P

2012-07-26

53

Parsed and fixed block representations of visual information for image retrieval  

Science.gov (United States)

The theory of linguistics teaches us the existence of a hierarchical structure in linguistic expressions, from letter to word root, and on to word and sentences. By applying syntax and semantics beyond words, one can further recognize the grammatical relationship between among words and the meaning of a sequence of words. This layered view of a spoken language is useful for effective analysis and automated processing. Thus, it is interesting to ask if a similar hierarchy of representation of visual information does exist. A class of techniques that have a similar nature to the linguistic parsing is found in the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing scheme. Based on a new class of multidimensional incremental parsing algorithms extended from the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing, a new framework for image retrieval, which takes advantage of the source characterization property of the incremental parsing algorithm, was proposed recently. With the incremental parsing technique, a given image is decomposed into a number of patches, called a parsed representation. This representation can be thought of as a morphological interface between elementary pixel and a higher level representation. In this work, we examine the properties of two-dimensional parsed representation in the context of imagery information retrieval and in contrast to vector quantization; i.e. fixed square-block representations and minimum average distortion criteria. We implemented four image retrieval systems for the comparative study; three, called IPSILON image retrieval systems, use parsed representation with different perceptual distortion thresholds and one uses the convectional vector quantization for visual pattern analysis. We observe that different perceptual distortion in visual pattern matching does not have serious effects on the retrieval precision although allowing looser perceptual thresholds in image compression result poor reconstruction fidelity. We compare the effectiveness of the use of the parsed representations, as constructed under the latent semantic analysis (LSA) paradigm so as to investigate their varying capabilities in capturing semantic concepts. The result clearly demonstrates the superiority of the parsed representation.

Bae, Soo Hyun; Juang, Biing-Hwang

2009-02-01

54

Representation of object weight in human ventral visual cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Skilled manipulation requires the ability to predict the weights of viewed objects based on learned associations linking object weight to object visual appearance. However, the neural mechanisms involved in extracting weight information from viewed object properties are unknown. Given that ventral visual pathway areas represent a wide variety of object features, one intriguing but as yet untested possibility is that these areas also represent object weight, a nonvisual motor-relevant object property. Here, using event-related fMRI and pattern classification techniques, we tested the novel hypothesis that object-sensitive regions in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC), in addition to traditional motor-related brain areas, represent object weight when preparing to lift that object. In two studies, the same participants prepared and then executed lifting actions with objects of varying weight. In the first study, we show that when lifting visually identical objects, where predicted weight is based solely on sensorimotor memory, weight is represented in object-sensitive OTC. In the second study, we show that when object weight is associated with a particular surface texture, that texture-sensitive OTC areas also come to represent object weight. Notably, these texture-sensitive areas failed to carry information about weight in the first study, when object surface properties did not specify weight. Our results indicate that the integration of visual and motor-relevant object information occurs at the level of single OTC areas and provide evidence that the ventral visual pathway is actively and flexibly engaged in processing object weight, an object property critical for action planning and control. PMID:25065755

Gallivan, Jason P; Cant, Jonathan S; Goodale, Melvyn A; Flanagan, J Randall

2014-08-18

55

Feature Integration and Object Representations along the Dorsal Stream Visual Hierarchy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The visual system is split into two processing streams: a ventral stream that receives color and form information and a dorsal stream that receives motion information. Each stream processes that information hierarchically, with each stage building upon the previous. In the ventral stream this leads to the formation of object representations that ultimately allow for object recognition regardless of changes in the surrounding environment. In the dorsal stream, this hierarchical processing has classically been thought to lead to the computation of complex motion in three dimensions. However, there is evidence to suggest that there is integration of both dorsal and ventral stream information into motion computation processes, giving rise to intermediate object representations, which facilitate object selection and decision making mechanisms in the dorsal stream. First we review the hierarchical processing of motion along the dorsal stream and the building up of object representations along the ventral stream. Then we discuss recent work on the integration of ventral and dorsal stream features that lead to intermediate object representations in the dorsal stream. Finally we propose a framework describing how and at what stage different features are integrated into dorsal visual stream object representations. Determining the integration of features along the dorsal stream is necessary to understand not only how the dorsal stream builds up an object representation but also which computations are performed on object representations instead of local features.

CarolynJeanePerry

2014-08-01

56

Chu Culture Modeling Elements and Their Inspiration for Urban Visual Image Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper will concentrate on the artifact culture of Hubei, the cradle of Chu culture. It begins with the analysis of visual elements in ancient Chu culture, including the forms, colors, ornamentations, etc. Based on that, it explores the possibility of adopting the essence of visual art in Chu culture into contemporary urban visual design of Hubei province.

Jianwen LI

2014-05-01

57

Cortical plasticity of audio-visual object representations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several regions in human temporal and frontal cortex are known to integrate visual and auditory object features. The processing of audio-visual (AV) associations in these regions has been found to be modulated by object familiarity. The aim of the present study was to explore training-induced plasticity in human cortical AV integration. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to analyze the neural correlates of AV integration for unfamiliar artificial object sounds and images in naïve subjects (PRE training) and after a behavioral training session in which subjects acquired associations between some of these sounds and images (POST-training). In the PRE-training session, unfamiliar artificial object sounds and images were mainly integrated in right inferior frontal cortex (IFC). The POST-training results showed extended integration-related IFC activations bilaterally, and a recruitment of additional regions in bilateral superior temporal gyrus/sulcus and intraparietal sulcus. Furthermore, training-induced differential response patterns to mismatching compared with matching (i.e., associated) artificial AV stimuli were most pronounced in left IFC. These effects were accompanied by complementary training-induced congruency effects in right posterior middle temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus. Together, these findings demonstrate that short-term cross-modal association learning was sufficient to induce plastic changes of both AV integration of object stimuli and mechanisms of AV congruency processing. PMID:19015373

Naumer, Marcus J; Doehrmann, Oliver; Müller, Notger G; Muckli, Lars; Kaiser, Jochen; Hein, Grit

2009-07-01

58

Video genre categorization and representation using audio-visual information  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose an audio-visual approach to video genre classification using content descriptors that exploit audio, color, temporal, and contour information. Audio information is extracted at block-level, which has the advantage of capturing local temporal information. At the temporal structure level, we consider action content in relation to human perception. Color perception is quantified using statistics of color distribution, elementary hues, color properties, and relationships between colors. Further, we compute statistics of contour geometry and relationships. The main contribution of our work lies in harnessing the descriptive power of the combination of these descriptors in genre classification. Validation was carried out on over 91 h of video footage encompassing 7 common video genres, yielding average precision and recall ratios of 87% to 100% and 77% to 100%, respectively, and an overall average correct classification of up to 97%. Also, experimental comparison as part of the MediaEval 2011 benchmarking campaign demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed audio-visual descriptors over other existing approaches. Finally, we discuss a 3-D video browsing platform that displays movies using feature-based coordinates and thus regroups them according to genre.

Ionescu, Bogdan; Seyerlehner, Klaus; Rasche, Christoph; Vertan, Constantin; Lambert, Patrick

2012-04-01

59

Real-time Visual Tracking Using Sparse Representation  

CERN Document Server

The $\\ell_1$ tracker obtains robustness by seeking a sparse representation of the tracking object via $\\ell_1$ norm minimization \\cite{Xue_ICCV_09_Track}. However, the high computational complexity involved in the $ \\ell_1 $ tracker restricts its further applications in real time processing scenario. Hence we propose a Real Time Compressed Sensing Tracking (RTCST) by exploiting the signal recovery power of Compressed Sensing (CS). Dimensionality reduction and a customized Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) algorithm are adopted to accelerate the CS tracking. As a result, our algorithm achieves a real-time speed that is up to $6,000$ times faster than that of the $\\ell_1$ tracker. Meanwhile, RTCST still produces competitive (sometimes even superior) tracking accuracy comparing to the existing $\\ell_1$ tracker. Furthermore, for a stationary camera, a further refined tracker is designed by integrating a CS-based background model (CSBM). This CSBM-equipped tracker coined as RTCST-B, outperforms most state-of-the-a...

Li, Hanxi; Shi, Qinfeng

2010-01-01

60

Reconstruction and visualization of model-based volume representations  

Science.gov (United States)

In modern medical CT, the primary source of data is a set of X-ray projections acquired around the object, which are then used to reconstruct a discrete regular grid of sample points. Conventional volume rendering methods use this reconstructed regular grid to estimate unknown off-grid values via interpolation. However, these interpolated values may not match the values that would have been generated had they been reconstructed directly with CT. The consequence can be simple blurring, but also the omission of fine object detail which usually contains precious information. To avoid these problems, in the method we propose, instead of reconstructing a lattice of volume sample points, we derive a highfidelity object model directly from the reconstruction process, fitting a localized object model to the acquired raw data within tight tolerances. This model can then be easily evaluated both for slice-based viewing as well as in GPU 3D volume rendering, offering excellent detail preservation in zooming operations. Furthermore, the model-driven representation also supports high-precision analytical ray casting.

Zheng, Ziyi; Mueller, Klaus

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
61

Brain representations for acquiring and recalling visual-motor adaptations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans readily learn and remember new motor skills, a process that likely underlies adaptation to changing environments. During adaptation, the brain develops new sensory-motor relationships, and if consolidation occurs, a memory of the adaptation can be retained for extended periods. Considerable evidence exists that multiple brain circuits participate in acquiring new sensory-motor memories, though the networks engaged in recalling these and whether the same brain circuits participate in their formation and recall have less clarity. To address these issues, we assessed brain activation with functional MRI while young healthy adults learned and recalled new sensory-motor skills by adapting to world-view rotations of visual feedback that guided hand movements. We found cerebellar activation related to adaptation rate, likely reflecting changes related to overall adjustments to the visual rotation. A set of parietal and frontal regions, including inferior and superior parietal lobules, premotor area, supplementary motor area and primary somatosensory cortex, exhibited non-linear learning-related activation that peaked in the middle of the adaptation phase. Activation in some of these areas, including the inferior parietal lobule, intra-parietal sulcus and somatosensory cortex, likely reflected actual learning, since the activation correlated with learning after-effects. Lastly, we identified several structures having recall-related activation, including the anterior cingulate and the posterior putamen, since the activation correlated with recall efficacy. These findings demonstrate dynamic aspects of brain activation patterns related to formation and recall of a sensory-motor skill, such that non-overlapping brain regions participate in distinctive behavioral events. PMID:25019676

Bédard, Patrick; Sanes, Jerome N

2014-11-01

62

DESIGNING FOR MULTIPLE SENSES WHILE USING VISUAL REPRESENTATION TECHNIQUES? CROSSMODAL CORRESPONDENCES AS A COUNTERFORCE TO THE DOMINANCE OF THE VISUAL SENSE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In design practice designers often use visual representation techniques to communicate to their clients. The use of visual representation techniques has been critiqued to add to a dominance of the visual sense, which is seen as a potential weakness since the other senses might by subordinated. In this paper the authors therefore introduce the concept of crossmodal correspondences. Crossmodal correspondences refer to the tendency for a feature or attribute in one sensory modality to be matched...

Adams, Carmen; Petermans, Ann; Vanrie, Jan; Janssens, Wim

2014-01-01

63

Hierarchical representation of shapes in visual cortex--from localized features to figural shape segregation  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual structures in the environment are segmented into image regions and those combined to a representation of surfaces and prototypical objects. Such a perceptual organization is performed by complex neural mechanisms in the visual cortex of primates. Multiple mutually connected areas in the ventral cortical pathway receive visual input and extract local form features that are subsequently grouped into increasingly complex, more meaningful image elements. Such a distributed network of processing must be capable to make accessible highly articulated changes in shape boundary as well as very subtle curvature changes that contribute to the perception of an object. We propose a recurrent computational network architecture that utilizes hierarchical distributed representations of shape features to encode surface and object boundary over different scales of resolution. Our model makes use of neural mechanisms that model the processing capabilities of early and intermediate stages in visual cortex, namely areas V1–V4 and IT. We suggest that multiple specialized component representations interact by feedforward hierarchical processing that is combined with feedback signals driven by representations generated at higher stages. Based on this, global configurational as well as local information is made available to distinguish changes in the object's contour. Once the outline of a shape has been established, contextual contour configurations are used to assign border ownership directions and thus achieve segregation of figure and ground. The model, thus, proposes how separate mechanisms contribute to distributed hierarchical cortical shape representation and combine with processes of figure-ground segregation. Our model is probed with a selection of stimuli to illustrate processing results at different processing stages. We especially highlight how modulatory feedback connections contribute to the processing of visual input at various stages in the processing hierarchy. PMID:25157228

Tschechne, Stephan; Neumann, Heiko

2014-01-01

64

Representation of the material properties of objects in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information about the material from which objects are made provide rich and useful clues that enable us to categorize and identify those objects, know their state (e.g., ripeness of fruits), and properly act on them. However, despite its importance, little is known about the neural processes that underlie material perception in nonhuman primates. Here we conducted an fMRI experiment in awake macaque monkeys to explore how information about various real-world materials is represented in the visual areas of monkeys, how these neural representations correlate with perceptual material properties, and how they correspond to those in human visual areas that have been studied previously. Using a machine-learning technique, the representation in each visual area was read out from multivoxel patterns of regional activity elicited in response to images of nine real-world material categories (metal, wood, fur, etc.). The congruence of the neural representations with either a measure of low-level image properties, such as spatial frequency content, or with the visuotactile properties of materials, such as roughness, hardness, and warmness, were tested. We show that monkey V1 shares a common representation with human early visual areas reflecting low-level image properties. By contrast, monkey V4 and the posterior inferior temporal cortex represent the visuotactile properties of material, as in human ventral higher visual areas, although there were some interspecies differences in the representational structures. We suggest that, in monkeys, V4 and the posterior inferior temporal cortex are important stages for constructing information about the material properties of objects from their low-level image features. PMID:24523555

Goda, Naokazu; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Okazawa, Gouki; Komatsu, Hidehiko

2014-02-12

65

Hierarchical representation of shapes in visual cortex-from localized features to figural shape segregation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual structures in the environment are segmented into image regions and those combined to a representation of surfaces and prototypical objects. Such a perceptual organization is performed by complex neural mechanisms in the visual cortex of primates. Multiple mutually connected areas in the ventral cortical pathway receive visual input and extract local form features that are subsequently grouped into increasingly complex, more meaningful image elements. Such a distributed network of processing must be capable to make accessible highly articulated changes in shape boundary as well as very subtle curvature changes that contribute to the perception of an object. We propose a recurrent computational network architecture that utilizes hierarchical distributed representations of shape features to encode surface and object boundary over different scales of resolution. Our model makes use of neural mechanisms that model the processing capabilities of early and intermediate stages in visual cortex, namely areas V1-V4 and IT. We suggest that multiple specialized component representations interact by feedforward hierarchical processing that is combined with feedback signals driven by representations generated at higher stages. Based on this, global configurational as well as local information is made available to distinguish changes in the object's contour. Once the outline of a shape has been established, contextual contour configurations are used to assign border ownership directions and thus achieve segregation of figure and ground. The model, thus, proposes how separate mechanisms contribute to distributed hierarchical cortical shape representation and combine with processes of figure-ground segregation. Our model is probed with a selection of stimuli to illustrate processing results at different processing stages. We especially highlight how modulatory feedback connections contribute to the processing of visual input at various stages in the processing hierarchy. PMID:25157228

Tschechne, Stephan; Neumann, Heiko

2014-01-01

66

The visual language of spatial representation – a barrier, or a crossroad?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with techniques of representation of architectural and urbanistic ideas about space and its changes. It delves into the communication process between co-creators of space and points out the issue of different understanding of visual representation techniques that stem from different levels in capabilities of visual expression and understanding of visual messages. The issue of ignorance of specifics of professional language is emphasised as a consequence of its habitualness. The presented research checks and analyses the effect of abstract/concrete visual representation and their effectiveness in communicating messages to expert and lay publics. Following the discussion about results, numerous new issues arise, concerning possibilities for narrowing the gap between various publics and finding common ground. Amongst different solutions about improving communication between actors in the creation of space, the article emphasises the potential of permanent education. However the quest is not for improvements in general understanding of visual language, but consequentially to devise ways, modes and their positive consequences on the cultural environment and spatial culture.

Tadeja Zupan?i? Strojan

2003-01-01

67

A Reggio-Inspired Music Atelier: Opening the Door between Visual Arts and Music  

Science.gov (United States)

The Reggio Emilia approach is based on the idea that every child has at least, "one hundred languages" available for expressing perspectives of the world, and one of those languages is music. While all of the arts (visual, music, dance, drama) are considered equally important in Reggio schools, the visual arts have been particularly…

Hanna, Wendell

2014-01-01

68

Dew inspired breathing-based detection of genetic point mutation visualized by naked eye  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel label-free method based on breathing-induced vapor condensation was developed for detection of genetic point mutation. The dew-inspired detection was realized by integration of target-induced DNA ligation with rolling circle amplification (RCA). The vapor condensation induced by breathing transduced the RCA-amplified variances in DNA contents into visible contrast. The image could be recorded by a cell phone for further or even remote analysis. This green assay offers a naked-eye-reading method potentially applied for point-of-care liver cancer diagnosis in resource-limited regions.

Xie, Liping; Wang, Tongzhou; Huang, Tianqi; Hou, Wei; Huang, Guoliang; Du, Yanan

2014-09-01

69

Non-sparse Linear Representations for Visual Tracking with Online Reservoir Metric Learning  

CERN Document Server

Most sparse linear representation-based trackers need to solve a computationally expensive L1-regularized optimization problem. To address this problem, we propose a visual tracker based on non-sparse linear representations, which admit an efficient closed-form solution without sacrificing accuracy. Moreover, in order to capture the correlation information between different feature dimensions, we learn a Mahalanobis distance metric in an online fashion and incorporate the learned metric into the optimization problem for obtaining the linear representation. We show that online metric learning using proximity comparison significantly improves the robustness of the tracking, especially on those sequences exhibiting drastic appearance changes. Furthermore, in order to prevent the unbounded growth in the number of training samples for the metric learning, we design a time-weighted reservoir sampling method to maintain and update limited-sized foreground and background sample buffers for balancing sample diversity ...

Li, Xi; Shi, Qinfeng; Dick, Anthony; Hengel, Anton van den

2012-01-01

70

Blind Audio-Visual Source Separation based on Sparse Redundant Representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we propose a novel method which is able to detect and separate audio-visual sources present in a scene. Our method exploits the correlation between the video signal captured with a camera and a synchronously recorded one-microphone audio track. In a ?rst stage, audio and video modalities are decomposed into relevant basic structures using redundant representations. Next, synchrony between relevant events in audio and video modalities is quan...

Llagostera Casanovas, Anna; Monaci, Gianluca; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Gribonval, Re?mi

2010-01-01

71

Gravity influences the visual representation of object tilt in parietal cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sensory systems encode the environment in egocentric (e.g., eye, head, or body) reference frames, creating inherently unstable representations that shift and rotate as we move. However, it is widely speculated that the brain transforms these signals into an allocentric, gravity-centered representation of the world that is stable and independent of the observer's spatial pose. Where and how this representation may be achieved is currently unknown. Here we demonstrate that a subpopulation of neurons in the macaque caudal intraparietal area (CIP) visually encodes object tilt in nonegocentric coordinates defined relative to the gravitational vector. Neuronal responses to the tilt of a visually presented planar surface were measured with the monkey in different spatial orientations (upright and rolled left/right ear down) and then compared. This revealed a continuum of representations in which planar tilt was encoded in a gravity-centered reference frame in approximately one-tenth of the comparisons, intermediate reference frames ranging between gravity-centered and egocentric in approximately two-tenths of the comparisons, and in an egocentric reference frame in less than half of the comparisons. Altogether, almost half of the comparisons revealed a shift in the preferred tilt and/or a gain change consistent with encoding object orientation in nonegocentric coordinates. Through neural network modeling, we further show that a purely gravity-centered representation of object tilt can be achieved directly from the population activity of CIP-like units. These results suggest that area CIP may play a key role in creating a stable, allocentric representation of the environment defined relative to an "earth-vertical" direction. PMID:25339732

Rosenberg, Ari; Angelaki, Dora E

2014-10-22

72

Transform-invariant visual representations in self-organizing spiking neural networks  

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Full Text Available The ventral visual pathway achieves object and face recognition by building transform-invariant representations from elementary visual features. In previous computer simulation studies with rate-coded neural networks, the development of transform invariant representations has been demonstrated using either of two biologically plausible learning mechanisms, Trace learning and Continuous Transformation (CT learning. However, it has not previously been investigated how transform invariant representations may be learned in a more biologically accurate spiking neural network. A key issue is how the synaptic connection strengths in such a spiking network might self-organize through Spike-Time Dependent Plasticity (STDP where the change in synaptic strength is dependent on the relative times of the spikes emitted by the pre- and postsynaptic neurons rather than simply correlated activity driving changes in synaptic efficacy. Here we present simulations with conductance-based integrate-and-fire (IF neurons using a STDP learning rule to address these gaps in our understanding. It is demonstrated that with the appropriate selection of model pa- rameters and training regime, the spiking network model can utilize either Trace-like or CT-like learning mechanisms to achieve transform-invariant representations.

BenjaminEvans

2012-07-01

73

Representação visual de estruturas biológicas em materiais de ensino Visual representation of biological structures in teaching material  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade de se definir parâmetros de apresentação e tratamento da informação científica em materiais de ensino. Através de consultas a bibliotecas e a especialistas em ciências da saúde e artes gráficas e visuais, fez-se uma pesquisa que resultou na descrição comparativa entre as primeiras manifestações da ilustração científica na anatomia e a trajetória da representação visual do conhecimento sobre a célula. O estudo traz ainda exemplos significativos de ilustrações utilizadas como elementos de análise.Parameters must be defined for presenting and handling scientific information presented in the form of teaching materials. Through library research and consultations with specialists in the health sciences and in graphic arts and design, this study undertook a comparative description of the first examples of scientific illustrations of anatomy and the evolution of visual representations of knowledge on the cell. The study includes significant examples of illustrations which served as elements of analysis.

Marina Azevedo Morato

1998-10-01

74

Visually guided gait modifications for stepping over an obstacle: a bio-inspired approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an increasing interest in conceiving robotic systems that are able to move and act in an unstructured and not predefined environment, for which autonomy and adaptability are crucial features. In nature, animals are autonomous biological systems, which often serve as bio-inspiration models, not only for their physical and mechanical properties, but also their control structures that enable adaptability and autonomy-for which learning is (at least) partially responsible. This work proposes a system which seeks to enable a quadruped robot to online learn to detect and to avoid stumbling on an obstacle in its path. The detection relies in a forward internal model that estimates the robot's perceptive information by exploring the locomotion repetitive nature. The system adapts the locomotion in order to place the robot optimally before attempting to step over the obstacle, avoiding any stumbling. Locomotion adaptation is achieved by changing control parameters of a central pattern generator (CPG)-based locomotion controller. The mechanism learns the necessary alterations to the stride length in order to adapt the locomotion by changing the required CPG parameter. Both learning tasks occur online and together define a sensorimotor map, which enables the robot to learn to step over the obstacle in its path. Simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed approach. PMID:24469319

Silva, Pedro; Matos, Vitor; Santos, Cristina P

2014-02-01

75

Visual representation of fashion at graphic devices ///// A representação visual da moda nos suportes gráficos  

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Full Text Available Tanto a busca de referências criativas quanto a expressão das ideias em desenhos de moda (croquis para o desenvolvimento de uma coleção se dão majoritariamente no plano visual. No mesmo sentido, o design gráfico manipula elementos básicos (ponto, linha, plano e mancha e elementos conceituais (cor, tonalidade e textura de modo a compor textos informativos, ou seja, dotados de significação. A metodologia consistiu em aplicar o repertório teórico de Dondis (2007, Lupton e Phillips (2010 e Perassi (2010 nas expressões visuais de moda. O presente trabalho propôs-se a estudar implicações no surgimento de novas tecnologias e de uma nova sintaxe de expressão visual na transformação da cultura material para uma cultura digital. A linguagem gráfico-digital com suas possibilidades alterou o processo simbólico-referencial da cultura contemporânea, com ideias ou conceitos típicos da cibercultura. ///// Both the search of creative references and the expression of ideas though drawings (croquis to the development of a fashion collection are given, majorly, in the visual canvas. In the same direction, graphic design manipulates basic elements (dot, line, surfaces and blots and conceptual elements (tone, color, texture, etc in order to compose informative texts. Texts with signification. The methodology consisted in applying the theoretical repertory of Dondis (2007, Lupton e Phillips (2010 and Perassi (2010 in fashion visual expressions. This present paper proposed to study the implications of new technology emergence and its implications on a new visual expression syntax in the paradigm shift from a material to a digital culture. The graphicdigital language, and its possibilities, had altered the symbolic-reference process of the contemporary culture, with ideas and concepts typical of the cyber culture.

Richard Perassi Luiz de Sousa

2012-12-01

76

Learning shapes the representation of visual categories in the aging human brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to make categorical decisions and interpret sensory experiences is critical for survival and interactions across the lifespan. However, little is known about the human brain mechanisms that mediate the learning and representation of visual categories in aging. Here we combine behavioral measurements and fMRI measurements to investigate the neural processes that mediate flexible category learning in the aging human brain. Our findings show that training changes the decision criterion (i.e., categorical boundary) that young and older observers use for making categorical judgments. Comparing the behavioral choices of human observers with those of a pattern classifier based upon multivoxel fMRI signals, we demonstrate learning-dependent changes in similar cortical areas for young and older adults. In particular, we show that neural signals in occipito-temporal and posterior parietal regions change through learning to reflect the perceived visual categories. Information in these areas about the perceived visual categories is preserved in aging, whereas information content is compromised in more anterior parietal and frontal circuits. Thus, these findings provide novel evidence for flexible category learning in aging that shapes the neural representations of visual categories to reflect the observers' behavioral judgments. PMID:20044888

Mayhew, Stephen D; Li, Sheng; Storrar, Joshua K; Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Kourtzi, Zoe

2010-12-01

77

A biologically inspired psychometric function for accuracy of visual identification as a function of exposure duration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The psychometric function of letter identification is typically described as a function of stimulus intensity. However, the effect of stimulus exposure duration on letter identification remains poorly described. This is surprising because the effect of exposure duration has played a central role in modelling human performance in whole and partial report tasks in which multiple simultaneously presented letters are to be reported (Shibuya & Bundesen, 1988). Therefore, we investigated visual letter identification as a function of exposure duration. On each trial, a single randomly chosen letter (A-Z) was presented at the centre of the screen. Exposure duration was varied from 5 to 210 milliseconds. The letter was followed by a pattern mask. Three subjects each completed 54,080 trials in a 26-Alternative Forced Choice procedure. We compared the exponential, the gamma and the Weibull psychometric functions, all of these having a temporal offset included, as well as the ex-Gaussian, and finally a new psychometric function, motivated from single-neuron studies by (Albrecht, Geisler, Frazor & Crane, 2002). The new psychometric function stands out by having a nonmonotonous hazard rate which is initially rising from zero, then peaking, and finally decaying to a somewhat sustained plateau, mimicking closely observed instantaneous firing rates of monkey visual cortex neurons. The new psychometric function fits well to experimental data in both the present study and in a previous study of single-letter identification accuracy (Bundesen & Harms, 1999). Also, we conducted a follow-up experiment to test the ability of the psychometric functions to fit single-letter identification data, at different stimulus contrast levels; also in this experiment the new psychometric function prevailed. Further, after insertion into Bundesen’s Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990), the new psychometric function enables closer fits to data from a previous whole and partial report experiment.

Petersen, Anders; Andersen, Tobias

78

Automatic frame-centered object representation and integration revealed by iconic memory, visual priming, and backward masking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object identities (“what”) and their spatial locations (“where”) are processed in distinct pathways in the visual system, raising the question of how the what and where information is integrated. Because of object motions and eye movements, the retina-based representations are unstable, necessitating nonretinotopic representation and integration. A potential mechanism is to code and update objects according to their reference frames (i.e., frame-centered representation and integration...

Lin, Zhicheng; He, Sheng

2012-01-01

79

The Effects of Visual Cues and Learners' Field Dependence in Multiple External Representations Environment for Novice Program Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of visual cues in multiple external representations (MER) environment on the learning performance of novices' program comprehension. Program codes and flowchart diagrams were used as dual representations in multimedia environment to deliver lessons on C-Programming. 17 field independent participants and 16 field…

Wei, Liew Tze; Sazilah, Salam

2012-01-01

80

Social Categories Shape the Neural Representation of Emotion: Evidence from a Visual Face Adaptation Task.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of recent behavioral studies have shown that emotional expressions are differently perceived depending on the race of a face, and that that perception of race cues is influenced by emotional expressions. However, neural processes related to the perception of invariant cues that indicate the identity of a face (such as race are often described to proceed independently of processes related to the perception of cues that can vary over time (such as emotion. Using a visual face adaptation paradigm, we tested whether these behavioral interactions between emotion and race also reflect interdependent neural representation of emotion and race. We compared visual emotion aftereffects when the adapting face and ambiguous test face differed in race or not. Emotion aftereffects were much smaller in different race trials than same race trials, indicating that the neural representation of a facial expression is significantly different depending on whether the emotional face is black or white. It thus seems that invariable cues such as race interact with variable face cues such as emotion not just at a response level, but also at the level of perception and neural representation.

MarteOtten

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

Direct isosurface visualization of hex-based high-order geometry and attribute representations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present a novel isosurface visualization technique that guarantees the accurate visualization of isosurfaces with complex attribute data defined on (un)structured (curvi)linear hexahedral grids. Isosurfaces of high-order hexahedral-based finite element solutions on both uniform grids (including MRI and CT scans) and more complex geometry representing a domain of interest that can be rendered using our algorithm. Additionally, our technique can be used to directly visualize solutions and attributes in isogeometric analysis, an area based on trivariate high-order NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-splines) geometry and attribute representations for the analysis. Furthermore, our technique can be used to visualize isosurfaces of algebraic functions. Our approach combines subdivision and numerical root finding to form a robust and efficient isosurface visualization algorithm that does not miss surface features, while finding all intersections between a view frustum and desired isosurfaces. This allows the use of view-independent transparency in the rendering process. We demonstrate our technique through a straightforward CPU implementation on both complex-structured and complex-unstructured geometries with high-order simulation solutions, isosurfaces of medical data sets, and isosurfaces of algebraic functions. PMID:22442127

Martin, Tobias; Cohen, Elaine; Kirby, Robert M

2012-05-01

82

Functional organization and visual representations in human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex  

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Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex even in the absence of working memory demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex remain unclear. Further, in a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of lateral prefrontal cortex? What do these findings tell us about the underlying function and organization principles of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex? What is the future direction for investigating visual representations in this cortex? This review focuses on the function, topography, and circuitry of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex to enhance our understanding of the evolution and development of this cortex.

AnnieWai YiuChan

2013-07-01

83

Analysis and Determination of Inner Lip texture Descriptors for Visual Speech Representation  

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Full Text Available The problem of visual speech representation for bimodal based speech recognition includes particular challenges in themodeling of the inner lip texture reflecting different pronunciations,such as the appearance of teeth and tongue. This paper proposesand analyzesseveral possible statistical inner lip texture descriptors to determine an effective and discriminantfeature. Simply usinggrayscale without full specification of the underlying colour model tends to loss some significant discriminative information. Therefore thorough exploration on the color space components selection in computing the local inner lip texture is thus a primary goal of the present research. The L channel of Lab color space is finally determined as the basis for the development of the inner lip texture model. Through feature level fusion, the final classification of visual speech is performedbased on the proposed inner lip texture descriptor and standard geometric features. Together with audio speech,this paper furthers the development ofthe CHMM based bimodal Chinese character pronunciationrecognition system. The experimental results show that the local inner texture descriptors, such as the color moment with geometric feature,outperform the holistic inner texture descriptors, such as the statistical histogram, in representing visual speechwith theclose discriminability but low dimensionality. 

Xibin Jia

2014-07-01

84

Self-organizing maps for visual feature representation based on natural binocular stimuli.  

Science.gov (United States)

We model the stimulus-induced development of the topography of the primary visual cortex. The analysis uses a self-organizing Kohonen model based on high-dimensional coding. It allows us to obtain an arbitrary number of feature maps by defining different operators. Using natural binocular stimuli, we concentrate on discussing the orientation, ocular dominance, and disparity maps. We obtain orientation and ocular dominance maps that agree with essential aspects of biological findings. In contrast to orientation and ocular dominance, not much is known about the cortical representation of disparity. As a result of numerical simulations, we predict substructures of orientation and ocular dominance maps that correspond to disparity maps. In regions of constant orientation, we find a wide range of horizontal disparities to be represented. This points to geometrical relations between orientation, ocular dominance, and disparity maps that might be tested in experiments. PMID:10664097

Wiemer, J; Burwick, T; von Seelen, W

2000-02-01

85

Editorial political cartoons in Australia: social representations & and the visual depiction of essentialism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six million migrants from over 170 countries have resettled in Australia since 1945 ensuring religious diversity is now a hallmark of Australia's population. However, not all religious groups are perceived in the same way. In this paper, we explore how representational processes differentially essentialise religious groups, in particular how some groups are ascribed an underlying nature that irrevocably defines who they are and how they will behave, whilst other groups are conveyed merely as coherent entities with similarity in goals and structure. We elucidate this through an analysis of the depiction of religious markers in Australian Editorial political cartoons. We mirror the near-exclusive focus on the Muslim and Christian religions, in the religious cartoons we sampled, to present an analysis of 6 exemplar cartoons. Drawing from visual analysis techniques (van Leeuwen 2001) and social representations theory (Moscovici 1984) we highlight how essentialist perceptions of religious groups are unwittingly fostered in everyday media communications. We discuss the implications of our analysis for the transnationalisation of religion. PMID:23640070

Moloney, Gail; Holtz, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang

2013-06-01

86

Effects of visual deprivation on space representation: immediate and delayed pointing toward memorised proprioceptive targets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenitally blind, late-blind, and blindfolded-sighted participants performed a pointing task at proximal memorised proprioceptive targets. The locations to be memorised were presented on a sagittal plane by passively positioning the left index finger. A 'go' signal for matching the target location with the right index finger was given 0 or 8 s after left-hand demonstration. Absolute distance errors were smaller in the blind groups, with both delays pooled together; signed distance and direction errors were underestimated with the longer delay, and were overestimated by blind groups, whereas the blindfolded-sighted group underestimated them. Elongation of the scatters was stretched but not affected by delay or group. The surface scatter was greater with the longer delay; and orientation of the main axis of the pointing ellipses shows the use of an egocentric frame of reference by the congenitally blind group for both delays, the use of egocentric (0 s) and exocentric (8 s) frame of reference by the blindfolded-sighted group, with the late-blind group using an intermediate frame of reference for both delays. Therefore, early and late visual-deprivation effects are distinguished from transient visual-deprivation effects as long-term deprivation leads to increased capabilities (absolute distance estimations), unaltered organisation (for surface and elongation), and altered organisation (amplitude and direction estimations, orientation of pointing distribution) of the spatial representation with proprioception. Besides providing an extensive exploration of pointing ability and mechanisms in the visually deprived population, the results show that cross-modal plasticity applies not only to neural bases but extends to spatial behaviour. PMID:16491713

Gaunet, Florence; Rossetti, Yves

2006-01-01

87

Using surface imaging and visual coaching to improve the reproducibility and stability of deep-inspiration breath hold for left-breast-cancer radiotherapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Late cardiac complications may arise after left-breast radiation therapy. Deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH) allows reduction of the irradiated heart volume at the same time as it reduces tumor bed motion and increases lung sparing. In the present study, we have evaluated the improvement in reproducibility and stability of the DIBH for left-breast-cancer treatment when visual coaching is provided with the aid of 3D video surface imaging and video goggles. Five left-breast-cancer patients and fifteen healthy volunteers were asked to perform a series of DIBHs without and with visual coaching. Reproducibility and stability of DIBH were measured for each individual with and without visual coaching. The average reproducibility and stability changed from 2.1 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively, without visual feedback to 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm with visual feedback, showing a significant statistical difference (p < 0.001 for reproducibility, p < 0.01 for stability). Significant changes (>2 mm) in reproducibility and stability were observed in 35% and 15% of the subjects, respectively. The average chest wall excursion of the DIBH with respect to the free breathing preceding the DIBH was found to be 11.3 mm. The reproducibility and stability of the DIBH improve significantly from the visual coaching provided to the patient, especially in those patients with poor reproducibility and stability.

Cervino, Laura I; Gupta, Sonia; Rose, Mary A; Yashar, Catheryn; Jiang, Steve B [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Diego, 3855 Health Sciences Dr, La Jolla, CA 92037-0843 (United States)], E-mail: sbjiang@ucsd.edu

2009-11-21

88

Using surface imaging and visual coaching to improve the reproducibility and stability of deep-inspiration breath hold for left-breast-cancer radiotherapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Late cardiac complications may arise after left-breast radiation therapy. Deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH) allows reduction of the irradiated heart volume at the same time as it reduces tumor bed motion and increases lung sparing. In the present study, we have evaluated the improvement in reproducibility and stability of the DIBH for left-breast-cancer treatment when visual coaching is provided with the aid of 3D video surface imaging and video goggles. Five left-breast-cancer patients and fifteen healthy volunteers were asked to perform a series of DIBHs without and with visual coaching. Reproducibility and stability of DIBH were measured for each individual with and without visual coaching. The average reproducibility and stability changed from 2.1 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively, without visual feedback to 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm with visual feedback, showing a significant statistical difference (p 2 mm) in reproducibility and stability were observed in 35% and 15% of the subjects, respectively. The average chest wall excursion of the DIBH with respect to the free breathing preceding the DIBH was found to be 11.3 mm. The reproducibility and stability of the DIBH improve significantly from the visual coaching provided to the patient, especially in those patients with poor reproducibility and stability.

Cerviño, Laura I.; Gupta, Sonia; Rose, Mary A.; Yashar, Catheryn; Jiang, Steve B.

2009-11-01

89

Can Verbalisers Learn as well as Visualisers in Simulation-Based CAL with Predominantly Visual Representations? Preliminary Evidence from a Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Simulation-based computer-assisted learning (CAL) is emerging as new technologies are finding a place in mainstream education. Dynamically linked multiple representations (DLMRs) is at the core of simulation-based CAL. DLMRs includes multiple visual representations, and it enables students to manipulate one representation and to immediately…

Liu, Tzu-Chien; Kinshuk; Lin, Yi-Chun; Wang, Ssu-Chin

2012-01-01

90

Intrinsic structure of visual exemplar and category representations in macaque brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most remarkable properties of the visual system is the ability to identify and categorize a wide variety of objects effortlessly. However, the underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. Specifically, the question of how individual object information is represented and intrinsically organized is still poorly understood. To address this question, we presented images of isolated real-world objects spanning a wide range of categories to awake monkeys using a rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design and analyzed the responses of multiple areas involved in object processing. We found that the multivoxel response patterns to individual exemplars in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex, especially area TE, encoded the animate-inanimate categorical division, with a subordinate cluster of faces within the animate category. In contrast, the individual exemplar representations in V4, the amygdala, and prefrontal cortex showed either no categorical structure, or a categorical structure different from that in IT cortex. Moreover, in the IT face-selective regions ("face patches"), especially the anterior face patches, (1) the multivoxel response patterns to individual exemplars showed a categorical distinction between faces and nonface objects (i.e., body parts and inanimate objects), and (2) the regionally averaged activations to individual exemplars showed face-selectivity and within-face exemplar-selectivity. Our findings demonstrate that, at both the single-exemplar and the population level, intrinsic object representation and categorization are organized hierarchically as one moves anteriorly along the ventral pathway, reflecting both modular and distributed processing. PMID:23843508

Liu, Ning; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Mur, Marieke; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Luh, Wen-Ming; Tootell, Roger B H; Ungerleider, Leslie G

2013-07-10

91

The visual representation of 3D object orientation in parietal cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

An accurate representation of three-dimensional (3D) object orientation is essential for interacting with the environment. Where and how the brain visually encodes 3D object orientation remains unknown, but prior studies suggest the caudal intraparietal area (CIP) may be involved. Here, we develop rigorous analytical methods for quantifying 3D orientation tuning curves, and use these tools to the study the neural coding of surface orientation. Specifically, we show that single neurons in area CIP of the rhesus macaque jointly encode the slant and tilt of a planar surface, and that across the population, the distribution of preferred slant-tilts is not statistically different from uniform. This suggests that all slant-tilt combinations are equally represented in area CIP. Furthermore, some CIP neurons are found to also represent the third rotational degree of freedom that determines the orientation of the image pattern on the planar surface. Together, the present results suggest that CIP is a critical neural locus for the encoding of all three rotational degrees of freedom specifying an object's 3D spatial orientation. PMID:24305830

Rosenberg, Ari; Cowan, Noah J; Angelaki, Dora E

2013-12-01

92

Two independent sources of anisotropy in the visual representation of direction in 2-D space.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that visual direction representation is more accurate for cardinal directions compared to oblique, a phenomenon named the "oblique effect". It has been hypothesized that there are two sources of oblique effect, a low level one confined to vision and a high level one extending to different modalities and corresponding to higher cognitive processes. In this study directional error (DE) was measured when normal individuals tried to align the direction of an arrow presented in the center of a computer monitor to the direction of a peripheral target located in one of 32 directions equally spaced on an imaginary circle of 60 mm radius. Task difficulty was manipulated by varying arrow length (15, 30, 45 and 60 mm). By measuring mean DE and its variance we identified two independent sources of the oblique effect. A low level oblique effect was manifested in higher accuracy or equivalently lower variance of DE in the alignment for cardinal orientations compared to oblique. A second oblique effect was manifested measuring mean DE resulting in space expansion in the vicinity of cardinal directions and space contraction in the vicinity of oblique directions. Only this latter source of oblique effect was modulated by arrow length as predicted from a theoretical model postulating that this oblique effect is produced by a cognitive process of 2-D space categorization. PMID:24696139

Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Mantas, Asimakis; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

2014-07-01

93

Representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud en la discapacidad visual / Social representation of the health service providers in visual disability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el conocimiento de la representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud resulta de suma importancia para la salud pública, debido a su influencia en la calidad de su relación con los pacientes. Objetivo: caracterizar la representación social de los prestadores de servicios [...] de salud acerca de la discapacidad visual. Métodos: estudio de caso realizado en el policlínico "Hermanos Ruíz Aboy" en San Miguel del Padrón en el período de enero a junio de 2012. Participaron 33 informantes clave escogidos por muestreo intencional. Las técnicas de indagación empleadas fueron la asociación libre de palabras y las entrevistas en profundidad. Resultados: el estudio reveló la existencia en los prestadores de una representación angustiosa-conmiserativa-dependiente que configura elementos provenientes de referentes experienciales, componentes afectivos e insumos informacionales relacionados con las personas en situación de discapacidad visual. Conclusiones: los prestadores de servicios de salud investigados tiene en el núcleo de sus representaciones experiencias y conocimientos relacionados con el daño anatómico que condiciona limitación e incapacidad para la participación en la vida social de las personas con discapacidad visual, pero las asociaciones relativas a las necesidades de atención, definen un deficiente reconocimiento de elementos que garantizarían la compensación e integración psicosocial en estas personas. Abstract in english Introduction: knowing the social representation of the health service providers is very important for the public health, due to their influence on the quality of relationship with the patients. Objective: to characterize the social representation of the health service providers on visual disability. [...] Methods: case study performed in "Hermanos Ruiz Aboy" in San Miguel del Padron municipality in the period of January through June, 2012. Thirty three key informants selected by intentional sampling participated. The research techniques were free association of words and in-depth interviews. Results: this study disclosed the existence in health providers of an anguishing-commisserative-dependent representation that shapes elements from experience referents, affective components and informational inputs related to the persons facing visual disability. Conclusions: the health service providers under research have, in the core of their representation, experiences and knowledge linked to the anatomical damage that causes limitation and disability to be involved in the people with visual disability; however, the relative associations with the care requirements define a poor recognition of those elements that would assure compensation and psychosocial integration of these people.

Guillermo, Díaz Llanes; Judith, Prieto Sedano.

94

Representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud en la discapacidad visual / Social representation of the health service providers in visual disability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el conocimiento de la representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud resulta de suma importancia para la salud pública, debido a su influencia en la calidad de su relación con los pacientes. Objetivo: caracterizar la representación social de los prestadores de servicios [...] de salud acerca de la discapacidad visual. Métodos: estudio de caso realizado en el policlínico "Hermanos Ruíz Aboy" en San Miguel del Padrón en el período de enero a junio de 2012. Participaron 33 informantes clave escogidos por muestreo intencional. Las técnicas de indagación empleadas fueron la asociación libre de palabras y las entrevistas en profundidad. Resultados: el estudio reveló la existencia en los prestadores de una representación angustiosa-conmiserativa-dependiente que configura elementos provenientes de referentes experienciales, componentes afectivos e insumos informacionales relacionados con las personas en situación de discapacidad visual. Conclusiones: los prestadores de servicios de salud investigados tiene en el núcleo de sus representaciones experiencias y conocimientos relacionados con el daño anatómico que condiciona limitación e incapacidad para la participación en la vida social de las personas con discapacidad visual, pero las asociaciones relativas a las necesidades de atención, definen un deficiente reconocimiento de elementos que garantizarían la compensación e integración psicosocial en estas personas. Abstract in english Introduction: knowing the social representation of the health service providers is very important for the public health, due to their influence on the quality of relationship with the patients. Objective: to characterize the social representation of the health service providers on visual disability. [...] Methods: case study performed in "Hermanos Ruiz Aboy" in San Miguel del Padron municipality in the period of January through June, 2012. Thirty three key informants selected by intentional sampling participated. The research techniques were free association of words and in-depth interviews. Results: this study disclosed the existence in health providers of an anguishing-commisserative-dependent representation that shapes elements from experience referents, affective components and informational inputs related to the persons facing visual disability. Conclusions: the health service providers under research have, in the core of their representation, experiences and knowledge linked to the anatomical damage that causes limitation and disability to be involved in the people with visual disability; however, the relative associations with the care requirements define a poor recognition of those elements that would assure compensation and psychosocial integration of these people.

Guillermo, Díaz Llanes; Judith, Prieto Sedano.

95

Representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud en la discapacidad visual / Social representation of the health service providers in visual disability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el conocimiento de la representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud resulta de suma importancia para la salud pública, debido a su influencia en la calidad de su relación con los pacientes. Objetivo: caracterizar la representación social de los prestadores de servicios [...] de salud acerca de la discapacidad visual. Métodos: estudio de caso realizado en el policlínico "Hermanos Ruíz Aboy" en San Miguel del Padrón en el período de enero a junio de 2012. Participaron 33 informantes clave escogidos por muestreo intencional. Las técnicas de indagación empleadas fueron la asociación libre de palabras y las entrevistas en profundidad. Resultados: el estudio reveló la existencia en los prestadores de una representación angustiosa-conmiserativa-dependiente que configura elementos provenientes de referentes experienciales, componentes afectivos e insumos informacionales relacionados con las personas en situación de discapacidad visual. Conclusiones: los prestadores de servicios de salud investigados tiene en el núcleo de sus representaciones experiencias y conocimientos relacionados con el daño anatómico que condiciona limitación e incapacidad para la participación en la vida social de las personas con discapacidad visual, pero las asociaciones relativas a las necesidades de atención, definen un deficiente reconocimiento de elementos que garantizarían la compensación e integración psicosocial en estas personas. Abstract in english Introduction: knowing the social representation of the health service providers is very important for the public health, due to their influence on the quality of relationship with the patients. Objective: to characterize the social representation of the health service providers on visual disability. [...] Methods: case study performed in "Hermanos Ruiz Aboy" in San Miguel del Padron municipality in the period of January through June, 2012. Thirty three key informants selected by intentional sampling participated. The research techniques were free association of words and in-depth interviews. Results: this study disclosed the existence in health providers of an anguishing-commisserative-dependent representation that shapes elements from experience referents, affective components and informational inputs related to the persons facing visual disability. Conclusions: the health service providers under research have, in the core of their representation, experiences and knowledge linked to the anatomical damage that causes limitation and disability to be involved in the people with visual disability; however, the relative associations with the care requirements define a poor recognition of those elements that would assure compensation and psychosocial integration of these people.

Guillermo, Díaz Llanes; Judith, Prieto Sedano.

2014-03-01

96

Representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud en la discapacidad visual / Social representation of the health service providers in visual disability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el conocimiento de la representación social de los prestadores de servicios de salud resulta de suma importancia para la salud pública, debido a su influencia en la calidad de su relación con los pacientes. Objetivo: caracterizar la representación social de los prestadores de servicios [...] de salud acerca de la discapacidad visual. Métodos: estudio de caso realizado en el policlínico "Hermanos Ruíz Aboy" en San Miguel del Padrón en el período de enero a junio de 2012. Participaron 33 informantes clave escogidos por muestreo intencional. Las técnicas de indagación empleadas fueron la asociación libre de palabras y las entrevistas en profundidad. Resultados: el estudio reveló la existencia en los prestadores de una representación angustiosa-conmiserativa-dependiente que configura elementos provenientes de referentes experienciales, componentes afectivos e insumos informacionales relacionados con las personas en situación de discapacidad visual. Conclusiones: los prestadores de servicios de salud investigados tiene en el núcleo de sus representaciones experiencias y conocimientos relacionados con el daño anatómico que condiciona limitación e incapacidad para la participación en la vida social de las personas con discapacidad visual, pero las asociaciones relativas a las necesidades de atención, definen un deficiente reconocimiento de elementos que garantizarían la compensación e integración psicosocial en estas personas. Abstract in english Introduction: knowing the social representation of the health service providers is very important for the public health, due to their influence on the quality of relationship with the patients. Objective: to characterize the social representation of the health service providers on visual disability. [...] Methods: case study performed in "Hermanos Ruiz Aboy" in San Miguel del Padron municipality in the period of January through June, 2012. Thirty three key informants selected by intentional sampling participated. The research techniques were free association of words and in-depth interviews. Results: this study disclosed the existence in health providers of an anguishing-commisserative-dependent representation that shapes elements from experience referents, affective components and informational inputs related to the persons facing visual disability. Conclusions: the health service providers under research have, in the core of their representation, experiences and knowledge linked to the anatomical damage that causes limitation and disability to be involved in the people with visual disability; however, the relative associations with the care requirements define a poor recognition of those elements that would assure compensation and psychosocial integration of these people.

Guillermo, Díaz Llanes; Judith, Prieto Sedano.

2014-03-01

97

Visualizing the engram: learning stabilizes odor representations in the olfactory network.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature of memory is a central issue in neuroscience. How does our representation of the world change with learning and experience? Here we use the transcription of Arc mRNA, which permits probing the neural representations of temporally separated events, to address this in a well characterized odor learning model. Rat pups readily associate odor with maternal care. In pups, the lateralized olfactory networks are independent, permitting separate training and within-subject control. We use multiday training to create an enduring memory of peppermint odor. Training stabilized rewarded, but not nonrewarded, odor representations in both mitral cells and associated granule cells of the olfactory bulb and in the pyramidal cells of the anterior piriform cortex. An enlarged core of stable, likely highly active neurons represent rewarded odor at both stages of the olfactory network. Odor representations in anterior piriform cortex were sparser than typical in adult rat and did not enlarge with learning. This sparser representation of odor is congruent with the maturation of lateral olfactory tract input in rat pups. Cortical representations elsewhere have been shown to be highly variable in electrophysiological experiments, suggesting brains operate normally using dynamic and network-modulated representations. The olfactory cortical representations here are consistent with the generalized associative model of sparse variable cortical representation, as normal responses to repeated odors were highly variable (?70% of the cells change as indexed by Arc). Learning and memory modified rewarded odor ensembles to increase stability in a core representational component. PMID:25392506

Shakhawat, Amin Md; Gheidi, Ali; Hou, Qinlong; Dhillon, Sandeep K; Marrone, Diano F; Harley, Carolyn W; Yuan, Qi

2014-11-12

98

How to make a good animation: A grounded cognition model of how visual representation design affects the construction of abstract physics knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual representations play a critical role in teaching physics. However, since we do not have a satisfactory understanding of how visual perception impacts the construction of abstract knowledge, most visual representations used in instructions are either created based on existing conventions or designed according to the instructor's intuition, which leads to a significant variance in their effectiveness. In this paper we propose a cognitive mechanism based on grounded cognition, suggesting that visual perception affects understanding by activating "perceptual symbols": the basic cognitive unit used by the brain to construct a concept. A good visual representation activates perceptual symbols that are essential for the construction of the represented concept, whereas a bad representation does the opposite. As a proof of concept, we conducted a clinical experiment in which participants received three different versions of a multimedia tutorial teaching the integral expression of electric potential. The three versions were only different by the details of the visual representation design, only one of which contained perceptual features that activate perceptual symbols essential for constructing the idea of "accumulation." On a following post-test, participants receiving this version of tutorial significantly outperformed those who received the other two versions of tutorials designed to mimic conventional visual representations used in classrooms.

Chen, Zhongzhou; Gladding, Gary

2014-06-01

99

Advancing bag-of-visual-words representations for lesion classification in retinal images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes that can lead to blindness if not readily discovered. Automated screening algorithms have the potential to improve identification of patients who need further medical attention. However, the identification of lesions must be accurate to be useful for clinical application. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) algorithm employs a maximum-margin classifier in a flexible framework that is able to detect the most common DR-related lesions such as microaneurysms, cotton-wool spots and hard exudates. BoVW allows to bypass the need for pre- and post-processing of the retinographic images, as well as the need of specific ad hoc techniques for identification of each type of lesion. An extensive evaluation of the BoVW model, using three large retinograph datasets (DR1, DR2 and Messidor) with different resolution and collected by different healthcare personnel, was performed. The results demonstrate that the BoVW classification approach can identify different lesions within an image without having to utilize different algorithms for each lesion reducing processing time and providing a more flexible diagnostic system. Our BoVW scheme is based on sparse low-level feature detection with a Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) local descriptor, and mid-level features based on semi-soft coding with max pooling. The best BoVW representation for retinal image classification was an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of 97.8% (exudates) and 93.5% (red lesions), applying a cross-dataset validation protocol. To assess the accuracy for detecting cases that require referral within one year, the sparse extraction technique associated with semi-soft coding and max pooling obtained an AUC of 94.2 ± 2.0%, outperforming current methods. Those results indicate that, for retinal image classification tasks in clinical practice, BoVW is equal and, in some instances, surpasses results obtained using dense detection (widely believed to be the best choice in many vision problems) for the low-level descriptors. PMID:24886780

Pires, Ramon; Jelinek, Herbert F; Wainer, Jacques; Valle, Eduardo; Rocha, Anderson

2014-01-01

100

Temporally-structured acquisition of multidimensional optical imaging data facilitates visualization of elusive cortical representations in the behaving monkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fundamental understanding of higher cognitive functions can greatly benefit from imaging of cortical activity with high spatiotemporal resolution in the behaving non-human primate. To achieve rapid imaging of high-resolution dynamics of cortical representations of spontaneous and evoked activity, we designed a novel data acquisition protocol for sensory stimulation by rapidly interleaving multiple stimuli in continuous sessions of optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes. We also tested a new algorithm for the "temporally structured component analysis" (TSCA) of a multidimensional time series that was developed for our new data acquisition protocol, but was tested only on simulated data (Blumenfeld, 2010). In addition to the raw data, the algorithm incorporates prior knowledge about the temporal structure of the data as well as input from other information. Here we showed that TSCA can successfully separate functional signal components from other signals referred to as noise. Imaging of responses to multiple visual stimuli, utilizing voltage-sensitive dyes, was performed on the visual cortex of awake monkeys. Multiple cortical representations, including orientation and ocular dominance maps as well as the hitherto elusive retinotopic representation of orientation stimuli, were extracted in only 10s of imaging, approximately two orders of magnitude faster than accomplished by conventional methods. Since the approach is rather general, other imaging techniques may also benefit from the same stimulation protocol. This methodology can thus facilitate rapid optical imaging explorations in monkeys, rodents and other species with a versatility and speed that were not feasible before. PMID:23689017

Omer, David B; Hildesheim, Rina; Grinvald, Amiram

2013-11-15

 
 
 
 
101

Visualization of carbon dioxide sequestration issues within coal using a molecular representation of Pocahontas No. 3 coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Molecular modeling was employed to both visualize and probe our understanding of carbon dioxide sequestration within a bituminous coal. A large-scale (>20,000 atoms) 3D molecular representation of Pocahontas No. 3 coal was generated. This model was constructed based on a the review data of Stock and Muntean, oxidation and decarboxylation data for aromatic clustersize frequency of Stock and Obeng, and the combination of Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry data with HRTEM, enabled the inclusion of a molecular weight distribution. The model contains 21,931 atoms, with a molecular mass of 174,873 amu, and an average molecular weight of 714 amu, with 201 structural components. The structure was evaluated based on several characteristics to ensure a reasonable constitution (chemical and physical representation). The helium density of Pocahontas No. 3 coal is 1.34 g/cm{sup 3} (dmmf) and the model was 1.27 g/cm{sup 3}. The structure is microporous, with a pore volume comprising 34% of the volume as expected for a coal of this rank. The representation was used to visualize CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} capacity, and the role of moisture in swelling and CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} capacity reduction. Inclusion of 0.68% moisture by mass (ash-free) enabled the model to swell by 1.2% (volume). Inclusion of CO{sub 2} enabled volumetric swelling of 4%. 27 refs., 5 figs.

M.R. Narkiewicz; J.P. Mathews [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States). Department of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering

2005-07-01

102

Preliminary tests of a possible outdoor light adaptation solution for a fly inspired visual sensor: a biomimetic solution - biomed 2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two previous papers, presented at RMBS in 2009 and 2010, introduced a fly inspired vision sensor that could adapt to indoor light conditions by mimicking the light adaptation process of the commonhousefly, Muscadomestica. A new system has been designed that should allow the sensor to adapt to outdoor light conditions which will enable the sensor?s use inapplications such as: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) obstacle avoidance, UAV landing support, target tracking, wheelchair guidance, large structure monitoring, and many other outdoor applications. A sensor of this type is especially suited for these applications due to features of hyperacuity (or an ability to achieve movement resolution beyond the theoretical limit), extreme sensitivity to motion, and (through software simulation) image edge extraction, motion detection, and orientation and location of a line.Many of these qualities are beyond the ability of traditional computervision sensors such as charge coupled device (CCD) arrays.To achieve outdoor light adaptation, a variety of design obstacles have to be overcome such as infrared interference, dynamic range expansion, and light saturation. The newly designed system overcomes the latter two design obstacles by mimicking the fly?s solution of logarithmic compression followed by removal of the average background light intensity. This paper presents the new design and the preliminary tests that were conducted to determine its effectiveness. PMID:21525612

Dean, Brian K; Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Steven F

2011-01-01

103

Cardiac and pulmonary dose reduction for tangentially irradiated breast cancer, utilizing deep inspiration breath-hold with audio-visual guidance, without compromising target coverage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background and purpose. Cardiac disease and pulmonary complications are documented risk factors in tangential breast irradiation. Respiratory gating radiotherapy provides a possibility to substantially reduce cardiopulmonary doses. This CT planning study quantifies the reduction of radiation doses to the heart and lung, using deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). Patients and methods. Seventeen patients with early breast cancer, referred for adjuvant radiotherapy, were included. For each patient two CT scans were acquired; the first during free breathing (FB) and the second during DIBH. The scans were monitored by the Varian RPM respiratory gating system. Audio coaching and visual feedback (audio-visual guidance) were used. The treatment planning of the two CT studies was performed with conformal tangential fields, focusing on good coverage (V95>98%) of the planning target volume (PTV). Dose-volume histograms were calculated and compared. Doses to the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, ipsilateral lung and the contralateral breast were assessed. Results. Compared to FB, the DIBH-plans obtained lower cardiac and pulmonary doses, with equal coverage of PTV. The average mean heart dose was reduced from 3.7 to 1.7 Gy and the number of patients with >5% heart volume receiving 25 Gy or more was reduced from four to one of the 17 patients. With DIBH the heart was completely out of the beam portals for ten patients, with FB this could not be achieved for any of the 17 patients. The average mean dose to the LAD coronary artery was reduced from 18.1 to 6.4 Gy. The average ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 20 Gy was reduced from 12.2 to 10.0%. Conclusion. Respiratory gating with DIBH, utilizing audio-visual guidance, reduces cardiac and pulmonary doses for tangentially treated left sided breast cancer patients without compromising the target coverage

Vikstroem, Johan; Hjelstuen, Mari H.B.; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Dybvik, Kjell Ivar (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Stavanger Univ. Hospital, Stavanger (Norway)), e-mail: vijo@sus.no

2011-01-15

104

Cardiac and pulmonary dose reduction for tangentially irradiated breast cancer, utilizing deep inspiration breath-hold with audio-visual guidance, without compromising target coverage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose. Cardiac disease and pulmonary complications are documented risk factors in tangential breast irradiation. Respiratory gating radiotherapy provides a possibility to substantially reduce cardiopulmonary doses. This CT planning study quantifies the reduction of radiation doses to the heart and lung, using deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). Patients and methods. Seventeen patients with early breast cancer, referred for adjuvant radiotherapy, were included. For each patient two CT scans were acquired; the first during free breathing (FB) and the second during DIBH. The scans were monitored by the Varian RPM respiratory gating system. Audio coaching and visual feedback (audio-visual guidance) were used. The treatment planning of the two CT studies was performed with conformal tangential fields, focusing on good coverage (V95>98%) of the planning target volume (PTV). Dose-volume histograms were calculated and compared. Doses to the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, ipsilateral lung and the contralateral breast were assessed. Results. Compared to FB, the DIBH-plans obtained lower cardiac and pulmonary doses, with equal coverage of PTV. The average mean heart dose was reduced from 3.7 to 1.7 Gy and the number of patients with >5% heart volume receiving 25 Gy or more was reduced from four to one of the 17 patients. With DIBH the heart was completely out of the beam portals for ten patients, with FB this could not be achieved for any of the 17 patients. The average mean dose to the LAD coronary artery was reduced from 18.1 to 6.4 Gy. The average ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 20 Gy was reduced from 12.2 to 10.0%. Conclusion. Respiratory gating with DIBH, utilizing audio-visual guidance, reduces cardiac and pulmonary doses for tangentially treated left sided breast cancer patients without compromising the target coverage

105

The Concept of Happiness as Conveyed in Visual Representations: Analysis of the Work of Early Childhood Educators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was designed to examine how early-childhood educators pursuing their graduate degrees perceive the concept of happiness, as conveyed in visual representations. The research methodology combines qualitative and quantitative paradigms using the metaphoric collage, a tool used to analyze visual and verbal aspects. The research population included 32 students from various locations in Israel. The findings revealed that the concept of happiness is perceived as love, spirituality and emotions. In their collages, approximately half of the participants represent happiness as a list of separate and fragmented components such as children, health etc., while others attempted to find connections and relations in order to achieve a more profound view of happiness. Although the majority of the participants experience happiness as something intangible, they did not perceive academic studies and learning processes as a component of happiness.

Gila Russo-Zimet

2014-08-01

106

Students' Use of Three Different Visual Representations to Interpret Whether Molecules Are Polar or Nonpolar  

Science.gov (United States)

Visualizing molecular properties is often crucial for constructing conceptual understanding in chemistry. However, research has revealed numerous challenges surrounding students' meaningful interpretation of the relationship between the geometry and electrostatic properties of molecules. This study explored students' (n = 18) use of three visual

Host, Gunnar E.; Schonborn, Konrad J.; Palmerius, Karljohan E. Lundin

2012-01-01

107

Developing a Local Instruction Theory for Learning the Concept of Angle through Visual Field Activities and Spatial Representations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports a study on designing and testing an instructional sequence for the teaching and learning of the concept of angle in Indonesian primary schools. The study’s context is employing the current reform movement adopting Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (an Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education. Using a design research approach, a hypothetical learning trajectory was developed and a set of activities was performed to gain a better understanding of how the third grade students’ (aged 8 – 9 years understanding of the concept of angle may be fostered. Theoretical development is driven by an iterative process of designing instructional activities, performing teaching experiments and conducting retrospective analysis in order to contribute to local instruction theory on the concept of angle. The concept of angle emerged and evolved during long term classroom activities of visual field activities involving vision and spatial representations. Classroom events were recorded, group works were video-taped and student materials were collected. Qualitative analysis of a teaching experiment showed that by conducting the visual field activities involving vision and constructing spatial representations, students could develop their understanding of the concept of angle as well as their initial understanding of the notion of vision lines and blind spots.

Bustang B

2013-07-01

108

Representational Drawing and the Transition from Intellectual to Visual Realism in Children with Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study compared the representational drawings of children with autism, children with Down syndrome and typically developing children. Participants were asked to draw a series of objects and their depictions were scored for the incidence of intellectual realism. The tasks sought evidence of conceptual as opposed to episodic influences on…

Ford, Ruth M.; Rees, Elen Lord

2008-01-01

109

Children's Visual Representations of Food and Meal Time: Towards an Understanding of Nutrition and Educational Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the broad perspective of school and social exclusion, this article pays attention to an important factor of exclusion: overweight and obesity in primary school children. An interdisciplinary research was conducted and aimed at the study of social representations and practices surrounding food which primary school children, their parents and…

Savoie-Zajc, Lorraine

2005-01-01

110

Shape similarity, better than semantic membership, accounts for the structure of visual object representations in a population of monkey inferotemporal neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anterior inferotemporal cortex (IT) is the highest stage along the hierarchy of visual areas that, in primates, processes visual objects. Although several lines of evidence suggest that IT primarily represents visual shape information, some recent studies have argued that neuronal ensembles in IT code the semantic membership of visual objects (i.e., represent conceptual classes such as animate and inanimate objects). In this study, we investigated to what extent semantic, rather than purely visual information, is represented in IT by performing a multivariate analysis of IT responses to a set of visual objects. By relying on a variety of machine-learning approaches (including a cutting-edge clustering algorithm that has been recently developed in the domain of statistical physics), we found that, in most instances, IT representation of visual objects is accounted for by their similarity at the level of shape or, more surprisingly, low-level visual properties. Only in a few cases we observed IT representations of semantic classes that were not explainable by the visual similarity of their members. Overall, these findings reassert the primary function of IT as a conveyor of explicit visual shape information, and reveal that low-level visual properties are represented in IT to a greater extent than previously appreciated. In addition, our work demonstrates how combining a variety of state-of-the-art multivariate approaches, and carefully estimating the contribution of shape similarity to the representation of object categories, can substantially advance our understanding of neuronal coding of visual objects in cortex. PMID:23950700

Baldassi, Carlo; Alemi-Neissi, Alireza; Pagan, Marino; Dicarlo, James J; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zoccolan, Davide

2013-01-01

111

The VIPER project (Visualization Integration Platform for Exploration Research): a biologically inspired autonomous reconfigurable robotic platform for diverse unstructured environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade the world has seen numerous autonomous vehicle programs. Wheels and track designs are the basis for many of these vehicles. This is primarily due to four main reasons: a vast preexisting knowledge base for these designs, energy efficiency of power sources, scalability of actuators, and the lack of control systems technologies for handling alternate highly complex distributed systems. Though large efforts seek to improve the mobility of these vehicles, many limitations still exist for these systems within unstructured environments, e.g. limited mobility within industrial and nuclear accident sites where existing plant configurations have been extensively changed. These unstructured operational environments include missions for exploration, reconnaissance, and emergency recovery of objects within reconfigured or collapsed structures, e.g. bombed buildings. More importantly, these environments present a clear and present danger for direct human interactions during the initial phases of recovery operations. Clearly, the current classes of autonomous vehicles are incapable of performing in these environments. Thus the next generation of designs must include highly reconfigurable and flexible autonomous robotic platforms. This new breed of autonomous vehicles will be both highly flexible and environmentally adaptable. Presented in this paper is one of the most successful designs from nature, the snake-eel-worm (SEW). This design implements shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators which allow for scaling of the robotic SEW designs from sub-micron scale to heavy industrial implementations without major conceptual redesigns as required in traditional hydraulic, pneumatic, or motor driven systems. Autonomous vehicles based on the SEW design posses the ability to easily move between air based environments and fluid based environments with limited or no reconfiguration. Under a SEW designed vehicle, one not only achieves vastly improved maneuverability within a highly unstructured environment, but also gains robotic manipulation abilities, normally relegated as secondary add-ons within existing vehicles, all within one small condensed package. The prototype design presented includes a Beowulf style computing system for advanced guidance calculations and visualization computations. All of the design and implementation pertaining to the SEW robot discussed in this paper is the product of a student team under the summer fellowship program at the DOEs INEEL.

Schubert, Oliver J.; Tolle, Charles R.

2004-09-01

112

A distinct contribution of the frontal eye field to the visual representation of saccadic targets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The responses of neurons within posterior visual cortex are enhanced when response field (RF) stimuli are targeted with saccadic eye movements. Although the motor-related activity within oculomotor structures seems a likely source of the enhancement, the origin of the modulation is unknown. We tested the role of the frontal eye field (FEF) in driving presaccadic modulation in area V4 by inactivating FEF neurons at retinotopically corresponding sites within the macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta) brain. As previously observed, FEF inactivation produced profound, and spatially specific, deficits in memory-guided saccades, and increased the latency, scatter, and duration of visually guided saccades. Despite the clear behavioral deficits, we found that rather than being eliminated or reduced by FEF inactivation, presaccadic enhancement of V4 activity was increased. FEF inactivation nonetheless diminished the stimulus discriminability of V4 visual responses both during fixation and in the presaccadic period. Thus, without input from the FEF, V4 neurons signaled more about the direction of saccades and less about the features of the saccadic target. In addition, FEF inactivation significantly increased the suppressive effects of non-RF stimuli on V4 activity. These results reveal multiple sources of presaccadic modulation in V4 and suggest that the FEF contributes uniquely to the presaccadic specification of visual target features. PMID:24599467

Noudoost, Behrad; Clark, Kelsey L; Moore, Tirin

2014-03-01

113

Specific and Nonspecific Neural Activity during Selective Processing of Visual Representations in Working Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

In this fMRI study, we investigated prefrontal cortex (PFC) and visual association regions during selective information processing. We recorded behavioral responses and neural activity during a delayed recognition task with a cue presented during the delay period. A specific cue ("Face" or "Scene") was used to indicate which one of the two…

Oh, Hwamee; Leung, Hoi-Chung

2010-01-01

114

The influence of visual feedback on the mental representation of gait in patients with THR: a new approach for an experimental rehabilitation strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to total hip replacement (THR), patients reveal abnormal gait patterns which post-operative do often not return to "normal". The restoration towards normal gait reduces stress on the adjacent joints which consequently reduces risk of osteoarthrosis development. Motor-performance is related to the structure of the movement in long-term memory, thus it seems to be essential to imprint correct gait patterns in there. Mental representation structures can develop over the course of training and visual feedback presumably helps regaining a better representation of gait in long-term memory. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of visual feedback on mental representation in patients with THR. In a randomized controlled trial, 20 women (57 ± 6 years) with THR have been enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (CG) or intervention group (IG). Additionally to inpatient treatment, all subjects participated in a standardized gait training including either an intervention based on verbal information from a physiotherapist (CG) or an intervention based on real-time visual feedback (IG). Mental representation was measured in pre-test and post-test using the structure-dimensional analysis. Results indicate significant improvements in mental representation of gait in the post-test only in IG, suggesting that beneficial effects were provoked by visual feedback. PMID:24442243

Schega, Lutz; Bertram, Dietrich; Fölsch, Cassandra; Hamacher, Dennis; Hamacher, Daniel

2014-03-01

115

Representation of vestibular and visual cues to self-motion in ventral intraparietal cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Convergence of vestibular and visual motion information is important for self-motion perception. One cortical area that combines vestibular and optic flow signals is the ventral intraparietal area (VIP). We characterized unisensory and multisensory responses of macaque VIP neurons to translations and rotations in three dimensions. Approximately one-half of VIP cells show significant directional selectivity in response to optic flow, one-half show tuning to vestibular stimuli, and one-third show multisensory responses. Visual and vestibular direction preferences of multisensory VIP neurons could be congruent or opposite. When visual and vestibular stimuli were combined, VIP responses could be dominated by either input, unlike the medial superior temporal area (MSTd) where optic flow tuning typically dominates or the visual posterior sylvian area (VPS) where vestibular tuning dominates. Optic flow selectivity in VIP was weaker than in MSTd but stronger than in VPS. In contrast, vestibular tuning for translation was strongest in VPS, intermediate in VIP, and weakest in MSTd. To characterize response dynamics, direction-time data were fit with a spatiotemporal model in which temporal responses were modeled as weighted sums of velocity, acceleration, and position components. Vestibular responses in VIP reflected balanced contributions of velocity and acceleration, whereas visual responses were dominated by velocity. Timing of vestibular responses in VIP was significantly faster than in MSTd, whereas timing of optic flow responses did not differ significantly among areas. These findings suggest that VIP may be proximal to MSTd in terms of vestibular processing but hierarchically similar to MSTd in terms of optic flow processing. PMID:21849564

Chen, Aihua; DeAngelis, Gregory C; Angelaki, Dora E

2011-08-17

116

Functional organization and visual representations of human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) even in the absence of working memory (WM) demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the VLPFC remain unclear. In a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of later...

Chan, Annie W. -y

2013-01-01

117

Cytoarchitecture and visual field representation in area 17 of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).  

Science.gov (United States)

Tritiated proline was injected into one eye in the tammar wallaby and transported label was studied in the cortex after transneuronal passage through the lateral geniculate nucleus. The autoradiographic label and cytoarchitecture were used to anatomically demarcate the borders of area 17. Electrophysiological recordings from single units were done to obtain a retinotopic map of area 17. Single units in area 17 were found to have orientation sensitivity comparable to those seen in placental mammals such as cat and monkey. They could also be classified as simple, complex, and hypercomplex cells. Changes in the cortical areal magnification factor with eccentricity were found to match the drop off in retinal ganglion cell density only along the vertical meridian representation. Along the horizontal meridian, the cortical magnification falls off significantly with eccentricity, whereas the ganglion cell density shows only a mild reduction. Thus central vision, especially the binocular segment, is heavily represented at the cost of the periphery. PMID:1281175

Vidyasagar, T R; Wye-Dvorak, J; Henry, G H; Mark, R F

1992-11-01

118

Inspired Landscapes  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been nearly 400 years since Harvard College was created, and since then, thousands of colleges and universities have been built across the United States. From the classically inspired lines of Thomas Jefferson's University of Virginia to the Spanish architecture at Stanford University, every campus has its own personality. It's not unusual,…

Brandon, Robert; Spruch, Arthur

2008-01-01

119

Retrieval of brain tumors with region-specific bag-of-visual-words representations in contrast-enhanced MRI images.  

Science.gov (United States)

A content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system is proposed for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images of brain tumors. In this CBIR system, spatial information in the bag-of-visual-words model and domain knowledge on the brain tumor images are considered for the representation of brain tumor images. A similarity metric is learned through a distance metric learning algorithm to reduce the gap between the visual features and the semantic concepts in an image. The learned similarity metric is then used to measure the similarity between two images and then retrieve the most similar images in the dataset when a query image is submitted to the CBIR system. The retrieval performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain CE-MRI dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). The experimental results demonstrate that the mean average precision values of the proposed method range from 90.4% to 91.5% for different views (transverse, coronal, and sagittal) with an average value of 91.0%. PMID:23243462

Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Yu, Mei; Lu, Zhentai; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

2012-01-01

120

Investigating representations of facial identity in human ventral visual cortex with transcranial magnetic stimulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occipital face area (OFA is face-selective. This enhanced activation to faces could reflect either generic face and shape-related processing or high-level conceptual processing of identity. Here we examined these two possibilities using a state-dependent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS paradigm. The lateral occipital (LO cortex which is activated non-selectively by various types of objects served as a control site. We localized OFA and LO on a per-participant basis using functional MRI. We then examined whether TMS applied to either of these regions affected the ability of participants to decide whether two successively presented and physically different face images were of the same famous person or different famous people. TMS was applied during the delay between first and second face presentations to investigate whether neuronal populations in these regions played a causal role in mediating the behavioral effects of identity repetition. Behaviorally we found a robust identity repetition effect, with shorter reaction times when identity was repeated, regardless of the fact that the pictures were physically different. Surprisingly, TMS applied over LO (but not OFA modulated overall reaction times, compared to the No TMS condition. But critically, we found no effects of TMS to either area that were modulated by identity repetition. Thus, we found no evidence to suggest that OFA or LO contain neuronal representations selective for the identity of famous faces which play a causal role in identity processing. Instead, these brain regions may be involved in the processing of more generic features of their preferred stimulus categories.

JuhaSilvanto

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Spatiotemporal representations of rapid visual target detection: a single-trial EEG classification algorithm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain computer interface applications, developed for both healthy and clinical populations, critically depend on decoding brain activity in single trials. The goal of the present study was to detect distinctive spatiotemporal brain patterns within a set of event related responses. We introduce a novel classification algorithm, the spatially weighted FLD-PCA (SWFP), which is based on a two-step linear classification of event-related responses, using fisher linear discriminant (FLD) classifier and principal component analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction. As a benchmark algorithm, we consider the hierarchical discriminant component Analysis (HDCA), introduced by Parra, et al. 2007. We also consider a modified version of the HDCA, namely the hierarchical discriminant principal component analysis algorithm (HDPCA). We compare single-trial classification accuracies of all the three algorithms, each applied to detect target images within a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP, 10 Hz) of images from five different object categories, based on single-trial brain responses. We find a systematic superiority of our classification algorithm in the tested paradigm. Additionally, HDPCA significantly increases classification accuracies compared to the HDCA. Finally, we show that presenting several repetitions of the same image exemplars improve accuracy, and thus may be important in cases where high accuracy is crucial. PMID:24216627

Fuhrmann Alpert, Galit; Manor, Ran; Spanier, Assaf B; Deouell, Leon Y; Geva, Amir B

2014-08-01

122

Neuronal representation of visual motion and orientation in the fly medulla.  

Science.gov (United States)

In insects, the first extraction of motion and direction clues from local brightness modulations is thought to take place in the medulla. However, whether and how these computations are represented in the medulla stills remain widely unknown, because electrical recording of the neurons in the medulla is difficult. As an effort to overcome this difficulty, we employed local electroporation in vivo in the medulla of the blowfly (Calliphora vicina) to stain small ensembles of neurons with a calcium-sensitive dye. We studied the responses of these neuronal ensembles to spatial and temporal brightness modulations and found selectivity for grating orientation. In contrast, the responses to the two opposite directions of motion of a grating with the same orientation were similar in magnitude, indicating that strong directional selectivity is either not present in the types of neurons covered by our data set, or that direction-selective signals are too closely spaced to be distinguished by our calcium imaging. The calcium responses also showed a bell-shaped dependency on the temporal frequency of drifting gratings, with an optimum higher than that observed in one of the subsequent processing stages, i.e., the lobula plate. Medulla responses were elicited by on- as well as off-stimuli with some spatial heterogeneity in the sensitivity for "on" and "off", and in the polarity of the responses. Medulla neurons thus show similarities to some established principles of motion and edge detection in the vertebrate visual system. PMID:23087615

Spalthoff, Christian; Gerdes, Ralf; Kurtz, Rafael

2012-01-01

123

Neuronal representation of visual motion and orientation in the fly medulla  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In insects, the first extraction of motion and direction clues from local brightness modulations is thought to take place in the medulla. However, whether and how these computations are represented in the medulla stills remain widely unknown, because electrical recording of the neurons in the medulla is difficult. As an effort to overcome this difficulty, we employed local electroporation in vivo in the medulla of the blowfly (Calliphora vicina to stain small ensembles of neurons with a calcium-sensitive dye. We studied the responses of these neuronal ensembles to spatial and temporal brightness modulations and found selectivity for grating orientation. In contrast, the responses to the two opposite directions of motion of a grating with the same orientation were similar in magnitude, indicating that strong directional selectivity is either not present in the types of neurons covered by our data set, or that direction-selective signals are too closely spaced to be distinguished by our calcium imaging. The calcium responses also showed a bell-shaped dependency on the temporal frequency of drifting gratings, with an optimum higher than that observed in one of the subsequent processing stages, i.e., the lobula plate. Medulla responses were elicited by on- as well as off-stimuli with some spatial heterogeneity in the sensitivity for “on” and “off”, and in the polarity of the responses. Medulla neurons thus show similarities to some established principles of motion and edge detection in the vertebrate visual system.

RafaelKurtz

2012-10-01

124

5D model for accurate representation and visualization of dynamic cardiac structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate cardiac modeling is challenging due to the intricate structure and complex contraction patterns of myocardial tissues. Fast imaging techniques can provide 4D structural information acquired as a sequence of 3D images throughout the cardiac cycle. To mode. The beating heart, we created a physics-based surface model that deforms between successive time point in the cardiac cycle. 3D images of canine hearts were acquired during one complete cardiac cycle using the DSR and the EBCT. The left ventricle of the first time point is reconstructed as a triangular mesh. A mass-spring physics-based deformable mode,, which can expand and shrink with local contraction and stretching forces distributed in an anatomically accurate simulation of cardiac motion, is applied to the initial mesh and allows the initial mesh to deform to fit the left ventricle in successive time increments of the sequence. The resulting 4D model can be interactively transformed and displayed with associated regional electrical activity mapped onto anatomic surfaces, producing a 5D model, which faithfully exhibits regional cardiac contraction and relaxation patterns over the entire heart. The model faithfully represents structural changes throughout the cardiac cycle. Such models provide the framework for minimizing the number of time points required to usefully depict regional motion of myocardium and allow quantitative assessment of regional myocardial motion. The electrical activation mapping provides spatial and temporal correlation within the cardiac cycle. In procedures which as intra-cardiac catheter ablation, visualization of the dynamic model can be used to accurately localize the foci of myocardial arrhythmias and guide positioning of catheters for optimal ablation.

Lin, Wei-te; Robb, Richard A.

2000-05-01

125

Sobre imagens mentais e representações visuo-espaciais de objectos e ambientes / About mental images and visual-spatial representations of objects and of layouts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O papel funcional das imagens mentais e das representações visuoespaciais na memória tem sido documentado desde o tempo da Grécia antiga. Contudo, só recentemente, através da investigação em psicologia cognitiva, as propriedades das representações visuo-espaciais e os mecanismos pelos quais elas med [...] eiam o desempenho da memória foram elucidados. Uma das conclusões centrais da presente revisão é que as representações visuo-espaciais fornecem um formato muito variado e flexível de codificação da informação sobre o mundo em memória. Mais, essas representações são usadas para levar a cabo diversas actividades cognitivas. A natureza da informação acedida a partir das imagens mentais de objectos difere da natureza da informação que é representada em memória para o reconhecimento de objectos individuais e da que é preservada nas representações das disposições espaciais dos objectos. Abstract in english The functional role of mental images and of visual-spatial representations in memory has been documented since the time of the ancient Greeks. However, the properties of visual-spatial representations and the mechanisms by which they mediate memory performance have been elucidated only recently, by [...] research in cognitive psychology. One of the central conclusions of this review is that visual-spatial representations provide a varied and flexible format for coding information about the world in memory. Moreover, such representations are used to accomplish many cognitive activities. The nature of the information accessed from objects mental images is different from the nature of the visual information represented in memory for purposes of individual object recognition and from information preserved in representations of spatial layouts.

Ana Sofia Correia dos, Santos.

126

Fotografías de indígenas en manuales escolares argentinos: representaciones visuales y connotaciones textuales / Photographs of indigenous people in argentinian school textbooks: visual representations and textual connotations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las fotografías de pueblos originarios argentinos utilizadas en manuales escolares de 2o y 3o ciclo publicados por dos editoriales: Santillana y Aique. Se presentan los resultados de un análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de 93 fotografías correspondientes a 3 [...] 8 manuales publicados entre los anos 2000 y 2005. Se reconoce qué tipo de imágenes son utilizadas, la presencia o no de cultura material autóctona, la utilización de epígrafes y la adscripción étnica de los retratados. Se concluye que existe una representación diferencial a favor de aquellas imágenes que muestran pueblos originarios con su cultura material, pero, al mismo tiempo, una utilización de un lenguaje que emplea términos como "aborigen", que implica un sesgo homogeneizador. Las fotografías son empleadas sólo en su función denotativa, mientras que se deja de lado la connotación visual en privilegio de la textual. La información presente en epígrafes y textos que acompanan a las imágenes no cumple con los requisitos necesarios de precisión y rigurosidad. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analyze photographs of native people in Argentinean primary and secondary school textbooks published by two companies, Santillana and Aique. Results from quantitative and qualitative analyses of 93 images taken from 38 school text books published between 2000 and 2005 are [...] presented. Type of image used, presence of autochthonous material culture, use of epigraphs, and the ethnic adscription of the subjects portrayed are analyzed. It is concluded that there is differential representation in favor of those images showing native people with their material culture, although the use of language that contains derogative terms such as "aborigen" (i.e., native people) at the same time clearly indicates an homogenizing bias. Images are used mostly denotatively, while textual connotation is privileged over visual connotation. Information on the epigraphs and texts accompanying an image do not fulfill the requirements of thoroughness and accuracy, thus reducing the images to illustrations rather than useful documents.

María José, Saletta.

2012-07-01

127

Concurrent Dynamic Visualizations With Expressive Petri Net Representations to Enrich the Understanding of Biological and Pathological Processes: an Application to Signaling Pathways  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En biología de sistemas la visualización dinámica y las representaciones expresivas son necesarias para representar interacciones múltiples que ocurren durante los procesos biológicos en bioredes. La visualización dinámica facilita a los usuarios interactuar con modelos de bioredes, mientras que las [...] representaciones deben expresar como se llevan a cabo las interacciones dentro de éstas. A pesar de que diversas bases de datos proveen de redes a los usuarios, generalmente la información y representación contenidas en cada una son diferentes, y la interacción usuario-biored es restringida debido a la visualización estática. Una solución que se ha adoptado es hacer converger varias representaciones para obtener una más completa. Sin embargo, debido al uso de diferentes formatos incompatibles entre ellos y a las múltiples conexiones involucradas en las redes, la integración frecuentemente resulta en modelos erróneos y en una maraña de conexiones representadas en la red que son muy difíciles de analizar y manipular. En este trabajo introducimos la visualización dinámica concurrente (VDC) de una misma vía, la cual es recuperada de diferentes bases de datos y transformada a representaciones en redes de Petri para facilitar el entendimiento de los procesos biológicos y modificar las vías obtenidas interactuando con ellas. Hemos aplicado esta estrategia al análisis de la vía de señalización de Notch, asociada a cáncer cérvicouterino, obteniéndola de tres diferentes fuentes, comparándolas y manipulándolas simultáneamente interactuando con la VDC provista, hasta la generación de una vía personalizada. Abstract in english Dynamic visualizations and expressive representations are needed in systems biology to handle multiple interactions occurring during the biological processes of biopathway representations. Dynamic visualizations allow users an ease of interaction with pathway models. At the same time, representation [...] s of biopathways should express how interactions take place. In spite of the fact that diverse databases provide users with pathways, their information and representation are frequently different from each other and show restricted interactions because of their static visualization. An adopted solution is to merge diverse representations to obtain a richer one. However, due to different formats and the multiple links involved in the pathway representations, the merge results frequently in erroneous models and in a tangle web of relations very hard to be manipulated. Instead, this work introduces a concurrent dynamic visualization (CDV) of the same pathway, which is retrieved from different sites and then transformed into Petri net representations to facilitate the understanding of their biological processes by interacting with them. We applied this approach to the analysis of the Notch signaling pathway, associated with cervical cancer; we obtained it from different sources which we compared and manipulated simultaneously by interacting with the provided CDV until the user generated a personalized pathway.

F., Ramos; C., Hallal; A., Nieto; D., García; J., Berúmen; D., Escárcega.

128

Evidence from auditory and visual event-related potential (ERP) studies of deviance detection (MMN and vMMN) linking predictive coding theories and perceptual object representations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predictive coding theories posit that the perceptual system is structured as a hierarchically organized set of generative models with increasingly general models at higher levels. The difference between model predictions and the actual input (prediction error) drives model selection and adaptation processes minimizing the prediction error. Event-related brain potentials elicited by sensory deviance are thought to reflect the processing of prediction error at an intermediate level in the hierarchy. We review evidence from auditory and visual studies of deviance detection suggesting that the memory representations inferred from these studies meet the criteria set for perceptual object representations. Based on this evidence we then argue that these perceptual object representations are closely related to the generative models assumed by predictive coding theories. PMID:22047947

Winkler, István; Czigler, István

2012-02-01

129

Content-based retrieval of focal liver lesions using bag-of-visual-words representations of single- and multiphase contrast-enhanced CT images.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is aimed at developing and evaluating a content-based retrieval method for contrast-enhanced liver computed tomographic (CT) images using bag-of-visual-words (BoW) representations of single and multiple phases. The BoW histograms are extracted using the raw intensity as local patch descriptor for each enhance phase by densely sampling the image patches within the liver lesion regions. The distance metric learning algorithms are employed to obtain the semantic similarity on the Hellinger kernel feature map of the BoW histograms. The different visual vocabularies for BoW and learned distance metrics are evaluated in a contrast-enhanced CT image dataset comprised of 189 patients with three types of focal liver lesions, including 87 hepatomas, 62 cysts, and 60 hemangiomas. For each single enhance phase, the mean of average precision (mAP) of BoW representations for retrieval can reach above 90 % which is significantly higher than that of intensity histogram and Gabor filters. Furthermore, the combined BoW representations of the three enhance phases can improve mAP to 94.5 %. These preliminary results demonstrate that the BoW representation is effective and feasible for retrieval of liver lesions in contrast-enhanced CT images. PMID:22692772

Yang, Wei; Lu, Zhentai; Yu, Mei; Huang, Meiyan; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

2012-12-01

130

Processos comunicacionais em ambiente escolar: o potencial de sentidos de representações visuais / Communicational processes in school setting: the potential of meanings of the visual representations / Procesos comunicacionales en ambiente escolar: potencial de los significados en las representaciones visuales  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo, resultado de pesquisa em desenvolvimento sob os auspícios da FAPESP, trata de interseções entre Comunicação e Educação inseridas no ambiente educacional a partir de recursos pedagógicos disponibilizados, como o livro didático. Objetiva-se refletir sobre o potencial de sentidos engendrad [...] os em representações visuais sobre masculino/feminimo que constam de livros didáticos e para tanto apresentam-se reflexões sobre imagens; sobre a alteridade e o processo de construção da identidade cultural na pós-modernidade, enquanto o instrumental para análise das representações visuais selecionadas está baseado na semiótica peirceana. As representações visuais cumprem o propósito de abrir caminho para reflexões no campo Comunicação/Educação capazes de gerarem ações que podem redundar na possibilidade de construção de um pensamento crítico em relação às representações visuais. Abstract in spanish Este artículo, resulta de una investigación en desarrollo apoyada por la Fundación de Apoyo a la Investigación del Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP, trata de intersecciones entre la Comunicación y la Educación inserta en el ámbito educativo con recursos didácticos disponibles, tales como el libro de tex [...] to. Objetivase la reflexión sobre el potencial de los sentidos engendrados en representaciones visuales de sexo masculino/feminimo contenidos en los libros de texto. Para tanto se presentan reflexiones sobre las imágenes en la contemporaneidad; la alteridad y la construcción de la identidad cultural en la postmodernidad, mientras el instrumental de análisis de las representaciones visuales se basa en la semiótica peirceana. Las representaciones visuales cumplen el propósito de dar paso a las reflexiones de la Comunicación / Educación capaz de generar acciones que pueden resultar en la posibilidad de construir un pensamiento crítico en relación a las representaciones visuales de campo. Abstract in english This paper is result of a research that is being developed under the auspices of FAPESP and it shows intersections between Communication and Education in the educational environment with teaching resources available, such as the textbook. In order to think about the potential of visual representatio [...] ns about male/female that are in textbooks and, for that, it shows some reflections about images; about the process of the construction of cultural identity are presented, while the semiotics analyses of the visual representation is made from peircean semiotics. Visual representations fulfill the purpose to make way for reflections in the field Communication / Education capable of generating actions that could result in the possibility of building critical thinking in relation to visual representations.

Luciana Coutinho Pagliarini de, Souza; Maria Ogécia, Drigo.

131

Processos comunicacionais em ambiente escolar: o potencial de sentidos de representações visuais / Communicational processes in school setting: the potential of meanings of the visual representations / Procesos comunicacionales en ambiente escolar: potencial de los significados en las representaciones visuales  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo, resultado de pesquisa em desenvolvimento sob os auspícios da FAPESP, trata de interseções entre Comunicação e Educação inseridas no ambiente educacional a partir de recursos pedagógicos disponibilizados, como o livro didático. Objetiva-se refletir sobre o potencial de sentidos engendrad [...] os em representações visuais sobre masculino/feminimo que constam de livros didáticos e para tanto apresentam-se reflexões sobre imagens; sobre a alteridade e o processo de construção da identidade cultural na pós-modernidade, enquanto o instrumental para análise das representações visuais selecionadas está baseado na semiótica peirceana. As representações visuais cumprem o propósito de abrir caminho para reflexões no campo Comunicação/Educação capazes de gerarem ações que podem redundar na possibilidade de construção de um pensamento crítico em relação às representações visuais. Abstract in spanish Este artículo, resulta de una investigación en desarrollo apoyada por la Fundación de Apoyo a la Investigación del Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP, trata de intersecciones entre la Comunicación y la Educación inserta en el ámbito educativo con recursos didácticos disponibles, tales como el libro de tex [...] to. Objetivase la reflexión sobre el potencial de los sentidos engendrados en representaciones visuales de sexo masculino/feminimo contenidos en los libros de texto. Para tanto se presentan reflexiones sobre las imágenes en la contemporaneidad; la alteridad y la construcción de la identidad cultural en la postmodernidad, mientras el instrumental de análisis de las representaciones visuales se basa en la semiótica peirceana. Las representaciones visuales cumplen el propósito de dar paso a las reflexiones de la Comunicación / Educación capaz de generar acciones que pueden resultar en la posibilidad de construir un pensamiento crítico en relación a las representaciones visuales de campo. Abstract in english This paper is result of a research that is being developed under the auspices of FAPESP and it shows intersections between Communication and Education in the educational environment with teaching resources available, such as the textbook. In order to think about the potential of visual representatio [...] ns about male/female that are in textbooks and, for that, it shows some reflections about images; about the process of the construction of cultural identity are presented, while the semiotics analyses of the visual representation is made from peircean semiotics. Visual representations fulfill the purpose to make way for reflections in the field Communication / Education capable of generating actions that could result in the possibility of building critical thinking in relation to visual representations.

Luciana Coutinho Pagliarini de, Souza; Maria Ogécia, Drigo.

2013-12-01

132

External and Internal Representations in the Acquisition and Use of Knowledge: Visualization Effects on Mental Model Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

This article investigates whether different formats of visualizing information result in different mental models constructed in learning from pictures, whether the different mental models lead to different patterns of performance in subsequently presented tasks, and how these visualization effects can be modified by further external…

Schnotz, Wolfgang; Kurschner, Christian

2008-01-01

133

Visual perception from the perspective of a representational, non-reductionistic, level-dependent account of perception and conscious awareness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article proposes a new model to interpret seemingly conflicting evidence concerning the correlation of consciousness and neural processes. Based on an analysis of research of blindsight and subliminal perception, the reorganization of elementary functions and consciousness framework suggests that mental representations consist of functions at several different levels of analysis, including truly localized perceptual elementary functions and perceptual algorithmic modules, which are interconnections of the elementary functions. We suggest that conscious content relates to the 'top level' of analysis in a 'situational algorithmic strategy' that reflects the general state of an individual. We argue that conscious experience is intrinsically related to representations that are available to guide behaviour. From this perspective, we find that blindsight and subliminal perception can be explained partly by too coarse-grained methodology, and partly by top-down enhancing of representations that normally would not be relevant to action.

Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

2014-01-01

134

Visual perception from the perspective of a representational, non-reductionistic, level-dependent account of perception and conscious awareness.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article proposes a new model to interpret seemingly conflicting evidence concerning the correlation of consciousness and neural processes. Based on an analysis of research of blindsight and subliminal perception, the reorganization of elementary functions and consciousness framework suggests that mental representations consist of functions at several different levels of analysis, including truly localized perceptual elementary functions and perceptual algorithmic modules, which are interconnections of the elementary functions. We suggest that conscious content relates to the 'top level' of analysis in a 'situational algorithmic strategy' that reflects the general state of an individual. We argue that conscious experience is intrinsically related to representations that are available to guide behaviour. From this perspective, we find that blindsight and subliminal perception can be explained partly by too coarse-grained methodology, and partly by top-down enhancing of representations that normally would not be relevant to action. PMID:24639581

Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

2014-05-01

135

Audio-visual synchrony modulates the ventriloquist illusion and its neural/spatial representation in the auditory cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

An essential task of our perceptual systems is to bind together the distinctive features of single objects and events into unitary percepts, even when those features are registered in different sensory modalities. In cases where auditory and visual inputs are spatially incongruent, they may still be perceived as belonging to a single event at the location of the visual stimulus - a phenomenon known as the 'ventriloquist illusion'. The present study examined how audio-visual temporal congruence influences the ventriloquist illusion and characterized its neural underpinnings with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behaviorally, the ventriloquist illusion was reduced for asynchronous versus synchronous audio-visual stimuli, in accordance with previous reports. Neural activity patterns associated with the ventriloquist effect were consistently observed in the planum temporale (PT), with a reduction in illusion-related fMRI-signals ipsilateral to visual stimulation for central sounds perceived peripherally and a contralateral increase in illusion-related fMRI-signals for peripheral sounds perceived centrally. Moreover, it was found that separate but adjacent regions within the PT were preferentially activated for ventriloquist illusions produced by synchronous and asynchronous audio-visual stimulation. We conclude that the left-right balance of neural activity in the PT represents the neural code that underlies the ventriloquist illusion, with greater activity in the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to the direction of the perceived shift of sound location. PMID:24814210

Bonath, Björn; Noesselt, Toemme; Krauel, Kerstin; Tyll, Sascha; Tempelmann, Claus; Hillyard, Steven A

2014-09-01

136

Effect of temperature and light intensity on the representation of motion information in the fly's visual system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To comprehend how the brain performs efficient computation, it is important to understand the way sensory information is represented in the nervous system. Under natural conditions, sensory signals have to be processed with sufficient accuracy under functional and resources constraints. Here I use motion vision in the fly Calliphora vicina to study the influence of two behaviorally relevant environmental properties - temperature and light intensity - on the representation of motion informatio...

Spavieri, Deusdedit

2009-01-01

137

The Inspirational Leader  

Science.gov (United States)

Amid the focus on improved standardized test scores, differentiated instruction, value-added initiatives and improved teacher evaluation, one must not ignore an education leader's need to inspire and be inspired. But how do education leaders inspire their students and teachers during some of the most difficult economic times the nation has ever…

Benigni, Mark D.; Hughes, Mark A

2012-01-01

138

Representaciones visuales del cuerpo humano: análisis de los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales en la reforma educativa mexicana / Visual Representations of the Human Body: An Analysis of the New Elementary Science Textbooks in Mexico's Educational Reform  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo analizamos las concepciones sobre la naturaleza de las representaciones visuales sobre el cuerpo humano que dirigen su selección, diseño y tratamiento didáctico en los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales (3° a 6° grados) de la Reforma Integral de la Educación Básica en Mé [...] xico. Se describen dos tipos de concepciones: una intuitiva, que asume una simplicidad y facilidad en el uso de las imágenes junto con una naturaleza realista de las mismas, y una más compleja, de naturaleza constructivista, en la que se consideran las imágenes como un sistema externo de representación con las dificultades que demanda su uso. Los resultados muestran que la concepción que subyace a las imágenes sobre el cuerpo humano de 3° a 6° grados corresponde a una de tipo intuitivo con pocos cambios respecto de su tratamiento en los libros de texto anteriores a la Reforma. Abstract in english This study analyzes the natural conceptions of the visual representations of the human body that guide selection, design, and didactic treatment in the new elementary science textbooks (3rd grade to 6th grade) of Mexico's Integral Reform of Basic Education. Two types of conceptions are described: an [...] intuitive conception, which assumes simplicity and facility in the use of images, along with a realistic representation; and a more complex conception of a constructivist nature that considers images to be an external system of representation with the difficulties their use demands. The results show that the underlying conception of the images of the human body from the 3rd to the 6th grades corresponds to an intuitive type with few changes, with respect to textbooks prior to the Reform.

Yolanda, Postigo; Asunción, López-Manjón.

139

Representaciones visuales del cuerpo humano: análisis de los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales en la reforma educativa mexicana / Visual Representations of the Human Body: An Analysis of the New Elementary Science Textbooks in Mexico's Educational Reform  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo analizamos las concepciones sobre la naturaleza de las representaciones visuales sobre el cuerpo humano que dirigen su selección, diseño y tratamiento didáctico en los nuevos libros de primaria de ciencias naturales (3° a 6° grados) de la Reforma Integral de la Educación Básica en Mé [...] xico. Se describen dos tipos de concepciones: una intuitiva, que asume una simplicidad y facilidad en el uso de las imágenes junto con una naturaleza realista de las mismas, y una más compleja, de naturaleza constructivista, en la que se consideran las imágenes como un sistema externo de representación con las dificultades que demanda su uso. Los resultados muestran que la concepción que subyace a las imágenes sobre el cuerpo humano de 3° a 6° grados corresponde a una de tipo intuitivo con pocos cambios respecto de su tratamiento en los libros de texto anteriores a la Reforma. Abstract in english This study analyzes the natural conceptions of the visual representations of the human body that guide selection, design, and didactic treatment in the new elementary science textbooks (3rd grade to 6th grade) of Mexico's Integral Reform of Basic Education. Two types of conceptions are described: an [...] intuitive conception, which assumes simplicity and facility in the use of images, along with a realistic representation; and a more complex conception of a constructivist nature that considers images to be an external system of representation with the difficulties their use demands. The results show that the underlying conception of the images of the human body from the 3rd to the 6th grades corresponds to an intuitive type with few changes, with respect to textbooks prior to the Reform.

Yolanda, Postigo; Asunción, López-Manjón.

2012-06-01

140

Driven: True Stories of Inspiration  

Science.gov (United States)

With a rotating series of quotes from Jack Kerouac, Victor Hugo, and Khalil Gibran, the homepage for "Driven: True Stories of Inspiration" is quite visually enticing. Created by the Exploratorium in San Francisco, this website provides interviews and conversations with creative types from all over. These vignettes seek to answer and explore questions like "How are creative investigations sparked?" and "What does a state of inspiration feel like?" Included here are profiles of San Francisco-based musician Thao Nguyen and Gerd Mairandres, who works as the head of the wig and make-up department at the San Francisco Opera. Most of the profiles are about five minutes long, and visitors can click on the "Upcoming" tab to learn about those that will be released onto the website shortly.

 
 
 
 
141

Sparse Representations-Based Super-Resolution of Key-Frames Extracted from Frames-Sequences Generated by a Visual Sensor Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visual sensor networks (VSNs usually generate a low-resolution (LR frame-sequence due to energy and processing constraints. These LR-frames are not very appropriate for use in certain surveillance applications. It is very important to enhance the resolution of the captured LR-frames using resolution enhancement schemes. In this paper, an effective framework for a super-resolution (SR scheme is proposed that enhances the resolution of LR key-frames extracted from frame-sequences captured by visual-sensors. In a VSN, a visual processing hub (VPH collects a huge amount of visual data from camera sensors. In the proposed framework, at the VPH, key-frames are extracted using our recent key-frame extraction technique and are streamed to the base station (BS after compression. A novel effective SR scheme is applied at BS to produce a high-resolution (HR output from the received key-frames. The proposed SR scheme uses optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (OOMP for sparse-representation recovery in SR. OOMP does better in terms of detecting true sparsity than orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP. This property of the OOMP helps produce a HR image which is closer to the original image. The K-SVD dictionary learning procedure is incorporated for dictionary learning. Batch-OMP improves the dictionary learning process by removing the limitation in handling a large set of observed signals. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and show its superiority over other state-of-the-art schemes.

Muhammad Sajjad

2014-02-01

142

Gradient representation and perception in the early visual system--a novel account of Mach band formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent evidence suggests that object surfaces and their properties are represented at early stages in the visual system of primates. Most likely invariant surface properties are extracted to endow primates with robust object recognition capabilities. In real-world scenes, luminance gradients are often superimposed on surfaces. We argue that gradients should also be represented in the visual system, since they encode highly variable information, such as shading, focal blur, and penumbral blur. We present a neuronal architecture which was designed and optimized for segregating and representing luminance gradients in real-world images. Our architecture in addition provides a novel theory for Mach bands, whereby corresponding psychophysical data are predicted consistently. PMID:16603218

Keil, Matthias S; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Neumann, Heiko

2006-09-01

143

Representation of behaviourally relevant information by blowfly motion-sensitive visual interneurons requires precise compensatory head movements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flying blowflies shift their gaze by saccadic turns of body and head, keeping their gaze basically fixed between saccades. For the head, this results in almost pure translational optic flow between saccades, enabling visual interneurons in the fly motion pathway to extract information about translation of the animal and thereby about the spatial layout of the environment. There are noticeable differences between head and body movements during flight. Head saccades are faster and shorter than body saccades, and the head orientation is more stable between saccades than the body orientation. Here, we analyse the functional importance of these differences by probing visual interneurons of the blowfly motion pathway with optic flow based on either head movements or body movements, as recorded accurately with a magnetic search coil technique. We find that the precise head-body coordination is essential for the visual system to separate the translational from the rotational optic flow. If the head were tightly coupled to the body, the resulting optic flow would not contain the behaviourally important information on translation. Since it is difficult to resolve head orientation in many experimental paradigms, even when employing state-of-the-art digital video techniques, we introduce a 'headifying algorithm', which transforms the time-dependent body orientation in free flight into an estimate of head orientation. We show that application of this algorithm leads to an estimated head orientation between saccades that is sufficiently stable to enable recovering information on translation. The algorithm may therefore be of practical use when head orientation is needed but cannot be measured. PMID:16547297

Kern, R; van Hateren, J H; Egelhaaf, M

2006-04-01

144

ProfileGrids as a new visual representation of large multiple sequence alignments: a case study of the RecA protein family  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sequence alignments are a fundamental tool for the comparative analysis of proteins and nucleic acids. However, large data sets are no longer manageable for visualization and investigation using the traditional stacked sequence alignment representation. Results We introduce ProfileGrids that represent a multiple sequence alignment as a matrix color-coded according to the residue frequency occurring at each column position. JProfileGrid is a Java application for computing and analyzing ProfileGrids. A dynamic interaction with the alignment information is achieved by changing the ProfileGrid color scheme, by extracting sequence subsets at selected residues of interest, and by relating alignment information to residue physical properties. Conserved family motifs can be identified by the overlay of similarity plot calculations on a ProfileGrid. Figures suitable for publication can be generated from the saved spreadsheet output of the colored matrices as well as by the export of conservation information for use in the PyMOL molecular visualization program. We demonstrate the utility of ProfileGrids on 300 bacterial homologs of the RecA family – a universally conserved protein involved in DNA recombination and repair. Careful attention was paid to curating the collected RecA sequences since ProfileGrids allow the easy identification of rare residues in an alignment. We relate the RecA alignment sequence conservation to the following three topics: the recently identified DNA binding residues, the unexplored MAW motif, and a unique Bacillus subtilis RecA homolog sequence feature. Conclusion ProfileGrids allow large protein families to be visualized more effectively than the traditional stacked sequence alignment form. This new graphical representation facilitates the determination of the sequence conservation at residue positions of interest, enables the examination of structural patterns by using residue physical properties, and permits the display of rare sequence features within the context of an entire alignment. JProfileGrid is free for non-commercial use and is available from http://www.profilegrid.org. Furthermore, we present a curated RecA protein collection that is more diverse than previous data sets; and, therefore, this RecA ProfileGrid is a rich source of information for nanoanatomy analysis.

Abajian Aaron C

2008-12-01

145

Sistema de visualización remota para la representación interactiva de volúmenes de datos médicos / Remote visualization system for interactive representation of medical volume dataset  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las aplicaciones de visualización médica han adquirido un elevado auge en la medicina a nivel mundial, ya que les permite a los médicos especialistas realizar diagnósticos preoperatorios no invasivos y de alta precisión desde una perspectiva 3D. La idea principal de la misma es obtener un modelo tri [...] dimensional de alta resolución gráfica a partir de imágenes médicas digitales de las modalidades de Tomografía Axial Computarizada y Resonancia Magnética Nuclear. Los usuarios de este tipo de aplicaciones demandan de forma creciente que las aplicaciones permitan el diagnóstico de patologías en un entorno de trabajo colaborativo. En este trabajo presentamos una arquitectura para sistemas de visualización remota basados en la transmisión de imágenes. El esquema de comunicación y transmisión de datos e imágenes entre el servidor y los clientes utiliza RTP como protocolo de comunicación. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que la variante de algoritmo RLE implementada permite obtener visualizaciones interactivas y en tiempo real con un consumo mínimo del ancho de banda de la red. Abstract in english Three-dimensional medical visualization applications have acquired a high rise in medicine. They allow specialized doctors to make preoperative diagnostics with high accuracy from a 3D perspective. The main idea of medical visualization is to obtain a three-dimensional and high-resolution graphics f [...] rom digital medical imaging modalities like computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The users of these applications increasingly demand that applications allow diagnosis in a collaborative work environment. Architecture for remote visualization systems based on image is presented. The server and client scheme of communication and transmission of data and images use RTP as communication protocol. Our results show that the implemented variant of RLE algorithm allows interactive and real time representation with a minimum of bandwidth.

Osvaldo, Pereira Bárzaga; Leitniz, Pérez Buján; Ramón, Carrasco Velar.

2013-12-01

146

Sistema de visualización remota para la representación interactiva de volúmenes de datos médicos / Remote visualization system for interactive representation of medical volume dataset  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las aplicaciones de visualización médica han adquirido un elevado auge en la medicina a nivel mundial, ya que les permite a los médicos especialistas realizar diagnósticos preoperatorios no invasivos y de alta precisión desde una perspectiva 3D. La idea principal de la misma es obtener un modelo tri [...] dimensional de alta resolución gráfica a partir de imágenes médicas digitales de las modalidades de Tomografía Axial Computarizada y Resonancia Magnética Nuclear. Los usuarios de este tipo de aplicaciones demandan de forma creciente que las aplicaciones permitan el diagnóstico de patologías en un entorno de trabajo colaborativo. En este trabajo presentamos una arquitectura para sistemas de visualización remota basados en la transmisión de imágenes. El esquema de comunicación y transmisión de datos e imágenes entre el servidor y los clientes utiliza RTP como protocolo de comunicación. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que la variante de algoritmo RLE implementada permite obtener visualizaciones interactivas y en tiempo real con un consumo mínimo del ancho de banda de la red. Abstract in english Three-dimensional medical visualization applications have acquired a high rise in medicine. They allow specialized doctors to make preoperative diagnostics with high accuracy from a 3D perspective. The main idea of medical visualization is to obtain a three-dimensional and high-resolution graphics f [...] rom digital medical imaging modalities like computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The users of these applications increasingly demand that applications allow diagnosis in a collaborative work environment. Architecture for remote visualization systems based on image is presented. The server and client scheme of communication and transmission of data and images use RTP as communication protocol. Our results show that the implemented variant of RLE algorithm allows interactive and real time representation with a minimum of bandwidth.

Osvaldo, Pereira Bárzaga; Leitniz, Pérez Buján; Ramón, Carrasco Velar.

147

Music and Representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Composers, performers, and music critics in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries frequently distinguished Western music from other forms of art on the basis that it is not representational. In contrast to the focus on representation that characterized theoretical discussions of meaning in the visual arts, writings about music often emphasized and valued music’s abstraction and autonomy from social and historical contexts, and from any other representational genesis of meaning. ...

2012-01-01

148

Virtual visual reminiscing pain stimulation of allodynia patients activates cortical representation of pain and emotions. fMRI study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is widely known that sensation of the pain is derived from sensory-discriminative factor and emotional factor. Especially in chronic pain, emotional factors and psychosocial backgrounds are more likely to contribute for the patients' discomfort. The aim of this study is to investigate how emotional factor of pain participates in intractable pain. We employed functional MRI (fMRI) to compare the brain activations occurring in the orthopaedic neuropathic pain patients with allodynia and normal individuals in response to the visual virtual painful experience. During fMRI scanning, a video demonstrating an actual tactile stimulation of the palm and its imitation were shown to participants. In contrast to normal individuals, allodynia patients also displayed activation of the areas reflecting emotions: frontal lobe and anterior cingulate. These findings suggest that brain have important role in the development and maintaining of peripheral originated chronic painful condition. (author)

149

Clay Bells: Edo Inspiration  

Science.gov (United States)

The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…

Wagner, Tom

2010-01-01

150

Bio-inspired vision  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems, if they are to succeed in demanding applications such as autonomous robot navigation, micro-manipulation or high-speed tracking, must exploit the power of the asynchronous, frame-free, biomimetic approach.

151

Bio-inspired vision  

Science.gov (United States)

Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems, if they are to succeed in demanding applications such as autonomous robot navigation, micro-manipulation or high-speed tracking, must exploit the power of the asynchronous, frame-free, biomimetic approach.

Posch, C.

2012-01-01

152

Physicists get INSPIREd  

CERN Multimedia

Particle physicists thrive on information. They first create information by performing experiments or elaborating theoretical conjectures and then they share it through publications and various web tools. The INSPIRE service, just released, will bring state of the art information retrieval to the fingertips of researchers.   Keeping track of the information shared within the particle physics community has long been the task of libraries at the larger labs, such as CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, as well as the focus of indispensible services like arXiv and those of the Particle Data Group. In 2007, many providers of information in the field came together for a summit at SLAC to see how physics information resources could be enhanced, and the INSPIRE project emerged from that meeting. The vision behind INSPIRE was built by a survey launched by the four labs to evaluate the real needs of the community. INSPIRE responds to these directives from the community by combining the most successful aspe...

CERN Bulletin

2010-01-01

153

Quantum-inspired teleportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. A special class of situations when such transmissions are useful is outlined. Application of such a quantum-inspired teleportation, i.e. instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances for security of communications is discussed. Similarities and differences between quantum systems and quantum-classical hybrids are emphasized.

Zak, Michail [Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)], E-mail: michail.zak@gmail.com

2009-10-15

154

Visualizing the Complexity of the Molecular World: Examining the Role of Animated Representations in the Development of Undergraduate Students' Understanding of Dynamic Cellular Events  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of three-dimensional visualization techniques for learning about protein conformation and molecular motion in association with a ligand and receptor binding event. Increasingly complex versions of the same binding event were depicted in each of four animated treatments. Students (n = 131) were tested at three time points, and over both the short and longer term, the most complex of the four animated treatments was the most successful at fostering students' understanding of the events depicted. A follow-up study including eight biology students was conducted to gain greater insight into the students' underlying thought processes and better characterize their understanding of the animated representations. Analysis of verbal reports and eye tracking data suggest that students are able to attend to the same narrative elements regardless of the level of complexity depicted in each animation. Analysis of verbal protocol data revealed a positive correlation between the number of explanatory statements expressed by participants and the complexity of the animation viewed. As well, prior knowledge was positively correlated with the number of explanatory statements contained in each protocol. Overall, students demonstrated an understanding of protein conformation and molecular crowding. However results suggest that students have difficulty understanding and associating randomness with molecular events. The verbal reports contained several instances of students' attaching agency to protein and ligand, anthropomorphizing their movements and subsequent binding. Ordinarily cellular events, owing to their sheer complexity, are depicted in a highly schematized, simplified form. The results of this study would suggest that under select circumstances this may not be the most appropriate approach to depicting dynamic events. However additional attention must be given to exploring techniques that can satisfactorily balance the random nature of molecular events with narrative explanations of these processes.

Jenkinson, Jodie Anne

155

Inspiration is "Mission Critical"  

Science.gov (United States)

In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

2014-07-01

156

Inspired by Nevelson  

Science.gov (United States)

Louise Nevelson's circular assemblage, "Collegiate School" (1972), was the inspiration for an art class with the preschoolers at the Kent Children's Center. Nevelson (1899-1988) was the ultimate "found art" artist. Finding interesting throwaway objects, in and out of trash bins, she constructed assemblages that completely changed their former use.…

Egenes, Barbara

2011-01-01

157

Ndebele Inspired Houses  

Science.gov (United States)

The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

Rice, Nicole

2012-01-01

158

In Search of Inspiration  

Science.gov (United States)

Keeping one's self inspired in the music classroom is all about connections. Sometimes educators need to look at what they're doing from a different perspective. Luckily, there's no shortage of ways to revitalize one's classroom approach, and to help the author explores a few, he made use of some connections of his own, turning to five educators…

Powers, Keith

2013-01-01

159

Polytropic inspired inflation  

CERN Document Server

We study the chaotic inflation in the context of a gravity theory where the Friedman equation is modified, inspired by the polytropic gas equation of state. It is seen that in the $n=1$ case for the polytropic index the inflaton field at the end of inflation $\\phi_e$, depends on the Planck mass, while for $n\

Setare, M R

2013-01-01

160

Biologically inspired intelligent robots  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Astronomy. Inspiration. Art  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazi? (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maleti? (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djuki?, Nenad Jeremi?, Olivera Obradovi?, Romana Vujasinovi?, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.

Stanic, N.

2008-10-01

162

Inspiring a generation  

CERN Multimedia

The motto of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is ‘Inspire a generation’ so it was particularly pleasing to see science, the LHC and Higgs bosons featuring so strongly in the opening ceremony of the Paralympics last week.   It’s a sign of just how far our field has come that such a high-profile event featured particle physics so strongly, and we can certainly add our support to that motto. If the legacy of London 2012 is a generation inspired by science as well as sport, then the games will have more than fulfilled their mission. Particle physics has truly inspiring stories to tell, going well beyond Higgs and the LHC, and the entire community has played its part in bringing the excitement of frontier research in particle physics to a wide audience. Nevertheless, we cannot rest on our laurels: maintaining the kind of enthusiasm for science we witnessed at the Paralympic opening ceremony will require constant vigilance, and creative thinking about ways to rea...

2012-01-01

163

Perceptions of Talented Students in Their Visual Representations about the Future World and Technology (Üstün Yetenekli Ö?rencilerin Görsel Anlat?mlar?nda Gelece?in Dünyas?na ve Teknolojisine ?li?kin Alg?lar?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose and significance: The present study aimed at investigating talented students’ artistic representations and perceptions regarding the future world and technology through their animated designs according to their design-based representations. A learning environment which allows talented students to use their ability, thoughts and creativity in the process of design-based instructional activities is of great interest for them. It is important for talented students to have instructional experiences which provide independent and unique learning opportunities and special application areas that allow these students to show their abilities (CfBT, 2008. Results: The participants of the study were talented elementary school students attending the Education Programs for Talented Students (EPTS at Anadolu University. The criterion sampling method was used to select the research participants. The criterion for selecting the participants was attendance in the course of ‘Computer-Aided Graphics Design’ offered in the EPTS. The participants included a total of 35 elementary school 6th, 7th and 8th grade talented students. The study was conducted in three phases: instruction process, design process and evaluation process. Some preliminary preparations related to the design program were carried out considering that the students would use them while doing animated designs through the instruction process. The instruction phase involved an animated representation study during which the students designed their own animations. In the last phase, all the animate designs of the talented students were analyzed. The thematic analysis based on qualitative research method along with art-based inquiry was used. The thematic coding system for analyzing concepts revealed from the research data was implemented. The visual language used in pictorial representations produce messages, with its specialized codes. The degree of students’ understanding and explaining their perceptions of technology in future composes the visual codes in this research. The results obtained in the study were grouped under two themes: talented elementary school students’ ways of perception of the future world and talented elementary school students’ ways of perception of future technology.Discussion: Students’ perceptions about the future world in their visual representations and in the interview forms based on their visual representations were mostly classified under the theme of the extinction of the world, nature and universe. Students had quite unusual and original ideas about future technology. It was seen that the students put forward such subthemes as voyages between planets and space cars, flying cars, aliens’ visit to the world, street air-conditioners, voyage to the moon by space rockets and voyage via teleportation. The students who generally had negative views about the future world considered technology as a way of solution to the awaiting problems in future. In the research process, based on the researcher’s observations, it could be stated that the students taking design education were in the process of making design-related decisions and testing and discussing their knowledge about a certain goal; that they revised their needs, efficacies and creative potentials regarding the goal determined; and that they experimented, evaluated, developed and associated their decisions with the design process.Conclusions: Depending on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that students’ perceptions of the future world and technology reveal quite a negative picture in general. There could be a number of reasons for this negative picture; however, considering the technology and media interaction involving students, it could be stated that there are negative reflections of such environments and the popular culture within this context. In addition, the themes regarding the extinction of the world and collision of the planets envisaged by the talented students for the future world as well as the students’ visual repr

S. Duygu Eri?ti

2012-12-01

164

Visual agnosia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The visual agnosias are an intriguing class of clinical phenomena that have important implications for current theories of high-level vision. Visual agnosia is defined as impaired object recognition that cannot be attributed to visual loss, language impairment, or a general mental decline. At least in some instances, agnostic patients generate an adequate internal representation of the stimulus but fail to recognize it. In this review, we begin by describing the classic works related to the visual agnosias, followed by a description of the major clinical variants and their occurrence in degenerative disorders. In keeping with the theme of this issue, we then discuss recent contributions to this domain. Finally, we present evidence from functional imaging studies to support the clinical distinction between the various types of visual agnosias. PMID:14565906

Biran, I; Coslett, H B

2003-11-01

165

Nanotechnology: Inspiration from Nature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nanotechnology is molecular manipulation. Any branch of technology that results from our ability to control and manipulate matter on length scales of 1-100 nm can be treated as nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is not new to nature. Nature has been doing molecular manipulation to build its systems like plants and animals. After observing and understanding the fundamental design principles of natural products, one gets inspiration to build his own nanoproducts. This paper stimulates a nanotechnician or a student to study nanotechnology and to think inline with nature, since it has been a great nanoscientist and nanotechnologist.

Sheeparamatti B

2007-01-01

166

Biologically inspired oxidation catalysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of processes for selective hydrocarbon oxidation is a goal that has long been pursued. An additional challenge is to make such processes environmentally friendly, for example by using non-toxic reagents and energy-efficient catalytic methods. Excellent examples are naturally occurring iron- or copper-containing metalloenzymes, and extensive studies have revealed the key chemical principles that underlie their efficacy as catalysts for aerobic oxidations. Important inroads have been made in applying this knowledge to the development of synthetic catalysts that model enzyme function. Such biologically inspired hydrocarbon oxidation catalysts hold great promise for wide-ranging synthetic applications. PMID:18800132

Que, Lawrence; Tolman, William B

2008-09-18

167

When science inspires art  

CERN Multimedia

On Tuesday 18 January 2011, artist Pipilotti Rist came to CERN to find out how science could provide her with a source of inspiration for her art and perhaps to get ideas for future work. Pipilotti, who is an eclectic artist always on the lookout for an original source of inspiration, is almost as passionate about physics as she is about art.   Ever Is Over All, 1997, audio video installation by Pipilotti Rist.  View of the installation at the National Museum for Foreign Art, Sofia, Bulgaria. © Pipilotti Rist. Courtesy the artist and Hauser & Wirth. Photo by Angel Tzvetanov. Swiss video-maker Pipilotti Rist (her real name is Elisabeth Charlotte Rist), who is well-known in the international art world for her highly colourful videos and creations, visited CERN for the first time on Tuesday 18 January 2011.  Her visit represented a trip down memory lane, since she originally studied physics before becoming interested in pursuing a career as an artist and going on to de...

Anaïs Vernède

2011-01-01

168

Geophysics in INSPIRE  

Science.gov (United States)

INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface model (2D), and solid model (3D). Both measurements and models are derived from O&M sampling features that may be linked to sampling procedures and observation results. Geophysical products are output of complex procedures and can precisely be described as chains of consecutive O&M observations. For describing geophysical processes and results the data model both supports the use of OGC standard XML encoding (SensorML, SWE, GML) and traditional industry standards (SPS, UKOOA, SEG formats). To control the scope of the model and to harmonize terminology an initial set of extendable code lists was developed. The attempt to create a hierarchical SKOS vocabulary of terms for geophysical methods, resource types, processes, properties and technical parameters was partly based on the work done in the eContentPlus GEOMIND project. The result is far from being complete, and the work must be continued in the future.

S?rés, László

2013-04-01

169

Advanced visual analytics interfaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advanced visual interfaces, like the ones found in information visualization, intend to offer a view on abstract data spaces to enable users to make sense of them. By mapping data to visual representations and providing interactive tools to explore and navigate, it is possible to get an understanding of the data and possibly discover new knowledge. With the advent of modern data collection and analysis technologies, the direct visualization of data starts to show its limitations due to limite...

Keim, Daniel; Bak, Peter; Bertini, Enrico; Oelke, Daniela; Spretke, David; Ziegler, Hartmut

2010-01-01

170

Modulation of magnitude representations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study aims to answer two main questions. First, is there a difference between the representations of the numerical and the physical properties of visually presented numbers? Second, can the relevancy of the dimension change its representation? In a numerical Stroop task, participants were asked to indicate either the physically or the numerically larger value of two numerals. The ratio between the physical sizes and the numerical values changed orthogonally from 0.1 (the largest difference to 0.8. Reaction times were plotted as a function of both physical and numerical ratios. Trend analysis revealed that while the numerical dimension followed Weber's law regardless of task demands, the physical ratio deviated from linearity. Our results suggest that discrete and continuous magnitudes are represented by different yet interactive systems rather than by a shared representation.

TaliLeibovich

2013-06-01

171

Immuno-inspired robotic applications: a review  

CERN Document Server

Artificial immune systems primarily mimic the adaptive nature of biological immune functions. Their ability to adapt to varying pathogens makes such systems a suitable choice for various robotic applications. Generally, AIS-based robotic applications map local instantaneous sensory information into either an antigen or a co-stimulatory signal, according to the choice of representation schema. Algorithms then use relevant immune functions to output either evolved antibodies or maturity of dendritic cells, in terms of actuation signals. It is observed that researchers, in an attempt to solve the problem in hand, do not try to replicate the biological immunity but select necessary immune functions instead, resulting in an ad-hoc manner these applications are reported. Authors, therefore, present a comprehensive review of immuno-inspired robotic applications in an attempt to categorize them according to underlying immune definitions. Implementation details are tabulated in terms of corresponding mathematical expr...

Raza, Ali

2012-01-01

172

Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. PMID:22034342

Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas

2011-12-01

173

LAS CONEXIONES ENTRE EL PENSAMIENTO DE ALEJANDRO MALASPINA Y LA REPRESENTACIÓN VISUAL DE LA EXPEDICIÓN EN LA PATAGONIA (1789-1794) / THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE THOUGHT OF ALEJANDRO MALASPINA AND VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF THE EXPEDITION IN PATAGONIA (1789-1794)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del trabajo es estudiar la expedición al mando de Alejandro Malaspina (1789-1794) específicamente, su paso por la Patagonia. Observar cómo coincide la formación profesional del capitán con el imaginario dieciochesco en España, y aventurar una explicación al trabajo visual de José del Poz [...] o sobre los indígenas del sur. Revisar qué elementos del arte neoclásico están presentes en sus registros visuales, además de verificar los nexos con el pensamiento malaspiniano, en lo que respecta a la evaluación de la situación colonial en América. Abstract in english The aim of this work is to study the expedition led by Alejandro Malaspina (1789-1794) and specifically its passage through Patagonia. See how his professional training coincides with the imaginary predominant in Spain during the XVIIIth century, and adventure an explanation for the visual work of J [...] osé del Pozo on the indigenous people of the south. Check which neoclassical art elements are present in their visual records, in addition to the links with the thought of Malaspina, regarding the evaluation of the colonial situation in America.

GABRIELA S, ÁLVAREZ G.

174

Inspired by CERN  

CERN Multimedia

Art students inspired by CERN will be returning to show their work 9 to 16 October in Building 500, outside the Auditorium. Seventeen art students from around Europe visited CERN last January for a week of introductions to particle physics and astrophysics, and discussions with CERN scientists about their projects. A CERN scientist "adopted"each artist so they could ask questions during and after the visit. Now the seeds planted during their visit have come to fruition in a show using many media and exploring varied concepts, such as how people experience the online world, the sheer scale of CERN's equipment, and the abstractness of the entities scientists are looking for. "The work is so varied, people are going to love some pieces and detest others," says Andrew Charalambous, the project coordinator from University College London who is also curating the exhibition. "It's contemporary modern art, and that's sometimes difficult to take in." For more information on this thought-provoking show, see: htt...

2004-01-01

175

Microflyers: inspiration from nature  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, there has been considerable interest in miniaturizing aircraft to create a class of extremely small, robotic vehicles with a gross mass on the order of tens of grams and a dimension on the order of tens of centimeters. These are collectively refered to as micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) or microflyers. Because the size of microflyers is on the same order as that of small birds and large insects, engineers are turning to nature for inspiration. Bioinspired concepts make use of structural or aerodynamic mechanisms that are observed in insects and birds, such as elastic energy storage and unsteady aerodynamics. Biomimetic concepts attempt to replicate the form and function of natural flyers, such as flapping-wing propulsion and external appearance. This paper reviews recent developments in the area of man-made microflyers. The design space for microflyers will be described, along with fundamental physical limits to miniaturization. Key aerodynamic phenomena at the scale of microflyers will be highlighted. Because the focus is on bioinspiration and biomimetics, scaled-down versions of conventional aircraft, such as fixed wing micro air vehicles and microhelicopters will not be addressed. A few representative bioinspired and biomimetic microflyer concepts developed by researchers will be described in detail. Finally, some of the sensing mechanisms used by natural flyers that are being implemented in man-made microflyers will be discussed.

Sirohi, Jayant

2013-04-01

176

Madrid and Burgos, 1936-1939: visual representation of the women in the spanish civil war through the national library's photograph archive Madrid y Burgos, 1936-1939: representación visual de las mujeres a través del fondo fotográfico de la guerra civil española de la biblioteca nacional  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the need to analyze the photo from all prisms possible, including your front and back, and the argument that photography is primarily an iconic act that requiresthe questioning, this article has sought to discuss the representation visual of womenthrough the photographic collection of the Spanish Civil War. To achieve this objective, the paper has presented some visual examples of photographs that portray the activity of women who lived through the war in Madrid and Burgos and the result of researchsuggests that, Despite that the messages have different utterances, the fact is that the images are preserved show that the activity of women on both sides was the same, although these images have different characteristics. Basado en la necesidad de analizar la fotografía desde todos los prismas posibles, incluyendo su anverso y reverso, y en el argumento de que la fotografía es, ante todo, un acto icónico que requiere que se la interrogue, este artículo ha buscado discutir la representación visual de las mujeres a través del fondo fotográfico de la guerra civil española. Para lograr este objetivo, el artículo ha presentado algunos ejemplos visuales de las fotografías que retrataron la actividad de las mujeres que vivieron la guerra en Madrid y Burgos y El resultado de la investigación apunta a que, a pesar de que los mensajes lanzados tienen enunciación diferente, lo cierto es que las imágenes que se conservan muestran que la actividad de las mujeres de ambos lados fue la misma, aunque esas imágenes presentan características diferenciadas.

Beatriz de las Heras Herrero

2011-08-01

177

Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modulates the parameters of the locomotor central pattern generators. We present phonotactic performance results of the simulated lizard-salamander hybrid robot.

Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John

178

Inspiring Student Self-Motivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While normally appreciative of the invitation to join colleagues in a discussion of pedagogy and what “works” in the classroom, I have in most instances reluctantly participated in discussion of student motivation. I dip my toe into this philosophical quagmire only if permitted license to substitute the phrase student inspiration in place of student motivation. I also find it helpful to turn the rhetorical tables, as it were, and consider self-motivation on the part of students. The concept of individuals who hold some sense of self that a classroom mentor may nurture through student inspiration is one in which I place a modicum of trust. To “inspire” is literally to “breathe in,” to actively pull sustenance from a proffered external source. Active student determination based on some sense of self may couple with instructor inspiration to promote academic success.

Virginia Brackett

2007-01-01

179

Inspiration, anyone? (Editorial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I have to admit that writing an editorial for this issue was a struggle. Trying to sit down and write when the sun was shining outside and most of my colleagues were on vacation was, to say the least, difficult. Add to that research projects and conferences…let’s just say that I found myself less than inspired. A pitiful plea for ideas to a colleague resulted in the reintroduction to a few recent evidence based papers and resources which inspired further searching and reading. Though I generally find myself surrounded (more like buried in research papers and EBLIP literature, somehow I had missed the great strides that have been made of late in the world of evidence based library and information practice. I realize now that I am inspired by the researchers, authors and innovators who are putting EBLIP on the proverbial map. My biggest beef with library literature in general has been the plethora of articles highlighting what we should be doing. Take a close look at the evidence based practitioners in the information professions: these are some of the people who are actively practicing what has been preached for the past few years. Take, for example, the about?to?be released Libraries using Evidence Toolkit by Northern Sydney Central Coast Health and The University of Newcastle, Australia (see their announcement in this issue. An impressive advisory group is responsible for maintaining the currency and relevancy of the site as well as promoting the site and acting as a steering committee for related projects. This group is certainly doing more than “talking the talk”: they took their experience at the 3rd International Evidence Based Librarianship Conference and did something with the information they obtained by implementing solutions that worked in their environment. The result? The creation of a collection of tools for all of us to use. This toolkit is just what EBLIP needs: a portal to resources aimed at supporting the information specialists who want to adopt the evidence based model of practice. I have already got it bookmarked and set up an RSS feed. Even before the official toolkit launch, a wealth of information is available on the website including presentations, project and events information, and a blog containing site updates. There has been much discussion on increasing the knowledge base from which to draw evidence for library and information practitioners. Original research needs to be published so that we can use it as evidence to support our decision making. The literature is lacking the significant numbers of publication types widely considered to be the highest level of evidence: systematic reviews, meta?analyses and randomized controlled trials. This issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice proudly boasts both a systematic review/meta?analysis and a randomized controlled trial. Denise Koufogiannakis and Natasha Wiebe, in their systematic review/meta?analysis, provide evidence that shows that computer assisted instruction is as effective as traditional instruction for students at an introductory, undergraduate level. Nicola Pearce?Smith compared the effectiveness of self?directed, web?based learning with a classroom?based, interactive workshop in her randomized controlled trial. I am looking forward to reading and utilizing more and more of these in the future. Another example is even closer to home. I recently attended a strategic planning meeting at my institution where new services and procedures were discussed. Unlike the past, when new initiatives were implemented and later evaluated, all librarians instinctively indicated that the literature should be searched first to see if there was any evidence either for or against changing or adding new services or procedures. The evidence based model of practice is catching on. I know that there are numerous examples of information practitioners taking a proactive role in putting research into practice, and many research papers that are worth mentioning. To highlight them all would be a task muc

Lindsay Glynn

2006-09-01

180

Wavelet Based Image Compression Using Sparse Representation And Vector Quantization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Ordinary images, as well as most natural and manmade signals, are compressible and can, therefore, be well represented in a domain in which the signal is sparse. Sparse signal representations have found use in a large number of applications including image compression. Inspired by recent theoretical advances in sparse representation, we propose an image compression using wavelet, sparse representation and vector quantization.

Smita T. Bedarkar

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

Nature-inspired optimization algorithms  

CERN Document Server

Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

Yang, Xin-She

2014-01-01

182

Automated objective characterization of visual field defects in 3D  

Science.gov (United States)

A method and apparatus for electronically performing a visual field test for a patient. A visual field test pattern is displayed to the patient on an electronic display device and the patient's responses to the visual field test pattern are recorded. A visual field representation is generated from the patient's responses. The visual field representation is then used as an input into a variety of automated diagnostic processes. In one process, the visual field representation is used to generate a statistical description of the rapidity of change of a patient's visual field at the boundary of a visual field defect. In another process, the area of a visual field defect is calculated using the visual field representation. In another process, the visual field representation is used to generate a statistical description of the volume of a patient's visual field defect.

Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor)

2006-01-01

183

Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

184

Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

2011-12-01

185

Linear Classifiers Based on Binary Distributed Representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Binary distributed representations of vector data (numerical, textual, visual) are investigated in classification tasks. A comparative analysis of results for various methods and tasks using artificial and real-world data is given.

Rachkovskij, Dmitri

2007-01-01

186

Quiver representations  

CERN Document Server

This book is intended to serve as a textbook for a course in Representation Theory of Algebras at the beginning graduate level. The text has two parts. In Part I, the theory is studied in an elementary way using quivers and their representations. This is a very hands-on approach and requires only basic knowledge of linear algebra. The main tool for describing the representation theory of a finite-dimensional algebra is its Auslander-Reiten quiver, and the text introduces these quivers as early as possible. Part II then uses the language of algebras and modules to build on the material developed before. The equivalence of the two approaches is proved in the text. The last chapter gives a proof of Gabriel’s Theorem. The language of category theory is developed along the way as needed.

Schiffler, Ralf

2014-01-01

187

Group representations  

CERN Document Server

This third volume can be roughly divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the investigation of various properties of projective characters. Special attention is drawn to spin representations and their character tables and to various correspondences for projective characters. Among other topics, projective Schur index and projective representations of abelian groups are covered. The last topic is investigated by introducing a symplectic geometry on finite abelian groups. The second part is devoted to Clifford theory for graded algebras and its application to the corresponding theory

Karpilovsky, G

1994-01-01

188

QED in the worldline representation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simultaneously with inventing the modern relativistic formalism of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman presented also a first-quantized representation of QED in terms of worldline path integrals. Although this alternative formulation has been studied over the years by many authors, only during the last fifteen years it has acquired some popularity as a computational tool. I will shortly review here three very different techniques which have been developed during the last few years for the evaluation of worldline path integrals, namely (i) the 'string-inspired formalism', based on the use of worldline Green functions, (ii) the numerical 'worldline Monte Carlo formalism', and (iii) the semiclassical 'worldline instanton' approach

189

Parts, Cavities, and Object Representation in Infancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Part representation is not only critical to object perception but also plays a key role in a number of basic visual cognition functions, such as figure-ground segregation, allocation of attention, and memory for shapes. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the development of part representation. If parts are fundamental components of object shape…

Hayden, Angela; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Kangas, Ashley; Zieber, Nicole

2011-01-01

190

Digital models for architectonical representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital instruments and technologies enrich architectonical representation and communication opportunities. Computer graphics is organized according the two phases of visualization and construction, that is modeling and rendering, structuring dichotomy of software technologies. Visualization modalities give different kinds of representations of the same 3D model and instruments produce a separation between drawing and image’s creation. Reverse modeling can be related to a synthesis process, ‘direct modeling’ follows an analytic procedure. The difference between interactive and not interactive applications is connected to the possibilities offered by informatics instruments, and relates to modeling and rendering. At the same time the word ‘model’ describes different phenomenon (i.e. files: mathematical model of the building and of the scene; raster representation and post-processing model. All these correlated different models constitute the architectonical interpretative model, that is a simulation of reality made by the model for improving the knowledge.

Stefano Brusaporci

2011-12-01

191

Bio-Inspired Antifouling Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofouling is a complex, dynamic problem that globally impacts both the economy and environment. Interdisciplinary research in marine biology, polymer science, and engineering has led to the implementation of bio-inspired strategies for the development of the next generation of antifouling marine coatings. Natural fouling defense mechanisms have been mimicked through chemical, physical, and/or stimuli-responsive strategies. This review outlines the detrimental effects associated with biofouling, describes the theoretical basis for antifouling coating design, and highlights prominent advances in bio-inspired antifouling technologies.

Kirschner, Chelsea M.; Brennan, Anthony B.

2012-08-01

192

The matrix of inspiration  

Science.gov (United States)

The research of Odile Meulien and Dietmar Ohlmann is about perceiving a multidimensional world. Not about the cyberspace created for new cinema creation, nor the reality which seems to be created by communication. It's the search for the reality we perceive, when the mind "touches" an object with its senses. In fact, it is a study of the surface of an object, which we can record in its visual appearing, its structure, shape and colors. When using photographic media, the tactile sense of the structure is missing, when using some other reproductive media; we experience somewhere a sensation of fault, something different. When using holography, we are able to record some three dimensional shape which has in fact a lot of parameter of a realistic copy. What is missing is the touch, the smell, the way we can go close and far, surround the object, relate the reflected light to its surrounding. The only interesting attribute of a hologram is for Dietmar Ohlmann its capacity to illustrate a continuum. He likes its changing diffractive character during daytime and surrounds lighting. For Odile Meulien the continuum of a hologram represents a new possible model for understanding wholeness in a social context. In fact, both are working on an educational process together, helping children and adults to find a new position of their own in harmony with living surrounding. Dietmar Ohlmann is working on his artistic side, while Odile Meulien works on educational programs experiencing the perspective of a curator and social analyst. New is the implication of using the latest of the techniques like the atomic force microscopy, which make possible to touch the holographic grating while the holographic image remains untouched. In other words it is the reverse of the usual approach of objects which at first we touch to investigate further. Their difference in experiencing and perceiving scientific and technical approach brings a lot of paradigm in their discussion. Together they will perform this exchange, as a matrix, understood as source, of new ideas.

Oehlmann, Dietmar; Ohlmann, Odile M.; Danzebrink, Hans U.

2005-04-01

193

Inspiration: One Percent and Rising  

Science.gov (United States)

Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop had much to…

Walling, Donovan R.

2009-01-01

194

London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration  

Science.gov (United States)

Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

Guhin, Paula

2012-01-01

195

Novel locomotion via biological inspiration  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal behavioral, physiological and neurobiological studies are providing a wealth of inspirational data for robot design and control. Several very different biologically inspired mobile robots will be reviewed. A robot called DIGbot is being developed that moves independent of the direction of gravity using Distributed Inward Gripping (DIG) as a rapid and robust attachment mechanism observed in climbing animals. DIGbot is an 18 degree of freedom hexapod with onboard power and control systems. Passive compliance in its feet, which is inspired by the flexible tarsus of the cockroach, increases the robustness of the adhesion strategy and enables DIGbot to execute large steps and stationary turns while walking on mesh screens. A Whegs™ robot, inspired by insect locomotion principles, is being developed that can be rapidly reconfigured between tracks and wheel-legs and carry GeoSystems Zipper Mast. The mechanisms that cause it to passively change its gait on irregular terrain have been integrated into its hubs for a compact and modular design. The robot is designed to move smoothly on moderately rugged terrain using its tracks and run on irregular terrain and stairs using its wheel-legs. We are also developing soft bodied robots that use peristalsis, the same method of locomotion earthworms use. We present a technique of using a braided mesh exterior to produce fluid waves of motion along the body of the robot that increase the robot's speed relative to previous designs. The concept is highly scalable, for endoscopes to water, oil or gas line inspection.

Quinn, Roger D.; Boxerbaum, Alexander; Palmer, Luther; Chiel, Hillel; Diller, Eric; Hunt, Alexander; Bachmann, Richard

2011-05-01

196

From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology  

Science.gov (United States)

The conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' (1-5 June 2009, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) that myself and two former presidents of the American Biophysical Society—Wilma Olson (Rutgers University) and Adrian Parsegian (NIH), with the support of an ICTP team (Ralf Gebauer (Local Organizer) and Doreen Sauleek (Conference Secretary)), have organized was intended to establish stronger links between the biology and physics communities on the DNA front. The relationships between them were never easy. In 1997, Adrian published a paper in Physics Today ('Harness the Hubris') summarizing his thoughts about the main obstacles for a successful collaboration. The bottom line of that article was that physicists must seriously learn biology before exploring it and even having an interpreter, a friend or co-worker, who will be cooperating with you and translating the problems of biology into a physical language, may not be enough. He started his story with a joke about a physicist asking a biologist: 'I want to study the brain. Tell me something about it!' Biologist: 'First, the brain consists of two parts, and..' Physicist: 'Stop. You have told me too much.' Adrian listed a few direct avenues where physicists' contributions may be particularly welcome. This gentle and elegantly written paper caused, however, a stormy reaction from Bob Austin (Princeton), published together with Adrian's notes, accusing Adrian of forbidding physicists to attack big questions in biology straightaway. Twelve years have passed and many new developments have taken place in the biologist-physicist interaction. This was something I addressed in my opening conference speech, with my position lying somewhere inbetween Parsegian's and Austin's, which is briefly outlined here. I will first recall certain precepts or 'dogmas' that fly in the air like Valkyries, poisoning those relationships. Since the early seventies when I was a first year PhD student at the Frumkin Institute in Moscow attending hot theoretical seminars chaired by Benjamin Levich (1917-1986, a pupil of Landau and the founding father of physical-chemical hydrodynamics), I particularly remember one of his many jokes he used to spice up his seminar. When some overly enthusiastic speaker was telling us with 100% confidence how the electron transfers between atomic moieties in a solvent near an electrode, and what the molecules exactly do to promote the transfer, he used to ask the speaker: 'How do you know it? Have you been there?' Today this is no longer a question or even a joke. We have plenty of experimental tools to 'get there'. The list of such techniques is too long to cover fully, I may just refer to FIONA (fluorescence imaging with nanometer accuracy) which allows us to trace the motion of myosin on actin or kinesin on microtubules and similar aspects of protein motility in vivo and in vitro (fluorescence methods were at the center of the Biological and Molecular Machine Program at Kavli ITP, Santa Barbara, where the founders of those techniques taught us what we can learn using them) or visualizing the positions of adsorbed counterions on DNA by synchrotron radiation. Therefore, the following dogmas can be given: Dogma 1: 'Seeing is believing'. Once, I asked an Assistant Professor from one of the top US universities, who was preaching such methods, had he tried to plot his data in some coordinates, where I would have expected his data to lie on a straight line. The answer was, 'Come on, what you speak about is 20th century science; it's no longer interesting!' I am afraid he was not unique in his generation, voting for what I would call 'MTV-science'. This science does make you dance, but on its own is not sufficient without a deep theoretical analysis of what you actually see. Otherwise, 'what you see is what you get' and not more. Dogma 2: 'A theory must contain not more than exponential functions, logarithms and alike. Otherwise the job should be left with computers. No Bessel functions, please!' This point of view was advocat

Kornyshev, Alexei A.

2010-10-01

197

Scientific visualization uncertainty, multifield, biomedical, and scalable visualization  

CERN Document Server

Based on the seminar that took place in Dagstuhl, Germany in June 2011, this contributed volume studies the four important topics within the scientific visualization field: uncertainty visualization, multifield visualization, biomedical visualization and scalable visualization. • Uncertainty visualization deals with uncertain data from simulations or sampled data, uncertainty due to the mathematical processes operating on the data, and uncertainty in the visual representation, • Multifield visualization addresses the need to depict multiple data at individual locations and the combination of multiple datasets, • Biomedical is a vast field with select subtopics addressed from scanning methodologies to structural applications to biological applications, • Scalability in scientific visualization is critical as data grows and computational devices range from hand-held mobile devices to exascale computational platforms. Scientific Visualization will be useful to practitioners of scientific visualization, ...

Chen, Min; Johnson, Christopher; Kaufman, Arie; Hagen, Hans

2014-01-01

198

BINARY WAVELET TRANSFORM FOR IMAGE REPRESENTATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The MRA (Multi resolution analysis for an image provides specific information localized in space or frequency domain .In this paper an efficient representation of the visual information is presented using Binary wavelet Transform for both color and gray level image. Analytical results shows that this method proves to be more efficient in representing the visual information than the earlier

ASHOK.M

2011-08-01

199

Supporting Polyrepresentation in a Quantum-inspired geometrical Retrieval Framework  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The relevance of a document has many facets, going beyond the usual topical one, which have to be considered to satisfy a user's information need. Multiple representations of documents, like user-given reviews or the actual document content, can give evidence towards certain facets of relevance. In this respect polyrepresentation of documents, where such evidence is combined, is a crucial concept to estimate the relevance of a document. In this paper, we discuss how a geometrical retrieval framework inspired by quantum mechanics can be extended to support polyrepresentation. We show by example how different representations of a document can be modelled in a Hilbert space, similar to physical systems known from quantum mechanics. We further illustrate how these representations are combined by means of the tensor product to support polyrepresentation, and discuss the case that representations of documents are not independent from a user point of view. Besides giving a principled framework for polyrepresentation, the potential of this approach is to capture and formalise the complex interdependent relationships that the different representations can have between each other.

Frommholz, Ingo; Larsen, Birger

2010-01-01

200

Representational learning for sonar ATR  

Science.gov (United States)

Learned representations have been shown to give hopeful results for solving a multitude of novel learning tasks, even though these tasks may be unknown when the model is being trained. A few notable examples include the techniques of topic models, deep belief networks, deep Boltzmann machines, and local discriminative Gaussians, all inspired by human learning. This self-learning of new concepts via rich generative models has emerged as a promising area of research in machine learning. Although there has been recent progress, existing computational models are still far from being able to represent, identify and learn the wide variety of possible patterns and struc- ture in real-world data. An important issue for further consideration is the use of unsupervised representations for novel underwater target recognition applications. This work will discuss and demonstrate the use of latent Dirichlet allocation and autoencoders for learning unsupervised representations of objects in sonar imagery. The objective is to make these representations more abstract and invariant to noise in the training distribution and improve performance.

Isaacs, Jason C.

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

O' Connell, Heath B.; /Fermilab

2010-04-01

202

A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

203

INSPIRE 2012 da Istanbul a Firenze  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DURING THE CONFERENCE HELD IN  ISTANBUL IN  2012 INSPIRE  THE  NEWS  THAT  MOST  IMPRESSED ITALIANS PRESENT,  EVEN THOSE IN THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION , WAS THAT THE NEXT  INSPIRE CONFERENCE WILL TAKE PLACE IN  FLORENCEDurante la conferenza INSPIRE 2012 svoltasi ad Istanbul la notizia che ha maggiormente colpito gli italiani presenti, anche quelli della pubblica amministrazione , è stata che la prossima Conferenza INSPIRE si svolgerà a Firenze dal 23 al 27 giugno 2013.

Mauro Salvemini

2012-09-01

204

Biologically inspired models for swarming  

Science.gov (United States)

"Understanding" the behavior of a biological system typically means formulating a sensible model, postulating a feedback law (incorporating biologically plausible sensory measurements), and experimentally verifying that the model and feedback law are consistent with nature. This approach is illustrated well in the work of K. Ghose, T. K. Horiuchi, P. S. Krishnaprasad, and C. F. Moss (and colleagues) on insect pursuit by echolocating bats. In work of F. Zhang, E. W. Justh, and P. S. Krishnaprasad, similar modeling principles and feedback laws have also been shown to play an important role in biologically-inspired formation-control and obstacle-avoidance laws. Building on this earlier work, we seek to identify a bio-inspired framework for cooperative swarming, in which the apparently complicated trajectories of individuals are explained by feedback laws which take a relatively simple form. The objectives of such swarming (e.g., for teams of unmanned vehicles) could include rendezvous, target capture (or destruction), and cooperative sensing.

Justh, Eric W.; Kowtha, Vijayanand

2007-04-01

205

Decrypting $SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis  

CERN Document Server

Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of $SO(10)$-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry $N^{\\rm p,i}_{B-L}$, the strong thermal (ST) condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the {\\rm ST}-$SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analy...

Di Bari, Pasquale; Fiorentin, Michele Re

2014-01-01

206

Deep generative learning of location-invariant visual word recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is widely believed that orthographic processing implies an approximate, flexible coding of letter position, as shown by relative-position and transposition priming effects in visual word recognition. These findings have inspired alternative proposals about the representation of letter position, ranging from noisy coding across the ordinal positions to relative position coding based on open bigrams. This debate can be cast within the broader problem of learning location-invariant representations of written words, that is, a coding scheme abstracting the identity and position of letters (and combinations of letters from their eye-centred (i.e., retinal locations. We asked whether location-invariance would emerge from deep unsupervised learning on letter strings and what type of intermediate coding would emerge in the resulting hierarchical generative model. We trained a deep network with three hidden layers on an artificial dataset of letter strings presented at five possible retinal locations. Though word-level information (i.e., word identity was never provided to the network during training, linear decoding from the activity of the deepest hidden layer yielded near-perfect accuracy in location-invariant word recognition. Conversely, decoding from lower layers yielded a large number of transposition errors. Analyses of emergent internal representations showed that word selectivity and location invariance increased as a function of layer depth. Conversely, there was no evidence for bigram coding. Finally, the distributed internal representation of words at the deepest layer showed higher similarity to the representation elicited by the two exterior letters than by other combinations of two contiguous letters, in agreement with the hypothesis that word edges have special status. These results reveal that the efficient coding of written words – which was the model’s learning objective – is largely based on letter-level information.

Maria GraziaDi Bono

2013-09-01

207

Bio-inspired functional materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis shows strategies how to learn from Mother Nature to make functional materials. Firstly, inspired by lotus leaf and water strider, superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surfaces are prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels. Furthermore, we explore potential applications of the superhydrophobic and superoleophobic materials for carrying cargo on liquid surfaces and continuous propulsion. Interestingly, the self-propelled locomotion has constant velocity and can last for prolon...

Jin, Hua

2012-01-01

208

ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF MATCHING INSPIRED LUNG VOLUME  

Science.gov (United States)

Three questions were asked: How accurately can lung volumes be reproduced. Do the underlying sensory continua of inspired lung volume subscribe to Weber's law. Are planned inspirations more accurately reproduced than constrained inspirations. The ability to match inspired lung vo...

209

Bio-Inspired Computing and Networking  

CERN Document Server

In seeking new methods to cope with greater communication demands, researchers are finding inspiration in examples presented by nature. Considering a range of sources from insect to primate communication, leading researches present state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for developing bio-inspired models. They cover mathematical models and present experimental studies of bio-inspired computing and communications. They explore bio-inspired topology control and reconfiguration methods, as well as bio-inspired localization, synchronization, and mobility approaches. They also delve int

Xiao, Yang

2011-01-01

210

Representations of content: psychological foundations and didactical background  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This theoretical study concerns the issue of representations. Representation is a concept used when analysing and explaining human perception, cognition, communication, and learning. Firstly, we introduce the psychological foundations of the concept. Secondly, we clarify the concept of representations and its division in cognitive psychology. We define two basic forms of external representations - verbal and visual. In social psychology, the concept is used for explaining of how much individual cognition is determined by socio-cultural factors. Further, we mention the concept of representations that draws on the Theory of social representations (Moscovici and Vygotsky's ideas. The author seeks to develop a concept of representations usable in didactic discourse. The importance of representations for content-oriented didactics is clarified. We also define the levels on which a teacher reasons when using representations during instruction. Representations of curricular content, which are believed to play an important role when presenting the content to students, are also mentioned.

Tomáš Janko

2012-03-01

211

Visual Signs of Ageing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consumer culture has placed the ageing body in a dilemma of representation. Physical appearance has become increasingly important as a symbol of identity, and at the same time society idealizes youth. This study explores visual ageing empirically. By using photographs of older persons (70+) as starting point, it is explored how visual age is assessed and interpreted. It is shown that informants read age in a spread of stages and categories. Main age indicators are biological markers: skin, ey...

Helle Rexbye; Jørgen Povlsen

2007-01-01

212

Representations of content: psychological foundations and didactical background  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This theoretical study concerns the issue of representations. Representation is a concept used when analysing and explaining human perception, cognition, communication, and learning. Firstly, we introduce the psychological foundations of the concept. Secondly, we clarify the concept of representations and its division in cognitive psychology. We define two basic forms of external representations - verbal and visual. In social psychology, the concept is used for explaining of how ...

Tomáš Janko

2012-01-01

213

E6 inspired SUSY models with exact custodial symmetry  

CERN Document Server

The breakdown of E_6 gauge symmetry at high energies may result in supersymmetric (SUSY) models based on the Standard Model (SM) gauge group together with extra U(1)_{\\psi} and U(1)_{\\chi} gauge symmetries. To ensure anomaly cancellation the particle content of these E_6 inspired models involves extra exotic states that can give rise to non--diagonal flavour transitions and rapid proton decay. We argue that a single discrete \\tilde{Z}^{H}_2 symmetry can be used to forbid tree--level flavor-changing transitions and the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. We present 5D and 6D orbifold GUT models that can lead to the E_6 inspired SUSY models of this type. The breakdown of U(1)_{\\psi} and U(1)_{\\chi} gauge symmetries that preserves E_6 matter parity assignment guarantees that the exotic states which originate from 27_i representations of E_6 as well as ordinary quark and lepton states survive to low energies. The considered E_6 inspired models contain at least two dark-matter candidates a...

Nevzorov, R

2012-01-01

214

The Visual Math Institute  

Science.gov (United States)

The Visual Math Project was founded in 1975 by Professor Ralph Abraham from the University of California at Santa Cruz. Ralph Abraham, who is now retired, formed a nonprofit organization called the Visual Math Institute (VMI) and continues to maintain its website. In the FAQ section, Abraham explains that Visual Math (VM) "refers to the coordination of multiple modes of intelligence and representation, cognitive styles, for the purpose of communication of mathematics." The FAQ section also includes information on Math Anxiety as well as an overview of mathematics, Euclid, and chaos theory. VMI's research, which is described further in the Research section, "is devoted to visual math research and education, including computation math, computer graphics, and interactive environments." The visual projects on Chaos, Euclid and Kepler provide overviews of related topics, information on useful references, and some visual demonstrations of the topics.

215

Exploration of complex visual feature spaces for object perception  

Science.gov (United States)

The mid- and high-level visual properties supporting object perception in the ventral visual pathway are poorly understood. In the absence of well-specified theory, many groups have adopted a data-driven approach in which they progressively interrogate neural units to establish each unit's selectivity. Such methods are challenging in that they require search through a wide space of feature models and stimuli using a limited number of samples. To more rapidly identify higher-level features underlying human cortical object perception, we implemented a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging method in which visual stimuli are selected in real-time based on BOLD responses to recently shown stimuli. This work was inspired by earlier primate physiology work, in which neural selectivity for mid-level features in IT was characterized using a simple parametric approach (Hung et al., 2012). To extend such work to human neuroimaging, we used natural and synthetic object stimuli embedded in feature spaces constructed on the basis of the complex visual properties of the objects themselves. During fMRI scanning, we employed a real-time search method to control continuous stimulus selection within each image space. This search was designed to maximize neural responses across a pre-determined 1 cm3 brain region within ventral cortex. To assess the value of this method for understanding object encoding, we examined both the behavior of the method itself and the complex visual properties the method identified as reliably activating selected brain regions. We observed: (1) Regions selective for both holistic and component object features and for a variety of surface properties; (2) Object stimulus pairs near one another in feature space that produce responses at the opposite extremes of the measured activity range. Together, these results suggest that real-time fMRI methods may yield more widely informative measures of selectivity within the broad classes of visual features associated with cortical object representation. PMID:25309408

Leeds, Daniel D.; Pyles, John A.; Tarr, Michael J.

2014-01-01

216

CT anatomy of the diaphragm: changes in end inspiration and end expiration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the change in configuration of the diaphragm between scans obtained at end inspiration and end expiration. Two series of CT scans at end inspiration and at end expiration were obtained in 37 patients. We evaluated the changes in the type of anterior diaphragm, pseudotumor, undulation of the diaphragm, and diaphragmatic defect during the respiratory phases. The configuration of the anterior portion of the diaphragm changed between end inspiratory and end expiratory CT scans in 25(67.6%) of 37 patients. Diaphragmatic defect, diaphragmatic pseudotumor, and undulation of the diaphragm were more frequent at end inspiration (13.5%, 18.9%, 37.8%, respectively) than at end expiration (0%, 5.4%, 10.8%, respectively). There is a change in the configuration of the anterior portion of the diaphragm and we also observed differences in the visualization of diaphragmatic defects, pseudotumor, and undulation between scans obtained at end inspiration and end expiration

217

Perception, Cognition, and Visualization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described are how pictures can combine aspects of naturalistic representation with more formal shapes to enhance cognitive understanding. These "diagrammatic" shapes derive from geometrical elementary and thereby bestow visual concreteness to concepts conveyed by the pictures. Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical drawings are used as examples…

Arnheim, Rudolf

1991-01-01

218

Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts  

Science.gov (United States)

In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.

2011-01-01

219

Visualizing flat spacetime: viewing optical versus special relativistic effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A visual representation of Minkowski spacetime appropriate for a student with a background in geometry and algebra is presented. Minkowski spacetime can be modeled with a Euclidean four-space to yield accurate visualizations as predicted by special relativity. The contributions of relativistic aberration as compared to classical prerelativistic aberration to the geometry are discussed in the context of its visual representation.

Black, D. V.; Gopi, M.; Kuester, F.; Wessel, F.; Pajarola, R.

2007-01-01

220

Guard Cell and Tropomyosin Inspired Chemical Sensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sensors are an integral part of many engineered products and systems. Biological inspiration has the potential to improve current sensor designs as well as inspire innovative ones. This paper presents the design of an innovative, biologically-inspired chemical sensor that performs “up-front” processing through mechanical means. Inspiration from the physiology (function of the guard cell coupled with the morphology (form and physiology of tropomyosin resulted in two concept variants for the chemical sensor. Applications of the sensor design include environmental monitoring of harmful gases, and a non-invasive approach to detect illnesses including diabetes, liver disease, and cancer on the breath.

Jacquelyn K.S. Nagel

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Remapping for visual stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual perception is based on both incoming sensory signals and information about ongoing actions. Recordings from single neurons have shown that corollary discharge signals can influence visual representations in parietal, frontal and extrastriate visual cortex, as well as the superior colliculus (SC). In each of these areas, visual representations are remapped in conjunction with eye movements. Remapping provides a mechanism for creating a stable, eye-centred map of salient locations. Temporal and spatial aspects of remapping are highly variable from cell to cell and area to area. Most neurons in the lateral intraparietal area remap stimulus traces, as do many neurons in closely allied areas such as the frontal eye fields the SC and extrastriate area V3A. Remapping is not purely a cortical phenomenon. Stimulus traces are remapped from one hemifield to the other even when direct cortico-cortical connections are removed. The neural circuitry that produces remapping is distinguished by significant plasticity, suggesting that updating of salient stimuli is fundamental for spatial stability and visuospatial behaviour. These findings provide new evidence that a unified and stable representation of visual space is constructed by redundant circuitry, comprising cortical and subcortical pathways, with a remarkable capacity for reorganization. PMID:21242141

Hall, Nathan J; Colby, Carol L

2011-02-27

222

Exploring Representation in the Middle Grades: Investigations in Geometry with Virtual Manipulatives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Examines the importance of virtual manipulatives from the Internet to geometrical learning and teaching in classrooms. Purpose of the incorporation of virtual manipulatives; Definition of dynamic visual representation; Advantages of virtual manipulatives; Discussion on the concept of representation.

Moyer-packenham, Patricia S.; Bolyard, J. J.

2002-01-01

223

Visual Signs of Ageing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumer culture has placed the ageing body in a dilemma of representation. Physical appearance has become increasingly important as a symbol of identity, and at the same time society idealizes youth. This study explores visual ageing empirically. By using photographs of older persons (70+ as starting point, it is explored how visual age is assessed and interpreted. It is shown that informants read age in a spread of stages and categories. Main age indicators are biological markers: skin, eyes, and hair colour, but supplemented by vigour, style, and grooming. Furthermore, in-depth interviews indicate that visual age is mainly interpreted into categories and moral regulations rooted in early modernity. Subsequently the question of a postmodern perspective of visual ageing is discussed in this article. The empirical findings in the study question a postmodern fluidity of visual signs – at least when the concern is signs of ageing.

Helle Rexbye

2007-07-01

224

Visualization of Social Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

With the ubiquitous characteristic of the Internet, today many online social environments are provided to connect people. Various social relationships are thus created, connected, and migrated from our real lives to the Internet environment from different social groups. Many social communities and relationships are also quickly constructed and connected via instant personal messengers, blogs, Twitter, Facebook, and a great variety of online social services. Since social network visualizations can structure the complex relationships between different groups of individuals or organizations, they are helpful to analyze the social activities and relationships of actors, particularly over a large number of nodes. Therefore, many studies and visualization tools have been investigated to present social networks with graph representations. In this chapter, we will first review the background of social network analysis and visualization methods, and then introduce various novel visualization applications for social networks. Finally, the challenges and the future development of visualizing online social networks are discussed.

Chen, Ing-Xiang; Yang, Cheng-Zen

225

Geometric Algebra Model of Distributed Representations  

CERN Document Server

Formalism based on GA is an alternative to distributed representation models developed so far --- Smolensky's tensor product, Holographic Reduced Representations (HRR) and Binary Spatter Code (BSC). Convolutions are replaced by geometric products, interpretable in terms of geometry which seems to be the most natural language for visualization of higher concepts. This paper recalls the main ideas behind the GA model and investigates recognition test results using both inner product and a clipped version of matrix representation. The influence of accidental blade equality on recognition is also studied. Finally, the efficiency of the GA model is compared to that of previously developed models.

Patyk, Agnieszka

2010-01-01

226

Perceptions of Talented Students in Their Visual Representations about the Future World and Technology (Üstün Yetenekli Ö?rencilerin Görsel Anlat?mlar?nda Gelece?in Dünyas?na ve Teknolojisine ?li?kin Alg?lar?)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose and significance: The present study aimed at investigating talented students’ artistic representations and perceptions regarding the future world and technology through their animated designs according to their design-based representations. A learning environment which allows talented students to use their ability, thoughts and creativity in the process of design-based instructional activities is of great interest for them. It is important for talented students to have instructional...

Duygu Eris?ti, S.

2012-01-01

227

Biologically Inspired Artificial Compound Eyes  

Science.gov (United States)

This work presents the fabrication of biologically inspired artificial compound eyes. The artificial ommatidium, like that of an insect's compound eyes, consists of a refractive polymer microlens, a light-guiding polymer cone, and a self-aligned waveguide to collect light with a small angular acceptance. The ommatidia are omnidirectionally arranged along a hemispherical polymer dome such that they provide a wide field of view similar to that of a natural compound eye. The spherical configuration of the microlenses is accomplished by reconfigurable microtemplating, that is, polymer replication using the deformed elastomer membrane with microlens patterns. The formation of polymer waveguides self-aligned with microlenses is also realized by a self-writing process in a photosensitive polymer resin. The angular acceptance is directly measured by three-dimensional optical sectioning with a confocal microscope, and the detailed optical characteristics are studied in comparison with a natural compound eye.

Jeong, Ki-Hun; Kim, Jaeyoun; Lee, Luke P.

2006-04-01

228

Collide@CERN: sharing inspiration  

CERN Multimedia

Late last year, Julius von Bismarck was appointed to be CERN's first "artist in residence" after winning the Collide@CERN Digital Arts award. He’ll be spending two months at CERN starting this March but, to get a flavour of what’s in store, he visited the Organization last week for a crash course in its inspiring activities.   Julius von Bismarck, taking a closer look... When we arrive to interview German artist Julius von Bismarck, he’s being given a presentation about antiprotons’ ability to kill cancer cells. The whiteboard in the room contains graphs and equations that might easily send a non-scientist running, yet as Julius puts it, “if I weren’t interested, I’d be asleep”. Given his numerous questions, he must have been fascinated. “This ‘introduction’ week has been exhilarating,” says Julius. “I’ve been able to interact ...

Katarina Anthony

2012-01-01

229

Bio-Inspired Hovering Control for an Aerial Robot Equipped with a Decoupled Eye and a Rate Gyro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work provides an hovering control strategy for a sighted robot, the eye of which being decoupled from the body and controlled by means of a tiny rotative piezo motor. The main purpose of this paper is to show the effectiveness and the efficiency of this fundamental bio-inspired mechanical decoupling. Indeed, it exhibits several benefits: * it enables to stabilize the robot's gaze on the basis of three bio-inspired oculomotor reflexes (ORs) : a visual fixation reflex (VFR), a translationa...

Manecy, Augustin; Viollet, S.; Marchand, Nicolas

2012-01-01

230

An Exploration of Design Students' Inspiration Process  

Science.gov (United States)

Our purpose was to explore how different sources of inspiration influenced two groups of students' inspiration process and their attitudes toward their design projects. Assigned sources of inspiration and instructor's assistance in the search for inspiration varied for two groups of students completing a small culture inspired product…

Dazkir, Sibel S.; Mower, Jennifer M.; Reddy-Best, Kelly L.; Pedersen, Elaine L.

2013-01-01

231

Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?  

Science.gov (United States)

Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

2012-01-01

232

Learning sparse discriminative representations for land cover classification in the Arctic  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroscience-inspired machine vision algorithms are of current interest in the areas of detection and monitoring of climate change impacts, and general Land Use/Land Cover classification using satellite image data. We describe an approach for automatic classification of land cover in multispectral satellite imagery of the Arctic using sparse representations over learned dictionaries. We demonstrate our method using DigitalGlobe Worldview-2 8-band visible/near infrared high spatial resolution imagery of the MacKenzie River basin. We use an on-line batch Hebbian learning rule to build spectral-textural dictionaries that are adapted to this multispectral data. We learn our dictionaries from millions of overlapping image patches and then use a pursuit search to generate sparse classification features. We explore unsupervised clustering in the sparse representation space to produce land-cover category labels. This approach combines spectral and spatial textural characteristics to detect geologic, vegetative, and hydrologic features. We compare our technique to standard remote sensing algorithms. Our results suggest that neuroscience-based models are a promising approach to practical pattern recognition problems in remote sensing, even for datasets using spectral bands not found in natural visual systems.

Moody, Daniela I.; Brumby, Steven P.; Rowland, Joel C.; Gangodagamage, Chandana

2012-10-01

233

New Inspirations in Nature: A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the past few decades, the studies on algorithms inspired by nature have shown that these methods can be efficiently used to eliminate most of the difficulties of classical methods. Nature inspired algorithms are widely used to solve optimization problems with complex nature. Various research works are carried out and algorithms are presented based on that during last few decades. Recently, some new algorithms inspired from nature are proposed to further improve the solutions obtained by the algorithms presented before. In this paper, a survey of five recently introduced Nature inspired algorithms is carried out. They include Firefly algorithm (FA, Cuckoo Search (CS, and Bat Inspired Algorithm (BA. Each of these algorithms are introduced and applied on various numerical optimization functions by various authors. We have tried to review and study the papers published by the authors and present a conclusion of this survey based on the results obtained.

Nitesh Maganlal Sureja

2012-11-01

234

Contested Urbanism : Struggles About Representation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Iconic architecture plays a crucial role in cities' interurban competition. This is also the case with Copenhagen which has used iconic architecture as part of its boosterism to gain investment, to increase tourism and to attract the creative class. This battle over the symbolic representation of city dynamism, architectural identity and market competitiveness is expressed in discourses and visual signs in space—be it cyberspace, on location, in newspapers or debates. The articulation of representations and meaning can produce conflicts which show the voids, ruptures, and rational generatives at play. This article will exemplify how actors' use of a specific spatial dispositif of visibility and legibility may be intertwined with particular discourses on community, architectural heritage and identity of place. Two cases are chosen, the first concerns resistance towards high-rise buildings and the second concerns a current debate about the development of a 'metropol-zone'. Both cases concern Copenhagen. The signifying dispositifs (content, argument, rationality) in each case will be identified and the paper will emphasise how certain dispositifs of the visible and the arguable become strategically intertwined through symbolic, visual and virtual representations of the wrongs of current urban planning

PlØger, John

2010-01-01

235

Kernel polynomial representation of imaginary-time Green's functions  

CERN Document Server

Inspired by the recent proposed Legendre orthogonal polynomial representation of imaginary-time Green's functions, we develop an alternate representation for the Green's functions of quantum impurity models and combine it with the hybridization expansion continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo impurity solver. This representation is based on the kernel polynomial method, which introduces various integral kernels to filter fluctuations caused by the explicit truncations of polynomial expansion series and improve the computational precision significantly. As an illustration of the new representation, we reexamine the imaginary-time Green's functions of single-band Hubbard model in the framework of dynamical mean-field theory. The calculated results suggest that with carefully chosen integral kernels the Gibbs oscillations found in previous orthogonal polynomial representation have been suppressed vastly and remarkable corrections to the measured Green's functions have been obtained.

Huang, Li

2012-01-01

236

Visual field  

Science.gov (United States)

... Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam: This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider sits directly ...

237

Accuracy and Precision of Matching Inspired Lung Volume.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three questions were asked: How accurately can lung volumes be reproduced. Do the underlying sensory continua of inspired lung volume subscribe to Weber's law. Are planned inspirations more accurately reproduced than constrained inspirations. The ability ...

J. A. Gliner, L. J. Folinsbee, S. M. Horvath

1981-01-01

238

Visual Perception versus Visual Function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disfunctions are drawn between visual perception and visual function, and four optometrists respond with further analysis of the visual perception-visual function controversy and its implications for children with learning problems. (CL)

Lieberman, Laurence M.

1984-01-01

239

Bio-inspired method and system for actionable intelligence  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a bio-inspired VISion based actionable INTelligence system (VISINT) that provides automated capabilities to (1) understand objects, patterns, events and behaviors in vision data; (2) translate this understanding into timely recognition of novel and anomalous entities; and (3) discover underlying hierarchies and relationships between disparate labels entered by multiple users to provide a consistent data representation. VISINT is both a system and a novel collection of novel bio-inspired algorithms/modules. These modules can be used independently for various aspects of the actionable intelligence problem or sequenced together for an end-to-end actionable intelligence system. The algorithms can be useful in many other applications such as scene understanding, behavioral analysis, automatic surveillance systems, etc. The bio-inspired algorithms are a novel combination of hierarchical spatial and temporal networks based on the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART). The novel aspects of this work are that it is an end-to-end system for actionable intelligence that combines existing and novel implementations of various modules in innovative ways to develop a system concept for actionable intelligence. Although there are other algorithms/implementations of several of the modules in VISINT, they suffer from various limitations and often system integration is not considered. The overall VISINT system can be viewed an incremental learning system where no offline training is required and data from multiple sources and times can be seamlessly integrated. The user is in the loop, but due to the semi-supervised nature of the underlying algorithms, only significant variations of entities, not all false alarms, are shown to the user. It does not forget the past even with new learning. While VISINT is designed as a vision-based system, it could also work with other kinds of sensor data that can recognize and locate individual objects in the scene. Beyond that stage of object recognition and localization, all aspects of VISINT are applicable to other kinds of sensor data.

Khosla, Deepak; Chelian, Suhas E.

2009-05-01

240

Versatile biologically inspired electronic neuron  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a biologically inspired electronic neuron based on a conductance model. The channels are constructed using linearly voltage controlled field effect transistors. A two channel and a three channel circuit is developed. The dynamical behavior of this system is studied, showing for the two channel circuit either class-I or class-II excitability and for the three channel circuit bursting and spike frequency adaptation. Voltage-clamp-type measurements, similar to the ones frequently used in neuroscience, are employed in order to determine the conductance characteristics of the electronic channels. We develop an empirical model based on these measurements that reproduces the different dynamical behaviors of the electronic neuron. We found that post-inhibitory rebound is present in the two channel circuit. Reliability and precision of spike timing is induced in the three channel circuit by injecting noise in the control variable of the slow channel that provides a negative feedback. The circuit is appropriate for the design of large scale electronic neural devices that can be used in mixed electronic-biological systems.

Sitt, Jacobo D.; Aliaga, J.

2007-11-01

 
 
 
 
241

Fracture Mechanics: Inspirations from Nature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Nature there are many examples of materials performing structural functions. Nature requires materials which are stiff and strong to provide support against various forces, including self-weight, the dynamic forces involved in movement, and external loads such as wind or the actions of a predator. These materials and structures have evolved over millions of years; the science of Biomimetics seeks to understand Nature and, as a result, to find inspiration for the creation of better engineering solutions. There has been relatively little fundamental research work in this area from a fracture mechanics point of view. Natural materials are quite brittle and, as a result, they have evolved several interesting strategies for preventing failure by crack propagation. Fatigue is also a major problem for many animals and plants. In this paper, several examples will be given of recent work in the Bioengineering Research Centre at Trinity College Dublin, investigating fracture and fatigue in such diverse materials as bamboo, the legs and wings of insects, and living cells.

David Taylor

2014-10-01

242

Inspired at a book fair  

CERN Multimedia

During the Frankfurt book fair last October, the CERN stand drew quite the crowd. Director-General Rolf Heuer was there to promote CERN’s mission and the "LHC: the Large Hadron Collider" book. He met a lot of visitors and for one of them there was also a nice follow-up…   Marcus and his father visiting the LINAC facility. Fifteen year-old Marcus lives in Lauterecken near Frankfurt. The popular book fair last autumn was for him a nice opportunity to get in touch with the CERN environment. Inspired by the stand and what the CERN people were describing, he started to ask more and more questions… So many, that Rolf Heuer decided to invite him to come to CERN and find out some of the answers for himself. A few weeks later, while recovering from an exciting visit to the ATLAS underground cavern and other CERN installations with a cup of tea in Restaurant 1, Marcus shared his enthusiasm about the Organization: “When I was younger, my moth...

Anaïs Schaeffer

2012-01-01

243

Biologically Inspired Phosphino Platinum Complexes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Platinum complexes containing phosphino amino acid and amino acid ester ligands, built upon the PPhNR’2 platform, have been synthesized and characterized (PPhNR’2= [1,3-diaza]-5-phenyl phosphacyclohexane, R’=glycine or glycine ester). These complexes were characterized by 31P, 13C, 1H, 195Pt NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the complexes, [PtCl2(PPhNGlyester 2)2], is also reported. These biologically inspired ligands have potential use in homogeneous catalysis, with special applications in chiral chemistry and water soluble chemistry. These complexes also provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached, to allow the introduction of enzyme-like features onto small molecule catalysts. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Jain, Avijita; Helm, Monte L.; Linehan, John C.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2012-08-01

244

Gravitational Radiation Timescales for Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals  

Science.gov (United States)

The capture and inspiral of compact stellar objects into massive black holes is an important source of low-frequency gravitational waves (with frequencies ~1-100 mHz), such as those that might be detected by the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Simulations of stellar clusters designed to study this problem typically rely on simple treatments of the black hole encounter that neglect some important features of orbits around black holes, such as the minimum radii of stable, nonplunging orbits. Incorporating an accurate representation of the orbital dynamics near a black hole has been avoided due to the large computational overhead. This paper provides new, more accurate expressions for the energy and angular momentum lost by a compact object during a parabolic encounter with a nonspinning black hole, and the subsequent inspiral lifetime. These results improve on the Keplerian expressions that are now commonly used and will allow efficient computational simulations to be performed that account for the relativistic nature of the spacetime around the central black hole in the system.

Gair, Jonathan R.; Kennefick, Daniel J.; Larson, Shane L.

2006-03-01

245

Gravitational radiation timescales for extreme mass ratio inspirals  

CERN Document Server

The capture and inspiral of compact stellar masses into massive black holes is an important source of low-frequency gravitational waves (with frequencies of ~1-100mHz), such as those that might be detected by the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Simulations of stellar clusters designed to study this problem typically rely on simple treatments of the black hole encounter which neglect some important features of orbits around black holes, such as the minimum radii of stable, non-plunging orbits. Incorporating an accurate representation of the orbital dynamics near a black hole has been avoided due to the large computational overhead. This paper provides new, more accurate, expressions for the energy and angular momentum lost by a compact object during a parabolic encounter with a non-spinning black hole, and the subsequent inspiral lifetime. These results improve on the Keplerian expressions which are now commonly used and will allow efficient computational simulations to be performed that acc...

Gair, J R; Larson, S L; Gair, Jonathan R; Kennefick, Daniel J; Larson, Shane L

2006-01-01

246

Neural Schematics as a unified formal graphical representation of large-scale Neural Network Structures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the major outcomes of neuroscientific research are models of Neural Network Structures. Descriptions of these models usually consist of a non-standardized mixture of text, figures, and other means of visual information communication in print media. However, as neuroscience is an interdisciplinary domain by nature, a standardized way of consistently representing models of Neural Network Structures is required. While generic descriptions of such models in textual form have recently been developed, a formalized way of schematically expressing them does not exist to date. Hence, in this paper we present Neural Schematics as a concept inspired by similar approaches from other disciplines for a generic two dimensional representation of said structures. After introducing Neural Network Structures in general, a set of current visualizations of models of Neural Network Structures is reviewed and analyzed for what information they convey and how their elements are rendered. This analysis then allows for the definition of general items and symbols to consistently represent these models as Neural Schematics on a two dimensional plane. We will illustrate the possibilities an agreed upon standard can yield on sampled diagrams transformed into Neural Schematics and an example application for the design and modeling of large-scale Neural Network Structures.

MatthiasEhrlich

2013-10-01

247

Biologically inspired silicon vocal tract  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electrical circuit models of biological systems provide an intuitive mechanism for engineers' understanding and are increasingly used to improve the performance of related technology. For example, visual processing performed by the retina can be modeled by a resistive network of interconnected photodetectors and analog processing elements. Complex bio-mechanical systems such as the heart, cochlea, and vocal tract can be modeled using electrical circuits by mapping pressure to voltage, volume ...

Wee, Keng Hoong; Turicchia, Lorenzo; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

2010-01-01

248

SAR image despeckling based on sparse representation  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on sparse representation, a new novel SAR image despeckling algorithm (SR) associate with the feature of SAR image is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has capabilities of denoising and preserving edge and texture features. Moreover, it outperforms the four traditional denoising methods in speckle smoothing, edge and texture preservation and visual assessment.

Zhao, Yang; Wang, Shuang; Jiao, Licheng; Li, Kun

2007-11-01

249

Visual Learning in Application of Integration  

Science.gov (United States)

Innovative use of technology can improve the way how Mathematics should be taught. It can enhance student's learning the concepts through visualization. Visualization in Mathematics refers to us of texts, pictures, graphs and animations to hold the attention of the learners in order to learn the concepts. This paper describes the use of a developed multimedia courseware as an effective tool for visual learning mathematics. The focus is on the application of integration which is a topic in Engineering Mathematics 2. The course is offered to the foundation students in the Universiti Teknologi of PETRONAS. Questionnaire has been distributed to get a feedback on the visual representation and students' attitudes towards using visual representation as a learning tool. The questionnaire consists of 3 sections: Courseware Design (Part A), courseware usability (Part B) and attitudes towards using the courseware (Part C). The results showed that students demonstrated the use of visual representation has benefited them in learning the topic.

Bt Shafie, Afza; Barnachea Janier, Josefina; Bt Wan Ahmad, Wan Fatimah

250

Cultural representation and self-representation of dagongmei in contemporary China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the 1980s, working women migrant labourers, known as the dagongmei or “working sisters,” emerged as an object of interest in popular films and television dramas. These initial visual representations have since been reiterated in sequels adjusted to fit best the current rhetoric of the party-state. Concurrent to the mass media is the less-widespread phenomenon of labourer’s literature (dagong wenxue), through which we can read the dagongmei’s own (self-) representations. Eventually,...

Jaguscik, J.

2011-01-01

251

Orienting Attention to Sound Object Representations Attenuates Change Deafness  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the object-based account of attention, multiple objects coexist in short-term memory (STM), and we can selectively attend to a particular object of interest. Although there is evidence that attention can be directed to visual object representations, the assumption that attention can be oriented to sound object representations has yet…

Backer, Kristina C.; Alain, Claude

2012-01-01

252

Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement: Implementation  

Science.gov (United States)

Method and system for enhancing or extending visual representation of a selected region of a visual image, where visual representation is interfered with or distorted, by supplementing a visual signal with at least one audio signal having one or more audio signal parameters that represent one or more visual image parameters, such as vertical and/or horizontal location of the region; region brightness; dominant wavelength range of the region; change in a parameter value that characterizes the visual image, with respect to a reference parameter value; and time rate of change in a parameter value that characterizes the visual image. Region dimensions can be changed to emphasize change with time of a visual image parameter.

Maluf, A. David (Inventor)

2011-01-01

253

Acquisition of color opponent representation by a three-layered neural network model.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses color representation in the visual system by analysis of a three-layered neural network model. The model incorporates physiological knowledge of color representation at the sensor level (broad-band trichromatic representation by cones) and the higher level (narrow-band color representation by color-coded cells in V4). We trained the model to perform a mapping between these color representations by the back propagation algorithm and analyzed the acquired characteristics of the hidden units. It turned out that the hidden units learned characteristics similar to those of the color opponent cells found in the visual system. It was concluded that the R-G and Y-B color opponent representations reflect the efficiency of the color representation in the visual system from investigations on the efficiency of color representation in the hidden layer and on the capability of the color recognition task of the model. PMID:7880913

Usui, S; Nakauchi, S; Miyake, S

1994-01-01

254

Visualizing abstract objects and relations  

CERN Document Server

Pictorial representations are very useful for humans to understand complicated relations or structures. This is the reason that the user interface of information systems is strongly required to visualize many kinds of information in a wide variety of graphical forms. At present, however, only some very specialized visualization techniques have been developed probably because the generality in the visualization has not been appreciated correctly. This book presents a visualization framework for translating abstract objects and relations, typically represented in textual forms, into pictorial re

Kamada, Tomihisa

1989-01-01

255

The greenhouse effect visualizer: a tool for the science classroom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Greenhouse Effect Visualizer (GEV) is designed to help students visualize data sets related to the earth's energy balance. This work was inspired by the benefits scientific visualization have provided to scientists in discovering patterns and presenting the results of their work to broad communities. The hope is that scientific visualization can provide equal assistance to students trying to learn science. The philosophy underlying this approach links learning with practice. Hence, studen...

Gordin, Douglas N.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Pea, Roy D.

1995-01-01

256

AER synthetic generation in hardware for bio-inspired spiking systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) to read AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualize it on screen, and (b) convert conventional frame-based video stream in the computer into AER and inject it at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for test and debugging of complex AER systems. This paper addresses the problem of converting, in a computer, a conventional frame-based video stream into the spike event based representation AER. There exist several proposed software methods for synthetic generation of AER for bio-inspired systems. This paper presents a hardware implementation for one method, which is based on Linear-Feedback-Shift-Register (LFSR) pseudo-random number generation. The sequence of events generated by this hardware, which follows a Poisson distribution like a biological neuron, has been reconstructed using two AER integrator cells. The error of reconstruction for a set of images that produces different traffic loads of event in the AER bus is used as evaluation criteria. A VHDL description of the method, that includes the Xilinx PCI Core, has been implemented and tested using a general purpose PCI-AER board. This PCI-AER board has been developed by authors, and uses a Spartan II 200 FPGA. This system for AER Synthetic Generation is capable of transforming frames of 64x64 pixels, received through a standard computer PCI bus, at a frame rate of 25 frames per second, producing spike events at a peak rate of 107 events per second.

Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Civit-Balcells, Anton

2005-06-01

257

Visualizing without Vision at the Microscale: Students with Visual Impairments Explore Cells with Touch  

Science.gov (United States)

Science instruction is typically highly dependent on visual representations of scientific concepts that are communicated through textbooks, teacher presentations, and computer-based multimedia materials. Little is known about how students with visual impairments access and interpret these types of visually-dependent instructional materials. This…

Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Oppewal, Tom; Cook, Michelle P.; Broadwell, Bethany

2006-01-01

258

Bio-inspired dynamic robots  

Science.gov (United States)

The unique performance of biological systems across a wide spectrum of phylogenetic species has historically provided inspirations for roboticists in new designs and fabrication of new robotic platforms. Of particular interest to a number of important applications is to create dynamic robots able to adapt to a change in their world, unplanned events that are sometimes unexpected, and sometimes unstable, harsh conditions. It is likely that the exploring dynamics in biological systems will continue to provide rich solutions to attaining robots capable of more complex tasks for this purpose. This is because the long-term design process of evolution utilizes a natural selection process that responds to such changes. Recently, there have been significant advances across a number of interdisciplinary efforts that have generated new capabilities in biorobotics. Whole body dynamics that capture the force dynamics and functional stability of legged systems over rough terrain have been elucidated and applied in legged robotic systems. Exploying the force dynamics of flapping winged insect flight has provided key discoveries and enabled the fabrication of new micro air vehicles. New classes of materials are being developed that emulate the ability of natural muscle, capturing the compliant and soft subtle movement and performance of biological appendages. In addition, classes of new multifunctional materials are being developed to enable the design of biorobotics with the structural and functional efficiency of living organisms. Optical flow and other sensors based on the principles of invertebrate vision have been implemented on robotic platforms for autonomous robotic guidance and control. These fundamental advances have resulted in the emergence of a new generation of bioinspired dynamic robots which show significant performance improvements in early prototype testing and that could someday be useful in a number of significant applications such as search and rescue and entertainment.

Rudolph, Alan S.; Wax, Steven G.; Christodoulou, Leo

2003-09-01

259

Development of OA Abroad and Its Inspirations  

Science.gov (United States)

This study introduces the concept and characteristics of open access (OA), analyses the status quo and development of OA in foreign countries, and discusses its inspiration to its future development in China.

Bi, Jing

2010-01-01

260

Biologically inspired technology using electroactive polymers (EAP)  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolution allowed nature to introduce highly effective biological mechanisms that are incredible inspiration for innovation. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature's inventions and we are increasingly making advances that it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. This brought us to the ability to create technology that is far beyond the simple mimicking of nature. Having better tools to understand and to implement nature's principles we are now equipped like never before to be inspired by nature and to employ our tools in far superior ways. Effectively, by bio-inspiration we can have a better view and value of nature capability while studying its models to learn what can be extracted, copied or adapted. Using electroactive polymers (EAP) as artificial muscles is adding an important element to the development of biologically inspired technologies. This paper reviews the various aspects of the field of biomimetics and the role that EAP plays and the field outlook.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

2006-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

Bar-Cohen, Y.

2001-01-01

262

Canonical Visual Size for Real-World Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

Real-world objects can be viewed at a range of distances and thus can be experienced at a range of visual angles within the visual field. Given the large amount of visual size variation possible when observing objects, we examined how internal object representations represent visual size information. In a series of experiments which required…

Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

2011-01-01

263

Applied research in auditory data representation  

Science.gov (United States)

A class of data displays, characterized generally as Auditory Data Representation, is described and motivated. This type of data representation takes advantage of the tremendous pattern recognition capability of the human auditory channel. Audible displays offer an alternative means of conveying quantitative data to the analyst to facilitate information extraction, and are successfully used alone and in conjunction with visual displays. The Auditory Data Representation literature is reviewed, along with elements of the allied fields of investigation, Psychoacoustics and Musical Perception. A methodology for applied research in this field, based upon the well-developed discipline of psychophysics, is elaborated using a recent experiment as a case study. This method permits objective estimation of a data representation technique by comparing it to alternative displays for the pattern recognition task at hand. The psychophysical threshold of signal to noise level, for constant pattern recognition performance, is the measure of display effectiveness.

Frysinger, Steve P.

1990-08-01

264

Visualizing guided tours  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper identifies several problems with navigating and visualizing guided tours in traditional hypermedia systems. We discuss solutions to these problems, including the representation of guided tours as 3D metro maps with content preview. Issues regarding navigation and disorientation are addressed and we suggest a combination of the metro map and an intuitive navigation system. Finally we present a prototype (Webvise3D) which implements our ideas.

Poulsen, Signe Herbers; Fjord-Larsen, Mads

265

Towards Dense Visual SLAM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) is concerned with simultaneously estimating the pose of a camera and a map of the environment from a sequence of images. Traditionally, sparse maps comprising isolated point features have been employed, which facilitate robust localisation but are not well suited to advanced applications. In this thesis, we present map representations that allow a more dense description of the environment. In one approach, planar features are used to repr...

Pietzsch, Tobias

2011-01-01

266

Parametric Dense Visual SLAM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Existing work in the field of monocular Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) has largely centred around sparse feature-based representations of the world. By tracking salient image patches across many frames of video, both the positions of the features and the motion of the camera can be inferred live. Within the visual SLAM community, there has been a focus on both increasing the number of features that can be tracked across an image and efficiently managing and ad...

Lovegrove, Steven

2012-01-01

267

Visual Analysis of Behaviour  

CERN Document Server

This book presents a comprehensive treatment of visual analysis of behaviour from computational-modelling and algorithm-design perspectives. This title: covers learning-group activity models, unsupervised behaviour profiling, hierarchical behaviour discovery, learning behavioural context, modelling rare behaviours, and 'man-in-the-loop' active learning; examines multi-camera behaviour correlation, person re-identification, and 'connecting-the-dots' for abnormal behaviour detection; discusses Bayesian information criterion, Bayesian networks, 'bag-of-words' representation, canonical correlation

Gong, Shaogang

2011-01-01

268

Flood Visualizations  

Science.gov (United States)

A lengthy listing of all of NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio visualizations that have flood as a keyword. The listing includes many visualizations of specific flood instances, as well as visualizations of floods caused by hurricanes. The visualizations are available in a wide variety of formats.

Svs, Nasa G.; Nasa

269

Hierarchical aggregation for information visualization: overview, techniques, and design guidelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a model for building, visualizing, and interacting with multiscale representations of information visualization techniques using hierarchical aggregation. The motivation for this work is to make visual representations more visually scalable and less cluttered. The model allows for augmenting existing techniques with multiscale functionality, as well as for designing new visualization and interaction techniques that conform to this new class of visual representations. We give some examples of how to use the model for standard information visualization techniques such as scatterplots, parallel coordinates, and node-link diagrams, and discuss existing techniques that are based on hierarchical aggregation. This yields a set of design guidelines for aggregated visualizations. We also present a basic vocabulary of interaction techniques suitable for navigating these multiscale visualizations. PMID:20224139

Elmqvist, Niklas; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

2010-01-01

270

Visual memory transformations in dyslexia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Representational Momentum refers to observers' distortion of recognition memory for pictures that imply motion because of an automatic mental process which extrapolates along the implied trajectory of the picture. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that activity in the magnocellular visual pathway is necessary for representational momentum to occur. It has been proposed that individuals with dyslexia have a magnocellular deficit, so it was hypothesised that these individuals would show reduced or absent representational momentum. In this study, 30 adults with dyslexia and 30 age-matched controls were compared on two tasks, one linear and one rotation, which had previously elicited the representational momentum effect. Analysis indicated significant differences in the performance of the two groups, with the dyslexia group having a reduced susceptibility to representational momentum in both linear and rotational directions. The findings highlight that deficits in temporal spatial processing may contribute to the perceptual profile of dyslexia. PMID:17688144

Barnes, James; Hinkley, Lisa; Masters, Stuart; Boubert, Laura

2007-06-01

271

Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects related to amino acid enrichment and depletion. Besides allowing input in the format of peptides and MSA, Seq2Logo accepts input as Blast sequence profiles, providing easy access for non-expert end-users to characterize and identify functionally conserved/variable amino acids in any given protein of interest. The output from the server is a sequence logo and a PSSM. Seq2Logo is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/biotools/Seq2Logo (14 May 2012, date last accessed). PMID:22638583

Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten

2012-07-01

272

Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects related to amino acid enrichment and depletion. Besides allowing input in the format of peptides and MSA, Seq2Logo accepts input as Blast sequence profiles, providing easy access for non-expert end-users to characterize and identify functionally conserved/variable amino acids in any given protein of interest. The output from the server is a sequence logo and a PSSM. Seq2Logo is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/biotools/Seq2Logo (14 May 2012, date last accessed).

Thomsen, Martin Christen FrØlund; Nielsen, Morten

2012-01-01

273

Confidence, Visual Research, and the Aesthetic Function  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this article is to identify and describe one of the primary functions of aesthetic quality in the design of computer interfaces and visualization tools. We suggest that researchers in library and information science, computing science, and humanities computing can derive advantages in visual research by acknowledging – through their efforts to advance aesthetic quality – that a significant function of aesthetics in this context is to inspire the user’s confidence. This confi...

Milena Radzikowska; Stéfan Sinclair; Stan Ruecker

2007-01-01

274

Autonomous UAV persistent surveillance using bio-inspired strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Army Research Laboratory, the Engineer Research and Development Center, and IBM UK is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bioinspired techniques for autonomous search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data from heterogeneous sensor networks. The bio-inspired algorithm is based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. Field tests of a bio-inspired system that routed UAVs were conducted in June 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that such a system can autonomously detect and locate the source of terrestrial events with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In June 2011, field tests of the system were completed and include the use of multiple autonomously controlled UAVs, detection and disambiguation of multiple acoustic events occurring in short time frames, optimal sensor placement based on local phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA) Sensor Network Fabric. The system demonstrated TRL 6 performance in the field at Camp Roberts.

Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

2012-06-01

275

A bio-inspired image coder with temporal scalability  

CERN Document Server

We present a novel bio-inspired and dynamic coding scheme for static images. Our coder aims at reproducing the main steps of the visual stimulus processing in the mammalians retina taking into account its time behavior. The main novelty of this work is to show how to exploit the time behavior of the retina cells to ensure, in a simple way, scalability and bit allocation. To do so, our main source of inspiration will be the biologically plausible retina model called Virtual Retina. Following a similar structure, our model has two stages. The first stage is an image transform which is performed by the outer layers in the retina. Here it is modelled by filtering the image with a bank of difference of Gaussians with time-delays. The second stage is a time-dependent analog-to-digital conversion which is performed by the inner layers in the retina. Thanks to its conception, our coder enables scalability and bit allocation across time. Also, compared to the JPEG standards, our decoded images do not show annoying art...

Masmoudi, Khaled; Kornprobst, Pierre

2011-01-01

276

Automatic and strategic effects in the guidance of attention by working memory representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Theories of visual attention suggest that working memory representations automatically guide attention toward memory-matching objects. Some empirical tests of this prediction have produced results consistent with working memory automatically guiding attention. However, others have shown that individuals can strategically control whether working memory representations guide visual attention. Previous studies have not independently measured automatic and strategic contributions to the interacti...

Carlisle, Nancy B.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

2011-01-01

277

VISUO-HAPTIC MULTISENSORY OBJECT RECOGNITION, CATEGORIZATION, AND REPRESENTATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visual and haptic unisensory object processing show many similarities in terms of categorization, recognition, and representation. In this review, we discuss how these similarities contribute to multisensory object processing. In particular, we show that similar unisensory visual and haptic representations lead to a shared multisensory representation underlying both cross-modal object recognition and view-independence. This shared representation suggests a common neural substrate and we review several candidate brain regions, previously thought to be specialized for aspects of visual processing, that are now known also to be involved in analogous haptic tasks. Finally, we lay out the evidence for a model of multisensory object recognition in which top-down and bottom-up pathways to the object-selective lateral occipital complex are modulated by object familiarity and individual differences in object and spatial imagery.

SimonLacey

2014-07-01

278

Propulsive performance of oscillating batoid-inspired fins  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrust producing ray-like pectoral fins were actuated to drive a low friction carriage through a stationary tow tank. A DC servo motor powered a gear train that produced a traveling wave motion along the chord of the fin. The amplitude of the traveling wave increased linearly along the span from root to tip. A digital optical encoder attached to the carriage tracked the position and velocity as it was propelled through the water by the oscillating fin. Velocity profiles were acquired from trials using different planforms inspired by members of the eagle ray family, as well as an idealized elliptical fin. Traveling wave frequency and wavelength were varied to investigate the propulsive performance of different gaits. Preliminary flow visualization was also performed to describe the structure of the wakes generated by the various planform geometries and locomotory gaits.

Quinn, Daniel; Rein-Weston, Daphne; Dewey, Peter; Green, Melissa; Smits, Alexander

2009-11-01

279

Kittens! Inspired by Kittens! Undergraduate Theorists Inspired by YouTube  

Science.gov (United States)

A professor and students in an undergraduate honors research seminar were inspired to playfully link old and contemporary literacy theories to a 2.0 media artifact, the popular YouTube video Kittens! Inspired by Kittens! (KIbK) starring 6 year-old Maddie. In this article KIbK is theorized drawing on frames of school-based reading instruction,…

Anderson, Diane Downer; Lewis, Mark; Peterson, Sarah; Griggs, Samantha; Grubb, Gina; Singer, Nicole; Fried, Simone; Krone, Elizabeth; Elko, Leigh; Narang, Jasmine

2010-01-01

280

CT scans of the hypopharynx and larynx during inspiration, expiration, breath holding and phonation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CT scans of the hypopharynx and larynx during inspiration, expiration, breath holding and phonation of the letter E were performed on seven volunteers. Two mm contiguous scans were obtained to span the glottis and supraglottic area. The vocal cords were shown in the paramedian or median position on breath holding and phonation. The ditails of the arytenoid cartilages were better visualized with thin slices. The laryngeal ventricles were demonstrable on phonation scans. (author)

 
 
 
 
281

Capturing lived experiences in movement educational contexts through videographic participation and visual narratives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explores and reflects upon possibilities and challenges of using “videographic participation” (Svendler Nielsen 2009a) as a research method combining filmic ethnography (Møhl 2003) and phenomenology (van Manen 1990; Todres 2007) in movement educational contexts. The research method helps visualizing and communicating the meaning-making of the participants and emphasizes the role of the researcher’s embodied involvement when ‘looking for lived experiences’. The paper exemplifies the use of videographic participation and presents (audio)visual narratives from two educational contexts: children in a primary school participating in a collaboration with a professional dance company and youngsters ages 18-26 doing contemporary circus training. Both studies use film as a knowledge creating practice (Møhl 2003) in combination with a hermeneutic-phenomenological analysis (van Manen 1990) to cast light on ways of understanding embodied learning. The use of videographic participation in the two contexts of educational practice are explored, compared and discussed. On an overall methodological level it is discussed how it is possible to capture lived experiences in fields of movement education by use of videographic participation and what the challenges of ‘looking for lived experiences’ in movement can be. Inspired by Performative Social Science (Jones et al. 2008; Gergen and Jones 2008) the paper exemplifies and discusses (re)presentation of research data in artistic forms by highlighting the question of how meaning-making of the participants can be captured and disseminated through (audio)visual narratives.

DegerbØl, Stine Mikés; Svendler Nielsen, Charlotte

282

BIOCHEMISTRY: A Postgenomic Visual Icon  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. A decade of experience in visualizing large-scale genotypic and phenotypic data as graphical representations called "clustered heat maps" has illuminated the strengths and limitations of the approach.

John N. Weinstein (M. D. Anderson Cancer Center;Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology)

2008-03-28

283

Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons' responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene. PMID:20428507

Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

2010-01-01

284

Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons’ responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene.

NikosKLogothetis

2010-04-01

285

Visual Training for Sustainable Forest Management  

Science.gov (United States)

It is increasingly important for timber companies to train managers in the principles and practices of sustainable forest management. One of the most effective ways to conduct such training is through use of visual training methods. This is partly because visual representations encode large amounts of information and help learners to grasp…

Aik, Chong-Tek; Tway, Duane C.

2004-01-01

286

Olfaction spontaneously highlights visual saliency map.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention is intrinsic to our perceptual representations of sensory inputs. Best characterized in the visual domain, it is typically depicted as a spotlight moving over a saliency map that topographically encodes strengths of visual features and feedback modulations over the visual scene. By introducing smells to two well-established attentional paradigms, the dot-probe and the visual-search paradigms, we find that a smell reflexively directs attention to the congruent visual image and facilitates visual search of that image without the mediation of visual imagery. Furthermore, such effect is independent of, and can override, top-down bias. We thus propose that smell quality acts as an object feature whose presence enhances the perceptual saliency of that object, thereby guiding the spotlight of visual attention. Our discoveries provide robust empirical evidence for a multimodal saliency map that weighs not only visual but also olfactory inputs. PMID:23945694

Chen, Kepu; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Shan; He, Sheng; Zhou, Wen

2013-10-01

287

Social representations of women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social Representations is one of the most important theories in contemporary social psychology. Since the social psychologist Serge Moscovici developed his theory of social representations to explain how a scientific theory such as the psychoanalysis turns into a common sense knowledge many studies have been done by different social psychologists. The analysis of the social representations of women as represented in myths and popular beliefs is an excellent opportunity to study how this theor...

A?lvaro Estramiana, Jose? Luis; Ferna?ndez Ruiz, Beatriz

2006-01-01

288

An Adaptive Quantum-inspired Differential Evolution Algorithm for 0-1 Knapsack Problem  

CERN Document Server

Differential evolution (DE) is a population based evolutionary algorithm widely used for solving multidimensional global optimization problems over continuous spaces. However, the design of its operators makes it unsuitable for many real-life constrained combinatorial optimization problems which operate on binary space. On the other hand, the quantum inspired evolutionary algorithm (QEA) is very well suitable for handling such problems by applying several quantum computing techniques such as Q-bit representation and rotation gate operator, etc. This paper extends the concept of differential operators with adaptive parameter control to the quantum paradigm and proposes the adaptive quantum-inspired differential evolution algorithm (AQDE). The performance of AQDE is found to be significantly superior as compared to QEA and a discrete version of DE on the standard 0-1 knapsack problem for all the considered test cases.

Hota, Ashish Ranjan

2011-01-01

289

Matrix representation of supersymmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A matrix representation of the supersymmetry is introduced, based on the superfield formulation. The group structure of the finite supertransformations is shown to be closely connected with this representation, and a 16-component covariant derivative is naturally introduced in this context. Applying this representation to the supersymmetric gauge theory we calculate some supergraphs and get the results which agree with those obtained by using the superfield method. The calculations in our representation are, however, considerably simplified compared with the superfield ones. Moreover, it is shown in the one loop level that the cancellation of the ultraviolet divergences of the supergraphs is due to the structure of the finite supertransformations. (author)

290

Social representations of women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social Representations is one of the most important theories in contemporary social psychology. Since the social psychologist Serge Moscovici developed his theory of social representations to explain how a scientific theory such as the psychoanalysis turns into a common sense knowledge many studies have been done by different social psychologists. The analysis of the social representations of women as represented in myths and popular beliefs is an excellent opportunity to study how this theory can be applied to this representational field. At the same time it makes possible to understand the formation of attitudes towards women

Álvaro Estramiana, José Luis

2006-05-01

291

Software Project Visualization Using Task Oriented Metaphors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents T-Cube and MetroMap, two new graphical representation models for controlling and managing the processes of software project development. They both use metaphors and visual representation techniques to address typical project management tasks. T-Cube uses a metaphor with the Rubik-Cube whereas MetroMap uses a metaphor with a metro map. The tools have been tested on real project data and a qualitative assessment shows the results of testing the visualizations with users attempting several information retrieval tasks. The utility of the tools has been positively evaluated and the article demonstrates the possibilities of visual approaches in project management.

José Javier Dolado Cosín

2010-11-01

292

An investigation of the effective aspects of multiple external representations for students learning chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine how students used various multiple visual and auditory external representations to develop their understanding of limiting reagents. Specifically I sought to identify the representations that were useful, and then the particular characteristics that made those representations effective in helping students create their understanding. The investigation used the Synchronized Multiple Visualizations of Chemistry (SMV Chem) program. SMV Chem allowed learners to use five external representations (4 visual, 1 auditory) of a given chemistry topic in any order or combination that they chose. The four visual external representations consisted of a real time video of a chemical reaction (macroscopic level of understanding), a computer animation of the reaction (microscopic symbolic level), a graphical representation (macroscopic symbolic level), and a text representation (verbal text level) of a mathematical problem concerning limiting reagents. Each visual external representation had an accompanying audio track (verbal auditory level) to narrate the action that occurred during the representation that could be selected or not, according to the user's choice. This module was chosen because the topic of limiting reagents as presented in this module provided students with the opportunity to explore the various levels as presented by the representations in developing their understanding of the chemistry. Through interviews with 12 participants, several trends emerged in terms of the representations and their use. Each representation was found be helpful for creating understanding about a certain part of the overall concept of limiting reagents. Difficulties arose for the participants in terms of cognitive constraints; when cognitive functions were overloaded, due to complexity or the amount of information presented, they were not able to create an understanding. Conversely, specific combinations and aspects of the representations supported cognitive functions and the creation of an understanding. Overall, the participants felt that the use of computer visualizations was beneficial.

Postek, Brian

293

Configuration space representation in parallel coordinates  

Science.gov (United States)

By means of a system of parallel coordinates, a nonprojective mapping from R exp N to R squared is obtained for any positive integer N. In this way multivariate data and relations can be represented in the Euclidean plane (embedded in the projective plane). Basically, R squared with Cartesian coordinates is augmented by N parallel axes, one for each variable. The N joint variables of a robotic device can be represented graphically by using parallel coordinates. It is pointed out that some properties of the relation are better perceived visually from the parallel coordinate representation, and that new algorithms and data structures can be obtained from this representation. The main features of parallel coordinates are described, and an example is presented of their use for configuration space representation of a mechanical arm (where Cartesian coordinates cannot be used).

Fiorini, Paolo; Inselberg, Alfred

1989-01-01

294

Art Works ... when Students Find Inspiration  

Science.gov (United States)

Artworks are not produced in a vacuum, but by the interaction of experiences, and interrelationships of ideas, perceptions and feelings acknowledged and expressed in some form. Students, like mature artists, may be inspired and motivated by their memories and observations of their surroundings. Like adult artists, students may find that their own…

Herberholz, Barbara

2011-01-01

295

Finding Inspiration in Middle School General Music  

Science.gov (United States)

Middle school general music programs can be vibrant, exciting places, where students are inspired to learn more about music and themselves. In this article, the author discusses how to work with rather than against adolescents' age-appropriate characteristics when planning "content", "process", "assessment", and "classroom environment". Then, she…

McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

2011-01-01

296

Basket Weaving Inspired by the Gullah  

Science.gov (United States)

Many different cultures created and used the basket not only for utilitarian purposes, but also for ceremonial uses. In this article, the author describes an eighth-grade project inspired by the basket making of the Gullah people, who live along the coast of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

Baker, Rita

2010-01-01

297

Pop Art--Inspired Self-Portraits  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author describes an art lesson that was inspired by Andy Warhol's mass-produced portraits. Warhol began his career as a graphic artist and illustrator. His artwork was a response to the redundancy of the advertising images put in front of the American public. Celebrities and famous people in magazines and newspapers were seen…

Goodwin, Donna J.

2011-01-01

298

Neutrino masses in the superstring inspired models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the superstring inspired models, neutrino masses are examined in the multi-generation cases. Mass patterns of neutrinos have been worked out in the minimum models. It has been shown by using the extended see-saw mechanism that at least one of neutrinos has relatively larger mass than those predicted in the ordinary GUTs. (author)

299

Inspired by Athletes, Myths, and Poets  

Science.gov (United States)

Tales of love and hate, of athleticism, heroism, devotion to gods and goddesses that influenced myth and culture are a way of sharing ancient Greece's rich history. In this article, the author describes how her students created their own Greek-inspired clay vessels as artifacts of their study. (Contains 6 online resources.)

Melvin, Samantha

2010-01-01

300

Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and other cephalopods exhibit exceptional capabilities for visually adapting to or differentiating from the coloration and texture of their surroundings, for the purpose of concealment, communication, predation, and reproduction. Long-standing interest in and emerging understanding of the underlying ultrastructure, physiological control, and photonic interactions has recently led to efforts in the construction of artificial systems that have key attributes found in the skins of these organisms. Despite several promising options in active materials for mimicking biological color tuning, existing routes to integrated systems do not include critical capabilities in distributed sensing and actuation. Research described here represents progress in this direction, demonstrated through the construction, experimental study, and computational modeling of materials, device elements, and integration schemes for cephalopod-inspired flexible sheets that can autonomously sense and adapt to the coloration of their surroundings. These systems combine high-performance, multiplexed arrays of actuators and photodetectors in laminated, multilayer configurations on flexible substrates, with overlaid arrangements of pixelated, color-changing elements. The concepts provide realistic routes to thin sheets that can be conformally wrapped onto solid objects to modulate their visual appearance, with potential relevance to consumer, industrial, and military applications. PMID:25136094

Yu, Cunjiang; Li, Yuhang; Zhang, Xun; Huang, Xian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Wang, Shuodao; Shi, Yan; Gao, Li; Su, Yewang; Zhang, Yihui; Xu, Hangxun; Hanlon, Roger T; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Are visual dictionaries generalizable?  

CERN Document Server

Mid-level features based on visual dictionaries are today a cornerstone of systems for classification and retrieval of images. Those state-of-the-art representations depend crucially on the choice of a codebook (visual dictionary), which is usually derived from the dataset. In general-purpose, dynamic image collections (e.g., the Web), one cannot have the entire collection in order to extract a representative dictionary. However, based on the hypothesis that the dictionary reflects only the diversity of low-level appearances and does not capture semantics, we argue that a dictionary based on a small subset of the data, or even on an entirely different dataset, is able to produce a good representation, provided that the chosen images span a diverse enough portion of the low-level feature space. Our experiments confirm that hypothesis, opening the opportunity to greatly alleviate the burden in generating the codebook, and confirming the feasibility of employing visual dictionaries in large-scale dynamic environ...

Penatti, Otavio A B; Torres, Ricardo da S

2012-01-01

302

The importance of visual features in generic vs. specialized object recognition: a computational study.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is debated whether the representation of objects in inferior temporal (IT) cortex is distributed over activities of many neurons or there are restricted islands of neurons responsive to a specific set of objects. There are lines of evidence demonstrating that fusiform face area (FFA-in human) processes information related to specialized object recognition (here we say within category object recognition such as face identification). Physiological studies have also discovered several patches in monkey ventral temporal lobe that are responsible for facial processing. Neuronal recording from these patches shows that neurons are highly selective for face images whereas for other objects we do not see such selectivity in IT. However, it is also well-supported that objects are encoded through distributed patterns of neural activities that are distinctive for each object category. It seems that visual cortex utilize different mechanisms for between category object recognition (e.g., face vs. non-face objects) vs. within category object recognition (e.g., two different faces). In this study, we address this question with computational simulations. We use two biologically inspired object recognition models and define two experiments which address these issues. The models have a hierarchical structure of several processing layers that simply simulate visual processing from V1 to aIT. We show, through computational modeling, that the difference between these two mechanisms of recognition can underlie the visual feature and extraction mechanism. It is argued that in order to perform generic and specialized object recognition, visual cortex must separate the mechanisms involved in within category from between categories object recognition. High recognition performance in within category object recognition can be guaranteed when class-specific features with intermediate size and complexity are extracted. However, generic object recognition requires a distributed universal dictionary of visual features in which the size of features does not have significant difference. PMID:25202259

Ghodrati, Masoud; Rajaei, Karim; Ebrahimpour, Reza

2014-01-01

303

Visualization of Mined Pattern and Its Human Aspects  

CERN Document Server

Researchers got success in mining the Web usage data effectively and efficiently. But representation of the mined patterns is often not in a form suitable for direct human consumption. Hence mechanisms and tools that can represent mined patterns in easily understandable format are utilized. Different techniques are used for pattern analysis, one of them is visualization. Visualization can provide valuable assistance for data analysis and decision making tasks. In the data visualization process, technical representations of web pages are replaced by user attractive text interpretations. Experiments with the real world problems showed that the visualization can significantly increase the quality and usefulness of web log mining results. However, how decision makers perceive and interact with a visual representation can strongly influence their understanding of the data as well as the usefulness of the visual presentation. Human factors therefore contribute significantly to the visualization process and should p...

Jain, Ratnesh Kumar; Kasana, Dr R S

2009-01-01

304

Distinguished tame supercuspidal representations  

CERN Document Server

This paper studies the behavior of Jiu-Kang Yu's tame supercuspidal representations relative to involutions of reductive p-adic groups. Symmetric space methods are used to illuminate various aspects of Yu's construction. Necessary conditions for a tame supercuspidal representation of G to be distinguished by (the fixed points of) an involution of G are expressed in terms of properties of the G-orbit of the associated G-datum. When these conditions are satisfied, the question of whether a tame supercuspidal representation is distinguished reduces to the question of whether certain cuspidal representations of finite groups of Lie type are distinguished relative to particular quadratic characters. As an application of the main results, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for equivalence of two of Yu's supercuspidal representations associated to distinct G-data.

Hakim, Jeffrey

2007-01-01

305

Visual Scripting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual scripting is the coordination of words with pictures in sequence. This book presents the methods and viewpoints on visual scripting of fourteen film makers, from nine countries, who are involved in animated cinema; it contains concise examples of how a storybook and preproduction script can be prepared in visual terms; and it includes a…

Halas, John

306

Renormalization of Polyakov loops in fundamental and higher representations  

CERN Document Server

We compare two renormalization procedures, one based on the short distance behavior of heavy quark-antiquark free energies and the other by using bare Polyakov loops at different temporal entent of the lattice and find that both prescriptions are equivalent, resulting in renormalization constants that depend on the bare coupling. Furthermore these renormalization constants show Casimir scaling for higher representations of the Polyakov loops. The analysis of Polyakov loops in different representations of the color SU(3) group indicates that a simple perturbative inspired relation in terms of the quadratic Casimir operator is realized to a good approximation at temperatures $T \\gsim T_c$ for renormalized as well as bare loops. In contrast to a vanishing Polyakov loop in representations with non-zero triality in the confined phase, the adjoint loops are small but non-zero even for temperatures below the critical one. The adjoint quark-antiquark pairs exhibit screening. This behavior can be related to the bindin...

Kaczmarek, O; Hübner, K

2007-01-01

307

Cortical representation of the horizon in V1 and peripheral scaling in mammals with lateral eyes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available n the present investigation we mapped the primary visual area of the South American diurnal rodent, Dasyprocta aguti, by standardized electrophysiological mapping techniques. In particular, we performed a series of mapping experiments of the visual streak in the primary visual cortex. We found that the representation of the visual streak in V1 is greatly expanded, the nasal 10 degrees of the visual streak representation occupies ten times more cortical area than equivalent areas in the central or temporal representation. Comparison of these data with those on the density of ganglion cells in the retina at corresponding locations in the visual feld reveal a signifcant mismatch between these two variables. The nasal representation is greatly expanded along the horizontal meridian in V1 as compared to the central and temporal regions whereas the density of ganglion cells decreases with progression along the visual streak from central region towards the nasal or temporal visual feld. A review of the available data reveals that all lateral-eyed mammals exhibit a similar mismatch between the retinal and cortical representation of the visual feld, and this mismatches is greater in those species with well defned visual streaks such as rabbit and agouti.

Cristovam W. Picanço-Diniz

2011-01-01

308

Cortical representation of the horizon in V1 and peripheral scaling in mammals with lateral eyes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present investigation we mapped the primary visual area of the South American diurnal rodent, Dasyprocta aguti, by standardized electrophysiological mapping techniques. In particular, we performed a series of mapping experiments of the visual streak in the primary visual cortex. We found that [...] the representation of the visual streak in V1 is greatly expanded, the nasal 10 degrees of the visual streak representation occupies ten times more cortical area than equivalent areas in the central or temporal representation. Comparison of these data with those on the density of ganglion cells in the retina at corresponding locations in the visual field reveal a significant mismatch between these two variables. The nasal representation is greatly expanded along the horizontal meridian in V1 as compared to the central and temporal regions whereas the density of ganglion cells decreases with progression along the visual streak from central region towards the nasal or temporal visual field. A review of the available data reveals that all lateral-eyed mammals exhibit a similar mismatch between the retinal and cortical representation of the visual field, and this mismatches is greater in those species with well defined visual streaks such as rabbit and agouti.

Cristovam W., Picanço-Diniz; Emiliana G., Rocha; Luiz Carlos L., Silveira; Guy, Elston; Eduardo, Oswaldo-Cruz.

309

The Inspiration of Hope in Substance Abuse Counseling  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used a grounded theory method to explore how counselors inspire hope in clients struggling with substance abuse. Findings from 10 participants revealed that hope inspiration occurred in 3 phases and consisted of several categories of hope-inspiring processes. Implications for counseling practice, counselor education, and research are…

Koehn, Corinne; Cutcliffe, John R.

2012-01-01

310

Action simulation: Time course and representational mechanisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The notion of action simulation refers to the ability to re-enact foreign actions (i.e., actions observed in other individuals. Simulating others’ actions implies a 'mirroring' of their activities, based on one’s own sensorimotor competencies. Here, we discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to action simulation and the study of its representational underpinnings. One focus of our discussion is on the timing of internal simulation and its relation to the timing of external action, and a paradigm that requires participants to predict the future course of actions that are temporarily occluded from view. We address transitions between perceptual mechanisms (referring to action representation before and after occlusion and simulation mechanisms (referring to action representation during occlusion. Findings suggest that action simulation runs in real-time; acting on newly created action representations rather than relying on continuous visual extrapolations. A further focus of our discussion pertains to the functional characteristics of the mechanisms involved in predicting other people’s actions. We propose that two processes are engaged, dynamic updating and static matching, which may draw on both semantic and motor information. In a concluding section, we discuss these findings in the context of broader theoretical issues related to action and event representation, arguing that a detailed functional analysis of action simulation in cognitive, neural, and computational terms may help to further advance our understanding of action cognition and motor control.

AnneSpringer

2013-07-01

311

Signal- and Symbol-based Representations in Computer Vision  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We discuss problems of signal-- and symbol based representations in terms of three dilemmas which are faced in the design of each vision system. Signal- and symbol-based representations are opposite ends of a spectrum of conceivable design decisions caught at opposite sides of the dilemmas. We make inherent problems explicit and describe potential design decisions for artificial visual systems to deal with the dilemmas.

Krüger, Norbert; Felsberg, Michael

2004-01-01

312

QCD inspired relativistic bound state model and meson structures  

CERN Document Server

A QCD inspired relativistic effective Hamiltonian model for the bound states of mesons has been constructed, which integrates the advantages of several QCD effective Hamiltonian models. Based on light-front QCD effective Hamiltonian model, the squared invariant mass operator of meson is used as the effective Hamiltonian. The model has been improved significantly in four aspects: i)it is proved that in center of mass frame and in internal coordinate Hilbert subspace, the total angular momentum of meson is conserved and the mass eigen equation can be expressed in total angular momentum representation and in terms of a set of coupled radial eigen equations for each J; ii)Based on lattice QCD results, a relativistic confining potential is introduced into the effective interaction and the excited states of mesons can be well described; iii)a su(3) flavor mixing interaction is introduced phenomenologically to describe the flavor mixing mesons and the mass eigen equations contain the coupling among different flavor ...

Wang, Shun-Jin; Guo, Xiao-Bo; Li, Lei

2010-01-01

313

A toolbox for representational similarity analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuronal population codes are increasingly being investigated with multivariate pattern-information analyses. A key challenge is to use measured brain-activity patterns to test computational models of brain information processing. One approach to this problem is representational similarity analysis (RSA), which characterizes a representation in a brain or computational model by the distance matrix of the response patterns elicited by a set of stimuli. The representational distance matrix encapsulates what distinctions between stimuli are emphasized and what distinctions are de-emphasized in the representation. A model is tested by comparing the representational distance matrix it predicts to that of a measured brain region. RSA also enables us to compare representations between stages of processing within a given brain or model, between brain and behavioral data, and between individuals and species. Here, we introduce a Matlab toolbox for RSA. The toolbox supports an analysis approach that is simultaneously data- and hypothesis-driven. It is designed to help integrate a wide range of computational models into the analysis of multichannel brain-activity measurements as provided by modern functional imaging and neuronal recording techniques. Tools for visualization and inference enable the user to relate sets of models to sets of brain regions and to statistically test and compare the models using nonparametric inference methods. The toolbox supports searchlight-based RSA, to continuously map a measured brain volume in search of a neuronal population code with a specific geometry. Finally, we introduce the linear-discriminant t value as a measure of representational discriminability that bridges the gap between linear decoding analyses and RSA. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the toolbox, we apply it to both simulated and real fMRI data. The key functions are equally applicable to other modalities of brain-activity measurement. The toolbox is freely available to the community under an open-source license agreement (http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/methods-and-resources/toolboxes/license/). PMID:24743308

Nili, Hamed; Wingfield, Cai; Walther, Alexander; Su, Li; Marslen-Wilson, William; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

2014-04-01

314

Visual Language in Visual Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In visual communication the design information is mainly communicated by visual language, the correct use of which is the standard of evaluation of a graphic design composition. Therefore it is necessary to understand and percept visual language properly. It will be helpful for viewers to percept the desired information from the designer as well as the significance within the work.

Jia Wang

2009-02-01

315

A Novel Quantum Inspired Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Bin Packing Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Bin Packing Problem (BPP is one of the most known combinatorial optimization problems. This problem consists to pack a set of items into a minimum number of bins. There are several variants of this problem; the most basic problem is the one-dimensional bin packing problem (1-BPP. In this paper, we present a new approach based on the quantum inspired cuckoo search algorithm to deal with the 1-BPP problem. The contribution consists in defining an appropriate quantum representation based on qubit representation to represent bin packing solutions. The second contribution is proposition of a new hybrid quantum measure operation which uses first fit heuristic to pack no filled objects by the standard measure operation. The obtained results are very encouraging and show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Abdesslem Layeb

2012-05-01

316

Biologically inspired water purification through selective transport  

Science.gov (United States)

Biologically inspired systems based on cellular mechanics demonstrate the ability to selectively transport ions across a bilayer membrane. These systems may be observed in nature in plant roots, which remove select nutrients from the surrounding soil against significant concentration gradients. Using biomimetic principles in the design of tailored active materials allows for the development of selective membranes for capturing and filtering targeted ions. Combining this biomimetic transport system with a method for reclaiming the captured ions will allow for increased removal potential. To illustrate this concept, a device for removing nutrients from waterways to aid in reducing eutrophication is outlined and discussed. Presented is a feasibility study of various cellular configurations designed for this purpose, focusing on maximizing nutrient uptake. The results enable a better understanding of the benefits and obstacles when developing these cellularly inspired systems.

Freeman, E. C.; Soncini, R. M.; Weiland, L. M.

2013-01-01

317

Recent developments in biologically inspired seeker technology  

Science.gov (United States)

As electro-optic sensors increase in size and frame rate, the data transfer and digital processing resource requirements also increase. In many missions, the spatial area of interest is but a small fraction of the available field of view. Choosing the right region of interest, however, is a challenge and still requires an enormous amount of downstream digital processing resources. In order to filter this ever-increasing amount of data, we look at how nature solves the problem. The Advanced Guidance Division of the Munitions Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/MNG) at Eglin AFB, Florida, has been pursuing research in the area of advanced sensor and image processing concepts based on biologically inspired sensory information processing. A summary of some vertebrate and invertebrate inspired 'neuromorphic' processing efforts will be presented along with a seeker system concept utilizing this innovative technology. Concepts and requirements for future such efforts will also be discussed.

McCarley, Paul L.; Massie, Mark A.

2001-06-01

318

Neurobiologically Inspired Control of Engineered Flapping Flight  

CERN Document Server

This article presents a new control approach and dynamic model for engineered flapping flight with many interacting degrees of freedom. This paper explores the applications of neurobiologically inspired control systems in the form of Central Pattern Generators (CPG) to control flapping flight dynamics. A rigorous mathematical and control theoretic framework to design complex three dimensional wing motions is presented based on phase synchronization and Hopf bifurcation. In particular, we show that tailless aircraft alternating between flapping and gliding can be effectively stabilized by smooth wing motions driven by the CPG network. Furthermore, a novel robotic testbed has been developed to emulate the flight of bats. This model has shoulder and leg joints totaling ten control variables of wing properties. Results of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulation of CPG-based flight control validate the effectiveness of the proposed neurobiologically inspired control approach.

Chung, Soon-Jo; Stoner, Jeremiah R

2009-01-01

319

Radiation-balanced simulations for binary inspiral  

CERN Document Server

The late stage of the inspiral of two black holes may have important non-Newtonian effects that are unrelated to radiation reaction. To understand these effects we approximate a slowly inspiralling binary by a stationary solution to Einstein's equations in which the holes orbit eternally. Radiation reaction is nullified by specifying a boundary condition at infinity containing equal amounts of ingoing and outgoing radiation. The computational problem is then converted from an evolution problem with initial data to a boundary value problem. In addition to providing an approximate inspiral waveform via extraction of the outgoing modes, our approximation can give alternative initial data for numerical relativity evolution. We report results on simplified models and on progress in building 3D numerical solutions.

Whelan, J T; Landry, W; Price, R H; Whelan, John T; Beetle, Christopher; Landry, Walter; Price, Richard H

2002-01-01

320

String and string-inspired phenomenology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In these lectures I review the progress made over the last few years in the subject of string and string-inspired phenomenology. I take a practical approach, thereby concentrating more on explicit examples rather than on formal developments. Topics covered include: introduction to string theory, the free-fermionic formulation and its general features, generic conformal field theory properties, $SU(5)\\times U(1)$ GUT and string model-building, supersymmetry breaking, the bott...

Lopez, J.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Swarm intelligence in bio-inspired robotics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this report, we have explored swarm intelligence through a box-pushing taskwith physical robots called e-pucks. Research on social insects has been presentedtogether with dierent ways of controlling autonomous robots, where combiningthis knowledge has been essential in our quest to make a biological plausible antretrieving system.Inspired by ants and behavior-based robotics, we have created the system CRABS.It is based on Brooks' subsumption architecture to control six dierent behavio...

Berg, Jannik; Karud, Camilla Haukenes

2011-01-01

322

Sea-cucumber skin inspires new material  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists have long been amazed by the skin of a sea cucumber, which can switch from stiff to floppy, or vice versa, in mere seconds in order to help the animal defend itself against predators. Inspired by this quick-change act, researchers have developed a new material that can also switch between rigid and flexible states. They hope that this material, or one like it, might someday be used as part of medical devices that are implanted inside the body.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2008-03-06

323

Noncommutative geometry inspired charged black holes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We find a new, non-commutative geometry inspired, solution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell field equations describing a variety of charged, self-gravitating objects, including extremal and non-extremal black holes. The metric smoothly interpolates between deSitter geometry, at short distance, and Reissner-Nordstroem geometry far away from the origin. Contrary to the ordinary Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime there is no curvature singularity in the origin neither "naked" nor shi...

Ansoldi, Stefano; Nicolini, Piero; Smailagic, Anais; Spallucci, Euro

2006-01-01

324

Inspirational catalogue of Master Thesis proposals 2014  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project. If you have an idea for a project which is not covered by the catalogue you are more than welcome to contact any of the supervisors.

2014-01-01

325

Neutrino masses in superstring-inspired models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutrino masses and mixings are explored in superstring-inspired models within the framework of the extended seesaw mechanism. The neutrino mass matrix for the multigeneration case is diagonalized by using the seesaw calculation with the aid of the special structure of the mass matrix. We find that these models predict at least one relatively heavier neutrino. Thus, the possibility of the electron neutrino with a mass of the order of 1 eV can be naturally realized

326

Nature inspired algorithms and artificial intelligence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Artificial intelligence has been very muchinterested in studying the characteristics ofintelligent agent, mainly planning, learning,reasoning (making decisions and perception.Biological processes and methods have beeninfluencing science from many decades. Naturalsystems have many properties that inspiredapplications - self-organisation, simplicity of basicelements, dynamics, flexibility. This paper is a surveyof nature inspired algorithms, like Particle SwarmOptimization (PSO, Ant Colony Optimization (ACOand Artificial Bee Colony(ABC.

Elisa Valentina Onet

2008-05-01

327

InSpiRe - Intelligent Spine Rehabilitation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

InSpiRe er et projekt, der har haft omdrejningspunkt i etableringen af et nyt netværk indenfor intelligent genoptræning med særligt fokus på rygsmerter. Projektet er gennemført i perioden 1/3 2011 2011-1/3 2012, med støtte fra Syddansk Vækstforum, og er blevet drevet af projektparterne Knowledge Lab, Syddansk Universitet (SDU), Institut for Idræt og Biomekanik (IoB), SDU, samt University College Lillebælt.

BØg, Kasper HafstrØm; Helms, Niels Henrik

2012-01-01

328

Visualization of Uncertainty  

Science.gov (United States)

The output of a simulation is best comprehended through the agency and methods of visualization, but a vital component of good science is knowledge of uncertainty. While great strides have been made in the quantification of uncertainty, especially in simulation, there is still a notable gap: there is no widely accepted means of simultaneously viewing the data and the associated uncertainty in one pane. Visualization saturates the screen, using the full range of color, shadow, opacity and tricks of perspective to display even a single variable. There is no room in the visualization expert's repertoire left for uncertainty. We present a method of visualizing uncertainty without sacrificing the clarity and power of the underlying visualization that works as well in 3-D and time-varying visualizations as it does in 2-D. At its heart, it relies on a principal tenet of continuum mechanics, replacing the notion of value at a point with a more diffuse notion of density as a measure of content in a region. First, the uncertainties calculated or tabulated at each point are transformed into a piecewise continuous field of uncertainty density . We next compute a weighted Voronoi tessellation of a user specified N convex polygonal/polyhedral cells such that each cell contains the same amount of uncertainty as defined by . The problem thus devolves into minimizing . Computation of such a spatial decomposition is O(N*N ), and can be computed iteratively making it possible to update easily over time as well as faster. The polygonal mesh does not interfere with the visualization of the data and can be easily toggled on or off. In this representation, a small cell implies a great concentration of uncertainty, and conversely. The content weighted polygons are identical to the cartogram familiar to the information visualization community in the depiction of things voting results per stat. Furthermore, one can dispense with the mesh or edges entirely to be replaced by symbols or glyphs at the generating points (effectively the center of the polygon). This methodology readily admits to rigorous statistical analysis using standard components found in R and thus entirely compatible with the visualization package we use (Visit and/or ParaView), the language we use (Python) and the UVCDAT environment that provides the programmer and analyst workbench. We will demonstrate the power and effectiveness of this methodology in climate studies. We will further argue that our method of defining (or predicting) values in a region has many advantages over the traditional visualization notion of value at a point.

Jones, P. W.; Strelitz, R. A.

2012-12-01

329

Biomimetics: mimicking and inspired-by biology  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of nature led to the introduction of highly effective and power efficient biological mechanisms. Imitating these mechanisms offers enormous potentials for the improvement of our life and the tools we use. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature and we are increasingly reaching levels of advancement that it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. Advances in science and technology are leading to knowledge and capabilities that are multiplying every year. This brought us to act beyond the simple mimicking of nature. Having better tools to understand and to implement nature"s principles we are now equipped like never before to be inspired by nature and to employ our tools in far superior ways. Effectively, by bio-inspiration we can have a better view and value of nature capability while studying its models to learn what can be extracted, copied or adapted. EAP as artificial muscles are adding an important element in the development of biologically inspired technologies. This paper reviews the various aspects of the field of biomimetics and the role that EAP play and the outlook for its evolution.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

2005-05-01

330

Biologically inspired coupled antenna beampattern design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose to design a small-size transmission-coupled antenna array, and corresponding radiation pattern, having high performance inspired by the female Ormia ochracea's coupled ears. For reproduction purposes, the female Ormia is able to locate male crickets' call accurately despite the small distance between its ears compared with the incoming wavelength. This phenomenon has been explained by the mechanical coupling between the Ormia's ears, which has been modeled by a pair of differential equations. In this paper, we first solve these differential equations governing the Ormia ochracea's ear response, and convert the response to the pre-specified radio frequencies. We then apply the converted response of the biological coupling in the array factor of a uniform linear array composed of finite-length dipole antennas, and also include the undesired electromagnetic coupling due to the proximity of the elements. Moreover, we propose an algorithm to optimally choose the biologically inspired coupling for maximum array performance. In our numerical examples, we compute the radiation intensity of the designed system for binomial and uniform ordinary end-fire arrays, and demonstrate the improvement in the half-power beamwidth, sidelobe suppression and directivity of the radiation pattern due to the biologically inspired coupling.

Akcakaya, Murat; Nehorai, Arye, E-mail: makcak2@ese.wustl.ed, E-mail: nehorai@ese.wustl.ed [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

2010-12-15

331

Solar Image Analysis and Visualization  

CERN Document Server

This volume presents a selection of papers on the state of the art of image enhancement, automated feature detection, machine learning, and visualization tools in support of solar physics that focus on the challenges presented by new ground-based and space-based instrumentation. The articles and topics were inspired by the Third Solar Image Processing Workshop, held at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland but contributions from other experts have been included as well. This book is mainly aimed at researchers and graduate students working on image processing and compter vision in astronomy and solar physics.

Ireland, J

2009-01-01

332

Visual Analysis of Weblog Content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

2007-03-26

333

Visual imagery without visual perception?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be used as a way of answering some of those questions, namely if it is possible to have visual imagery without visual perception. We present results from the work of our group using visual activation in dreams and its relation with EEG?s spectral components, showing that congenitally blind have visual contents in their dreams and are able to draw them; furthermore their Visual Activation Index is negatively correlated with EEG alpha power. This study supports the hypothesis that it is possible to have visual imagery without visual experience.

Helder Bértolo

2005-01-01

334

External Representations in the Teaching and Learning of Introductory Chemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This manuscript describes the role that external representations, such as diagrams and sketches, can play in organizing and learning concepts presented in a one-semester chemistry course (general, organic and biochemistry designed for nursing students. Although external representations are typically found in chemistry textbooks and instructor-drawn notes, students are usually not taught or prompted to use various types of external representations to promote learning. Representations created by an instructor and a student are discussed to highlight effective ways to foster student participation in creating various diagrams. In addition, a student provides a perspective on the educational value of creating external representations and the roles of visual thinking and creativity in learning introductory chemistry. Although the model for this approach has been an introductory chemistry course, this approach can be widely applied across disciplines.

James R. Cox

2011-12-01

335

Evaluation of Army Representation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A conceptual framework and functional definition of Army representation are developed from data gathered in an extensive review of related literature. Based on this information, a Convergence/Divergence Model is constructed--using the national policy obje...

M. J. Eitelberg

1977-01-01

336

Response delay and spatial representation in pointing movements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pointing movements decrease in accuracy when target information is removed before movement onset. This time effect was analyzed in relation with the spatial representation of the target location, which can be egocentric (i.e. in relation to the body) or exocentric (i.e. in relation to the external world) depending on the visual environment of the target. The accuracy of pointing movements performed without visual feedback was measured in two delay conditions: 0 and 5-s delay between target removal and movement onset. In each delay condition, targets were presented either in the darkness (egocentric localization) or within a structured visual background (exocentric localization). The results show that pointing was more accurate when targets were presented within a visual background than in the darkness. The time-related decrease in accuracy was observed in the darkness condition, whereas no delay effect was found in the presence of a visual background. Therefore, contextual factors applied to a simple pointing action might induce different spatial representations: a short-lived sensorimotor egocentric representation used in immediate action control, or a long-lived perceptual exocentric representation which drives perception and delayed action. PMID:17027153

Hay, Laurette; Redon, Christine

2006-11-20

337

Visual strategizing: the systematic use of visualization in the strategy process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, we examine the use of visual representations for the business strategy process (from strategic analysis and strategy development to strategic planning and implementation). Starting with a review of literature, we show that visualization can address many of the cognitive, social, and emotional challenges of the strategy process, if visualization is understood as a participatory process and as interactive communication rather than as a static graphic rendering of outcomes. We c...

Eppler, Martin J.; Platts, Ken; Kazancioglu, Emre

2006-01-01

338

Visualizing the ground motions of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

With advances in computational capabilities and refinement of seismic wave-propagation models in the past decade large three-dimensional simulations of earthquake ground motion have become possible. The resulting datasets from these simulations are multivariate, temporal and multi-terabyte in size. Past visual representations of results from seismic studies have been largely confined to static two-dimensional maps. New visual representations provide scientists with alternate ways of viewing and interacting with these results potentially leading to new and significant insight into the physical phenomena. Visualizations can also be used for pedagogic and general dissemination purposes. We present a workflow for visual representation of the data from a ground motion simulation of the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake. We have employed state of the art animation tools for visualization of the ground motions with a high degree of accuracy and visual realism.

Chourasia, Amit; Cutchin, Steve; Aagaard, Brad

2008-12-01

339

Large-scale remapping of visual cortex is absent in adult humans with macular degeneration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The occipital lobe contains a retinotopic representation of the visual field. The representation of the central retina in early visual areas (V1-3) is found at the occipital pole. When the central retina is lesioned in both eyes by macular degeneration, this region of visual cortex at the occipital pole is accordingly deprived of input. However, even when such lesions occur in adulthood, some visually driven activity in and around the occipital pole can be observed. It has...

2011-01-01

340

Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not. PMID:23559513

Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
341

VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is about Visual Cryptography. Visual Cryptography is a method that permits data (pictures, content, graphs etc. to be scrambled utilizing an encoding framework that can be decoded by the eyes. It doesn't oblige a machine to interpret. Visual Cryptography utilizes two transparent pictures. One picture contains arbitrary pixels and the other picture contains the mystery data. It is difficult to recover the mystery data from one of the pictures. Both transparent pictures and layers are obliged to uncover the data. The most straightforward approach to actualize Visual Cryptography is to print the two layers onto a transparent sheet.

C. M. Jadhav

2014-10-01

342

The Role of the Human Extrastriate Visual Cortex in Mirror Symmetry Discrimination: A TMS-Adaptation Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The human visual system is able to efficiently extract symmetry information from the visual environment. Prior neuroimaging evidence has revealed symmetry-preferring neuronal representations in the dorsolateral extrastriate visual cortex; the objective of the present study was to investigate the necessity of these representations in symmetry…

Cattaneo, Zaira; Mattavelli, Giulia; Papagno, Costanza; Herbert, Andrew; Silvanto, Juha

2011-01-01

343

The Importance of Visual Features in Generic versus Specialized Object Recognition: A Computational Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is debated whether the representation of objects in inferior temporal (IT cortex is distributed over activities of many neurons or there are restricted islands of neurons responsive to a specific set of objects. There are lines of evidence demonstrating that fusiform face area (FFA-in human processes information related to specialized object recognition (here we say within category object recognition such as face identification. Physiological studies have also discovered several patches in monkey ventral temporal lobe that are responsible for facial processing. Neuronal recording from these patches shows that neurons are highly selective for face images whereas for other objects we do not see such selectivity in IT. However, it is also well-supported that objects are encoded through distributed patterns of neural activities that are distinctive for each object category. It seems that visual cortex utilize different mechanisms for between category object recognition (e.g. face vs. non-face objects versus within category object recognition (e.g. two different faces. In this study, we address this question with computational simulations. We use two biologically inspired object recognition models (one proposed in our group and define two experiments which address these issues. The models have a hierarchical structure of several processing layers that simply simulate visual processing from V1 to aIT. We show, through computational modeling, that the difference between these two mechanisms of recognition can underlie the visual feature and extraction mechanism. It is argued that in order to perform generic and specialized object recognition, visual cortex must separate the mechanisms involved in within category from between categories object recognition. High recognition performance in within category object recognition can be guaranteed when class-specific features with intermediate size and complexity are extracted. However, generic object recognition requires

RezaEbrahimpour

2014-08-01

344

Kakovost podatkov in direktiva inspire : data quality and the inspire directive  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available V prispevku so predstavljeni vse ve?ji pomen kakovosti geodetskih in prostorskih podatkov, dolo?be o kakovosti prostorskih informacij v direktivi INSPIRE in predpisih, sprejetih na njeni podlagi, ter zahteve, povezane s kakovostjo prostorskih podatkov in storitev, ki jih pred slovenske ponudnike podatkov in storitev postavlja evropska zakonodaja ; This article presents the growing importance of the quality of geodetic and spatial information. It describes the contents related to the data quality in the INSPIRE Directive, regulations for its implementation and guidelines, as well as the requirements related to the quality of spatial data and services set for Slovenian suppliers of data by European legislation.

Irena Ažman

2011-01-01

345

Junction Type Representations of the Temperley-Lieb Algebra and Associated Symmetries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inspired by earlier works on representations of the Temperley-Lieb algebra we introduce a novel family of representations of the algebra. This may be seen as a generalization of the so called asymmetric twin representation. The underlying symmetry algebra is also examined and it is shown that in addition to certain obvious exact quantum symmetries non trivial quantum algebraic realizations that exactly commute with the representation also exist. Non trivial representations of the boundary Temperley-Lieb algebra as well as the related residual symmetries are also discussed. The corresponding novel R and K matrices solutions of the Yang-Baxter and reflection equations are identified, the relevant quantum spin chain is also constructed and its exact symmetries are studied.

Anastasia Doikou

2010-12-01

346

The Trade-offs with Space Time Cube Representation of Spatiotemporal Patterns  

CERN Document Server

Space time cube representation is an information visualization technique where spatiotemporal data points are mapped into a cube. Fast and correct analysis of such information is important in for instance geospatial and social visualization applications. Information visualization researchers have previously argued that space time cube representation is beneficial in revealing complex spatiotemporal patterns in a dataset to users. The argument is based on the fact that both time and spatial information are displayed simultaneously to users, an effect difficult to achieve in other representations. However, to our knowledge the actual usefulness of space time cube representation in conveying complex spatiotemporal patterns to users has not been empirically validated. To fill this gap we report on a between-subjects experiment comparing novice users error rates and response times when answering a set of questions using either space time cube or a baseline 2D representation. For some simple questions the error rat...

Kristensson, Per Ola; Anundi, Daniel; Bjornstad, Marius; Gillberg, Hanna; Haraldsson, Jonas; Martensson, Ingrid; Nordvall, Matttias; Stahl, Josefin

2007-01-01

347

Reference frames in visual selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

We review neuropsychological evidence for visual selection operating in different reference frames. There is general agreement that there may be a separation of coding space near to and farther from the body, and that deficits in selecting stimuli within each form of spatial representation may be impaired in patients with unilateral neglect. However, there remains a lack of consensus about whether all forms of spatial representation relate to the body or whether there are spatial representations based on reference frames abstracted from the body (allocentric and object-centered spatial codes). Here we will review the evidence for spatial coding in these more abstracted reference frames (allocentric and object-centered but also environmental) and argue for the psychological reality of (at least) allocentric spatial coding. We discuss computational accounts of how such codes may be created as objects are selected. PMID:23991639

Humphreys, Glyn W; Gillebert, Celine R; Chechlacz, Magda; Riddoch, M Jane

2013-08-01

348

Visual Literacy  

Science.gov (United States)

Living in an image-rich world does not mean students (or faculty and administrators) naturally possess sophisticated visual literacy skills, just as continually listening to an iPod does not teach a person to critically analyze or create music. Instead, "visual literacy involves the ability to understand, produce, and use culturally significant…

Felten, Peter

2008-01-01

349

Graph-based clustering and data visualization algorithms  

CERN Document Server

This work presents a data visualization technique that combines graph-based topology representation and dimensionality reduction methods to visualize the intrinsic data structure in a low-dimensional vector space. The application of graphs in clustering and visualization has several advantages. A graph of important edges (where edges characterize relations and weights represent similarities or distances) provides a compact representation of the entire complex data set. This text describes clustering and visualization methods that are able to utilize information hidden in these graphs, based on

Vathy-Fogarassy, Ágnes

2013-01-01

350

Inspired gas temperature in ventilated neonates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The warming and humidification of inspired gases for ventilated neonates are routine. There are no data on the temperature of the gas at the airway opening in ventilated neonates. Is the inspired gas temperature at the airway opening, as expected and set on the humidifier, around 37 degrees C? We aimed to measure temperature at the airway opening and compare this with the circuit temperature. This was an observational study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Twenty-five mechanically ventilated infants were studied. All had humidifiers with chamber temperature set at 36 degrees C and the circuit temperature set at 37 degrees C. Two temperature probes were inserted and rested at the circuit-exit and at the airway opening, and temperatures were measured for 2 min in each infant. At this time, the circuit temperature was also noted. The mean (SD) temperature at the airway opening in infants nursed in incubators was 34.9 (1.2) degrees C, compared with radiant warmers where the mean (SD) was 33.1 (0.5) degrees C. The mean (SD) difference in temperature from the circuit temperature probe to the airway opening was greater under radiant warmers, with a mean (SD) drop of 3.9 (0.6) degrees C compared with a mean (SD) drop of 2.0 (1.3) degrees C in the incubators. In conclusion, the temperature at the circuit temperature probe does not reflect the temperature at the airway opening. Inspired gas temperatures are lower than the expected 37 degrees C with the normal circuits and usual humidifier settings. PMID:15170873

Davies, Mark William; Dunster, Kimble Robert; Cartwright, David William

2004-07-01

351

On a biologically inspired topology optimization method  

Science.gov (United States)

This work concerns the development of a biologically inspired methodology for the study of topology optimization in engineering and natural systems. The methodology is based on L systems and its turtle interpretation for the genotype-phenotype modeling of the topology development. The topology is analyzed using the finite element method, and optimized using an evolutionary algorithm with the genetic encoding of the L system and its turtle interpretation, as well as, body shape and physical characteristics. The test cases considered in this work clearly show the suitability of the proposed method for the study of engineering and natural complex systems.

Kobayashi, Marcelo H.

2010-03-01

352

Quick data evaluation inspired by human vision  

Science.gov (United States)

In environmental monitoring, small differences are expected in data allowing the discrimination of harmless from dangerous, e.g. discern passing trucks from an earth quake. For conventional data analysis it is a challenging problem to identify these signals in noisy data. Electronic data processing consumes extra time, or much energy when processed in parallel. This is not suitable for quick automatic decisions nor useful in nearly autonomous systems with very low energy budget. This paper presents methods inspired by human vision, applied to quickly determine the content of signals collected by a monitoring system. It is shown that the system is capable to distinguish different signals, using a simple filter-set.

Meinert, Dieter

2014-05-01

353

The "Biologically-Inspired Computing" Column  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-managing systems, whether viewed from the perspective of Autonomic Computing, or from that of another initiative, offers a holistic vision for the development and evolution of biologically-inspired computer-based systems. It aims to bring new levels of automation and dependability to systems, while simultaneously hiding their complexity and reducing costs. A case can certainly be made that all computer-based systems should exhibit autonomic properties [6], and we envisage greater interest in, and uptake of, autonomic principles in future system development.

Hinchey, Mike

2007-01-01

354

Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis  

CERN Document Server

Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

Mahadevan, Sridhar

2008-01-01

355

Introduction to computer data representation  

CERN Document Server

Introduction to Computer Data Representation introduces readers to the representation of data within computers. Starting from basic principles of number representation in computers, the book covers the representation of both integer and floating point numbers, and characters or text. It comprehensively explains the main techniques of computer arithmetic and logical manipulation. The book also features chapters covering the less usual topics of basic checksums and 'universal' or variable length representations for integers, with additional coverage of Gray Codes, BCD codes and logarithmic repre

Fenwick, Peter

2014-01-01

356

Performance of visual tasks from contour information  

Science.gov (United States)

A recently proposed visual aid for patients with a restricted visual field (tunnel vision) combines a see-through head-mounted display (HMD) and a simultaneous minified contour view of the wide field image of the environment. Such a widening of the effective visual field is helpful for tasks such as visual search, mobility and orientation. The sufficiency of contours (outlines of the objects in the image) for performing everyday visual tasks by human observers is of major importance for this application, as well as for other applications, and for basic understanding of human vision. Due to their efficient properties as good object descriptors, contours are widely used in computer vision applications, and therefore many methods have been developed for automatic extraction of them from the image. The purpose of this research is to examine and compare the use of different types of automatically created contours, and contour representations, for practical everyday visual operations using commonly observed images. The visual operations include visual searching for items such as keys, remote control, etc. Considering different recognition levels, identification of an object is distinguished from detection (when it is not clearly identified). Some new non-conventional visual-based contour representations were developed for this purpose. Experiments were performed with normal vision subjects, by superposing contours of the wide-field of the scene, over a narrow field (see-through) background. Results show that about 85% success is obtained by for searched object identification when the best contour versions are employed.

Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Itan, Liron

2010-08-01

357

Meet the 'entangled' fieldworker - Distorted (re)presentations in tourism research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations. On this background, this paper develops the notion ‘distorted representation’ to illustrate that blurred and obscure photos can in fact be intelligible and sensible in understanding tourism. Through an exploration of the overwhelmed and unintended practices of visual fieldwork, distorted representation illustrates how photographic materialities, performativities and sensations contribute to new tourism knowledges. While highlighting the potential of distorted representation, the paper posits a cautionary note in regards to the influential role of academic journals in determining the qualities of visual data. The paper exemplifies distorted representation through three impressionistic tales derived from ethnographic research on the European rail travel phenomenon, InterRail.

Jensen, Martin Trandberg

358

Towards Multimodal Content Representation  

CERN Document Server

Multimodal interfaces, combining the use of speech, graphics, gestures, and facial expressions in input and output, promise to provide new possibilities to deal with information in more effective and efficient ways, supporting for instance: - the understanding of possibly imprecise, partial or ambiguous multimodal input; - the generation of coordinated, cohesive, and coherent multimodal presentations; - the management of multimodal interaction (e.g., task completion, adapting the interface, error prevention) by representing and exploiting models of the user, the domain, the task, the interactive context, and the media (e.g. text, audio, video). The present document is intended to support the discussion on multimodal content representation, its possible objectives and basic constraints, and how the definition of a generic representation framework for multimodal content representation may be approached. It takes into account the results of the Dagstuhl workshop, in particular those of the informal working group...

Bunt, Harry

2009-01-01

359

Introduction to representation theory  

CERN Document Server

These are lecture notes that arose from a representation theory course given by the first author to the remaining six authors in March 2004 within the framework of the Clay Mathematics Institute Research Academy for high school students, and its extended version given by the first author to MIT undergraduate math students in the Fall of 2008. The notes cover a number of standard topics in representation theory of groups, Lie algebras, and quivers, and contain many problems and exercises. They should be accessible to students with a strong background in linear algebra and a basic knowledge of abstract algebra, and may be used for an undergraduate or introductory graduate course in representation theory.

Etingof, Pavel; Hensel, Sebastian; Liu, Tiankai; Schwendner, Alex; Udovina, Elena; Vaintrob, Dmitry

2009-01-01

360

Spacecraft Attitude Representations  

Science.gov (United States)

The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

Markley, F. Landis

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Destination visual image and expectation of experiences  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A unique experience is the essence of tourism sought by tourists. The most effective way to communicate the notion of a tourism experience at a destination is to provide visual cues that stimulate the imagination and connect with potential tourists in a personal way. This study aims at understanding how a visual image is relevant to the expectation of experiences by deconstructing images of a destination and interpreting visitors' perceptions of these images and the experiences associated with them. The results suggest that tourists with different understandings of desirable experiences found different contents and notions of images inspired them to visit a destination. Several managerial implications are discussed. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Tussyadiah, Iis

2011-01-01

362

A new image representation for compact and secure communication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In many areas of nuclear materials management there is a need for communication, archival, and retrieval of annotated image data between heterogeneous platforms and devices to effectively implement safety, security, and safeguards of nuclear materials. Current image formats such as JPEG are not ideally suited in such scenarios as they are not scalable to different viewing formats, and do not provide a high-level representation of images that facilitate automatic object/change detection or annotation. The new Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) open standard for representing graphical information, recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is designed to address issues of image scalability, portability, and annotation. However, until now there has been no viable technology to efficiently field images of high visual quality under this standard. Recently, LANL has developed a vectorized image representation that is compatible with the SVG standard and preserves visual quality. This is based on a new geometric framework for characterizing complex features in real-world imagery that incorporates perceptual principles of processing visual information known from cognitive psychology and vision science, to obtain a polygonal image representation of high fidelity. This representation can take advantage of all textual compression and encryption routines unavailable to other image formats. Moreover, this vectorized image representation can be exploited to facilitate automated object recognition that can reduce time required for data review. The objects/features of interest in these vectorized images can be annotated via animated graphics to facilitate quick and easy display and comprehension of processed image content.

Prasad, Lakshman; Skourikhine, A. N. (Alexei N.)

2004-01-01

363

Knowledge Representations for Planning Manipulation Tasks  

CERN Document Server

In this book, the capability map, a novel general representation of the kinematic capabilities of a robot arm, is introduced. The capability map allows to determine how well regions of the workspace are reachable for the end effector in different orientations. It is a representation that can be machine processed as well as intuitively visualized for the human. The capability map and the derived algorithms are a valuable source of information for high- and low-level planning processes. The versatile applicability of the capability map is shown by examples from several distinct application domains. In human-robot interaction, a bi-manual interface for tele-operation is objectively evaluated. In low-level geometric planning, more human-like motion is planned for a humanoid robot while also reducing the computation time. And in high-level task reasoning, the suitability of a robot for a task is evaluated.    

Zacharias, Franziska

2012-01-01

364

Scientific Representation and Realism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After a brief presentation of what I take to be the representational démarche in science, I stress the fundamental role of true judgements in model construction. The success and correctness of a representation rests on the truth of judgements which attribute properties to real targeted entities, called “ontic judgements”. I then present what van Fraassen calls “the Loss of Reality objection”. After criticizing his dissolution of the objection, I offer an alternative way of answering the Loss of Reality objection by showing that the contact of our models with reality is grounded on the truth of ontic judgements. I conclude by examining.

Michel Ghins

2011-12-01

365

Topological Representations of Posets  

CERN Document Server

Earlier an arbitrary poset $P$ was proved to be isomorphic to the collection of subsets of a space $M$ with two closures which are closed in the first closure and open in the other. As a space $M$ for this representation an algebraic dual space $P^*$ was used. Here we extend the theory of algabraic duality for posets generalizing the notion of an ideal. This approach yields a sufficient condition for the collection of clopen subsets of a subset of $P^*$ (with respect to induced closures) to be isomorphic to $P$. Applying this result to certain classes of posets we prove some representation theorems and get a topological characterization of orthocomplementations.

Breslav, R B; Zapatrin, R R

2000-01-01

366

The Influence of Different Pictorial Representations during Idea Generation  

Science.gov (United States)

During creative problem-solving, designers frequently come across a variety of rich visual displays. While browsing for different sources of information, pictorial representations of existing concepts take prominence. However, once designers start generating new solution ideas to design problems, they often become too attached to some of the…

Cardoso, Carlos; Badke-Schaub, Petra

2011-01-01

367

Cultural Shifts, Multimodal Representations, and Assessment Practices: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Multimodal texts involve the presence, absence, and co-occurrence of alphabetic text with visual, audio, tactile, gestural, and spatial representations. This article explores how teachers' evaluation of students' multimodal work can be understood in terms of cognition and culture. When teachers apply a paradigm of assessment rooted in print-based…

Curwood, Jen Scott

2012-01-01

368

"Darkly as through a Veil": Reading Representations of Algerian Women  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores representations of Algerian women in colonial, decolonizing and postcolonial contexts, drawing in interdisciplinary fashion on written and visual texts by Malek Alloula, Frantz Fanon, Assia Djebar and Zineb Sedira. It problematizes hegemonic constructions of Algerian women, and cites commentators affiliated to Algeria who…

Moore, Lindsey

2007-01-01

369

How Pictorial Knowledge Representations Mediate Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Groups  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the process of collaborative knowledge construction when technology and pictorial knowledge representations are used for visualizing individual and groups' shared ideas. The focus of the study is on how teacher-students contribute to the group's collaborative knowledge construction and use each other's ideas and tools as an…

Naykki, Piia; Jarvela, Sanna

2008-01-01

370

Using Multiple Representations to Teach Composition of Functions  

Science.gov (United States)

Composition of functions is one of the five big ideas identified in NCTM's "Developing Essential Understanding of Functions, Grades 9-12" (Cooney, Beckmann, and Lloyd 2010). Through multiple representations (another big idea) and the use of The Geometer's Sketchpad[R] (GSP), students can directly manipulate variables and thus see dynamic visual

Steketee, Scott; Scher, Daniel

2012-01-01

371

Inspiration Inducement of Pianists in a Subconsciousness Background  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inspiration thinking of pianists lies under their deep thought, and is a product of mutual interaction between consciousness and subconsciousness, closely connected with living experiences, musical environment, and psychological environment of a subject. Piano music, literature poetry, internal rhythm, external rhythm, Nature, environment and impression are significant induction factors to lead inspiration thinking of pianists, while arduous practice, gifted perception, tough exploration and smart capture are preconditions of inspiration happening in pianists.

Changkui Wang

2009-05-01

372

The Effect of Information Visualization and Structure on Mobile Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine information visualization and structured learning content in a mobile learning environment. It compared learning from three different representations of content on a PDA system – traditional text (non-structured, non-visual, structured text without visuals, and structured text with visuals. Learner comprehension of the content was tested during the session. Results showed that structured text with visuals was more effective in supporting the development of learner understanding than either structured or non-structured text. The results suggest that to overcome the limitations of learning with mobile devices, ways of structuring text and visualizing content are required.

Hyungsung Park

2008-04-01

373

Comparative Visualization of Climate Simulation Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Visualization is the process of transforming abstract (scientific) data into a graphical representation, to aid in the understanding of the information contained within the data. Climate data sets are typically quite large, time varying, and consist of many different variables that are sampled on an underlying grid. A variety of different climate models - and sub models - are developed to simulate the climate system and its components, such as the physics of the atmosphere and the ocean, marine biogeochemical processes and the land biosphere. Visualization software is used to assist in the process of visualization and data analysis by transforming the abstract numerical information into a graphical illustration. Different approaches exist in the design of visualization software and for the process of visualization itself, depending on the type and nature of the data as well as on the visualization goal. In addition to a large high performance compute cluster that is exclusively used for climate simulations, the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ) also hosts a dedicated visualization cluster for post-processing, data analysis and visualization. On this visualization server, a variety of software is installed to assist the user in the data visualization task. Amongst others, the software stack includes Avizo Green, CDO, NCL, Paraview and SimVis. Each tool has its own strengths and weaknesses, and is selected by the user with regard to the visualization goal. While Avizo Green is great for visualizing the data out of the box, SimVis and Paraview are better suited for an interactive and explorative data analysis. This PICO presentation uses several different visualization solutions - among them Avizo Green, NCL, Paraview and SimVis - to analyze and visualize the same climate data set. We will thereby explicitly focus on each software's strengths, and not highlight its weaknesses. This PICO interactively shows that - depending on the visualization tool used - not only are different visualizations created, but also different visualization stories can be told.

Röber, Niklas; Meier-Fleischer, Karin; Böttinger, Michael

2014-05-01

374

Visual topological SLAM and global localization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual localization and mapping for mobile robots has been achieved with a large variety of methods. Among them, topological navigation using vision has the advantage of offering a scalable representation, and of relying on a common and affordable sensor. In previous work, we developed such an incremental and real-time topological mapping and localization solution, without using any metrical information, and by relying on a Bayesian visual loop-closure detection algorithm. In this paper, we p...

Angeli, Adrien; Doncieux, Ste?phane; Meyer, Jean-arcady; Filliat, David

2009-01-01

375

Visual indexes, preconceptual objects, and situated vision.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues that a theory of situated vision, suited for the dual purposes of object recognition and the control of action, will have to provide something more than a system that constructs a conceptual representation from visual stimuli: it will also need to provide a special kind of direct (preconceptual, unmediated) connection between elements of a visual representation and certain elements in the world. Like natural language demonstratives (such as 'this' or 'that') this direct connection allows entities to be referred to without being categorized or conceptualized. Several reasons are given for why we need such a preconceptual mechanism which individuates and keeps track of several individual objects in the world. One is that early vision must pick out and compute the relation among several individual objects while ignoring their properties. Another is that incrementally computing and updating representations of a dynamic scene requires keeping track of token individuals despite changes in their properties or locations. It is then noted that a mechanism meeting these requirements has already been proposed in order to account for a number of disparate empirical phenomena, including subitizing, search-subset selection and multiple object tracking (Pylyshyn et al., Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 48(2) (1994) 260). This mechanism, called a visual index or FINST, is briefly discussed and it is argued that viewing it as performing a demonstrative or preconceptual reference function has far-reaching implications not only for a theory of situated vision, but also for suggesting a new way to look at why the primitive individuation of visual objects, or proto-objects, is so central in computing visual representations. Indexing visual objects is also, according to this view, the primary means for grounding visual concepts and is a potentially fruitful way to look at the problem of visual integration across time and across saccades, as well as to explain how infants' numerical capacity might arise. PMID:11245842

Pylyshyn, Z W

2001-06-01

376

Sociocognitive Perspectives on Representation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses research dealing with the cognitive aspects of formal systems of knowledge representation. Highlights include the origins and theoretical foundations of the cognitive viewpoint; cognition and information science; cognitivism, mentalism, and subjective individualism; categorization; mental models; and sociocognitive approaches to indexing…

Jacob, Elin K.; Shaw, Debora

1998-01-01

377

Boundary representation modelling techniques  

CERN Document Server

Boundary representation is the principle solid modelling method used in modern CAD/CAM systems. This book includes: data structures algorithms and other related techniques, including non-manifold modelling, product modelling, graphics, disc files and data exchange, and some application related topics.

Stroud, I

2006-01-01

378

Moment graphs and representations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie algebras and of simple algebraic groups. The first section contains some background on equivariant cohomology.

Jantzen, Jens Carsten

2012-01-01

379

Representations of quantum orders  

CERN Document Server

We study finite dimensional algebras that appear as fibers of quantum orders over a given point of variety of center. We present the formula for the number of irreducible representations and check it for it for the algebra of twisted polynomials, the quantum Weyl algebra and the algebra of regular functions on quantum group.

Panov, A N

2010-01-01

380

Shape representation by a network of V4-like cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cells in extrastriate visual cortex have been reported to be selective for various configurations of local contour shape [Pasupathy, A., & Connor, C. E. (2001). Shape representation in area V4: Position-specific tuning for boundary conformation. The Journal of Neurophysiology, 86 (5), 2505-2519; Hegdé, J., & Van Essen, D. C. (2003). Strategies of shape representation in macaque visual area V2. Visual Neuroscience, 20 (3), 313-328]. Specifically, Pasupathy and Connor found that in area V4 most cells are strongly responsive to a particular local contour conformation located at a specific position on the object's boundary. We used a population of "V4-like cells"-units sensitive to multiple shape features modeled after V4 cell behavior-to generate representations of different shapes. Standard classification algorithms (earth mover's distance, support vector machines) applied to this population representation demonstrate high recognition accuracies classifying handwritten digits in the MNIST database and objects in the MPEG-7 Shape Silhouette database. We compare the performance of the V4-like unit representation to the "shape context" representation of Belongie et al. [Belongie, S., Malik, J., & Puzicha, J. (2002). Shape matching and object recognition using shape contexts. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 24 (24), 509-522]. Results show roughly comparable recognition accuracies using the two representations when tested on portions of the MNIST database. We analyze the relative contributions of various V4-like feature sensitivities to recognition accuracy and robustness to noise - feature sensitivities include curvature magnitude, direction of curvature, global orientation of the contour segment, distance of the contour segment from object center, and modulatory effect of adjacent contour regions. Among these, local curvature appears to be the most informative variable for shape recognition. Our results support the hypothesis that V4 cells function as robust shape descriptors in the early stages of object recognition. PMID:17884335

Murphy, Thomas M; Finkel, Leif H

2007-10-01

 
 
 
 
381

Modelling Cell Cycle using Different Levels of Representation  

CERN Document Server

Understanding the behaviour of biological systems requires a complex setting of in vitro and in vivo experiments, which attracts high costs in terms of time and resources. The use of mathematical models allows researchers to perform computerised simulations of biological systems, which are called in silico experiments, to attain important insights and predictions about the system behaviour with a considerably lower cost. Computer visualisation is an important part of this approach, since it provides a realistic representation of the system behaviour. We define a formal methodology to model biological systems using different levels of representation: a purely formal representation, which we call molecular level, models the biochemical dynamics of the system; visualisation-oriented representations, which we call visual levels, provide views of the biological system at a higher level of organisation and are equipped with the necessary spatial information to generate the appropriate visualisation. We choose Spati...

Basuki, Thomas Anung; Carvalho, Rafael V; 10.4204/EPTCS.11.4

2009-01-01

382

A distributed topological camera network representation for tracking applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sensor networks have been widely used for surveillance, monitoring, and tracking. Camera networks, in particular, provide a large amount of information that has traditionally been processed in a centralized manner employing a priori knowledge of camera location and of the physical layout of the environment. Unfortunately, these conventional requirements are far too demanding for ad-hoc distributed networks. In this article, we present a simplicial representation of a camera network called the camera network complex ( CN-complex), that accurately captures topological information about the visual coverage of the network. This representation provides a coordinate-free calibration of the sensor network and demands no localization of the cameras or objects in the environment. A distributed, robust algorithm, validated via two experimental setups, is presented for the construction of the representation using only binary detection information. We demonstrate the utility of this representation in capturing holes in the coverage, performing tracking of agents, and identifying homotopic paths. PMID:20529737

Lobaton, Edgar; Vasudevan, Ramanarayan; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Sastry, Shankar

2010-10-01

383

Visualizing uncertainty about the future.  

Science.gov (United States)

We are all faced with uncertainty about the future, but we can get the measure of some uncertainties in terms of probabilities. Probabilities are notoriously difficult to communicate effectively to lay audiences, and in this review we examine current practice for communicating uncertainties visually, using examples drawn from sport, weather, climate, health, economics, and politics. Despite the burgeoning interest in infographics, there is limited experimental evidence on how different types of visualizations are processed and understood, although the effectiveness of some graphics clearly depends on the relative numeracy of an audience. Fortunately, it is increasingly easy to present data in the form of interactive visualizations and in multiple types of representation that can be adjusted to user needs and capabilities. Nonetheless, communicating deeper uncertainties resulting from incomplete or disputed knowledge--or from essential indeterminacy about the future--remains a challenge. PMID:21903802

Spiegelhalter, David; Pearson, Mike; Short, Ian

2011-09-01

384

Real NASA Inspiration in a Virtual Space  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA exemplifies the spirit of exploration of new horizons - from flight in earth's skies to missions in space. As we know from our experience as teachers, one of the best ways to motivate students' interest in mathematics, science, technology, and engineering is to allow them to explore the universe through NASA's rich history of air and space exploration and current missions. But how? It's not really practical for large numbers of students to talk to NASA astronauts, researchers, scientists, and engineers in person. NASA offers tools that make it possible for hundreds of students to visit with NASA through videoconferencing. These visits provide a real-world connection to scientists and their research and support the NASA mission statement: To inspire the next generation of explorers ... as only NASA can.

Petersen, Ruth; Starr, Bob; Anderson, Susan

2003-01-01

385

Biologically Inspired Mushroom-Shaped Adhesive Microstructures  

Science.gov (United States)

Adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon with great importance in technology, in our everyday life, and in nature. In this article, we review physical interactions that resist the separation of two solids in contact. By using examples of biological attachment systems, we summarize and categorize various principles that contribute to the so-called gecko effect. Emphasis is placed on the contact geometry and in particular on the mushroom-shaped geometry, which is observed in long-term biological adhesive systems. Furthermore, we report on artificial model systems with this bio-inspired geometry and demonstrate that surface microstructures with this geometry are promising candidates for technical applications, in which repeatable, reversible, and residue-free adhesion under different environmental conditions—such as air, fluid, and vacuum—is required. Various applications in robotic systems and in industrial pick-and-place processes are discussed.

Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N.

2014-07-01

386

A Physiologically Inspired Method for Audio Classification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We explore the use of physiologically inspired auditory features with both physiologically motivated and statistical audio classification methods. We use features derived from a biophysically defensible model of the early auditory system for audio classification using a neural network classifier. We also use a Gaussian-mixture-model (GMM-based classifier for the purpose of comparison and show that the neural-network-based approach works better. Further, we use features from a more advanced model of the auditory system and show that the features extracted from this model of the primary auditory cortex perform better than the features from the early auditory stage. The features give good classification performance with only one-second data segments used for training and testing.

David V. Anderson

2005-06-01

387

Bio-inspired networks for optoelectronic applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern optoelectronics needs development of new materials characterized not only by high optical transparency and electrical conductivity, but also by mechanical strength, and flexibility. Recent advances employ grids of metallic micro- and nanowires, but the overall performance of the resulting material composites remains unsatisfactory. In this work, we propose a new strategy: application of natural scaffoldings perfected by evolution. In this context, we study two bio-inspired networks for two specific optoelectronic applications. The first network, intended for solar cells, light sources and similar devices, has a quasi-fractal structure and is derived directly from a chemically extracted leaf venation system. The second network is intended for touch screens and flexible displays, and is obtained by metalizing a spider's silk web. We demonstrate that each of these networks attain an exceptional optoelectonic and mechanical performance for its intended purpose, providing a promising direction in the development of more efficient optoelectronic devices. PMID:25430671

Han, Bing; Huang, Yuanlin; Li, Ruopeng; Peng, Qiang; Luo, Junyi; Pei, Ke; Herczynski, Andrzej; Kempa, Krzysztof; Ren, Zhifeng; Gao, Jinwei

2014-01-01

388

AN AIS INSPIRED ALERT REDUCTION MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most important topics in the field of intrusion detection systems is to find a solution to reduce the overwhelming alerts generated by IDSs in the network. Inspired by danger theory which is one of the most important theories in artificial immune system (AIS we proposed a complementary subsystem for IDS which can be integrated into any existing IDS models to aggregate the alerts in order to reduce them, and subsequently reduce false alarms among the alerts. After evaluation using different datasets and attack scenarios and also different set of rules, in best case our model managed to aggregate the alerts by the average rate of 97.5 percent.

Mohammad Mahboubian

2012-01-01

389

CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition  

CERN Multimedia

Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

2001-01-01

390

Detection Strategies for Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals  

CERN Document Server

The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime. The gravitational radiation produced by these Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major science driver for the LISA observatory. The waveforms produced are very complex, and the signals need to be coherently tracked for hundreds to thousands of cycles to produce a detection, making EMRI signals one of the most challenging data analysis problems in all of gravitational wave astronomy. Estimates for the number of templates required to perform an optimal matched-filter search for these signals are astronomically large, and far out of reach of current computational resources. Here a sub-optimal, hierarchical approach to the EMRI detection problem is developed that employs a directed-stochastic search technique. The algorithm, dubbed Metropolis Hasti...

Cornish, N J

2008-01-01

391

Aurelia aurita bio-inspired tilt sensor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quickly expanding field of mobile robots, unmanned underwater vehicles, and micro-air vehicles urgently needs a cheap and effective means for measuring vehicle inclination. Commonly, tilt or inclination has been mathematically derived from accelerometers; however, there is inherent error in any indirect measurement. This paper reports a bio-inspired tilt sensor that mimics the natural balance organ of jellyfish, called the ‘statocyst’. Biological statocysts from the species Aurelia aurita were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the morphology and size of the natural sensor. An artificial tilt sensor was then developed by using printed electronics that incorporates a novel voltage divider concept in conjunction with small surface mount devices. This sensor was found to have minimum sensitivity of 4.21° with a standard deviation of 1.77°. These results open the possibility of developing elegant tilt sensor architecture for both air and water based platforms. (paper)

392

Bio-inspired Ant Algorithms: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ant Algorithms are techniques for optimizing which were coined in the early 1990’s by M. Dorigo. The techniques were inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants in the nature. The focus of ant algorithms is to find approximate optimized problem solutions using artificial ants and their indirect decentralized communications using synthetic pheromones. In this paper, at first ant algorithms are described in details, then transforms to computational optimization techniques: the ACO metaheuristics and developed ACO algorithms. A comparative study of ant algorithms also carried out, followed by past and present trends in AAs applications. Future prospect in AAs also covered in this paper. Finally a comparison between AAs with well-established machine learning techniques were focused, so that combining with machine learning techniques hybrid, robust, novel algorithms could be produces for outstanding result in future.

Sangita Roy

2013-05-01

393

Bio-inspired speed detection and discrimination  

CERN Document Server

In the field of computer vision, a crucial task is the detection of motion (also called optical flow extraction). This operation allows analysis such as 3D reconstruction, feature tracking, time-to-collision and novelty detection among others. Most of the optical flow extraction techniques work within a finite range of speeds. Usually, the range of detection is extended towards higher speeds by combining some multiscale information in a serial architecture. This serial multi-scale approach suffers from the problem of error propagation related to the number of scales used in the algorithm. On the other hand, biological experiments show that human motion perception seems to follow a parallel multiscale scheme. In this work we present a bio-inspired parallel architecture to perform detection of motion, providing a wide range of operation and avoiding error propagation associated with the serial architecture. To test our algorithm, we perform relative error comparisons between both classical and proposed techniqu...

Cerda, Mauricio; Girau, Bernard

2009-01-01

394

Climate change in EIA - Inspiration from practice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Climate change integration has been a topic of much interest in the field of impact assessment for a period, and thus far quite some emphasis has been put on discussions of purpose, relevance and overall approaches in both Environmental Impact Assessment of projects (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessments of plans and programmes (SEA). However, EIAs and SEAs are already being made, which integrate climate change, and for some aspects this practice has evolved over a long period. This paper seeks to explore this practice and find inspiration from the work with climate change already taking place. For exploring the praxis of integrating climate change in practice a document study of 100 Danish EIA reports is carried out. From these reports, statistics and examples are drawn. The study shows an emphasis on integration of climate change mitigation, using various quantitative tools, but also examples of different variations of climate change adaptation.

Larsen, Sanne Vammen

2013-01-01

395

Hamiltonian Hydrodynamics and Irrotational Binary Inspiral  

CERN Document Server

Gravitational waves from neutron-star and black-hole binaries carry valuable information on their physical properties and probe physics inaccessible to the laboratory. Although development of black-hole gravitational-wave templates in the past decade has been revolutionary, the corresponding work for double neutron-star systems has lagged. Neutron stars can be well-modelled as simple barotropic fluids during the part of binary inspiral most relevant to gravitational wave astronomy, but the crucial geometric and mathematical consequences of this simplification have remained computationally unexploited. In particular, Carter and Lichnerowicz have described barotropic fluid motion via classical variational principles as conformally geodesic. Moreover, Kelvin's circulation theorem implies that initially irrotational flows remain irrotational. Applied to numerical relativity, these concepts lead to novel Hamiltonian or Hamilton-Jacobi schemes for evolving relativistic fluid flows. Hamiltonian methods can conserve ...

Markakis, Charalampos M

2014-01-01

396

Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry  

Science.gov (United States)

When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

Balcerak, Ernie

2011-08-01

397

NASA Missions Inspire Online Video Games  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast forward to 2035. Imagine being part of a community of astronauts living and working on the Moon. Suddenly, in the middle of just another day in space, a meteorite crashes into the surface of the Moon, threatening life as you know it. The support equipment that provides oxygen for the entire community has been compromised. What would you do? While this situation is one that most people will never encounter, NASA hopes to place students in such situations - virtually - to inspire, engage, and educate about NASA technologies, job opportunities, and the future of space exploration. Specifically, NASA s Learning Technologies program, part of the Agency s Office of Education, aims to inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines through interactive technologies. The ultimate goal of these educational programs is to support the growth of a pool of qualified scientific and technical candidates for future careers at places like NASA. STEM education has been an area of concern in the United States; according to the results of the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment, 23 countries had higher average scores in mathematics literacy than the United States. On the science literacy scale, 18 countries had higher average scores. "This is part of a much bigger picture of trying to grow skilled graduates for places like NASA that will want that technical expertise," says Daniel Laughlin, the Learning Technologies project manager at Goddard Space Flight Center. "NASA is trying to increase the number of students going into those fields, and so are other government agencies."

2012-01-01

398

The Internal Representation of Numbers  

Science.gov (United States)

A principle of second-order isomorphism asserts that the functional similarities among internal representations parallel the functional similarities among the external objects to which those representations correspond. Research was conducted in accordance with this principle. (Author/BJG)

Shepard, Roger N.; And Others

1975-01-01

399

Learning slow features with reservoir computing for biologically-inspired robot localization.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work proposes a hierarchical biologically-inspired architecture for learning sensor-based spatial representations of a robot environment in an unsupervised way. The first layer is comprised of a fixed randomly generated recurrent neural network, the reservoir, which projects the input into a high-dimensional, dynamic space. The second layer learns instantaneous slowly-varying signals from the reservoir states using Slow Feature Analysis (SFA), whereas the third layer learns a sparse coding on the SFA layer using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). While the SFA layer generates non-localized activations in space, the ICA layer presents high place selectivity, forming a localized spatial activation, characteristic of place cells found in the hippocampus area of the rodent's brain. We show that, using a limited number of noisy short-range distance sensors as input, the proposed system learns a spatial representation of the environment which can be used to predict the actual location of simulated and real robots, without the use of odometry. The results confirm that the reservoir layer is essential for learning spatial representations from low-dimensional input such as distance sensors. The main reason is that the reservoir state reflects the recent history of the input stream. Thus, this fading memory is essential for detecting locations, mainly when locations are ambiguous and characterized by similar sensor readings. PMID:21945043

Antonelo, Eric; Schrauwen, Benjamin

2012-01-01

400

Representations of solvable Lie algebras with filtrations  

CERN Document Server

We construct representation theory of Lie algebras with filtrations. In this framework a classification of irreducible representations is obtained and spectra of some reducible representations are found.

Panov, A N

2012-01-01